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Sample records for soursop annona muricata

  1. Soursop (Annona muricata) vinegar production and its chemical compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chin Wai; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul; Zaki, Umi Kalsum Hj Hussain; Lim, Seng Joe

    2016-11-01

    Vinegar is a liquid product that undergoes double fermentations, which are alcoholic and acetous fermentation. Sugar source was converted to ethanol in alcoholic fermentation, meanwhile ethanol was oxidised to acetic acid during acetous fermentation. Soursop (Annona muricata) was the starting material in this study, as it is easily available in Malaysia. Its highly aromatic, juicy and distinctive flavours enables the production of high quality vinegar. The objective of this research is to produce good quality soursop vinegar as an innovative method to preserve and utilise the soursop fruit in Malaysia and to determine its chemical compositions. It was found that the sugar content reduces over time, and it is inversely proportional to the ethanol concentration, due to the production of ethanol from sugar. Acetic acid was also found to increase with increasing fermentation time. pH showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the reduction of sugar and the production of ethanol. However, significantly higher (p<0.05) production of acetic acid was observed at pH 5.0 and 5.5, compared to that at pH 4.5. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in Vitamin C contents in all soursop vinegar samples produced using different treatments.

  2. Minimum number of measurements for evaluating soursop (Annona muricata L.) yield.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C F B; Teodoro, P E; Londoño, S; Silva, L A; Peixoto, L A; Bhering, L L

    2017-05-31

    Repeatability studies on fruit species are of great importance to identify the minimum number of measurements necessary to accurately select superior genotypes. This study aimed to identify the most efficient method to estimate the repeatability coefficient (r) and predict the minimum number of measurements needed for a more accurate evaluation of soursop (Annona muricata L.) genotypes based on fruit yield. Sixteen measurements of fruit yield from 71 soursop genotypes were carried out between 2000 and 2016. In order to estimate r with the best accuracy, four procedures were used: analysis of variance, principal component analysis based on the correlation matrix, principal component analysis based on the phenotypic variance and covariance matrix, and structural analysis based on the correlation matrix. The minimum number of measurements needed to predict the actual value of individuals was estimated. Principal component analysis using the phenotypic variance and covariance matrix provided the most accurate estimates of both r and the number of measurements required for accurate evaluation of fruit yield in soursop. Our results indicate that selection of soursop genotypes with high fruit yield can be performed based on the third and fourth measurements in the early years and/or based on the eighth and ninth measurements at more advanced stages.

  3. Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts of Annona muricata (Soursop).

    PubMed

    Agu, Kingsley C; Okolie, Paulinus N

    2017-09-01

    Numerous bioactive compounds and phytochemicals have been reported to be present Annona muricata (Soursop). Some of these chemical compounds have been linked to the ethnomedicinal properties of the plant and its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to assess the proximate composition, phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant properties of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were used for the estimation of proximate composition and phytochemical screening. The crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were also fractionated using solvent-solvent partitioning. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and methanol-water (90:10) were the solvents used for the fractionation. The different fractions obtained were then used to perform in vitro antioxidant analyses including, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, ferric reducing properties, and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. The leaf methanolic extract had a higher lipid content, whereas its chloroform fraction demonstrated a better ability to quench DPPH free radical. The root-bark methanol-water, leaf methanol, fruit pulp chloroform, and leaf petroleum ether fractions demonstrated potent ferric reducing properties. The leaf and stem-bark petroleum ether fractions demonstrated better hydroxyl-free radical scavenging abilities. The leaf and fruit pulp of Annona muricata have a very potent antioxidant ability compared to the other parts of the plant. This can be associated with the rich phytochemicals and other phytoconstituents like phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and essential lipids, etc. Significant correlations were observed between the antioxidant status and phytochemicals present. These results thus suggest that some of the reported ethnomedicinal properties of this plant could be due to its antioxidant potentials.

  4. Anti-microbial Efficacy of Soursop Leaf Extract (Annona muricata) on Oral Pathogens: An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, Gururagavendra; Shenoy, Ramya; Rao, Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Annona muricata also called as Soursop is a, flowering evergreen tree native to Mexico, Cuba, Central America and parts of India. The miracle tree as it is widely known as a natural cancer killer that is 10,000 times stronger than chemotherapy. Based on these miraculous claims, the leaves of these plants were used as an extract at varying concentrations as an antibacterial agent against oral pathogens. Aim The aim of the study was to assess antimicrobial efficacy of Soursop leaf extarct (Annona muricata) on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans using disc diffusion method. Materials and Methods Extracts of Annona muricata leaves of concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were prepared. The anti-microbial efficacy was evaluated using disc diffusion method against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans on agar plates. Results All concentrations of extracts were effective on the microbiota except for the P. Intermedia. The Soursop extract was highly effective on Candida species, with all concentrations exhibiting bactericidal and fungicidal property. The extracts at different concentration were effective when compared to the gold standard controls and the effect was statistically significant (p<0.05). Data obtained was analysed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post-hoc test. Conclusion The Soursop extracts were efficient for all test organisms expect P. intermedia. The present study demonstrated the in-vitro efficacy of Soursop was highest against S. mutans followed by C. albicans and least on P. intermedia. Hence, this study proves to an extent that the Soursop extract when used against oral microbiota has sufficient anti-microbial and fungicidal property. PMID:28050493

  5. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. The effect of CMC and arabic gum stabilizer combination on the characteristics of soursop velva (Annona muricata L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnanto, N. H. R.; Yudhistira, B.; Pertiwi, S. R.; Pangestika, A.

    2018-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of the combination of CMC and Arabic Gum stabilizer toward the soursop velva characteristics and to determine the best stabilizer combination of soursop velva. This study was performed using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with one factor: combination of CMC and Arabic Gum stabilizer using two sample replications and the analysis was repeated three times. The result showed that the use of the combination of CMC and Arabic Gum stabilizer gave a significant effect on the overrun value, melting power, total dissolved solids, moisture content, dietary fiber, taste, texture and overalls. Moreover, there were no significant effect on color and flavor of the soursop velva. The experiment showed that soursop velva F4 (3:1) was the best formula with overrun value 9.93%, the melting power was 22 minutes 52 seconds, the total dissolved solids 19,10°Brix, the moisture content 71.508%, dietary fiber 3.301% and it has sensory values of color, taste, flavor, texture, overall at 3.66, 3.267, 3.33, 4.06, 3.10 respectively.

  7. Distribution of Phenolic Contents, Antidiabetic Potentials, Antihypertensive Properties, and Antioxidative Effects of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Fruit Parts In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Adefegha, Stephen A.; Oyeleye, Sunday I.; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2015-01-01

    Soursop fruit has been used in folklore for the management of type-2 diabetes and hypertension with limited information on the scientific backing. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts (1 : 100 w/v) of Soursop fruit part (pericarp, pulp, and seed) on key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension [angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)]. Radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelation abilities and reducing property as well as phenolic contents of the extracts were also determined. Our data revealed that the extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase and ACE activities dose-dependently. The effective concentration of the extract causing 50% antioxidant activity (EC50) revealed that pericarp extract had the highest α-amylase (0.46 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (0.37 mg/mL), and ACE (0.03 mg/mL) inhibitory activities while the seed extract had the least [α-amylase (0.76 mg/mL); α-glucosidase (0.73 mg/mL); and ACE (0.20 mg/mL)]. Furthermore, the extracts scavenged radicals, reduced Fe3+ to Fe2+, and chelated Fe2+. The phenolic contents in the extracts ranged from 85.65 to 560.21 mg/100 g. The enzymes inhibitory and antioxidants potentials of the extracts could be attributed to their phenolic distributions which could be among the scientific basis for their use in the management of diabetes and hypertension. However, the pericarp appeared to be most promising. PMID:26788368

  8. Effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene and wax emulsions on proximate analysis and some antioxidants of soursop (Annona muricata L.).

    PubMed

    Moreno-Hernández, Cristina L; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; García-Galindo, Hugo S; Mata-Montes De Oca, Miguel; Montalvo-González, Efigenia

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and wax emulsions, alone or combined, on composition analysis, vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of soursop was evaluated. Fruits were stored as follows: at 25 °C (control), and at 16 °C: fruits sprayed with candelilla or flava emulsions, fruits treated with 1500 nL/L of 1-MCP (20 °C, 12 h), and fruits treated with 1-MCP and then sprayed with emulsions. Fruits were allowed to ripen and the edible part was used for analysis. Only fruits stored at 16 °C without 1-MCP showed visible symptoms of chilling injury. Fruits treated with 1-MCP combined with flava emulsion maintained in greater extent their vitamin C content, dietary fiber, total phenolics content, and antioxidant activity. The combination of 1-MCP and emulsions can be utilized in postharvest handling of soursop because this combination can preserve its nutritional composition and antioxidant activity.

  9. Identification and characterization of a new Bacillus atrophaeus strain B5 as biocontrol agent of postharvest anthracnose disease in soursop (Annona muricata) and avocado (Persea americana).

    PubMed

    Guardado-Valdivia, Lizeth; Tovar-Pérez, Erik; Chacón-López, Alejandra; López-García, Ulises; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Porfirio; Stoll, Alexandra; Aguilera, Selene

    2018-05-01

    Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous fruit, including soursop and avocado. The use of fungicides to maintain the high quality of fruit creates a potential health risk. One alternative to this problem is the biological control, which has been applied successfully during postharvest. The Bacillus species are one of the most studied biological agents against postharvest pathogens because accomplish their biocontrol performance by producing a variety of metabolites. In this study, we evaluated the activity of metabolites contained in the cell free supernatant, obtained from Bacillus strain B5 culture, against micelial growth and spore germination of two virulent strains of C. gloeosporioides isolated from soursop and avocado. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, this strain was identified as Bacillus atrophaeus. A preventive treatment using cell free supernatant, reduced severity and incidence of anthracnose disease on harvested soursop and avocado fruit. B. atrophaeus strain B5 harbors genes involved in the production of antibiotics such as surfactin, bacillomycin and iturin, which could be contributing to the efficiency of the preventive treatment during postharvest. The antagonistic role of metabolites contained in the cell free supernatant against anthracnose disease, provide a new approach by which to attack this problem and can help reduce the use of chemical pesticides, environmental pollution, leading to the safer fruit preservation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of the Application of 1-Methylcyclopropene and Wax Emulsions on Proximate Analysis and Some Antioxidants of Soursop (Annona muricata L.)

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Hernández, Cristina L.; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G.; García-Galindo, Hugo S.; Mata-Montes De Oca, Miguel; Montalvo-González, Efigenia

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and wax emulsions, alone or combined, on composition analysis, vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of soursop was evaluated. Fruits were stored as follows: at 25°C (control), and at 16°C: fruits sprayed with candelilla or flava emulsions, fruits treated with 1500 nL/L of 1-MCP (20°C, 12 h), and fruits treated with 1-MCP and then sprayed with emulsions. Fruits were allowed to ripen and the edible part was used for analysis. Only fruits stored at 16°C without 1-MCP showed visible symptoms of chilling injury. Fruits treated with 1-MCP combined with flava emulsion maintained in greater extent their vitamin C content, dietary fiber, total phenolics content, and antioxidant activity. The combination of 1-MCP and emulsions can be utilized in postharvest handling of soursop because this combination can preserve its nutritional composition and antioxidant activity. PMID:24892105

  11. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Nikzad, Sonia; Mohan, Gokula; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2015-07-10

    Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  12. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Nikzad, Sonia; Mohan, Gokula; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities. PMID:26184167

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of Annona muricata Linn. and Polyalthia cerasoides bedd.

    PubMed Central

    Padma, P.; Chansouria, J.P.N.; Khosa, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of Annona muricata and Polyalthia cerasoides (Annonaceae) were monitored by estimating the serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), liver and brain lipid peroxidation (LOP) and their total protein content. Both drugs at a dose of 100 μg/kg significantly prevented the increase in serum transaminases, SALP, liver and brain LOP and decrease in liver and brain total protein content following carbontetrachloride (CCl) induced hepatoxicity in albino rats. PMID:22556909

  14. Potential Benefits of Annona muricata in Combating Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ab Rahman, Husna Syakirah; Wong, Michael Pak Kai; Wan Zain, Wan Zainira

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is increasing each year, which generates concerns regarding the efficacy of the current treatment options. This has caused patients to seek alternatives to complement or to replace surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Annona muricata and other plants have been shown to have promising compounds that can be utilised in the treatment of cancer. Native to the tropical and subtropical parts of the world, A. muricata plant extracts contain compounds that are particularly effective against cancer cells. In light of increasing concerns regarding the limitations of cancer treatment in hospitals, this review attempts to highlight the benefits of A. muricata and its potential to be integrated as one of the treatment options against cancer. PMID:29599630

  15. Annona muricata leaves accelerate wound healing in rats via involvement of Hsp70 and antioxidant defence.

    PubMed

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Rouhollahi, Elham; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Karimian, Hamed; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2015-06-01

    Annona muricata, a member of the Annonaceae family, is commonly known as soursop and graviola. The leaves of this tropical fruit tree are widely used in folk medicine against skin diseases and abscesses, however there is no scientific evidence justifying the use of A. muricata leaves. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the wound healing potential of ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAM) towards excisional wound models in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (24) were randomly divided into four groups, viz. (A) vehicle control, (B) low dose of EEAM (5% w/w), (C) high dose of EEAM (10% w/w) and (D) positive control with excisional wound created on the neck area. Wounds were topically dressed twice a day for 15 days. On the 15th day, animals were sacrificed and then processed for immunohistochemical and histological evaluations, including Hematoxylin & Eosin and Masson Trichrome stainings. The activity of antioxidants, namely catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured in wound tissue homogenate. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of wounds demonstrated a significant wound healing activity shown by EEAM at two doses. Treatment of wounds with ointment containing EEAM caused significant surge in antioxidants activities and decrease in the MDA level of wound tissues compared with vehicle control. The immunohistochemical evaluation revealed conspicuous up-regulation of Hsp70 in treated wounds with EEAM, suggesting the anti-inflammatory effect of EEAM. EEAM exhibited a promising wound healing potential towards excisional wound models in rats. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Mechanisms of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) Fruit Extract in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ishola, Ismail O.; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with NG-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation. PMID:25133801

  17. Polyketide Derivatives from Annona muricata Linn Leaves as Potencial Anticancer Material by Combination Treatment With Doxorubicin on Hela Cell Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artanti, A. N.; Astirin, O. P.; Prayito, A.; Widiyaningsih, R. F.; Prihapsara, F.

    2017-02-01

    One of the compounds found effication as an anticancer agent on cervical cancer is acetogenin, a polyketide compound that is abundant in Annona muricata L. leaves. This study has been done to examine polyketide derivatives was isolated from Annona muricata L. which has potency to induce apoptosis by p53 expression on hela cell line. An approach recently develop to overcome side effect of chemoterapeutic agent is used of combined chemoterapeutic agent, i.e doxorubicin. The determination of cytotoxic combination activity from polyketide derivative and doxorubicin was evaluated using MTT assay to obtain the value of CI (combination index). The expression of p53 profile was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on hela cell line. Data analysis showed that combination of polyketide derivative from Annona muricata L. (38,5 µg/ml) and doxorubicin with all of concentration performed synergistic effect on hela cell line with CI value from 0,33 - 0,65. The analysis on immucytochemistry showed that polyketide derivative from Annona muricata L. leaves could enhance p53 pathway significantly on hela cell line.

  18. Mechanism of action vasodilation Annona muricata L. leaves extract mediated vascular smooth muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, S.; Hayati, N.; Rahmawati, N.

    2018-04-01

    Annona muricata L. leaves (AML) is used as ethnomedicine by the Dayak Abai ethnicity in North Kalimantan for its already known use to reduce blood pressure. However, the mechanism of action in the vessel is still poorly understood. Aim study to prove the mechanism of action of AML in blood vessels. AML was extracted with a maceration technique using ethanol solvent. Mechanism of action test was performed with isolated rat aortic with endothelium (endo-intact) and without endothelium (endo-denuded). AML extract intervention on rats aorta with endo-intact and endo-denuded can induction vasodilatation activity. Increasing AML extract concentration can improve decrease vasodilatation activity on isolated rats aortic with endo-intact compared to endo-denuded, it means that endothelium can weaken vasodilatation activity of aorta mediated by vascular smooth muscle after the extract was given.

  19. Antiproliferative activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata L. on the prostate, BPH-1 cells, and some target genes.

    PubMed

    Asare, George Awuku; Afriyie, Dan; Ngala, Robert A; Abutiate, Harry; Doku, Derek; Mahmood, Seidu A; Rahman, Habibur

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata L. has been reported to possess antitumor and antiproliferative properties. Not much work has been done on its effect on BPH-1 cell lines, and no in vivo studies targeting the prostate organ exist. The study determined the effect of A muricata on human BPH-1 cells and prostate organ. The MTT assay was performed on BPH-1 cells using the aqueous leaf extract of A muricata. Cells (1 × 10(5) per well) were challenged with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL extract for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Cell proliferation and morphology were examined microscopically. BPH-1 cells (1 × 10(4) per well) were seeded into 6-well plates and incubated for 48 hours with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL A muricata extract. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed using mRNA extracted from the cells. Possible target genes, Bax and Bcl-2, were examined. Twenty F344 male rats (≈200 g) were gavaged 30 mg/mL (10 rats) and 300 mg/mL (10 rats) and fed ad libitum alongside 10 control rats. Rats were sacrificed after 60 days. The prostate, seminal vesicles, and testes were harvested for histological examination. Annona muricata demonstrated antiproliferative effects with an IC50 of 1.36 mg/mL. Best results were obtained after 48 hours, with near cell extinction at 72 hours. Bax gene was upregulated, while Bcl-2 was downregulated. Normal histological architecture was observed for all testes. Seminal vesicle was significantly reduced in test groups (P < .05) and demonstrated marked atrophy with increased cellularity and the acinii, empty of secretion. Prostate of test groups were reduced with epithelial lining showing pyknotic nucleus, condensation, and marginalization of the nuclear material, characteristic of apoptosis of the glandular epithelium. Furthermore, scanty prostatic secretion with flattening of acinar epithelial lining occurred. Annona muricata has antiproliferative effects on BPH-1 cells and reduces prostate size, possibly through apoptosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. α-Amylase inhibitor activity of endophytic bacteria isolated from Annona muricata L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujiyanto, Sri; Resdiani, Merysa; Raharja, Budi; Siti Ferniah, Rejeki

    2018-05-01

    α-amylase (α-1,4-glucan-4-glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of starch into its monomers. Most people use medicinal plants for keeping normal level of blood glucose, for example, the Annona muricata. The objectives of this study are to obtain endophytic bacteria from the plant, knowing the activity of the α-amylase inhibitor of selected isolates. Endophytic bacteria are isolated from the roots, stems, and leaves of the plant have been sterilized surface and grown in NA medium. A total of 11 isolates were found to produce α-amylase inhibitor compounds. The isolates obtained were tested for their α-amylase inhibitor activity, and isolates with the highest activity tested further. Isolate DS21 show the best activity with 72,22% inhibition. The experimental design used in this research is Completely Randomized Design (RAL). The best isolates treated by a variety of carbon sources, and the best carbon source treated with various pH. The data obtained were analyzed usingAnalysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results of statistical tests show the treatment of starch and lactose has a significant effect on the production of α-amylase inhibitors (P <0.05) and the pH 5 and 6,0 significantly affected the production of α-amylase inhibitors (P <0.05).

  1. Synergistic larvicidal effect and morphological alterations induced by ethanolic extracts of Annona muricata and Piper nigrum against the dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Adelia; Tiboni, Marcela; Silva, Mário A N; Chitolina, Rodrigo F; Passos, Maurício; Fontana, José D

    2013-05-01

    Phytopesticide combinations of different botanical sources are seldom reported. Annona muricata seed and Piper nigrum fruit ethanolic extracts enriched in acetogenins and piperamides, respectively, were synergistically used as larvicides against the dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti. Individual bioassays of A. muricata and P. nigrum indicated respective LC50 values of 93.48 and 1.84 µg mL(-1) against third-instar larvae. Five combinations of different proportions of plant extracts pointed to synergism between the extracts. The best A. muricata:P. nigrum extract combination was 90:10, which showed 5.12 times the amount of synergism, as confirmed by statistical equations and total concentration log versus combination proportions. Concerning the morphology, A. muricata caused larvae body elongation, mainly in the abdomen, along with the appearance of a cervix. Conversely, P. nigrum induced abdomen and whole body shortening. The morphological effects of A. muricata were prevalent in all of the combinations tested, irrespective of its proportion in the combination. It is suggested that the different mechanisms of action of the larvicidal actives A. muricata acetogenins and P. nigrum piperamides explain the observed synergism. The combination of inexpensive botanicals and a low-cost organosolvent such as ethanol leads to a simple and efficient phytolarvicidal formulation. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Functional proteomic analysis revels that the ethanol extract of Annona muricata L. induces liver cancer cell apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Yang, Hua Li; Wang, Pu; Lu, Yu Cheng; Yang, Ying Juan; Wang, Lan; Lee, Shao Chin

    2016-08-02

    Annona muricata L. is used to treat cancer in some countries. Extracts of Annona muricata have been shown to cause apoptosis of various cancer cells in vitro, and inhibit tumor growth in vivo in animal models. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-cancer and apoptotic effects of the herb remain to be explored. The study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying liver cancer cell apoptosis triggered by the ethanol extract of leaves of Annona muricata L. Liver cancer HepG2 cells were used as experimental model. MTT assay was employed to evaluate cell viability. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assays were performed to confirm apoptosis. We employed functional proteomic analysis to delineate molecular pathways underlying apoptosis triggered by the herbal extract. We showed that the extract was able to reduce viability and trigger apoptosis of the cancer cells. Proteomic analysis identified 14 proteins associated with the extract-elicited apoptosis, which included the increased expression levels of HSP70, GRP94 and DPI-related protein 5. Western blot analysis confirmed that the extract did up-regulated the protein levels of HSP70 and GRP94. Results from bioinformatic annotation pulled out two molecular pathways for the extract, which, notably, included endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which was evidenced by the up-regulation of HSP70, GRP94 and PDI-related protein 5. Further examinations of typical protein signaling events in ER stress using western blot analysis have shown that the extract up-regulated the phorsphorelation of PERK and eIF2α as well as the expression level of Bip and CHOP. Our results indicate that the ethanol extract of leaves of Annona muricata L. causes apoptosis of liver cancer cells through ER stress pathway, which supports the ethnomedicinal use of this herb as an alternative or complementary therapy for cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Synergistic Cytotoxicity Effect by Combination Treatment of Polyketide Derivatives from Annona muricata Linn Leaves and Doxorubicin as Potential Anticancer Material on Raji Cell Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artanti, A. N.; Astirin, O. P.; Prayito, A.; Fisma, R.; Prihapsara, F.

    2018-03-01

    Nasopharynx cancer is one of the most deadly cancer. The main priority of nasopharynx cancer treatment is the use of chemotherapeutic agents, especially doxorubicin. However, doxorubicin might also lead to diverse side effect. An approach recently develop to overcome side effect of doxorubicin is to used of combined chemotherapeutic agent. One of the compounds found effication as an anticancer agent on nasopharynx cancer is acetogenin, a polyketide compound that is abundant in Annona muricata L. leaves. This study has been done to examine polyketide derivatives was isolated from Annona muricata L. which has potency to induce apoptosis by p53 expression on raji cell line. The determination of cytotoxic combination activity from polyketide derivative and doxorubicin was evaluated using MTT assay to obtain the value of CI (combination index). Data analysis showed that combination of polyketide derivative from Annona muricata L. (14,4 µg/ml) and doxorubicin with all of concentration performed synergistic effect on raji cell line with CI value from 0.13 – 0.65.

  4. Antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea and leaves of Annona muricata

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Acevedo, Jorge; Franco-Quino, Cesar; Ruiz-Ramirez, Eliberto; Chávez-Asmat, Roberto; Anampa-Guzmán, Andrea; Raéz-González, Ernesto; Cabanillas-Coral, José

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Allergies are a problem that greatly affects the population, and hence the use of antiallergic medications is fairly widespread. However, these drugs have many adverse effects. The use of medicinal plants could be an option, but they need to be evaluated. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea, and leaves of Annona muricata. Materials and methods Twenty-four New Zealand white albino rabbits were randomized into 2 groups. Group A received the atomized extract diluted in physiological saline (APS) and group B received it diluted in Freund’s adjuvant (FA). Then, the back of each rabbit was divided into 4 quadrants. The A-I quadrant received only physiological saline. The A-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the PS group. The following 3 quadrants received the APS in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The B-I quadrant received only FA. The B-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the FA group. The following 3 quadrants received the AFA in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The occurrence of erythema and edema was recorded according to the Draize scoring system and the primary irritation index. After 72 hours, biopsies were performed. Results The AFA group presented significantly less erythema and edema compared to the FA group (P<0.05). The histopathologic evaluation at 72 hours showed normal characteristics in the APS group. Conclusion Considering the clinical and histopathological signs, we conclude that the administration of the atomized extract of rhizome of C. longa, flowers of C. lutea, and leaves of A. muricata lacks antigenic effect but could have an antiallergenic effect in a model of dermal irritation in rabbits. PMID:27877047

  5. Antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea and leaves of Annona muricata.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Acevedo, Jorge; Franco-Quino, Cesar; Ruiz-Ramirez, Eliberto; Chávez-Asmat, Roberto; Anampa-Guzmán, Andrea; Raéz-González, Ernesto; Cabanillas-Coral, José

    2016-01-01

    Allergies are a problem that greatly affects the population, and hence the use of antiallergic medications is fairly widespread. However, these drugs have many adverse effects. The use of medicinal plants could be an option, but they need to be evaluated. This study was designed to evaluate the antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa , flowers of Cordia lutea , and leaves of Annona muricata . Twenty-four New Zealand white albino rabbits were randomized into 2 groups. Group A received the atomized extract diluted in physiological saline (APS) and group B received it diluted in Freund's adjuvant (FA). Then, the back of each rabbit was divided into 4 quadrants. The A-I quadrant received only physiological saline. The A-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the PS group. The following 3 quadrants received the APS in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The B-I quadrant received only FA. The B-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the FA group. The following 3 quadrants received the AFA in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The occurrence of erythema and edema was recorded according to the Draize scoring system and the primary irritation index. After 72 hours, biopsies were performed. The AFA group presented significantly less erythema and edema compared to the FA group ( P <0.05). The histopathologic evaluation at 72 hours showed normal characteristics in the APS group. Considering the clinical and histopathological signs, we conclude that the administration of the atomized extract of rhizome of C. longa , flowers of C. lutea , and leaves of A. muricata lacks antigenic effect but could have an antiallergenic effect in a model of dermal irritation in rabbits.

  6. Structural Characterisation of Acetogenins from Annona muricata by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Coupled to High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Laboureur, Laurent; Bonneau, Natacha; Champy, Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David

    2017-11-01

    Acetogenins are plant polyketides known to be cytotoxic and proposed as antitumor candidates. They are also suspected to be alimentary neurotoxins. Their occurrence as complex mixtures renders their dereplication and structural identification difficult using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and efforts are required to improve the methodology. To develop a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry method, involving lithium post-column cationisation, for the structural characterisation of Annonaceous acetogenins in crude extracts. The seeds of Annona muricata L. were extracted with methanol. Supercritical fluid chromatography of the extract, using a 2-ethylpyridine stationary phase column, was monitored using a high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Lithium iodide was added post-column in the make-up solvent. For comparison, the same extract was analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to the same mass spectrometer, with a column based on solid core particles. Sensitivity was similar for both HPLC and SFC approaches. Retention behaviour and fragmentation pathways of three different isomer groups are described. A previously unknown group of acetogenins was also evidenced for the first time. The use of SFC-MS/MS allows the reduction of the time of analysis, of environmental impact and an increase in the chromatographic resolution, compared to liquid chromatography. This new methodology enlightened a new group of acetogenins, isomers of montanacin-D. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant activity and in vitro anticancer potential of ethanolic and water leaves extracts of Annona muricata (Graviola).

    PubMed

    Gavamukulya, Yahaya; Abou-Elella, Faten; Wamunyokoli, Fred; AEl-Shemy, Hany

    2014-09-01

    To determine the phytochemical composition, antioxidant and anticancer activities of ethanolic and water leaves extracts of Annona muricata (A. muricata) from the Eastern Uganda. Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard qualitative methods and a Chi-square goodness of fit test was used to assign the relative abundance of the different phytochemicals. The antioxidant activity was determined using the 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power methods whereas the in vitro anticancer activity was determined using three different cell lines. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed that they were rich in secondary class metabolite compounds such as alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins and lactones, anthraquinones, tannins, cardiac glycosides, phenols and phytosterols. Total phenolics in the water extract were (683.69±0.09) μg/mL gallic acid equivalents (GAE) while it was (372.92±0.15) μg/mL GAE in the ethanolic extract. The reducing power was 216.41 μg/mL in the water extract and 470.51 μg/mL GAE in the ethanolic extract. In vitro antioxidant activity IC50 was 2.0456 mg/mL and 0.9077 mg/mL for ethanolic and water leaves extracts of A. muricata respectively. The ethanolic leaves extract was found to be selectively cytotoxic in vitro to tumor cell lines (EACC, MDA and SKBR3) with IC50 values of 335.85 μg/mL, 248.77 μg/mL, 202.33 μg/mL respectively, while it had no cytotoxic effect on normal spleen cells. The data also showed that water leaves extract of A. muricata had no anticancer effect at all tested concentrations. The results showed that A. muricata was a promising new antioxidant and anticancer agent. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Functionalized liposomes and phytosomes loading Annona muricata L. aqueous extract: Potential nanoshuttles for brain-delivery of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Simona; Nardo, Luca; Gregori, Maria; Ribeiro, Inês; Mantegazza, Francesco; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Masserini, Massimo; Grosso, Clara

    2018-03-15

    Multi-target drugs have gained significant recognition for the treatment of multifactorial diseases such as depression. Under a screening study of multi-potent medicinal plants with claimed antidepressant-like activity, the phenolic-rich Annona muricata aqueous extract (AE) emerged as a moderate monoamine oxidase A (hMAO-A) inhibitor and a strong hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) scavenger. In order to protect this extract from gastrointestinal biotransformation and to improve its permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), four phospholipid nanoformulations of liposomes and phytosomes functionalized with a peptide ligand promoting BBB crossing were produced. AE and nanoformulations were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n , HPLC-DAD, spectrophotometric, fluorescence and dynamic light scattering methods. Cytotoxicity and permeability studies were carried out using an in vitro transwell model of the BBB, composed of immortalized human microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3), and in vitro hMAO-A inhibition and H 2 O 2 scavenging activities were performed with all samples. The encapsulation/binding of AE was more efficient with phytosomes, while liposomes were more stable, displaying a slower extract release over time. In general, phytosomes were less toxic than liposomes in hCMEC/D3 cells and, when present, cholesterol improved the permeability across the cell monolayer of all tested nanoformulations. All nanoformulations conserved the antioxidant potential of AE, while phosphatidylcholine interfered with MAO-A inhibition assay. Overall, phytosome formulations registered the best performance in terms of binding efficiency, enzyme inhibition and scavenging activity, thus representing a promising multipotent phenolic-rich nanoshuttle for future in vivo depression treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The Annona muricata leaf ethanol extract affects mobility and reproduction in mutant strain NB327 Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Bustos, A V Gualteros; Jiménez, M Gómez; Mora, R M Sánchez

    2017-07-01

    The C. elegans NB327 mutant strain is characterized for the knockdown of the dic-1 gene. The dic-1 gene is homologous to the dice-1 gene in humans, encoding the protein DICE-1 as a tumor suppressor. Absence or under-regulation of the dice-1 gene can be reflected in lung and prostate cancer [17], [18]. This study evaluated the effect of EEAML on the C. elegans NB327 mutant strain. Phenotypic aspects such as morphology, body length, locomotion, and reproductive behaviour were analyzed. It is important to emphasize that the strain presents a phenotype characteristic with respect to egg laying and hatching. Reported studies showed that Annona muricata extract and its active components evidence anti-cancer and anti-tumor effects, through experimentation in vivo and in vitro models. However, neurotoxicity has been reported as a side effect. The results showed that the mutant strain NB327 was exposed to EEAML (5 mg/ml) concentration, it showed a significant decrease in average locomotion, resulting in 13 undulations in 30 s. This contrasts with the control strain's 17.5 undulations in 30 s. Similarly, the number of progenies was reduced from 188 progenies (control strain) to 114 and 92 progenies at the dose of (1 mg/ml and 5 mg/m) EEAML. The results of this study suggest that EEAML has a possible neurotoxic effect in concentrations equal to or greater than 5 mg/ml. Also, it does not have positive effects on the mutant strain of Caenorhabditis elegans NB327 phenotype.

  10. Annona muricata modulate brain-CXCL10 expression during cerebral malaria phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djamiatun, Kis; Matug, Sumia M. A.; Prasetyo, Awal; Wijayahadi, Noor; Nugroho, Djoko

    2017-02-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) contributes in malaria mortality. People in endemic region get benefices by using A. muricata-leaf extract (AME) before qualified for receiving standard anti-malaria, because AME restrains malaria infection and modulate immune responses. CXCL10 expressed by astrocytes limit brain inflammation. Vascular leakage was found in the brain of experimental CM. Additionally, biomarker related with vascular leakage, angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) levels increase in CM-patients. Objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of ethanolic-AME in regulating brain-CXCL10-expression and Ang-2 levels during CM-phase. The study was post-test-only-control-group design. Thirty Swiss-mice were randomly divided in 6 groups. C+ and C- groups were PbA-inoculated and healthy-mice, respectively. X1 and X2 groups were healthy-mice treated with AME 100 and 150 mg/Kg BW/day, respectively. X3 and X4 groups were PbA-inoculated and received either dose mentioned above. CXCL10 was stained by IHC, and determined by Allred score. Plasma-Ang-2 was measured by elisa-method. Kruskal-Wallis-test showed the difference of CXCL10-expression among the studied groups (p=0.003). CXCL10-expression of C+ group was lower than healthy-mice which were C-, X1 and X2 groups (p=0.008, p=0.045, and p=0.012). CXCL10-expression of X3 was comparable to healthy mice (C-, X1 and X2), and was higher than C+ and X4 groups (p=0.012 and p=0.028). CXCL10-expression of X4 group was lower than C- and X2 groups (p=0.011 and p=0.016). Kruskal-Wallis-test showed no difference of Ang-2-levels among 6 groups (p = 0.175). The conclusion is A. muricata influences brain-CXCL10 expression during CM phase, but has no association with Ang-2 levels during CM phase.

  11. Antinociceptive and Antihyperalgesic Activity of a Traditional Maya Herbal Preparation Composed of Pouteria Campechiana, Chrysophyllum Cainito, Citrus Limonum, and Annona Muricata.

