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Sample records for south african tertiary

  1. Tertiary Educators' Voices in Australia and South Africa: Experiencing and Engaging in African Music and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Music tertiary educators can foster positive experiences that promote diversity, enhance intercultural and cross-cultural understanding through our teaching. Through findings of interview data of tertiary music educators' understandings of multicultural music practice at two South African universities and at an Australia university, I used…

  2. Challenges and Potentials for Writing Centres in South African Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, A.

    2010-01-01

    There are many challenges involved in developing and running Writing Centres in tertiary contexts in South Africa. These challenges include recognizing the role Writing Centres need to play in the redress of basic academic literacies. They also involve emphasizing writing as a mode of learning where higher cognitive functions such as analysis and…

  3. Gender norms in South Africa: implications for HIV and pregnancy prevention among African and Indian women students at a South African tertiary institution.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Needham, Sarah L; Smit, Jennifer Ann; Hoffman, Susie; Cebekhulu, Queen; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M; Mabude, Zonke; Beksinska, Mags; Stein, Zena A; Milford, Cecilia

    2009-02-01

    In post-Apartheid South Africa, women are constitutionally guaranteed protections and freedoms that were previously unknown to them. These freedoms may have positive implications for women's ability to negotiate sexual protection with partners and hence prevent unintended pregnancy and decrease their risk of HIV. Among tertiary institution students, who are a relatively 'privileged' group, there is little information on gender norms that might shape responses to HIV-prevention programmes. To elicit gender norms regarding women's and men's roles, condom and contraceptive use, sexual communication and sexual pleasure, we conducted 10 semi-structured focus group discussions with African and Indian female tertiary institution students in order to understand how norms might be used to buttress HIV- and pregnancy-prevention. Participants reported dramatic changes in the structure of gender norms and relations with the formal recognition of women's rights in the post-Apartheid context. These generational shifts in norms are supported by other research in South Africa. At the same time, women recognized the co-existence of traditional constructions of gender that operate to constrain women's freedom. The perceived changes that have taken place provide an entry point for intervention, particularly for reinforcing emerging gender norms that promote women's protection against unintended pregnancy and HIV/STIs.

  4. Gender norms in South Africa: Implications for HIV and pregnancy prevention among African and Indian women students at a South African tertiary institution

    PubMed Central

    Mantell, Joanne E.; Needham, Sarah L.; Smit, Jennifer Ann; Hoffman, Susie; Cebekhulu, Queen; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M.; Mabude, Zonke; Beksinska, Mags; Stein, Zena A.; Milford, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    In post-Apartheid South Africa, women are constitutionally guaranteed protections and freedoms that were previously unknown to them. These freedoms may have positive implications for women’s ability to negotiate sexual protection with partners and hence prevent unintended pregnancy and decrease their risk of HIV. Among tertiary institution students who are a relatively ‘privileged’ group, there is little information on gender norms that might shape responses to HIV prevention programmes. To elicit gender norms regarding women’s and men’s roles, condom and contraceptive use, sexual communication, and sexual pleasure, we conducted 10 semi-structured focus group discussions with African and Indian female tertiary institution students so as to understand how norms might be used to buttress HIV and pregnancy prevention. Participants reported dramatic changes in the structure of gender norms and relations with the formal recognition of women’s rights in the post-Apartheid context. These generational shifts in norms are supported by other research in South Africa. At the same time, women recognized the co-existence of traditional constructions of gender that operate to constrain women’s freedom. The perceived changes that have taken place provide an entry point for intervention, particularly for reinforcing emerging gender norms that promote women’s protection against unintended pregnancy and HIV/STIs. PMID:19247859

  5. Does Religiosity Mediate Suicidal Tendencies? A South African Study of Muslim Tertiary Students.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasnim Bibi; Naidoo, Sarojini

    2016-06-01

    Despite international studies into religion's protective mechanism against suicidal tendencies, within South Africa there is a paucity of research investigating this relationship. This quantitative study investigates the relationship between religiosity and suicidal tendencies in a sample of Muslim students (N = 111). Two scales were used to test the hypothesis that religion mediates suicidal tendency: the Religious Orientation Test and the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale. The findings confirmed this hypothesis but disconfirmed our second hypothesis that there would be gender differences between the variables. We concluded that a high degree of religiosity acts as a protective mechanism against suicidal tendencies and discuss the implications of our findings.

  6. Issues of Identity and African Unity Surrounding the Introduction of an Exogenous African Language, Swahili, at Tertiary Level in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith-Cromarty, Rosemary; Conduah, Aloysius N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examines the attitudes of university students and immigrants to the introduction of Swahili at a tertiary institution in South Africa. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey and interviews with questions that covered the domains in which Swahili could be most useful, who should learn it and the reasons…

  7. Restructuring and Mergers of the South African Post-Apartheid Tertiary System (1994-2011): A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Nelda; Louw, G. P.; Strydom, G. L.

    2013-01-01

    Socio-economic and vocational needs of communities, governments and individuals change over the years and these discourses served as a compass for restructuring of higher institutions in South Africa from 1994. Before 1994, the claim to legitimacy for government policies in higher education rested on meeting primarily the interests of the white…

  8. Key Copyright Issues in African Distance Education: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ncube, Caroline B.

    2011-01-01

    This report draws primarily on the results of the recently concluded African Copyright and Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project, which investigated copyright and access to learning materials in face-to-face, distance education (DE), and dual-mode tertiary educational institutions in Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa,…

  9. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  10. Supporting Change: Working with South African Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Anne D.; Volmink, John

    1986-01-01

    University and pre-university education in South Africa is briefly described, along with areas where U.S. universities can assist South African organizations working to promote equal access to quality education. Three basic areas are explored: financial aid for South African students; manpower support to help in tutorials and academic research;…

  11. South African Students' Views of the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmer, M.; Lemmer, T. N.; Smit, J. J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates perceptions of the universe of (n=232) first-year physics students from two South African universities. Compared results with Aristotelian and Newtonian views as well as with those of children as revealed in a literature survey. Results also showed that a statistically significant larger number of African than European students have…

  12. Review of evidence for late Tertiary shorelines occurring on South Atlantic coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.

    1984-06-01

    Recognition of (late) Tertiary shorelines on continental coasts is becoming increasingly common. It is argued that the elevations of such features are central to their approximate dating and the demonstration of contemporaneity with similar features elsewhere. South Atlantic coasts have not had a long history of investigation, yet there exist many diffuse observations, in both time and space, which are here drawn together into a preliminary synthesis and the case for widespread occurrences of late Tertiary shorelines in the region reviewed. This allows comparison with other areas from which Tertiary shorelines are known, the Atlantic seaboards of the Southeastern United States and Northwest Europe, for example. The coasts of oceanic islands are probably the best places to examine the legacy of late Cenozoic sea-level changes. It is suggested that, since many of the cliffed shores of these islands appear to be the result of a rapid emergence, coastal features predating this event might be preserved on the cliff-tops. Possible late Tertiary shorelines from South Atlantic islands are described, as are those which have been positively dated to this period, in the Eastern Canary Islands, for instance. Sedimentary and morphological indicators of Tertiary high sea-levels are described from Antarctic coasts. South American and African Atlantic continental margins. Evidence from the latter two areas is most suspect, owing to their generally more complex Quaternary tectonic histories. A summary of the evidence for Tertiary shorelines on South Atlantic coasts is tabulated. Methods which have been or could be used to date late Tertiary shorelines are described. Minimum age can be deduced from that of deposits resting on an erosional surface, maximum age from that of the youngest formation across which a surface is cut. More precise age can be estimated where a marine surface is sandwiched between datable non-marine formations or where periods of tectonic activity (responsible

  13. Enslaved Africans and doctors in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Martia Graham

    2003-03-01

    This interpretation of the relationship between enslavement and American medicine in 19th century South Carolina reveals the intimacy that existed between Africans enslaved in that state and the doctors who practiced and taught there. Enslaved Africans were resourceful and reliable medical figures in the slave community. Their knowledge of medical botany permeated the slave quarters and plantation hospitals and was appropriated into southern medical knowledge. The trajectories of the careers of three South Carolina physicians are tied to their practice around and on the enslaved. The beginnings of gynecological surgery are linked to 1840s experimentation on enslaved African women performed by one of them.

  14. Fluid migration, HC concentration in South Louisiana Tertiary sands

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, W.G.

    1993-03-15

    This is the second part of a three part series about the distribution of hydrocarbons in the Tertiary sands of South Louisiana. Most commercial hydrocarbons have disappeared at a pressure gradient of 0.85 psi/ft and a temperature of 350 F. in the South Louisiana Tertiary. The reason is quite simple. The bulk of all hydrocarbons is concentrated near the onset of abnormal pressure and between 140 and 260 F. Very little production is found beyond this pressure/temperature environment. The article attempts to explain why hydrocarbons do not occur outside this temperature/pressure region. It discusses vertical fluid migration and probable gas and oil sources.

  15. Shaping the Environmental Attitude of Military Geography Students at the South African Military Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smit, Hennie A. P.

    2009-01-01

    Globally there is a growing environmental awareness among all segments of society, but research on the effect of environmental education in shaping the attitude of military students is lacking. Tertiary environmental education to officers of the South African Department of Defence is seated in the Department of Military Geography at the South…

  16. E-Voting: A South African Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanepoel, E.; Thomson, K.; van Niekerk, J. F.

    The South African democracy, despite being worthy of admiration, is in its infancy. As such its electoral processes still needs to be nurtured and protected. Since 1994 there has been four national elections. All of these have been declared "free and fair" by the Independent Electoral Commission. However, there has been some problems and growing pains. This paper firstly discusses the current electoral system in South Africa. It then examines E-voting systems and discusses the feasibility of such a voting system for use in the South African context.

  17. Diversity and origin of South African chickens.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Chimonyo, M; Groeneveld, E; Weigend, S; Dzama, K

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the genetic diversity and structure of South African conserved and field chicken populations and to investigate the maternal lineages of these chicken populations. Four South African conserved chicken populations (n = 89), namely, Venda (VD_C), Ovambo, Naked Neck, and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Animal Production Institute of the Agricultural Research Council, and 2 field populations, the Venda and Ovambo (OV_F), from which the Ovambo and the Venda conservation flocks were assumed to have been sampled, were genotyped for 460 bp of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence. Haplotypes of these chickens were aligned to 7 Japanese and 9 Chinese and Eurasian chicken mtDNA D-loop sequences taken from GenBank and reflecting populations from presumed centers of domestication. Sequence analysis revealed 48 polymorphic sites that defined 13 haplotypes in the South African chicken populations. All 6 South African conserved and field chicken populations observed were found to be polymorphic, with the number of haplotypes ranging from 3 for VD_C to 8 for OV_F. The lowest haplotype diversity, 0.54 ± 0.08, was observed in VD_C chickens, whereas the highest value, 0.88 ± 0.05, was observed in OV_F chickens. Genetic diversity between the 4 South African conserved and 2 field chicken populations constituted 12.34% of the total genetic variation, whereas within-population diversity constituted 87.66% of the total variation. The median network analysis of the mtDNA D-loop haplotypes observed in the South African conserved and field populations and the reference set resulted in 5 main clades. All 6 South African chickens were equally represented in the major clade, E, which is presumed to be of Indian subcontinent maternal origin and may have its roots in Southeast Asia. The results showed multiple maternal lineages of South African chickens. Conservation flocks and field chicken populations shared the major haplotypes A, D and E

  18. Against the Wind: Five South Africans Follow Their Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lesley

    This book for beginning readers tells the story of five South Africans who, though not very famous, all did things that no black South African had ever done before. They include: Simon Mkhize who, year after year, ran the Comrades Marathon unofficially, ignoring its racial bans; Magema M. Fuze, who was the first black South African to publish a…

  19. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wijk, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  20. Caring School Leadership: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Vyver, Cornelius P.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Meyer, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals' rating of their care-giving and teachers'…

  1. Peace Management and Enhanced Academic Performance of Tertiary Institutions in South-South Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebuara, Victor Obule; Ekpoh, Uduak Imo

    2011-01-01

    This study was embarked upon with a view to examining the need for peace in the management of tertiary institutions towards enhancing academic performance in south-south Nigeria. Three hypotheses and one research question guided the study. One thousand, two hundred and nineteen (1219) academic and non-academic staff were selected for the study. A…

  2. An overview of South African psychology.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa.

  3. SADCC: challenging the "South African connection.".

    PubMed

    Liebenow, J G

    1982-01-01

    The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) which unites 9 states with a combined population of 60 million, has as its objective the task of promoting economic development and realizing economic independence. In many respects the strain of neocolonialism that Southern Africa faces at this time is even more virulent than that facing West, Central, and East Africa. In the latter regions the surrender of political authority by colonial administrators frequently left the commercial, agricultural, and industrial interests of the European powers in continued control of the economies of the former colonies. The fate of economic development plans was determined by situations and decisions made in places distant from the African continent. In the case of Southern Africa, the withdrawal or expulsion of European colonialists has found whites in neighboring South Africa most eager to step into the economic breech. For most of the Southern African states this variant strain of the neocolonial virus creates a dual problem: the independent states acting separately have been no match for South Africa; and the acquiescence of independent African states in forging economic links with South Africa has impeded the liberation efforts of Africans in Namibia and the Republic of South Africa. Discussion focus turns to the challenges that confront SADCC; transport as the most significant factor accounting for the dependency of SADCC states upon South Africa; the role of minerals in dependency; other aspects of dependency; South Africa's proposed Constellation of States; the origins and objectives of SADCC; and dollars and donors. SADCC planning for economic liberation has been conducted against the background of a counterproposal advanced by South Africa's government, which put the Republic at the center of an expanded network of economic linkages within the entire southern African region. While being formally rejected, the Constellation of States scheme does have

  4. Rethinking "relevance": South African psychology in context.

    PubMed

    Long, Wahbie

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the phenomenon known as the "relevance debate" in South African psychology. It begins with a historical overview of the contours of the discipline in that country before describing the controversy's international dimensions, namely, the revolutionary politics of 1960s higher education and the subsequent emergence of cognate versions of the debate in American, European, and "Third World" psychology. The article then details how South Africa's "relevance" project enjoyed a special affinity with an assortment of ethnic-cultural, national, and continental myths and metaphors, all of which served the interests of the political formations of the day. It discusses how, in present-day South Africa, the intelligentsia has become an important catalyst for the so-called African Renaissance, which seeks to provide "relevant" solutions for the regeneration of African society. However, the global hegemony of what began in the 1970s as a "second academic revolution," aided by the lifting of the academic boycott of South Africa, has blunted the once critical edge of "relevance" discourse. A new mode of knowledge production now holds sway, the outcome of a dramatic reformulation of the capitalist manifesto in which the values of the "May 68" generation have been hijacked by a managerialist rationality. In light of the capitalization of the knowledge-production enterprise, it is concluded that the idiom of "relevance" has outlived its usefulness.

  5. Reflections on South African Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the state of higher education in South Africa looks at the economic context, the structure of the higher education system, including the role of apartheid and languages (English and Afrikaans), the government's role in governance and funding, and the actual and potential roles of professional associations in education. (MSE)

  6. Astronomy for teachers: A South African Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Witt, Aletha; West, Marion; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Gouws, Eldrie

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has nominated Astronomy as a “flagship science” and aims to be an international Astronomy hub through projects such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the South African Large Telescope (SALT). These projects open up career opportunities in maths, science and engineering and therefore offers a very real door for learners to enter into careers in science and technology through Astronomy. However, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS), the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) and Annual National Assessment (ANA) have highlighted that South Africa’s Science and Mathematics education is in a critical condition and that South African learners score amongst the worst in the world in both these subjects. In South Africa Astronomy is generally regarded as the worst taught and most avoided Natural Science knowledge strand, and most teachers that specialised in Natural Sciences, never covered Astronomy in their training.In order to address these issues a collaborative project between the University of South Africa (UNISA) and the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) was initiated, which aims to assist teachers to gain more knowledge and skills so that they can teach Astronomy with confidence. By collaborating we aim to ensure that the level of astronomy development will be raised in both South Africa and the rest of Africa.With the focus on Teaching and Learning, the research was conducted within a quantitative paradigm and 600 structured questionnaires were administered to Natural Science teachers in Public primary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. This paper reports the findings of this research and makes recommendations on how to assist teachers to teach Astronomy with confidence.

  7. South African TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruendlingh, Marten L.; Shannon, L. V.; Lutjeharms, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The area surrounding the southern tip of Africa contains a juxtaposition of a variety of interesting and climatically relevant features. On the Indian Ocean side, the Agulhas Current with its tributaries form a conduit through which much of the southern Indian Ocean surface flow is focused. South of the continent, this flow is fragmented and partially injected into the Atlantic Ocean and across the Subtropical Convergence into the Southern Ocean. To the west of the subcontinent, the circulation of the South Atlantic subtropical gyre in the Cape Basin interacts with the vigorous Benguela upwelling regime. The creation, transformation, and transport of water masses and the intra-annual and climatic importance of all these processes have been specifically recognized by the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The South African TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimeter Experiment addresses many of these issues through four mutually complementary and interrelated subprojects.

  8. An Ambivalent Community: International African Students in Residence at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Everard

    2016-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of the experiences and perceptions of South African and especially international, African students living in university residences in South Africa. The concept, community, is used to interpret interview data. This community was characterised by ambivalent social relations: There was discrimination by South Africans…

  9. South African food allergy consensus document 2014.

    PubMed

    Levin, M E; Gray, C L; Goddard, E; Karabus, S; Kriel, M; Lang, A C; Manjra, A I; Risenga, S M; Terblanche, A J; van der Spuy, D A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing worldwide and is an important cause of anaphylaxis. There are no local South African food allergy guidelines. This document was devised by the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES) and the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA). Subjects may have reactions to more than one food, and different types and severity of reactions to different foods may coexist in one individual. A detailed history directed at identifying the type and severity of possible reactions is essential for every food allergen under consideration. Skin-prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (ImmunoCAP) tests prove IgE sensitisation rather than clinical reactivity. The magnitude of sensitisation combined with the history may be sufficient to ascribe causality, but where this is not possible an incremental oral food challenge may be required to assess tolerance or clinical allergy. For milder non-IgE-mediated conditions a diagnostic elimination diet may be followed with food re-introduction at home to assess causality. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food/s, taking into account nutritional status and provision of alternative sources of nutrients. Acute management of severe reactions requires prompt intramuscular administration of adrenaline 0.01 mg/kg and basic resuscitation. Adjunctive therapy includes antihistamines, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Subjects with food allergy require risk assessment and those at increased risk for future severe reactions require the implementation of risk-reduction strategies, including education of the patient, families and all caregivers (including teachers), the provision of a written emergency action plan, a MedicAlert necklace or bracelet and injectable adrenaline (preferably via auto-injector) where necessary.

  10. Children's Spirituality in Social Context: A South African Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Cornelia

    2006-01-01

    This discussion presents a critical and thorough review of spirituality in Religion Education in the South African context. In the democratic South African education system issues such as personal well-being, spirituality and multi-religion education are confronting teachers and learners who have to cope with a new approach to religion in…

  11. Internationalization of Higher Education: A South African Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rensburg, Ihron; Motala, Shireen; David, Solomon Arulraj

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of South African universities continues to be shaped by both apartheid and more recent post-apartheid policies. Yet the South African university system is mainly an elite, low participation and high attrition system, offering a medium quality education. Moreover, there is uneven attention to the opportunities that…

  12. Exploring Teachers' Reading Competences: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Carol

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the reading competence of teachers who are enrolled in a distance education programme in a South African university. Many South African teachers upgrade their teaching diplomas by enrolling for a part-time, distance degree at a university. However, many are not prepared for academic study and its focus…

  13. Combination vaccines in the South African setting.

    PubMed

    Visser, Adele; Hoosen, Anwar

    2012-09-07

    The number of vaccines available and included as part of the national immunization schedules, has increased significantly over the past few decades. This impacts on patient/parent compliance and creates a challenge for health care providers for implementation of schedules necessitating training and infrastructure improvements. Use of combination rather than component vaccines offers advantages for compliance by single dose administration of various antigens, reducing stock costing as well as reducing cost of additional health care visits. Combination vaccines are often significantly more expensive than individual constituent vaccines. Concerns regarding an increased incidence of adverse events with use of combination vaccines have not been confirmed and rates may seem high as the adverse events seem to mimic the sum total of adverse event rates for each individual antigen used but may in fact be lower. Manufacturers typically advise against interchanging use of vaccine products. Despite this, health authorities advocate use of an alternative vaccine where the original vaccine in not available, to ensure continuity of vaccination. A notable exception is the acellular pertussis vaccine. Partly, because no serological correlates of immunity exist, but also a general lack of convincing follow up studies has prompted the recommendation for manufacturer fidelity for at least the first 3 vaccine doses. According to the South African Medicines Formulary, a variety of vaccines are available in South Africa. Although a large number are available in the private sector, the only true combination vaccine included in the current state EPI, modified in 2009, is the DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine (Diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular Pertussis, inactivated Poliomyelitis virus and Haemophilus influenzae type b). There are many reasons justifying the use of combination vaccines rather that the individual constituent formulations. Implementation of use in the South African setting at this point is

  14. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-01-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  15. South African court rejects country's new constitution.

    PubMed

    1996-09-20

    Fundamental principles designed to ensure that South Africa's new constitution upholds a wide range of individual rights and freedoms and establishes a responsive government with a balanced separation of powers, including recognition of the role of traditional tribal leadership, were adopted into the current interim constitution shortly before the 1994 free elections which brought Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress to power. In a judgement issued on September 6, 1996, South Africa's Constitutional Court rejected the country's new draft constitution, arguing that it failed to meet the standards of nine of the 34 principles established at the Kempton Park negotiations. The Constitutional Assembly is comprised of a joint meeting of the National Assembly and Senate. One of the court's major objections to the constitution concerned the proposed structure of rule, which was seen to give inadequate power to South Africa's nine provinces as compared with the national government. However, the bill of rights was almost entirely upheld. The bill would create a favorable environment for legalized abortion and guarantee a universal right of access to health care, including reproductive health services

  16. Developing generalism in the South African context.

    PubMed

    Howe, Amanda C; Mash, Robert J; Hugo, Jannie F M

    2013-10-11

    The largest impact on the South African burden of disease will be made in community-based and primary healthcare (PHC) settings and not in referral hospitals. Medical generalism is an approach to the delivery of healthcare that routinely applies a broad and holistic perspective to the patient's problems and is a feature of PHC. A multi-professional team of generalists, who share similar values and principles, is needed to make this a reality. Ward-based outreach teams include community health workers and nurses with essential support from doctors. Expert generalists - family physicians - are required to support PHC as well as provide care at the district hospital. All require sufficient training, at scale, with greater collaboration and integration between training programmes. District clinical specialist teams are both an opportunity and a threat. The value of medical generalism needs to be explained, advocated and communicated more actively. 