    PubMed

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; Sanchez-Recillas, Amanda; Flores-Guido, José Salvador; Ramírez Camacho, Mario A

    2017-03-01

    Preclinical Research The purpose of this work was to assess the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic properties of an herbal preparation, composed of four vegetal species: Pouteria campechiana (P. campechiana), Chrysophyllum cainito (C. cainito), Citrus limonum (C. limonum), and Annona muricata (A. muricata), that is commonly used in combination (PCCA) in traditional Mayan medicine for the treatment of diabetes and pain. An ethanolic extract of PCCA was prepared at a ratio of 1:1:1:1 for each plant. The systemic antinociceptive effect of PCCA extract (50-600 mg/kg, p.o.) was dose-dependent in the rat formalin (1%) producing 66% antinociceptive response at 400 mg/kg, p.o. A concentration-dependent antinociceptive effect of the PCCA extract (20-160 mg/paw) was also demonstrated in the rat capsaicin (0.2%) test. The PCCA extract (100-400 mg/kg, p.o.) had antihyperalgesic effects in alloxan diabetic rats. These findings demonstrate the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of PCCA and supports the use of the plant extracts in Mayan folk medicine. Drug Dev Res 78 : 91-97, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Exploratory Studies on the in Vitro Anti-inflammatory Potential of Two Herbal Teas (Annona muricata L. and Jasminum grandiflorum L.), and Relation with Their Phenolic Composition.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Sá, Ivone; Pereira, David M; Gonçalves, Rui F; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia

    2017-06-01

    The need of new anti-inflammatory drugs has led to the search for safer and more potent molecules in distinct sources, such as natural products. This work aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extracts from two herbal teas (Annona muricata L. and Jasminum grandiflorum L.) in RAW 264.7 macrophages cells and in cell-free assays. Furthermore, the phenolic composition of both extracts and of their hydrolysates was characterized by HPLC-DAD, in order to establish possible relationships with the biological activity. In a general way, A. muricata displayed a stronger capacity to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production and the activity of phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ), displaying an IC 50 value of 142 μg/ml against this enzyme. A deeper look at phenolic compounds revealed that aglycones had more capacity to inhibit NO and PLA 2 than their corresponding glycosides, quercetin being clearly the most potent one (IC 50  = 7.47 and 1.36 μm, respectively). In addition, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, at 1.56 μm, could also inhibit PLA 2 (ca. 35%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of both herbal teas may be a preventive approach to inflammatory disorders. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. Green synthesis and characterization of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using root bark aqueous extract of Annona muricata Linn and their antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezealisiji, K. M.; Noundou, X. S.; Ukwueze, S. E.

    2017-11-01

    In recent time, various phytosynthetic methods have been employed for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles; these unique metal nanoparticles are used in several applications which include pharmaceuticals and material engineering. The current research reports a rapid and simple synthetic partway for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using root bark aqueous extract of Annona muricata and the evaluation of its antimicrobial efficacy against pathogenic microorganisms. The root bark extract was treated with aqueous silver nitrate solution. Silver ions were reduced to silver atoms which on aggregation gave Silver nanoparticles; the biosynthesized AgNPs were characteristically spherical, discreet and stabilized by phytochemical entities and were characterized using ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and photon correlation microscopy. The aqueous plant extract-AgNPs suspension was subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEM result for the average particle size is 22 ± 2 nm. The polydispersity index and zeta-potential were found to be 0.44 ± 0.02 and - 27.90 ± 0.01 mV, respectively (Zeta-Sizer). The antimicrobial evaluation result showed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles at different concentration were very active against the Gram-positive bacteria ( B. subtilis, S. aureous) and Gram-negative bacteria ( K. Pneumonia, E. Coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), P. aeruginosa being most susceptible to the anti microbial effect of the silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity were obtained through biosynthesis.

  14. Immunomodulatory Efficacy of Standardized Annona muricata (Graviola) Leaf Extract via Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, has been utilized as a traditional medicine to treat various human diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the immune-enhancing activity of Graviola leaf extracts in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Active ingredients in Graviola leaf extracts (GE) were identified as kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside by LC-MS/MS. When treated with steam or 50% ethanol GE, cell morphology was altered due to initiation of cell differentiation. While the cell viability was not altered by the steam GE, it was reduced by the ethanol GE. Both steam and ethanol GE induced the transcriptional expression of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β, but only the steam extract upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In consistence with mRNA expression, the production of TNF-α and nitrite was elevated by both steam and ethanol extracts of Graviola leaves. This is mainly due to activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways. These results suggest that Graviola leaves enhance immunity by activation of the MAP kinase pathways. These bioactive properties of Graviola indicate its potential as a health-promoting ingredient to boost the immune system. PMID:28096884

  15. The Chemopotential Effect of Annona muricata Leaves against Azoxymethane-Induced Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci in Rats and the Apoptotic Effect of Acetogenin Annomuricin E in HT-29 Cells: A Bioassay-Guided Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Firoozinia, Mohammad; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. This study evaluated the chemopreventive properties of an ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAML) on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Moreover, the cytotoxic compound of EEAML (Annomuricin E) was isolated, and its apoptosis-inducing effect was investigated against HT-29 colon cancer cell line using a bioassay-guided approach. This experiment was performed on five groups of rats: negative control, cancer control, EEAML (250 mg/kg), EEAML (500 mg/kg) and positive control (5-fluorouracil). Methylene blue staining of colorectal specimens showed that application of EEAML at both doses significantly reduced the colonic ACF formation compared with the cancer control group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins and the up-regulation of Bax protein after administration of EEAML compared with the cancer control group. In addition, an increase in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level of the colon tissue homogenates were observed, suggesting the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Annomuricin E inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 1.62 ± 0.24 μg/ml after 48 h. The cytotoxic effect of annomuricin E was further substantiated by G1 cell cycle arrest and early apoptosis induction in HT-29 cells. Annomuricin E triggered mitochondria-initiated events, including the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Prior to these events, annomuricin E activated caspase 3/7 and caspase 9. Upstream, annomuricin E induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings substantiate the usage of A. muricata leaves in ethnomedicine against cancer and highlight annomuricin E as one of the contributing compounds in the

  16. DNA barcoding of perennial fruit tree species of agronomic interest in the genus Annona (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Larranaga, Nerea; Hormaza, José I.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA barcode initiative aims to establish a universal protocol using short genetic sequences to discriminate among animal and plant species. Although many markers have been proposed to become the barcode of plants, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) Plant Working Group recommended using as a core the combination of two portions of plastid coding region, rbcL and matK. In this paper, specific markers based on matK sequences were developed for 7 closely related Annona species of agronomic interest (Annona cherimola, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, A. muricata, A. macroprophyllata, A. glabra, and A. purpurea) and the discrimination power of both rbcL and matK was tested using also sequences of the genus Annona available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) data systems. The specific sequences developed allowed the discrimination among all those species tested. Moreover, the primers generated were validated in six additional species of the genus (A. liebmanniana, A. longiflora, A. montana, A. senegalensis, A. emarginata and A. neosalicifolia) and in an interspecific hybrid (A. cherimola x A. squamosa). The development of a fast, reliable and economic approach for species identification in these underutilized subtropical fruit crops in a very initial state of domestication is of great importance in order to optimize genetic resource management. PMID:26284104

  17. Crossability and relationships of Pinus muricata (Pinaceae)

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar; William B. Critchfield

    1988-01-01

    Crossing relationships were studies within and among the variable populations of Pinus muricata to test hypotheses about crossing barriers among certain populations. Crossability was assessed at the level of viable seed production following planned crosses. Populations north of Sea Ranch, Sonoma Co., California, crossed freely with parapatric but...

  18. Four alkaloids from Annona cherimola.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y; Chang, F R; Pan, W B; Wu, Y C

    2001-04-01

    Four alkaloids, annocherine A, annocherine B, cherianoine, and romucosine H, along with one known alkaloid, artabonatine B, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the stems of Annona cherimola. Their structures were identified on the basis of both analysis of their spectral data and from chemical evidence.

  19. A Third Species of Hemilecanium Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) from the New World, with Keys to Species in the Genus.

    PubMed

    Kondo, T; Hodgson, C

    2013-10-01

    A new species of Hemilecanium Newstead, Hemilecanium guanabana Kondo & Hodgson n. sp., is described and illustrated based on the adult female, adult male and first instar. The specimens were collected in the municipality of Palmira, state of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, on soursop, Annona muricata (Annonaceae). Updated identification keys are provided for the adult females of all 28 species of the genus Hemilecanium, and for known adult males and first instars. An updated list of the 23 species of soft scales (Coccidae) known from soursop worldwide is included.

  20. Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) of inland Marin County, CA

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1986-01-01

    The locations and characteristics of five, small, previously undescribed stands of bishop pine (Pinus muricata) in central Marin Co., California, are reported. Three stands lie on dry sites in the Kent Lake Drainage north of Mt. Tamalpais: San Geronimo Ridge, a spur ridge above Little Carson Cr., and Oat Hill. These stands are anomalous in occurring...

  1. Experiments in rooting bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) cuttings

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1987-01-01

    Presented here are results of rooting studies using hedges established from juvenile seedlings of "blue" and "green" foliaged bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) from Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California. Rootability, averaged over all clones and all setting dates, was 88%. The average time for 50% of the...

  2. Free Radical Scavenging Properties of Annona squamosa

    PubMed

    Vikas, Biba; Akhil B, S; P, Remani; Sujathan, K

    2017-10-26

    Annona squamosa has extensively been used in the traditional and folkloric medicine and found to possess many biological activities. Different solvents, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Annona squamosa seeds (ASPE, ASCH, ASEA, ASME) have been used to prepare plant extracts. The present investigations dealt with the free radical scavenging activity of four extracts using various techniques such as total reducing power estimation, total phenolic count, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, evaluation of ABTS cation decolorisation capacity, FRAP assay, hdroxyl radical scavenging assay, super oxide assay and Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay of the extracts. The results showed that the four extracts of Annona squamosa showed significant reducing power in four extracts. The total phenolic contents in petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol extracts and positive control were 0.64±0.17, 0.54±0.27, 0.49±0.24, 0.57±0.22 and 0.66±0.33. The antioxidant capacity by ABTS assay of ASPE, ASCH, ASEA, ASME and positive control, trolox showed 77.75±0.5,73.25±1.7,78.5± 1.2 , 80 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 94.2 ± 0.9 respectively. The (50 % scavenging activity) SA50 of ASPE and ASCH, ASEA and ASME was found to be 34.4 μg/ml, 43.8 μg/ml 34.7 μg/m and 28.8 μg/ml respectively by DPPH assay. The percentage of hydroxyl radical scavenging increased with the increasing concentration of the extracts. ASPE, ASCH, ASEA and ASME showed superoxide radical scavenging activity, as indicated by their values 66 ± 0.5, 68 ± 1 ,63 ± 1 and 70 ± 0.5 μg/ml respectively compared to gallic acid which was 97 ± 0.5 μg/ml. The values for scavenging of nitric oxide for ASPE, ASCH, ASEA and ASME were 91.0 ± 1.0, 66.75 ± 0.5, 71.75 ± 1.1 and 75.75 ± 1.15 μg/ml while value for standard ascorbic acid was 91.0 ± 1.0 μg/ml. The results revealed strong antioxidants in four extracts may lead to the development of potent

  3. Antitumor activity of Annona squamosa seed oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Yayun; Shi, Yeye; Ma, Chengyao; Wang, Xunan; Li, Yue; Miao, Yunjie; Chen, Jianwei; Li, Xiang

    2016-12-04

    Custard apple (Annona squamosa Linn.) is an edible tropical fruit, and its seeds have been used to treat "malignant sore" (cancer) and other usage as insecticide. A comparison of extraction processes, chemical composition analysis and antitumor activity of A. squamosa seed oil (ASO) were investigated. The optimal extraction parameters of ASO were established by comparing percolation, soxhlet, ultrasonic and SFE-CO 2 extraction methods. The chemical composition of fatty acid and content of total annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) of ASO was investigated by GC-MS and colorimetric assay, and anti-tumor activity of ASO was tested using H 22 xenografts bearing mice. The optimal extraction parameters of ASO were obtained as follows: using soxhlet extraction method with extraction solvent of petroleum ether, temperature of 80°C, and extraction time of 90min. Under these conditions, the yield of ASO was 22.65%. GC-MS analysis results showed that the main chemical compositions of fatty acid of ASO were palmitic acid (9.92%), linoleic acid (20.49%), oleic acid (56.50%) and stearic acid (9.14%). The total ACGs content in ASO was 41.00mg/g. ASO inhibited the growth of H 22 tumor cells in mice with a maximum inhibitory rate of 53.54% by oral administration. Furthermore, it was found that ASO exerted an antitumor effect via decreasing interleukin-6 (IL-6), janus kinase (Jak) and phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription (p-Stat3) expression. The results demonstrated that ASO suppressed the H 22 solid tumor development may due to its main chemical constituents unsaturated fatty acid and ACGs via IL-6/Jak/Stat3 pathway. ASO may be a potential candidate for the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inheritance of allozyme variants in bishop pine (Pinus muricata D.Don)

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1985-01-01

    Isozyme phenotypes are described for 45 structural loci and I modifier locus in bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don,) and segregation data are presented for a subset of 31 polymorphic loci from 19 enzyme systems. All polymorphic loci had alleles that segregated within single-focus Mendelian expectations, although one pair of alleles at each of three...

  5. The effect of prime emulsion components as a function of equilibrium headspace concentration of soursop flavor compounds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Perceptions of food products start when flavor compounds are released from foods, transported and appropriate senses in the oral and nose are triggered. However, the long-term stability of flavor compounds in food product has been a major concern in the food industry due to the complex interactions between key food ingredients (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins). Hence, this study was conducted to formulate emulsion-based beverage using natural food emulsifiers and to understand the interactions between emulsion compositions and flavor compounds. Results The influences of modified starch (x 1 ), whey protein isolate (x 2 ), soursop flavor oil (x 3 ) and deionized water (x 4 ) on the equilibrium headspace concentration of soursop volatile flavor compounds were evaluated using a four-component with constrained extreme vertices mixture design. The results indicated that the equilibrium headspace concentration of soursop flavor compounds were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by the matrix and structural compositions of the beverage emulsions. Interface formed using modified starch and whey protein isolate (WPI) proved to be capable of inhibiting the release of volatile flavor compounds from the oil to the aqueous phase. Modified starch could retard the overall flavor release through its hydrophobic interactions with volatile flavor compounds and viscosity enhancement effect. Excessive amount of modified starch was also shown to be detrimental to the stability of emulsion system. However, both modified starch and WPI showed to be a much more effective barrier in inhibiting the flavor release of flavor compounds when used as individual emulsifier than as a mixture. Conclusions Overall, the mixture design can be practical in elucidating the complex interactions between key food components and volatile flavor compounds in an emulsion system. These studies will be useful for the manufacturers for the formulation of an optimum beverage emulsion with

  6. A cytotoxic cyclic heptapeptide from the seeds of Annona cherimola.

    PubMed

    Wélé, Alassane; Zhang, Yanjun; Ndoye, Idrissa; Brouard, Jean-Paul; Pousset, Jean-Louis; Bodo, Bernard

    2004-09-01

    From a methanol extract of the seeds of Annona cherimola, a new cyclic heptapeptide, cherimolacyclopeptide C, has been isolated. The structure was elucidated on the basis of the MS/MS fragmentation using a Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with an ESI source, extensive 2D NMR experiments, and chemical degradation. Cherimolacyclopeptide C exhibited significant in vitro cytotoxic activity against KB cells, with an IC(50) value of 0.072 microM.

  7. [Analysis of the microbiological quality and potential presence of Listeria monocytogenes in custard apple (Annona muricata), mango (Mangifera indica) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) pulps from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    von Breymann, Juliana; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine some of the indicators associated to shelf life, hygiene, process and storage conditions for some of custard apple, mango and passion fruit pulps distributed by the main supermarket chains of the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, as well as to examine the potential presence of Listeria monocytogenes in them. Sixty fruit pulp samples were analyzed. Tests included pH determination, total aerobic plate count, yeasts and mold count, lactic bacteria count, total and fecal most probable number and the presence/absence of Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g of the product. Fruit pulp's pH ranged between 3,1 and 3,9, and the microbiological counts obtained were relatively low except for one industry. None of the samples analyzed presented total or fecal coliforms. The presence of Listeria monocytogenes was confirmed in three samples, all of them coming from industry C. Low microbiological counts obtained may be due to the addition of preserving substances and to the pasteurization of some of the products; lack of these two elements may allow the presence of dangerous bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes.

  8. [Chemical characteristics of the pulp and oil of the annona tree (Annona coriaceae)].

    PubMed

    Agostini, T da S; Cecchi, H M; Barrera-Arellano, D

    1995-09-01

    Belonging to the Annonaceae family, marolo (Annona coriaceae) is a native species of the Brazilian "cerrado" región (Minas Gerais, Goiás and Distrito Federal) and can be found in South American tropical zones. Its fruits are highly consumed by local people and commercialized in markets or street stalls. There is, however, a tendency for the extinction of marolo due to deforestation and the large scale plantation of monocultures instead of native plants. The literature still offers no data on the chemical composition of the proximate composition and vitamin C, A and tannin contents were carried out on the yellow marolo pulp as well as the determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil. Five batches of fruit from the Alfenas region--south of Minas Gerais State--were analysed in this work and their average composition were: humidity 77%, total sugar 15%, reducing sugar 11%, crude protein 1%, lipids 3%, fiber 5% and fixed mineral residue 1%. The contents of vitamin C and A were 8.2 mg/100g and 117.5 RE/100g, respectively, and the tannin content was 245 mg/100g. The results showed high fiber and lipid contents of marolo pulp in comparison with many other tropical fruit pulps. The vitamin C contents were equivalent to those found in avocado, pineapple and watermelon, while the vitamin A contents were equivalent to papaya, peach, guava and several other tropical fruits. Marolo seed contains 45% of oil on a dry basis. Its composition and physico-chemical characteristics showed the possibility of producing a good quality oil, with great potential for the fine oil market. However the presence of alkaloids in the oil needs to be further studied. Their elimination could be done by refining or extraction in a continuous press. The results exalt the high quality of marolo pulp, showing that the preservation of native species should be stimulated.

  9. Tetrad pollen formation in Annona (Annonaceae): proexine formation andbinding mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Chih-Hua; Fu, Yu-Lan

    2002-05-01

    Meiotic tetrads of Annona glabra and A. montana build up a well-developed proexine (protectum, probaculum, and pronexine) at the proximal side but only a thin pronexine at the distal side during the tetrad stage. The callosic envelope is only partially digested by the end of tetrad stage. The remaining, undigested part is composed of the intersporal mass and thin peripheral layers, and the latter is conjunct with the distal pronexine of the microspore. In this remaining callosic structure celluloses are also present. Later on, due to the continuous slow decomposition of this callose-cellulose structure and microspore expansion, microspores break up the callose-cellulose envelope. Because all the four microspores are bound together by the callose-cellulose structure, they move out of the chamber in rotation. Eventually the thin pronexine is pulled toward the center of the tetrad and the well-developed proexine becomes the distal wall. These descriptions of the partial digestion of callosic envelope, the transformation from a callose-cellulose structure to the binding system of tetrad pollen, and microspore rotation in Annona are unusual in the angiosperms.

  10. Fast Growth May Impair Regeneration Capacity in the Branching Coral Acropora muricata

    PubMed Central

    Denis, Vianney; Guillaume, Mireille M. M.; Goutx, Madeleine; de Palmas, Stéphane; Debreuil, Julien; Baker, Andrew C.; Boonstra, Roxane K.; Bruggemann, J. Henrich

    2013-01-01

    Regeneration of artificially induced lesions was monitored in nubbins of the branching coral Acropora muricata at two reef-flat sites representing contrasting environments at Réunion Island (21°07′S, 55°32′E). Growth of these injured nubbins was examined in parallel, and compared to controls. Biochemical compositions of the holobiont and the zooxanthellae density were determined at the onset of the experiment, and the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) of zooxanthellae was monitored during the experiment. Acropora muricata rapidly regenerated small lesions, but regeneration rates significantly differed between sites. At the sheltered site characterized by high temperatures, temperature variations, and irradiance levels, regeneration took 192 days on average. At the exposed site, characterized by steadier temperatures and lower irradiation, nubbins demonstrated fast lesion repair (81 days), slower growth, lower zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a concentration and lipid content than at the former site. A trade-off between growth and regeneration rates was evident here. High growth rates seem to impair regeneration capacity. We show that environmental conditions conducive to high zooxanthellae densities in corals are related to fast skeletal growth but also to reduced lesion regeneration rates. We hypothesize that a lowered regenerative capacity may be related to limited availability of energetic and cellular resources, consequences of coral holobionts operating at high levels of photosynthesis and associated growth. PMID:24023627

  11. Fast growth may impair regeneration capacity in the branching coral Acropora muricata.

    PubMed

    Denis, Vianney; Guillaume, Mireille M M; Goutx, Madeleine; de Palmas, Stéphane; Debreuil, Julien; Baker, Andrew C; Boonstra, Roxane K; Bruggemann, J Henrich

    2013-01-01

    Regeneration of artificially induced lesions was monitored in nubbins of the branching coral Acropora muricata at two reef-flat sites representing contrasting environments at Réunion Island (21°07'S, 55°32'E). Growth of these injured nubbins was examined in parallel, and compared to controls. Biochemical compositions of the holobiont and the zooxanthellae density were determined at the onset of the experiment, and the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm ) of zooxanthellae was monitored during the experiment. Acropora muricata rapidly regenerated small lesions, but regeneration rates significantly differed between sites. At the sheltered site characterized by high temperatures, temperature variations, and irradiance levels, regeneration took 192 days on average. At the exposed site, characterized by steadier temperatures and lower irradiation, nubbins demonstrated fast lesion repair (81 days), slower growth, lower zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a concentration and lipid content than at the former site. A trade-off between growth and regeneration rates was evident here. High growth rates seem to impair regeneration capacity. We show that environmental conditions conducive to high zooxanthellae densities in corals are related to fast skeletal growth but also to reduced lesion regeneration rates. We hypothesize that a lowered regenerative capacity may be related to limited availability of energetic and cellular resources, consequences of coral holobionts operating at high levels of photosynthesis and associated growth.

  12. Six cytotoxic annonaceous acetogenins from Annona squamosa seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Jian-Wei; Wang, Yu; Xu, Sha-Sha; Li, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) is an edible tropical fruit, and its seeds had been used in south China as a folk medicine to treat "malignant sore" (cancer) and as an insecticide. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol fraction of custard apple seeds led to the isolation of six new annonaceous acetogenins: annosquacins A-D (1-4), annosquatin A (5) and annosquatin B (6). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-4 are adjacent bistetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins. Compounds 5 and 6 are non-adjacent bistetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins and the first examples in which the tetrahydrofuran ring system is located between C-9 and C-20. The absolute configurations of 1-6 were defined by the application of the Mosher method. Compounds 1-6 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in vitro against five human tumour cell lines. Compounds 5 and 6 showed a high selectivity toward the MCF-7 and A-549 cell line respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bactericidal Efficiency of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Annona squamosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayavardhanan, R.; Nanda, Anima

    2016-09-01

    Nanotechnology is described as an emerging technology that not only holds promise for society, but also is capable of providing novel approaches to overcome our common problems. The present study focused on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the metabolites of Annona squamosa seeds. The biological reduction procedure proposed in this method was considered as better one compared to chemical mediated reduction methods. The advantages include nontoxic to the environment, less energy consuming and highly suitable for further biological applications. The seeds were separated from the fruit pulp, grinded into powder and dissolved in distilled water. The suspension was used as reducing agent and treated with silver nitrate at the concentration of 1mM. The reduction reaction was continuously monitored by UV-visible photo spectrometer. Further the samples were subjected to AFM, SEM and XRD analysis for the confirmation of their size, structure, agglomerations and the arrangements of crystals. Finally the antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were tested against clinically important pathogenic microorganisms using disc diffusion method and compared with the activities of standard antibiotics. The combinational effects of nanoparticles with commercial antibiotics also were tested by the same method.

  14. Antitumour Activity of the Microencapsulation of Annona vepretorum Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Larissa M; Menezes, Leociley R A; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B C; Dias, Rosane B; Rocha, Clarissa A Gurgel; Soares, Milena B P; Neto, Albertino F S; Nascimento, Magaly P; Campos, Adriana F; Silva, Lidércia C R C E; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae), popularly known as 'bruteira', has nutritional and medicinal uses. This study investigated the chemical composition and antitumour potential of the essential oil of A. vepretorum leaf alone and complexed with β-cyclodextrin in a microencapsulation. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analysed using GC-MS and GC-FID. In vitro cytotoxicity of the essential oil and some of its major constituents in tumour cell lines from different histotypes was evaluated using the alamar blue assay. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of essential oil was demonstrated in mice inoculated with B16-F10 mouse melanoma. The essential oil included bicyclogermacrene (35.71%), spathulenol (18.89%), (E)-β-ocimene (12.46%), α-phellandrene (8.08%), o-cymene (6.24%), germacrene D (3.27%) and α-pinene (2.18%) as major constituents. The essential oil and spathulenol exhibited promising cytotoxicity. In vivo tumour growth was inhibited by the treatment with the essential oil (inhibition of 34.46%). Importantly, microencapsulation of the essential oil increased in vivo tumour growth inhibition (inhibition of 62.66%). © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  15. Cherimolacyclopeptide D, a novel cycloheptapeptide from the seeds of Annona cherimola.

    PubMed

    Wélé, Alassane; Ndoye, Idrissa; Zhang, Yanjun; Brouard, Jean-Paul; Bodo, Bernard

    2005-03-01

    In a chemical investigation of the seeds of Annona cherimola, a natural cyclic heptapeptide, cherimolacyclopeptide D, were isolated and purified by HPLC with three known cyclic peptides, cherimolacyclopeptides A, B and C. The structure was established by various analyses including MS/MS fragmentation, spectroscopic and chemical evidences.

  16. Dendroecological Analysis of Cordia alliodora, Pseudobombax septenatum and Annona spraguei in Central Panama

    Treesearch

    Margaret S. Devall; Bernard R. Parresol; S. Joseph Wright

    1995-01-01

    Several plant communities in central Panama, each community located near a weather station, contain trees with annual growth rings, i.e. Cordia alliodora, Pseudobombax septenatum, and Annona spraguei. Tree-ring data are particularly valuable when concomitant weather information is readily available. Patterns of...

  17. Fabrication of nanoparticles using Annona squamosa leaf and assessment of its effect on liver (Hep G2) cancer cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanitha, V.; Hemalatha, S.; Pushpabharathi, N.; Amudha, P.; Jayalakshmi, M.

    2017-04-01

    Annona squamosa is a fruit bearing plant possesses potent bioactive compounds in all its part. In this present investigation iron oxide nanoparticle was synthesized from hydroethanol extract of Annona squamosa leaves at 60°C temperature. Production of iron oxide nanoparticles in extraction is detected by UV-V spectrophotometer, Scanning electron microscopy was employed to analyse the structure of nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis were performed, in order to determine the functional groups on Annona squamosa leaves extract. The synthesized Fe3O4 NPs shows potential cytotoxicity against liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2), and there is no toxicity on the normal liver cell line. Our reports confirmed that the Annona squamosa leaf is a very good eco-friendly and nontoxic bioreductant for the synthesis of Iron oxide nanoparticle and opens up further opportunities for fabrication of drugs towards cancer therapy.

  18. Occurrence of the Leech, Pontobdella muricata Linnaeus, on Elasmobranch Species in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Luca; Leoni, Simone; Polidori, Piero; Grati, Fabio; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Pellini, Giulio; Domenichetti, Filippo; Ferrà, Carmen; Fabi, Gianna

    2016-12-01

    This study provides a parasitological analysis of the elasmobranch species caught in the northern and central Adriatic Sea. Sixty-two marine leeches were recorded on 747 individuals of Raja clavata Linnaeus, 1758 (thornback ray), Myliobatis aquila Linnaeus, 1758 (common eagle ray), and Torpedo marmorata Risso, 1810 (marbled torpedo ray) caught in 56 hauls over a 5 yr period. All leeches were identified as Pontobdella muricata, which is a typical ectoparasite of benthic elasmobranchs. The prevalence of infection ranged from 7.11% on R. clavata to 12.00% on M. aquila. The intensity of infection, the preferential sites of attachment to the host, and the periodicity of infection were evaluated.

  19. Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids from the fruits of Annona cherimola.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Nishida, Makiko; Okawa, Masafumi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids (16R)-ent-kauran-17,19-diol (1), (16R)-17-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (2), (16S)-17-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (3), and (16R)-17-dimethoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (4) have been isolated from the fresh fruits of Annona cherimola together with eight known compounds. Their structures are determined on the basis of spectroscopic data and optical rotation.

  20. Microspore development in Annona (Annonaceae): differences between monad and tetrad pollen.

    PubMed

    Lora, Jorge; Herrero, Maria; Hormaza, Jose I

    2014-09-01

    • Permanent tetrads are the most common form of pollen aggregation in flowering plants. The production of pollen in monads is plesiomorphic in angiosperms, but the aggregation into tetrads has arisen independently different times during the evolution of flowering plants. The causes behind the recurrent evolution of pollen aggregation from monads remain elusive. Permanent tetrad pollen is quite common in the Annonaceae, the largest family in the early-divergent order Magnoliales. In some genera, such as Annona, both tetrad- and monad-producing species can be found.• In this comparative study of pollen development, we use immunolocalization, cytological characterization, and enzymatic assays of four species in the genus Annona and one species in its closely related genus Asimina that release pollen in tetrads and two species in the genus Annona that release pollen in monads.• The main difference between species with tetrad and monad pollen is a delayed digestion of callose and cellulose at the pollen aperture sites that resulted in nonlayering of the exine in these areas, followed by a rotation and binding of the young microspores at the aperture sites.• Small changes in development resulted in clear morphological changes on pollen dispersal time and open a window on the possible selective advantage of the production of aggregated pollen. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  1. Mineral composition, nutritional properties, total phenolics and flavonoids compounds of the atemoya fruit (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill.) and evaluation using multivariate analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Santos, Walter N L Dos; Sauthier, Maria Celeste S; Cavalcante, Dannuza D; Benevides, Clícia M J; Dias, Fábio S; Santos, Daniele C M B

    2016-09-01

    The atemoya is a hybrid fruit obtained by crossing of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) with sweet sop (Annona squamosa L.). The information about chemical composition of atemoya is scarce. The mineral composition was evaluated employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) and the centesimal composition and the physico-chemical parameters were assessed employing procedures described in the AOAC methods. The total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total flavonoids (TF) were determined using spectroanalytical methods. Considering the Reference Daily Intake (RDI), the concentrations of K, Cu and Vitamin C found in atemoya were the highest, representing about 32, 23 and 37% of the RDI, respectively. The total carbohydrates were 32 g 100g-1 and the soluble solids was equivalent to (32.50 ± 0.03) °Brix. The result for TPC was 540.47 ± 2.32 mgGAE 100 g-1 and the TF was 11.56 ± 1.36 mgQE 100 g-1. The exploratory evaluation of 42 atemoya samples was performed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which discriminated green and ripe fruits according to their mineral composition. The elements that contributed most for the variability between green and ripe fruits were: Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg and P.

  2. The Bionomics of the Cocoa Mealybug, Exallomochlus hispidus (Morrison) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Mangosteen Fruit and Three Alternative Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Indarwatmi, Murni; Dadang, Dadang; Ridwani, Sobir; Sri Ratna, Endang

    2017-01-01

    The cocoa mealybug, Exallomochlus hispidus Morrison (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is known to attack mangosteen, an important fruit export commodity for Indonesia. The mealybug is polyphagous, so alternative host plants can serve as a source of nourishment. This study aimed to record the bionomics of E. hispidus on mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and three alternative hosts, kabocha squash (Cucurbita maxima L.), soursop (Annona muricata, L.), and guava (Psidium guajava L.). First-instar nymphs of the E. hispidus were reared at room temperature on mangosteen, kabocha, soursop, and guava fruits until they developed into adults and produced nymphs. Female E. hispidus go through three instar stages before adulthood. The species reproduces by deuterotokous parthenogenesis. Exallomochlus hispidus successfully developed and reproduced on all four hosts. The shortest life cycle of the mealybug occurred on kabocha (about 32.4 days) and the longest was on guava (about 38.3 days). The highest fecundity was found on kabocha (about 100 nymphs/female) and the lowest on mangosteen (about 46 nymphs/female). The shortest oviposition period was 10 days on mangosteen and the longest, 10 days, on guava. These findings could be helpful in controlling E. hispidus populations in orchards. PMID:28757558

  3. Evaluation of artificial diets for Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R; Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate artificial diets that can be used to successfully culture the atlas silk moth, Attacus atlas L. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) indoors. Four plant species were evaluated as the basic component of each diet, barringtonia (Barringtonia asiatica), cheesewood (Nauclea orientalis), soursop (Annona muricata), and mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Evaluation of the nutritional value of each diet was determined by an analysis of the hemolymph proteins of sixth instars using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Survivorship, cocoon quality, and hemolymph protein content of larvae fed the barringtonia diet were higher than those of larvae fed mahogany-, cheesewood-, and soursop-based artificial diets. The average adult emergence of those fed the barringtonia-based diet was 74.5%. The weights of the cocoon in this treatment with the pupa and the empty cocoons were 7.0 and 1.1 g, respectively. Hemolymph of the larvae fed the barringtonia-based artificial diet had the highest concentration of protein with an average of 28.06 mg/ml. The atlas moth reared on the barringtonia-based artificial diet was comparable with those reared only on barringtonia leaves. However, the weight of empty cocoons, adult wingspan, and amount of hemolymph protein were lower than in those reared on barringtonia leaves only. This may suggest that the artificial barringtonia-based diet requires additional protein for maximum efficiency.

  4. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  5. Prevalence of virus-like particles within a staghorn scleractinian coral ( Acropora muricata) from the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patten, N. L.; Harrison, P. L.; Mitchell, J. G.

    2008-09-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to determine whether Acropora muricata coral colonies from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, harboured virus-like particles (VLPs). VLPs were present in all coral colonies sampled at Heron Island (southern GBR) and in tagged coral colonies sampled in at least two of the three sampling periods at Lizard Island (northern GBR). VLPs were observed within gastrodermal and epidermal tissues, and on rarer occasions, within the mesoglea. These VLPs had similar morphologies to known prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses in other systems. Icosahedral VLPs were observed most frequently, however, filamentous VLPs (FVLPs) and phage were also noted. There were no clear differences in VLP size, morphology or location within the tissues with respect to sample date, coral health status or site. The most common VLP morphotype exhibited icosahedral symmetry, 120-150 nm in diameter, with an electron-dense core and an electronlucent membrane. Larger VLPs of similar morphology were also common. VLPs occurred as single entities, in groups, or in dense clusters, either as free particles within coral tissues, or within membrane-bound vacuoles. VLPs were commonly observed within the perinuclear region, with mitochondria, golgi apparatus and crescent-shaped particles frequently observed within close proximity. The host(s) of these observed VLPs was not clear; however, the different sizes and morphologies of VLPs observed within A. muricata tissues suggest that viruses are infecting either the coral animal, zooxanthellae, intracellular bacteria and/or other coral-associated microbiota, or that the one host is susceptible to infection from more than one type of virus. These results add to the limited but emerging body of evidence that viruses represent another potentially important component of the coral holobiont.

  6. Aqueous Extract of Annona macroprophyllata: A Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Brindis, F.; González-Trujano, M. E.; González-Andrade, M.; Aguirre-Hernández, E.; Villalobos-Molina, R.

    2013-01-01

    Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast α-glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast α-glucosidase with an IC50 = 1.18 mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a K i = 0.97 mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (K i = 0.79 mg/mL). The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature. PMID:24298552

  7. Modeling the rheological behavior of thermosonic extracted guava, pomelo, and soursop juice concentrates at different concentration and temperature using a new combination model

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Norazlin; Yusof, Yus A.; Talib, Rosnita A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study has modeled the rheological behavior of thermosonic extracted pink‐fleshed guava, pink‐fleshed pomelo, and soursop juice concentrates at different concentrations and temperatures. The effects of concentration on consistency coefficient (K) and flow behavior index (n) of the fruit juice concentrates was modeled using a master curve which utilized the concentration‐temperature shifting to allow a general prediction of rheological behaviors covering a wide concentration. For modeling the effects of temperature on K and n, the integration of two functions from the Arrhenius and logistic sigmoidal growth equations has provided a new model which gave better description of the properties. It also alleviated the problems of negative region when using the Arrhenius model alone. The fitted regression using this new model has improved coefficient of determination, R 2 values above 0.9792 as compared to using the Arrhenius and logistic sigmoidal models alone, which presented minimum R 2 of 0.6243 and 0.9440, respectively. Practical applications In general, juice concentrate is a better form of food for transportation, preservation, and ingredient. Models are necessary to predict the effects of processing factors such as concentration and temperature on the rheological behavior of juice concentrates. The modeling approach allows prediction of behaviors and determination of processing parameters. The master curve model introduced in this study simplifies and generalized rheological behavior of juice concentrates over a wide range of concentration when temperature factor is insignificant. The proposed new mathematical model from the combination of the Arrhenius and logistic sigmoidal growth models has improved and extended description of rheological properties of fruit juice concentrates. It also solved problems of negative values of consistency coefficient and flow behavior index prediction using existing model, the Arrhenius equation. These rheological

  8. Essential oil from the leaves of Annona vepretorum: chemical composition and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Dutra, Lívia Macedo; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Moraes, Valéria Regina de Souza; Salvador, Marcos José; Ribeiro, Luis Henrique Gonzaga; Gadelha, Fernanda Ramos

    2012-02-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Annona vepretorun was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Eighteen compounds representing 98.1% of the crude essential oil were identified. The major compounds identified were bicyclogermacrene (43.7%), spathulenol (11.4%), alpha-felandrene (10.0%), alpha-pinene (7.1%), (E)-beta-ocimene (6.8%), germacrene D (5.8%), and p-cymene (4.2%). The trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms, as well as, the antimicrobial and antioxidant proprieties was investigated. The essential oil showed a potent trypanocidal activity with IC50 value of 31.9 +/-1.3 microg x mL(-1). For antimicrobial activity, the best result was observed against Candida tropicalis with a MIC value of 100 microg x mL(-1). For antioxidant capacity the essential oil showed weak activity.

  9. Purpurediolin and purpurenin, two new cytotoxic adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins from the seeds of Annona purpurea.

    PubMed

    Chávez, D; Mata, R

    1998-05-01

    Two novel cytotoxic acetogenins, purpurediolin (1) and purpurenin (2), were isolated from the seeds of Annona purpurea. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of chemical and spectral methods including MS and NMR measurements. In addition, six known acetogenins were obtained, namely, bullatacin, squamocin (annonin I), motrilin (squamocin C), annoglaucin, xylomatenin, and annonacin A. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in vitro against six human solid tumor cell lines.

  10. Induction of Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells (T-47D) by Annona reticulata L. Leaves Methanolic Extracts.

    PubMed

    Roham, Pratiksha H; Kharat, Kiran R; Mungde, Priyanka; Jadhav, Mahadev A; Makhija, Surinder J

    2016-01-01

    Annona reticulata Linn. (Common name: Bullock's-heart) (Annonaceae family) is a semi-evergreen and small deciduous tree. The extracts of various parts of Annona reticulata L. have been reported as cytotoxic to many cancer cells. Annona reticulata L. leaves' methanolic extract (ARME) was prepared and used against the breast cancer cells. The breast cancer cells (T-47D) viability and IC50 were evaluated by Vybrant® MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Detection of phosphatidylserine on membranes of apoptotic cells was done by Attune flow cytometer. RNA transcripts were quantified in ARME treated and untreated cells. Finally, the Vybrant® FAM Poly Caspases assay kit was used for analysis of polycaspases activity in T-47D cells. The IC50 (5 ± 0.5 µg/mL) of the ARME was found against breast cancer cells (T-47D). The Paclitaxel was used as a control standard drug for the study. The downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax and Bak, and caspases activation suggested induction of apoptosis in T-47D cells by ARME through mitochondrial pathway. The cell cycle halted at G2/M phase in the ARME treated cells. The ARME was found to be effective against Breast cancer cells (T-47D).

  11. Evaluation of the anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis activity and in vivo acute toxicity of Annona sylvatic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent emergence of extensively multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains has further complicated the control of tuberculosis. There is an urgent need for the development of new molecular candidates antitubercular drugs. Medicinal plants have been an excellent source of leads for the development of drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of 28 alcoholic extracts and essential oils of native and exotic Brazilian plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to further study these extracts through chemical fractionation, the isolation of their constituents, and an evaluation of the in vivo acute toxicity of the active extracts. To the best of our knowledge this is the first chemical characterization, antituberculosis activity and acute toxicity evaluation of Annona sylvatica. Methods The anti-mycobacterial activity of these extracts and their constituent compounds was evaluated using the resazurin reduction microtiter assay (REMA). To investigate the acute toxicity of these extracts in vivo, female Swiss mice were treated with the extracts at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg · kg-1 of body weight. The extracts were characterized by LC-MS, and the constituents were isolated and identified by chromatographic analysis of spectroscopic data. Results Of the 28 extracts, the methanol extract obtained from the leaves of Annona sylvatica showed anti-mycobacterial activity with an minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 184.33 μg/mL, and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) resulting from liquid-liquid partitioning of the A. sylvatica extract showed an MIC of 115.2 μg/mL. The characterization of this extract by LC-MS identified flavonoids and acetogenins as its main constituents. The phytochemical study of the A. sylvatica EAF resulted in the isolation of quercetin, luteolin, and almunequin. Conclusions Among the compounds isolated from the EAF, luteolin and almunequin were the most promising, with MICs of 236.8

  12. Nutritional and phytochemical composition of Annona cherimola Mill. fruits and by-products: Potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Tânia Gonçalves; Santos, Filipa; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Beatriz Oliveira, M; Bento, Ana Cristina; Costa, Helena S

    2016-02-15

    Annona cherimola Mill., commonly known as cherimoya, is a tropical fruit well known due to its tasty flavour. In the present study the antioxidant activity of pulp, peel and seeds of four cultivars from A. cherimola Mill. from Madeira Island (Madeira, Funchal, Perry Vidal and Mateus II) was analysed. Moreover, nutritional composition (proximates and vitamins) and bioactive compounds content were determined. The peel of Madeira cultivar showed the highest antioxidant capacity, with an EC50 of 0.97mg/mL, and total flavonoids (44.7 epicatechin equivalents/100g). The most abundant carotenoid was lutein, with values ranging from 129 to 232μg/100g. The highest l-ascorbic acid content (4.41mg/100g) was found in the peel of Perry Vidal cultivar. These results highlight A. cherimola Mill. antioxidant properties, especially in its by-products and encourage their application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food processing industries, as added value natural extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pollen development in Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae). Implications for the evolution of aggregated pollen

    PubMed Central

    Lora, Jorge; Testillano, Pilar S; Risueño, Maria C; Hormaza, Jose I; Herrero, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background In most flowering plants, pollen is dispersed as monads. However, aggregated pollen shedding in groups of four or more pollen grains has arisen independently several times during angiosperm evolution. The reasons behind this phenomenon are largely unknown. In this study, we followed pollen development in Annona cherimola, a basal angiosperm species that releases pollen in groups of four, to investigate how pollen ontogeny may explain the rise and establishment of this character. We followed pollen development using immunolocalization and cytochemical characterization of changes occurring from anther differentiation to pollen dehiscence. Results Our results show that, following tetrad formation, a delay in the dissolution of the pollen mother cell wall and tapetal chamber is a key event that holds the four microspores together in a confined tapetal chamber, allowing them to rotate and then bind through the aperture sites through small pectin bridges, followed by joint sporopollenin deposition. Conclusion Pollen grouping could be the result of relatively minor ontogenetic changes beneficial for pollen transfer or/and protection from desiccation. Comparison of these events with those recorded in the recent pollen developmental mutants in Arabidopsis indicates that several failures during tetrad dissolution may convert to a common recurring phenotype that has evolved independently several times, whenever this grouping conferred advantages for pollen transfer. PMID:19874617

  14. Alkaloid (Meleagrine and Chrysogine) from endophytic fungi (Penicillium sp.) of Annona squamosa L.

    PubMed

    Yunianto, Prasetyawan; Rusman, Yudi; Saepudin, Endang; Suwarso, Wahyudi Priyono; Sumaryono, Wahono

    2014-05-01

    Several endophytic fungal strains from Srikaya plants (Annona squamosa L.) have been isolated and one of them was identified as Penicillium sp. Penicillium has been proven as an established source for a wide array of unique bioactive secondary metabolites that exhibit a variety of biological activities. The aim of this study is isolation of secondary metabolite from Penicillium, an endophytic of A. squamosa L. Penicillium sp. from endophytic of A. squamosa L. was fermented in Wicherham media. The whole extract from both liquid media and mycelium was partitioned by ethyl acetate and evaporated to obtain crude ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract was then brokedown using column chromatography with silica as stationary phase and mixture of ethyl acetate/methanol (98%:2%) as mobile phase and then was separated by sephadex column. Structure elucidation of isolated compounds were mainly done by analysis of one and two dimensional NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) data and supported by HPLC (High performance Liquid Chromatography) and MS-TOF (Mass Spectrometer-Time of Flight). Isolated secondary metabolites were tested using in vitro assays for anticancer and antimicrobial activity. For anticancer activity, the metabolites were tested against breast cancer cells (MCF-7) using MTT assay, while for antimicrobial activity was performed using disk diffusion assays. From these physical, chemical and spectral evidences that the secondary metabolites were confirmed as Chrysogine and Meleagrine. Chrysogine and Meleagrine have no activity as anticancer and antimicrobial.

  15. Potential applications for Annona squamosa leaf extract in the treatment and prevention of foodborne bacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Dholvitayakhun, Achara; Trachoo, Nathanon; Sakee, Uthai; Cushnie, T P Tim

    2013-03-01

    Foodborne disease is a major public health problem. The present study examined Annona squamosa leaves, which are traditionally used to treat diarrhea and other infections, for their potential to be used in modern food safety or medicine. Active constituents were partially purified by ethanol extraction and column chromatography. MICs of the extract were 62.5 to 125 microg/mL against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, and 250 microg/mL against Campylobacter jejuni. In time-kill assays, 500 microg/mL of the extract reduced colony forming unit numbers of C. jejuni almost 10 000-fold within 12 hours. Similar decreases were seen against B. cereus, but over a longer time-frame. LC-MS analysis indicated the presence of reticuline and oxophoebine. Assessment of stability by MIC assay showed activity was heat-labile, with loss of activity greatest following high temperature treatments. Activity was relatively stable at refrigeration temperature. These results indicate A. squamosa has broad-spectrum but heat-labile activity against foodborne bacterial pathogens, and bactericidal activity against B. cereus and C. jejuni. This bactericidal activity is not sufficiently rapid for A. squamosa to be used as a food sanitizer, but the extract could potentially be developed as an additive for refrigerated foods, or a modern treatment for foodborne illness.

  16. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Araújo, Camila de Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lima, Rafaely Nascimento; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Diniz, Tâmara Coimbra; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Annona vepretorum (AV) is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil) popularly known as "araticum" and "pinha da Caatinga." This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA) of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO-Av) collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger-type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC) analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene-linoleate-model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%), limonene (20.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.1%) and α-pinene (5.5%) were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA.

  17. Efficacy of Annona squamosa on wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ponrasu, Thangavel; Suguna, Lonchin

    2012-12-01

    Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae), commonly known as custard apple, mainly used for its edible fruit, is also recognised with numerous medicinal properties. As there is no report on the efficacy of this plant for wound healing, we examined the efficacy of ethanolic extract of A. squamosa leaves on wound repair in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Open excision wounds were made on the back of rats. The drug at a dosage of 100 mg/kg body wt was reconstituted in 200 µl of phosphate buffered saline and applied topically once daily for the treated wounds. The control wounds were left untreated. Wound tissues formed on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 (post-wound) were used to estimate DNA, total protein, total collagen, hexosamine and uronic acid. Levels of lipid peroxides were also evaluated along with tensile strength and period of epithelialisation. A. squamosa L. increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site as evidenced by increase in DNA, protein and total collagen. The treated wounds were observed to heal much faster as proved by enhanced rates of epithelialisation and wound contraction, which was also confirmed by histopathological examinations. The results strongly substantiate the beneficial effects of the topical application of A. squamosa L. in the acceleration of normal and diabetic wound healing. © 2012 The Authors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  18. Pollen development in Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae). Implications for the evolution of aggregated pollen.

    PubMed

    Lora, Jorge; Testillano, Pilar S; Risueño, Maria C; Hormaza, Jose I; Herrero, Maria

    2009-10-29

    In most flowering plants, pollen is dispersed as monads. However, aggregated pollen shedding in groups of four or more pollen grains has arisen independently several times during angiosperm evolution. The reasons behind this phenomenon are largely unknown. In this study, we followed pollen development in Annona cherimola, a basal angiosperm species that releases pollen in groups of four, to investigate how pollen ontogeny may explain the rise and establishment of this character. We followed pollen development using immunolocalization and cytochemical characterization of changes occurring from anther differentiation to pollen dehiscence. Our results show that, following tetrad formation, a delay in the dissolution of the pollen mother cell wall and tapetal chamber is a key event that holds the four microspores together in a confined tapetal chamber, allowing them to rotate and then bind through the aperture sites through small pectin bridges, followed by joint sporopollenin deposition. Pollen grouping could be the result of relatively minor ontogenetic changes beneficial for pollen transfer or/and protection from desiccation. Comparison of these events with those recorded in the recent pollen developmental mutants in Arabidopsis indicates that several failures during tetrad dissolution may convert to a common recurring phenotype that has evolved independently several times, whenever this grouping conferred advantages for pollen transfer.

  19. A Mesoamerican origin of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Implications for the conservation of plant genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Larranaga, N; Albertazzi, F J; Fontecha, G; Palmieri, M; Rainer, H; van Zonneveld, M; Hormaza, J I

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge on the structure and distribution of genetic diversity is a key aspect to plan and execute an efficient conservation and utilization of the genetic resources of any crop as well as for determining historical demographic inferences. In this work, a large data set of 1,765 accessions of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill, Annonaceae), an underutilized fruit tree crop native to the Neotropics and used as a food source by pre-Columbian cultures, was collected from six different countries across the American continent and amplified with nine highly informative microsatellite markers. The structure analyses, fine representation of the genetic diversity and an ABC approach suggest a Mesoamerican origin of the crop, contrary to previous reports, with clear implications for the dispersion of plant germplasm between Central and South America in pre-Columbian times. These results together with the potential distribution of the species in a climatic change context using two different climate models provide new insights for the history and conservation of extant genetic resources of cherimoya that can be applied to other currently underutilized woody perennial crops. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Stenospermy and seed development in the "Brazilian seedless" variety of sugar apple (Annona squamosa).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Rayane C; Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Costa, Márcia R; Nietsche, Silvia; Pereira, Marlon C T

    2014-12-01

    Stenospermy was identified in naturally occurring sugar-apple (Annona squamosa) mutants with great potential for use in genetic improvement programs. However, to date, there have been no detailed studies of the development of aspermic fruit in this species. The aim of the present study was to characterize the anatomy of developing fruit in the 'Brazilian Seedless' mutant. Flower buds in pre-anthesis and developing fruits were subjected to common plant anatomy techniques. The abnormal ovules are unitegmic and orthotropic and have a long funiculus. There is evidence of fertilization, including the presence of embryos in early development and the proliferation of starch grains in the embryo sac. However, the embryos and embryo sac degenerate, although this does not affect pericarp development. Ovule abortion does not occur. The perisperm, which is formed from the peripheral layers of the nucellus, fills the cavity left by the embryo sac. The mature fruit contains numerous small sterile seeds with abundant perisperm and unlignified integument that is restricted to the micropylar region. The majority of perisperm cells are living and appear to be metabolically active in the periphery. Therefore, stenospermy leads to the formation of sterile seeds in A. squamosa, and the perisperm possibly play an important role in fruit development.

  1. Identification of chemical compounds present in different fractions of Annona reticulata L. leaf by using GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Rout, Soumya P; Kar, Durga M

    2014-01-01

    GC-MS analysis of fractions prepared from hydro-alcoholic extract of Annona reticulata Linn (Family Annonaceae) leaf revealed the presence of 9,10-dimethyltricyclo[4.2.1.1(2,5)]decane-9,10-diol; 4-(1,5-dihydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one; 3,7-dimethyl-6-nonen-1-ol acetate; 9-octadecenamide,(Z)-; glycerine; D-glucose,6-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-; desulphosinigrin and α-methyl-D-mannopyranoside as few of the major compounds in different fractions. The presence of these compounds in the plant has been identified for the first time.

  2. Chemical Characterization and Cytoprotective Effect of the Hydroethanol Extract from Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum)

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, José G. A. S.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Boris, Ticiana C. C.; Cristo, Janyketchuly S.; Pereira, Nara L. F.; Figueiredo, Fernando G.; Cunha, Francisco A. B.; Aquino, Pedro E. A.; Nascimento, Polyana A. C.; Mesquita, Francisco J. C.; Moreira, Paulo H. F.; Coutinho, Sáskia T. B.; Souza, Ivon T.; Teixeira, Gabriela C.; Ferreira, Najla M. N.; Farina, Eleonora O.; Torres, Cícero M. G.; Holanda, Vanderlan N.; Pereira, Vandbergue S.; Guedes, Maria I. F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Annona coriacea Mart. (araticum) is a widely distributed tree in the cerrado. Its value is attributed principally to the consumption of its fruit which possesses a large nutritive potential. The objective was to identify the chemical profile and evaluate the antimicrobial and cytoprotective activity of the hydroethanol extract of A. coriacea Mart. (HEAC) leaves against the toxicity of mercury chloride. Materials and Methods: The characterization of components was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution method in broth with strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For evaluation of the modulatory and cytoprotective activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin and amikacin) and mercury chloride (HgCl2), the substances were associated with the HEAC at subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8). Results and Discussion: The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids such as Luteolin (1.84%) and Quercetin (1.19%) in elevated concentrations. The HEAC presented an MIC ≥512 μg/mL and significant antagonistic action in aminoglycosides modulation, and it also showed cytoprotective activity to S. aureus (significance P < 0.0001) and E. coli (significance P < 0.05) bacteria against the mercury chloride heavy metal with significance, this action being attributed to the chelating properties of the flavonoids found in the chemical identification. Conclusions: The results acquired in this study show that the HEAC presents cytoprotective activity over the tested strains in vitro and can also present antagonistic effect when associated with aminoglycosides, reinforcing the necessity of taking caution when combining natural and pharmaceutical products. SUMMARY The hydroalcoholic extract of A. coriacea Mart. presents in vitro cytoprotective activity against the toxic effect of Hg. Abbreviations Used: HPLC-DAD: High

  3. The progamic phase of an early-divergent angiosperm, Annona cherimola (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lora, J.; Hormaza, J. I.; Herrero, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent studies of reproductive biology in ancient angiosperm lineages are beginning to shed light on the early evolution of flowering plants, but comparative studies are restricted by fragmented and meagre species representation in these angiosperm clades. In the present study, the progamic phase, from pollination to fertilization, is characterized in Annona cherimola, which is a member of the Annonaceae, the largest extant family among early-divergent angiosperms. Beside interest due to its phylogenetic position, this species is also an ancient crop with a clear niche for expansion in subtropical climates. Methods The kinetics of the reproductive process was established following controlled pollinations and sequential fixation. Gynoecium anatomy, pollen tube pathway, embryo sac and early post-fertilization events were characterized histochemically. Key Results A plesiomorphic gynoecium with a semi-open carpel shows a continuous secretory papillar surface along the carpel margins, which run from the stigma down to the obturator in the ovary. The pollen grains germinate in the stigma and compete in the stigma-style interface to reach the narrow secretory area that lines the margins of the semi-open stylar canal and is able to host just one to three pollen tubes. The embryo sac has eight nuclei and is well provisioned with large starch grains that are used during early cellular endosperm development. Conclusions A plesiomorphic simple gynoecium hosts a simple pollen–pistil interaction, based on a support–control system of pollen tube growth. Support is provided through basipetal secretory activity in the cells that line the pollen tube pathway. Spatial constraints, favouring pollen tube competition, are mediated by a dramatic reduction in the secretory surface available for pollen tube growth at the stigma–style interface. This extramural pollen tube competition contrasts with the intrastylar competition predominant in more recently derived

  4. Histochemical Detection of Acetogenins and Storage Molecules in the Endosperm of Annona Macroprophyllata Donn Sm. Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, G. Laguna; Franco, A.E. Brechú; De-la-Cruz-Chacón, I.; González-Esquinca, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Acetogenins (ACGs) are bioactive compounds with cytotoxic properties in different cell lines. They are antitumoural, antiparasitic, antimalarial, insecticidal, antimicrobial, anti-fungal and antibacterial. These secondary metabolites function in plant defence and are found in specific organelles and specific cells, thereby preventing toxicity to the plant itself and permitting site-specific defence. The aim of this work was to histochemically determine the in situ localisation of ACGs in the endosperm of Annona macroprophyllata seeds using Kedde’s reagent. Additionally, the co-localisation of ACGs with other storage molecules was analysed. The seeds were analysed after 6 and 10 days of imbibition, when 1 or 2 cm of the radicle had emerged and metabolism was fully established. The seeds were then transversally cut in half at the midline and processed using different histological and histochemical techniques. Positive reactions with Kedde’s reagent were only observed in fresh, unfixed sections that were preserved in water, and staining was found only in the large cells (the idioblasts) at the periphery of the endosperm. The ACGs’ positive reaction with Sudan III corroborated their lipid nature. Paraffin sections stained with Naphthol Blue Black showed reactions in the endosperm parenchyma cells and stained the proteoplasts blue, indicating that they might correspond to storage sites for albumin-like proteins. Lugol’s iodine, which is similar in chemical composition to Wagner’s reagent, caused a golden brown reaction product in the cytoplasm of the idioblasts, which may indicate the presence of alkaloids. Based on these results, we propose that Kedde’s reagent is an appropriate histochemical stain for detecting ACGs in situ in idioblasts and that idioblasts store ACGs and probably alkaloids. ACGs that are located in idioblasts found in restricted, peripheral areas of the endosperm could serve as a barrier that protects the seeds against insects and

  5. Emerging therapeutic potential of graviola and its constituents in cancers.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Asif Khurshid; Siddiqui, Jawed A; Jahan, Rahat; Chaudhary, Sanjib; Walker, Larry A; Sayed, Zafar; Jones, Dwight T; Batra, Surinder K; Macha, Muzafar A

    2018-04-05

    Cancer remains a leading cause of death in the USA and around the world. Although the current synthetic inhibitors used in targeted therapies have improved patient prognosis, toxicity and development of resistance to these agents remain a challenge. Plant-derived natural products and their derivatives have historically been used to treat various diseases, including cancer. Several leading chemotherapeutic agents are directly or indirectly based on botanical natural products. Beyond these important drugs, however, a number of crude herbal or botanical preparations have also shown promising utility for cancer and other disorders. One such natural resource is derived from certain plants of the family Annonaceae, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Among the best known of these is Annona muricata, also known as soursop, graviola or guanabana. Extracts from the fruit, bark, seeds, roots and leaves of graviola, along with several other Annonaceous species, have been extensively investigated for anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Phytochemical studies have identified the acetogenins, a class of bioactive polyketide-derived constituents, from the extracts of Annonaceous species, and dozens of these compounds are present in different parts of graviola. This review summarizes current literature on the therapeutic potential and molecular mechanism of these constituents from A.muricata against cancer and many non-malignant diseases. Based on available data, there is good evidence that these long-used plants could have both chemopreventive and therapeutic potential. Appropriate attention to safety studies will be important to assess their effectiveness on various diseases caused or promoted by inflammation.

  6. Antihyperglycemic Activity of the Leaves from Annona cherimola Miller and Rutin on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Calzada, Fernando; Solares-Pascasio, Jesús Iván; Ordoñez-Razo, R. M.; Velazquez, Claudia; Barbosa, Elizabeth; García-Hernández, Normand; Mendez-Luna, David; Correa-Basurto, José

    2017-01-01

    Background: Annona cherimola, known as “chirimoya” has been reported in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Objective: The aims of the present study were to validate and assess the traditional use of A. cherimola as an antidiabetic agent. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract from A. cherimola (300 mg/kg, EEAc), subsequent fractions (100 mg/kg), and rutin (30 mg/kg) were studied on alloxan-induced type 2 diabetic (AITD) and normoglycemic rats. In addition, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and oral sucrose tolerance test (OSTT) were performed in normoglycemic rats. Molecular docking technique was used to conduct the computational study. Results: Bioassay-guided fractionation of EEAc afforded as major antihyperglycemic compound, rutin. EEAc attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia in acute test using AITD rats (331.5 mg/dL) carrying the glycemic levels to 149.2 mg/dL. Rutin after 2 h, attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia in an acute assay using AITD rats such as EEAc, with maximum effect (150.0 mg/dL) being seen at 4 h. The antihyperglycemic activities of EEAc and rutin were comparable with acarbose (151.3 mg/dL). In the subchronic assay on AITD rats, the EEAc and rutin showed a reduction of the blood glucose levels since the 1st week of treatment, reaching levels similar to normoglycemic state (116.9 mg/kg) that stayed constant for the rest of the assay. OGTT and OSTT showed that EEAc and rutin significantly lowered blood glucose levels in normoglycemic rats at 2 h after a glucose or sucrose load such as acarbose. Computational molecular docking showed that rutin interacted with four amino acids residues in the enzyme α-glucosidase. Conclusion: The results suggest that rutin an α-glucosidase inhibitor was responsible in part of the antihyperglycemic activity of A. cherimola. Its in vivo antihyperglycemic activity is in good agreement with the traditional use of A. cherimola for the treatment of diabetes. SUMMARY The ethanol extract

  7. Neuroprotective effect of Annona glabra extract against ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongru; Han, Jianfeng; Dong, Qinchuan

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Annona glabra extract (AGE) against ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in neonatal rats. AGE is known to contain various pharmacological and therapeutic properties. Phytochemical analysis of AGE was performed to understand the presence of vital therapeutic components. Neonatal rats were assigned to the following groups: group I (normal control rats receiving normal saline), group II (control rats receiving ethanol), and group III (treated rats receiving ethanol-AGE). The lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) levels were determined. Behavioral parameters, histological features, neuronal cell viability, and apoptosis were also investigated. The presence of flavonoids, terpenoid, glycosides, steroids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, and acidic compounds was noted in the AGE. Ethanol supplementation drastically increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content to 52.17 nmol/g in the control rats (group II). However, the MDA content was reduced to 27.34 nmol/g in ethanol-AGE-treated neonatal rats (group III) compared with control rats. The GSH content was substantially reduced, to 33.68 mg/g, in control rats compared with in normal control rats. However, the GSH content was significantly increased, to 59.32 mg/g, following ethanol-AGE supplementation. Gpx, SOD, catalase, and AChE enzyme activities were increased in treated neonatal rats compared with their respective controls. Locomotor activities, such as crossing, grooming, rearing, and sniffing, were increased in ethanol-AGE-treated neonatal rats compared with controls. Reduced levels of intact pyramidal cells and cells with degenerative alterations appeared in the control rats. However, ethanol-AGE supplementation reduced degenerative alterations and hippocampal damage. Reduced cultured hippocampal neuron cell viability and increased

  8. Environmental effect of antioxidant additives on exhaust emission reduction in compression ignition engine fuelled with Annona methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Senthil, R; Silambarasan, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyse the effect of antioxidant l-ascorbic acid on engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of Annona oil (MEAO). The antioxidant is mixed in various concentrations (100-400 mg) with MEAO. Result shows that the antioxidant additive mixture (MEAO+LA200) is effective in control of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC) emission of MEAO-fuelled engine without doing any engine modification. In this study by using MEAO, the NOx emission is reduced by about 23.38% at full load while compared with neat diesel fuel. Likewise there is a reduction in carbon monoxide, smoke, and HC by about 48%, 28.57% and 29.71% at full load condition compared with neat diesel fuel.

  9. Antiprotozoal Constituents from Annona cherimola Miller, a Plant Used in Mexican Traditional Medicine for the Treatment of Diarrhea and Dysentery

    PubMed Central

    Calzada, Fernando; Correa-Basurto, Jose; Barbosa, Elizabeth; Mendez-Luna, David; Yepez-Mulia, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae) is a medicinal plant frequently recommended in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery. Objective: This work was undertaken to obtain information that support the traditional use of A. cherimola, on pharmacological basis using in vitro and computational experiments. Material and Methods: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the leaves of A. cherimola afforded five phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, nicotinflorin, and rutin. Results: The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that kaempferol was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC50 values of 7.9 μg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica and 8.7 μg/mL for Giardia lamblia. Computational molecular docking study showed that kaempferol interacted in a region different than metronidazole in the enzyme pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). Conclusion: Considering that PFOR is a target of metronidazole; kaempferol may be a lead compound for the development of novel antiprotozoal agent. Also, these findings give support to the use of A. cherimola in the traditional medicine from México for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. SUMMARY Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Annona cherimola afforded five phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, nicotinflorin and rutin. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that kaempferol was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC50 values of 7.9 μg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica and 8.7 μg/mL for Giardia lamblia. Computational molecular docking study showed that kaempferol interacted in a region different that metronidazole in the enzyme pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Abbreviations used: PFOR:Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, G: lamblia: Giardia lamblia, E: histolytica: Entamoeba histolytica PMID:28216899

  10. Beetle pollination and flowering rhythm of Annona coriacea Mart. (Annonaceae) in Brazilian cerrado: Behavioral features of its principal pollinators.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marilza Silva; Silva, Ricardo José; Paulino-Neto, Hipólito Ferreira; Pereira, Mônica Josene Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    The conservation and sustainable management of Annona coriacea requires knowledge of its floral and reproductive biology, and of its main pollinators and their life cycles. In this work, we analyzed these aspects in detail. Floral biology was assessed by observing flowers from the beginning of anthesis to senescence. The visiting hours and behavior of floral visitors in the floral chamber were recorded, as were the sites of oviposition. Excavations were undertaken around specimens of A. coriacea to determine the location of immature pollinators. Anthesis was nocturnal, starting at sunset, and lasted for 52-56 h. The flowers were bisexual, protogynous and emitted a strong scent similar to the plant´s own ripe fruit. There was pronounced synchrony among all floral events (the period and duration of stigmatic receptivity, release of odor, pollen release and drooping flowers) in different individuals, but no synchrony in the same individuals. All of the flowers monitored were visited by beetle species of the genera Cyclocephala and Arriguttia. Beetles arrived at the flowers with their bodies covered in pollen and these pollen grains were transferred to the stigmata while foraging on nutritious tissues at the base of the petals. With dehiscence of the stamens and retention within the floral chamber, the bodies of the floral visitors were again covered with pollen which they carried to newly opened flowers, thus promoting the cycle of pollination. After leaving the flowers, female beetles often excavated holes in the soil to lay eggs. Larvae were found between the leaf litter and the first layer of soil under specimens of A. coriacea. Cyclocephala beetles were the main pollinators of A. coriacea, but Arriguttia brevissima was also considered a pollinator and is the first species of this genus to be observed in Annonaceae flowers. Annona coriacea was found to be self-compatible with a low reproductive efficiency in the area studied. The results of this investigation

  11. Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Annona Species on the Development and Reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Freitas, A F; Pereira, F F; Formagio, A S N; Lucchetta, J T; Vieira, M C; Mussury, R M

    2014-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) causes significant losses in corn crops and necessitates the use of alternative control strategies, such as the application of bioinsecticides. We report the effect of methanolic leaf extracts of Annona dioica, Annona cacans, and Annona coriacea on the development and reproduction of S. frugiperda. A quantitative analysis was carried out to determine the total concentration of phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannin (CT) in leaf extracts. Corn leaves were immersed in a 1% methanolic leaf extract solution and fed to second instars of S. frugiperda. Leaf disks dipped in the synthetic insecticide Connect® (Bayer CropScience Ltda) composed of a neonicotinoid (imidacloprid) and a pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), which are harmful to S. frugiperda, was used as positive control. Distilled water was used as a negative control treatment. The leaf extract of A. coriacea decreased larval survivorship, arrested pupal development, and affected the weight gain of S. frugiperda. A. dioica also affected larval survivorship, but its effects were more pronounced for the adult stage, as fecundity, fertility, egg hatchability, and embryonic development were severely affected. Leaf extracts from A. cacans had no effect on S. frugiperda. The leaf extracts of A. dioica and A. coriacea showed a higher content of flavonoids and phenols, respectively. Our results indicated that both A. dioica and A. coriacea have the potential for development as botanical insecticides.