  17. Mortality of white South African gold miners.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, P J; Sluis-Cremer, G K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--This two part study aimed to determine whether there was an excess mortality generally or for some diseases among middle aged white South African gold miners on the Witwatersrand and whether the underground dust exposure of these miners contributed to the development of lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or ischaemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS--A cohort of 4925 white miners in South Africa, born between 1 January 1916 and 31 December 1930 who were alive and working in the vicinity of Johannesburg on 1 January 1970, then aged between 39 and 54, was followed up for 20 years by which time 2032 had died. Most were gold miners (about 87% had worked 85% or more of their shifts in gold mines). Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated as percentages of the number of deaths observed in the cohort for a condition as stated on the death certificate divided by the number expected on the basis of concurrent mortality in the reference population (the total age specific white male population of South Africa). A case-control analysis was performed for three diseases (lung cancer, COPD, and IHD), the results of which are presented for those miners in the cohort who had spent at least 85% of their service on gold mines and had worked at least 15% of their shifts underground. RESULTS--The SMR for all causes of death was 129.6%, raised because of excess mortality due to the following causes: lung cancer (SMR = 139.8%), IHD (124.1%), COPD (189%) and cirrhosis of the liver (155.3%). Smoking was confirmed to be the main risk factor for lung cancer and COPD although cumulative dust exposure was found to increase the risk of COPD in conjunction with smoking. No significant risk of lung cancer resulted from exposure to dust. High blood pressure and smoking were found to increase the risk of IHD, but no association between IHD and the quetelet index (weight/height2) was found. CONCLUSIONS--The most significant and unexpected finding was the

  18. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis in two tertiary centres in the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a disease that shows wide variations between differing populations. Since the recent international consensus on classification criteria, JIA has been widely described in many countries and population groups. There has been almost no data that describes JIA in an African, specifically Sub-Saharan African, setting. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe disease characteristics, disease course, and functional disability in two tertiary centres in the Western Cape, South Africa and compare the findings to other JIA populations. Methods Eighty-six children were recruited during random clinic visits to rheumatology clinics at Tygerberg and Groote Schuur Hospital between April 2010 and April 2011. Children were diagnosed using International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2001 classification criteria. Consent was obtained and medical records examined. The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaires (CHAQ) and visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain and general well-being were completed and all children were examined by a researcher in conjunction with a paediatric rheumatologist. HIV status as well as tuberculosis disease and treatment were investigated. Results A total of 86 children were enrolled. Eight children were excluded (2 HIV arthropathy, 1 TB arthritis, 1 SLE, 4 with insufficient data), leaving a total of 78 patients. There was an equal female to male ratio-39 males and 39 females. There were 6 systemic JIA patients (7.69%), 17 persistent oligoarthritis (21.79%), 4 extended oligoarthritis (5.12%), 11 polyarthritis rheumatoid factor (RF) positive (14.10%), 21 polyarthritis RF negative (26.9%), 1 psoriatic arthritis (1.28%), and 18 enthesitis-related arthritis (23%). The median CHAQ for the group was 0.5 (IQR 0.1-1.25), the median VAS for pain was 18 mm (IQR 4–42) and median VAS for general well-being was 25 mm (IQR 3–49). Enthesitis-related arthritis and polyarthritis disease subtypes in

  19. The Efficacy of "Catch-Up Programmes" in South African High Schools: A Legal Jinx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyoni, Jabulani

    2013-01-01

    The South African State is mandated by Sections 28(2) and 29(1) of the South African Constitution to make provision for the education of a South African child in fulfilment of the child's constitutional rights. Teacher Unions (TUs) and provincial Departments of Basic Education (DBEs) have often promised South African high school student body, in…

  20. A Study of People-Run Tertiary Education in South and West China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yongyang; Secombe, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    Chinese People-Run tertiary education institutions have grown dramatically in recent years. This paper aims to discuss the government deregulation policy and its impact on private tertiary education in China since the 1980s, particularly on south and west China, Gui Zhou province. Three colleges have been selected respectively from economically…

  1. Financing vaccinations - the South African experience.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Mark S; Meheus, Filip; Kollipara, Aparna; Hecht, Robert; Cameron, Neil A; Pillay, Yogan; Hanna, Luisa

    2012-09-07

    South Africa provides a useful country case study for financing vaccinations. It has been an early adopter of new vaccinations and has financed these almost exclusively from domestic resources, largely through general taxation. National vaccination policy is determined by the Department of Health, based on advice from a national advisory group on immunisation. Standard health economic criteria of effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, affordability and burden of disease are used to assess whether new vaccinations should be introduced. Global guidelines and the advice of local and international experts are also helpful in making the determination to introduce new vaccines. In terms of recent decisions to introduce new vaccines against pneumococcal disease and rotavirus diarrhoea in children, the evidence has proved unequivocal. Universal rollout has been implemented even though this has led to a fivefold increase in national spending on vaccines. The total cost to government remains below 1-1.5% of public expenditures for health, which is viewed by the South African authorities as affordable and necessary given the number of lives saved and morbidity averted. To manage the rapid increase in domestic spending, efforts have been made to scale up coverage over several years, give greater attention to negotiating price reductions and, in some cases, obtain initial donations or frontloaded deliveries to facilitate earlier universal rollout. There has been strong support from a wide range of stakeholders for the early introduction of new generation vaccines.

  2. [Lingualized occlusion in the South African context].

    PubMed

    Oberholzer, T G; Geerts, G A V M

    2002-01-01

    The search for the ideal artificial tooth arrangement that maximizes denture stability, comfort, aesthetics, and function has occupied the dental literature for many years and still continues to do so. Of the many occlusal schemes that have been presented to the dental profession, that of lingualized occlusion has emerged as one of the more popular. The popularity of lingualized occlusion stems from the simplicity and flexibility of the concept and from its wide application to clinical practice (Parr & Ivanhoe, 1996). The registration of a repeatable correct centric jaw relation is not always possible. We don't know whether the patient will use centric relation during normal function. It is therefore useful to provide the patient with some freedom of movement around centric. lingualized occlusion provides freedom in centric. For many dentists the arrangement of artificial denture teeth into balanced occlusion is difficult and time consuming. As a result this task is most often performed by the dental technician. In the South African countryside dental laboratories are often far away. If dentists perform the arrangement of the denture teeth, time and costs can be saved. The mounting of denture teeth in lingualized occlusion is simple and fast. This will motivate dentists to arrange denture teeth themselves, with obvious benefits for both the patient and the dentist. The School of Oral Health Sciences of the University of Stellenbosch teaches this concept to its undergraduate students in order to improve the prosthetic service to the large edentulous population of South Africa.

  3. South African budget targets AIDS campaigns.

    PubMed

    Baleta, A

    1999-03-06

    This brief article identifies new levels of government funding for health and more specifically AIDS programs in South Africa. Health allocations were increased from R23 billion in 1998 to R24 billion during 1999. Health funding will increase in 2 years to R28 in 2001. AIDS programs will receive R110 million (US$17.7 million) in 1999, of which R58 million will be directed to the government's AIDS Awareness Action Plan. South Africa has one of the fastest growing epidemics in the world. The government is responding to its needs and the pressure from activists for its failure to sufficiently address the spread of HIV/AIDS. AIDS activists have criticized the government decision not to fund pilot projects that would give HIV-positive pregnant women free access to zidovudine. General elections are scheduled for April 1999 and the ruling African National Congress could be attacked for failing to support AIDS awareness. The Western Cape province's AIDS program director was pleased with the level of support, since international donors had previously funded AIDS programs. The Democratic Party was pleased with the government's funding of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) with HIV/AIDS programs. A party spokesperson thought that the government's inefficiencies in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS indicated that it is now up to NGOs to show their strengths in combating HIV/AIDS.

  4. The South African Astro-informatics Alliance (SA3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barway, S.

    South African astronomy is entering a new era of astronomical research with SALT and MeerKAT/SKA. These new facilities expected to produce huge amount of data and combined with multi wavelength databases that already exists, South African astronomers need to be equipped with latest technologies to deal with new challenges posed by SALT/MeerKAT/SKA. South African Astro-informatics Alliance (SA3) is a collaborative initiative lead by SAAO, SA-SKA and HartRAO to utilize the most recent advancements in IT technology to address many Terabytes of data volume generated by SALT/MeerKAT/SKA along with existing multi-wavelength data archives. In this talk, I present SA3 activities which include the development of a new generation of data archives and tools to address the many Terabytes of data that will be generated by the new South African observing facilities.

  5. On the "Africanization" of English Studies in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Gareth

    2006-01-01

    The article is an exploration of current trends within, and the desired destiny of, the humanities discipline of English Studies in the context of calls for the "Africanization" of South African universities. The essay advocates the embrace of a non-universalist, emancipationist humanism. (Contains 8 notes.)

  6. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Campbell, Kenneth E.; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.

  7. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F; Campbell, Kenneth E; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco

    2015-04-23

    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.

  8. Unsustainable fuelwood extraction from South African savannas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, K. J.; Colgan, M. S.; Erasmus, B. F. N.; Asner, G. P.; Twine, W. C.; Mathieu, R.; van Aardt, J. A. N.; Fisher, J. T.; Smit, I. P. J.

    2013-03-01

    Wood and charcoal supply the majority of sub-Saharan Africa’s rural energy needs. The long-term supply of fuelwood is in jeopardy given high consumption rates. Using airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), we mapped and investigated savanna aboveground biomass across contrasting land uses, ranging from densely populated communal areas to highly protected areas in the Lowveld savannas of South Africa. We combined the LiDAR observations with socio-economic data, biomass production rates and fuelwood consumption rates in a supply-demand model to predict future fuelwood availability. LiDAR-based biomass maps revealed disturbance gradients around settlements up to 1.5 km, corresponding to the maximum distance walked to collect fuelwood. At current levels of fuelwood consumption (67% of households use fuelwood exclusively, with a 2% annual reduction), we calculate that biomass in the study area will be exhausted within thirteen years. We also show that it will require a 15% annual reduction in consumption for eight years to a level of 20% of households using fuelwood before the reduction in biomass appears to stabilize to sustainable levels. The severity of dwindling fuelwood reserves in African savannas underscores the importance of providing affordable energy for rural economic development.

  9. Pregnancy termination among South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Varga, Christine A

    2002-12-01

    Although African adolescents' risk of undergoing abortion and of related health complications is well-documented, little is known about the procedure's prominence in their lives and the pathways that lead to their reliance upon it. This study investigates abortion dynamics among male and female Zulu adolescents in KwaZulu/Natal, South Africa. It explores the role of abortion in young people's sexual and reproductive experience, its acceptability, the reasons and likelihood of young people's choosing abortion, and the commonly used methods of pregnancy termination. The study, a rural-urban comparison using focus-group discussions, narrative workshops, and role playing, involved surveys and in-depth interviews. Factors contributing to the commonplace nature of backstreet procedures among adolescents include: social stigma, inadequate knowledge of the legal status of abortion, and a complex group decisionmaking process. Young people invoke "relative moralities" concerning adolescent abortion, recognizing and condoning it on a context-specific basis. Age, gender, and geographic differences are examined. The methodological triangulation used offers the opportunity for alternative theoretical and methodological approaches to research on abortion-related issues.

  10. Complete Genome Sequences of Six South African Rabies Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Phahladira, Baby; Marston, Denise A.; Wise, Emma L.; Ellis, Richard J.; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    South African rabies viruses (RABVs) from dogs and jackals (canid viruses) are highly related and most likely originated from a single progenitor. RABV is the cause of most global human rabies cases. The complete genome sequences of 3 RABVs from South Africa and Zimbabwe are reported here. PMID:26430028

  11. Immigrant Students' Shifting Identifications in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2012-01-01

    The easing of legal and unauthorized entry to South Africa has made the country a new destination for Black immigrants. As this population continues to grow, its children have begun to experience South African schools in an array of uniquely challenging ways. For these immigrant youth, forging a sense of identity may be their single greatest…

  12. Publishing South African scholarship in the global academic community

    PubMed Central

    le Roux, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    South Africa's academic publishing history has been profoundly influenced by its colonial heritage. This is reflected in the publication of Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society (later, the Royal Society of South Africa) from 1878. Although the Society and journal sought to promote original research about South Africa, it was modelled after the Royal Society in London and formed part of an imperial scientific community. As the local higher education institutions grew more independent and research-focused, local scholarly publishing developed as well, with university presses playing an increasingly important role. The University of South Africa (Unisa) Press started publishing departmental journals in the 1950s, with a focus on journals that ‘speak to the student’, and it is today the only South African university press with an active journals publishing programme. As external funding declined and the country became intellectually isolated in the high apartheid period, the Press managed to attract journals that could no longer be subsidized by learned societies and other universities. More recently, new co-publishing arrangements have brought South African journals back into an international intellectual community. Although some argue that this constitutes a re-colonization of South African knowledge production, it is also an innovative strategy for positioning local research in a global context. PMID:26495579

  13. Priority Health Behaviors among South African Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Kandice; Johnson, Ping Hu; Petrillo, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the priority health behaviors of South African youth by administering a questionnaire to 635 undergraduate students enrolled in a large metropolitan university in South Africa. Results indicate that 65.5% of the participants tried cigarettes at least once during their lifetime, over 15.2% had their first cigarette and 31.2% had…

  14. An Evaluation of the South African Model of MBA Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmur, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The South African Council on Higher Education (CHE) withdrew its accreditation of 15 Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees in May 2004. MBAs for which accreditation was withdrawn include those offered in South Africa by Bond University (Australia) and De Montfort University (UK). CHEs decisions have significant implications for students,…

  15. Pre-Service Teachers' Reflections of South African Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, S. K.; Singh, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of outcomes-based education in South Africa placed many challenges on the transformation of science classrooms. The 2009 National Education Evaluation and Development Unit (NEEDU) Report concluded that South African rural and township schools are largely dysfunctional. This article examined some of the reasons for the…

  16. South African Student Constructed Indlebe Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGruder, Charles H.; MacPherson, Stuart; Janse Van Vuuren, Gary Peter

    2017-01-01

    The Indlebe Radio Telescope (IRT) is a small transit telescope with a 5 m diameter parabolic reflector working at 21 cm. It was completely constructed by South African (SA) students from the Durban University of Technology (DUT), where it is located. First light occurred on 28 July 2008, when the galactic center, Sagittarius A, was detected. As a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, staff members in the Department of Electronic Engineering at DUT in 2006 decided to have their students create a fully functional radio telescope by 2009. The specific project aims are to provide a visible project that could generate interest in science and technology in high school students and to provide a real world system for research in radio astronomy in general and an optimization of low noise radio frequency receiver systems in particular. These aims must be understood in terms of the SA’s government interests in radio astronomy. SA is a partner in the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project, has constructed the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT) and MeerKat, which is the largest and most sensitive radio telescope in the southern hemisphere. SA and its partners in Africa are investing in the construction of the African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (AVN), an array of radio telescopes throughout Africa as an extension of the existing global Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (VLBI). These projects will allow SA to make significant contributions to astronomy and enable astronomy to contribute to the scientific education and development goals of the country. The IRT sees on a daily basis the transit of Sag A. The transit time is influenced by precession, nutation, polar motion, aberration, celestial pole offset, proper motion, length of the terrestrial day and variable ionospheric refraction. Of these eight factors six are either predictable or measureable. To date neither celestial pole offset nor variable ionospheric refraction are predicable

  17. Spermatocele in a South African Boerboel dog.

    PubMed

    Hesser, Andrea C; Davidson, Autumn P

    2015-03-01

    A 2-year-old intact male South African Boerboel presented for semen cryopreservation and was discovered to be azoospermic. The dog had excellent libido and had sired litters within 6 months, so a further investigation of why his collection lacked sperm was warranted. On further examination of his scrotal contents, his right epididymis had an enlarged area with a hard texture. Ultrasonography revealed that the enlarged area of the right epididymis was fluid filled. A sample of the fluid was aspirated for aerobic culture. No bacteria showed growth. Although the culture was negative, it was suspected that this dog had an epididymitis or epididymal abscess, and treatment with enrofloxacin at 10mg/kg orally was initiated for 4 weeks. The abnormal texture and fluid-filled cavity in the right epididymis persisted, despite antibiotic therapy. Cytology of a repeat aspiration of the fluid-filled area after antibiotic therapy revealed a mixture of red blood cells and sperm. Owing to the potential for blood-testis barrier disruption, a unilateral orchiectomy of the right testicle was performed, as an attempt to protect future sperm production of the remaining testicle. A spermatocele was confirmed on histopathology. After another month, an excellent-quality semen sample was collected, with 90% progressive motility, good concentration, and few morphologic abnormalities. A subsequent collection was acquired and was successfully cryopreserved for future breeding. In dogs with spermatoceles, semen quality can be preserved with aggressive treatment to remove the affected testicle. The disruption of the blood-testis barrier in spermatoceles may result in antisperm antibody production and eventual infertility; however, cryopreservation can result in long-term options for owners seeking to continue using an animal in their breeding program.

  18. South African parliament approves sweeping abortion reform.

    PubMed

    1996-11-22

    South Africa's National Assembly voted 209 to 87 for passage of the "Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act" on October 30; it was passed in the Senate, 49 to 21 (20 abstentions), on November 5. The African National Congress strongly supported the Act, while the National Party opposed it. Under the law, abortions during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy may to be performed by physicians or trained midwives. From week 13 through week 20, a physician, in consultation with the mother, may terminate the pregnancy after determining that continuing the pregnancy would threaten the woman's health (physical or mental) or circumstances (social or economic), or that the fetus is at substantial risk of suffering severe physical or mental abnormalities. Abortion is permitted after 20 weeks if two doctors (or midwives) decide continuing the pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or result in injury or severe malformation of the fetus. Only the pregnant woman's consent is required. Although an abortion provider must advise a young client to consult with parents, guardian, family members, or friends before the procedure, she is not required to comply. All women are to be informed of their rights under the Act; criminal penalties (up to 10 years) are mandated for unauthorized abortion providers, for persons who prevent a lawful abortion, or for those who obstruct access to an abortion facility. The new statute repeals the more restrictive Abortion and Sterilization Act of 1975, which permitted abortion only in cases of maternal life or health endangerment, severe fetal abnormality, rape, incest, or mental incapacity.

  19. Petroleum geology of Cretaceous-Tertiary rift basins in Niger, Chad, and Central African Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Genik, G.J. )

    1993-08-01

    This overview of the petroleum geology of rift basins in Niger, Chad, and Central African Republic (CAR) is based on exploration work by Exxon and partners in the years 1969-1991. The work included 50,000 km of modern reflection seismic, 53 exploration wells, 1,000,000 km[sup 2] of aeromagnetic coverage, and about 10,500 km of gravity profiles. The results outline ten Cretaceous and Tertiary rift basins, which constitute a major part of the West and Central African rift system (WCARS). The rift basins derive from a multiphased geologic history dating from the Pan-African (approximately 750-550 Ma) to the Holocene. WCARS in the study area is divided into the West African rift subsystem (WAS) and the Central African rift subsystem (WAS) and the Central African rift subsystem (CAS). WAS basins in Niger and Chad are chiefly extensional, and are filled by up to 13,000 m of Lower Cretaceous to Holocene continental and marine clastics. The basins contain five oil (19-43[degrees]API) and two oil and gas accumulations in Upper Cretaceous and Eocene sandstone reservoirs. The hydrocarbons are sourced and sealed by Upper Cretaceous and Eocene marine and lacustrine shales. The most common structural styles and hydrocarbon traps usually are associated with normal fault blocks. CAS rift basins in Chad and CAR are extensional and transtensional, and are filled by up to 7500 m of chiefly Lower Cretaceous continental clastics. The basins contain eight oil (15-39[degrees]API) and one oil and gas discovery in Lower and Upper Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs. The hydrocarbons are sourced by Lower Cretaceous shales and sealed by interbedded lacustrine and flood-plain shales. Structural styles range from simple fault blocks through complex flower structures. The main hydrocarbon traps are in contractional anticlines. Geological conditions favor the discovery of potentially commercial volumes of oil in WCARS basins, of Niger, Chad and CAR. 108 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Genetic diversity and conservation of South African indigenous chicken populations.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Groeneveld, E; Groeneveld, L F; Dzama, K; Weigend, S

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we compare the level and distribution of genetic variation between South African conserved and village chicken populations using microsatellite markers. In addition, diversity in South African chickens was compared to that of a reference data set consisting of other African and purebred commercial lines. Three chicken populations Venda, Ovambo and Eastern Cape and four conserved flocks of the Venda, Ovambo, Naked Neck and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Poultry Breeding Resource Unit of the Agricultural Research Council were genotyped at 29 autosomal microsatellite loci. All markers were polymorphic. Village chicken populations were more diverse than conservation flocks. structure software was used to cluster individuals to a predefined number of 2 ≤ K ≤ 6 clusters. The most probable clustering was found at K = 5 (95% identical runs). At this level of differentiation, the four conservation flocks separated as four independent clusters, while the three village chicken populations together formed another cluster. Thus, cluster analysis indicated a clear subdivision of each of the conservation flocks that were different from the three village chicken populations. The contribution of each South African chicken populations to the total diversity of the chickens studied was determined by calculating the optimal core set contributions based on Marker estimated kinship. Safe set analysis was carried out using bootstrapped kinship values calculated to relate the added genetic diversity of seven South African chicken populations to a set of reference populations consisting of other African and purebred commercial broiler and layer chickens. In both core set and the safe set analyses, village chicken populations scored slightly higher to the reference set compared to conservation flocks. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the conservation flocks of South African chickens displayed considerable genetic variability that is different from that of the

  1. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    PubMed

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.

  2. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women’s ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters’ reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites’ refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women’s few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals’ marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  3. Arched gonadal arteries in the South African negro.

    PubMed Central

    Grine, F E; Kramer, B

    1981-01-01

    The frequency with which the gonadal arteries follow a recurrent course, upwards and arching over the renal veins before descending to the gonads, is recorded for the South African Negro. The gonadal arteries follow such a course on the left side in 17, 2% and on the right side in 22% of cases. This incidence for arched left sided arteries is comparable to that recorded in other studies, but the frequency for arched right sided arteries in the South African Negro appears to be higher. Recognition of arching gonadal arteries is of importance to the vascular surgeon and urologist. PMID:7298490

  4. The African Renaissance and its relation to the geosciences: a South African perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtimkulu, M. N.; Motloung, M.; Graham, I. T.; Eriksson, P. G.; Bumby, A. J.

    2001-08-01

    Implicit in the African Renaissance is the synergy between government, the private sector, the educated minority and the disadvantaged majority. For this concept to work, belief and commitment must arise first from the African individual, whatever his or her potential contribution may be. The geosciences in South Africa provide a currently vibrant example of such cooperation, which has the potential to contribute significantly to the upliftment of the country and its neighbouring states. Based largely on personal interviews with various role players, from the Presidency of South Africa, through ministerial levels, the corporate sector and down to the individual, we present a spectrum of viewpoints and initiatives which are starting to result in practical implementation of the African revival. An end to conflict and xenophobia, the entrenchment of democratic government and corporate expression of the entrepreneurial spirit are essential to provide the framework within which the individual African can become a "Renaissance Man or Woman".

  5. United States-South African Relations: The Challenge for AFRICOM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-25

    line]; available from Jane’s.com; accessed 8 December 2007. 46 Nyirabu, 27-28. 47 Kent Hughes Butts and Paul R. Thomas, The Geopolitics of Southern...Africa: South Africa as a Regional Superpower (Boulder, Colorado, West View Press, 1986)1, 170. 48 Robert S. Chase, Emily B. Hill, and Paul Kennedy...16. 70 Neethling, 59. 71 Helmoed- Romer Heitman, Jane’s, The South African Army Outlines Vision 2020 Force Design Implementation,” (19 September

  6. South African English: A New Voice of Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuki, Donna Hurst

    In this paper, a case study describes the lexis, phonology, grammar, and syntax of a speaker of South African English (SAE) and shows how these elements differ from those of a General American English (GAE) speaker. The subject was a 32-year-old female speaker of SAE, and that although she is a bilingual speaker of English and Afrikaans, English…

  7. Paraphilia and sex offending - A South African criminal law perspective.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Pieter; Stevens, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the link between sexual deviance and criminality has been described and documented, asserted by psychiatry, and manifested in law. Laws that have regulated sexual behaviour have referred to terms such as 'sexual deviation', 'sexual perversion' or even archaic moral terms such as 'unnatural acts and unspeakable crimes against nature'. A possible link between sexual perversion, psychopathy, and criminality, specifically manifesting in sexual homicide, has been the subject of remarkable research in forensic psychiatry. This contribution examines the phenomenon of paraphilia with specific reference to its definition, diagnostic classification and characteristics, as well as a few selections of incidences of paraphilia in South African criminal case law. A brief assessment is made of how South African criminal courts have dealt with paraphilia. In this regard, an analysis is made of the criminal liability of the paraphiliac. The South African response to sexual deviation as addressed in the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007 will also be addressed with reference to its efficacy in addressing paraphilia within South African criminal law. The interface between criminal law and medical ethics within the context of this theme will also be canvassed. In conclusion, recommendations for possible reform are canvassed.

  8. Job Satisfaction in a South African Academic Library in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Genevieve

    2010-01-01

    Job satisfaction was investigated at a South African university library undergoing change on many fronts. The study included 31 members of staff and the data were gathered via interviews/questionnaires, informed by standard HRM job satisfaction theory. The study found a "love-hate" relationship between respondents and their work. The key…

  9. Stem rust resistance in South African wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The appearance and anticipated spread of race TTKS (syn. Ug99) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici have renewed interest in breeding for durable resistance to stem rust of wheat. In an attempt to determine the current status of stem rust resistance, 67 South African (SA) bread wheat cultivars and l...

  10. Managing to Learn: Instructional Leadership in South African Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Ursula; Christie, Pam; Ward, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study of the management of curriculum and instruction in South African secondary schools. Drawing on data collected from 200 schools in 2007, a series of regression analyses tested the relationship between various dimensions of leadership and student achievement gains over time. Whilst the research confirms…

  11. Shifting South African Learners towards Greater Autonomy in Scientific Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Hobden, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This report describes how teachers support ninth-grade students who are doing scientific investigations in Natural Sciences in South African schools. This is of interest as allowing students to participate in inquiry-based investigations is a significant shift from traditional practices. It presents a new challenge to teachers as it signals an…

  12. Doing Justice to Social Justice in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjabane, Masebala; Pillay, Venitha

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to develop a conceptualisation of social justice in higher education based on a close reading of the current literature in the field. An important assumption we make is that higher education is a valuable mechanism for social justice. We set the literature against policy documents that detail South African aspirations with…

  13. Dress Codes in Post-Apartheid South African Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Terri; Nodoba, Gaontebale

    2009-01-01

    There are many factors that influence dress code decision making in formal and informal business arenas. In South Africa, with its colonial and apartheid history followed by an exuberant resurgence of Africanism, factors such as diversity of race, ethnicity, religion, and culture play a critical role in lifestyle and worldview. These many and…

  14. First Steps in Teaching Argumentation: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braund, Martin; Scholtz, Zena; Sadeck, Melanie; Koopman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    South African student teachers were studied to see how they coped with requirements to teach science using argumentation. Lesson observations, plans, reflective logs, post-teaching interviews and assessment of pupils' argumentation were used to compare student teachers' preparedness and interactions with pupils. Two clusters of students were…

  15. Intellectual Disability in the Context of a South African Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromberg, Jennifer; Zwane, Esther; Manga, Prashiela; Venter, Andre; Rosen, Eric; Christianson, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Childhood disabilities, including intellectual disabilities (ID), are thought to occur in 5-17% of children in developing countries around the world. In order to identify and describe the childhood disabilities occurring in a rural South African population, as well as the context in which they occur, a study was carried out in the Bushbuckridge…

  16. Creating a Learning Climate: A South African Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrim, Nasima Mohamed Hoosen; Basson, Johan Schutte

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether there were differences in how one public and two private South African organizations created a learning climate. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on a survey and comparative analysis of specific departments in a chemical and gas company, an insurance company, and a…

  17. The Management of AIDS in South African Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosthuizen, Izak

    According to the Third National Survey of South African women who attend prenatal clinics, 120,000 more persons are estimated to have become infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) since 1991. This paper compares the teacher-student relationship with that of the confidential doctor-patient relationship, and asks whether a teacher should…

  18. The Transformation of Music Education: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Alethea

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I reflect on transformation in South African education policy, post-1994. The new curriculum for schools was underpinned by the democratic values of the constitution and was a time of renewal for music education. However, over time as the original curriculum documents were revised, the focus of promoting indigenous traditions was…

  19. Democratisation and Quality Assurance in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Ashley

    2006-01-01

    The article interprets a particular set of debates on whether quality assurance in South African higher education widens democracy or not. The interpretation explores the extent to which higher education quality assurance fulfils three conditions posited for democracy (inclusion, participation and enhancement), drawing in as points of reference…

  20. Linguistic Ideologies in Multilingual South African Suburban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoe, Pinky; McKinney, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on language in South African schooling frequently draws attention to the problematic hegemony of English and the lack of access to quality education in the home language of the majority of learners, often drawing on the metaphor of a gap or a disjuncture between post-apartheid language in education policy (LiEP) and its…

  1. Nasal aperture shape evaluation between black and white South Africans.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Jennifer L; L'Abbé, Ericka N; Kenyhercz, Michael W

    2012-10-10

    The purpose of this study was to combine morphoscopic and metric analyses to assess variation in nasal aperture size and shape of black and white South Africans. Thirteen landmarks were digitized from the bony nasal region of 152 crania using an electromechanic instrument for geometric morphometric (general procrustes analysis) and craniometric analyses. Elliptical Fourier analysis was used to assess shape of the nasal aperture via outlines applied through photographs. Both principal component and discriminant function analyses were applied to these statistical methods. Black South Africans were classified 95-96% correctly and white South Africans were classified 91-94% correctly. In a four-way analysis of sex and ancestry, classification accuracy ranged from 56 to 70%. Most misclassifications were between the sexes within each group which suggests an absence of sexual dimorphism. This study found that there is quantifiable variation in shape of the nasal aperture between black and white South African groups using all three statistical methods. In forensic application, standard craniometrics can be used to accurately classify an unknown person.

  2. Adult Agendas in Publishing South African Folktales for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Elwyn

    2002-01-01

    Considers how translations of indigenous folktales form a large proportion of South African children's books. Notes that at first those who published them were influenced by Social Darwinism, and later the folktales played a role in promoting the ideology of apartheid, but they were mainly the product of white paternalism. Notes that the folktales…

  3. Social Citizenship Formation at University: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie; Loots, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers citizenship formation at universities, drawing on the example of a student leadership project at the University of the Free State, a formerly White South African university, in a higher education context and society where racialised difference continues to influence peer relationships. The paper proposes a multi-dimensional…

  4. Internationalising a Rural, Historically Black South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony Rogers; Yang, Rui; Wolhuter, Charste Coetzee

    2004-01-01

    A strong international dimension has always been and is increasingly becoming an essential ingredient of the university. This article investigates the state of and prospects for internationalisation of an extremely peripheral and historically marginalised South African university. Questionnaires and semistructured interviews with academic and…

  5. Managerialism and Higher Education Governance: Implications for South African Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, F.

    2006-01-01

    This article identifies some of the implications of corporate forms of higher education governance for the management of South African universities. It explores corporate higher educational governance with reference to institutional autonomy incorporating academic freedom. It is the contention of this article that the primary driver of higher…

  6. The South African Experience: Beyond the CIDA Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, John M.

    2008-01-01

    The Community and Individual Development Association (CIDA) City Campus is presented by Heaton as an innovative African alternative to traditional business education. However, he considers the model in isolation from the unique educational and economic circumstances of postapartheid South Africa. As a response, this article goes beyond the CIDA…

  7. Academic Entrepreneurship in South African HEIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundling, J. P.; Steynberg, L.

    2008-01-01

    This article first identifies the principal forces that impact on and shape entrepreneurially-oriented higher education institutions (HEIs) in South Africa, and then analyses the degree to which those institutions have succeeded in becoming entrepreneurial. The results reveal that South Africa's HEIs are still in the initial phases of…

  8. RESEARCH REPORT: South African students' views of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmer, M.; Lemmer, T. N.; Smit, J. J. A.

    2003-05-01

    In an empirical study the perceptions of the universe of 232 first-year Physics students from two South African universities were determined and interpreted in terms of their worldviews. The results were compared to Aristotelian and Newtonian views as well as with those of children as revealed in a literature survey. The worldviews of three non-scientific groups, namely the ancient Greeks, small children and traditional Africans are organistic in nature. The results of the empirical study showed that a statistically significant larger number of African than European students have organistic models of the universe. Since an organistic worldview differs completely from the formalized mechanistic worldview on which the classical mechanics taught at school is based, consequences for Physics education and African students are evident. This study hopes to contribute to the knowledge about the origin and features of pre-scientific conceptions and views so that they can be addressed more effectively in the science classroom.

  9. Assessment of Utilization of ICT Resources in Teaching among Tertiary Institution Business Educators in South Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okolocha, Chimezie Comfort; Nwadiani, Comfort Onaigho

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the utilization of ICT resources in teaching among business educators in tertiary institutions in south Nigeria. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population and sample for the study comprised all 240 business educators in colleges…

  10. Language and Social Justice in South Africa's Higher Education: Insights from a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaniki, Munene

    2012-01-01

    The paper interrogates the issue of language and social justice in South Africa's higher education using quantitative and qualitative data collected at the University of the Free State (UFS). Data were collected using questionnaires. Through purposive sampling based on South African and UFS demographics, 120 questionnaires were administered to UFS…

  11. The TG/HDL-C ratio does not predict insulin resistance in overweight women of African descent: a study of South African, African American and West African women.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael G; Goedecke, Julia H; Ricks, Madia; Evans, Juliet; Levitt, Naomi S; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Sumner, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Women of African descent have a high prevalence of diseases caused by insulin resistance. To positively impact cardiometabolic health in Black women, effective screening tests for insulin resistance must be identified. Recently, the TG/HDL-C ratio has been recommended as a tool to predict insulin resistance in overweight people. While the ratio predicts insulin resistance in White women, it is ineffective in African American women. As there are no data for African women, we tested the ability of the TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in Black women from South Africa, West Africa and the United States. For comparison, the ratio was also tested in White women from South Africa. Participants were 801 women (157 Black South African, 382 African American, 119 West African, 143 White South African, age 36 +/- 9y [mean +/- SD]). Standardized scores were created from log-transformed homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values from each population. Participants in the upper third of their population distribution were classified as insulin-resistant. To predict insulin resistance by the TC/HDL-C ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) curve was used and criteria were: 0.50 for no discrimination and > or = 0.70 for acceptable. Seventy-one percent of the Black women were overweight vs 51% of White women (P<.01). In overweight White women, AUC-ROC curve for prediction of insulin resistance by TG/HDL-C was 0.76 +/- 0.06, but below the 0.70 threshold in each group of overweight Black women (Black South African: 0.64 +/- 0.06, African American: 0.66 +/- 0.03, and West African: 0.63 +/- 0.07). Therefore, TG/HDL-C does not predict insulin resistance in overweight African American women and this investigation extends that finding to overweight Black South African and West African women. Resources to identify effective markers of insulin resistance are needed to improve cardiometabolic health in women of African descent.

  12. Transforming Education in South Africa: Comparative Perceptions of a South African Social Work Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen; Millard, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The state of tertiary education in South Africa is not adequately meeting the needs of its populace. The system in place does not effectively nor appropriately target the racial group of students which forms the democratic majority. This paper portrays the reasons why these students are not succeeding on the basis of a mismatch between their…

  13. Palynological and Iridium Anomalies at Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, South-Central Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, D. J.; Jarzen, D. M.; Orth, C. J.; Oliver, P. Q.

    1986-02-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in south-central Saskatchewan is marked by coincident anomalies in abundance of iridium and fern spores at the extinction level of a suite of Cretaceous pollen taxa. Evidence of disruption of the terrestrial flora includes the fern-spore abundance anomaly and local extinction of as much as 30 percent of angiosperm species. The reorganized earliest Tertiary flora is made up largely of surviving species that assumed new roles of dominance. Persistence of climatically sensitive taxa across the boundary indicates that if paleoclimate was altered by the terminal Cretaceous event, it returned quickly to the pre-event condition.

  14. Palynological and iridium anomalies at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, south-central Saskatchewan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, D.J.; Jarzen, D.M.; Orth, C.J.; Oliver, P.Q.

    1986-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in south-central Saskatchewan is marked by coincident anomalies in abundance of iridium and fern spores at the extinction level of a suite of Cretaceous pollen taxa. Evidence of disruption of the terrestrial flora includes the fern-spore abundance anomaly and local extinction of as much as 30 percent of angiosperm species. The reorganized earliest Tertiary flora is made up largely of surviving species that assumed new roles of dominance. Persistence of climatically sensitive taxa across the boundary indicates that if paleoclimate was altered by the terminal Cretaceous event, it returned quickly to the pre-event condition.

  15. South African minerals and world demand

    SciTech Connect

    van Rensburg, W.C.J.

    1983-01-01

    South Africa is a prodigious source of many mineral supplies that are critical to the industrial nations. Increasing and intensifying Soviet and Soviet-surrogate thrusts into Africa reflect a longstanding ambition to target the ''weak links'' in vulnerable Western supplies. The dangers to the Western countries relate not only to direct denial of critical resources, but to a trend toward a mineral cartel. The cessation of mineral supplies from South Africa would in most cases have a more serious effect on the availability of these commodities to the West than on their prices. A review ofpossible Soviet control and international trade developments suggests that the Western nations must consider the possible elimination of South Africa as a major supplier. 15 references, 1 figure.

  16. Rotavirus vaccination within the South African Expanded Programme on Immunisation.

    PubMed

    Seheri, L Mapaseka; Page, Nicola A; Mawela, Mothahadini P B; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Steele, A Duncan

    2012-09-07

    Diarrhoeal diseases are ranked the third major cause of childhood mortality in South African children less than 5 years, where the majority of deaths are among black children. Acute severe dehydrating rotavirus diarrhoea remains an important contributor towards childhood mortality and morbidity and has been well documented in South Africa. As the preventive strategy to control rotavirus diarrhoea, South Africa became the first country in the WHO African Region to adopt the rotavirus vaccine in the national childhood immunisation programme in August 2009. The rotavirus vaccine in use, Rotarix, GSK Biologicals, is given at 6 and 14 weeks of age, along with other vaccines as part of Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). Studies which facilitated the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in South Africa included the burden of rotavirus disease and strain surveillance, economic burden of rotavirus infection and clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of vaccine candidates. This paper reviews the epidemiology of rotavirus in South Africa, outlines some of the steps followed to introduce rotavirus vaccine in the EPI, and highlights the early positive impact of vaccination in reducing the rotavirus burden of disease based on the post-marketing surveillance studies at Dr George Mukhari hospital, a sentinel site at University of Limpopo teaching hospital in Pretoria, South Africa, which has conducted rotavirus surveillance for >20 years.

  17. The diagenesis of continental (Karoo-Tertiary?) siliciclastics from an East African rift valley (Rukwa-Tukuyu area), Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dypvik, Henning; Nesteby, Helge

    1992-07-01

    The diagenetic history of the Karoo and Jurassic/Tertiary beds of East African rift valleys is related to the tectonic activity and sedimentary evolution of the rift valley area. In the Karoo beds early diagenetic calcite and hematite formation are succeeded by mechanical compaction and minor quartz, kaolinite and calcite precipitation. Renewed tectonic activity (possible half-graben formation) and exposure of the Karoo beds in Jurassic/Tertiary time resulted in alluvial fan deposition (the Red Sandstone Group) and associated fresh-water flushing, caliche formation and hematite precipitation. Late diagenetic precipitation of potash feldspar and feldspar leaching were the final controls on the porosity and permeability development of the sediments.

  18. Psychological Characteristics of South African Street Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    le Roux, Johann; Smith, Cheryl Sylvia

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to identify the psychological characteristics that predispose certain children to run away and to survive, often for long periods, on the streets of South Africa. Examines vulnerability and resilience as well as social conditions that mediate the psychological predisposition to become a street child. (Author/GCP)

  19. The South African oil pollution research program

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.

    1980-05-01

    A program to establish the impacts of oil pollution on the coastal ecosystem of South Africa was undertaken by the Committee for Marine Pollution of the Nat'l Program for Environmental Science. Research is needed to: predict oil spill movement, including coastal dynamics, the effects of winds on oil slicks, and other factors determining oil spill movement; quantify the effects of oil and;or dispersants on biota for use when compiling contingency plans to minimize damage after a spill; develop ways to contain, combat, and clean oil spills; collect and synthesize data on petroleum hydrocarbon input to the coastal waters of South Africa; and determine the fate, transfer, and physical and biological properties of these hydrocarbons and dispersants in selected ecosystems.s)

  20. Defining and Measuring Spirituality in South African Specialist Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Janse van Rensburg, A B R; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C P H; Szabo, C P

    2015-10-01

    To define the meaning of "spirituality" in a South African phenomenological, theory-generating qualitative inquiry, theory construction methodology was used. This refers to the tradition of nursing theory development, where a central core concept identified from the integrated data-in this case, interviews and the literature content-had to be defined. A major focus of the study was to distinguish spirituality from religion. The denotative and connotative meanings of "spirituality" were explored to establish the components for a definition. The attributes of this definition included that spirituality constitutes a "quality", a "journey", a "relationship" as well as a "capacity". While these items derived from this local definition of spirituality can be proposed for inclusion in a questionnaire for measuring spirituality in a South African context, the limits of the scope of the explorative qualitative inquiry from which it was derived must be considered.

  1. South African, urban youth narratives: Resilience within community

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Rashid; Ports, Katie A.; Simon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    South African youth in low-income, urbanized communities are exposed to high levels of daily stressors, which increase their risk to negative outcomes. Resiliency can provide avenues for youth to transcend adversity and may contribute to their positive development. To provide a deeper understanding of the pathways that adolescents use to overcome adversity, this paper examined future aspirations of South African youth, and how these aspirations were connected to resiliency factors framed by their lived context. A phenomenological approach was used to explore the perceptions of high school students. Fourteen focus groups with girls and boys (N=112) were conducted. Data was analyzed using a thematic approach. Discussions of the harsh conditions undermining the community’s future highlighted opportunities for improvement. Community connectedness, hope and altruism were prevalent in youth’s responses and could be used to facilitate community and individual resiliency. Our overall findings have important implications for positive youth development efforts. PMID:25897181

  2. Military social work in the South African National Defence Force.

    PubMed

    Kruger, A; Van Breda, A D

    2001-11-01

    The transformation of the South African National Defence Force has prompted a critical reassessment of the Directorate of Social Work. As a result, the directorate realized the need for a formal business plan to align the profession strategically with the core business of the military system. After completion of the business plan, the need for a unique military social work practice model was identified. Such a model should present social workers with a strategy for the achievement of the goals and objectives of the business plan. The practice model rests on two key concepts: binocular vision and practice positions. Since the onset of the transformation process in the South African National Defence Force, these two documents have reflected the changing milieu within which social work is practiced. The main concepts of these documents are presented.

  3. South African control surveys from Maclear to the present.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, D. P. M.

    1995-08-01

    For many years the South African survey system with its well monumented control beacons was the envy of many countries. The success of the integrated system plus the ease with which all types of surveys could be based on the system led to South African surveyors being referred to as fellows with 0.01 mentality. This 0.01 figure was a reference to the days prior to metrication when urban cadastral diagrams and general plans required distances to 0.01 of a foot. This historical resumé covers a period of over 100 years when surveying not only required average scientific ability but also demanded tremendous physical effort and perseverance.

  4. How Affluent Is the South African Higher Education Sector and How Strong Is the South African Academic Profession in the Changing International Academic Landscape?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolhuter, C. C.; Higgs, P.; Higgs, L. G.; Ntshoe, I.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine to what extent South African higher education and the South African academic profession can hold their own, within the international constellation of higher education systems and academic profession contingents. The article uses the theoretical framework of current changes taking place in higher education…

  5. South African life orientation teachers: (not) teaching about sexuality diversity.

    PubMed

    DePalma, Renée; Francis, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Although South Africa is one of the most progressive countries in the world in terms of constitutional and legislative rights for LGBT individuals, education is one of many social arenas where these ideals are not carried out. Interviews with 25 practicing teachers revealed very little description of practice, but widely divergent understandings around sexual diversity that drew on various authoritative discourses, including religious teachings, educational policy, science, and the powerful human rights framework of the South African constitution. Implications for teacher education include directly engaging with these discourses and providing training, teaching materials, and practical guidelines based on existing policy.

  6. The Incidence and Management of Conflicts in Secular and Non-Secular Tertiary Institutions in South West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayodele, Joseph Babatola; Adewumi, Joseph Olukayode

    2007-01-01

    This paper compared the incidence and management of conflicts in secular and non-secular tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The sample of this study was made of sixty staff, and two hundred and forty students randomly selected each from two secular and two non-secular tertiary institutions in south western Nigeria. A validated questionnaire was…

  7. Nicotine dependence and problem behaviors among urban South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, David W; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent. Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent problem behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of urban South African adolescents. A community sample (N = 731) consisting of "Black," "White," "Coloured," and "Indian" youths aged 12-17 years was drawn from the Johannesburg metropolitan area. Structured interviews were administered by trained interviewers. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence. Logistic regression analyses showed that higher levels of nicotine dependence significantly predicted elevated levels of violent behavior, deviant behavior, marijuana and other illegal drug use, binge drinking, early sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use, despite control on the adolescents' demographic characteristics, peer smoking, conflict with parents, peer deviance, and the availability of legal and illegal substances. These relationships were robust across ethnicity and gender. The findings indicate the need for policy makers and prevention and intervention programs in South Africa to consider adolescent nicotine dependence in conjunction with comorbid problem behaviors, including other substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and deviant behaviors.

  8. South African hypertension practice guideline 2014

    PubMed Central

    Seedat, YK; Rayner, BL; Veriava, Yosuf

    2014-01-01

    Summary Outcomes Extensive data from many randomised, controlled trials have shown the benefit of treating hypertension (HTN). The target blood pressure (BP) for antihypertensive management is systolic < 140 mmHg and diastolic < 90 mmHg, with minimal or no drug side effects. Lower targets are no longer recommended. The reduction of BP in the elderly should be achieved gradually over one month. Co-existent cardiovascular (CV) risk factors should also be controlled. Benefits Reduction in risk of stroke, cardiac failure, chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease. Recommendations Correct BP measurement procedure is described. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors and recommendations for antihypertensive therapy are stipulated. Lifestyle modification and patient education are cornerstones of management. The major indications, precautions and contra-indications are listed for each antihypertensive drug recommended. Drug therapy for the patient with uncomplicated HTN is either mono- or combination therapy with a low-dose diuretic, calcium channel blocker (CCB) and an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Combination therapy should be considered ab initio if the BP is ≥ 160/100 mmHg. In black patients, either a diuretic and/or a CCB is recommended initially because the response rate is better compared to an ACEI. In resistant hypertension, add an alpha-blocker, spironolactone, vasodilator or β-blocker. Validity The guideline was developed by the Southern African Hypertension Society 2014©. PMID:25629715

  9. Migrants from other African countries in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chimere-dan, O

    1996-02-01

    This article is based on a prior report for the UN High Commissioner on Refugees on repatriation of Mozambican refugees in 1994. Official statistics revealed that 45% of all immigrants in South Africa, during 1992-94, came from European countries. 31.4% were from Asian countries and 18.4% were from African countries. Prior to about 1990, migrants tended to include contract workers recruited by big South African mining companies and other firms, or highly qualified professionals who worked in urban industrial and institutional areas. Although the number of illegal migrants from neighboring countries is not known, this population group draws the most attention. A 1993 survey of 6348 households of Mozambican refugees indicated that most left their home country due to war. Only 6.7% were economic and 2.4% were ecological migrants. Over 50% of all Mozambican refugees currently in South Africa, arrived during 1985-89. 47.2% are aged under 15 years. Refugee households average 4.38 persons/household. Household size varies with sex of the household head and area of residence. Family size was the largest in Gazankulu and the smallest in Winterveld. Family size tended to be lower among female-headed households. 79% had extended families in Mozambique. 48.3% of refugee household heads had 1-3 years of formal education, while 10.2% had none. 36.3% were unemployed and 35.1% were subsistence farmers. 89.3% wanted to return to Mozambique. National policy on migration needs to consider local needs and expectations, the economic opportunities and conditions of South Africans, and South Africa's regional position.

  10. Application of neural networks to South African GPS TEC modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habarulema, John Bosco; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Cilliers, Pierre J.; Opperman, Ben D. L.

    2009-06-01

    The propagation of radio signals in the Earth's atmosphere is dominantly affected by the ionosphere due to its dispersive nature. Global Positioning System (GPS) data provides relevant information that leads to the derivation of total electron content (TEC) which can be considered as the ionosphere's measure of ionisation. This paper presents part of a feasibility study for the development of a Neural Network (NN) based model for the prediction of South African GPS derived TEC. The South African GPS receiver network is operated and maintained by the Chief Directorate Surveys and Mapping (CDSM) in Cape Town, South Africa. Vertical total electron content (VTEC) was calculated for four GPS receiver stations using the Adjusted Spherical Harmonic (ASHA) model. Factors that influence TEC were then identified and used to derive input parameters for the NN. The well established factors used are seasonal variation, diurnal variation, solar activity and magnetic activity. Comparison of diurnal predicted TEC values from both the NN model and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2001) with GPS TEC revealed that the IRI provides more accurate predictions than the NN model during the spring equinoxes. However, on average the NN model predicts GPS TEC more accurately than the IRI model over the GPS locations considered within South Africa.