  12. Beetle pollination and flowering rhythm of Annona coriacea Mart. (Annonaceae) in Brazilian cerrado: Behavioral features of its principal pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Mônica Josene Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    The conservation and sustainable management of Annona coriacea requires knowledge of its floral and reproductive biology, and of its main pollinators and their life cycles. In this work, we analyzed these aspects in detail. Floral biology was assessed by observing flowers from the beginning of anthesis to senescence. The visiting hours and behavior of floral visitors in the floral chamber were recorded, as were the sites of oviposition. Excavations were undertaken around specimens of A. coriacea to determine the location of immature pollinators. Anthesis was nocturnal, starting at sunset, and lasted for 52–56 h. The flowers were bisexual, protogynous and emitted a strong scent similar to the plant´s own ripe fruit. There was pronounced synchrony among all floral events (the period and duration of stigmatic receptivity, release of odor, pollen release and drooping flowers) in different individuals, but no synchrony in the same individuals. All of the flowers monitored were visited by beetle species of the genera Cyclocephala and Arriguttia. Beetles arrived at the flowers with their bodies covered in pollen and these pollen grains were transferred to the stigmata while foraging on nutritious tissues at the base of the petals. With dehiscence of the stamens and retention within the floral chamber, the bodies of the floral visitors were again covered with pollen which they carried to newly opened flowers, thus promoting the cycle of pollination. After leaving the flowers, female beetles often excavated holes in the soil to lay eggs. Larvae were found between the leaf litter and the first layer of soil under specimens of A. coriacea. Cyclocephala beetles were the main pollinators of A. coriacea, but Arriguttia brevissima was also considered a pollinator and is the first species of this genus to be observed in Annonaceae flowers. Annona coriacea was found to be self-compatible with a low reproductive efficiency in the area studied. The results of this investigation

  13. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by novel Pseudomonas veronii AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. and their bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Syed; Mohan Kumar, K; Santosh, P; Rakshith, D; Satish, S

    2015-02-05

    In present investigation extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles were synthesized using cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii AS41G isolated from Annona squamosa L. The bacterium significantly reduced silver nitrate to generate silver nanoparticles which was characterized with hyphenated techniques. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles preliminary confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry with the intense peak at 410nm, Further FTIR analysis revealed the possible role of biomolecules in the supernatant responsible for mediating the nanoparticles formation. The XRD spectra exhibited the characteristic Bragg peaks of 100, 111, 200, and 220 facets of the face centred cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. TEM microgram showed polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 5 to 50nm. Synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against human and environmental pathogens including MRSA. The study enlightens the role of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as an emerging alternative for drug resistant microorganisms. The obtained results are promising enough to pave the environmentally benign nanoparticle synthesis processes without use of any toxic chemicals and also envision the emerging role of endophytes towards synthesis of nanoparticles. With scanty reports available on P.veronii species, a new role has been reported in this study which will be very valuable for future researchers working on it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A catechol oxidase AcPPO from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) is localized to the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Patricio; Moreno, Adrián A; Sanhueza, Dayan; Balic, Iván; Silva-Sanzana, Christian; Zepeda, Baltasar; Verdonk, Julian C; Arriagada, César; Meneses, Claudio; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo

    2018-01-01

    Cherimoya (Annona cherimola) is an exotic fruit with attractive organoleptic characteristics. However, it is highly perishable and susceptible to postharvest browning. In fresh fruit, browning is primarily caused by the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of o-diphenols to quinones, which polymerize to form brown melanin pigment. There is no consensus in the literature regarding a specific role of PPO, and its subcellular localization in different plant species is mainly described within plastids. The present work determined the subcellular localization of a PPO protein from cherimoya (AcPPO). The obtained results revealed that the AcPPO- green fluorescent protein co-localized with a Golgi apparatus marker, and AcPPO activity was present in Golgi apparatus-enriched fractions. Likewise, transient expression assays revealed that AcPPO remained active in Golgi apparatus-enriched fractions obtained from tobacco leaves. These results suggest a putative function of AcPPO in the Golgi apparatus of cherimoya, providing new perspectives on PPO functionality in the secretory pathway, its effects on cherimoya physiology, and the evolution of this enzyme. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by novel Pseudomonas veronii AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. and their bactericidal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Syed; Mohan Kumar, K.; Santosh, P.; Rakshith, D.; Satish, S.

    2015-02-01

    In present investigation extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles were synthesized using cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii AS41G isolated from Annona squamosa L. The bacterium significantly reduced silver nitrate to generate silver nanoparticles which was characterized with hyphenated techniques. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles preliminary confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry with the intense peak at 410 nm, Further FTIR analysis revealed the possible role of biomolecules in the supernatant responsible for mediating the nanoparticles formation. The XRD spectra exhibited the characteristic Bragg peaks of 1 0 0, 1 1 1, 2 0 0, and 2 2 0 facets of the face centred cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. TEM microgram showed polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 5 to 50 nm. Synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against human and environmental pathogens including MRSA. The study enlightens the role of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as an emerging alternative for drug resistant microorganisms. The obtained results are promising enough to pave the environmentally benign nanoparticle synthesis processes without use of any toxic chemicals and also envision the emerging role of endophytes towards synthesis of nanoparticles. With scanty reports available on P.veronii species, a new role has been reported in this study which will be very valuable for future researchers working on it.

  16. Chloroplast DNA Diversity among Trees, Populations and Species in the California Closed-Cone Pines (Pinus Radiata, Pinus Muricata and Pinus Attenuata)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y. P.; Hipkins, V. D.; Strauss, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    The amount, distribution and mutational nature of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms were studied via analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three closely related species of conifers, the California closed-cone pines-knobcone pine: Pinus attenuata Lemm.; bishop pine: Pinus muricata D. Don; and Monterey pine: Pinus radiata D. Don. Genomic DNA from 384 trees representing 19 populations were digested with 9-20 restriction enzymes and probed with cloned cpDNA fragments from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] that comprise 82% of the chloroplast genome. Up to 313 restriction sites were surveyed, and 25 of these were observed to be polymorphic among or within species. Differences among species accounted for the majority of genetic (haplotypic) diversity observed [G(st) = 84(+/-13)%]; nucleotide diversity among species was estimated to be 0.3(+/-0.1)%. Knobcone pine and Monterey pine displayed almost no genetic variation within or among populations. Bishop pine also showed little variability within populations, but did display strong population differences [G(st) = 87(+/-8)%] that were a result of three distinct geographic groups. Mean nucleotide diversity within populations was 0.003(+/-0.002)%; intrapopulation polymorphisms were found in only five populations. This pattern of genetic variation contrasts strongly with findings from study of nuclear genes (allozymes) in the group, where most genetic diversity resides within populations rather than among populations or species. Regions of the genome subject to frequent length mutations were identified; estimates of subdivision based on length variant frequencies in one region differed strikingly from those based on site mutations or allozymes. Two trees were identified with a major chloroplast DNA inversion that closely resembled one documented between Pinus and Pseudotsuga. PMID:7905846

  17. De novo assembly and characterization of transcriptomes of early-stage fruit from two genotypes of Annona squamosa L. with contrast in seed number.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Yogesh; Pathak, Ashish K; Singh, Kashmir; Mantri, Shrikant S; Singh, Sudhir P; Tuli, Rakesh

    2015-02-14

    Annona squamosa L., a popular fruit tree, is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Annona. The lack of transcriptomic and genomic information limits the scope of genome investigations in this important shrub. It bears aggregate fruits with numerous seeds. A few rare accessions with very few seeds have been reported for Annona. A massive pyrosequencing (Roche, 454 GS FLX+) of transcriptome from early stages of fruit development (0, 4, 8 and 12 days after pollination) was performed to produce expression datasets in two genotypes, Sitaphal and NMK-1, that show a contrast in the number of seeds set in fruits. The data reported here is the first source of genome-wide differential transcriptome sequence in two genotypes of A. squamosa, and identifies several candidate genes related to seed development. Approximately 1.9 million high-quality clean reads were obtained in the cDNA library from the developing fruits of both the genotypes, with an average length of about 568 bp. Quality-reads were assembled de novo into 2074 to 11004 contigs in the developing fruit samples at different stages of development. The contig sequence data of all the four stages of each genotype were combined into larger units resulting into 14921 (Sitaphal) and 14178 (NMK-1) unigenes, with a mean size of more than 1 Kb. Assembled unigenes were functionally annotated by querying against the protein sequences of five different public databases (NCBI non redundant, Prunus persica, Vitis vinifera, Fragaria vesca, and Amborella trichopoda), with an E-value cut-off of 10(-5). A total of 4588 (Sitaphal) and 2502 (NMK-1) unigenes did not match any known protein in the NR database. These sequences could be genes specific to Annona sp. or belong to untranslated regions. Several of the unigenes representing pathways related to primary and secondary metabolism, and seed and fruit development expressed at a higher level in Sitaphal, the densely seeded cultivar in comparison to the poorly seeded NMK

  18. A Standardized Composition Comprised of Extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis, Annona squamosa and Zanthoxylum clava-herculis for Cellulite

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cellulite, characterized by changes in the skin morphology presented as dimpled or puckered skin appearance, is highly prevalent among postadolescent women. Cellulite management ranges from topical cream applications to invasive procedures. While some interventions showed improvements in physical appearances of affected areas, so far, none have reversed the condition to a full recovery. These unsuccessful measures signify the intricate nature of cellulite etiology highlighting its complexity leading to the possibility for a combination treatment approach to target multiple mechanisms. Materials and Methods: We screened our plant library for extracts that reduce cellular lipid accumulation, improve microcirculation, possess high total antioxidant capacity, significant anti-platelet aggregation, and anti-inflammatory activities using lipid accumulation assay in 3T3-L1 cells, Croton oil-induced hemorrhoid test in rats as a model for microcirculation, anti-platelet aggregation assay, nitric oxide (NO) inhibition assay, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results: Three known botanicals such as Rosemary officinalis, Annona squamosa and Zanthoxylum clava-herculis were identified as lead extracts in these tests. Treatment of 3T3 cell with A. squamosa at 1 μg/ml resulted in 68.8% reduction in lipid accumulation. In croton oil-induced hemorrhoid study, Z. clava-herculis reduced the recto-anus coefficient by 79.6% at 6 mg/kg indicating improvement in microcirculations. Similarly, R. officinalis caused inhibition of 82%, 71.8%, and 91.8% in platelet aggregation, NO production and free radical generation at 31.25 μg/ml, 6.2 μg/ml, and 40 μg/ml concentrations suggesting its anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Conclusions: Data depicted here suggest that formulation of these well-known botanicals at a specific ratio perhaps may yield a composition with a much wider spectrum of mechanisms of actions to impact the multiple pathways involved in

  19. Browning in Annona cherimola fruit: role of polyphenol oxidase and characterization of a coding sequence of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Humberto; Utz, Daniella; Castro, Alvaro; Aguirre, Carlos; González-Agüero, Mauricio; Valdés, Héctor; Cifuentes, Nicolas; Defilippi, Bruno G; Zamora, Pablo; Zúñiga, Gustavo; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo

    2007-10-31

    Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) fruit is an attractive candidate for food processing applications as fresh cut. However, along with its desirable delicate taste, cherimoya shows a marked susceptibility to browning. This condition is mainly attributed to polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO). A general lack of knowledge regarding PPO and its role in the oxidative loss of quality in processed cherimoya fruit requires a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. The work carried out included the cloning of a full-length cDNA, an analysis of its properties in the deduced amino sequence, and linkage of its mRNA levels with enzyme activity in mature and ripe fruits after wounding. The results showed one gene different at the nucleotide level when compared with previously reported genes, but a well-conserved protein, either in functional and in structural terms. Cherimoya PPO gene (Ac-ppo, GenBank DQ990911) showed to be present apparently in one copy of the genome, and its transcripts could be significantly detected in leaves and less abundantly in flowers and fruits. Analysis of wounded matured and ripened fruits revealed an inductive behavior for mRNA levels in the flesh of mature cherimoya after 16 h. Although the highest enzymatic activity was observed on rind, a consistent PPO activity was detected on flesh samples. A lack of correlation between PPO mRNA level and PPO activity was observed, especially in flesh tissue. This is probably due to the presence of monophenolic substrates inducing a lag period, enzyme inhibitors and/or diphenolic substrates causing suicide inactivation, and proenzyme or latent isoforms of PPO. To our knowledge this is the first report of a complete PPO sequence in cherimoya. Furthermore, the gene is highly divergent from known nucleotide sequences but shows a well conserved protein in terms of its function, deduced structure, and physiological role.

  20. Antioxidant and drug detoxification potential of aqueous extract of Annona senegalensis leaves in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocellular damage.

    PubMed

    Ajboye, Taofeek O; Yakubu, Musa T; Salau, Amadu K; Oladiji, Adenike T; Akanji, Musbau A; Okogun, Joseph I

    2010-12-01

     Despite the myriad uses of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) leaves in folklore medicine of Nigeria, the basis is yet to be substantiated by scientific investigations.  To investigate the antioxidant (in vitro and in vivo) and drug detoxification potential of aqueous extract of A. senegalensis leaves in CCl₄-induced hepatocellular damage.  In vitro antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of A. senegalensis leaves was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H₂O₂, superoxide ion, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) and ferric ion models while in vivo antioxidant and drug detoxification activities of the extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight were done by assaying the levels of enzymic and non-enzymic indices in CCl₄-induced hepatocellular damage.  The extract at 1 mg/mL scavenged DPPH, H₂O₂, superoxide ion, and ABTS radicals, whereas ferric ion was significantly (P <0.05) reduced. The levels of alkaline and acid phosphatases, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, reduced glutathione, vitamins C and E, glutathione S-transferase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced):Quinone oxidoreductase, uridyl diphosphoglucuronyl transferase, malondialdehyde, and lipid hydroperoxide that decreased in CCl₄ treated animals were significantly attenuated by the extract in a manner similar to the animals treated with the reference drug.  The ability of the aqueous extract of A. senegalensis leaves to scavenge free radicals in vitro and reversal of CCl₄-induced hepatocellular damage in rats suggest antioxidant and drug detoxification activities. Overall, this study has justified the rationale behind some of the medicinal uses of the plant in folklore medicine of Nigeria.

  1. Mapping genetic diversity of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): application of spatial analysis for conservation and use of plant genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Zonneveld, Maarten van; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  2. The Antimicrobial Activity of Annona emarginata (Schltdl.) H. Rainer and Most Active Isolated Compounds against Clinically Important Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dolab, Juan G; Lima, Beatriz; Spaczynska, Ewelina; Kos, Jiri; Cano, Natividad H; Feresin, Gabriela; Tapia, Alejandro; Garibotto, Francisco; Petenatti, Elisa; Olivella, Monica; Musiol, Robert; Jampilek, Josef; Enriz, Ricardo D

    2018-05-16

    Annona emarginata (Schltdl.) H. Rainer, commonly known as "arachichú", "araticú", "aratigú", and "yerba mora", is a plant that grows in Argentina. Infusions and decoctions are used in folk medicine as a gargle against throat pain and for calming toothache; another way to use the plant for these purposes is chewing its leaves. Extracts from bark, flowers, leaves, and fruits from A. emarginata were subjected to antibacterial assays against a panel of Gram (+) and Gram (-) pathogenic bacteria according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols. Extracts from the stem bark and leaves showed moderate activity against the bacteria tested with values between 250⁻1000 µg/mL. Regarding flower extracts, less polar extracts (hexane, dichloromethane) showed very strong antibacterial activity against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 with values between 16⁻125 µg/mL. Additionally, hexane extract showed activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC = 250 µg/mL). The global methanolic extract of the fruits (MeOHGEF) was also active against the three strains mentioned above, with MICs values 250⁻500 µg/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of MeOHGEF led to the isolation of a new main compound-( R )-2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-yl)propan-2-yl ( E )-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylate ( 1 ). The structure and relative configurations have been determined by means of 1D and 2D NMR techniques, including COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY correlations. Compound 1 showed strong antimicrobial activity against all Gram (+) species tested (MICs = 3.12⁻6.25 µg/mL). In addition, the synthesis and antibacterial activity of some compounds structurally related to compound 1 (including four new compounds) are reported. A SAR study for these compounds was performed based on the results obtained by using molecular calculations.

  3. Ethnobotanical survey, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv.

    PubMed

    Khallouki, Farid; Haubner, Roswitha; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2011-11-01

    The root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv. is traditionally used in the Democratic Republic of Congo to treat several debilitating conditions, such as hernia, female sterility, sexual asthenia, and parasitic infections. However, little is known about the composition of the secondary plant substances, which may contribute to these traditional medicinal effects. We conducted an ethnobotanical study and then evaluated the composition of the secondary plant substances in extracts of the root bark by using spectroscopic methods. After delipidation, the root bark was lixiviated in methanol, and components in the extract were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-MS and nano-electrospray ionization-MS-MS. These methods identified 13 secondary plant substances (almost exclusively phenolic compounds): p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (I), vanillin (II), tyrosol (III), 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (IV), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (V), vanillyl alcohol (VI), syringaldehyde (VII), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol (VIII), vanillic acid (IX), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (X), syringic acid (XI), and ferulic acid (XII), along with the phytosterol squalene (XIII). In the HPLC-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase antioxidant assay system, the methanolic extract exhibited potent antioxidant capacity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 72 μL, equivalent to 1.38 mg/mL of raw extract. Thus, a methanol extract of A. cuneata Oliv. contained a range of polyphenolic compounds, which may be partly responsible for its known traditional medicinal effects. More detailed studies on the phytochemistry of this important plant species are therefore warranted.

  4. Mapping Genetic Diversity of Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Application of Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A.; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  5. Herbal remedies and functional foods used by cancer patients attending specialty oncology clinics in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Clement, Yuri N; Mahase, Varune; Jagroop, Annelise; Kissoon, Kelly; Maharaj, Aarti; Mathura, Prashant; Quan, Chrys Mc; Ramadhin, Divya; Mohammed, Cherrista

    2016-10-21

    Cancer is a major disease worldwide, and many patients use complementary and alternative treatments. The purpose of this study was to identify the herbal remedies and functional foods used as complementary medicine by prostate, breast and colorectal cancer patients at speciality care facilities in Trinidad. We also sought to determine how patients rated the efficacy of these modalities compared with conventional treatment. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-administered pilot-tested de novo questionnaire during the period June to August 2012 at two speciality treatment centres on the island. Data was analysed using χ 2 analyses. Among the 150 patients who reported use of herbal remedies/functional foods, soursop (Annona muricata L.) was the most popular; with 80.7 % using the leaves, bark, fruit and seeds on a regular basis. Other common herbal remedies/functional foods included wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum L.), saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. The most commonly used functional foods were beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.), carrots (Daucus carata L.) and papaya (Carica papaya L.) used by 43.3 % of patients; and these were mostly blended as a mixture. Herbal remedies and functional foods were used on a daily basis and patients believed that this modality was equally (32.0 %) or more efficacious (14.7 %) than conventional treatment. This survey identified the most common herbal remedies and functional foods used among prostate, breast and colorectal cancer patients in Trinidad. Although functional foods rarely pose a problem, herbs may interact with conventional chemotherapy and physicians need to inform patients regarding probable herb-drug interactions.

  6. Incidence and growth of Salmonella enterica on the peel and pulp of avocado (Persea americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa).

    PubMed

    Rezende, Ana Carolina B; Crucello, Juliana; Moreira, Rafael C; Silva, Beatriz S; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2016-10-17

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and to estimate the growth kinetic parameters (maximum growth rate, μ; lag time, λ; and maximum population, κ) of Salmonella on the peel and pulp of avocado (Perseaamericana var. americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) as affected by temperature (10-30°C). The incidence of Salmonella was assessed on the peel and pulp of the fruits (n=200 of each fruit), separately, totalizing 800 analyses. Only three samples of custard apple pulp were positive for Salmonella enterica and the three isolates recovered belonged to serotype S. Typhimurium. Salmonella was not recovered from avocado and custard apple peels and from avocado pulp. Generally, the substrate (pulp or peel) of growth did not affect μ values of S. enterica (p>0.05). Very similar μ values were found for S. enterica inoculated in custard apple and avocado. S. enterica presented the highest λ in the peel of the fruits. The growth of S. enterica resulted in larger λ in custard apple in comparison to avocado. For example, the λ of S. enterica in the pulp of custard apple and avocado were 47.0±0.78h and 10.0±3.78h, respectively. The lowest values of κ were obtained at the lower storage temperature conditions (10°C). For instance, κ values of 3.7±0.06log CFU/g and 2.9±0.03log CFU/g were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in avocado and custard apple pulps at 10°C (p<0.05), respectively. On the other hand, at 30°C, κ values were 6.5±0.25log CFU/g and 6.5±0.05log CFU/g, respectively. Significantly higher κ were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in the pulp than in the peel of the fruits (p<0.05). For instance, the growth of S. enterica in the pulp of avocado led to a κ value of 6.5±0.25log CFU/g, while in the peel led to a κ value of 4.6±0.23log CFU/g (p<0.05). In general, growth kinetic parameters indicated that avocado comprises a better substrate than custard apple for the growth of S. enterica. The square root model

  7. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of normal and malformed flowers in sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) to identify the differential expressed genes between normal and malformed flowers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaidong; Li, Haili; Li, Weijin; Zhong, Jundi; Chen, Yan; Shen, Chenjia; Yuan, Changchun

    2017-10-23

    Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.), a popular fruit with high medicinal and nutritional properties, is widely cultivated in tropical South Asia and America. The malformed flower is a major cause for a reduction in production of sugar apple. However, little information is available on the differences between normal and malformed flowers of sugar apple. To gain a comprehensive perspective on the differences between normal and malformed flowers of sugar apple, cDNA libraries from normal and malformation flowers were prepared independently for Illumina sequencing. The data generated a total of 70,189,896 reads that were integrated and assembled into 55,097 unigenes with a mean length of 783 bp. A large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Among these DEGs, 701 flower development-associated transcript factor encoding genes were included. Furthermore, a large number of flowering- and hormone-related DEGs were also identified, and most of these genes were down-regulated expressed in the malformation flowers. The expression levels of 15 selected genes were validated using quantitative-PCR. The contents of several endogenous hormones were measured. The malformed flowers displayed lower endogenous hormone levels compared to the normal flowers. The expression data as well as hormone levels in our study will serve as a comprehensive resource for investigating the regulation mechanism involved in floral organ development in sugar apple.

  8. Antioxidant (A-tocopherol acetate) effect on oxidation stability and NOx emission reduction in methyl ester of Annona oil operated diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-05-01

    There is a major drawback while using biodiesel as a alternate fuel for compression ignition diesel engine due to lower heating value, higher viscosity, higher density and higher oxides of nitrogen emission. To minimize these drawbacks, fuel additives can contribute towards engine performance and exhaust emission reduction either directly or indirectly. In this current work, the test was conducted to investigate the effect of antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) on oxidation stability and NOx emission in a of Annona methyl ester oil (MEAO) fueled diesel engine. The A-tocopherol acetate is mixed in different concentrations such as 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04% with 100% by vol MEAO. It is concluded that the antioxidant additive very effective in increasing the oxidation stability and in controlling the NOx emission. Further, the addition of antioxidant additive is slight increase the HC, CO and smoke emissions. Hence, A-tocopherol acetate is very effective in controlling the NOx emission with MEAO operated diesel engine without any major modification.

  9. In vitro SCREENING ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Bidens pilosa LINNÉ AND Annona crassiflora MART. AGAINST OXACILLIN RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) FROM THE AERIAL ENVIRONMENT AT THE DENTAL CLINIC

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jeferson; Cerdeira, Cláudio Daniel; Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Cintra, Ana Beatriz Pugina; da Silva, Carla Brigagão Pacheco; de Mendonça, Andreia Natan; Ishikawa, Tati; Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber

    2014-01-01

    Currently multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus is one common cause of infections with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which directs scientific endeavors in search for novel antimicrobials. In this study, nine extracts from Bidens pilosa (root, stem, flower and leaves) and Annona crassiflora (rind fruit, stem, leaves, seed and pulp) were obtained with ethanol: water (7:3, v/v) and their in vitro antibacterial activity evaluated through both the agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods against 60 Oxacillin Resistant S. aureus (ORSA) strains and against S. aureus ATCC6538. The extracts from B. pilosa and A. crassiflora inhibited the growth of the ORSA isolates in both methods. Leaves of B. pilosa presented mean of the inhibition zone diameters significantly higher than chlorexidine 0.12% against ORSA, and the extracts were more active against S. aureus ATCC (p < 0.05). Parallel, toxicity testing by using MTT method and phytochemical screening were assessed, and three extracts (B. pilosa, root and leaf, and A. crassiflora, seed) did not evidence toxicity. On the other hand, the cytotoxic concentrations (CC50 and CC90) for other extracts ranged from 2.06 to 10.77 mg/mL. The presence of variable alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins was observed, even though there was a total absence of anthraquinones. Thus, the extracts from the leaves of B. pilosa revealed good anti-ORSA activity and did not exhibit toxicity. PMID:25076435

  10. Anxiolytic-like actions of the hexane extract from leaves of Annona cherimolia in two anxiety paradigms: possible involvement of the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex.

    PubMed

    López-Rubalcava, C; Piña-Medina, B; Estrada-Reyes, R; Heinze, G; Martínez-Vázquez, M

    2006-01-11

    A hexane extract of leaves of Annona cherimolia produced anxiolytic-like actions when administered to mice and tested in two animal models of anxiety: the mouse avoidance exploratory behavior and the burying behavior tests. In order to discard unspecific drug-actions on general activity, all treatments studied in the anxiety paradigms were also analyzed in the open field test. Results showed that A. cherimolia induced anxiolytic-like actions at the doses of 6.25, 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg. Picrotoxin (0.25 mg/kg), a GABA-gated chloride ion channel blocker, antagonized the anxiolytic-like actions of A. cherimolia, while a sub-effective dose of muscimol (0.5 mg/kg), a selective GABA(A) receptor agonist, facilitated the effects of a sub-optimal dose of A. cherimolia (3.12 mg/kg). Thus, the involvement of the GABA(A) receptor complex in the anxiolytic-like actions of A. cherimolia hexane extract is suggested. In addition the extract was also able to enhance the duration of sodium pentobarbital induced sleeping time. Taken together, results indicate that the hexane extract of A. cherimolia has depressant activity on the Central Nervous System and could interact with the GABA(A) receptor complex. On the other hand, the chromatographic separation of this extract led to the isolation of palmitone, and beta-sitosterol as major constituents. In addition a GC-MS study of some fractions revealed the presence of several compounds such beta-cariophyllene, beta-selinene, alpha-cubebene, and linalool that have been reported to show effects on behavior that could explain some of the extract effects.

  11. Climatic drivers of leaf traits and genetic divergence in the tree Annona crassiflora: a broad spatial survey in the Brazilian savannas.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Priciane C; Souza, Matheus L; Muller, Larissa A C; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Heuertz, Myriam; Lemos-Filho, José P; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

    2016-11-01

    The Cerrado is the largest South American savanna and encompasses substantial species diversity and environmental variation. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the influence of the environment on population divergence of Cerrado species. Here, we searched for climatic drivers of genetic (nuclear microsatellites) and leaf trait divergence in Annona crassiflora, a widespread tree in the Cerrado. The sampling encompassed all phytogeographic provinces of the continuous area of the Cerrado and included 397 individuals belonging to 21 populations. Populations showed substantial genetic and leaf trait divergence across the species' range. Our data revealed three spatially defined genetic groups (eastern, western and southern) and two morphologically distinct groups (eastern and western only). The east-west split in both the morphological and genetic data closely mirrors previously described phylogeographic patterns of Cerrado species. Generalized linear mixed effects models and multiple regression analyses revealed several climatic factors associated with both genetic and leaf trait divergence among populations of A. crassiflora. Isolation by environment (IBE) was mainly due to temperature seasonality and precipitation of the warmest quarter. Populations that experienced lower precipitation summers and hotter winters had heavier leaves and lower specific leaf area. The southwestern area of the Cerrado had the highest genetic diversity of A. crassiflora, suggesting that this region may have been climatically stable. Overall, we demonstrate that a combination of current climate and past climatic changes have shaped the population divergence and spatial structure of A. crassiflora. However, the genetic structure of A. crassiflora reflects the biogeographic history of the species more strongly than leaf traits, which are more related to current climate. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors.

    PubMed

    Lame, Younoussa; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Pierre, Danga Yinyang Simon; Elijah, Ajaegbu Eze; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions. Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis. The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability) and chloroform (03.67% hatchability) fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm) and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm) fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with N-hexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm), chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm) fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively. The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

  13. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Lame, Younoussa; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Pierre, Danga Yinyang Simon; Elijah, Ajaegbu Eze; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions. Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis. Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability) and chloroform (03.67% hatchability) fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm) and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm) fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with N-hexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm), chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm) fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively. Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control. PMID:26623434

  14. Characterization of bioactive compounds of Annona cherimola L. leaves using a combined approach based on HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS and NMR.

    PubMed

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Aguilera-Saez, Luis Manuel; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Fernández, Ignacio; Arráez-Román, David

    2018-06-01

    Annona cherimola Mill. (cherimoya) has widely been used as food crop. The leaves of this tree possess several health benefits, which are, in general, attributed mainly to its bioactive composition. However, literature concerning a comprehensive characterization based on a combined approach, which consists of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS), from these leaves is scarce. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the polar profile of full extracts of cherimoya leaves by using these tools. Thus, a total of 77 compounds have been characterized, 12 of which were identified by both techniques. Briefly, 23 compounds were classified as amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, cholines, phenolic acid derivatives, and flavonoids by NMR, while 66 metabolites were divided into sugars, amino acids, phenolic acids and derivatives, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, and other polar compounds by HPLC-TOF-MS. It is worth mentioning that different solvent mixtures were tested and the total phenolic content in the extracts quantified (TPC via HPLC-TOF-MS). The tendency observed was EtOH/water 80/20 (v/v) (17.0 ± 0.2 mg TPC/g leaf dry weight (d.w.)) ≥ acetone/water 70/30 (v/v) (16.1 ± 0.7 mg TPC/g leaf d.w.) > EtOH/water 70/30 (v/v) (14.0 ± 0.3 mg TPC/g leaf d.w.) > acetone/water 80/20 (v/v) (13.5 ± 0.4 mg TPC/g leaf d.w.). Importantly, flavonoids derivatives were between 63 and 76% of the TPC in those extracts. Major compounds were sucrose, glucose (α and β), and proline, and chlorogenic acid and rutin for NMR and HPLC-TOF-MS, respectively. Graphical abstract The combined use of LC-HRMS and NMR is a potential synergic combination for a comprehensive metabolite composition of cherimoya leaves.

  15. A steep cline in Pinus muricata

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1983-01-01

    Clines, including hybrid zones, have long been studied empirically and theoretically, especially for the opportunity they present to study evolutionary forces (Sumner, 1929; Haldane, 1948; Barber and Jackson, 195 7). Recent theoretical studies have emphasized that clines may be important in speciation (summarized in Endler, 1977). This emphasis has motivated...

  16. Effect of medicinal plants extracts on the incidence of mosaic disease caused by cucumber mosaic virus and growth of chili

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidson, H.; Damiri, N.; Angraini, E.

    2018-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of the application of several extracts of medicinal plants on the incidence of mosaic disease caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus infection on the chili (Capsicum annuum L.) plantation. A Randomized Block Design with eight treatments including control was used throughout the experiment. Treatments consisted of Azadiracta indica (A), Piper bitle (B), Cymbopogon citrates (C), Curcuma domestica (D), Averroa bilimbi (E), Datura stramonium (F), Annona Muricata (G) and control (H). Each treatment consist of three replications. The parameters observed were the incidence of mosaic attack due to CMV, disease severity, plant height, wet and dry weight and production (number of fruits and the weight of total fruits) each plant. Results showed that the application of medicinal plant extracts reduced the disease severity due to CMV. Extracts of Annona muricata and Datura stramonium were most effective in suppressing disease severity caused by the virus as they significantly different from control and from a number of treatment. The plants medicinal extracts were found to have increased the plant height and total weight of the plant, fruit amount and fruit weight. Extracts of Curcuma domestica, Piper bitle and Cymbopogon citrates were the third highest in fruit amount and weight and significantly different from the control.

  17. Antitumor and antiviral activity of Colombian medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Galvis, L; Saez, J; Granados, H; Salazar, A; Ossa, J

    1999-01-01

    Extracts of nine species of plants traditionally used in Colombia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential antitumor (cytotoxicity) and antiherpetic activity. MTT (Tetrazolium blue) and Neutral Red colorimetric assays were used to evaluate the reduction of viability of cell cultures in presence and absence of the extracts. MTT was also used to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) and the 50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect (EC50) for each extract were calculated by linear regression analysis. Extracts from Annona muricata, A. cherimolia and Rollinia membranacea, known for their cytotoxicity were used as positive controls. Likewise, acyclovir and heparin were used as positive controls of antiherpetic activity. Methanolic extract from Annona sp. on HEp-2 cells presented a CC50 value at 72 hr of 49.6x10(3)mg/ml. Neither of the other extracts examined showed a significant cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract from Beta vulgaris, the ethanol extract from Callisia grasilis and the methanol extract Annona sp. showed some antiherpetic activity with acceptable therapeutic indexes (the ratio of CC50 to EC50). These species are good candidates for further activity-monitored fractionation to identify active principles.

  18. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  19. Estimation of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, D R; Singh, Shrawan; Salim, K M; Srivastava, R C

    2012-06-01

    The present study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in 10 underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands (India) namely Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera andamanica L., Morinda citrifolia L., Syzygium aqueum (Burm.f) Alst., Annona squamosa L., Averrhoa carambola L., Averrhoa bilimbi L., Dillenia indica L., Annona muricata L. and Ficus racemosa L. The antioxidant activity varied from 74.27% to 98.77%, and the methanol extract of M. glabra showed the highest antioxidant activity (98.77%; inhibitory concentration, IC(50) = 262.46 μg/ml). Methanol was found to be a better solvent than acetone and aqueous for estimating the antioxidant activity. M. glabra was found to be rich in phytochemicals viz. polyphenol (355.74 mg/100 g), anthocyanin (91.31 mg/100 g), carotenoids (109.16 mg/100 g), tannin (24.39 mg/100 g) and ascorbic acid (394.23 mg/100 g). Carbohydrate content was estimated to be highest in M. glabra (548 mg/100 g). Phenols, tannins, anthocyanins and carotenoids contents showed positive correlation (r² = 0.846, r² = 0.864, r² = 0.915 and r² = 0.806, respectively) with antioxidant activity. The information generated in present study will be useful for bioprospecting of underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands.

  20. Profiling of lipophilic and phenolic phytochemicals of four cultivars from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.).

    PubMed

    Santos, Sónia A O; Vilela, Carla; Camacho, João F; Cordeiro, Nereida; Gouveia, Manuela; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2016-11-15

    The lipophilic and phenolic extractives of the ripe mesocarp of four cherimoya cultivars ('Perry Vidal', 'Mateus I', 'Mateus III' and 'Funchal') from Madeira Island, were studied for the first time. The predominant lipophilic compounds are kaurene diterpenes (42.2-59.6%), fatty acids (18.0-35.6%) and sterols (9.6-23.7%). Kaur-16-en-19-oic acid is the major lipophilic component of all cultivars accounting between 554 and 1350mgkg(-1) of dry material. The studied fruits also contain a high variety of flavan-3-ols, including galloylated and non-galloylated compounds. Five phenolic compounds were identified for the first time: catechin, (epi)catechin-(epi)gallocatechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)afzelechin-(epi)catechin and procyanidin tetramer. 'Mateus I' and 'Mateus III' cultivars present the highest content of phenolic compounds (6299 and 9603mgkg(-1) of dry weight, respectively). These results support the use of this fruit as a rich source of health-promoting components, with the capacity to prevent or delay the progress of oxidative-stress related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cura Annonae-Chemically Boosting Crop Yields Through Metabolic Feeding of a Plant Signaling Precursor.