  11. Linking adults and immatures of South African marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Dirk; Connell, Allan D; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-11-01

    The early life-history stages of fishes are poorly known, impeding acquisition of the identifications needed to monitor larval recruitment and year-class strength. A comprehensive database of COI sequences, linked to authoritatively identified voucher specimens, promises to change this situation, representing a significant advance for fisheries science. Barcode records were obtained from 2526 early larvae and pelagic eggs of fishes collected on the inshore shelf within 5 km of the KwaZulu-Natal coast, about 50 km south of Durban, South Africa. Barcodes were also obtained from 3215 adults, representing 946 South African fish species. Using the COI reference library on BOLD based on adults, 89% of the immature fishes could be identified to a species level; they represented 450 species. Most of the uncertain sequences could be assigned to a genus, family, or order; only 92 specimens (4%) were unassigned. Accumulation curves based on inference of phylogenetic diversity indicate near-completeness of the collecting effort. The entire set of adult and larval fishes included 1006 species, representing 43% of all fish species known from South African waters. However, this total included 189 species not previously recorded from this region. The fact that almost 90% of the immatures gained a species identification demonstrates the power and completeness of the DNA barcode reference library for fishes generated during the 10 years of FishBOL.

  12. South African indigenous healing: how it works.

    PubMed

    Cumes, David

    2013-01-01

    Sangomas or inyangas are shamans, healers, priests, and prophets that have been the backbone of Bantu communities, especially in the rural areas of Southern Africa for eons. However, with rapid Westernization and the increasing allure of the commodity market, the old ways are rapidly eroding. Indigenous knowledge has always been transmitted orally, and there is little written down about the secret traditions of initiation. Hence, the bibliography listed at the end of this article is scant. This information is a result of personal experience gleaned during my own initiation into the world of sangoma and my subsequent experiences with these healing realms. The knowledge has been gained experientially and not by the scientific method. Some of it is secret and cannot be revealed. The information may differ somewhat from healer to healer but the general principles are the same. Most sub-Saharan African peoples believe in the importance of the ancestors being able to guide events, and they revere them because they have this power. I mostly will be describing the traditions that I encountered during my initiation and subsequent practice. There are others. Since sangoma wisdom is an oral tradition the individual's initiation will depend on the mentor and the spirit guides involved. That particular sangoma's healing repertoire will be somewhat different to another though the principles remain the same. The ancestors find the most efficient way to impart the information so that the healer can do the work. The way in which they transmit the knowledge will be unique to that person's receptivity and talents. Objective proof is not part of the experiential training. In fact, any attempt at systematic inquiry gets in the way of the process. One has to put cognitive, left-brained intellect aside. Obsession with data obliterates the intuitive. The sangoma or inyanga has a lot to teach the West about the spirit world and our ancestral roots. Science has put us in touch with a

  13. The Iraqization of Africa? Looking at AFRICOM from a South African Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Esterhuyse.indd 111 2/7/08 8:25:12 AM The Iraqization of Africa ? Looking at AFRICOM from a South African Perspective Abel Esterhuyse...Introduction The South African government has openly expressed its opposition towards the creation of the US Africa Command (AFRICOM).1 What’s more...South Africa presents its position on AFRICOM as representative of the country as a whole, but particularly on behalf of a group of African countries

  14. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine.

    The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington

  15. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  16. Breakfast habits of adolescents in for South African populations.

    PubMed

    Walker, A R; Walker, B F; Jones, J; Ncongwane, J

    1982-10-01

    Breakfast habits by using questionnaires, were established in a total of 4717 South African pupils of 16 to 18 yr. In the groups of rural and urban Black, Indian, European-African-Malay, and white pupils studied, respective proportions who had no solid breakfast (both sexes combined) were approximately 21, 19, 13, 13, and 14%. Proportions who had only porridge or bread (or toast) plus drink were 77, 73, 61, 71, and 56%. Such breakfast provided ranges of means of 223 to 345 kcal, 9 to 14 g protein, 7 to 18 g fat, 51 to 185 mg calcium, and 3.2 to 5.1 mg iron. Proportions who had a cooked breakfast (including egg, meat, fish), eaten with or without a cereal food, were 1, 4, 17, 8, and 29%. Such meals contributed means of 495 to 704 kcal, 11 to 26 g protein, 24 to 39 g fat, 110 to 225 mg calcium, and 3.9 to 5.5 mg iron. In the South African groups studied, the issue of breakfast or no breakfast had no clear-cut bearing on weight, height, class position, or frequency of absence from school. The degree by which, in a given community, nutrition in general and breakfast in particular, regulates health and/or academic performance, needs proper research in prospective studies.

  17. Lactase deficiency in the South African black population.

    PubMed

    Segal, I; Gagjee, P P; Essop, A R; Noormohamed, A M

    1983-12-01

    H2 breath analysis was carried out to determine the prevalence of lactase deficiency in different tribes of the South African Black population. Lactase deficiency was common (78%), despite the fact that two of the largest tribes (Zulu and Xhosa) are cattle herders and milk drinkers. This apparent anomaly is due to the consumption of a traditional fermented buttermilk, ("amasi" which has a low lactose content) instead of fresh milk. The most important reason for lactase deficiency, however, is that the South African Blacks originated in the West and Central African zone of nonmilking and took up dairying and milk use fairly recently. Thus they have not had enough time for genetic selection for lactase deficiency through life. The implications inherent in this study are that it would be more prudent to supply milk to developing countries in the form of a fermented milk product such as buttermilk. This is readily accepted by the Black population and would not be counter to accepted cultural practice.

  18. Understanding the formation of Mediterranean-African-Asian disjunctions: evidence for Miocene climate-driven vicariance and recent long-distance dispersal in the Tertiary relict Smilax aspera (Smilacaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Qi, Zhe-Chen; Xu, Xi-Hui; Comes, Hans Peter; Koch, Marcus A; Jin, Xin-Jie; Fu, Cheng-Xin; Qiu, Ying-Xiong

    2014-10-01

    Tethyan plant disjunctions, including Mediterranean-African-Asian disjunctions, are thought to be vicariant, but their temporal origin and underlying causes remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of Smilax aspera, a hypothesized component of the European Tertiary laurel forest flora. Thirty-eight populations and herbarium specimens representing 57 locations across the species range were sequenced at seven plastid regions and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. Time-calibrated phylogenetic and phylogeographic inferences were used to trace ancestral areas and biogeographical events. The deep intraspecific split between Mediterranean and African-Asian lineages is attributable to range fragmentation of a southern Tethyan ancestor, as colder and more arid climates developed shortly after the mid-Miocene. In the Mediterranean, climate-induced vicariance has shaped regional population structure since the Late Miocene/Early Pliocene. At around the same time, East African and South Asian lineages split by vicariance, with one shared haplotype reflecting long-distance dispersal. Our results support the idea that geographic range formation and divergence of Tertiary relict species are more or less gradual (mostly vicariant) processes over long time spans, rather than point events in history. They also highlight the importance of the Mediterranean Basin as a centre of intraspecific divergence for Tertiary relict plants.

  19. Energy Usage Optimisation in South African Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Ali; Twala, Bhekisipho; Ouahada, Khmaies; Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, South Africa has encountered a critical electricity supply which necessitated the implementation of demand-side management (DSM) projects. Load shifting and energy (EE) efficiency projects were introduced in mining sector to reduce the electricity usage during day peak time. As the compressed air networks and the water pumping systems are using large amounts of the mines' electricity, possible ways were investigated and implemented to improve and optimise the energy consumption and to reduce the costs. Implementing DSM and EE in four different mines resulted in achieving the desired energy savings and load-shifting. W ostatnich latach w Południowej Afryce zanotowano pewne trudności z dostawami energii elektrycznej, co wymusiło wdrożenie działań mających na celu skuteczne zarządzanie zagadnieniami energetycznymi. Wprowadzono działania mające na celu zmianę systemu obciążeń roboczych i bardziej efektywne wykorzystanie energii tak, by obniżyć zapotrzebowanie na energię w trakcie szczytowych godzin w ciągu dnia. Sieci dostarczające sprężone powietrze oraz stacje pomp zużywają znaczne ilości energii w kopalni, przeanalizowano więc możliwe sposoby redukcji i optymalizacji zapotrzebowania na energię i tym samym obniżenia kosztów produkcji. Wdrożenie odpowiednich projektów nakierowanych na oszczędności i optymalizację w czterech kopalniach doprowadziło do oczekiwanych oszczędności energii i umożliwiło zmianę systemu obciążeń roboczych w trakcie procesu produkcji.

  20. Africans and the myth of rural retirement in South Africa, ca 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, Aran S

    2008-06-01

    The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid.

  1. The cost of a healthy diet: a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Temple, Norman J; Steyn, Nelia P

    2011-05-01

    Energy-dense foods are relatively cheap sources of energy but typically have a low nutrient density. People with a low income may therefore select a relatively less healthy diet. The high energy density of such diets helps explain the association between obesity and low socioeconomic status. Most studies have been carried out in highly developed countries. We have extended this research to South Africa. Some foods, such as oats, beans, carrots, and apples, are moderately priced sources of energy and are healthy (i.e., they have a low energy density and are nutrient dense). However, such foods are likely to be less desired than many other foods, such as candy, cookies, jam, and chocolate, that have a similar cost (in terms of food energy) but are less healthy. We compared the cost of a typical South African diet with a healthier one. On average, the healthier diet costs 69% more, but this estimate is greatly affected by food choices. For a family whose household income is exceeded by one-third of the population, this increased expenditure represents about 30% of total household income. This could be decreased to about 10% to 15% if a healthy diet is carefully designed. Overall, a healthy diet is unaffordable for most South Africans. This shows the importance of not only educating people in developing countries to the importance of a healthy diet but also explaining how to make such a diet affordable. A more effective strategy is government intervention that manipulates food prices.

  2. Brightness discrimination in the South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Scholtyssek, C; Dehnhardt, G

    2013-05-24

    Underwater, the contrast between object and background is much larger reduced with increasing distance between object and observer than in air. For marine predators, such as pinnipeds, it would therefore be advantageous to possess a high sensitivity for brightness differences, since this would increase the distance at which prey can be detected visually. Few studies have examined the brightness discrimination thresholds of pinnipeds. Two studies with phocid seals have confirmed low brightness discrimination thresholds in pinnipeds whereas the threshold obtained for the South African fur seal seems to be twice as high as that of the phocids. However, the experiments with the South African fur seal have been conducted under inadequate conditions which likely resulted in an underestimation of the brightness discrimination ability of this species. The study at hand reinvestigated the brightness discrimination threshold of the South African fur seal under well controlled conditions. In a two alternative forced choice task, one fur seal was trained to indicate the position of the brighter of two gray discs presented on a black background on a monitor. The thresholds were determined for 11 standard intensities each tested against 8 lower comparison intensities. It was found that the fur seal was able to perceive brightness differences of 8-10%, which is better than the phocid species tested so far. For low standard intensities, however, the threshold increased which could to be due to a relative slow dark adaptation rate of the fur seal. The results are discussed in terms of the relevance of visual information for pinnipeds during foraging dives and are directly compared to the results obtained for the harbor seal which has been tested under the same conditions as the fur seal in a previous study.

  3. The Role of African topography in the South Asian Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H. H.; Bordoni, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Somali cross-equatorial jet is estimated to contribute up to half of the mass flux crossing the equator during the Asian monsoon season. Previous studies have argued that the Somali jet is strengthened by the East African Highlands, which act as a wall and accelerate the flow (e.g., Krishnamurti et al. 1976, Sashegyi and Geisler 1987). Besides, observational studies have shown a positive correlation between the strength of the Somali jet and the South Asian Monsoon (SAM) precipitation (e.g., Findlater 1969, Halpern and Woiceshyn 2001). These imply that the existence of the topography would relate to a stronger SAM. However, in a more recent study, Chakraborty et al. (2002) found that if the African topography is removed in a comprehensive general circulation model (GCM), the SAM strengthens. In this study, we use the GFDL AM2.1 GCM to conduct experiments with and without topography in Africa, to further examine its influence on the cross-equatorial Somali jet and the SAM. We find that when the African topography is removed, the SAM precipitation increases, consistent with the results in Chakraborty et al. (2002). Interestingly, our results also show that the cross-equatorial Somali jet does weaken in the absence of the African topography, in agreement with previous studies. The moisture budget shows that the increase in precipitation in the no-African topography experiment is primarily due to stronger wind convergence. The dynamics of the cross-equatorial Somali jet is investigated within the framework of the Potential Vorticity (PV) budget, showing the contribution of the changes in friction and diabatic heating to the circulation as the topography is removed. A backward trajectory analysis is also conducted to further examine the influence of topography on both the material tendencies of the PV budget and trajectories of parcels reaching the Indian subcontinent.

  4. South-western African climate depends on Antarctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuut, J.-B. W.; Crosta, X.; van der Borg, K.; Schneider, R. R.

    2003-04-01

    The typical Fynbos vegetation of the Cape region of South-western Africa is brought about by the local Mediterranean (winter rainfall) climate and its associated sharp seasonal contrasts, especially in precipitation. This biome is bordered by hyper-arid deserts which may rapidly expand in response to future global warming, such as during the last warm period 125.000 years ago. It is therefore essential to understand the mechanisms that drive the winter rainfall in such a restricted area. We relate variations in South-western African humidity to changes in Antarctic sea-ice extent. New records of Antarctic sea-ice extent compared to existing palaeoclimate records of South-western Africa reveal a coherent signal during the last 50 kyr BP, with enhanced continental humidity and trade-wind intensity during periods of increased sea-ice presence. We propose that greater glacial Antarctic sea-ice extent causes a Northward shift of oceanic and atmospheric frontal zones, thereby increasing latitudinal temperature and pressure gradients, leading to enhanced trade-wind intensities. In addition, the equatorward shift and increased intensity of the Southern Westerlies causes an expansion of the winter-rain region and increased precipitation in South-western Africa. This relationship implies enhanced desertification in South-western Africa in response to retreating sea-ice edge in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean if global warming continues.

  5. The dmfs and dmft of young South African children.

    PubMed

    Cleaton-Jones, P E; Hargreaves, J A; Roberts, G; Williams, S D; Leidal, T I

    1989-02-01

    As part of a series of frequent epidemiological field studies to determine caries prevalences in the primary dentition of young South African children, 1436 children of 1-4 yr of age from five ethnic groups were examined. Using WHO diagnostic criteria decayed, missing, and filled surfaces were determined with mirror and probe and caries free, dmfs, dfs, ds, mfs, and dmft scores were calculated. The investigation has shown that urban coloured and Indian children have the highest caries prevalences and urban white children have the lowest. It is suggested that the percentage of caries-free children should be used to set goals for reduction in caries.

  6. Recent Advances in Drug Discovery from South African Marine Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Davies-Coleman, Michael T; Veale, Clinton G L

    2015-10-14

    Recent developments in marine drug discovery from three South African marine invertebrates, the tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, the ascidian Lissoclinum sp. and the sponge Topsentia pachastrelloides, are presented. Recent reports of the bioactivity and synthesis of the anti-cancer secondary metabolites cephalostatin and mandelalides (from C. gilchristi and Lissoclinum sp., respectively) and various analogues are presented. The threat of drug-resistant pathogens, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is assuming greater global significance, and medicinal chemistry strategies to exploit the potent MRSA PK inhibition, first revealed by two marine secondary metabolites, cis-3,4-dihydrohamacanthin B and bromodeoxytopsentin from T. pachastrelloides, are compared.

  7. Recent Advances in Drug Discovery from South African Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Veale, Clinton G. L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in marine drug discovery from three South African marine invertebrates, the tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, the ascidian Lissoclinum sp. and the sponge Topsentia pachastrelloides, are presented. Recent reports of the bioactivity and synthesis of the anti-cancer secondary metabolites cephalostatin and mandelalides (from C. gilchristi and Lissoclinum sp., respectively) and various analogues are presented. The threat of drug-resistant pathogens, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is assuming greater global significance, and medicinal chemistry strategies to exploit the potent MRSA PK inhibition, first revealed by two marine secondary metabolites, cis-3,4-dihydrohamacanthin B and bromodeoxytopsentin from T. pachastrelloides, are compared. PMID:26473891

  8. The quality of nursing service management in South African hospitals.

    PubMed

    Muller, M

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine--explore and describe--the quality of nursing service management in South African hospitals. A combined qualitative and quantitative pre- and post-test research strategy, in accordance with the COHSASA programme, was utilised. The hospitals implement the national standards during the preparatory phase, after having entered into an agreement with COHSASA. They determine their baseline status by means of an assisted self-evaluation. This is followed by an external survey phase where the hospital's compliance with the standards is evaluated. The nursing service is one of the professional services included in the accreditation programme. Their performance is compared with selected other professional services and their compliance with the core elements is also evaluated. The nursing services in South Africa are compliant with the national standards. The deficiencies are mainly within the quality improvement programmes that require further development and refinement.

  9. U.S.{/}South African Undergraduate Education and Research Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, K. M.; Nolan, J. R.; Davis, K. L.; Phelps, T. J.; Kieft, T. L.; van Heerden, E.; Litthauer, D.; Pfiffner, S. M.

    2002-12-01

    Deep South African mines (2 to 3.5 km below land surface) have provided unique opportunities for research investigating geochemical and microbial processes in deep subsurface environments. The environments encountered in these mines range from prolific biofilms to hot saline water emanating from gas-rich boreholes. This venture is an outgrowth of ongoing research funded by the NSF Life in Extreme Environments Program as the Witswatersrand Deep Microbiology Project. A workshop for U.S. and South African underrepresented undergraduates was held in December 2001 and is being repeated in December 2002. The main purpose of the workshops were to provide a field and laboratory research experience for underrepresented undergraduate students from the United States (U.S.) and South Africa (S.A.) in the fields of earth, biological, and environmental sciences and engineering. Additional purposes included continuing the exchange of scientific, educational, and biotechnological efforts, and to discuss and explore opportunities for expanding the educational, research and biotechnological efforts. The workshop goals were to recruit and engage undergraduate students in unique and exciting research not normally available to them. The workshops offered state-of-the-art experimental opportunities on specific scientific topics, including subsurface biogeochemstry and microbial ecology. The workshops strengthened scientific and technological collaborations between the South African and U.S. academic communities and South African mining companies. The mines welcome opportunities to host under represented student education initiatives and are forthcoming with refreshments, mining gear, underground transport and geologists. We successfully demonstrated that a workshop with underground activities involving students from both nations was safe, feasible, and career enhancing. Student activities included chemical analyses of groundwater, enrichment for iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria and

  10. South African Astronomy in the Internet Era: exploiting the AVO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Phil

    2007-04-01

    The combination of SALT, the bid to host SKA and the association with HESS have propelled South Africa into a world-class position with regard to multi-wavelength observational facilities, indicating the scale of their hopes and aspirations post-1994. All of these facilities exploit the geographical advantage that South Africa possesses, combined with substantial international collaborations to share the financial burden, whilst benefitting the infrastructure and development of South African science and industry. However, the effective use of SALT (and which is far more critical for KAT, an SKA technology demonstrator) requires dramatic improvements in both the local and international Internet bandwidth, which lags far behind First World norms (in terms of both the data rates available and their cost). Such connectivity is essential for raw data transfer from telescope to data centre, and then subsequent access by (national and international) users of the processed data. Current capabilities are stretched to the limit by SALT operations alone (which are measured in terms of Gb/night), but completely different solutions will be needed for KAT and SKA (which require Gb/s). Potential solutions for both South African and international users of SALT are being developed which exploit the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) and Grid concepts and the substantial international investment that is currently ongoing. A collaboration with the UK's AstroGRID is acting as a testbed in which the raw data archive will remain in Cape Town at SAAO, but AstroGRID will act as a front end for setting up data pipelining procedures from which only mostly reduced data need be transferred to the end user. Comparisons with other remote international facilities (e.g the observatories in La Palma, Spain) plus the infrastructure required for KAT will be presented and discussed.

  11. Conservation of placentation during the tertiary radiation of mammals in South America.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, Andrea Maria

    2013-05-01

    The eutherian placenta is considered to possess great plasticity, but it is not clear how this variation reflects adaptation to different ecological niches. Because South America was isolated for most of the Tertiary, it represents a natural laboratory to examine this question. We here describe placentation in three South American groups: Xenarthra have been part of the fauna from at least the mid-Paleocene whereas caviomorph rodents and Neotropical primates are each derived from a single founder that reached South America in the Eocene and Oligocene, respectively. The common ancestor of Xenarthra had a villous, haemochorial placenta, from which the labyrinthine, endotheliochorial placenta of sloths later evolved. Placentation in Caviomorpha follows an extraordinary stable pattern, characterized by a haemomonochorial, labyrinthine and highly lobed structure with specialized growing areas. This pattern was present before arrival of these rodents in South America and enabled a successful radiation especially during the spread of grasslands. Neotropical primates have haemochorial, trabecular placentas with a specialized maternal blood supply; a pattern that contrasts with that of Old World monkeys and may have been present in the founder generation on arrival in South America. In conclusion, there is a dichotomy within Xenarthra but otherwise the ancient South American mammals do not show much variation in principal placental characters. Thus, the successful radiation of these three groups, and their adaptation to diverse ecological niches, did not require substantial alterations in placentation.

  12. U.S. Support Organizations Raising Money for South African Causes: An Introduction and a Directory: South African Information Exchange Working Paper #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micou, Ann McKinstry; McLean, Sheila Arvin

    This working paper provides information on 29 U.S. support organizations raising money for South African causes. Usually provided for each organization are a mission statement; a description of program areas and specific activities; and names of directors, trustees, and contacts. The organizations listed are: the Africa Fund; the African Arts…

  13. Quality Research in South African Higher Education: Illusions, Imperatives and Ideals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, D.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the complexity facing South African researchers in higher education as they try to overcome the heritage of the old, fragmented higher education system. Necessary paradigm shifts are identified, as are focus areas for improving the quality of South African higher education research at both national and institutional levels. (DB)

  14. A Teacher Proposed Heuristic for ICT Professional Teacher Development and Implementation in the South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Andre; Webb, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative interpretive exploratory case study investigated a sample of South African teachers' perceptions of the requirements for successful implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Professional Teacher Development (PTD) within disadvantaged South African township schools in the Port Elizabeth district in South…

  15. Student Teachers' Attitudes towards and Willingness to Teach Evolution in a Changing South African Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrie, A. L.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes of South African student teachers towards the theory of evolution and their willingness to teach it. The teaching of evolution has been excluded from the South African school curriculum for most of the 20th century. In 2008, Grade 12 learners were for the first time exposed to the concept of evolution in the…

  16. Ideological Alchemy: The Transmutation of South African Didactics (and Fundamental Pedagogics) into "Apartheid Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonge, George D.

    2008-01-01

    In his response to Kruger, Le Grange claims that: (1) the South African discourse of fundamental pedagogics was closely allied with Christian National Education and functioned as a powerful educational doctrine in the service of the South African policy of apartheid education; (2) fundamental pedagogics bracketed political discourse; (3) the…

  17. Tracking the Demographics of (Urban) Language Shift--An Analysis of South African Census Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deumert, Ana

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of language shift from African languages to English (and Afrikaans) in South Africa, using home language data from the South African population census (1996 and 2001). Although census data have been criticised for its "essentialist" construction of language, they nevertheless provide sociolinguists with a…

  18. The South African English Language Scene within a (Global) Holographic Triadic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is on the triangulated work of the 1996 South African Constitution, the Pan South African Language Board (PanSALB), and one of the latter's eleven language subsidiaries: the English National Language Body (ENLB), with special reference to the ENLB's likewise triadic projects on literature; on variation and…

  19. Teaching Thinking in Subject-Specific Contexts to Disadvantaged South African Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehl, Merlin C.; Lochhead, Jack

    This document characterizes South African education as resulting in large numbers of students who are poorly equipped to meet academic requirements of first-year university courses, especially in science related disciplines. It reports on a study designed to investigate the learning problems of disadvantaged South Africans in an attempt to…

  20. Staff Responsiveness to Transformation Initiatives and Diversity at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert, J. P. R.; Martins, N.

    2013-01-01

    South African organisations and particularly institutions of higher learning have been confronted with workforces that increasingly reflect the diversity of the South African population. This changing workforce composition implies that the multitude of individual and cultural differences and similarities become increasingly apparent among…

  1. South African Teachers' Attitudes toward the Inclusion of Learners with Different Abilities in Mainstream Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Dana K.; Bornman, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This research sought to examine South African teachers' attitudes toward the inclusion of learners with different abilities in their hypothetical mainstream classrooms. Participants were 93 South African teachers who responded to the Teachers' Attitudes and Expectations Scale, a measure developed for this study, regarding four vignettes depicting…

  2. Estimation of Promotion, Repetition and Dropout Rates for Learners in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uys, Daniël Wilhelm; Alant, Edward John Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A new procedure for estimating promotion, repetition and dropout rates for learners in South African schools is proposed. The procedure uses three different data sources: data from the South African General Household survey, data from the Education Management Information Systems, and data from yearly reports published by the Department of Basic…

  3. Indigenous African Knowledge Systems and Innovation in Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, P.; Higgs, L. G.; Venter, E.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of innovation in higher education is recognised in South African educational discourse. The South African White Paper on Science and Technology, issued in September 1996 and entitled, "Preparing for the 21st Century", states that, "the White Paper is built upon the twin concepts of "innovation" and a…

  4. Unpacking (White) Privilege in a South African University Classroom: A Neglected Element in Multicultural Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Sharlene; Arogundade, Emma; Davis, Danya

    2014-01-01

    Multiculturalism currently aims for the political accommodation of difference instead of the subversion of the resulting privileges of difference. In the South African context such a distinction is especially important since the economic and symbolic subjugation of the majority of Black South Africans continues despite political transformation,…

  5. Archaeal Diversity in Waters from Deep South African Gold Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Takai, Ken; Moser, Duane P.; Deflaun, Mary; Onstott, Tullis C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2001-12-01

    Culture-independent molecular analysis of archaeal communities in waters collected from deep South African gold (Au) mines was performed by PCR-mediated terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of rRNA genes (rDNA) in conjunction with sequencing analysis of archaeal rDNA clone libraries. Water samples represented various environments including: deep fissure water; mine service water; and water from an overlying dolomite aquifer. T-RFLP analysis revealed that the ribotype distribution of archaea varied directly with the source of the water. The archaeal communities in the deep Au mine environments revealed a large phylogenetic diversity; the majority of members were most closely related to uncultivated species. Some archaeal rDNA clones obtained from mine service water and dolomite aquifer water samples were most closely related to the environmental rDNA clones from surface soil (Soil clones) and marine environments (Marine Group I; MGI). Other clones possessed an intermediate phylogenetic affiliation between soil clones and MGI within the Crenarchaea. Fissure water samples, derived from active or dormant geothermal environments, yielded archaeal sequences of novel phylogeny including a novel lineage of Euryarchaeota. These results suggest that deep South African Au mines harbor novel archaeal communities distinct from those observed in other environments. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of archaeal strains and rDNA clones, including these newly discovered archaeal rDNA clones, the evolutionary relationship and the phylogenetic organization of the domain Archaea is reevaluated.

  6. Fears of South African children affected by HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Zwemstra, Pedro; Loxton, Helene

    2011-07-01

    Although fears are part of normal development, the living environment of HIV/AIDS affected children is conducive to the development of particular fears. This study examined the fears of 39 South African children (7-13 years) living in a low socioeconomic community with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The aim was to consider if these children were a special population with regard to their fears. The Free Option Method was used to identify the children's fears. Data were analyzed by means of a priori thematic analysis, followed by a qualitative analysis. The expressed fears could be described with fear categories previously reported by normative samples. The wild animal category and specifically snake fears were reported most. The second analysis revealed a substantial minority of fears reflecting life in the South African HIV/AIDS affected context. It was concluded that the children represented a normative population who experienced particular fears due to their special circumstances. Further investigation of HIV/AIDS affected children's fears and related psychological issues is recommended.

  7. Archaeal Diversity in Waters from Deep South African Gold Mines

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Ken; Moser, Duane P.; DeFlaun, Mary; Onstott, Tullis C.; Fredrickson, James K.

    2001-01-01

    A culture-independent molecular analysis of archaeal communities in waters collected from deep South African gold mines was performed by performing a PCR-mediated terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of rRNA genes (rDNA) in conjunction with a sequencing analysis of archaeal rDNA clone libraries. The water samples used represented various environments, including deep fissure water, mine service water, and water from an overlying dolomite aquifer. T-RFLP analysis revealed that the ribotype distribution of archaea varied with the source of water. The archaeal communities in the deep gold mine environments exhibited great phylogenetic diversity; the majority of the members were most closely related to uncultivated species. Some archaeal rDNA clones obtained from mine service water and dolomite aquifer water samples were most closely related to environmental rDNA clones from surface soil (soil clones) and marine environments (marine group I [MGI]). Other clones exhibited intermediate phylogenetic affiliation between soil clones and MGI in the Crenarchaeota. Fissure water samples, derived from active or dormant geothermal environments, yielded archaeal sequences that exhibited novel phylogeny, including a novel lineage of Euryarchaeota. These results suggest that deep South African gold mines harbor novel archaeal communities distinct from those observed in other environments. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of archaeal strains and rDNA clones, including the newly discovered archaeal rDNA clones, the evolutionary relationship and the phylogenetic organization of the domain Archaea are reevaluated. PMID:11722932

  8. Raman spectroscopic study of ancient South African domestic clay pottery.

    PubMed

    Legodi, M A; de Waal, D

    2007-01-01

    The technique of Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the composition of ancient African domestic clay pottery of South African origin. One sample from each of four archaeological sites including Rooiwal, Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop was studied. Normal dispersive Raman spectroscopy was found to be the most effective analytical technique in this study. XRF, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques. All representative samples contained common features, which were characterised by kaolin (Al2Si2O5(OH)5), illite (KAl4(Si7AlO20)(OH)4), feldspar (K- and NaAlSi3O8), quartz (alpha-SiO2), hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), montmorillonite (Mg3(Si,Al)4(OH)2 x 4.5 5H(2)O[Mg]0.35), and calcium silicate (CaSiO3). Gypsum (CaSO4 x 2H2O) and calcium carbonates (most likely calcite, CaCO3) were detected by Raman spectroscopy in Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop shards. Amorphous carbon (with accompanying phosphates) was observed in the Raman spectra of Lydenburg, Rooiwal and Makahane shards, while rutile (TiO(2)) appeared only in Makahane shard. The Raman spectra of Lydenburg and Rooiwal shards further showed the presence of anhydrite (CaSO4). The results showed that South African potters used a mixture of clays as raw materials. The firing temperature for most samples did not exceed 800 degrees C, which suggests the use of open fire. The reddish brown and grayish black colours were likely due to hematite and amorphous carbon, respectively.

  9. Raman spectroscopic study of ancient South African domestic clay pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legodi, M. A.; de Waal, D.

    2007-01-01

    The technique of Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the composition of ancient African domestic clay pottery of South African origin. One sample from each of four archaeological sites including Rooiwal, Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop was studied. Normal dispersive Raman spectroscopy was found to be the most effective analytical technique in this study. XRF, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques. All representative samples contained common features, which were characterised by kaolin (Al 2Si 2O 5(OH) 5), illite (KAl 4(Si 7AlO 20)(OH) 4), feldspar (K- and NaAlSi 3O 8), quartz (α-SiO 2), hematite (α-Fe 2O 3), montmorillonite (Mg 3(Si,Al) 4(OH) 2·4.5H 2O[Mg] 0.35), and calcium silicate (CaSiO 3). Gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) and calcium carbonates (most likely calcite, CaCO 3) were detected by Raman spectroscopy in Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop shards. Amorphous carbon (with accompanying phosphates) was observed in the Raman spectra of Lydenburg, Rooiwal and Makahane shards, while rutile (TiO 2) appeared only in Makahane shard. The Raman spectra of Lydenburg and Rooiwal shards further showed the presence of anhydrite (CaSO 4). The results showed that South African potters used a mixture of clays as raw materials. The firing temperature for most samples did not exceed 800 °C, which suggests the use of open fire. The reddish brown and grayish black colours were likely due to hematite and amorphous carbon, respectively.

  10. South African-ness among Adolescents: The Emergence of a Collective Identity within the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Shane A.; Roeser, Robert W.; Richter, Linda M.; Lewin, Nina; Ginsburg, Carren; Fleetwood, Stella A.; Taole, Elizabeth; van der Wolf, Kees

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the emergence of a South African identity among Black, Colored (mixed ancestral origin), White (predominantly English speaking), and Indian adolescents participating in a birth cohort study called "Birth to Twenty" in Johannesburg, South Africa. They examined young people's certainty of their self-categorization as…

  11. Measuring Financial Literacy: Developing and Testing a Measurement Instrument with a Selected Group of South African Military Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwella, E.; van Nieuwenhuyzen, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Are South Africans financially literate, and how can this be measured? Until 2009 there was no South African financial literacy measure and, therefore, the aim was to develop a South African measurement instrument that is scientific, socially acceptable, valid and reliable. To achieve this aim a contextual and conceptual analysis of financial…

  12. Copper sulphate use in South African traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Street, Renée A; Kabera, Gaëtan M; Connolly, Catherine

    2016-04-08

    Copper (Cu) is an essential element to humans; however, exposure to elevated concentrations through occupational hazard and/or environmental means may be detrimental. This paper provides results of a cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of copper sulphate (CuSO4) use in South African traditional medicine by traditional health practitioners (THPs) and details the use thereof. A total of 201 THPs were enrolled from two main municipal areas of KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Information on demographic characteristics of THPs, reasons for using or not using CuSO4 as well as administration methods and age groups of recipients were collected. Of the 201 THPs interviewed, 145 (72 %) use CuSO4 for healing purposes. The use of CuSO4 was strongly associated with gender (p = 0.009) where the proportion of CuSO4 users was higher for female than male THPs. CuSO4 was reportedly administered to individuals of all ages, including infants and children. The main routes of administration were enema (n = 110; 76 %), oral (n = 40; 28 %) and use in bath (n = 40; 28 %). The reasons cited for use are diverse and included skin rashes (n = 43; 30 %), aches, pains and swelling (n = 38; 28 %) as well as sexually transmitted diseases (n = 28; 19 %). This study identified a high prevalence of THPs using CuSO4 for healing purposes. These findings support the need to regulate South African traditional medicine to safeguard the user.

  13. The status of fish conservation in South African estuaries.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, A K; Cowley, P D

    2010-06-01

    Estuary-dependent fish species are defined as those taxa whose populations would be adversely affected by the loss of estuarine habitats. Of the 155 species regularly recorded in South African estuaries, only 32 (21%) are completely dependent on these systems, but this figure increases to 103 species (66%) if partially dependent taxa are included in the analysis. The conservation of fishes in estuaries on the subcontinent is threatened by a number of factors, including habitat degradation, disruption of essential ecological processes, hydrological manipulations, environmental pollution, overexploitation due to fishing activities and, more recently, climate change and the effects of introduced aquatic animals. Although major threats to fishes are usually linked to environmental degradation, there is increasing evidence that the stocks of certain fish species are overexploited or collapsed. Fish conservation and fisheries management does not depend on the implementation of a single action, but rather the co-ordination of a detailed plan, often in a multidisciplinary context. Some examples of innovative means of contributing to estuarine fish conservation in a South African context include the determination and implementation of the ecological freshwater requirements for estuaries, the zoning of estuaries for different uses and the recognition that the maintenance of ecological processes are vital to aquatic ecosystem health. Apart from the designation of protected areas, the main direct means of conserving fish species and stocks include habitat conservation, controls over fishing methods, effort, efficiency and seasonality, pollution control and the prevention of artificial manipulation of estuary mouths. Since becoming a democracy in 1994, environmental legislation, policy and institutional arrangements in South Africa have undergone some major changes, which, if fully implemented, will be very positive for fish conservation in estuaries on the subcontinent.

  14. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    PubMed

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  15. What do young black South Africans think about AIDS?

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, D

    1992-07-01

    In South Africa, a fatalistic attitude prevails among young black youth toward prevention of HIV transmission. Many of the 3 million black migrant laborers in single-sex hostels have many partners who are prostitutes. Due to culture, race, and class, black women are so oppressed that they cannot even require sex partners to wear condoms. Blacks perceive condoms as a governmental means to control population growth. The Centre for Health and Social Studies has learned that 14-17 year old blacks have been sexually active for a long time, so it has decided to also market its AIDS prevention program to 11-13 year olds. AIDS has not yet reached epidemic proportions in South Africa, however, and a full scale intervention program implemented between the end of 1992 and mid-1993 could stem the epidemic. The Health and Refugee Trust has developed a data base about the attitudes of South African refugees toward AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. It plans to distribute educational materials to hostels, squatter settlements, and rural communities. The Transport and General Workers Union has also set up an AIDS prevention program since truckers are at high risk of HIV infection. At the end of 1991, 445,000 people in South Africa have been infected with HIV. Heterosexuality is the predominate mode of HIV transmission among blacks, but among whites, it is homosexuality. Educated, affluent whites tend to be knowledge about AIDS and practice safer sex. Among the working class whites, however, knowledge levels are high, but they do not necessarily practice safer sex. Awareness tends to be quite high among blacks, but they do not generally practice safer sex. South Africa and the US are the only 2 developed countries that do not provide health care for all. This weak system limits AIDS prevention efforts. 80% of whites have health insurance compared with only 7% of blacks.

  16. The oral susceptibility of South African field populations of Culicoides to African horse sickness virus.

    PubMed

    Venter, G J; Wright, I M; Van Der Linde, T C; Paweska, J T

    2009-12-01

    Twenty-two isolates of African horse sickness virus (AHSV), representing its distinct serotypes, geographical and historical origins, were fed to three populations of South African livestock-associated Culicoides spp. (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Infective blood meals included 12 recent isolates, nine historical reference strains and one live attenuated vaccine strain serotype 7 (AHSV-7) of the virus. Field-collected midges were fed through a chicken-skin membrane on sheep blood spiked with one of the viruses, which concentrations ranged from 5.4 to 8.8 log(10)TCID(50)/mL of blood. After 10 days incubation at 23.5 degrees C, AHSV was isolated from 11 Culicoides species. Standard in vitro passaging of AHSV-7, used for the preparation of live attenuated vaccine, did not reduce its ability to infect Culicoides species. Virus recovery rates in orally infected Culicoides midges differed significantly between species and populations, serotypes, isolates and seasons. Significant variations in oral susceptibility recorded in this study emphasize a complex inter-relationship between virus and vector, which is further influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors. As it is not possible to standardize all these factors under laboratory conditions, conclusive assessment of the role of field-collected Culicoides midges in the transmission of orbiviruses remains problematic. Nevertheless, results of this study suggest the potential for multi-vector transmission of AHSV virus in South Africa.

  17. The invisibility of men in South African violence prevention policy: national prioritization, male vulnerability, and framing prevention

    PubMed Central

    van Niekerk, Ashley; Tonsing, Susanne; Seedat, Mohamed; Jacobs, Roxanne; Ratele, Kopano; McClure, Roderick

    2015-01-01

    Background South Africa has a significant violence problem. The exposure of girls and women to interpersonal violence is widespread, and the victimization of men, especially to severe and homicidal forms of aggression, is of considerable concern, with male homicide eight times the global rate. In the last two decades, there have been a plethora of South African policies to promote safety. However, indications suggest that the policy response to violence is not coherently formulated, comprehensive, or evenly implemented. Objective This study examines selected South African national legislative instruments in terms of their framing and definition of violence and its typology, vulnerable populations, and prevention. Design This study comprises a directed content analysis of selected legislative documents from South African ministries mandated to prevent violence and its consequences or tasked with the prevention of key contributors to violence. Documents were selected using an electronic keyword search method and analyzed independently by two researchers. Results The legislative documents recognized the high levels of violence, confirmed the prioritization of selected vulnerable groups, especially women, children, disabled persons, and rural populations, and above all drew on criminological perspectives to emphasize tertiary prevention interventions. There is a policy focus on the protection and support of victims and the prosecution of perpetrators, but near absent recognition of men as victims. Conclusions There is a need to broaden the policy framework from primarily criminological and prosecutorial perspectives to include public health contributions. It is likewise important to enlarge the conceptions of vulnerability to include men alongside other vulnerable groups. These measures are important for shaping and resourcing prevention decisions and strengthening primary prevention approaches to violence. PMID:26228996

  18. Alkaloids of the South African Amaryllidaceae: a review.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jerald J; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Caries; Viladomat, Francesc; van Staden, Johannes

    2013-09-01

    The plant family Amaryllidaceae is known for its horticultural and ornamental appeal as well as its medicinal value. In relation to these characteristics, trade in Amaryllid flower varieties (especially daffodils) is a multi-million dollar revenue generator for the floriculture industry. Of greater significance are the medicinal attributes of the family, which has already spawned the Alzheimer's prescription drug galanthamine, a potent and selective inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, of significance in the progression of neurodegeneration associated with motor neuron diseases, with annual global sales of around $150 million. Furthermore, it is anticipated that an anticancer drug target related to the Amaryllidaceae alkaloid pancratistatin, presently under advanced clinical evaluation, will enter commercial circulation within the next decade. Members of the Amaryllidaceae are distributed through both tropical and subtropical regions of the globe, but are of prominence within three distinct geographical locations, including Andean South America, the Mediterranean basin, and southern Africa. The southern African zone is known to harbor at least a third of the worldwide complement of around 1000 species, many of which are widely utilized in the traditional medicinal practices of the indigenous people of the region. Given its therapeutic and economic value, its natural abundance in the southern African region, coupled to its widespread usage in ethnic medicine, the family Amaryllidaceae provides a diverse and accessible platform for phytochemical based drug discovery. A consolidation of its traditional usage as well as its chemical and pharmacological profiles will thus guide efforts aimed at maximizing this potential. In undertaking this survey of the Amaryllidaceae of southern African, we aimed to achieve these goals.

  19. Antimicrobial rubrolides from a South African species of Synoicum tunicate.

    PubMed

    Sikorska, Justyna; Parker-Nance, Shirley; Davies-Coleman, Michael T; Vining, Oliver B; Sikora, Aleksandra E; McPhail, Kerry L

    2012-10-26

    The CH₂Cl₂-MeOH extract of a South African tunicate described as the new Synoicum globosum Parker-Nance sp. nov. (Ascidiacea, Aplousobranchia) was subjected to ¹H NMR-guided fractionation. This resulted in the identification of new 3″-bromorubrolide F (1), 3'-bromorubrolide E (2), 3'-bromorubrolide F (3), and 3',3″-dibromorubrolide E (4) and reisolation of known rubrolides E (5) and F (6), based on NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Biological testing of both new and known members of this reported antimicrobial family of halogenated, aryl-substituted furanones indicated moderate antibacterial properties for 3'-bromorubrolide E (2), 3',3″-dibromorubrolide E (4), and rubrolide F (6) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and S. epidermidis.

  20. Antimicrobial Rubrolides from a South African Species of Synoicum Tunicate

    PubMed Central

    Sikorska, Justyna; Parker-Nance, Shirley; Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Vining, Oliver B.; Sikora, Aleksandra E.; McPhail, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    The CH2Cl2-MeOH extract of a South African tunicate described as the new Synoicum globosum Parker-Nance sp. nov. (Ascidiacea, Aplousobranchia) was subjected to 1H NMR-guided fractionation. This resulted in the identification of new 3″-bromorubrolide F (1), 3′-bromorubrolide E (2), 3′-bromorubrolide F (3) and 3′, 3″-dibromorubrolide E (4), and reisolation of known rubrolides E (5) and F (6), based on NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Biological testing of both new and known members of this reported antimicrobial family of halogenated, aryl-substituted furanones indicated moderate antibacterial properties for 3′-bromorubrolide E (2), 3′, 3″-dibromorubrolide E (4), and rubrolide F (6) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and S. epidermidis. PMID:23030848

  1. Sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of South African chromite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qing; Liu, Cheng-jun; Shi, Pei-yang; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Mao-fa; Zhang, Qing-song; Zevenhoven, Ron; Saxén, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    The sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of South African chromite was investigated. The negative influence of a solid product layer constituted of a silicon-rich phase and chromium-rich sulfate was eliminated by crushing the chromite and by selecting proper leaching conditions. The dimensionless change in specific surface area and the conversion rate of the chromite were observed to exhibit a proportional relationship. A modified shrinking particle model was developed to account for the change in reactive surface area, and the model was fitted to experimental data. The resulting model was observed to describe experimental findings very well. Kinetics analysis revealed that the leaching process is controlled by a chemical reaction under the employed experimental conditions and the activation energy of the reaction is 48 kJ·mol-1.

  2. Origins of common fears in South African children.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; du Plessis, Michelle; Loxton, Helene

    2008-12-01

    The present study examined the origins of common childhood fears within a South African context. Six-hundred-and-fifty-five 10- to 14-year-old children were given a brief fear list that helped them to identify their most intense fear and then completed a brief questionnaire for assessing the origins of fears that was based on Rachman's [Rachman, S. (1977). The conditioning theory of fear acquisition: A critical examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, 375-387; Rachman, S. (1991). Neoconditioning and the classical theory of fear acquisition. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 47-67] three-pathways theory. More precisely, children were asked to report whether they had experienced conditioning, modeling, and negative information experiences in relation to their most feared stimulus or situation, and also had to indicate to what extent such experiences had actually played a role in the onset and/or intensification of their fears. Results showed that children most frequently reported indirect learning experiences (i.e., modeling and negative information) in relation to their fears, whereas conditioning was clearly less often mentioned. The majority of the children had no precise idea of how their fear had actually begun, but a substantial proportion of them reported various learning experiences in relation to the onset and intensification of fears. Significant cultural differences were not only observed in the prevalence of common fears, but also in the pathways reported for the origins of fears. The results are briefly discussed in terms of the living conditions of South African children from various cultural backgrounds.

  3. Respiratory outcomes among South African coal miners at autopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Murray, J.

    2005-09-01

    Studies of dose-response relationships between respiratory outcomes at autopsy and coal dust exposure are limited. The Pathology Automation System (PATHAUT) database of South African miners, is one of the largest autopsy databases of occupational lung disease. This study described the prevalence of respiratory outcomes among South African coal miners at autopsy, and determined whether dose response relationships existed between emphysema and exposure. Autopsies conducted from 1975 to 1997 on coal miners with exclusive coal mining exposure and having exposure duration information (n = 3,167) were analyzed from PATHAUT Logistic regression was used to determine relationships between exposure and outcomes, controlling for race, smoking and age on a subset for whom smoking history was available (n = 725). The prevalence of silicosis, tuberculosis (TB), coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), and moderate and marked emphysema were 10.7%, 5.2%, 7.3%, and 64%, respectively. All diseases, except TB, were associated with exposure duration. Black miners had 8.3 and 1.2 fold greater risks for TB and CWP, respectively, than white miners. White miners had an increased risk of 1.4 and 5.4 for silicosis and moderate to marked emphysema, respectively. In models unadjusted for age, and including smoking, moderate to marked emphysema was strongly associated with exposure duration (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.9-5.9 for highest tercile of exposure duration). Exposure-related risk estimates were reduced when age was introduced into the model. However age and duration of exposure were highly correlated, = 0. 68) suggesting a dilution of the exposure effect by age. There were significant dose related associations of disease, including emphysema, with coal dust exposure.