    PubMed

    Vocadlo, David J

    2017-05-22

    The cream of the crop: With the world facing a projected shortfall of crops by 2050, new approaches are needed to boost crop yields. Metabolic feeding of plants with photocaged trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) can increase levels of the signaling metabolite Tre6P in the plant. Reprogramming of cellular metabolism by Tre6P stimulates a program of plant growth and enhanced crop yields, while boosting starch content. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Toxicology of a Peruvian botanical remedy to support healthy liver function.

    PubMed

    Semple, Hugh A; Sloley, B Duff; Cabanillas, José; Chiu, Andrea; Aung, Steven K H; Green, Francis H Y

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the safety of a botanical treatment for supporting healthy liver function developed in Peru. The formulation, A4+, contains extracts of Curcuma longa L. rhizome (A4R), Cordia lutea Lam. flower (A4F) and Annona muricata L. leaf (A4L). The tests were used to support an application for a non-traditional Natural Health Product Licence from the Natural Health Product Directorate of Health Canada and future clinical trials. Besides reviewing the scientific and clinical information from Peru on the ingredients and conducting an initial Ames test for mutagenicity, we analysed A4+ for its chemical profile and tested genotoxicity (micronucleus test) and general toxicity (28-day repeated dose). A4+ and extracts from the three plants provided distinctive chemical fingerprints. A4L contained acetogenins, requiring a second chromatographic method to produce a specific fingerprint. The Ames test proved positive at the highest concentration (5,000 μg/mL) but A4+ showed no evidence of genotoxicity in the more specific mouse micronucleus test. The 28-day repeated dose (general toxicity) study in rats showed no toxicity at 2,000 mg/kg. We conclude that under the conditions of these studies, A4+ shows no evidence of toxicity at the levels indicated. A no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 2,000 mg/kg was assigned.

  3. Reliance on medicinal plant therapy among cancer patients in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kimberley; Younger, Novie; Aiken, William; Brady-West, Doreen; Delgoda, Rupika

    2017-11-01

    Patients' perspective of their treatment regime plays a vital role in its success. Recognizing the high prevalence of medicinal plant usage among Jamaicans at large, we investigated the engagement of such remedies by cancer patients, with the aim of uncovering self-medicating habits, perceptions and details of utilized plants. A structured, interviewer-based questionnaire was administered to 100 patients attending the oncology and urology clinics at the University Hospital of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica. A method of convenience sampling was employed and the data were analyzed using summary statistics and statistical significance tests. A large proportion (n = 80, 80%) of interviewed patients, engaged medicinal plants in their treatment regimes. Such habits were independent of person's education, economic status and were higher among the 55-74 age groups (p < 0.05) compared with younger patients. The use of herbs was hinged on the patient's strong sense of tradition and positive perspective of herbal efficacy (88%), fueled by anecdotal accounts from fellow patients. Majority of such users (74.7%) were under concomitant treatment with a prescription medicine, and worryingly, only 15% of patients made their oncologists aware. Annona muricata L. and Petiveria alliacea L. were the most commonly used plants for treating breast and prostate cancers, respectively. A large proportion of Jamaican cancer patients use medicinal plants in self-medicating practices and their perceptions and habits need to be considered by physicians, in the design of safe and effective care regimes.

  4. Analysis of the polyphenols content in medicinal plants based on the reduction of Cu(II)/bicinchoninic complexes.

    PubMed

    Marino, Daniele Cestari; Sabino, Larissa Zuppardo Lacerda; Armando, José; Ruggiero, Andrea De Andrade; Moya, Horacio Dorigan

    2009-12-09

    A spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of the polyphenols content in aqueous extracts of plants. The method is based on the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by polyphenols, in the presence of bicinchoninic acid in a buffered medium (ammonium acetate, pH 7.0) with the formation of Cu(I)/BCA complexes. A calibration curve of absorbance (at 558 nm) vs tannic acid concentration is linear (r = 0.995; n = 7) with tannic acid from 0.1 to 0.7 micromol L(-1). The limit of detection and relative standard deviation were 40 nmol L(-1) (99% confidence level) and 3.8% (0.4 micromol L(-1) tannic acid, n = 7), respectively. For the aqueous extracts of Hamamelis virginiana L., Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek, Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam, Annona muricata L., Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.) O. Berg., Caesearia sylvestris Sw., Schinus terebinthifolia (Raddi), and Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville, the total polyphenol contents, expressed as tannic acid, were 3.5, 1.3, 2.0, 3.1, 15.4, 3.1, 9.1, and 6.9%, respectively.

  5. Graviola: A Novel Promising Natural-Derived Drug That Inhibits Tumorigenicity and Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo Through Altering Cell Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Torres, María P.; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Purohit, Vinee; Pandey, Poomy; Joshi, Suhasini; Moore, Erik D.; Johansson, Sonny L.; Singh, Pankaj K.; Ganti, Apar K.; Batra, Surinder K.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors are resistant to conventional chemotherapies. The present study was aimed at evaluating the potential of a novel plant-derived product as a therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer (PC). The effects of an extract from the tropical tree Annona Muricata, commonly known as Graviola, was evaluated for cytotoxicity, cell metabolism, cancer-associated protein/gene expression, tumorigenicity, and metastatic properties of PC cells. Our experiments revealed that Graviola induced necrosis of PC cells by inhibiting cellular metabolism. The expression of molecules related to hypoxia and glycolysis in PC cells (i.e. HIF-1α, NF-κB, GLUT1, GLUT4, HKII, and LDHA) were downregulated in the presence of the extract. In vitro functional assays further confirmed the inhibition of tumorigenic properties of PC cells. Overall, the compounds that are naturally present in a Graviola extract inhibited multiple signaling pathways that regulate metabolism, cell cycle, survival, and metastatic properties in PC cells. Collectively, alterations in these parameters led to a decrease in tumorigenicity and metastasis of orthotopically implanted pancreatic tumors, indicating promising characteristics of the natural product against this lethal disease. PMID:22475682

  6. An appraisal of eighteen commonly consumed edible plants as functional food based on their antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yian Hoon; Choo, Candy; Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2015-11-01

    Eighteen edible plants were assessed for their antioxidant potential based on oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total phenolics, vitamin C content and various lipophilic antioxidants. The inhibitory activities of the plant extracts against the enzymatic activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase were also evaluated. The antioxidant and starch hydrolase activities of the plants varied widely across a single batch of analysis. The ORAC and DPPH radical scavenging EC50 values varied between 298 and 1984 Trolox equivalents g(-1) fresh weight and between 91 and 533 mg kg(-1) fresh weight, respectively. The total phenolics and vitamin C contents varied between 32 and 125 mg gallic acid equivalents g(-1) fresh weight and between 96 and 285 µg g(-1) fresh weight, respectively. All the plants contained neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and α- and β-carotene in varying amounts. Coccinia grandis, Asparagus racemosus, Costus speciosus, Amaranthus viridis and Annona muricata displayed the highest inhibitory activities against starch hydrolases. They were the most efficient against the breakdown of seven starches exposed to the two enzymes as well. Overall, the edible plants were observed to display a high antioxidant potential with starch hydrolase inhibitory properties, which were beneficial in their being recognized as functional food. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P < 0.01) correlation with total phenolic compounds (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively), total flavonoids (r = 0.63 and 0.81, respectively), and total monomeric anthocyanins (r = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). PCA explained 74.82% of total variance of data, and the separation into 3 groups in a scatter plot was verified. Three clusters also suggested by HCA, corroborated with PCA, in which cluster 3 was formed by strawberry, red fruits, blackberry, açaí, and grape pulps. This cluster showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in the management of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the Central Region of Togo.

    PubMed

    Karou, Simplice Damintoti; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Djikpo Tchibozo, Micheline Agassounon; Abdoul-Rahaman, Saliou; Anani, Kokou; Koudouvo, Koffi; Batawila, Komlan; Agbonon, Amegnona; Simpore, Jacques; de Souza, Comlan

    2011-12-01

    The Tem tribe in the Central Region of Togo is a population with an extensive knowledge of medicinal plants. However, little is known about their medical practices, principally the use of plants in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN). The present study documented the indigenous medicinal plant utilization for the management of DM and HTN in the Togo Central Region. From March to October 2010, 55 traditional healers were interviewed about their knowledge on the use of plants for DM and HTN treatment. The results revealed that 35/55 (63.64%) healers had treated at least one case of DM and/or HTN. They highlighted the use of 64 species belonging to 31 families in the treatment of DM and/or HTN. The most used plants against diabetes were Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Khaya senegalensis A. Juss. (Meliaceae), Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A. Bruce (Rubiaceae), Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Phyllanthaceae), and Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen. (Polygalacae), while Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae) and Parkia biglobosa Benth. (Fabaceae), followed by Khaya senegalensis A. Juss. (Meliaceae), Gardenia ternifolia Schumach. (Rubiaceae), and Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) were the most commonly cited as antihypertensive. The issue revealed that traditional healers of the above mentioned region have basic knowledge regarding herbal medicine for DM and HTN in comparison with previous published reports. Further pharmacological screening of the identified plants should be conducted to ascertain the effectiveness of these plants.

  9. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-10-13

    This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996-2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but

  10. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a

  11. Antioxidant activities of some local bangladeshi fruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Annona squamosa, Terminalia bellirica, Syzygium samarangense, Averrhoa carambola and Olea europa).

    PubMed

    Soubir, Titov

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, antioxidant activities of the fruits of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. carambola and O. europa were investigated. For this, at first matured fruits of them were sliced into small pieces and dried in the sun and finally crushed in a grinder to make powder. Ethanolic extracts of fruit powder were prepared using 99.99% ethanol. The antioxidative activities of these extracts were determined according to their abilities of scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. It was demonstrated that all the ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. caranbola and O. europa showed antioxidant activities. The IC50 of the ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. carambola and O. europa were 410, 250, 34, 200, 30 and 76 microg/mL, respectively. Among them, A. carambola showed the highest antioxidant activities followed by T. bellirica, O. europa, S. samarangense, A. squamosa and A. heterophyllus indicating that fruits of A. carambola, T. bellirica and O. europa are very beneficial to human health.

  12. Antiproliferative activity, antioxidant capacity and tannin content in plants of semi-arid northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes de Melo, Joabe; de Sousa Araújo, Thiago Antônio; Thijan Nobre de Almeida e Castro, Valérium; Lyra de Vasconcelos Cabral, Daniela; do Desterro Rodrigues, Maria; Carneiro do Nascimento, Silene; Cavalcanti de Amorim, Elba Lúcia; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2010-11-24

    The objective of this study was to evaluate antiproliferative activity, antioxidant capacity and tannin content in plants from semi-arid northeastern Brazil (Caatinga). For this study, we selected 14 species and we assayed the methanol extracts for antiproliferative activity against the HEp-2 (laryngeal cancer) and NCI-H292 (lung cancer) cell lines using the (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazole) (MTT) method. In addition, the antioxidant activity was evaluated with the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the tannin content was determined by the radial diffusion method. Plants with better antioxidant activity (expressed in a dose able to decrease the initial DPPH concentration by 50%, or IC50) and with higher levels of tannins were: Poincianella pyramidalis (42.95±1.77 µg/mL IC50 and 8.17±0.64 tannin content), Jatropha mollissima (54.09±4.36µg/mL IC50 and 2.35±0.08 tannin content) and Anadenanthera colubrina (73.24±1.47 µg/mL IC50 and 4.41±0.47 tannin content). Plants with enhanced antiproliferative activity (% living cells) were Annona muricata (24.94±0.74 in NCI-H292), Lantana camara (25.8±0.19 in NCI-H292), Handroanthus impetiginosus (41.8±0.47 in NCI-H292) and Mentzelia aspera (45.61±1.94 in HEp-2). For species with better antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, we suggest future in vitro and in vivo comparative studies with other pharmacological models, and to start a process of purification and identification of the possible molecule(s) responsible for the observed pharmacological activity. We believe that the flora of Brazilian semi-arid areas can be a valuable source of plants rich in tannins, cytotoxic compounds and antioxidant agents.

  13. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Estefânia F.; Luciano, Winnie A.; Xavier, Danilo E.; da Costa, Whyara C. A.; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L.; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A.; Lucena, Brígida T. L.; Picão, Renata C.; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains. PMID:27625647

  14. A systematic review of medicinal plants used for weight loss in Brazil: Is there potential for obesity treatment?

    PubMed

    Cercato, Luana M; White, Pollyanna A S; Nampo, Fernando K; Santos, Márcio R V; Camargo, Enilton A

    2015-12-24

    Obesity is a pandemic disease and its prevalence is still increasing. Moreover, it has important costs to public health. In Brazil, many plants are used for weight loss by overweight or obese people, but there is a lack of scientific basis for this practice. Many ethnobotanical studies aiming to characterize this usage have been published, but they are still limited by the region considered and the diversity of the popular knowledge. The present study was undertaken to systematically review the ethnobotanical surveys regarding the species utilized to reduce body weight in overweight or obese people in Brazil. Ethnobotanical surveys related to this usage and performed in Brazilian regions were systematically found in MEDLINE, LILACS and Scopus. Thirty-three studies were included in this review. Fifty species were popularly utilized to lose weight. The most cited species were Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC, Annona muricata L. and Hancornia speciosa Gomes. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. were also cited and are supported by either animal or human investigations that indicate some beneficial activity against obesity. However, for the majority of species cited in the included studies, there is no scientific basis that assures the biological effects of this usage. Many studies have demonstrated important effects of these plants on glycemia, serum lipid levels or body weight control in non-obese conditions, which is not sufficient to recommend the use of these plants to reduce body weight in overweight or obese people. Although many plants are popularly used to reduce weight in overweight or obese people in Brazil, there is little scientific evidence corroborating its usage. Based on the ethnobotanical data presented, this review indicates the plants that should be considered for scientifically controlled studies devoted to investigating their effects on obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro antifungal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of the seeds of Annona cornifolia A.St.-Hil. (Annonaceae) against pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues dos Santos; Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva; Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos; Boaventura, Maria Amélia Diamantino

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids are abundant in vegetable oils. They are known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following CLSI (formerly the NCCLS) guidelines against 16 fungal strains of clinical interest. In this work, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was able to inhibit 12 clinical strains of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and were also active in the bioautographic assay against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. FAME was a more potent antifungal than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against P. brasiliensis under the experimental conditions tested.

  16. In Situ Histochemical Localisation of Alkaloids and Acetogenins in the Endosperm and Embryonic Axis of Annona Macroprophyllata Donn. Sm. Seeds During Germination

    PubMed Central

    Brechú-Franco, A.E.; Laguna-Hernández, G.; De la Cruz-Chacón, I.; González-Esquinca, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the Annonaceae family is characterised by the production of acetogenins (ACGs), and also by the biosynthesis of alkaloids, primarily benzylisoquinolines derived from tyrosine. The objective of this study was to confirm the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins in the idioblasts of the endosperm and the embryonic axis of A. macroprophyllata seeds in germination. The Dragendorff, Dittmar, Ellram, and Lugol reagents were used to test for alkaloids, and Kedde’s reagent was used to determine the presence of acetogenins in fresh sections of the endosperm and embryonic axis of seeds after twelve days of germination. A positive reaction was observed for all the reagents, and the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins was confirmed in the idioblasts of the endosperm and those involved in the differentiation of the embryonic axis of the developing seedling. We concluded that the idioblasts store both metabolites, acetogenins and alkaloids. Beginning at differentiation, the idioblasts of the embryonic axis simultaneously biosynthesise acetogenins and alkaloids that are characteristic of the species during the development of the seedling. The method used here can be applied to histochemically confirm the presence of acetogenins and alkaloids in tissues and structures of the plant in different stages of its life cycle. PMID:26972713

  17. Annonacin Exerts Antitumor Activity through Induction of Apoptosis and Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Chee Voon; Subramaniam, Kavita S.; Khor, Sik Wey; Chung, Ivy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Annonacin, a natural pure compound extracted from the seeds of Annona muricata, is a potential alternative therapeutic agent to treat EC. Objective: To study the antitumor activity of annonacin and its mechanism of action in EC cells (ECCs). Materials and Methods: Viability of ECCs treated with annonacin for 72 h was determined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death was evaluated using propidium iodide and annexin V-PE/7-AAD assay, respectively. DNA strand breaks were visualized using transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, and the effects of annonacin on survival signaling were determined using western blotting. Results: Annonacin exhibited antiproliferative effects on EC cell lines (ECC-1 and HEC-1A) and primary cells (EC6-ept and EC14-ept) with EC50values ranging from 4.62 to 4.92 μg/ml. EC cells were shown arrested at G2/M phase after treated with 4 μg/ml of annonacin for 72 h. This led to a significant increase in apoptotic cell death (65.7%) in these cells when compared to vehicle-treated cells (P < 0.005). We further showed that annonacin-mediated apoptotic cell death was associated with an increase in caspase-3 cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Cell apoptosis was accompanied with downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase survival protein expression and induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest. Conclusion: Annonacin may be a potential novel therapeutic agent for EC patients. SUMMARY We aimed to study the antitumor activity of annonacin and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer cells. Annonacin exerted antiproliferation effects on both endometrial cancer cell lines and primary cells via induction of apoptosis and inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Our data represented that annonacin could be an alternative therapeutic treatment to combat endometrial cancer

  18. Determination of free, esterified, glycosylated and insoluble-bound phenolics composition in the edible part of araticum fruit (Annona crassiflora Mart.) and its by-products by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Henrique Silvano; Pereira, Gustavo Araujo; de Morais, Damila Rodrigues; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Pastore, Glaucia Maria

    2018-04-15

    Phenolics present in the free, esterified, glycosylated and insoluble-bound forms of araticum pulp, peel and seed were for the first time characterized and quantified using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Levels of total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and antioxidant activities from araticum fruit followed the order peel > pulp > seed. Overall, insoluble-bound and esterified phenolics were the dominant forms of phenolics from araticum fruit parts and the highest contributors to their antioxidant activities. Extracts were found to contain contrasting levels of phenolics that were specific to each fruit part. From 10 phenolics quantified in araticum fruit, catechin and epicatechin were the major ones from pulp and peel, whereas seed displayed caffeic acid, catechin and epicatechin as its main phenolics. Araticum fruit was found to provide a good source of phenolics, and the full exploitation of this fruit may find applications in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  20. Nickel and ocean warming affect scleractinian coral growth.

    PubMed

    Biscéré, T; Lorrain, A; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R; Gilbert, A; Wright, A; Devissi, C; Peignon, C; Farman, R; Duvieilbourg, E; Payri, C; Houlbrèque, F

    2017-07-15

    The sensitivity of corals and their Symbiodinium to warming has been extensively documented; however very few studies considered that anthropogenic inputs such as metal pollution have already an impact on many fringing reefs. Thus, today, nickel releases are common in coastal ecosystems. In this study, two major reef-building species Acropora muricata and Pocillopora damicornis were exposed in situ to ambient and moderate nickel concentrations on a short-term period (1h) using benthic chamber experiments. Simultaneously, we tested in laboratory conditions the combined effects of a chronic exposure (8weeks) to moderate nickel concentrations and ocean warming on A. muricata. The in situ experiment highlighted that nickel enrichment, at ambient temperature, stimulated by 27 to 47% the calcification rates of both species but not their photosynthetic performances. In contrast, an exposure to higher nickel concentration, in combination with elevated temperature simulated in aquaria, severely depressed by 30% the growth of A. muricata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 CFR 180.515 - Carfentrazone-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., green 0.10 Corn, field, forage 0.20 Corn, sweet, forage 0.20 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk... Shellfish 0.30 Sorghum, forage 0.20 Sorghum, grain 0.25 Sorghum, sweet 0.10 Soursop 0.10 Soybean, seed 0.10 Spanish lime 0.10 Star apple 0.10 Starfruit 0.10 Stevia 0.10 Strawberry 0.10 Strawberrypear 0.10 Sugar...

  2. Root colonization dynamics of two ectomycorrhizal fungi of contrasting life history strategies are mediated by

    Treesearch

    Erik A. Lilleskov; Thomas D. Bruns

    2003-01-01

    -Here we investigated whether root colonization dynamics of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) of contrasting life history strategies (i.e. early vs late successional dominants) were affected by resource availability, as mediated either directly via the soil, or indirectly via host nutrition. -In a two phase experiment, Pinusm muricata seedlings were co-...

  3. Allozyme variation of bishop pine associated with pygmy forest soils in northern California

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1989-01-01

    Two races of bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) meet in a narrow contact zone near sea level along the Sonoma County coast, northern California. The races previously were identified by foliar ("blue" in north, "green" in south), monoterpene, and allozyme differences. Disjunct stands of blue bishop pine were observed at higher elevations along a...

  4. Allozyme differentiation and biosystematics of the Californian closed-cone pines (Pinus subsect. Oocarpae)

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar; Steven H. Strauss; M. Thompson Conkle; Robert D. Westfall

    1988-01-01

    Allozyme differentiation at 32 loci was studied in the three Californian species of Pinus subsect. Oocarpae: P. attenuata, P. muricata, and P. radiata, and in a small sample of a Latin American species of the subsection, P. oocarpa. The Californian species...

  5. The California closed cone pines (subsection Oocarpae Little and Critchfield): A taxonomic history and review

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1986-01-01

    Of the seven pines that compose subsection Oocarpae (Little and Critchfield) in the genus Pinus, only the three Californian species form a coherent group, while the other four differ from each other and from the Californian species. Traits of the Californian species (Pinus radiata, P. muricata...

  6. Suillus quiescens, a new species commonly found in the spore bank in California and Oregon

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Bruns; Lisa C. Grubisha; James M. Trappe; Jennifer F. Kerekes; Else C. Vellinga

    2010-01-01

    Suillus quiescens sp. nov. is common under Pinus muricata on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa Islands in the northern Channel Islands of California, and we subsequently found it fruiting at Point Reyes National Seashore on the central coast of California. Sequences from the internal transcribed spacer region show that it is distinct...

  7. [Survival of Trypanosoma cruzi in experimentally contaminated drinks].

    PubMed

    Suárez, Diana Carolina; Rey, Ángela Patricia; Orduz, Magda Lorena; Prada, Renzo Leonardo; Tarazona, Zorayda

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, transmitted primarily by triatomine insects. However, in 2005, oral transmission was documented in countries where the disease is endemic for Chagas disease. This trend may also occur in Colombia, a situation that motivated epidemiological alerts and the necessity for exploring the risk level of oral, human-to-human infection by T. cruzi. Survival times were established for the T. cruzi strain DS using juices involved in the outbreak of Lebrija County (Cesar, Colombia) in 2008. Survival of the T. cruzi strain was evaluated as defined by vitality (forward movement) and viability (growth in isolation medium Novy, McNeal and Nicolle/liver infusion tryptose). This strain was molecularly characterized as TCLA, isolated from a patient associated with an outbreak in Aguachica County (Santander, very near Lebrija). Its survival was tested in tangerine juice, guava, soursop (guanábana), water and sugar water. The T. cruzi strain DS remained vital in mandarin at room temperature for 72 hr, at refrigerated temperatures for 36 hr;, the soursop (guanábana) for 48 hr at room temperature and 384 hr under refrigeration; and guava at both temperatures 24 hr. This strain was viable 2 and 24 hours post-infection in each of the other juices at the two temperature conditions. The DS T. cruzi strain survived in all drinks for more than 24 hours post-infection, with a survival time of 384 hr in the juice of soursop (guanábana) under refrigeration.

  8. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), ...

  9. Yield and Fruit Quality Traits of Atemoya Cultivars Grown in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The demand for tropical fruits has increased more than 33% during the last decade as consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) cultivars. Six a...

  10. Yield and fruit quality traits of atemoya hybrids grown in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products the demand for tropical fruits has increased significantly during the past 15 years. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) hybrids. Six a...

  11. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) in Puerto Rico: A synergetic approach using multiple nitidulid lures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Atemoya, a cross between Annona squamosa and A. cherimola (Annonaceae), has the potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major setback to production throughout the world is low fruit-set due to inadequate visits by pollinators, typically beetles in the family Nitidulid...

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis, and dengue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A biological method was used to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were tested as larvicides against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Annona squamosa leaf broth (5%) reduced aqueous AgNO3 to stable silver nanoparticles with average particle siz...

  13. Stability, antimicrobial activity, and effect of nisin on the physico-chemical properties of fruit juices.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Junior, Adelson Alves; de Araújo Couto, Hyrla Grazielle Silva; Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto Guitierrez; de Moura, Tatiana Rodrigues

    2015-10-15

    Heat processing is the most commonly used hurdle for inactivating microorganisms in fruit juices. However, this preservation method could interfere with the organoleptic characteristics of the product. Alternative methods have been proposed and bacteriocins such as nisin are potential candidates. However, the approval of bacteriocins as food additives is limited, especially in foods from vegetal origin. We aimed to verify the stability, the effect on physico-chemical properties, and the antimicrobial activity of nisin in different fruit juices. Nisin remained stable in fruit juices (cashew, soursop, peach, mango, passion fruit, orange, guava, and cupuassu) for at least 30 days at room or refrigerated temperature and did not cause any significant alterations in the physico-chemical characteristics of the juices. Besides, nisin favored the preservation of vitamin C content in juices. The antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in cashew, soursop, peach, and mango juices. Nisin caused a 4-log reduction in viable cells of A. acidoterrestris in soursop, peach, and mango juices after 8h of incubation, and no viable cells were detected in cashew juices. After 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, no viable cells were detected, independently of the juices. To S. aureus, at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, viable cells were only detected in mango juices, representing a 4-log decrease as compared with the control treatment. The number of viable cells of B. cereus at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin represented at least a 4-log decrease compared to the control treatment. When the antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against L. monocytogenes in cashew and soursop juices, no reduction in the viable cell number was observed compared to the control treatment after 24h of incubation. Viable cells were four and six times less than in the

  14. A Picture Guide to Trees of the Gamboa Area, Republic of Panama.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    THEIR LEAVES Plants that Lose Their Leaves In Wet Season In Dry Season Cordia aliodora (Laurel) Annona spraguei (Cherimoya) Ochroma pyramidale (Balsa...Zanthoxylum species. 77 Cordia aliodora Laurel Boraginaceae Leaves The leaves (13 by 6 cm) are simple, clustered in whorls, pointed at both ends, and...flowers (5mm) lk ri 6m Figure 41. Cordia aliodora. 79 Bursera simarouba Gumbo Limbo Burseraceae I Leaves The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound

  15. Biosorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+ in aqueous solutions using agricultural wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, Aileen D.; Doma, Bonifacio T.; Chao, Huan-Ping; Siang Leng, Lai

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to determine and compare the adsorptive capacity of Pb2+ and Cu2+ in simulated wastewater onto three agricultural wastes The adsorption capacities of Pb2+ onto the agricultural wastes can be arranged as Litchi chinensis (4.30 mg of sorbate per g of sorbent (mg g-1), 85.68% adsorption) > Bambusa vulgaris (3.83 mg g-1, 76.19% adsorption) > Annona squamosa (2.70 mg g-1, 53.66% adsorption) while the adsorption capacities of Cu2+ onto the same agricultural wastes can be arranged in the order: Bambusa vulgaris (3.86 mg g-1, 77.17% adsorption) > Annona squamosal (3.58 mg g-1, 71.58% adsorption) > Litchi chinensis (3.42 mg g-1, 68.32% adsorption). The biosorbents had relatively higher adsorptive capacities with Cu2+ as compared to that of Pb2+ except for Litchi chinensis. Although the results show lower adsorptive capacity as compared to a number of treated agricultural wastes showing 80% up to almost 100% adsorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+, the results show that Annona squamosa, Bamubusa vulgaris, and Litchi chinensis are potential biosorbents and promote sustainable treatment process.

  16. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life.more » The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references.« less

  17. Distinctive exotic flavor and aroma compounds of some exotic tropical fruits and berries: a review.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim A

    2012-01-01

    The characteristic flavor of exotic tropical fruits is one of their most attractive attributes to consumers. In this article, the enormous diversity of exotic fruit flavors is reviewed. Classifying some of the exotic fruits into two classes on the basis of whether esters or terpenes predominate in the aroma was also attempted. Indeed, as far as exotic tropical fruits are concerned, the majority of fruits have terpenes predominating in their aroma profile. Some of the fruits in this group are the Amazonian fruits such as pitanga, umbu-caja, camu-camu, garcinia, and bacuri. The ester group is made up of rambutan, durians, star fruit, snake fruit, acerola, tamarind, sapodilla, genipap, soursop, cashew, melon, jackfruit, and cupuacu respectively. Also, the role of sulphur-volatiles in some of the exotic fruits is detailed.

  18. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application.

  19. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  20. Evaluation of enzymes inhibition activities of medicinal plant from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bangou, Mindiédiba Jean; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Meda, Nâg-Tiero Roland; Coulibaly, Ahmed Yacouba; Compaoré, Moussa; Zeba, Boukaré; Millogo-Rasolodimby, Jeanne; Nacoulma, Odile Germaine

    2011-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate some enzymes inhibitory effects of 11 plant species belonging to 9 families from Burkina Faso. Methanolic extracts were used for their Glutathione-s-transferase (GST), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Carboxylesterase (CES) and Xanthine Oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities at final concentration of 100 microg mL(-1). The total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu, AlCl3 and ammonium citrate iron reagents, respectively. Among the 11 species tested, the best inhibitory percentages were found with Euphorbia hirta, Sclerocarya birrea and Scoparia dulcis (inhibition > 40%) followed by Annona senegalensis, Annona squamosa, Polygala arenaria and Ceratotheca sesamoides (inhibition > 25%). The best total phenolic and tannin contents were found with S. birrea with 56.10 mg GAE/100 mg extract and 47.75 mg TAE/100 mg extract, respectively. E hirta presented the higher total flavonoids (9.96 mg QE/100 mg extract). It's was found that Sclerocarya birrea has inhibited all enzymes at more than 30% and this activity is correlated to total tannins contents. Contrary to S. birrea, the enzymatic activities of E. hirta and S. dulcis are correlated to total flavonoids contents. Present findings suggest that the methanolic extracts of those plant species are potential inhibitors of GST, AChE, CES and XO and confirm their traditional uses in the treatment of mental disorders, gout, painful inflammations and cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of some plants used in Guinean traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Magassouba, F B; Diallo, A; Kouyaté, M; Mara, F; Mara, O; Bangoura, O; Camara, A; Traoré, S; Diallo, A K; Zaoro, M; Lamah, K; Diallo, S; Camara, G; Traoré, S; Kéita, A; Camara, M K; Barry, R; Kéita, S; Oularé, K; Barry, M S; Donzo, M; Camara, K; Toté, K; Berghe, D Vanden; Totté, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J; Baldé, A M

    2007-10-08

    A total of 418 healers have been interviewed in Guinea, a coastal country of West Africa, ranging between 7 degrees 30 and 12 degrees 30 of northern latitude and 8 degrees and 15 degrees of western longitude. Plant species used by the local inhabitants to treat infectious diseases were identified using ethnobotanical, ethnographic and taxonomic methods. During these investigations, 218 plants were registered, of which the following were the most frequently used: Erythrina senegalensis, Bridelia ferruginea, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Ximenia americana, Annona senegalensis, Cochlospermum tinctorium, Cochlospermum planchonii, Lantana camara, Costus afer, Psidium guajava, Terminalia glaucescens, Uapaca somon and Swartzia madagascariensis. Most plants, and especially the leaves, were essentially used as a decoction. In order to assess antibacterial activity, 190 recipes were prepared and biologically tested, among which six showed activity (minimal inhibitory concentration<125 microg/ml) against Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans, i.e., Entada africana, Chlorophora regia, Erythrina senegalensis, Harrisonia abyssinica, Uvaria tomentosa, and a mixture of six plants consisting of Swartzia madagascariensis, Isoberlinia doka, Annona senegalensis, Gardenia ternifolia, Terminalia glaucescens and Erythrina senegalensis.

  2. Thai plants with high antioxidant levels, free radical scavenging activity, anti-tyrosinase and anti-collagenase activity.

    PubMed

    Chatatikun, Moragot; Chiabchalard, Anchalee

    2017-11-09

    Ultraviolet radiation from sunlight induces overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in skin photoaging and hyperpigmentation disorders. Novel whitening and anti-wrinkle compounds from natural products have recently become of increasing interest. The purpose of this study was to find products that reduce ROS in 14 Thai plant extracts. To determine total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, anti-tyrosinase activity and anti-collagenase activity, we compared extracts of 14 Thai plants prepared using different solvents (petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethanol). Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. Total phenolic content of the 14 Thai plants extracts was found at the highest levels in ethanol followed by dichloromethane and petroleum ether extracts, respectively, while flavonoid content was normally found in the dichloromethane fraction. Scavenging activity ranged from 7 to 99% scavenging as assessed by DPPH and ABTS assays. The ethanol leaf extract of Ardisia elliptica Thunb. had the highest phenolic content, antioxidant activity and collagenase inhibition, while Cassia alata (L.) Roxb. extract had the richest flavonoid content. Interestingly, three plants extracts, which were the ethanolic fractions of Annona squamosa L., Ardisia elliptica Thunb. and Senna alata (L.) Roxb., had high antioxidant content and activity, and significantly inhibited both tyrosinase and collagenase. Our finding show that the ethanol fractions of Annona squamosa L., Ardisia elliptica Thunb. and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. show promise as potential ingredients for cosmetic products such as anti-wrinkle agents and skin whitening products.

  3. Temporal and taxonomic contrasts in coral growth at Davies Reef, central Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Kristen D.; Cantin, Neal E.; Heron, Scott F.; Lough, Janice M.; Pratchett, Morgan S.