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among South African Gold Miners

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James J.; Connors, Jeremy; Chihota, Violet N.; Shashkina, Elena; van der Meulen, Minty; Graviss, Edward A.; Ha, Ngan P.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Grant, Alison D.; Fielding, Katherine L.; Dorman, Susan E.; Churchyard, Gavin J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: HIV-associated tuberculosis remains a major health problem among the gold-mining workforce in South Africa. We postulate that high levels of recent transmission, indicated by strain clustering, are fueling the tuberculosis epidemic among gold miners. Objectives: To combine molecular and epidemiologic data to describe Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity, estimate levels of transmission, and examine risk factors for clustering. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of culture-positive M. tuberculosis isolates in 15 gold mine shafts across three provinces in South Africa. All isolates were subject IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and we performed spoligotyping analysis and combined it with basic demographic and clinical information. Measurements and Main Results: Of the 1,602 M. tuberculosis patient isolates, 1,240 (78%) had genotyping data available for analysis. A highly diverse bacillary population was identified, comprising a total of 730 discrete genotypes. Four genotypic families (Latin American Mediterranean spoligotype family; W-Beijing; AH or X; and T1–T4) accounted for over 50% of all strains. Overall, 45% (560/1,240) of strains were genotypically clustered. The minimum estimate for recent transmission (n − 1 method) was 32% (range, 27–34%). There were no individual-level risk factors for clustering, apart from borderline evidence for being non–South African and having self-reported HIV infection. Conclusions: The high M. tuberculosis genetic diversity and lack of risk factors for clustering are indicative of a universal risk for disease among gold miners and likely mixing with nonmining populations. Our results underscore the urgent need to intensify interventions to interrupt transmission across the entire gold-mining workforce in South Africa. PMID:25419914

  5. East African and Kuunga Orogenies in Tanzania - South Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Tenczer, V.

    2012-04-01

    Tanzania and southern Kenya hold a key position for reconstructing Gondwana consolidation because here different orogen belts with different tectonic styles interfere. The older, ca. 650-620 Ma East African Orogeny resulted from the amalgamation of arc terranes in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and continental collision between East African pieces and parts of the Azania terrane in the south (Collins and Pisarevsky, 2005). The change form arc suturing to continental collision settings is found in southern Kenya where southernmost arcs of the ANS conjoin with thickened continental margin suites of the Eastern Granulite Belt. The younger ca. 570-530 Ma Kuunga orogeny heads from the Damara - Zambesi - Irumide Belts (De Waele et al., 2006) over Tanzania - Mozambique to southern India and clashes with the East African orogen in southern-central Tanzania. Two transitional orogen settings may be defined, (1) that between island arcs and inverted passive continental margin within the East African Orogen and, (2) that between N-S trending East African and W-E trending Kuungan orogenies. The Neoproterozoic island arc suites of SE-Kenya are exposed as a narrow stripe between western Azania and the Eastern Granulite belt. This suture is a steep, NNW stretched belt that aligns roughly with the prominent southern ANS shear zones that converge at the southern tip of the ANS (Athi and Aswa shear zones). Oblique convergence resulted in low-vorticity sinstral shear during early phases of deformation. Syn-magmatic and syn-tectonic textures are compatible with deformation at granulite metamorphic conditions and rocks exhumed quickly during ongoing transcurrent motion. The belt is typified as wrench tectonic belt with horizontal northwards flow of rocks within deeper portions of an island arc. The adjacent Eastern Granulite Nappe experienced westward directed, subhorizontal, low-vorticity, high temperature flow at partly extreme metamorphic conditions (900°C, 1.2 to 1.4 GPa

  6. Problems and Prospects in the Cultural History of South African Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedegar, K.

    2007-07-01

    The inauguration of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) is an auspicious moment for reflection on South African astronomical history, the manner in which this heritage has been represented in the past, and how it might best be represented in the future. It is now appropriate to reassess the history of Euro pean astronomy in South Africa, confronting rather than ignoring issues of national identity, scientific politics, and racism. There are also wide opportunities for scholarship on South African archaeoastronomy and indigenous knowledge systems, with potential applications to culturally relevant basic science education. In the case of astronomy, reconciliation to a rich if troubled history will only come to pass when the science is not only pursued in South Africa, but when its heritage pertains to all South Africans.

  7. Is Entrepreneurial Education at South African Universities Successful? An Empirical Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentoor, E. R.; Friedrich, C.

    2007-01-01

    After more than ten years of democracy in South Africa, many of the previously disadvantaged segments of the community, especially Blacks, would have hoped that a new economic order would have been created. Instead, South Africa still has very high unemployment and even young Black South Africans with a degree are not guaranteed a job. The purpose…

  8. From Policy to Practice: A South-African Perspective on Implementing Inclusive Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naicker, Sigamoney

    2007-01-01

    The advent of a democracy in South Africa ushered in refreshing changes within the South African context. Given South Africa's dark apartheid history, every policy intervention had to ensure a human rights ethos prevails. Inclusive Education, through the publication of the policy document Education White Paper 6 on Special Needs Education:…

  9. Migration from Developing Countries: The Case of South African Teachers to the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Rian

    2007-01-01

    The United Kingdom (particularly England) is the main developed country that recruits teachers from South Africa. This article provides an overview of teacher migration from South Africa to the United Kingdom over the past decade. The research focuses on the following aspects of migration: the recruitment of South African teachers; motivation for…

  10. Factors affecting student success in a first-year mathematics course: a South African experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizito, Rita; Munyakazi, Justin; Basuayi, Clement

    2016-01-01

    In spite of sustained efforts tertiary institutions implement to try and improve student academic performance, the number of students succeeding in first-year mathematics courses remains disturbingly low. For most students, the gap between their mathematical capability and the competencies they are expected and need to develop to function effectively in these courses persists even after course instruction. In this study, an instrument for identifying and examining factors affecting student performance and success in a first-year Mathematics university course was developed and administered to 86 students. The overall Cronbach's Alpha coefficient for the questionnaire was found to be 0.916. Having identified variables from prior research known to affect student performance, factor analysis was used to identify variables exhibiting the greatest impact on student performance. The variables included prior academic knowledge, workload, student approaches to learning, assessment, student support teaching quality, methods and resources. From the analysis, students' perceptions of their workload emerged as the factor having the greatest impact on student's performance, followed by the matriculation examination score. The findings are discussed and strategies that can be used to improve teaching and contribute to student success in a first-year mathematics course in a South African context are presented.

  11. A synopsis of South African psychology from apartheid to democracy.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Saths

    2014-11-01

    In this concatenated overview, the development of psychology in South Africa is traced from its origins in the late 19th century to the present. The seminal influences on the science and practice of psychology of the racialized polity and the responses to the prevailing regimen are also explored. The significant events in the patinated layers of psychological discourse and consequent policies in these constrained circumstances are traversed. Despite the nonracial era occasioned by the formation of the Psychological Society of South Africa three months before the advent of democracy under Nelson Mandela in 1994, the profession of psychology remains demographically skewed. Nevertheless, psychology in the current democratic dispensation enjoys a high profile and is actively engaged in ongoing and reflexive self-examination to ensure that it is more accessible and truly serves humanity. If Africa is psychology's last frontier, the critical denouement of the various issues confronting psychology in the southern tip of the African continent will provide a positive growth path that is likely to merit attention beyond its borders.

  12. Pharmacological and toxicological insights to the South African Amaryllidaceae.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jerald J; van Staden, Johannes

    2013-12-01

    The plant family Amaryllidaceae is of provenance in the South African region which is known to harbor about a third of the global complement of around 1000 species. It has widespread usage in the traditional medicinal practices of the indigenous peoples of the region. As a consequence and given its unique alkaloid principles, its members have provided a viable platform for phytochemical based drug discovery. The medicinal potential of the family has been realized through the commercialization of galanthamine as an Alzheimer's drug due to its potent and selective inhibitory activity against the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Further promising chemotherapeutic candidates of the family reside with the phenanthridone class of alkaloids such as pancratistatin which exhibit potent and cell line specific antiproliferative properties with significant potential for clinical development. Despite these interesting medicinal attributes, plants of the Amaryllidaceae are known to be poisonous and several of them have been classified as such. This survey taking into consideration Amaryllidaceae plants native to South Africa aims to strike a balance between the medicinal potential of the family on one hand and its adverse and toxic effects on the other.

  13. Elevated Blood Pressure among Rural South African Children in Thohoyandou, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    GOON, Daniel; AMUSA, Lateef; MHLONGO, Dorothy; KHOZA, Lunic; ANYANWU, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Background Whilst there seem to be available data on blood pressure profiles of South African children, especially in urban areas, few data exist on rural children. The aims of this study were to determine the blood pressure profiles of rural South African children residing in Thohoyandou; and to examine the relationship between body mass index and blood pressure among the children. Methods: The study involved 296 (134 boys and 135 girls) children aged 7–13 years. Body weight and height were measured using standard procedures. Overweight was defined by body mass index (BMI) for gender and age. Blood pressure was monitored in each child thrice using validated electronic devices (Omron 7051T). Hypertension was determined as the average of three separate blood pressure readings where the systolic or diastolic blood pressure was ≥ 90th percentile for age and sex. Results: Overweight among the girls (4.7%) was higher compared with the boys (3.9%). Both systolic and diastolic pressures (SBP and DBP) increase with age in both sexes. The proportion of children with > 90th percentile occur at only ages 12 and 13 years. The incidence of hypertension (SBP > 90th percentile) was 0.4% and 0.2% in boys and girls, respectively. The SBP and DBP pressures significantly (P<0.05) correlate with age; body mass, height and BMI. Conclusion: Elevated blood pressure is prevalent among rural South African children residing in this region. Also, blood pressure increased with age in both boys and girls, and this positively correlated with age, body weight, height and BMI. PMID:23802106

  14. Albertina Sisulu 1918-2011 Nurse and South African anti-apartheid activist.

    PubMed

    Earl, Geoff

    2011-07-13

    Albertina Sisulu, nurse and political activist, has died at the age of 92. In a message read to mourners at her state funeral, former president Nelson Mandela paid tribute to her as 'one of the greatest South Africans'.

  15. Capacity Building in South African Astronomy and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGruder, Charles H.; Dunsby, Peter; Whitelock, Patricia; Norris, Lawrence; Assamagan, Ketevi; Holbrook, Jarita; Imara, Nia; Oluseyi, Hakeem; Medupe, Thebe

    2016-01-01

    South Africa (SA) has had great success in creating major astronomical facilities - SALT, KAT and MeerKAT. However, the existing SA astronomical community is almost entirely white. The lack of black scientists (80% of SA population is black) is obviously one of the many legacies of apartheid and a major initiative was required to rectify the situation. The National Astrophysics and Space Science Program (NASSP) is aimed at ensuring the development of high level physics skills within SA, and specifically takes graduates with bachelor's degrees in math or the physical sciences and prepares them to do PhDs in astrophysics and related disciplines. However, in 2003 when NASSP was established, there were no black SA astronomers, who could act as role models and mentors. This jeopardized the chances of success of NASSP and with it astronomy in SA. An American organization, the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) received a $355,000 grant from the WK Kellogg Foundation to increase the number of black SA astronomers. It enabled African American scientists - both professionals and students - to participate in NASSP. The African American professionals taught NASSP courses and acted as role models and mentors. The project was an overwhelming success. From its beginning in 2003, the NASSP honors program graduates have gone on to a Master's or PhD program at a rate of 60% (USA rate: 35%). American participation started in 2008. In the very next year the number of black students jumped dramatically, reaching 80% in 2013 and this level continued in 2010-2014. We believe this increase and its maintenance is in large part due to bringing black SA students from SA historically black colleges for two weeks to expose them to astronomy, to a one year program to allow them to catch up academically and to the mentoring activities of the members of NSBP.

  16. Teaching Aids: Struggling with/through Student Resistances in Psychology Curricula in South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbraham, Lindy

    2016-01-01

    African universities have been called to respond to the social issues of trauma, adversity, injustice and inequality that trouble their embedding communities, their staff and their students. The need for South African universities to respond to HIV/Aids (in particular) includes the opening up of new knowledge about and ways of managing the impacts…

  17. African Language Publishing for Children in South Africa: Challenges for Translators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Viv; Ngwaru, Jacob Marriote

    2011-01-01

    The commitment to multilingualism embedded in the 1996 South African Constitution has wide ranging implications for many aspects of education. This paper focuses on the dearth of teaching and learning materials in African languages required to deliver effective bilingual education, and on the potential role of translation in offering solutions for…

  18. African Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Relevance of Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Hassan O.; Seleti, Yonah N.

    2013-01-01

    The higher education system in Africa and South Africa in particular, is still too academic and distant from the developmental challenges of African local communities. The integration of African indigenous knowledge systems (AIKS) into the higher educational system could improve its relevance. This is due to the holistic, community-based nature…

  19. The Role of Public Schools in HIV Prevention: Perspectives from African Americans in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R.; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha

    2012-01-01

    Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates…

  20. Teachers' Exodus in South African Schools: A Smoke with Burning Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumadi, Mutendwahothe Walter

    2008-01-01

    African teachers in general and South Africans in particular face tremendous challenges, several of which are curriculum related. These challenges manifest themselves at various levels and in various areas, that is, from national level to within the classroom. There are various role players who may make a contribution towards overcoming these…

  1. The Impact of the Great Migration on Mortality of African Americans: Evidence from the Deep South

    PubMed Central

    Black, Dan A.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Evan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Migration—the massive migration of African Americans out of the rural South to largely urban locations in the North, Midwest, and West—was a landmark event in U.S. history. Our paper shows that this migration increased mortality of African Americans born in the early twentieth century South. This inference comes from an analysis that uses proximity of birthplace to railroad lines as an instrument for migration. PMID:26345146

  2. Experimental plague infection in South African wild rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, A. J.; Leman, P. A.; Hummitzsch, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Susceptibility studies were undertaken to determine the response of some South African wild rodent species to experimental plague (Yersinia pestis) infection. A degree of plague resistance was found in three gerbil species captured in the plague enzootic region of the northern Cape Province, these being the Namaqua gerbil, Desmodillus auricularis, (LD50 1 X 10(6) organisms), the bushveld gerbil, Tatera leucogaster, (LD50 9.1 X 10(5)) and the highveld gerbil, T. brantsii (LD50 4 X 10(2)). Animals from a population of the four-striped mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio, captured in the plague area of Port Elizabeth, proved moderately resistant to experimental plague infection (LD50 1.3 X 10(4)) while those from another population of the same species captured in a plague-free area of the Orange Free State were extremely susceptible (LD50, 5 organisms). The response of both populations however was a heterogeneous one. Marked differences in susceptibility were also found between two populations of multimammate mice, Mastomys natalensis (2n = 32) although both originated from areas outwith the known distribution of plague in southern Africa. The 50% infectious dose was relatively high in T. leucogaster (3.2 X 10(2)) and D. auricularis (1.7 X 10(3)), but was low (2-16 organisms) in the other rodent species tested. The plague antibody response, determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was extremely short-lived in T. leucogaster, only 10% of inoculated animals remaining seropositive at low titres after 11 weeks. Antibodies persisted for only slightly longer in the sera of T. brantsii which were reinoculated with 2 X 10(3) plague organisms 6 weeks after initial challenge. The demonstration of the existence of both susceptible and resistant populations of R. pumilio and M. natalensis indicates that these species must be considered as potential plague reservoir hosts in parts of South Africa. The results suggest that resistance to plague infection in previously epizootic

  3. Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills: Profile of Acceptors in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abasiattai, A M; Utuk, M N; Ojeh, S O; Eyo, U E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptive pills were the first contraceptive method to provide sexual freedom of choice for women through reliable, personal and private control of fertility. They are the most widely used hormonal contraceptives and also the most popular non-surgical method of contraception. OBJECTIVE: To review the profile of acceptors of combined oral contraceptive pills at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo. METHODOLOGY: An 8 year review of all clients that accepted combined oral contraceptive pills in the family planning clinic. RESULTS: There were 1,146 new contraceptive acceptors during the period of study out of which 309 (27.9%) accepted the pills. Majority of the clients were between 20 and 29 years of age (54.0%), were multiparous (72.8%), Christians (99.7%) and 61.2% had tertiary level education. Two hundred and fifty-five women (82.5%) desired to use combined oral contraceptive pills to space births while 7.8% wanted to limit child bearing. There was a high discontinuation rate among the women (45.0%) and out of these 87.9% of the clients changed to other contraceptive methods. All the clients commenced their pills within seven days of menstruation and only the low dose monophasic preparations were available in the family planning unit and thus were given to the clients. CONCLUSION: Women who accept to initiate combined oral contraceptive pills in our center are young, well educated, multiparous women who want to space their pregnancies. However, due to the high discontinuation rate among the clients, there is need for further studies evaluating reasons for the high discontinuation rate, exploring interactions between clients and providers' and also providers' attitude towards combined pills in our environment.

  4. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Keet, D.F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P.C.; Jolles, Anna E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I.J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. South African managers in public service: on being authentic.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Antoni; Simbhoo, Nirvana

    2014-01-01

    South African managers in public service consistently face challenges related to managing a well-adjusted and productive diverse workforce. Following the notion that leadership authenticity fosters positive psychological employee capacity, the aim of this study was to explore the meaning essence of authenticity as lived in the work-life experiences of senior managers in public service. Five senior managers in public service were purposefully selected based on their articulated challenges with being authentic at work, whilst attending a diversity sensitivity workshop. From a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, in-depth interviews were used, and an interpretative phenomenological analysis yielded two predominant themes offering a description of what it means to be authentic. Authenticity is experienced as an affective state that results from a continuous self-appraisal of the extent to which expression of self is congruent with a subjective and socially constructed expectation of self in relation to others. Authenticity seems to develop through a continuous process of internal and external adaptation, and it leads to ultimately building a differentiated yet integrated identity of self. A reciprocal dynamic between feeling authentic and self-confidence alludes to the potential importance of authenticity dynamics in identity work.

  6. Probable postpartum hypomania and depression in a South African cohort.

    PubMed

    Pingo, Janine; van den Heuvel, Leigh L; Vythylingum, Bavinisha; Seedat, Soraya

    2017-04-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of, and factors associated with, postpartum hypomania (PPH) and postpartum depression (PPD) in a South African sample. Data from 57 women were analysed as part of a larger prospective study of maternal stress in pregnancy. On day 3 postpartum, women were assessed for probable PPH using the Highs scale. On day 3 and at week 6, probable PPD was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), while social support was evaluated using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). PPH was present in 49.1% of the participants at day 3 postpartum whilst PPD was present in 33.3% of participants on day 3 postpartum and in 45.6% at week 6. Participants meeting the clinical cut-off for both PPH and PPD on day 3 (17.5%) had significantly higher depression scores at week 6 than those with only PPH (p = 0.010) or only PPD (p = 0.035) on day 3. Depression scores on day 3 and lower social support scores at week 6 were predictive of PPD at week 6. Consistent with findings in other settings, early-onset PPD and poor social support were predictive of persisting PPD (i.e. at week 6). Women meeting criteria for both PPH and PPD on day 3 had greater depressive symptomatology at week 6. This may be indicative of an underlying bipolar disorder and warrants further investigation.

  7. Sex estimation from the long bones of modern South Africans.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Gabriele C; L'Abbé, Ericka N; Stull, Kyra E

    2017-01-01

    Best scientific practice for sex estimation incorporates accurate techniques that employ appropriate standards and population- and period-specific data. Single measurements provide accurate sex estimations, but multiple measurements and multivariate techniques offer greater validity to biological profile assessments. Appropriate, modern standards for sex estimation are limited to the cranium in South Africans (SA), which warrants the examination of the potential for sex estimation using the postcrania of socially defined SA blacks, whites and coloureds through multivariate models and advanced statistical techniques. A total of 39 standard osteometric measurements were taken from the postcrania of 360 socially defined SA blacks, whites and coloureds (equal sex and ancestry). Univariate and multivariate models were evaluated. Multivariate models, with cross-validation and equal priors, were explored with linear and flexible discriminant analysis (LDA and FDA, respectively). Classification accuracies associated with univariate models ranged from 56 to 89%, whereas multivariate classification accuracies using bone models (i.e. all measurements from one element) ranged from 75 to 91%. The highest correct classifications were achieved with multivariate subsets (i.e. combinations of measurements from different bones) and ranged from 90 to 98%. Overall, FDA and LDA yielded similar accuracy rates. Postcranial bones achieve comparable classification accuracies to the pelvis and higher accuracies than metric or morphological techniques using the cranium. While LDA is the most commonly used classification statistic in biological anthropology, FDA provides a good alternative for classification.

  8. South African managers in public service: On being authentic

    PubMed Central

    Simbhoo, Nirvana

    2014-01-01

    South African managers in public service consistently face challenges related to managing a well-adjusted and productive diverse workforce. Following the notion that leadership authenticity fosters positive psychological employee capacity, the aim of this study was to explore the meaning essence of authenticity as lived in the work–life experiences of senior managers in public service. Five senior managers in public service were purposefully selected based on their articulated challenges with being authentic at work, whilst attending a diversity sensitivity workshop. From a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, in-depth interviews were used, and an interpretative phenomenological analysis yielded two predominant themes offering a description of what it means to be authentic. Authenticity is experienced as an affective state that results from a continuous self-appraisal of the extent to which expression of self is congruent with a subjective and socially constructed expectation of self in relation to others. Authenticity seems to develop through a continuous process of internal and external adaptation, and it leads to ultimately building a differentiated yet integrated identity of self. A reciprocal dynamic between feeling authentic and self-confidence alludes to the potential importance of authenticity dynamics in identity work. PMID:24434054

  9. Associations Between South African Rainfall and The General Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennant, W. J.

    The atmospheric energy cycle, as described by Lorenz, is fundamental to weather and climate. However, the question is how much of the climatic variability can be ascribed to fluctuations in the energy cycle. This study shows that there are indeed strong associations between summer rainfall in central and northern South Africa and the global energy cycle. These associations are manifest through fluctuations in the tropical Hadley circulations, that affect the baroclinicity of the mid-latitudes, that in turn force tropical and sub-tropical circulations. Twice-daily fields from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data are used to calculate at- mospheric available potential and kinetic energy and the conversions between these energy forms for mean and eddy components in time and space. Self-organizing maps (SOMs) are used to determine dominant modes within these atmospheric data. The rel- ative frequency of these modes are then assessed for periods of different rainfall char- acteristics. These include, among others, wet and dry seasons and the spatial spread of rainfall. These associations provide insight into the causes of rainfall variability in the African region and open new possibilities in the field of seasonal prediction. If General Circu- lation Models (GCMs) are able to capture fluctuations in the global energy cycle accu- rately, which does seem likely given some preliminary results, more accurate seasonal forecasts may be attempted. This despite the GCMs having difficulty in simulating the smaller-scale motion and associated non-linear interaction.

  10. IYA2009 in Africa: A South African perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In Africa the stars have always been a part of people's everyday lives, be it in the form of folklore, superstition or even agricultural indicators. Modern astronomy, however, has not been very widespread, with only a few African countries having sufficient facilities or academics to support a modern astronomical community. The International Year of Astronomy serves not only as an opportunity to boost these astronomical communities, but also to celebrate the rich history and culture that has existed for thousands of years. On this, the poorest continent, with so many millions living in rural areas, there is one glaring advantage over other continents - people's abundant access to a dark night sky. We would like to see 2009 as the year that everyone in Africa, no matter what their background or lifestyle, turn their heads to the skies in appreciation of the beauty of the Universe, in celebration of their cultural heritage, and in the hope that they are inspired to overcome harsh challenges that this small planet and its occupants may have placed on them. It is an opportunity not just to promote astronomy, but also to spark curiosity and spur on a culture of learning. The perspective will be given from South Africa, home to a number of major astronomical facilities, and a major player in the development of astronomy across Africa. IYA2009 progress to date and plans for the future will be discussed.

  11. On some sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from off the south and west coasts of South Africa collected by the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON).

    PubMed

    Thandar, Ahmed S; Rambaran, Ryan

    2015-08-07

    Twenty four specimens of holothuroids recently received from the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON), collected from off the south and west coasts of South Africa, are herein recorded and/or described. The specimens comprise eight nominal and one indeterminate species and represent both shallow-water and deep-sea forms, distributed from Plettenberg Bay to just north of Lambert's Bay in the Western Cape Province. There are no new species but two new records for the South African region and extensions of horizontal and bathymetric distributions of the other species. Additions to the South African fauna are Zygothuria lactea (Théel, 1886) and Synallactes cf. challengeri (Théel, 1886). The paper also contains the first definite record of Thyone venusta Selenka, 1868, originally described from the Red Sea. Distribution ranges of the following species have been altered Synallactes viridilimus Cherbonnier, 1952; S. mollis Cherbonnier, 1952 and Psuedostichopus langeae Thandar, 2009.

  12. Online Learning in a South African Higher Education Institution: Determining the Right Connections for the Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queiros, Dorothy R.; de Villiers, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Online learning is a means of reaching marginalised and disadvantaged students within South Africa. Nevertheless, these students encounter obstacles in online learning. This research investigates South African students' opinions regarding online learning, culminating in a model of important connections (facets that connect students to their…

  13. The Emergence of Research in the South African Academic Development Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughey, Chrissie; Niven, Penny

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses an analytical framework developed from the work of philosopher Roy Bhaskar and sociologist Margaret Archer to explore the emergence of a body of research on teaching and learning in South African higher education. This research, generated in a field known as "Academic Development" in South Africa and as "Educational…

  14. The Role of Theatre and Embodied Knowledge in Addressing Race in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the role of theatrical performance as a means of addressing the embodied and spatio-temporal manifestations of race and racism within South African higher education. As part of Jansen's proposal for a post-conflict pedagogy in South Africa, the article argues for the development and inclusion of embodied knowledges as an…

  15. The Psychological Effects of Apartheid on the Mental Health of Black South African Women Domestics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohutsioa-Makhudu, Yvonne Nono K.