    2018-06-01

    Demographic processes, such as growth, can have an important influence on the population and community structure of reef-building corals. Importantly, ongoing changes in environmental conditions (e.g. ocean warming) are expected to affect coral growth, contributing to changes in the structure of coral populations and communities. This study quantified contemporary growth rates (linear extension and calcification) for the staghorn coral, Acropora muricata, at Davies Reef, central Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Growth rates were measured at three different depths (5, 10, and 15 m) over 2 yr (2012-2014) assessing both seasonal and inter-annual variability. Results of this study were compared to equivalent measurements made in 1980-1982 at the same location. To assist in understanding inter-annual variability in coral growth, we also examined annual growth bands from massive Porites providing continuous growth and records of flooding history for Davies Reef over the period 1979-2012. Linear extension rates of A. muricata were substantially (11-62%) lower in 2012-2014 compared to 1980-1982, especially at 10 and 15 m depths. These declines in growth coincide with a + 0.14 °C change in annual mean temperature. For massive Porites, however, calcification rates were highly variable among years and there was no discernible long-term change in growth despite sustained increases in temperature of 0.064 °C per decade. Apparent differences in the growth rates of Acropora between 1980-1982 and 2012-2014 may reflect inter-annual variation in coral growth (as seen for massive Porites), though it is known branching Acropora is much more sensitive to changing environmental conditions than massive corals. There are persistent issues in assessing the sensitivities of branching corals to environmental change due to limited capacity for retrospective analyses of growth, but given their disproportionate contribution to habitat complexity and reef structure, it is critical to ascertain

  4. Vortex- and CO2 -gas-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of furanic compounds in concentrated juices and dried fruits.

    PubMed

    Abu-Bakar, Nur-Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2016-03-01

    A novel microextraction method based on vortex- and CO2 -assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the isolation of furanic compounds (5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde, 2-furaldehyde, 3-furaldehyde, 2-furoic and 3-furoic acids) was developed. Purging the sample with CO2 was applied after vortexing to enhance the phase separation and mass transfer of the analytes. The optimum extraction conditions were: extraction solvent (volume), propyl acetate (125 μL); sample pH, 2.4; vortexing time, 45 s; salt concentration, 25% w/v and purging time, 5 min. The analytes were separated using an ODS Hypersil C18 column (250×4.6 mm i.d, 5 μm) under gradient flow. The proposed method showed good linearities (r(2) >0.999), low detection limits (0.08-1.9 μg/L) and good recoveries (80.7-122%). The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of the furanic compounds in concentrated juice (mango, date, orange, pomegranate, roselle, mangosteen and soursop) and dried fruit (prune, date and apricot paste) samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Quantification of bioactive compounds in pulps and by-products of tropical fruits from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro da Silva, Larissa Morais; Teixeira de Figueiredo, Evania Altina; Silva Ricardo, Nagila Maria Pontes; Pinto Vieira, Icaro Gusmao; Wilane de Figueiredo, Raimundo; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen L

    2014-01-15

    This study aimed to quantify the levels of resveratrol, coumarin, and other bioactives in pulps and by-products of twelve tropical fruits from Brazil obtained during pulp production process. Pineapple, acerola, monbin, cashew apple, guava, soursop, papaya, mango, passion fruit, surinam cherry, sapodilla, and tamarind pulps were evaluated as well as their by-products (peel, pulp's leftovers, and seed). Total phenolic, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, β-carotene and lycopene levels were also determined. Resveratrol was identified in guava and surinam cherry by-products and coumarin in passion fruit, guava and surinam cherry by-products and mango pulp. These fruit pulp and by-products could be considered a new natural source of both compounds. Overall, fruit by-products presented higher (P<0.05) bioactive content than their respective fruit pulps. This study provides novel information about tropical fruits and their by-products bioactive composition, which is essential for the understanding of their nutraceutical potential and future application in the food industry. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Antibacterial Activity Symbiotic Fungi of Marine Sponge Axinella sp., Aspergillus Sydowii on Four Growth Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyaningsih, S.; Trianto, A.; Radjasa, OK; Wittriansyah, K.

    2018-02-01

    Many infectious diseases caused by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus which turned into a resistant pathogen. A symbiotic fungi of marine sponge Axinella sp., Aspergillus sydowii from the waters of Riung, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia showed antibacterial activity, cultured on the four media, MEB (ST), Noni Juice Media (MG), avocado leaves media (AL), and Soursop leaves media (SR). The symbiotic fungi was cultured for 14 days on each media. The largest weight of symbiotic fungi biomass on ST media 138,95gr and at least 99,12gr of AL media. Purification of bioactive compound is carried out using separatory funnel, and column chromatography. The highest rendemen of extracts on SR media was 3,67%, while the lowest in ST media was 1,22%. The bioactive test used diffusion agar method. Fungi extracts from four mediums have bioactivity against, E. coli and S. aureus. The biggest inhibition zone obtained from the extract of MG KN-15-3-1-3, with inhibition zone 10.71mm and 10.98mm against E. coli and S. aureus.

  7. Evaluation of African medicinal plants for their in vitro trypanocidal activity.

    PubMed

    Freiburghaus, F; Kaminsky, R; Nkunya, M H; Brun, R

    1996-12-01

    Petroleum ether, dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts from 24 plants, belonging to 19 families, which are reported in the literature as traditional remedies for sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis) were screened for in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, as well as fro cytotoxicity for a human fibroblast cell-line (WI-38). The trypanocidal activity of the natural compounds berberine and harmane, both documented as being trypanocidal, was also evaluated. Promising trypanocidal activity with IC50 values below 10 micrograms/ml was found in 32 extracts of 13 plant species. The most active extracts with IC50 below 1 microgram/ml were derived from Annona senegalensis, Bussea occidentalis and Physalis angulata. The plant extracts showed a modest selectivity index, in contrast to commercially available trypanocides which have a more distinct selective toxicity against trypanosomes.

  8. Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A M S; De Paula, J E; Degallier, N; Molez, J E; Espindola, L S

    2006-06-01

    One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extract from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 microg/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (>65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these Dugeutia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 microg/ml, respectively. Annona crassiflora and Cybistax antisyphilitica showed activity at 23.06 and 27.61 microg/ml. The larvicidal properties of these species are described for the first time, and may prove to be promising in active chemical compound isolation.

  9. Substrate preferences of epiphytic bromeliads: an experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotz, Gerhard; Vollrath, Birgit

    2002-05-01

    Based on the known vertical distributions of three epiphyte species we tested the hypothesis that observed interspecific differences are determined at a very early ontogenetic stage. We attached 1296 first-year seedlings of the three species Guzmania monostachya, Tillandsia fasciculata, and Vriesea sanguinolenta (Bromeliaceae) to substrates differing in orientation and relative position within the crown of the host tree, Annona glabra. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for differential mortality on different substrate types for any of the three species. Hence, differences in vertical distribution cannot be explained by interspecific differences in site-specific survival at this stage. This suggests that spatial distribution patterns are determined even earlier, probably resulting from species differences in seed dispersal or during germination.

  10. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  11. Responses of two scleractinian corals to cobalt pollution and ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Biscéré, Tom; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Lorrain, Anne; Chauvaud, Laurent; Thébault, Julien; Clavier, Jacques; Houlbrèque, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    The effects of ocean acidification alone or in combination with warming on coral metabolism have been extensively investigated, whereas none of these studies consider that most coral reefs near shore are already impacted by other natural anthropogenic inputs such as metal pollution. It is likely that projected ocean acidification levels will aggravate coral reef health. We first investigated how ocean acidification interacts with one near shore locally abundant metal on the physiology of two major reef-building corals: Stylophora pistillata and Acropora muricata. Two pH levels (pHT 8.02; pCO2 366 μatm and pHT 7.75; pCO2 1140 μatm) and two cobalt concentrations (natural, 0.03 μg L-1 and polluted, 0.2 μg L-1) were tested during five weeks in aquaria. We found that, for both species, cobalt input decreased significantly their growth rates by 28% while it stimulated their photosystem II, with higher values of rETRmax (relative Electron Transport Rate). Elevated pCO2 levels acted differently on the coral rETRmax values and did not affect their growth rates. No consistent interaction was found between pCO2 levels and cobalt concentrations. We also measured in situ the effect of higher cobalt concentrations (1.06 ± 0.16 μg L-1) on A. muricata using benthic chamber experiments. At this elevated concentration, cobalt decreased simultaneously coral growth and photosynthetic rates, indicating that the toxic threshold for this pollutant has been reached for both host cells and zooxanthellae. Our results from both aquaria and in situ experiments, suggest that these coral species are not particularly sensitive to high pCO2 conditions but they are to ecologically relevant cobalt concentrations. Our study reveals that some reefs may be yet subjected to deleterious pollution levels, and even if no interaction between pCO2 levels and cobalt concentration has been found, it is likely that coral metabolism will be weakened if they are subjected to additional threats such as

  12. Responses of Two Scleractinian Corals to Cobalt Pollution and Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Biscéré, Tom; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Lorrain, Anne; Chauvaud, Laurent; Thébault, Julien; Clavier, Jacques; Houlbrèque, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    The effects of ocean acidification alone or in combination with warming on coral metabolism have been extensively investigated, whereas none of these studies consider that most coral reefs near shore are already impacted by other natural anthropogenic inputs such as metal pollution. It is likely that projected ocean acidification levels will aggravate coral reef health. We first investigated how ocean acidification interacts with one near shore locally abundant metal on the physiology of two major reef-building corals: Stylophora pistillata and Acropora muricata. Two pH levels (pHT 8.02; pCO2 366 μatm and pHT 7.75; pCO2 1140 μatm) and two cobalt concentrations (natural, 0.03 μg L-1 and polluted, 0.2 μg L-1) were tested during five weeks in aquaria. We found that, for both species, cobalt input decreased significantly their growth rates by 28% while it stimulated their photosystem II, with higher values of rETRmax (relative Electron Transport Rate). Elevated pCO2 levels acted differently on the coral rETRmax values and did not affect their growth rates. No consistent interaction was found between pCO2 levels and cobalt concentrations. We also measured in situ the effect of higher cobalt concentrations (1.06 ± 0.16 μg L-1) on A. muricata using benthic chamber experiments. At this elevated concentration, cobalt decreased simultaneously coral growth and photosynthetic rates, indicating that the toxic threshold for this pollutant has been reached for both host cells and zooxanthellae. Our results from both aquaria and in situ experiments, suggest that these coral species are not particularly sensitive to high pCO2 conditions but they are to ecologically relevant cobalt concentrations. Our study reveals that some reefs may be yet subjected to deleterious pollution levels, and even if no interaction between pCO2 levels and cobalt concentration has been found, it is likely that coral metabolism will be weakened if they are subjected to additional threats such as

  13. Isolation and identification of biocellulose-producing bacterial strains from Malaysian acidic fruits.

    PubMed

    Voon, W W Y; Rukayadi, Y; Meor Hussin, A S

    2016-05-01

    Biocellulose (BC) is pure extracellular cellulose produced by several species of micro-organisms that has numerous applications in the food, biomedical and paper industries. However, the existing biocellulose-producing bacterial strain with high yield was limited. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the potential biocellulose-producing bacterial isolates from Malaysian acidic fruits. One hundred and ninety-three bacterial isolates were obtained from 19 local acidic fruits collected in Malaysia and screened for their ability to produce BC. A total of 15 potential bacterial isolates were then cultured in standard Hestrin-Schramm (HS) medium statically at 30°C for 2 weeks to determine the BC production. The most potent bacterial isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Three new and potent biocellulose-producing bacterial strains were isolated from soursop fruit and identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia WAUPM42, Pantoea vagans WAUPM45 and Beijerinckia fluminensis WAUPM53. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia WAUPM42 was the most potent biocellulose-producing bacterial strain that produced the highest amount of BC 0·58 g l(-1) in standard HS medium. Whereas, the isolates P. vagans WAUPM45 and B. fluminensis WAUPM53 showed 0·50 and 0·52 g l(-1) of BC production, respectively. Biocellulose (BC) is pure extracellular cellulose that is formed by many micro-organisms in the presence of carbon source and acidic condition. It can replace plant-based cellulose in multifarious applications due to its unique characteristics. In this study, three potential biocellulose-producing bacterial strains were obtained from Malaysian acidic fruits and identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia WAUPM42, Pantoea vagans WAUPM45 and Beijerinckia fluminensis WAUPM53. This study reports for the first time the new biocellulose-producing bacterial strains isolated from Malaysian acidic fruits. © 2016 The

  14. Kombucha fermentation test used for various types of herbal teas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novi Primiani, C.; Pujiati; Mumtahanah, Mahda; Ardhi, Waskitho

    2018-05-01

    Tea is a common drink in the community, the benefits of tea can be improved by processing fermented tea called kombucha. Kombucha is a refreshing drink made from tea water plus sugar, obtained through the fermentation process by acetic acid bacteria and fungi, is consumed for its health benefits. The common Kombucha starter is called SCOOBY (Simbyotic of Bacteri and Yeast). Kombucha research using herbal tea is very rarely done, it is necessary kombucha research using a variety of herbal teas to determine the quality of its inhibitory power against bacteria and its quality compared with kombucha berkomposisi tea Camelia sinensis in general. The purpose of this research was to know kombucha quality with ph parameter, thickness of nata, total acid and its inhibitory power to Escherchia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This research used Randomized Block Design (RAK) method using 1 tea type treatment, with 3 replications. The first type of green tea (P1), roselle tea (P2), mangosteen peel tea (P3), soursop leaf tea (P4), moringa leaf tea (P5) and yellow leaf tea (P6), so there are 18 treatment combinations. Based on statistical analysis, there was influence of tea type to kombucha quality. Treatments of P1 and P2 were found to have an optimum and significant effect for kombucha. the results in level of acidity [pH] on green tea (P1) was 3.05, nata thickness of 4.63 and total acid of 0.69. Acidity in roselle tea (P2) was 2.86, nata thickness of 3.83, and total acid of 0.71. While the lowest quality was found in the treatment of mangosteen peel (P3) tea with pH 2.57, nata thickness of 0.35, and total acid of 0.79.

  15. Differential thermal response within inshore vs. offshore congeneric scleractinian coral species in Palau.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoadley, K. D.; Lewis, A.; Wham, D.; Pettay, D. T.; Kemp, D.; Warner, M.; Lajeunesse, T.

    2016-02-01

    The rock island reef habitats of Palau are an ideal location to study climate change effects to reefs, as corals there are exposed to average temperature and pCO2 conditions well above levels experienced at offshore reef locations. We examined the response of 6 coral species, Acropora muricata, Goniastrea sp, Porities rus, Cyphastrea sp, Porites cylindrical and Pachyseris sp, from both rock island and offshore habitats to high temperature (32 Celsius) for 15 days. With the exception of P. rus and P. cylindrica which harbored Symbiodinium C15 at both locations, other rock island corals harbored the thermally tolerant species Symbiodinium trenchii, whereas offshore colonies harbored clade C symbionts. A total of 15 separate host and symbiont physiological variables were utilized to assess thermal acclimation/stress response within each host/symbiont combination. Differences in photophysiology, algal cell volume and biochemical composition were observed for Symbiodinium trenchii within different host species, reflecting the importance of the host organism in mitigating the symbiont response. Similarly, the host thermal response was also dependent on symbiont type, with greater reductions in symbiont density occurring within the offshore colonies. Overall, prior exposure to warmer temperatures, elevated nutrient and pCO2 conditions, along with association with more robust symbionts allowed rock island corals to exhibit greater thermal tolerance toward high temperature. Importantly, the results herein for Symbiodinium trenchii physiological plasticity and thermal mitigation provides useful insight into the potential of scleractinian corals to acclimatize under future climate change scenarios.

  16. Coral recovery in the central Maldives archipelago since the last major mass-bleaching, in 1998

    PubMed Central

    Pisapia, C.; Burn, D.; Yoosuf, R.; Najeeb, A.; Anderson, K. D.; Pratchett, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing frequency and severity of disturbances is causing global degradation of coral reef ecosystems. This study examined temporal changes in live coral cover and coral composition in the central Maldives from 1997 to 2016, encompassing two bleaching events, a tsunami, and an outbreak of Acanthaster planci. We also examined the contemporary size structure for five dominant coral taxa (tabular Acropora, Acropora muricata, Acropora humilis, Pocillopora spp, and massive Porites). Total coral cover increased throughout the study period, with marked increases following the 1998 mass-bleaching. The relative abundance of key genera has changed through time, where Acropora and Pocillopora (which are highly susceptible to bleaching) were under-represented following 1998 mass-bleaching but increased until outbreaks of A. planci in 2015. The contemporary size-structure for all coral taxa was dominated by larger colonies with peaked distributions suggesting that recent disturbances had a disproportionate impact on smaller colonies, or that recruitment is currently limited. This may suggest that coral resilience has been compromised by recent disturbances, and further bleaching (expected in 2016) could lead to highly protracted recovery times. We showed that Maldivian reefs recovered following the 1998 mass-bleaching event, but it took up to a decade, and ongoing disturbances may be eroding reef resilience. PMID:27694823

  17. Examining Influence of Fog and Stratus Clouds on Bishop Pine Water Budgets, Channel Islands, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, D. T.; Still, C. J.; Williams, A. P.

    2004-12-01

    We present the first results from a project whose goal is to advance our basic understanding of the role that fog and persistent stratus clouds play in ecological processes in the California Channel Islands. Our work is focused on a population of Bishop Pines (Pinus muricata) on Santa Cruz Island (SCI), the largest, most topographically complex and most biologically diverse island along the California coast. This is the southernmost population (except for an outlier stand near San Vicente, Baja California), and tree growth appears to be water-limited in such a marginal habitat. We hypothesize that persistent fog and low stratus clouds enhance the water balance of these trees via direct water inputs (fog drip and foliar absorption) and reduced solar heating. To assess these possible effects, we have established weather stations and fog and rain collectors throughout the largest Bishop pine stand on SCI. Initial analysis of weather data shows dramatic differences in solar loading over short distances. We present data on the isotopic content (oxygen-18 and hydrogen-2) of water samples collected from winter 2003 to summer 2004. The samples we collected include fogwater, rainfall, water vapor, soil water, leaf and xylem water, and stream water. We also collected and analyzed leaf biomass and soil organic matter samples at periodic intervals for carbon-13 content. These latter data are evaluated in light of extensive leaf-level ecophysiological data collected in the field and as part of a parallel greenhouse study.

  18. Coral recovery in the central Maldives archipelago since the last major mass-bleaching, in 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisapia, C.; Burn, D.; Yoosuf, R.; Najeeb, A.; Anderson, K. D.; Pratchett, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    Increasing frequency and severity of disturbances is causing global degradation of coral reef ecosystems. This study examined temporal changes in live coral cover and coral composition in the central Maldives from 1997 to 2016, encompassing two bleaching events, a tsunami, and an outbreak of Acanthaster planci. We also examined the contemporary size structure for five dominant coral taxa (tabular Acropora, Acropora muricata, Acropora humilis, Pocillopora spp, and massive Porites). Total coral cover increased throughout the study period, with marked increases following the 1998 mass-bleaching. The relative abundance of key genera has changed through time, where Acropora and Pocillopora (which are highly susceptible to bleaching) were under-represented following 1998 mass-bleaching but increased until outbreaks of A. planci in 2015. The contemporary size-structure for all coral taxa was dominated by larger colonies with peaked distributions suggesting that recent disturbances had a disproportionate impact on smaller colonies, or that recruitment is currently limited. This may suggest that coral resilience has been compromised by recent disturbances, and further bleaching (expected in 2016) could lead to highly protracted recovery times. We showed that Maldivian reefs recovered following the 1998 mass-bleaching event, but it took up to a decade, and ongoing disturbances may be eroding reef resilience.

  19. Coral recovery in the central Maldives archipelago since the last major mass-bleaching, in 1998.

    PubMed

    Pisapia, C; Burn, D; Yoosuf, R; Najeeb, A; Anderson, K D; Pratchett, M S

    2016-10-03

    Increasing frequency and severity of disturbances is causing global degradation of coral reef ecosystems. This study examined temporal changes in live coral cover and coral composition in the central Maldives from 1997 to 2016, encompassing two bleaching events, a tsunami, and an outbreak of Acanthaster planci. We also examined the contemporary size structure for five dominant coral taxa (tabular Acropora, Acropora muricata, Acropora humilis, Pocillopora spp, and massive Porites). Total coral cover increased throughout the study period, with marked increases following the 1998 mass-bleaching. The relative abundance of key genera has changed through time, where Acropora and Pocillopora (which are highly susceptible to bleaching) were under-represented following 1998 mass-bleaching but increased until outbreaks of A. planci in 2015. The contemporary size-structure for all coral taxa was dominated by larger colonies with peaked distributions suggesting that recent disturbances had a disproportionate impact on smaller colonies, or that recruitment is currently limited. This may suggest that coral resilience has been compromised by recent disturbances, and further bleaching (expected in 2016) could lead to highly protracted recovery times. We showed that Maldivian reefs recovered following the 1998 mass-bleaching event, but it took up to a decade, and ongoing disturbances may be eroding reef resilience.

  20. Feeding ecology of mallards wintering in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Krapu, G.L.; Crawford, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Food use by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering on the Platte River in south central Nebraska was determined from mid-December to early March 1978-80. Mallards foraged in river channels, irrigation drainage canals, and agricultural areas. Plant matter formed 97% of the diet (dry weight) and diets did not vary between sexes (P > 0.05). Waste corn was the principal food consumed and formed 46 and 62% of the diets of males and females, respectively. Milo, common duckweed (Lemna minor), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa muricata) composed most of the remaining plant matter ingested. Mallards fed intensively in riparian wetland habitat to obtain invertebrates, but few were consumed because of limited abundance. Dietary protein was lower than reported among mallards wintering in Louisiana. Field feeding occurred primarily in grazed corn stubble and cattle feedlots. The distances traveled to feed, and the duration and timing of feeding varied with snow cover and season phenology. Competition for food was markedly higher during the cold winter of 1979 when heavy snow cover was present.

  1. Biocontrol of fouling pests: Effect of diversity, identity and density of control agents.

    PubMed

    Atalah, Javier; Newcombe, Emma M; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2016-04-01

    Augmentative biocontrol, using native natural enemies, has been suggested as a promising tool to control marine biofouling pests on artificial structures. However, there are still important knowledge gaps to be addressed before biocontrol can be considered as a management tool. In a field experiment on floating marine structures we examined intra- and interspecific consumer interactions among biocontrol agents on different surface orientations. We tested the effect of identity, density and diversity of three invertebrates (the 11-arm seastar Coscinasterias muricata, the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus and the gastropod Cook's turban Cookia sulcata) to reduce established biofouling and to prevent fouling growth on defouled surfaces. High densities of biocontrol agents were not more effective at fouling control (cover and biomass) than low densities. Nor did multi-species treatments function more effectively than mono-specific ones. However, biocontrol agent identity was important, with the 11-arm seastar and Cook's turban being the most effective at fouling reduction and prevention, respectively. Surface orientation had a strong effect on the effectiveness of control agents, with the best results obtained on vertical compared to diagonal and underside surfaces. This study confirmed the potential of biocontrol as a management tool for marine pest, indicating that identity is more important than richness and density of control agents. It also highlighted the limitations of this approach on diagonal and underside surfaces, where control agents have limited retention ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Doors are closing on early development in corals facing climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Fontana, Silvia; Mezaki, Takuma; González, Laura Del Caño; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2014-07-01

    Marine invertebrates are particularly vulnerable to climatic anomalies in early life history stages because of the time spent in the water column. Studies have focused on the effect of seawater temperature on fertilization, development, and larval stages in corals; however, none of them show comparative results along an environmental gradient. In this study, we show that temperatures in the range of 15-33°C have strong effects on fertilization rates and embryonic stages of two coral species, Acropora muricata in the subtropical environment and Acropora hyacinthus in subtropical and temperate environments. Deformations after the first cleavage stages were observed at low (15°C) and high (33°C) temperatures. Development was delayed by 6-7 h in the slightly non-optimal temperature of 20°C. We found significant differences in fertilization rates and responses of embryos from different latitudes, with temperate corals being more sensitive to extremely hot temperatures and vice versa. We hypothesize that the coral development is restricted to a narrow temperature range and deviation outside this window could inhibit a species' continuance and ecological success. Thus, it would have significant negative effects on adult populations and communities, playing a role in future of coral reef survival.

  3. Allelopathic interactions between the brown algal genus Lobophora (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) and scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Christophe; Thomas, Olivier P.; Culioli, Gérald; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Houlbreque, Fanny; Gaubert, Julie; de Clerck, Olivier; Payri, Claude E.

    2016-01-01

    Allelopathy has been recently suggested as a mechanism by which macroalgae may outcompete corals in damaged reefs. Members of the brown algal genus Lobophora are commonly observed in close contact with scleractinian corals and have been considered responsible for negative effects of macroalgae to scleractinian corals. Recent field assays have suggested the potential role of chemical mediators in this interaction. We performed in situ bioassays testing the allelopathy of crude extracts and isolated compounds of several Lobophora species, naturally associated or not with corals, against four corals in New Caledonia. Our results showed that, regardless of their natural association with corals, organic extracts from species of the genus Lobophora are intrinsically capable of bleaching some coral species upon direct contact. Additionally, three new C21 polyunsaturated alcohols named lobophorenols A-C (1-3) were isolated and identified. Significant allelopathic effects against Acropora muricata were identified for these compounds. In situ observations in New Caledonia, however, indicated that while allelopathic interactions are likely to occur at the macroalgal-coral interface, Lobophora spp. rarely bleached their coral hosts. These findings are important toward our understanding of the importance of allelopathy versus other processes such as herbivory in the interaction between macroalgae and corals in reef ecosystems.

  4. Allelopathic interactions between the brown algal genus Lobophora (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) and scleractinian corals.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Christophe; Thomas, Olivier P; Culioli, Gérald; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Houlbreque, Fanny; Gaubert, Julie; De Clerck, Olivier; Payri, Claude E

    2016-01-05

    Allelopathy has been recently suggested as a mechanism by which macroalgae may outcompete corals in damaged reefs. Members of the brown algal genus Lobophora are commonly observed in close contact with scleractinian corals and have been considered responsible for negative effects of macroalgae to scleractinian corals. Recent field assays have suggested the potential role of chemical mediators in this interaction. We performed in situ bioassays testing the allelopathy of crude extracts and isolated compounds of several Lobophora species, naturally associated or not with corals, against four corals in New Caledonia. Our results showed that, regardless of their natural association with corals, organic extracts from species of the genus Lobophora are intrinsically capable of bleaching some coral species upon direct contact. Additionally, three new C21 polyunsaturated alcohols named lobophorenols A-C (1-3) were isolated and identified. Significant allelopathic effects against Acropora muricata were identified for these compounds. In situ observations in New Caledonia, however, indicated that while allelopathic interactions are likely to occur at the macroalgal-coral interface, Lobophora spp. rarely bleached their coral hosts. These findings are important toward our understanding of the importance of allelopathy versus other processes such as herbivory in the interaction between macroalgae and corals in reef ecosystems.

  5. Coastal fog during summer drought improves the water status of sapling trees more than adult trees in a California pine forest.

    PubMed

    Baguskas, Sara A; Still, Christopher J; Fischer, Douglas T; D'Antonio, Carla M; King, Jennifer Y

    2016-05-01

    Fog water inputs can offset seasonal drought in the Mediterranean climate of coastal California and may be critical to the persistence of many endemic plant species. The ability to predict plant species response to potential changes in the fog regime hinges on understanding the ways that fog can impact plant physiological function across life stages. Our study uses a direct metric of water status, namely plant water potential, to understand differential responses of adult versus sapling trees to seasonal drought and fog water inputs. We place these measurements within a water balance framework that incorporates the varying climatic and soil property impacts on water budgets and deficit. We conducted our study at a coastal and an inland site within the largest stand of the regionally endemic bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) on Santa Cruz Island. Our results show conclusively that summer drought negatively affects the water status of sapling more than adult trees and that sapling trees are also more responsive to changes in shallow soil moisture inputs from fog water deposition. Moreover, between the beginning and end of a large, late-season fog drip event, water status increased more for saplings than for adults. Relative to non-foggy conditions, we found that fog water reduces modeled peak water deficit by 80 and 70 % at the inland and coastal sites, respectively. Results from our study inform mechanistically based predictions of how population dynamics of this and other coastal species may be affected by a warmer, drier, and potentially less foggy future.

  6. Anthelminthic properties of Methylene chloride-methanol (1:1) extracts of two Cameroonians medicinal plants on Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidea).

    PubMed

    Ngouateu Teufack, Sergine Errole; NMbogning Tayo, Gertrude; Ngangout Alidou, Marc; Yondo, Jeannette; Djiomene, Amely Frankline; Wabo Poné, Josué; Mbida, Faùily Mpoame

    2017-08-11

    The resistance of some medico-veterinary parasite strains as well as the unavailability and toxicity of synthetic anthelminthics on humans, animals and the impacts of their residues in the environment have pushed scientists to turn to plants with anthelminthic properties. Hence, the aim of this work was to contribute to the fight against helminths of medical and veterinary importance in general, and also to clear the environment of their free living stages. Fresh eggs of Heligmosomoides bakeri were obtained from the faeces of experimentally infected mice. L 1 and L 2 larval stages were obtained after 48 and 72 h of coproculture respectively. Methylene Chloride-Methanol (1:1) extracts of Annona senegalensis and Nauclea latifolia were diluted in DMSO or Tween 80 to prepare the following concentrations: 625, 1250, 2500, 3750 and 5000 μg/ml. The effects of extract solutions were evaluated on the embryonation of eggs, egg hatching and on L 1 and L 2 survival after 48, 10 and 24 h of incubation. Negative controls were 1.5% DMSO, 4% Tween 80 and a mixture of these solvents. The TLC was carried out and the profiles of secondary metabolites were made. Negative controls had no effect on the embryonation, eggs hatching and on larval mortality. However, it was found that, the extracts affected the free living stages of H. bakeri in a concentration-dependant manner. At the highest concentration (5000 μg/ml), the rate of inhibition of embryonation obtained were 20.80%, 38.15% and 84.83% for Methylene Chloride-Methanol of Annona senegalensis (MCM As), Nauclea latifolia (MCM Nl) extracts and mixture of Annona senegalensis and Nauclea latifolia (MCM As-Nl) extract respectively. For egg hatch, the inhibition rate was 16.10%, 46.24% and 87.07% for the above three extracts respectively at the same concentration of 5000 μg/ml. On L 1 and L 2 larval stages after 24 h of exposure to extracts, the mortality rates of 100%, 54.76% and 96.77% against 98%, 51.44% and 100% were

  7. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Juárez, Israel; González, Violeta; Jaime-Aguilar, Héctor; Martínez, Gisela; Linares, Edelmira; Bye, Robert; Romero, Irma

    2009-03-18

    Helicobacter pylori is the major etiological agent of chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is linked to gastric carcinoma. Treatment to eradicate the bacteria failed in many cases, mainly due to antibiotic resistance, hence the necessity of developing better therapeutic regimens. Mexico has an enormous unexplored potential of medicinal plants. This work evaluates the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity of 53 plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. To test the in vitro antibacterial activity, agar dilution and broth dilution methods were used for aqueous and methanolic extracts, respectively. Aqueous extracts of Artemisia ludoviciana subsp. mexicana, Cuphea aequipetala, Ludwigia repens,and Mentha x piperita (MIC 125 to <250 microg/ml) as well as methanolic extracts of Persea americana, Annona cherimola, Guaiacum coulteri, and Moussonia deppeana (MIC <7.5 to 15.6 microg/ml) showed the highest inhibitory effect. The results contribute to understanding the mode of action of the studied medicinal plants and for detecting plants with high anti-Helicobacter pylori activity.

  8. Regional geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin; Part II, Geohydrologic maps of the Tertiary aquifers and related confining layers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryals, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    Regional geohydrologic maps show the altitude of the base and the thickness of the aquifers of Tertiary age and related confining layers in the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin. The limit of freshwater in aquifers is also shown. The basin has an area of about 3,000 square miles, and four geologic units of Tertiary age contain regional aquifers. From oldest (deepest) to youngest, the aquifers are in the Wilcox Group, Carrizo Sand, Sparta Sand, and Cockfield Formation. As the Wilcox is hydraulically interconnected with the overlying Carrizo, they are treated as one hydrologic unit, the Wilcox-Carrizo aquifer. The aquifers are separated by confining layers that retard water movement. In the northwestern part of the area, the Wilcox-Carrizo aquifer is separated from the underlying sand facies of the Nacatoch Sand (Cretaceous age) by a confining layer composed of the Midway Group (Tertiary age) and the underlying Arkadelphia Marl and an upper clay and marl facies of the Nacatoch Sand (both of Cretaceous age). In the remainder of the area, the Wilcox-Carrizo aquifer is separated from an underlying Cretaceous aquifer comprised of the Tokio Formation and Brownstown Marl by the Midway Group and several underlying Cretaceous units which in order of increasing age are the Arkadelphia Maril, Nacatoch Sand, Saratoga Chalk, Marlbrook Marl , and Annona Chalk. The Wilcox-Carrizo aquifer is separated from the Sparta aquifer by the overyling Cane River Formation. The Sparta aquifer is separated from the Cockfield aquifer by the overlying Cook Mountain Formation. (USGS)

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Anonna mucosa (Jacq.) grown in vivo and obtained by in vitroculture

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Barboza, Thiago José; Ferreira, Andréa Fonseca; de Paula Rosa Ignacio, Ana Claudia; Albarello, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian flora includes numerous species of medicinal importance that can be used to develop new drugs. Plant tissue culture offers strategies for conservation and use of these species allowing continuous production of plants and bioactive substances. Annona mucosa has produced substances such as acetogenins and alkaloids that exhibit antimicrobial activities. The widespread use of antibiotics has led to an increase in multidrug-resistant bacteria, which represents a serious risk of infection. In view of this problem, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of A. mucosa obtained by in vitro techniques and also cultured under in vivo conditions. Segments from seedlings were inoculated onto different culture media containing the auxin picloram and the cytokinin kinetin at different concentrations. The calluses obtained were used to produce cell suspension cultures. The materials were subjected to methanol extraction and subsequent fractionation in hexane and dichloromethane. The antimicrobial activity against 20 strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the macrodilution method at minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations. The extracts showed selective antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus thuringiensis at different concentrations. The plant tissue culture methods produced plant materials with antibacterial properties, as well as in vivo grown plants. The antibacterial activity of material obtained through biotechnological procedures of A. mucosa is reported here for the first time. PMID:26413061

  10. Antimicrobial activity of Anonna mucosa (Jacq.) grown in vivo and obtained by in vitroculture.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Thiago José de Souza; Ferreira, Andréa Fonseca; Ignacio, Ana Claudia de Paula Rosa; Albarello, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian flora includes numerous species of medicinal importance that can be used to develop new drugs. Plant tissue culture offers strategies for conservation and use of these species allowing continuous production of plants and bioactive substances. Annona mucosa has produced substances such as acetogenins and alkaloids that exhibit antimicrobial activities. The widespread use of antibiotics has led to an increase in multidrug-resistant bacteria, which represents a serious risk of infection. In view of this problem, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of A. mucosa obtained by in vitro techniques and also cultured under in vivo conditions. Segments from seedlings were inoculated onto different culture media containing the auxin picloram and the cytokinin kinetin at different concentrations. The calluses obtained were used to produce cell suspension cultures. The materials were subjected to methanol extraction and subsequent fractionation in hexane and dichloromethane. The antimicrobial activity against 20 strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the macrodilution method at minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations. The extracts showed selective antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus thuringiensis at different concentrations. The plant tissue culture methods produced plant materials with antibacterial properties, as well as in vivo grown plants. The antibacterial activity of material obtained through biotechnological procedures of A. mucosa is reported here for the first time.