    1989-01-01

    Claims ideology of apartheid creates circumstances for feelings of incompleteness and inferiority among Black domestics in South Africa. Contends that apartheid has been created by the White racist minority to oppress and psychologically devastate the mental health of Black South Africans, particularly Black women domestics. (ABL)

  16. Dual Use of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco among South African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantao, Masego; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors associated with dual use of tobacco products in a population of black South African adolescents. Methods: Data were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed by a representative sample of grade 8 students from 21 randomly selected secondary state schools in the Limpopo Province, South Africa (n =…

  17. Responding to AIDS-Related Bereavement in the South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demmer, Craig

    2007-01-01

    AIDS continues to be a death sentence for many individuals living in South Africa where it remains the leading cause of death. Little is currently known about what it is like to experience the loss of a loved one to AIDS from the South African perspective and how to assist individuals who are living in a context vastly different from similarly…

  18. Shifting the Future? Teachers as Agents of Social Change in South African Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappy, Christina Lane

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has risen to the forefront of educational debates that claim schooling can promote social justice and social cohesion. By drawing on Freire's (1970) theory of critical pedagogy, this paper examines how South African teachers in rural and township schools encourage students to reflect critically upon their own lives and take action to…

  19. Towards a Meaningful Curriculum Implementation in South African Schools: Senior Phase Teachers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taole, Matshidiso Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Different sectors of society register complaints about schooling in South Africa. Given that curriculum reform has such a poor record of implementation in the country, there is clearly a need for research that identifies factors that hinder or facilitate curriculum implementation in South African schools and identifies strategies to address the…

  20. The Gendered Nature of South African Teachers' Discourse on Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, R.; Francis, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, high pregnancy and infection rates show that many teenagers are having sex, and that they are not adequately protecting themselves against undesired pregnancies and disease. Sex education is usually taught as part of the subject area Life Orientation. In a qualitative study of 25 Life Orientation teachers in the South African Free…

  1. The African Renaissance and the Transformation of the Higher Education Curriculum in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum is a critical element in the transformation of higher education, and as a result, I argue for the inclusion of what I refer to as an African epistemic in higher education curricula in South Africa. In so doing, attention is directed at the decolonisation of the curriculum in higher education in South Africa, which aims to give…

  2. Contradictory Transformations: Observations on the Intellectual Dynamics of South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Helena

    2009-01-01

    What sort of expectations of transformation of higher education have been aroused by liberation movements? Has the new South Africa fulfilled such expectations? This paper explores the promises and processes that have enveloped South African universities in recent decades. It focuses on the underlying assumptions shaping academic disciplines in…

  3. The Introduction of External Quality Assurance in South African Higher Education: An Analysis of Stakeholder Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckett, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the take-up of proposals for a national quality assurance system in South Africa using different approaches to quality assurance to classify stakeholder responses to survey and interview questions. The context of the study was the introduction of an external quality assurance system for South African higher education by an…

  4. Race and Resources: Black Parents' Perspectives on Post-Apartheid South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2012-01-01

    The dismantling of apartheid in 1994 brought an array of democratic changes in South Africa, including changes in curriculum and educational policies. One of the most momentous changes was the desegregation of public schools. While this was significant in South African education politics, it presented some educational challenges, especially to…

  5. Navigating the Byways of Polyculturalism--Whose Dance Are We Teaching in South African Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The post-apartheid Dance Studies curriculum in South Africa is attempting to offer school learners both an education and training in dance as an art form. The outcomes-based syllabi are intended to ensure that learners come to respect the diversity of South African society, and therefore a range of dance styles and genres are offered in order to…

  6. Beyond Passivity: Constructions of Femininities in a Single-Sex South African School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia; Pillay, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the calamitous effects of gender violence on the experience of schooling for South African girls, single-sex schools have been advanced as a strategy to protect girls from violence. In this paper, the experiences of a selected group of girls in a single-sex school in Durban, South Africa are illustrated to provide a counter…

  7. Barriers to Conducting a Community Mobilization Intervention among Youth in a Rural South African Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…

  8. Education Quality in Post-Apartheid South African Policy: Balancing Equity, Diversity, Rights and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Yusuf; Ahmed, Rashid

    2011-01-01

    In spite of numerous definitions of quality, consensus on what constitutes quality is less clear and contested. Using South Africa as a case study, this paper explores the current conceptual thinking and debates about education quality. Specifically the paper reviews selected South African policy texts to identify how some of the global dimensions…

  9. History in Black and White: An Analysis of South African School History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Elizabeth; And Others

    Designed to examine the way that different ethnic groups are presented in South African secondary school history textbooks, this study gives special attention to the extent and nature of ethnic stereotyping in texts and the endorsement of particular social and political attitudes relevant to contemporary South Africa. By using a sociological…

  10. Corporal Punishment in Schools and Fundamental Human Rights: A South African Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsloo, Justus

    In many western countries, corporal punishment has been abolished as a form of punishment in criminal trials and in schools. Under South African common law, persons entitled to enforce discipline may inflict corporal punishment within certain guidelines established by the Supreme Court. For the first time in the Republic of South Africa (RSA), the…

  11. A Critical Evaluation of Training within the South African National Public Works Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccord, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the ability of the training and work experience offered under public works programmes to promote employment in South Africa. Public works are a key component of South African labour market policy and are ascribed considerable potential in terms of addressing the core challenge of unemployment. However, despite this policy…

  12. Evaluation of eLearning Usage in South African Universities: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagarukayo, Emily; Kalema, Billy

    2015-01-01

    Although eLearning is the use of technology for teaching, learning and assessment, there is no common approach to it across South African Higher Education Institutions. There is therefore a concern that the full potential of eLearning approach is not utilised. This paper examines the nature and the extent of eLearning activities in South African…

  13. Uneven South African Private Enterprise Training: The National Skills Survey of 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrew; Du Toit, Jacques L.

    2005-01-01

    The South African workforce is characterised by racial, gender, occupational and sectoral unevenness in the distribution of skills, employment and training opportunities. This article considers how enterprise training in South Africa contributes to ameliorating, sustaining or exacerbating such inequalities. Using data from the National Skills…

  14. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS among Young South Africans in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…

  15. Can Authoritarian Separatism Give Way to Linguistic Rights? A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heugh, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a background to recent developments in language planning in South Africa. Following a historical review, it focuses on a Bill of Rights in the new constitution which has, since 1993, demanded a shift towards rights-based language policy within a liberal framework. Debates within the Pan South African Language Board (PANSALB)…

  16. "The Thing That Kill Us": Student Perspectives on Language Support in a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    South African higher education institutions, in line with international practice and as a result of the "social turn", are progressing towards mainstream academic literacy support for students. This shift has a political dimension in South Africa where, historically, disadvantage has had racial dimensions, in its departure from…

  17. Career Counselling in the 21st Century: South African Institutions of Higher Education at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, J. G.

    2009-01-01

    The current state of career counselling in South African institutions of higher education in the 21st century is explored in this article in an attempt to locate current work in the field of career counselling in South Africa in the light of global trends (academic and economic) and in terms of local history and current economic climate. The…

  18. Barriers to Clinical Trial Participation: Comparing Perceptions and Knowledge of African American and White South Carolinians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sei-Hill; Tanner, Andrea; Friedman, Daniela B; Foster, Caroline; Bergeron, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing data from a survey of African American and White residents in South Carolina, this study attempts to understand how to better promote clinical trial participation specifically within the African American population. To explore why participation is lower in the African American population, the authors examined two sets of potential barriers: structural/procedural (limited accessibility, lack of awareness, doctors not discussing clinical trial options, lack of health insurance) and cognitive/psychological (lack of subjective and factual knowledge, misperceptions, distrust, fear, perceived risk). Findings revealed that African Americans were significantly less willing than Whites to participate in a clinical trial. African Americans also had lower subjective and factual knowledge about clinical trials and perceived greater risk involved in participating in a clinical trial. The authors found that lack of subjective knowledge and perceived risk were significant predictors of African Americans' willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Implications of the findings are discussed in detail.

  19. Unregulated gambling in South African townships: a policy conundrum?

    PubMed

    Scott, Leanne; Barr, Graham

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to explore the nature of informal or illegal gambling in South African townships, to investigate what motivates people to participate in this form of gambling and what they perceive are the associated benefits and dis-benefits. A series of focus group workshops was conducted with two groups of gamblers, all of whom had experience of some form of township gambling: one group currently lived in townships and the other had previously resided in townships. Gambling for the township residents was a far more frequent activity than for non-township residents and consumed substantially more of their time. The majority of the township residents classified themselves as unemployed, while of those who were unemployed, most people indicated that gambling was a major source of their income; some even described it as their only source of income. The most significant difference between what township and non-township residents expressed as wanting and getting from gambling was that the former indicated quite clearly and unanimously that what they sought and gained from gambling was money. Township residents were far more likely to indicate that they used gambling to balance their budgets than ex-township residents who gambled primarily at casinos. A lottery type game called "Fahfee" is the most widely spread and pervasive form of gambling and was unanimously portrayed as a necessary and beneficial form of support for the poor and unemployed. Lottery and Casino gambling were, in contrast, widely perceived by the township participants as being 'rigged' and unfair. Township Dice and cards were perceived as being 'fairer' and as allowing punters to be more in control than casino gambling. The downside of township gambling was reported to be high levels of violence, crime and insecurity surrounding, in particular, the game of Dice. There was widespread inability to calculate expected payoffs or odds, and an apparent belief that these were not particularly

  20. Variation in enamel development of South African fossil hominids.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Rozzi, Fernando Ramirez; Bromage, Timothy G

    2006-12-01

    Dental tissues provide important insights into aspects of hominid palaeobiology that are otherwise difficult to obtain from studies of the bony skeleton. Tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts, which demonstrate daily secretory rhythms developing tissue-specific structures known as cross striations, and longer period markings called striae of Retzius. These enamel features were studied in the molars of two well known South African hominid species, Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus. Using newly developed portable confocal microscopy, we have obtained cross striation periodicities (number of cross striations between adjacent striae) for the largest sample of hominid teeth reported to date. These data indicate a mean periodicity of seven days in these small-bodied hominids. Important differences were observed in the inferred mechanisms of enamel development between these taxa. Ameloblasts maintain high rates of differentiation throughout cervical enamel development in P. robustus but not in A. africanus. In our sample, there were fewer lateral striae of Retzius in P. robustus than in A. africanus. In a molar of P. robustus, lateral enamel formed in a much shorter time than cuspal enamel, and the opposite was observed in two molars of A. africanus. In spite of the greater occlusal area and enamel thickness of the molars of both fossil species compared with modern humans, the total crown formation time of these three fossil molars was shorter than the corresponding tooth type in modern humans. Our results provide support for previous conclusions that molar crown formation time was short in Plio-Pleistocene hominids, and strongly suggest the presence of different mechanisms of amelogenesis, and thus tooth development, in these taxa.

  1. Appositional enamel growth in molars of South African fossil hominids.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G

    2006-07-01

    Enamel is formed incrementally by the secretory activity of ameloblast cells. Variable stages of secretion result in the formation of structures known as cross striations along enamel prisms, for which experimental data demonstrate a correspondence with daily periods of secretion. Patterns of variation in this daily growth are important to understanding mechanisms of tooth formation and the development of enamel thickness. Transmitted light microscopy (TLM) of histological ground sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of bulk specimens or their surface replicas are the usual methods for investigating cross striations. However, these methods pose some constraints on the study of these features in Plio-Pleistocene hominid enamel, the specimens of which may only rarely be sectioned for TLM or examined on only their most superficial surfaces for SEM. The recent development of portable confocal scanning optical microscopy (PCSOM) resolves some of the restrictions on fractured enamel surfaces, allowing the visualization of cross striations by direct examination. This technology has been applied here to the study of Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus hominid molars from the Plio-Pleistocene of South Africa. We hypothesize that these taxa have increased enamel appositional rates compared with modern humans, because despite having thicker enamelled molars (particularly P. robustus), the enamel crowns of these fossil taxa take an equivalent or reduced amount of time to form. Cross striations were measured in cuspal, lateral and cervical regions of the enamel crowns, and, within each region, the inner, middle and outer zones. Values obtained for A. africanus outer zones of the enamel crown are, in general, lower than those for P. robustus, indicating faster forming enamel in the latter, while both taxa show higher rates of enamel growth than modern humans and the African great apes. This demonstrates a relatively high degree of variability in the

  2. Divergent thermal specialisation of two South African entomopathogenic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Malan, Antoinette P.; Terblanche, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal physiology of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) is a critical aspect of field performance and fitness. Thermal limits for survival and activity, and the ability of these limits to adjust (i.e., show phenotypic flexibility) depending on recent thermal history, are generally poorly established, especially for non-model nematode species. Here we report the acute thermal limits for survival, and the thermal acclimation-related plasticity thereof for two key endemic South African EPN species, Steinernema yirgalemense and Heterorhabditis zealandica. Results including LT50 indicate S. yirgalemense (LT50 = 40.8 ± 0.3 °C) has greater high temperature tolerance than H. zealandica (LT50 = 36.7 ± 0.2 °C), but S. yirgalemense (LT50 = −2.4 ± 0 °C) has poorer low temperature tolerance in comparison to H. zealandica (LT50 = −9.7 ± 0.3 °C), suggesting these two EPN species occupy divergent thermal niches to one another. Acclimation had both negative and positive effects on temperature stress survival of both species, although the overall variation meant that many of these effects were non-significant. There was no indication of a consistent loss of plasticity with improved basal thermal tolerance for either species at upper lethal temperatures. At lower temperatures measured for H. zealandica, the 5 °C acclimation lowered survival until below −12.5 °C, where after it increased survival. Such results indicate that the thermal niche breadth of EPN species can differ significantly depending on recent thermal conditions, and should be characterized across a broad range of species to understand the evolution of thermal limits to performance and survival in this group. PMID:26157609

  3. Acceptability of Early Antiretroviral Therapy Among South African Women.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Nigel; Norman, Emily; Leask, Kerry; Naicker, Nivashnee; Asari, Villeshni; Majola, Nelisile; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Karim, Salim S Abdool

    2017-02-21

    WHO guidelines recommend immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all individuals at HIV diagnosis regardless of CD4 count, but concerns remain about potential low uptake or poor adherence among healthy patients with high CD4 counts, especially in resource-limited settings. This study assessed the acceptability of earlier treatment among HIV-positive South African women, median age at enrollment 25 (IQR 22-30), in a 10 year prospective cohort study by (i) describing temporal CD4 count trends at initiation in relation to WHO guidance, (ii) virological suppression rates post-ART initiation at different CD4 count thresholds, and (iii) administration of a standardized questionnaire. 158/232 (68.1%) participants initiated ART between 2006 and 2015. Mean CD4 count at initiation was 217 cells/µl (range 135-372) before 2010, and increased to 531 cells/µl (range 272-1095) by 2015 (p < 0.001). Median viral load at ART initiation decreased over this period from 5.2 (IQR 4.6-5.6) to 4.1 (IQR 3.4-4.6) log copies/ml (p = 0.004). Virological suppression rates at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months were consistently above 85% with no statistically significant differences for participants starting ART at different CD4 count thresholds. A questionnaire assessing uptake of early ART amongst ART-naïve women, median age 28 (IQR 24-33), revealed that 40/51 (78.4%) were willing to start ART at CD4 ≥500. Of those unwilling, 6/11 (54.5%) started ART within 6 months of questionnaire administration. Temporal increases in CD4 counts, comparable virological suppression rates, and positive patient perceptions confirm high acceptability of earlier ART initiation for the majority of patients.

  4. Divergent thermal specialisation of two South African entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Hill, Matthew P; Malan, Antoinette P; Terblanche, John S

    2015-01-01

    Thermal physiology of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) is a critical aspect of field performance and fitness. Thermal limits for survival and activity, and the ability of these limits to adjust (i.e., show phenotypic flexibility) depending on recent thermal history, are generally poorly established, especially for non-model nematode species. Here we report the acute thermal limits for survival, and the thermal acclimation-related plasticity thereof for two key endemic South African EPN species, Steinernema yirgalemense and Heterorhabditis zealandica. Results including LT50 indicate S. yirgalemense (LT50 = 40.8 ± 0.3 °C) has greater high temperature tolerance than H. zealandica (LT50 = 36.7 ± 0.2 °C), but S. yirgalemense (LT50 = -2.4 ± 0 °C) has poorer low temperature tolerance in comparison to H. zealandica (LT50 = -9.7 ± 0.3 °C), suggesting these two EPN species occupy divergent thermal niches to one another. Acclimation had both negative and positive effects on temperature stress survival of both species, although the overall variation meant that many of these effects were non-significant. There was no indication of a consistent loss of plasticity with improved basal thermal tolerance for either species at upper lethal temperatures. At lower temperatures measured for H. zealandica, the 5 °C acclimation lowered survival until below -12.5 °C, where after it increased survival. Such results indicate that the thermal niche breadth of EPN species can differ significantly depending on recent thermal conditions, and should be characterized across a broad range of species to understand the evolution of thermal limits to performance and survival in this group.

  5. Measuring Service Quality in Higher Education: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to report on the SERVQUAL gap which causes unsuccessful service delivery at a University of Technology in South Africa. Using a quantitative research design, the study adopts a SERVQUAL model adapted to a tertiary environment containing five dimensions of service quality (tangibles, responsiveness, empathy, assurance, and…

  6. Merging Right: Questions of Access and Merit in South African Higher Education Reform, 1994-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, John

    2005-01-01

    The dismantling of South Africa's apartheid-controlled education system after 1994 brought with it unprecedented policy complications, among them the question of how best to integrate the desiderata of access and merit in school education and tertiary sectors. For the higher education sector, institutional mergers became an increasingly visible…

  7. Rising trends of neurocysticercosis: A serological report from tertiary-care hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Thamilselvan, Piriyatharisini; Muthuraman, Krishna Raj; Mandal, Jharna; Parija, Subash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Taenia solium is a common two-host parasitic cestode, residing in both humans (definitive) and pigs (intermediate). Invasion of this parasitic cyst into central nervous system leads to a condition known as neurocysticercosis (NCC). The World Health Organization (WHO) considers NCC as one of the “most neglected” tropical zoonotic diseases. The disease is presented with pleomorphic clinical manifestations, of which epilepsy is the most common. Diagnosis of NCC is carried out by serological tests and imaging methods. Only a few studies from Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Pondicherry are available regarding the seropositive levels of NCC in South India. Materials and Methods: A descriptive analysis was carried out on NCC suspected patients attending outpatient or inpatient department of different clinics majorly from neurology, medicine, pediatrics, ophthalmology, and skin at Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, a tertiary care hospital in South India. A total of 391 patient samples (either serum or cerebrospinal fluid or urine) for 5 years from January 2011 to December 2015 were taken into the study. Serological investigations such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme-linked immunoelectro transfer blot were performed for assessing the seropositivity levels of NCC. Results: The overall seropositive cases of NCC in the study population were found to be 32.5% of which positive male cases (59.1%) exceeding females (40.9%). The frequency of adult positive cases (77.2%) was more than that of pediatrics cases (22.8%) with an average of 30.9 years of age. Conclusions: NCC seropositive levels show an increasing trend with the study period. This necessitates a proper attention to the unnoticed spread of the parasitic disease, which affects the quality of life in the community. Quality screening and diagnostic strategy should be implied along with proper awareness for preventive measure practices

  8. Application of FORDISC 3.0 to explore differences among crania of North American and South African blacks and whites.

    PubMed

    L'Abbé, Ericka N; Kenyhercz, Michael; Stull, Kyra E; Keough, Natalie; Nawrocki, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    Using discriminant function analysis, classification accuracies for ancestry and sex in white and black South Africans were compared using North American (FDB), African groups in Howells (HDB), and South African (SADB) databases in FORDISC 3.0. (FD3). Twenty-four standard linear measures were collected from a total of 86 black and 101 white crania obtained from the Pretoria Bone Collection. White and black South Africans classified 73% correctly in FDB, 55% correctly in HDB, and 71% correctly in SADB. The percentage of atypical cases was higher with FDB than SADB. In all three databases, misclassification occurred more with sex than ancestry revealing differences in sexual dimorphism between population groups. Broad ancestral differences may explain low misclassification rates for ancestry. FD3, with a modern South African reference sample, can assist South African anthropologists to standardize methodology and to justify procedures for estimating ancestry.

  9. Pattern of inpatient referrals to dermatology at a tertiary care centre of South Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Balai, Manisha; Gupta, Lalit K.; Khare, Ashok K.; Mittal, Asit; Mehta, Sharad; Bharti, Garima

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dermatologists besides providing service to patients in the outdoors, also play a vital role in the care of inpatients admitted to dermatology unit and other departments. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of referrals sent to the dermatology department by other departments. Materials and Methods: The study included all inpatients referred to dermatology department of a tertiary care centre of South Rajasthan during a 5-year period from October 2008 to September 2013. Results: A total of 1560 consultations with 1603 diagnoses were recorded. Most (770; 49.3%) consultations were received from internal medicine, followed by surgery (177; 11.3%), pediatrics (104; 6.7%), psychiatry (86; 5.5%) and gynecology (69; 4.4%) wards. Infectious skin diseases were most common (29.7%) followed by eczema (12.0%) and drug reactions (9.0%). Conclusion: Dermatology referrals can enhance the dermatological knowledge of non-dermatologists to diagnose and manage common dermatoses thus improving overall patient care. PMID:28217467

  10. Soft tissue thickness values for black and coloured South African children aged 6-13 years.

    PubMed

    Briers, N; Briers, T M; Becker, P J; Steyn, M

    2015-07-01

    In children, craniofacial changes due to facial growth complicate facial approximations and require specific knowledge of soft tissue thicknesses (STT). The lack of South African juvenile STT standards of particular age groups, sex and ancestry is problematic. According to forensic artists in the South African Police Service the use of African-American values to reconstruct faces of Black South African children yields poor results. In order to perform a facial approximation that presents a true reflection of the child in question, information regarding differences in facial soft tissue at different ages, sexes and ancestry groups is needed. The aims of this study were to provide data on STT of South African Black and Coloured children and to assess differences in STT with respect to age, sex and ancestry. STT was measured using cephalograms of South African children (n=388), aged 6-13 years. After digitizing the images, STT measurements were taken at ten mid-facial landmarks from each image using the iTEM measuring program. STT comparisons between groups per age, sex and ancestry were statistically analyzed. The results showed that STT differences at lower face landmarks are more pronounced in age groups per ancestry as opposed to differences per age and sex. Generally, an increase in STT was seen between 6-10 year old groups and 11-13 year old groups, regardless of ancestry and sex, at the midphiltrum, labiale inferius, pogonion, and beneath chin landmarks. This research created a reference dataset for STT of South African children of Black and Coloured ancestry per age and sex that will be useful for facial reconstruction/approximation of juvenile remains.

  11. Unequal contribution of native South African phylogeographic lineages to the invasion of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Courant, Julien; Herrel, Anthony; Rebelo, Rui; Rödder, Dennis; Measey, G. John; Backeljau, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Due to both deliberate and accidental introductions, invasive African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) populations have become established worldwide. In this study, we investigate the geographic origins of invasive X. laevis populations in France and Portugal using the phylogeographic structure of X. laevis in its native South African range. In total, 80 individuals from the whole area known to be invaded in France and Portugal were analysed for two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, allowing a comparison with 185 specimens from the native range. Our results show that native phylogeographic lineages have contributed differently to invasive European X. laevis populations. In Portugal, genetic and historical data suggest a single colonization event involving a small number of individuals from the south-western Cape region in South Africa. In contrast, French invasive X. laevis encompass two distinct native phylogeographic lineages, i.e., one from the south-western Cape region and one from the northern regions of South Africa. The French X. laevis population is the first example of a X. laevis invasion involving multiple lineages. Moreover, the lack of population structure based on nuclear DNA suggests a potential role for admixture within the invasive French population. PMID:26855879

  12. Unequal contribution of native South African phylogeographic lineages to the invasion of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in Europe.