  11. Solid-phase total synthesis of cherimolacyclopeptide E and discovery of more potent analogues by alanine screening.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Farzana; Rizvi, Tania S; Musharraf, Syed G; Ganesan, A; Xiao, Kai; Townsend, Jared B; Lam, Kit S; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2012-11-26

    Cherimolacyclopeptide E (1) is a cyclic hexapeptide obtained from Annona cherimola, reported to be cytotoxic against the KB (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma) cell line. The solid-phase total syntheses of this cyclic peptide and its analogues were accomplished by employing FMOC/tert-butyl-protected amino acids and the Kenner sulfonamide safety-catch linker. The synthetic peptide 1 was found to be weakly cytotoxic against four cell lines (MOLT-4, Jurkat T lymphoma, MDA-MB-231, and KB). Analogues 3 and 7, where glycine at positions 2 and 6 of the parent compound was replaced by Ala, exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity against KB (3, IC50 6.3 μM; 7, IC50 7.8 μM) and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (3, IC50 10.2 μM; 7, IC50 7.7 μM), thereby suggesting possible selective targeting of these cancer cells by these peptides. The spectral data of synthetic peptide 1 was found to be similar to that reported for the natural product. However, a striking difference in biological activity was noted, which warrants the re-evaluation of the original natural product for purity and the existence of conformational differences.

  12. Seedless fruits and the disruption of a conserved genetic pathway in angiosperm ovule development

    PubMed Central

    Lora, Jorge; Hormaza, José I.; Herrero, María; Gasser, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    Although the biological function of fruiting is the production and dissemination of seeds, humans have developed seedless fruits in a number of plant species to facilitate consumption. Here we describe a unique spontaneous seedless mutant (Thai seedless; Ts) of Annona squamosa (sugar apple), a member of the early-divergent magnoliid angiosperm clade. Ovules (seed precursors) of the mutant lack the outer of two normal integuments, a phenocopy of the inner no outer (ino) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Cloning of the INO ortholog from A. squamosa confirmed conservation of the outer integument-specific expression pattern of this gene between the two species. All regions of the gene were detectable in wild-type A. squamosa and in other members of this genus. However, no region of the INO gene could be detected in Ts plants, indicating apparent deletion of the INO locus. These results provide a case of a candidate gene approach revealing the apparent molecular basis of a useful agronomic trait (seedless fruit) in a crop species, and indicate conservation of the role of a critical regulator of ovule development between eudicots and more ancient lineages of angiosperms. The outer integument is one synapomorphy of angiosperms separating them from other extant seed plants, and the results suggest that the evolution of this structure was contemporaneous with the derivation of INO from ancestral YABBY genes. Thus, a unique lateral structure appears to have coevolved with a novel gene family member essential for the structure's formation. PMID:21402944

  13. Antioxidant properties of selected fruit cultivars grown in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, K D R R; Sirasa, M S F

    2018-01-01

    Extracts of twenty locally available Sri Lankan fruits were analysed for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferrous reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and vitamin C content. The results showed that gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica 'local') exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging activity (111.25mg ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC)/g), FRAP (1022.05μmol FeSO 4 /g), TPC (915.7mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100g), TFC (873.2mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100g) and vitamin C (136.8mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/100g), respectively. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa 'local') and star fruit (Averrhoa carambola 'Honey Sweet') obtained the second and third highest antioxidant activities in terms of rankings of FRAP, DPPH activities, TPC, TFC and vitamin C content. Strong correlation between vitamin C, TPC and TFC with FRAP and DPPH showed their contribution to antioxidant capacity. Among the selected fruits, underutilized fruit cultivar gooseberry showed the highest overall antioxidant potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Squamocin, an annonaceous acetogenin, enhances naphthalene degradation mediated by Bacillus atrophaeus CN4.

    PubMed

    Parellada, Eduardo A; Igarza, Mercedes; Isacc, Paula; Bardón, Alicia; Ferrero, Marcela; Ameta, Keshav Lalit; Neske, Adriana

    Squamocin belongs to a group of compounds called annonaceous acetogenins. They are secondary products of Annonaceae metabolism and can be isolated from Annona cherimolia seeds. This paper deals with the stimulation of biofilm formation of Bacillus atrophaeus CN4 by employing low squamocin concentrations to increase naphthalene degradation. Bacillus atrophaeus CN4, isolated from contaminated soil, has the ability to degrade naphthalene as the only source of carbon and energy. In the absence of additional carbon sources, the strain removed 69% of the initial concentration of naphthalene (approx. 0.2mmol/l) in the first 12h of incubation. The addition of squamocin in LB medium stimulated Bacillus atrophaeus CN4 biofilm formation and enhanced naphthalene removal. Squamocin (2.5μg/ml) does not affect planktonic growth and therefore, the observed increases are solely due to the stimulation of biofilm formation. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-04-01

    There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Biogenic nanoparticles bearing antibacterial activity and their synergistic effect with broad spectrum antibiotics: Emerging strategy to combat drug resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Baker, Syed; Pasha, Azmath; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2017-01-01

    The present study emphasizes on synthesis of bimetallic silver-gold nanoparticles from cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii strain AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using hyphenated techniques with UV-Visible spectra ascertained absorbance peak between 400 and 800 nm. Possible interaction of biomolecules in mediating and stabilization of nanoparticles was depicted with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). X-ray diffraction (XRD) displayed Bragg's peak conferring the 1 0 0, 1 1 1, 2 0 0, and 2 2 0 facets of the face centered cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. Size and shape of the nanoparticles were determined using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microgram with size ranging from 5 to 50 nm forming myriad shapes. Antibacterial activity of nanoparticles against significant human pathogens was conferred with well diffusion assay and its synergistic effect with standard antibiotics revealed 87.5% fold increased activity with antibiotic "bacitracin" against bacitracin resistant strains Bacillus subtilis , Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by kanamycin with 18.5%, gentamicin with 11.15%, streptomycin with 10%, erythromycin with 9.7% and chloramphenicol with 9.4%. Thus the study concludes with biogenic and ecofriendly route for synthesizing nanoparticles with antibacterial activity against drug resistant pathogens and attributes growing interest on endophytes as an emerging source for synthesis of nanoparticles.

  17. The key role of 4-methyl-5-vinylthiazole in the attraction of scarab beetle pollinators: a unique olfactory floral signal shared by Annonaceae and Araceae.

    PubMed

    Maia, Artur Campos Dália; Dötterl, Stefan; Kaiser, Roman; Silberbauer-Gottsberger, Ilse; Teichert, Holger; Gibernau, Marc; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; Schlindwein, Clemens; Gottsberger, Gerhard

    2012-09-01

    Cyclocephaline scarabs are specialised scent-driven pollinators, implicated with the reproductive success of several Neotropical plant taxa. Night-blooming flowers pollinated by these beetles are thermogenic and release intense fragrances synchronized to pollinator activity. However, data on floral scent composition within such mutualistic interactions are scarce, and the identity of behaviorally active compounds involved is largely unknown. We performed GC-MS analyses of floral scents of four species of Annona (magnoliids, Annonaceae) and Caladium bicolor (monocots, Araceae), and demonstrated the chemical basis for the attraction of their effective pollinators. 4-Methyl-5-vinylthiazole, a nitrogen and sulphur-containing heterocyclic compound previously unreported in flowers, was found as a prominent constituent in all studied species. Field biotests confirmed that it is highly attractive to both male and female beetles of three species of the genus Cyclocephala, pollinators of the studied plant taxa. The origin of 4-methyl-5-vinylthiazole in plants might be associated with the metabolism of thiamine (vitamin B1), and we hypothesize that the presence of this compound in unrelated lineages of angiosperms is either linked to selective expression of a plesiomorphic biosynthetic pathway or to parallel evolution.

  18. Rainforest air-conditioning: the moderating influence of epiphytes on the microclimate in tropical tree crowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuntz, Sabine; Simon, Ulrich; Zotz, Gerhard

    2002-05-01

    Epiphytes are often assumed to influence the microclimatic conditions of the tree crowns that they inhabit. In order to quantify this notion, we measured the parameters "temperature" (of the substrate surface and the boundary layer of air above it), "evaporative drying rate" and "evapotranspiration" at various locations within tree crowns with differing epiphyte assemblages. The host tree species was Annona glabra, which was either populated by one of three epiphyte species ( Dimerandra emarginata, Tillandsia fasciculata, or Vriesea sanguinolenta) or was epiphyte-free. We found that during the hottest and driest time of day, microsites in the immediate proximity of epiphytes had significantly lower temperatures than epiphyte-bare locations within the same tree crown, even though the latter were also shaded by host tree foliage or branches. Moreover, water loss through evaporative drying at microsites adjacent to epiphytes was almost 20% lower than at exposed microsites. We also found that, over the course of several weeks, the evapotranspiration in tree crowns bearing epiphytes was significantly lower than in trees without epiphytes. Although the influence of epiphytes on temperature extremes and evaporation rates is relatively subtle, their mitigating effect could be of importance for small animals like arthropods inhabiting an environment as harsh and extreme as the tropical forest canopy.

  19. Application of dietary fiber method AOAC 2011.25 in fruit and comparison with AOAC 991.43 method.

    PubMed

    Tobaruela, Eric de C; Santos, Aline de O; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B de; Araujo, Elias da S; Lajolo, Franco M; Menezes, Elizabete W

    2018-01-01

    AOAC 2011.25 method enables the quantification of most of the dietary fiber (DF) components according to the definition proposed by Codex Alimentarius. This study aimed to compare the DF content in fruits analyzed by the AOAC 2011.25 and AOAC 991.43 methods. Plums (Prunus salicina), atemoyas (Annona x atemoya), jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus), and mature coconuts (Cocos nucifera) from different Brazilian regions (3 lots/fruit) were analyzed for DF, resistant starch, and fructans contents. The AOAC 2011.25 method was evaluated for precision, accuracy, and linearity in different food matrices and carbohydrate standards. The DF contents of plums, atemoyas, and jackfruits obtained by AOAC 2011.25 was higher than those obtained by AOAC 991.43 due to the presence of fructans. The DF content of mature coconuts obtained by the same methods did not present a significant difference. The AOAC 2011.25 method is recommended for fruits with considerable fructans content because it achieves more accurate values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Post-fire regeneration in seasonally dry tropical forest fragments in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mayke B; Menezes, Luis Fernando T DE; Nascimento, Marcelo T

    2017-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forest is one of the highly threatened biome. However, studies on the effect of fire on these tree communities are still scarce. In this context, a floristic and structural survey in three forest areas in the southeast of Brazil that were affected by fire between 14 and 25 years ago was performed with the objective of evaluating post-fire regeneration. In each site, five systematically placed plots (25 m x 25 m each) were established. The more recently burnt site had significantly lower values of richness and diversity than the other two sites. However, the sites did not differ in density and basal area. Annona dolabripetala, Astronium concinnum, Joannesia princeps and Polyandrococos caudescens were within the 10 most important species for the three sites. Comparing these data with adjacent mature forests, the results indicated differences both in structural and floristic aspects, suggesting that the time after fire was not sufficient for recuperation of these areas. The recovery process indicate at least 190 years for areas return to basal area values close to those observed in mature forests nearby.

  1. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis, and dengue.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Naresh Kumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Rejeeth, Chandrababu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-03-01

    A biological method was used to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles that were tested as mosquito larvicides against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Annona squamosa leaf broth (5%) reduced aqueous 1 mM AgNO₃ to stable silver nanoparticles with an average size of 450 nm. The structure and percentage of synthesized nanoparticles was characterized by using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy methods. The median lethal concentrations (LC₅₀) of silver nanoparticles that killed fourth instars of Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and An. stephensi were 0.30, 0.41, and 2.12 ppm, respectively. Adult longevity (days) in male and female mosquitoes exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles was reduced by ~30% (p<0.05), whereas the number of eggs laid by females exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles decreased by 36% (p<0.05).

  2. [Association of Constrictotermes cyphergaster Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae) with trees in the Brazilian Cerrado].

    PubMed

    Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus de S; Pinto, Míriam P; Costa, Shirley S; Nabout, João C; Rangel, Thiago F L V B; de Melo, Tatiana L; de Moura, Iona'i O

    2006-01-01

    Termites usually build nests differently shaped and characterized according to each species, to protect and keep society cohesion. Some species build nests in the ground, some prefer tree thunks or branches as support, whereas other dig galleries in the wood. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the occurrence of arboreal termites Constrictotermes cyphergaster Silvestri and tree species that support the nest of this species, in a Cerrado sensu strictu of the Serra de Caldas Novas, GO. Data suggest a association relationship between C. Cyphergaster and the tree species Qualea grandiflora Mart., Annona crassiflora Mart., Caryocar brasiliense Camb. and Plathymenia reticulata Benth., shown by high Qui-squared values (chi2 = 214.986, gl. = 20, P < 0.001). This relationship may be found among other termites and tree species, including Cerrado biome, and may be due to several factors, such as natural competitors and predators, toxin production by other tree species or benefits between associated species (facultative mutualism or facilitation).

  3. Influence of gamma irradiation and benzyl adenine on keeping quality of custard apple fruits during storage.

    PubMed

    Chouksey, Swati; Singh, Alpana; Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Deshmukh, Reena

    2013-10-01

    The custard apple (Annona squamosa) fruits were procured from local market, irradiated with radiation doses 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 kGy and then treated with benzyl adenine (50 and 100 part per million) and stored at ambient temperature (25 ± 5 °C, Relative Humidity 90 ± 2%) for 12 days. The treated fruits were evaluated for sensory (viz; flavour, texture, internal and external colour) and chemical constituents (viz; Total Soluble Solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, free soluble sugar, reducing sugar. non reducing sugar, carbohydrate) during storage. The study concluded that radiation dose of 1.5 kilo Gray along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine enhanced in shelf-life of custard apple fruits by 6 days at ambient temperature with good pulp texture, flavour, colour and nutritional quality as compared to control.

  4. Do cancer cells in human and meristematic cells in plant exhibit similar responses toward plant extracts with cytotoxic activities?

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Noha S; Barakat, Hoda S; Elhallouty, Salwa; Salem, Dina

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of water extracts of Persea americana fruit, and of the leaves of Tabernamontana divericata, Nerium oleander and Annona cherimolia (positive control) on Vicia faba root cells. We had confirmed in our previously published data the cytotoxicity of these plant extracts on four human cancer cell lines: liver (HepG-2), lung (A549), colon (HT-29) and breast (MCF-7). Vicia faba roots were soaked in plant extracts at dilutions of 100, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000 ppm for 4 and 24 h. All treatments resulted in a significant reduction in the mitotic index in a dose dependant manner. Root cells treated with T. divericata, N. oleander and A. cherimolia exhibited a decrease in prophase cell percentage, increase in micronuclei and chromosomal abnormalities as concentration increased. The P. americana treatment showed the highest cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, prophase cell percentage increased linearly with the applied concentration and no micronuclei were detected. This study shows that root tip assay of beans can be used in initial screening for new plant extracts to validate their use as candidates for containing active cytotoxic agents against malignant cells. This will greatly help in exploring new plant extracts as drugs for cancer treatment.

  5. Corals Form Characteristic Associations with Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lema, Kimberley A.; Willis, Bette L.

    2012-01-01

    The complex symbiotic relationship between corals and their dinoflagellate partner Symbiodinium is believed to be sustained through close associations with mutualistic bacterial communities, though little is known about coral associations with bacterial groups able to fix nitrogen (diazotrophs). In this study, we investigated the diversity of diazotrophic bacterial communities associated with three common coral species (Acropora millepora, Acropora muricata, and Pocillopora damicormis) from three midshelf locations of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) by profiling the conserved subunit of the nifH gene, which encodes the dinitrogenase iron protein. Comparisons of diazotrophic community diversity among coral tissue and mucus microenvironments and the surrounding seawater revealed that corals harbor diverse nifH phylotypes that differ between tissue and mucus microhabitats. Coral mucus nifH sequences displayed high heterogeneity, and many bacterial groups overlapped with those found in seawater. Moreover, coral mucus diazotrophs were specific neither to coral species nor to reef location, reflecting the ephemeral nature of coral mucus. In contrast, the dominant diazotrophic bacteria in tissue samples differed among coral species, with differences remaining consistent at all three reefs, indicating that coral-diazotroph associations are species specific. Notably, dominant diazotrophs for all coral species were closely related to the bacterial group rhizobia, which represented 71% of the total sequences retrieved from tissue samples. The species specificity of coral-diazotroph associations further supports the coral holobiont model that bacterial groups associated with corals are conserved. Our results suggest that, as in terrestrial plants, rhizobia have developed a mutualistic relationship with corals and may contribute fixed nitrogen to Symbiodinium. PMID:22344646

  6. Shared Skeletal Support in a Coral-Hydroid Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Pantos, Olga; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2011-01-01

    Hydroids form symbiotic relationships with a range of invertebrate hosts. Where they live with colonial invertebrates such as corals or bryozoans the hydroids may benefit from the physical support and protection of their host's hard exoskeleton, but how they interact with them is unknown. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the physical interactions between the colonial hydroid Zanclea margaritae and its reef-building coral host Acropora muricata. The hydroid tissues extend below the coral tissue surface sitting in direct contact with the host's skeleton. Although this arrangement provides the hydroid with protective support, it also presents problems of potential interference with the coral's growth processes and exposes the hydroid to overgrowth and smothering. Desmocytes located within the epidermal layer of the hydroid's perisarc-free hydrorhizae fasten it to the coral skeleton. The large apical surface area of the desmocyte and high bifurcation of the distal end within the mesoglea, as well as the clustering of desmocytes suggests that a very strong attachment between the hydroid and the coral skeleton. This is the first study to provide a detailed description of how symbiotic hydroids attach to their host's skeleton, utilising it for physical support. Results suggest that the loss of perisarc, a characteristic commonly associated with symbiosis, allows the hydroid to utilise desmocytes for attachment. The use of these anchoring structures provides a dynamic method of attachment, facilitating detachment from the coral skeleton during extension, thereby avoiding overgrowth and smothering enabling the hydroid to remain within the host colony for prolonged periods of time. PMID:21695083

  7. Epibenthic communities of sedimentary habitats in a NE Atlantic deep seamount (Galicia Bank)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, A.; Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; Punzón, A.; García-Alegre, A.; Arronte, J. C.; Ríos, P.; Lourido, A.; Frutos, I.; Blanco, M.

    2017-12-01

    Galicia Bank is a deep seamount included as Site of Community Importance (SCI) in the Spanish Natura 2000 Network proposal. In the present study, epibenthic assemblages of sedimentary habitats have been described, together with the main environmental factor explaining species and communities distribution. Five epibenthic assemblages have been identified. Depth was the main factor explaining assemblage distribution, and the role of sediment type, water masses, and coral framework presence is also discussed. Three assemblages are located in the summit: the shallowest one (730-770 m), in the boundary between Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW) and Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) water masses is typified by ophiuroids and characterized by medium sands. The second assemblage (770-800 m) typified by the bivalve Limopsis minuta and the solitary coral Flabellum chunii correspond with medium sands and MOW core; and the third typified by the presence of cold-water coral communities dominated by Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, also on the MOW influence. In the border of the summit, in the bank break, an assemblage located in the range 1000-1200 m is dominated by the urchin Cidaris cidaris and the sponge Thenea muricata. In the flat flanks around the bank, the deepest assemblage (1400-1800 m) is dominated by the holothurian Benthogone rosea, in a depth range dominated by the Labrador water (LSW) and in fine sands with highest contents of organic matter. Most of species appeared in a depth range smaller than 25% of total depth range sampled and in < 10% of samples. Differential preference of species is evident in the different trophic guilds, with a higher dominance of filter-feeders in the summit and of deposit-feeders in the deepest assemblage, and have clear links with nutrient dynamics in the bank.

  8. Constitutive and Inducible Aerobic and Anaerobic Stress Proteins in the Echinochloa Complex and Rice.

    PubMed Central

    Mujer, C. V.; Rumpho, M. E.; Lin, J. J.; Kennedy, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic stress resulted in a change in the protein accumulation patterns in shoots of several Echinochloa (barnyard grass) species and Oryza sativa (L.) (rice) as resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Of the six Echinochloa species investigated, E. phyllopogon (Stev.) Koss, E. muricata (Beauv.) Fern, E. oryzoides (Ard.) Fritsch Clayton, and E. crus-galli (L.) Beauv. are tolerant of anaerobiosis and germinate in the absence of oxygen, as does rice. In contrast, E. crus-pavonis (H.B.K.) Schult and E. colonum (L.) Link are intolerant and do not germinate without oxygen. Computer analysis of the protein patterns from the four tolerant species and rice indicated that the anaerobic response is of five classes: class 1 proteins, enhanced under anaerobiosis (9 to 13 polypeptides ranging from 16-68 kD); class 2 proteins, unique to anaerobiosis (1 to 5 polypeptides ranging from 17-69 kD); class 3 proteins, remained constant under aerobiosis and anaerobiosis; class 4 proteins, prominent only in air and repressed under anoxia (3 to 7 polypeptides ranging from 19-45 kD); and class 5 proteins, unique to aerobiosis (1 to 4 polypeptides ranging from 18-63 kD). In the intolerant species, E. colonum and E. crus-pavonis, no polypeptides were enhanced or repressed under anoxia (class 1 and class 4, respectively), whereas in the tolerant Echinochloa species and rice, a total of at least 9 to 13 anaerobic stress proteins and 4 to 7 "aerobic" proteins were noted. Immunoblotting identified two of the major anaerobic stress proteins as fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Based on the differential response of the intolerant species to anaerobiosis, we suggest that another set of genes, whose products may not necessarily be among the major anaerobic stress polypeptides, might confer tolerance in Echinochloa under prolonged anaerobic stress. PMID:12231678

  9. Sponge assemblages on the deep Mediterranean continental shelf and slope (Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santín, Andreu; Grinyó, Jordi; Ambroso, Stefano; Uriz, Maria J.; Gori, Andrea; Dominguez-Carrió, Carlos; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2018-01-01

    Sponge assemblages on continental shelves and slopes around the world have been known about for centuries. However, due to limitations of the traditional sampling systems, data about individual sponge species rather than assemblages have been reported. This study characterizes sponge assemblages over a wide bathymetric range ( 50-350 m depth) and covering the entire continental shelf and the upper slope of the Menorca Channel, an area soon to be declared a Marine Protected Area (MPA) as part of the Natura 2000 Network. Quantitative analysis of 85 video-transects (a total linear distance of 75 km), together with representative collections to confirm species identifications, allowed us to discriminate six major assemblages. Differences in the assemblages mainly corresponded to differences in substrate type and depth. On the inner continental shelf, a semi-sciaphilous Axinellid assemblage dominated the rocky outcrops. Maërl beds on the inner continental shelf were dominated by Haliclona (Reniera) mediterranea, whereas the horny sponge Aplysina cavernicola and several other haliclonids mostly dominated maërl beds and rocky substrates of the outer shelf. Soft sediments on the shelf break hosted a monospecific Thenea muricata assemblage, whereas rocky substrates of the shelf break were characterized by a mixture of encrusting, columnar and fan-shaped sponges. Finally, the upper slope was dominated by Hamacantha (Vomerula) falcula and the hexactinellid Tretodictyum reiswigi. Overall, sponge diversity showed its highest values above the shelf break, plummeting severely on the upper slope. Despite this diversity decrease, we found very high densities (> 70 ind./m2) of sponges over vast areas of both the shelf break and the upper slope.

  10. In vitro and in vivo α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities of the protein extracts from two varieties of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.).

    PubMed

    Poovitha, Sundar; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-07-18

    α-amylase and α-glucosidase digest the carbohydrates and increase the postprandial glucose level in diabetic patients. Inhibiting the activity of these two enzymes can control postprandial hyperglycemia, and reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Bitter gourd or balsam pear is one of the important medicinal plants used for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes patients. However, there is limited information available on the presence of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting compounds. In the current study, the protein extracts from the fruits of M. charantia var. charantia (MCC) and M. charantia var. muricata (MCM) were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities in vitro, and glucose lowering activity after oral administration in vivo. The protein extract from both MCC and MCM inhibited the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase through competitive inhibition, which was on par with Acarbose as indicated by in vitro percentage of inhibition (66 to 69 %) and IC50 (0.26 to 0.29 mg/ml). Both the protein extracts significantly reduced peak blood glucose and area under the curve in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, which were orally challenged with starch and sucrose. Protein extracts from the fruits of the two varieties of bitter gourd inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro and lowered the blood glucose level in vivo on par with Acarbose when orally administrated to Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Further studies on mechanism of action and methods of safe and biologically active delivery will help to develop an anti-diabetic oral protein drug from these plants.

  11. Free sugar profile in cycads

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E.; Lindström, Anders J.

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date. PMID:25339967

  12. Do shifts in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities change the sources of N and S for Bishop pine trees?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willing, C.; Roddy, A. B.; Glassman, S. I.; Dawson, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    Estimates predict that more than 90% percent of land plants are hosts to mycorrhizal fungi. As these ubiquitous symbionts interact with their plant hosts along a spectrum from parasitism to mutualism, it is important to determine how different communities of these fungi might function along this continuum. In this study, we investigated the consequences of Pinus muricata association with ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcM) sampled from different environments throughout North America. Pines are rarely, if ever, found in nature without their EcM associates. As such, it is important to consider the potential consequences of shifts in EcM communities on the trees themselves and how this may also change across different geographical areas occupied by the trees. Our focus was on quantifying how mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorhizal (NM) trees may differ in their acquisition of the nutrient resources, N and S. N is essential to life, yet it is typically the most limiting nutrient in temperate terrestrial ecosystems. Though C:N ratios did not vary between our treatments, the stable N isotope ratio between M and NM treatments did differ. This result suggests plants could be using different sources (organic versus inorganic) of N. In addition, the relative dependence on organic N pools also appears to vary with latitude of M origin. S is required for the production of many amino-acids, vitamins, chlorophyll, and important antioxidants such as glutathionine, which has been shown to mitigate reactive oxygen species (ROS). In spite of its potential nutritional and ecological importance, sulfur dynamics and the influence of EcM on sulfur uptake is poorly understood. We found that all M treatments demonstrated S isotope enrichment of approximately 6‰ compared to NM treatments. We hypothesize that this apparent enrichment is due to the EcM reduction of soil-borne sulfate to sulfite and the subsequent transport of sulfite from the fungal associate into the tree's roots.

  13. The influence of Brazilian plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    PubMed

    Barnabé, Michele; Saraceni, Cíntia Helena Coury; Dutra-Correa, Maristela; Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Our goal was to verify whether plant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry.

  14. The influence of Brazilian plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans biofilm

    PubMed Central

    BARNABÉ, Michele; SARACENI, Cíntia Helena Coury; DUTRA-CORREA, Maristela; SUFFREDINI, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Objective Our goal was to verify whether plant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Material and Methods Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Results Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry. PMID:25466471

  15. Glycogen-gold nanohybrid escalates the potency of silymarin.

    PubMed

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Bhowal, Ashim Chandra; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Kundu, Sarathi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a glycogen-gold nanohybrid was fabricated to enhance the potency of a promising hepatoprotective agent silymarin (Sly) by improving its solubility and gut permeation. By utilizing a facile green chemistry approach, biogenic gold nanoparticles were synthesized from Annona reticulata leaf phytoconstituents in combination with Sly (SGNPs). Further, the SGNPs were aggregated in glycogen biopolymer to yield the therapeutic nanohybrids (GSGNPs). Transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the successful formation and conjugation of both SGNPs and GSGNPs. The fabricated nanohybrids showed significant protection against CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury in Wistar rats and maintained natural antioxidant (superoxide dismutase and catalase) levels. Animals treated with GSGNPs (10 mg/kg) and SGNPs (20 mg/kg) retained usual hepatic functions with routine levels of hepatobiliary enzymes (aspartate transferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase) and inflammatory markers (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) with minimal lipid peroxidation, whereas those treated with 100 mg/kg of Sly showed the similar effect. These results were also supported by histopathology of the livers where pronounced hepatoprotection with normal hepatic physiology and negligible inflammatory infiltrate were observed. Significant higher plasma C max supported the enhanced bioavailability of Sly upon GSGNPs treatment compared to SGNPs and free Sly. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry analysis also substantiated the efficient delivery of GSGNPs over SGNPs. The fabricated therapeutic nanohybrids were also found to be biocompatible toward human erythrocytes and L929 mouse fibroblast cells. Overall, due to increased solubility, bioavailability and profuse gut absorption; GSGNPs demonstrated tenfold enhanced potency compared to free Sly.

  16. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, C; Bagavan, A; Elango, G; Zahir, A Abduz; Rajakumar, G; Marimuthu, S; Santhoshkumar, T; Rahuman, A Abdul

    2011-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4 th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC 50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus.

  17. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraj, C.; Bagavan, A.; Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Rajakumar, G.; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:21808141

  18. Diverse patterns of stored water use among saplings in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Brett T; Kursar, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Tree species in seasonally dry tropical forests likely vary in their drought-survival mechanisms. Drought-deciduousness, which reduces water loss, and low wood density, which may permit dependence on stored water, are considered key traits. For saplings of six species at two distinct sites, we studied these and two associated traits: the seasonal amount of water released per stem volume ("water released") and the hydraulic capacitance of the stem (C). Two deciduous species with low stem density, Cavanillesia platanifolia and Bursera simaruba, had high C and high dry-season stem water potential (Ψ(stem)), but differed in dry-season water released. C. platanifolia did not use stored water during the dry season whereas B. simaruba, in a drier forest, released stored water. In both, water released was highest while flushing leaves, suggesting that stored water supports leaf flushing. In contrast, two deciduous species with intermediate stem density, Annona hayesii and Genipa americana, had intermediate C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and high seasonal change in water released. Meanwhile, two evergreen species with intermediate stem density, Cojoba rufescens and Astronium graveolens, had relatively low C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and intermediate seasonal change in water released. Thus, at least three, distinct stored-water-use strategies were observed. Additionally, bark relative water content (RWC) decreased along with Ψ(stem) during the dry season while xylem RWC did not change, suggesting that bark-stored water buffers Ψ(stem) seasonally. Together these results suggest that seasonal use of stored water and change in Ψ(stem) are associated with functional groups that are characterized by combinations of deciduousness and stem density.

  19. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  20. Effects of supplementation of threshed sorghum top with selected browse plant foliage on haematology and serum biochemical parameters of Red Sokoto goats.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Isah, Olubukola Ajike; Oyekunle, Mufutau Atanda; Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami; Makinde, Olayinka John

    2016-06-01

    The haematological and biochemical parameters of 24 growing Red Sokoto bucks (9.00 ± 0.25 kg body weight) fed threshed sorghum top (TST) with or without five different browse plant foliage Afzelia africana (AA), Daniellia oliveri (DO), Piliostigma thonningii (PT), Pterocarpus erinaceus (PE) and Annona senegalensis (AS) supplements were studied using a completely randomized design. All haematological parameters were (P < 0.05) lower in TST-fed goats compared with TST-supplemented goats, except for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocytes and monocytes which did not follow a particular pattern. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin and monocytes were higher for AA-supplemented goats while MCHC was reduced relative to other supplements (P < 0.05). White blood cell counts were increased in DO lambs compared to other supplements (P < 0.05). Serum proteins, creatinine, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate were reduced in TST compared with the supplements (P < 0.05). Cholesterol was higher for PT and AA than other diets (P < 0.05). Aspartate transaminase was reduced in TST goats relative to the supplements (P < 0.05). Except for potassium which was reduced in AS (P < 0.05), all serum major minerals were similar among diets. Results indicate that the entire browse fodder are good supplements to low-quality TST, though A. africana appears to have a better supplementary effect on haematological and biochemical parameters of the goats.

  1. Determination of higenamine in dietary supplements by UHPLC/MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Stajić, A; Anđelković, M; Dikić, N; Rašić, J; Vukašinović-Vesić, M; Ivanović, D; Jančić-Stojanović, B

    2017-11-30

    From 1st January 2017 higenamine was added on the WADA (World Anti-doping Agency) Prohibited list under S3 group beta-2 agonists as at all times banned substance for the athletes. The main origine of higenamine (or norcoclaurine) are different plants including Nandina domestica, Aconitum carmichaelii, Asarum heterotropioides, Galium divaricatum, Annona squamosa, Nelumbo nucifera etc. Higenamine main use is related to weight loss and it could be found (un)labeled in different dietary supplements. The objective of this study was development of sensitive and reliable UHPLC/MS/MS method for determination of higenamine in various dietary supplement samples. In order to obtain high method sensitivity, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode was applied. Separation was carried out on UHPLC Acquity BEH HILIC analytical column (2.1mm×100mm, 1.7μm particle size). Mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile, respectively, was mixed in ratio of 30:70, v/v. Flow rate was set at 0.2mLmin -1 . Quercetin was used as an internal standard. ESI (+) source ionization mode using multi reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was utilized and three ion transitions of higenamine were followed 272.08→107.01, 272.08→161.07 and 272.08→77.08. Developed method was fully validated and applied for identification and quantification of higenamine in different dietary supplements. According to the results, the most of investigated supplements were free of higenamine, and on the other hand, presence of higenamine was confirmed in some samples while it was not declared on the label. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro antimalarial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Sahal, Dinkar

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a major global public health problem, and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds. In the present study, ten plants were extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and tested for their antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (Dd2 and INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green assay. Plant extracts showed moderate to good antiparasitic effects. Promising antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts from two plants, Phyllanthus emblica leaf 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) 3D7: 7.25 μg/mL (ethyl acetate extract), 3.125 μg/mL (methanol extract), and Syzygium aromaticum flower bud, IC₅₀ 3D7:13 μg/mL, (ethyl acetate extract) and 6.25 μg/mL (methanol extract). Moderate activity (30-75 μg/mL) was found in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Abrus precatorius (seed) and Gloriosa superba (leaf); leaf ethyl acetate extracts of Annona squamosa and flower of Musa paradisiaca. The above mentioned plant extracts were also found to be active against CQ-resistant strains (Dd2 and INDO). Cytotoxicity study with P. emblica leaf and S. aromaticum flower bud, extracts showed good therapeutic indices. These results demonstrate that leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica and flower bud extract of S. aromaticum may serve as antimalarial agents even in their crude form. The isolation of compounds from P. emblica and S. aromaticum seems to be of special interest for further antimalarial studies.

  3. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae

    PubMed Central

    Formagio, A.S.N.; Vieira, M.C.; Volobuff, C.R.F.; Silva, M.S.; Matos, A.I.; Cardoso, C.A.L.; Foglio, M.A.; Carvalho, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI50) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI50 values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs. PMID:25714885

  4. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae.

    PubMed

    Formagio, A S N; Vieira, M C; Volobuff, C R F; Silva, M S; Matos, A I; Cardoso, C A L; Foglio, M A; Carvalho, J E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI50) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI50 values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs.

  5. Comparative toxicity of an acetogenin-based extract and commercial pesticides against citrus red mite.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Vendramim, José Djair; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2014-01-01

    Acetogenins, a class of natural compounds produced by some Annonaceae species, are potent inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport systems. Although the cellular respiration processes are an important biochemical site for the acaricidal action of compounds, few studies have been performed to assess the bioactivity of acetogenin-based biopesticides on spider mites, mainly against species that occur in orchards. Using residual contact bioassays, this study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of an ethanolic extract from Annona mucosa seeds (ESAM) (Annonaceae) against the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), an important pest of the Brazilian citriculture. ESAM is a homemade biopesticide which was previously characterized by its high concentration of acetogenins. It caused both high mortality of P. citri females (LC50 = 7,295, 4,662, 3,463, and 2,608 mg l(-1), after 48, 72, 96, and 120 h of exposure, respectively) and significant oviposition deterrence (EC50 = 3.194,80 mg l(-1)). However, there was no effect on P. citri female fertility (hatching rate). In addition, the ESAM efficacy (in terms of its LC90) was compared with commercial acaricides/insecticides (at its recommended rate) of both natural [Anosom(®) 1 EC (annonin), Derisom(®) 2 EC (karanjin), and Azamax(®) 1.2 EC (azadirachtin + 3-tigloylazadirachtol)] and synthetic origin [Envidor(®) 24 SC (spirodiclofen)]. Based on all of the analyzed variables, the ESAM exhibited levels of activity superior to other botanical commercial acaricides and similar to spirodiclofen. Thus, our results indicate that ESAM may constitute a biorational acaricide for citrus red mite integrated pest management in Brazilian citrus orchards, particularly for local use.

  6. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  7. Methane Production of Different Forages in In vitro Ruminal Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Meale, S. J.; Chaves, A. V.; Baah, J.; McAllister, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM) ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses), 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs) and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs). After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05) within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended. PMID:25049482

  8. Ethnobotanical survey on medicinal plants used by Guinean traditional healers in the treatment of malaria.

    PubMed

    Traore, M S; Baldé, M A; Diallo, M S T; Baldé, E S; Diané, S; Camara, A; Diallo, A; Balde, A; Keïta, A; Keita, S M; Oularé, K; Magassouba, F B; Diakité, I; Diallo, A; Pieters, L; Baldé, A M

    2013-12-12

    The objective of the present study was to collect and document information on herbal remedies traditionally used for the treatment of malaria in Guinea. The survey was carried out from May 2008 to September 2010 and targeted traditional medical practitioners and herbalists. The questionnaire and oral interviews were based on the standardized model which was prepared by the "Centre de Recherche et de Valorisation des Plantes Médicinales (CRVPM) - Dubréka". A total of 258 people (141 males and 117 females) from which 150 traditional healers and 108 herbalists were interviewed. The age of informants ranged from 28 to 82 years old. 57% (149/258) of the interviewees were more than 50 years old. The respondents had good knowledge of the symptoms of malaria, and a fairly good understanding of the causes. One hundred thirteen plant species were recorded, out of which 109 were identified. They belonged to 84 genera and 46 families. The most frequently cited plants were Vismia guineensis, Parkia biglobosa, Nauclea latifolia, Harungana madagascariensis, Terminalia macroptera, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Terminalia albida, Annona senegalensis, and Nauclea pobeguinii. The leaves were most frequently used (80/113 species), followed by stem bark (38/113 species) and roots (4/113 species). The remedies were mostly prepared by decoction (111 species), followed by maceration (seven species). Only one species was prepared by infusion. The present study showed that traditional healers in Guinea have a consistent knowledge of antimalarial plants. Further research should be carried out to compare the anti-malarial activity of the different species, and to check if their use against malaria can be scientifically validated. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Hydrologic Effects and Biogeographic Impacts of Coastal Fog, Channel Islands, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, D. T.; Still, C. J.; Williams, A. P.

    2006-12-01

    Fog has long been recognized as an important component of the hydrological cycle in many ecosystems, including coastal desert fog belts, tropical cloud forests, and montane areas worldwide. Fog drip can be a major source of water, particularly during the dry season, and there is evidence in some ecosystems of direct fogwater uptake by foliar absorption. Fog and low clouds can also increase availability of water by reducing evaporative water losses. In the California Channel Islands, fog and low stratus clouds dramatically affect the water budget of coastal vegetation, particularly during the long summer drought. This work focuses on a population of Bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) on Santa Cruz Island. This is the southernmost large stand of this species, and tree growth and survival appears to be strongly limited by water availability. We have used parallel measurement and modeling approaches to quantify the importance of fogwater inputs and persistent cloud cover to Bishop pine growth. We have modeled drought stress over the last century based on local climate records, calibrated against a dense network of 12 weather stations on a 7km coastal-inland elevation gradient. Water availability is highly variable year to year, with episodic droughts that are associated with widespread tree mortality. Frequent cloud cover near the coast reduces evapotranspiration relative to the inland site (on the order of 25%), thereby delaying the onset of, and moderating the severity of the annual summer drought. Substantial summer fog drip at higher elevations provides additional water inputs that also reduce drought severity. Beyond the theoretical availability of extra water from fog drip, tree ring analysis and xylem water isotopic data suggest that significant amounts of fog water are actually taken up by these trees. Stand boundaries appear to be driven by spatial patterns of mortality related to water availability and frequency of severe drought. These results suggest that

  10. Sustainable Seas Student Intertidal Monitoring Project, Duxbury Reef, Bolinas, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soave, K.; Dean, A.; Prescutti, K.; Ball, O.; Chang, E.; Darakananda, K.; Jessup, K.; Poutian, J.; Schwalbe, H.; Storm, E.

    2008-12-01

    The Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project at the Branson School in Ross, CA has monitored Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA since 1999, in cooperation with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association and the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Goals of the project include: 1) To monitor the rocky intertidal habitat and develop a baseline database of invertebrates and algal density and abundance; 2) To contribute to the conservation of the rocky intertidal habitat through education of students and visitors about intertidal species and requirements for maintaining a healthy, diverse intertidal ecosystem; 3) To increase stewardship in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary; and 4) To contribute abundance and population data on key algae and invertebrate species to the national database, LiMPETS (Long Term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students). Student volunteers complete an intensive training course on the natural history of intertidal invertebrates and algae, identification of key species, rocky intertidal ecology, interpretation and monitoring techniques, and history of the sanctuary. Students identify and count key invertebrate and algae species along two permanent transects (A and B), and using randomly determined points within a permanent 100 m2 area, three times per year (fall, winter, and late spring). Using the data collected since 2004, we will analyze the population densities of aggregating anemones, Anthopleura elegantissima, for seasonal abundance variations as well as long-term population trends. We will also follow the seasonal and long-term population fluctuations of red algal turf, Endocladia muricata and Gelidium coulteri, and black turban snails, Tegula funebralis. Comparing populations of turf algae and the herbivorous black turban snails gathered before and after the November 7, 2007 San Francisco Bay oil spill shows very little impact on the Duxbury Reef intertidal inhabitants. Future analyses will

  11. Abundance, composition and growth rate of coral recruits on dead corals following the 2010 bleaching event at Mu Ko Surin, the Andaman Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucharoen, Mathinee; Yeemin, Thamasak; Casareto, Beatriz E.; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Samsuvan, Watchara; Sangmanee, Kanwara; Klinthong, Wanlaya; Pengsakun, Sittiporn; Sutthacheep, Makamas

    2015-06-01

    Elevated seawater temperatures in the summer months of 2010 were associated with widespread coral mortality in Thailand. A large number of corals at Mu Ko Surin died following the bleaching event. Understanding of the recruitment of corals would improve our ability to predict the potential for coral recovery from the impacts of bleaching events, as well as the interpretation of spatio-temporal variability in coral community structure. This study aims to examine the composition, abundance and growth rate of juvenile corals and the potential of reef recovery at Mu Ko Surin in order to help to understand how reefs react to major disturbances. We found that the densities of coral recruits varied among years and study sites. In the year 2011, coral recruitments ranged between 0.18 ± 0.02 to 1.67 ± 0.07 recruits per m2 for 10 study sites. While in 2012, the monitoring revealed a range between 0.96 ± 0.16 and 2.19 ± 0.21 recruits per m2 from 5 study sites. Fungia, Acropora, Porites and Favites were the dominant groups of coral recruits. In terms substrate forms, they were significant differences between sampling years but the preferential dominant substrate forms did not differ. The Acropora recruits at Ko Torinla showed normal distributions of size class during the two periods. Their ranges in 2011 and 2012 were 4-30 and 13-54 mm, respectively. Six species of Acropora recruits, i.e. Acropora intermedia, A. nasuta, A. cerealis, A. subulata, A. muricata and A. latistella were found. They showed diverse growth rates due to the spatial distribution of 2.11 ± 0.59 to 7.47 ± 1.37 cm per year. This study provides useful data in terms of coral recruitment and recovery from degradation and disturbance, especially from temperature changes induced by coral bleaching. The findings suggest that there is the possibility for coral recovery around Mu Ko Surin following the 2010 bleaching event.

  12. Holocene key coral species in the Northwest Pacific: indicators of reef formation and reef ecosystem responses to global climate change and anthropogenic stresses in the near future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongo, Chuki

    2012-03-01

    The geological record of key coral species that contribute to reef formation and maintenance of reef ecosystems is important for understanding the ecosystem response to global-scale climate change and anthropogenic stresses in the near future. Future responses can be predicted from accumulated data on Holocene reef species identified in drillcore and from data on raised reef terraces. The present study analyzes a dataset based on 27 drillcores, raised reef terraces, and 134 radiocarbon and U-Th ages from reefs of the Northwest Pacific, with the aim of examining the role of key coral species in reef growth and maintenance for reef ecosystem during Holocene sea-level change. The results indicate a latitudinal change in key coral species: arborescent Acropora (Acropora intermedia and Acropora muricata) was the dominant reef builder at reef crests in the tropics, whereas Porites (Porites australiensis, Porites lutea, and Porites lobata) was the dominant contributor to reef growth in the subtropics between 10,000 and 7000 cal. years BP (when the rate of sea-level rise was 10 m/ka). Acropora digitifera, Acropora hyacinthus, Acropora robusta/A. abrotanoides, Isopora palifera, Favia stelligera, and Goniastrea retiformis from the corymbose and tabular Acropora facies were the main key coral species at reef crests between 7000 and 5000 cal. years BP (when the rate of sea-level rise was 5 m/ka) and during the following period of stable sea-level. Massive Porites (P. australiensis, P. lutea, and P. lobata) contributed to reef growth in shallow lagoons during the period of stable sea level. Key coral species from the corymbose and tabular Acropora facies have the potential to build reefs and maintain ecosystems in the near future under a global sea-level rise of 2-6 m/ka, as do key coral species from the arborescent Acropora facies and massive Porites facies, which show vigorous growth and are tolerant to relatively deep-water, low-energy environments. However, these species

  13. One Shroom to Rule Them All: Identifying the mechanisms employed in ectomycorrhizal mutualisms for the generalist fungus Thelephora terrestris and seven genetically diverse host tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, N.; Laura, B.; Peay, K.

    2016-12-01

    This summer, through the Stanford EARTH Young Investigators Internship, I worked in the Peay fungal ecology lab to set up an experiment to identify what fungal mechanisms are at work in ectomycorrhizal mutualisms between seven phylogenetically distinct tree species and the generalist fungus Thelephora terrestris. Ectomycorrhizal fungi occupy an important niche in terrestrial ecology through their symbiotic mutualisms with plant hosts that allow for the exchange of carbon and nitrogen. However, very little is known about what determines partner choice for ectomycorrhizal fungal mutualists. Among pathogenic fungi, specialization on particular hosts is common, likely because the pathogen must work in specialized ways with the host's immune system. Ectomycorrhizal mutualists, however, tend to be generalists, even though their associations with plants are physically intimate and chemically complex. In order to understand how ectomycorrhizal fungi maintain a broad host range, I grew and planted seedlings and cuttings of Pinus muricata (bishop pine), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir), Salix lasiolepis (arroyo willow), Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood), Quercus agrifolia (coastal live oak), Eucalyptus globulus (blue gum), and Arbutus menziesii (Pacific madrone). Within each pot, the seven seedlings was planted around a previously planted donor bishop pine in potting mixture inoculated with Thelephora terrestris so that the fungus could spread from the donor pine to the others. I also helped analyze the extent of Thelephora terrestris growth on the plant roots from a preliminary round of the experiment in order to refine the data collection protocol for the coming experiment. Several months from now, my research mentor will label the carbon and nitrogen moving between the fungus and the plant to find out how well the symbiosis is working for each partner, and will sequence the RNA from the fungus to see if it uses different genes to communicate and associate with

  14. Is the response of coral calcification to seawater acidification related to nutrient loading?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, Anne; Denis, Vianney; Cuet, Pascale

    2011-12-01

    The effect of decreasing aragonite saturation state (ΩArag) of seawater (elevated pCO2) on calcification rates of Acropora muricata was studied using nubbins prepared from parent colonies located at two sites of La Saline reef (La Réunion Island, western Indian Ocean): a back-reef site (BR) affected by nutrient-enriched groundwater discharge (mainly nitrate), and a reef flat site (RF) with low terrigenous inputs. Protein and chlorophyll a content of the nubbins, as well as zooxanthellae abundance, were lower at RF than BR. Nubbins were incubated at ~27°C over 2 h under sunlight, in filtered seawater manipulated to get differing initial pCO2 (1,440-340 μatm), ΩArag (1.4-4.0), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations (2,100-1,850 μmol kg-1). Increasing DIC concentrations at constant total alkalinity (AT) resulted in a decrease in ΩArag and an increase in pCO2. AT at the beginning of the incubations was kept at a natural level of 2,193 ± 6 μmol kg-1 (mean ± SD). Net photosynthesis (NP) and calcification were calculated from changes in pH and AT during the incubations. Calcification decrease in response to doubling pCO2 relative to preindustrial level was 22% for RF nubbins. When normalized to surface area of the nubbins, (1) NP and calcification were higher at BR than RF, (2) NP increased in high pCO2 treatments at BR compared to low pCO2 treatments, and (3) calcification was not related to ΩArag at BR. When normalized to NP, calcification was linearly related to ΩArag at both sites, and the slopes of the relationships were not significantly different. The increase in NP at BR in the high pCO2 treatments may have increased calcification and thus masked the negative effect of low ΩArag on calcification. Removing the effect of NP variations at BR showed that calcification declined in a similar manner with decreased ΩArag (increased pCO2) whatever the nutrient loading.

  15. Spatially explicit multi-threat assessment of food tree species in Burkina Faso: A fine-scale approach

    PubMed Central

    Kindt, Roeland; Loo, Judy; Schmidt, Marco; Bognounou, Fidèle; Da, Sié Sylvestre; Diallo, Ousmane Boukary; Ganaba, Souleymane; Gnoumou, Assan; Lompo, Djingdia; Lykke, Anne Mette; Mbayngone, Elisée; Nacoulma, Blandine Marie Ivette; Ouedraogo, Moussa; Ouédraogo, Oumarou; Parkouda, Charles; Porembski, Stefan; Savadogo, Patrice; Thiombiano, Adjima; Zerbo, Guibien; Vinceti, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades agroforestry parklands in Burkina Faso have come under increasing demographic as well as climatic pressures, which are threatening indigenous tree species that contribute substantially to income generation and nutrition in rural households. Analyzing the threats as well as the species vulnerability to them is fundamental for priority setting in conservation planning. Guided by literature and local experts we selected 16 important food tree species (Acacia macrostachya, Acacia senegal, Adansonia digitata, Annona senegalensis, Balanites aegyptiaca, Bombax costatum, Boscia senegalensis, Detarium microcarpum, Lannea microcarpa, Parkia biglobosa, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos spinosa, Tamarindus indica, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ximenia americana, Ziziphus mauritiana) and six key threats to them (overexploitation, overgrazing, fire, cotton production, mining and climate change). We developed a species-specific and spatially explicit approach combining freely accessible datasets, species distribution models (SDMs), climate models and expert survey results to predict, at fine scale, where these threats are likely to have the greatest impact. We find that all species face serious threats throughout much of their distribution in Burkina Faso and that climate change is predicted to be the most prevalent threat in the long term, whereas overexploitation and cotton production are the most important short-term threats. Tree populations growing in areas designated as ‘highly threatened’ due to climate change should be used as seed sources for ex situ conservation and planting in areas where future climate is predicting suitable habitats. Assisted regeneration is suggested for populations in areas where suitable habitat under future climate conditions coincides with high threat levels due to short-term threats. In the case of Vitellaria paradoxa, we suggest collecting seed along the northern margins of its distribution and considering assisted regeneration in

  16. Analysis of the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment and enterocin AS-48 addition on the bacterial communities of cherimoya pulp.

    PubMed

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Toledo, Julia; Grande, M José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2015-03-02

    In the present study, pulp obtained from cherimoya pulp (Annona cherimola) was inoculated with epiphytic microbiota collected from cherimoya fruits, and supplemented or not with the circular bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 (50μg/g) and then packed under vacuum. Samples supplemented or not with enterocin were treated by high hydrostatic pressure (600MPa, 8min) and then stored at 5°C for 30days. The single AS-48 treatment only delayed microbial growth non-significantly (p>0.05). HHP treatment reduced microbial counts by five log cycles, but it did not prevent further growth of survivors by day 7. The combined treatment (AS-48+HHP) was the most effective, keeping bacterial cell densities at ≤1.5 log CFU/g for up to 15days. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis was done on amplicon libraries from the growth on TSA plates seeded with ten-fold dilutions of pulp suspensions and incubated at 22°C for 24h. The results obtained are limited by the experimental conditions used in the study, and only concern the bacterial fraction that was selected by the TSA and growth conditions used. Pantoea (Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea vagans) were the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected at highest relative abundance in bacterial biomass grown from control samples for the first 7days of storage, followed by Enterococcus gallinarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides during late storage. The single HHP treatment significantly reduced the relative abundance of OTUs belonging to Pantoea and strongly increased that of endosporeformers (mainly Bacillus firmus and Bacillus stratosphericus) early after treatment, although Pantoea became again the predominant OTUs during storage. Samples singly treated with enterocin AS-48 revealed a strong inhibition of E. gallinarum as well as an early decrease in the relative abundance of Pantoea and an increased relative abundance of OTUs belonging to other Gram-negative species (mainly from genera Serratia and Pseudomonas). The strong microbial

  17. Anti-mosquito plants as an alternative or incremental method for malaria vector control among rural communities of Bagamoyo District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plants represent one of the most accessible resources available for mosquito control by communities in Tanzania. However, no documented statistics exist for their contribution in the management of mosquitoes and other insects except through verbal and some publications. This study aimed at assessing communities’ knowledge, attitudes and practices of using plants as an alternative method for mosquito control among selected communities in a malaria-prone area in Tanzania. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 202 respondents from four villages of Bagamoyo District, Pwani Region, in Tanzania followed by participatory rural appraisal with village health workers. Secondary data collection for plants mentioned by the communities was undertaken using different search engines such as googlescholar, PubMED and NAPRALERT. Results Results showed about 40.3% of respondents used plants to manage insects, including mosquitoes. A broad profile of plants are used, including “mwarobaini” (Azadirachta indica) (22.5%), “mtopetope” (Annona spp) (20.8%), “mchungwa/mlimau” (Citrus spp) (8.3%), “mvumbashi/uvumbati” (Ocimum spp) (7.4%), “mkorosho” (Anacadium occidentale) (7.1%), “mwembe” (5.4%) (Mangifera indica), “mpera” (4.1%) (Psidium spp) and “maganda ya nazi” (4.1%) (Cocos nucifera). Majority of respondents collected these plants from the wild (54.2%), farms (28.9%) and/or home gardens (6%). The roles played by these plants in fighting mosquitoes is reflected by the majority that deploy them with or without bed-nets (p > 0.55) or insecticidal sprays (p >0.22). Most respondents were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria (90.6%) while few respondents associated elephantiasis/hydrocele (46.5%) and yellow fever (24.3%) with mosquitoes. Most of the ethnobotanical uses mentioned by the communities were consistent with scientific information gathered from the literature, except for Psidium guajava, which is reported for the first time in

  18. Spatially explicit multi-threat assessment of food tree species in Burkina Faso: A fine-scale approach.

    PubMed

    Gaisberger, Hannes; Kindt, Roeland; Loo, Judy; Schmidt, Marco; Bognounou, Fidèle; Da, Sié Sylvestre; Diallo, Ousmane Boukary; Ganaba, Souleymane; Gnoumou, Assan; Lompo, Djingdia; Lykke, Anne Mette; Mbayngone, Elisée; Nacoulma, Blandine Marie Ivette; Ouedraogo, Moussa; Ouédraogo, Oumarou; Parkouda, Charles; Porembski, Stefan; Savadogo, Patrice; Thiombiano, Adjima; Zerbo, Guibien; Vinceti, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades agroforestry parklands in Burkina Faso have come under increasing demographic as well as climatic pressures, which are threatening indigenous tree species that contribute substantially to income generation and nutrition in rural households. Analyzing the threats as well as the species vulnerability to them is fundamental for priority setting in conservation planning. Guided by literature and local experts we selected 16 important food tree species (Acacia macrostachya, Acacia senegal, Adansonia digitata, Annona senegalensis, Balanites aegyptiaca, Bombax costatum, Boscia senegalensis, Detarium microcarpum, Lannea microcarpa, Parkia biglobosa, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos spinosa, Tamarindus indica, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ximenia americana, Ziziphus mauritiana) and six key threats to them (overexploitation, overgrazing, fire, cotton production, mining and climate change). We developed a species-specific and spatially explicit approach combining freely accessible datasets, species distribution models (SDMs), climate models and expert survey results to predict, at fine scale, where these threats are likely to have the greatest impact. We find that all species face serious threats throughout much of their distribution in Burkina Faso and that climate change is predicted to be the most prevalent threat in the long term, whereas overexploitation and cotton production are the most important short-term threats. Tree populations growing in areas designated as 'highly threatened' due to climate change should be used as seed sources for ex situ conservation and planting in areas where future climate is predicting suitable habitats. Assisted regeneration is suggested for populations in areas where suitable habitat under future climate conditions coincides with high threat levels due to short-term threats. In the case of Vitellaria paradoxa, we suggest collecting seed along the northern margins of its distribution and considering assisted regeneration in the

  19. Antimycobacterial potency and cytotoxicity study of three medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Kissi-Twum, Abena Adomah; Yamthe, Lauve Rachel Tchokouaha; Mokale Kognou, Aristide Laurel; Addo, Phyllis; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo

    2016-12-01

    Mycobacterial infections including tuberculosis, leprosy, and buruli ulcer are among the most prevalent, debilitating, and deadly tropical diseases, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. The development of drug resistance to the currently available drugs and the poor compliance emphasize the need for new chemotherapeutic agents. This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro activity of Cleistopholis patens, Annona reticulata, and Greenwayodendron suaveolens against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The safety on normal liver cells was also assessed. The crude extracts, fractions, and subfractions were tested against M. smegmatis and for cell cytotoxicity on WRL-68, normal human hepatocyte using microdilution resazurin-based assays. The phytochemical screening was performed using standard methods. Most of the extracts, fractions, and subfractions inhibited the growth of M. smegmatis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 6.25μg/mL to 125μg/mL. The subfractions P12 and P29 from G. suaveolens twig were more potent with MIC values of 6.25μg/mL and 25μg/mL, respectively. Fruit crude extract and root CH 2 Cl 2 fraction from A. reticulata also showed activity with MIC values of 50μg/mL and 25μg/mL, respectively. Crude extracts from the twig and stem bark of C. patens displayed inhibition at MIC values of 125μg/mL and 100μg/mL, respectively. Majority of active extracts showed no cell cytotoxicity, except the extract from C. patens with IC 50 ranging from 41.40μg/mL to 93.78μg/mL. The chemical investigation of the promising extracts revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, glycosides, triterpenes, and acetogenins. The results achieved from this preliminary antimycobacterial drug discovery study supported the traditional claims of C. patens, A. reticulata, and G. suaveolens in the treatment of mycobacterial infections. Meanwhile, further fractionation is required to characterize the active ingredients. Copyright © 2016.

  20. In vitro antiprotozoan activity and mechanisms of action of selected Ghanaian medicinal plants against Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and Plasmodium parasites.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Mitsuko; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Kwofie, Kofi Dadzie; Agyapong, Jefferey; Adegle, Richard; Sakyiamah, Maxwell Mamfe; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffuor-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Uto, Takuhiro; Aboagye, Frederick; Appiah, Alfred Ampomah; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Anyan, William Kofi; Ayi, Irene; Boakye, Daniel Adjei; Koram, Kwadwo Ansah; Edoh, Dominic; Yamaoka, Shoji; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Ohta, Nobuo

    2018-05-07

    Trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and malaria are protozoan infections of public health importance with thousands of new cases recorded annually. Control of these infection(s) with existing chemotherapy is limited by drug toxicity, lengthy parenteral treatment, affordability, and/or the emergence of resistant strains. Medicinal plants on the other hand are used in the treatment of various infectious diseases although their chemical properties are not fully evaluated. In this study, we screened 112 crude extracts from 72 selected Ghanaian medicinal plants for anti-Trypanosoma, anti-Leishmania, and anti-Plasmodium activities in vitro and investigated their mechanisms of action. Twenty-three extracts from 20 plants showed significant antiprotozoan activity against at least 1 of 3 protozoan parasites screened with IC 50 values less than 20 μg/ml. Eleven extracts showed high anti-Trypanosoma activity with Bidens pilosa whole plant and Morinda lucida leaf extracts recording the highest activities. Their IC 50 (selectivity index [SI]) values were 5.51 μg/ml (35.00) and 5.96 μg/ml (13.09), respectively. Nine extracts had high anti-Leishmania activity with Annona senegalensis and Cassia alata leaf extracts as the most active. Their IC 50 (SI) values were 10.8 μg/ml (1.50) and 10.1 μg/ml (0.37), respectively. Six extracts had high anti-Plasmodium activity with the leaf and stem-bark extracts of Terminalia ivorensis recording the highest activity. Their IC 50 (SI) values were 7.26 μg/ml (129.36) and 17.45 μg/ml (17.17), respectively. Only M. lucida at 25 μg/ml induced significant apoptosis-like cell death in Trypanosoma parasites. Anti-Leishmania active extracts induced varying morphological changes in Leishmania parasites such as multiple nuclei and/or kinetoplast, incomplete flagella division, or nuclear fragmentation. Active extracts may be potential sources for developing new chemotherapy against these infections. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Culture-Bound Syndromes of a Brazilian Amazon Riverine population: Tentative correspondence between traditional and conventional medicine terms and possible ethnopharmacological implications.

    PubMed

    Pagani, E; Santos, J de F L; Rodrigues, E

    2017-05-05

    hypothetical correlations between CBS as described by the riverine population studied and some "etic" terms. The main importance of this is to help the proposition of target-oriented pharmacological studies of the natural resources used by these communities. Accordingly, the following plants are suggested to be submitted to further studies for antidepressant and anxiolytic activities: Siparuna guianensis, Mansoa alliacea, Leucas martinicensis, Petiveria alliacea, Annona montana and Alpinia nutans; for anti-seizure activity: Protium amazonicum, Protium aracouchini and Protium heptaphyllum; finally for antispasmodic activity: Leucas martinicensis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-mosquito plants as an alternative or incremental method for malaria vector control among rural communities of Bagamoyo District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Innocent, Ester; Hassanali, Ahmed; Kisinza, William Nw; Mutalemwa, Prince Pp; Magesa, Stephen; Kayombo, Edmund

    2014-07-11

    Plants represent one of the most accessible resources available for mosquito control by communities in Tanzania. However, no documented statistics exist for their contribution in the management of mosquitoes and other insects except through verbal and some publications. This study aimed at assessing communities' knowledge, attitudes and practices of using plants as an alternative method for mosquito control among selected communities in a malaria-prone area in Tanzania. Questionnaires were administered to 202 respondents from four villages of Bagamoyo District, Pwani Region, in Tanzania followed by participatory rural appraisal with village health workers. Secondary data collection for plants mentioned by the communities was undertaken using different search engines such as googlescholar, PubMED and NAPRALERT. Results showed about 40.3% of respondents used plants to manage insects, including mosquitoes. A broad profile of plants are used, including "mwarobaini" (Azadirachta indica) (22.5%), "mtopetope" (Annona spp) (20.8%), "mchungwa/mlimau" (Citrus spp) (8.3%), "mvumbashi/uvumbati" (Ocimum spp) (7.4%), "mkorosho" (Anacadium occidentale) (7.1%), "mwembe" (5.4%) (Mangifera indica), "mpera" (4.1%) (Psidium spp) and "maganda ya nazi" (4.1%) (Cocos nucifera). Majority of respondents collected these plants from the wild (54.2%), farms (28.9%) and/or home gardens (6%). The roles played by these plants in fighting mosquitoes is reflected by the majority that deploy them with or without bed-nets (p > 0.55) or insecticidal sprays (p >0.22). Most respondents were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria (90.6%) while few respondents associated elephantiasis/hydrocele (46.5%) and yellow fever (24.3%) with mosquitoes. Most of the ethnobotanical uses mentioned by the communities were consistent with scientific information gathered from the literature, except for Psidium guajava, which is reported for the first time in insect control. This survey has indicated some knowledge gap

  3. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Park, Young-Hwan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-03-14

    The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts) from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera) were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative) species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial activity. The species

  4. Current oil and gas production from North American Upper Cretaceous chalks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholle, Peter A.

    1977-01-01

    Production of oil and natural gas from North American chalks has increased significantly during the past five years, spurred by the prolific production from North Sea chalks, as well as by higher prices and improved production technology. Chalk reservoirs have been discovered in the Gulf Coast in the Austin Group, Saratoga and Annona Chalks, Ozan Formation, Selma Group, Monroe gas rock (an informal unit of Navarro age), and other Upper Cretaceous units. In the Western Interior, production has been obtained from the Cretaceous Niobrara and Greenhorn Formations. Significant, though subcommercial, discoveries of natural gas and gas condensate also have been made in the Upper Cretaceous Wyandot Formation on the Scotian Shelf of eastern Canada. All North American chalk units share a similar depositional and diagenetic history. The chalks consist primarily of whole and fragmented coccoliths with subordinate planktonic and benthonic Foraminifera, inoceramid prisms, oysters, and other skeletal grains. Most have between 10 and 35 percent HCl-insoluble residue, predominantly clay. Deposition was principally below wave base in tens to hundreds of meters of water. The diagenetic history of a chalk is critical in determining its reservoir potential. All chalk has a stable composition (low-Mg calcite) and very high primary porosity. With subsequent burial, mechanical and chemical (solution-transfer) compaction can reduce or completely eliminate pore space. The degree of loss of primary porosity in chalk sections is normally a direct function of the maximum depth to which it has been buried. Pore-water chemistry, pore-fluid pressures, and tectonic stresses also influence rates of cementation. Oil or gas reservoirs of North American chalk fall into three main groups: 1. Areas with thin overburden and significant primary porosity retention (for example, Niobrara Formation of Kansas and eastern Colorado). 2. Areas with thicker overburden but considerable fracturing. Here primary

  5. Rain forest fragmentation and the proliferation of successional trees.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Nascimento, Henrique E M; Laurance, Susan G; Andrade, Ana C; Fearnside, Philip M; Ribeiro, José E L; Capretz, Robson L

    2006-02-01

    The effects of habitat fragmentation on diverse tropical tree communities are poorly understood. Over a 20-year period we monitored the density of 52 tree species in nine predominantly successional genera (Annona, Bellucia, Cecropia, Croton, Goupia, Jacaranda, Miconia, Pourouma, Vismia) in fragmented and continuous Amazonian forests. We also evaluated the relative importance of soil, topographic, forest dynamic, and landscape variables in explaining the abundance and species composition of successional trees. Data were collected within 66 permanent 1-ha plots within a large (approximately 1000 km2) experimental landscape, with forest fragments ranging from 1 to 100 ha in area. Prior to forest fragmentation, successional trees were uncommon, typically comprising 2-3% of all trees (> or =10 cm diameter at breast height [1.3 m above the ground surface]) in each plot. Following fragmentation, the density and basal area of successional trees increased rapidly. By 13-17 years after fragmentation, successional trees had tripled in abundance in fragment and edge plots and constituted more than a quarter of all trees in some plots. Fragment age had strong, positive effects on the density and basal area of successional trees, with no indication of a plateau in these variables, suggesting that successional species could become even more abundant in fragments over time. Nonetheless, the 52 species differed greatly in their responses to fragmentation and forest edges. Some disturbance-favoring pioneers (e.g., Cecropia sciadophylla, Vismia guianensis, V. amazonica, V. bemerguii, Miconia cf. crassinervia) increased by >1000% in density on edge plots, whereas over a third (19 of 52) of all species remained constant or declined in numbers. Species responses to fragmentation were effectively predicted by their median growth rate in nearby intact forest, suggesting that faster-growing species have a strong advantage in forest fragments. An ordination analysis revealed three main

  6. History of Indo-Pacific coral reef systems since the last glaciation: Development patterns and controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaggioni, Lucien F.

    2005-06-01

    A significant body of new information about the development of coral reefs during the last 23 ka has been generated in the last three decades. In the Indo-Pacific province, structures from a variety of geodynamic settings have been investigated using subsurface drilling and submersible diving. This paper is based principally on the re-examination of the core dataset from the literature, with reconversion of many previously published radiocarbon ages into calendar dates. Seven framework and three detrital facies were identified on the basis of the nature and growth shapes of dominant framework builders, and on that of the texture of sediments, respectively. Framework facies in high-hydrodynamic energy settings were dominated by an association of coralline algae and robust-branching corals ( Acropora robusta group, A. gr. humilis, A. palifera, Pocillopora damicornis) with locally encrusting coral forms (faviids). In moderate energy environments, these were replaced by domal ( Porites), tabular-branching ( Acropora gr. hyacinthus) and arborescent ( Acropora gr. muricata), whereas sheltered areas included an association of arborescent, foliaceous ( Montipora, Pavona) and encrusting coral species. Detrital facies comprise coral rubble, carbonate sand and mud. On compositional and textural bases, four main sand subfacies were recognized: coralgal rudstone to packstone; coral-molluscan grainstone/packstone; molluscan-foraminiferal grainstone/packstone; and green algal ( Halimeda) grainstone/packstone. Despite some overlaps in the sand facies association, each subfacies can provide additional support to reconstruction of paleoreef environments. Three types of framework facies association were identified within entire reef-margin sequences: framework of homogeneous composition reflecting stability of environmental conditions through time; superimposition of two distinct frameworks, usually as deeper water corals overlain by shallower, higher energy ones, and recurrent