    PubMed

    De Busschere, Charlotte; Courant, Julien; Herrel, Anthony; Rebelo, Rui; Rödder, Dennis; Measey, G John; Backeljau, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Due to both deliberate and accidental introductions, invasive African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) populations have become established worldwide. In this study, we investigate the geographic origins of invasive X. laevis populations in France and Portugal using the phylogeographic structure of X. laevis in its native South African range. In total, 80 individuals from the whole area known to be invaded in France and Portugal were analysed for two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, allowing a comparison with 185 specimens from the native range. Our results show that native phylogeographic lineages have contributed differently to invasive European X. laevis populations. In Portugal, genetic and historical data suggest a single colonization event involving a small number of individuals from the south-western Cape region in South Africa. In contrast, French invasive X. laevis encompass two distinct native phylogeographic lineages, i.e., one from the south-western Cape region and one from the northern regions of South Africa. The French X. laevis population is the first example of a X. laevis invasion involving multiple lineages. Moreover, the lack of population structure based on nuclear DNA suggests a potential role for admixture within the invasive French population.

  13. A South African Municipality Mapping the Way Forward for Social Inclusion Through Universal Design.

    PubMed

    Aalbers, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Since becoming a democracy, South African legislation has changed. The South African Constitution and legislation governing the structures and mandate of the different spheres of government aim towards municipalities needing to become more developmental in the way it serves the community with a specific focus on the poor and vulnerable. It sets ideals to overcome the inheritance of the past. However, how to do this is sometimes still unclear. This paper is a case study illustrating how Stellenbosch Municipality overcame obstacles of perceived legislative restrictions, silo operations and antiquated thinking, working towards social inclusion for all its citizens. In moving away from disability accessibility and embracing universal access as a way in which to deliver basic services, Stellenbosch discovered the beginning of the process of overcoming the negative legacy of the past. Understanding the Universal Design principles and approach illustrated how South African municipalities can promote the concept of our rainbow nation as envisioned in the Constitution.

  14. Trade in Educational Services: Reflections on the African and South African Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the emergence of globalisation and its impact on developments within the African continent. Africa's response at a regional level through the New Partnership for Africa's Development and at a subregional level through the Southern African Development Community's "Protocol on Education" come under…

  15. "You Must Know Where You Come From": South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural coding.…

  16. Challenges Experienced by District-Based Support Teams in the Execution of Their Functions in a Specific South African Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhalemele, Thabo; Nel, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an embedded mixed-method South African study that investigated the challenges experienced by District-Based Support Team (DBST) members in the sub-directorate of Inclusive Education of a South African province in the execution of their functions. A Likert-scale questionnaire and individual semi-structured…

  17. Managing Teacher Leave and Absence in South African Rural Schools: Implications for Supporting Schools in Contexts of Multiple-Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moletsane, Relebohile; Juan, Andrea; Prinsloo, Cas; Reddy, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly points to the negative impacts of teacher absence from school on access to schooling and success in learning in schools, in particular in schools in areas of multiple-deprivation (including rural schools). South African schools are no exception. In this regard, like any other employer, the South African Department of Basic…

  18. Teachers' Perceptions about their Own and their Schools' Readiness for Computer Implementation: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Andre; Webb, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This case study, involving 30 participating teachers from six previously disadvantaged South African schools, provides data on teacher perceptions of the challenges related to implementing Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The schools had minimal resources as a residual result of the South African apartheid policy prior to 1994 and…

  19. Do Tutors Matter? Assessing the Impact of Tutors on First-Year Academic Performance at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Tracey Morton

    2016-01-01

    This research sought to determine if a teaching intervention using tutors in a South African university could promote epistemological access to university for first-year students. Although hiring, developing and managing tutors takes money, time and energy, the effectiveness of tutors in the South African context is underreported. The first-year…

  20. Tectonic implications of paleomagnetic poles from Lower Tertiary Volcanic Rocks, south central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillhouse, John W.; Grommé, C. Sherman; Csejtey, Bela, Jr.

    1985-12-01

    We have determined the paleolatitude of lower Tertiary volcanic rocks in southern Alaska to measure possible poleward translation of the Wrangellia and the Peninsular terranes after 50 m.y. ago. Previous paleomagnetic studies have shown that in Triassic and Jurassic time these terranes were located near the equator and have moved at least 3000 km poleward relative to the North American craton. Our sample localities are in the northern Talkeetna Mountains in mildly deformed andesite and dacite flows (50.4, 51.3, 53.9, and 56.3 m.y. by K-Ar) that overlap Lower Cretaceous flysch, Lower Permian volcanic rocks of Wrangellia, and Upper Triassic pillow basalt of the Susitna terrane. Results from 26 cooling units (23 of reversed polarity and 3 of normal polarity) give a mean paleomagnetic pole at 69.5°N, 179.6°E, α95 = 12.2°. Stratigraphic sections from opposite limbs of a syncline yield directional paths that pass the fold test, satisfying a necessary condition for primary origin of the magnetization. The corresponding mean paleolatitude (76°N) of the northern Talkeetna Mountains is 8°±10° higher than the latitude predicted from the Eocene reference pole for North America. Therefore, northward drift of the Talkeetna superterrane, which is the amalgamation of the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes during and after Middle Jurassic time, was probably complete by 50 m.y. ago. Our results are consistent with paleomagnetic poles from uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene volcanic sequences in Denali National Park, the Lake Clark region, northern Bristol Bay region, and near McGrath. These poles generally lie south of the cratonic poles, suggesting that the region between the Kaltag, Bruin Bay, and Castle Mountain faults has rotated counterclockwise relative to North America since the early Eocene.

  1. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India

    PubMed Central

    Satheeshkumar, PS; Mohan, Minu P; Saji, Sweta; Sadanandan, Sudheesh; George, Giju

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental pulp calcifications are unique and represent the dental pulp regenerative process. Dental pulp calcifications are sometimes routine findings in oral radiographs and may later serve as an important diagnostic criterion for a hidden aspect of systemic illness. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns and prevalence of idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India. Materials and Methods: A total of 227 patients were included in the study fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Age range of the study population was from 15 to 70 years. Teeth were examined under digital panoramic radiograph. The presence or absence of pulp stones was recorded. The presence of pulp stone were categorized according to the types classified as Type I, Type IA, Type II, Type IIA, Type II B, and Type III. The frequency of occurrence of pulp stones with sex, tooth type, dental arches, and types were compared with the types of calcification. Results: Total no. of patients with pulpal calcification were 227 [females 133 (58.59%) and males 94 (41.40%)]. The most common type between both sexes was Type I (48%). Total no. of teeth with calcification was 697; maxilla (48%), mandible (52%). The prevalence of pulp stone was found to be higher in the molars in both the arches. Most no. of pulp stones are reported at the third and fourth decade of life. Conclusion: Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications are incidental radiographic findings of the pulp tissue and also may be an indicator of underlying disease. PMID:23349577

  2. Bone tumors in a tertiary care hospital of south India: A review 117 cases

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Karun; Sunila; Ravishankar, R.; Mruthyunjaya; Rupakumar, C. S.; Gadiyar, H. B.; Manjunath, G. V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bone tumors remain a daunting challenge to orthopedic surgeons. The challenge is heightened in developing countries due to limited diagnostic and therapeutic facilities as well as due to ignorance. The published literature on this subject is sparse in our environment. Objective: To determine the pattern of bone tumors including their relative frequencies, age and sex distributions, anatomical sites of occurrence and clinico-pathological characteristics as seen in a tertiary care hospital of south India. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of all the histologically confirmed bone tumors seen at JSS Medical College and Hospital, Mysore over an 8 year period: 2002 to 2009. Results: A total of 117 patients (aged 5 to 82 years) with a mean of age of 26.87 years were studied. Seventy-six patients (64.96%) were males and 41 (35.04%) were females. The peak age incidence for primary bone tumors was in the age group of 11-20 years and that for metastatic bone tumors was more than 60 years. Sixty-seven (57.26%) of the tumors were benign. Among these, osteochondroma was the most common, accounting for 26 cases (22.22%) followed by Giant cell tumor (24 cases, 20.51%). Osteosarcoma accounted for 35.14% (13 cases) of all the primary malignant tumors in the study. Lower end of femur was the most common site for primary bone tumors and accounted for 30 cases (25.64%) followed by upper end of tibia and fibula (24 cases, 20.51%). The most common site for metastatic bone tumors was upper end of femur including hip joint followed by spine. Conclusion: This study showed that primary bone tumors are mainly benign, occurred predominantly in the second decade of life with a male preponderance. Osteochondroma and osteosarcoma are the most common benign and primary malignant bone tumors, respectively. The most common primary foci for metastatic bone tumor are from the respiratory tract. PMID:22174495

  3. A study of blood utilization in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Ambroise, M. Moses; Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Ramdas, Anita; Sekhar, Ganthimathy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Monitoring blood utilization helps in effective management of blood stock to meet present and future demands in a hospital. Hence, we analyzed the age, gender and frequency distribution of each blood product used in different diseases conditions. Materials and Methods: We included all blood products utilized from January 2008 to December 2012 in our tertiary care hospital in South India. The primary and secondary discharge diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases [ICD-10]) were matched with clinical information provided in the request forms. The most relevant indication requiring blood transfusion was selected for each recipient and grouped into broad diagnostic categories according to the headings of ICD-10. The utilization of stored whole blood, packed red blood cells (RBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets was stratified according to age, gender and diagnosis. Results: Our results indicated decline in usage of whole blood and an increase in use of FFP and platelets over the years. While packed RBCs were frequently used for treating injury and poisoning conditions, platelets and FFP were preferred for infectious and parasitic diseases. Various blood products were used less frequently in patients aged over 60 years and the overall usage of blood products was higher in males. Conclusion: The patterns of blood products utilization is in contrast to the Western nations, which may be due to difference in age structure among Indian population and higher prevalence of infectious diseases such as Dengue in our region. Nevertheless, this study highlights the importance of understanding the epidemiology of blood transfusion locally to improve usage of blood and blood products. PMID:25810645

  4. An overview of a cohort of South African patients with mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Smuts, Izelle; Louw, Roan; du Toit, Hanli; Klopper, Brenda; Mienie, Lodewyk J; van der Westhuizen, Francois H

    2010-12-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are frequently encountered inherited diseases characterized by unexplained multisystem involvement with a chronic, intermittent, or progressive nature. The objective of this paper is to describe the profile of patients with mitochondrial disorders in South Africa. Patients with possible mitochondrial disorders were accessed over 10 years. Analyses for respiratory chain and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex enzymes were performed on muscle. A diagnosis of a mitochondrial disorder was accepted only if an enzyme activity was deficient. Sixty-three patients were diagnosed with a mitochondrial disorder, including 40 African, 20 Caucasian, one mixed ancestry, and two Indian patients. The most important findings were the difference between African patients and other ethnicities: respiratory chain enzyme complexes CI+III or CII+III deficiencies were found in 52.5% of African patients, being of statistical significance (p value = 0.0061). They also presented predominantly with myopathy (p value = 0.0018); the male:female ratio was 1:1.2. Twenty-five (62.5%) African patients presented with varying degrees of a myopathy accompanied by a myopathic face, high palate, and scoliosis. Fourteen of these 25 also had ptosis and/or progressive external ophthalmoplegia. No patients of other ethnicities presented with this specific myopathic phenotype. Caucasian patients (16/20) presented predominantly with central nervous system involvement. Of the South African pediatric neurology patients, Africans are more likely to present with myopathy and CII+III deficiency, and Caucasian patients are more likely to present with encephalopathy or encephalomyopathy.

  5. Differences in Students' Reading Comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards: A South African Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee, Stephen A.; Janse van Rensburg, Cecile; Schmulian, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This study explores differences in students' reading comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards in a South African financial reporting class with a heterogeneous student cohort. Statistically significant differences were identified for prior academic performance, language of instruction, first language and enrolment in the…

  6. "Disappearance" and Feminist Research in the South African Academy of Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Following a global trend in humanities since the mid-1970s, South African humanities faculties began to include formal programmes in gender and sexualities studies from the mid-1990s on. While the immediate post-flag democratic era encouraged intellectual concentration on diverse questions of power and knowledge, the new century saw a decline in…

  7. Shifting Selves: The Emergence of New Identities in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2008-01-01

    This is an exploratory study on the nature and extent of racial integration in South African schools in the post-apartheid period. While there is vigilant media attention to occasional, dramatic incidents of racial conflict in white schools, there is very little research on the ways in which student identities are framed, challenged, asserted and…

  8. Leading and Managing in Complexity: The Case of South African Deans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Oliver; Cross, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, deanship in universities has become more complex and challenging. Deans in South African universities take up their positions without appropriate training and prior executive experience, and with no clear understanding of the ambiguity and complexity of their roles. This paper calls for appropriate leadership development…

  9. Educational Change in Post-Conflict Contexts: Reflections on the South African Experience 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on South African experience, this paper develops an analytical framework using the work of Henri Lefebvre and Nancy Fraser to understand why socially just arrangements may be so difficult to achieve in post-conflict reconstruction. The paper uses Lefebvre's analytic to trace three sets of entangled practices…

  10. Ruptures in the Rainbow Nation: How Desegregated South African Schools Deal with Interpersonal and Structural Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeger, Chana

    2015-01-01

    Racially diverse schools are often presented as places where students can learn to challenge racist discourse and practice. Yet there are a variety of processes through which such schools reproduce the very hierarchies they are meant to dismantle. Drawing on 18 months of fieldwork in two racially diverse South African high schools, I add to the…

  11. Teaching of Chemical Bonding: A Study of Swedish and South African Students' Conceptions of Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmermark, Anders; Ohrstrom, Lars; Mårtensson, Jerker; Davidowitz, Bette

    2016-01-01

    Almost 700 Swedish and South African students from the upper secondary school and first-term chemistry university level responded to our survey on concepts of chemical bonding. The national secondary school curricula and most common textbooks for both countries were also surveyed and compared for their content on chemical bonding. Notable…

  12. South African Teacher Voices: Recurring Resistances and Reconstructions for Teacher Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper will focus on the shifts in discourses about teacher education and teacher voice within the South African research and policy environment over the last four decades. The alignment of the political and educational agenda in providing resistance to the apartheid system culminated in 1994, the start of the new democracy. The preceding…

  13. Teaching 5- and 6-Year-Olds to Count: Knowledge of South African Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feza, Nosisi N.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics learning and teaching continues to be a challenge in the South African education system. This challenge is observed in the poor performance of students in national and international assessments. Research suggests that teachers' content knowledge and knowledge of teaching mathematics contribute significantly to students' performance. In…

  14. Awareness of Conservation Issues among Visitors to Three South African Nature Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, G. R.; Fuggle, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study into the awareness of conservation issues, and the enhancement thereof, as a result of visiting interpretive facilities in three South African nature reserves. Results indicate a statistically significant increase in awareness at all three reserves, although the levels of awareness were low. (TW)

  15. Benchmarking in the Globalised World and Its Impact on South African Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, H.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses what benchmarking is and reflects on the importance and development of benchmarking in universities on a national and international level. Offers examples of transnational benchmarking activities, including the International Benchmarking Club, in which South African higher education institutions participate. (EV)

  16. Researching Transformation at a South African University--Ethical Dilemmas in the Politics of Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Salma

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the complexity of researching institutional culture and the ethical dilemmas posed in representing staff according to race and gender, drawing on three qualitative studies undertaken at a previously white South African university between 2000 and 2007. During the research process, issues of representation became a concern…

  17. Education, Language, and Identity amongst Students at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Jean; Crouch, Alison

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of language and cultural identity of mother-tongue Zulu students at an English-medium South African university. The data consist of focus group interviews, questionnaires, and student opinions in essays. Findings include a strong identification of the participants with the Zulu language and Zulu culture, and a view…

  18. South African Zulu Widows in a Time of Poverty and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.; Nkosi, Busisiwe Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Interviews were carried out with 16 South African Zulu widows. Much of what the widows had to say seemed like what one might hear from widows in economically developed countries, but there were also striking differences. All the widows lived in poverty, and for some their grief seemed much more about the poverty than about the husband's death.…

  19. South African Teachers' Ability to Argue: The Emergence of Inclusive Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtz, Zena; Braund, Martin; Hodges, Merle; Koopman, Robert; Lubben, Fred

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the argumentation ability of ten science teachers in two South African schools on opposite ends of the resource spectrum. Toulmin's model is used to analyse individual contributions in six group discussions. The findings show that levels of argumentation improve with teachers' involvement in the development of teaching…

  20. Stress among Black Women in a South African Township: The Protective Role of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea

    2006-01-01

    Communities that have been exposed to high levels of stress and where religiosity is salient are ideal contexts in which to examine the role of religion in stress processes. The present study examines the protective function of religiosity among Black women in a South African township. The women (N = 172) were interviewed about sources of stress,…

  1. Enhancing Learning in South African Schools: Strategies beyond Outcomes-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Alexa; Mason, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of post-Apartheid South African schools as ineffective learning environments, and the question whether there are strategies for enhancing learning that are more effective and that might be more easily and successfully implemented than an outcomes-based education. Because of historical and situational constraints,…

  2. Using a Film to Challenge Heteronormativity: South African Teachers "Get Real" in Working with LGB Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    The author explains how the film "Get Real" enabled him to explore, with a group of South African student teachers, the complex ways in which queer adolescents negotiate their daily lives, the struggles they have with "coming out" to their friends and families, the problems with representation, and the connections between…

  3. Linguistic Gender Sensitivity Strategies in Current South African Intermediate Phase English Workbooks: Feminisation or Degenderisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibanda, Jabulani; Sibanda, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    This study extends research on manifestations of gender insensitivity in learners' reading materials by shifting attention to the linguistic strategies that authors of current texts employ for the realisation of gender sensitivity. We analysed the content of 12 current (2014) English workbooks (Grade 4-6) used in South African government and…

  4. Exploring South African Grade 11 Learners' Perceptions of Classroom Inquiry: Validation of a Research Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudu, Washington T.; Vhurumuku, Elaosi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the adoption and validation of a research instrument, on determining learners' levels of perception of classroom inquiry based on data collected from South African Grade 11 learners. The Learners' Perception of Classroom Inquiry (LPCI) instrument consists only of Likert-type items which rank activities according to how often…

  5. The Formation and Development of Co-Operations among South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebken, Heinke

    2008-01-01

    Organizational collaboration is "en vogue", especially in higher education. So far, little is known about the mechanisms that explain co-operation formation and their impact on the social structure of the research systems. By examining co-authored research papers written at South African universities between 1966 and 2006, co-operation…

  6. Intelligence as a Function of Conservatism among White South African Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Yaacov J.

    1990-01-01

    Uses the Social-Religious-Political Scale, the G.D. Wilson and J.R. Patterson Conservatism Scale, and the South African Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale to examine the relationship of conservative political attitudes to intelligence. Found no significant relationship between conservatism and high or low intelligence in this sample of 100 South…

  7. New Controls and Accountability for South African Teachers and Schools: The Integrated Quality Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Everard

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the Integrated Quality Management System (IQMS), an agreement reached in 2003 between the South African Education Department and the major teacher organisations in the country by using discourse analysis. The IQMS was scheduled to be implemented in public schools in 2004. Three discursive tensions are identified and…

  8. Tensions in the Quality Assurance Processes in Post-Apartheid South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biputh, Barath; McKenna, Sioux

    2010-01-01

    This paper tracks the development of the Integrated Quality Management System in South African schools after the dismantling of apartheid in 1994. We argue that the quality processes that are now in place emerged in response to the autocratic school inspection systems that preceded them but did not sufficiently address the impact of educators'…

  9. "New Students" In South African Higher Education: Institutional Culture, Student Performance and the Challenge of Democratisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Michael; Carpentier, Claude

    2009-01-01

    South African universities confront a situation that most advanced countries face : the increasing enrollment of the so-called "new students" ("non-traditional" in SA) from disadvantaged milieus, less prepared for the requirements of the traditional university culture. They are urged to respond to this challenge within a moral…

  10. Selection of Advantaged and Disadvantaged South African Students for University Admission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuy, Mervin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A South African study explored predictors of success among 18 educationally disadvantaged and 8 advantaged students in a University of Witwatersrand developmental studies program. Results showed academic success was considerably less predictable among disadvantaged students. Universally-used admission criteria were not predictive for either group;…

  11. Opening and Closing Doors for Adult Learners in a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Jane; Munro, Kathy; Osman, Ruksana

    2006-01-01

    South African universities have responded in a variety of ways to national policy directives to broaden access to mature adult learners. In this paper we examine the progress made by one institution--the University of the Witwatersrand--to open its doors to adult learners through the Centre for Part-Time Study, known as "Wits Plus." We…

  12. Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) and the "Big Five" South African Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshoff, N.

    2009-01-01

    This article critically examines the methodology of the Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) by generating raw scores for the "big five" South African research universities (Stellenbosch, Cape Town, Kwazulu-Natal, Pretoria and the Witwatersrand, henceforth referred to as SU, UCT, UKZN, UP and WITS) using the ARWU…

  13. A Snapshot: South African University Students' Attitudes, Perceptions and Knowledge of HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raijmakers, L. R.; Pretorius, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a survey conducted in August 2004 of students' attitudes, perceptions and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS and sexual practices at an Institution of Higher Education. The study was set against the backdrop of the 2004 South African national survey, conducted by the Reproductive Health…

  14. South African Educators' Mutually Inclusive Mandates to Promote Human Rights and Positive Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee, Susan; Mienie, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    South African educators are mandated by international and national law to observe and promote human rights. However, given the realities of the limited teaching time available, educators cannot fulfill this obligation solely by teaching the curriculum. Another avenue needs to be found for educators to fulfill this obligation. Educators are also…

  15. Towards an Integrated Learning Strategies Approach to Promoting Scientific Literacy in the South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on selected recent South African research studies that have explored efforts to promote the discussion, writing, and arguing aspects of scientific literacy in primary and middle schools, particularly amongst second-language learners. These studies reveal improvements in the participants' abilities to both use the…

  16. Measuring and Monitoring in the South African "Kha Ri Gude" Mass Literacy Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    After many previous failed attempts to reach illiterate adults, the award-winning South African "Kha Ri Gude" mass literacy campaign, launched in 2008, undertook to ensure that learners seized the opportunity to learn--for many adults, this was a "last chance". Written from an insider perspective by the campaign's founding…

  17. Between People-Pleasing and Mathematizing: South African Learners' Struggle for Numeracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyd-Metzuyanim, Einat; Graven, Mellony

    2016-01-01

    The reported research attempts to trace possible reasons for third grade learners' limited progress in numeracy in a low socioeconomic status (SES) South African context. This is done through two lenses, both stemming from Sfard's commognitive (The term "commognition" has been offered by Sfard (2008) as an amalgam of…

  18. Journey to J'Burg: My Travels in South African Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Carol

    1996-01-01

    Discusses five South African writers for young adults and highlights representative works dealing with family relationships, AIDS, natural disaster, interracial relationships and marriage, racial prejudice, and incest. Although most of the books are not currently available in the United States, a bibliography and a list of addresses for the South…

  19. South African Teachers' Views on the Inclusion of Spirituality Education in the Subject Life Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Anne C.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a larger research project into the practice and effectiveness of Life Orientation (LO), a compulsory subject in South African schools, this study investigated the views that teachers have regarding the constructs spirituality and religion within the context of LO. LO attempts to teach skills, attitudes and values from a holistic…

  20. Are South African Geography Education Students Ready for Problem-Based Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golightly, Aubrey; Muniz, Osvaldo A.

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is one of the possible training strategies that could be more fully implemented in the South African formal education system. The intention to migrate from teacher-centred to learner-centred instructions in higher education institutions and schools makes PBL a plausible option. Geography education students might be…

  1. Comparing Fears in South African Children with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visagie, Lisa; Loxton, Helene; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Steel, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study presented here was to determine whether significant differences exist between the fear profiles of South African children in middle childhood (aged 8-13) with different levels of visual impairments and those of their sighted counterparts. Methods: A differential research design was used, and a total of 129…

  2. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Jacobus Gideon

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  3. Valuing and Revaluing Education: What Can We Learn about Measurement from the South African Poor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reflects on the identification of relevant aspects of education for measurement purposes. It begins by reviewing some detailed lists of educational capabilities from disparate literatures. It then considers how ordinary South Africans perceive education by drawing on two open-ended surveys, and attempts to reconcile their views with…

  4. The Achievement Goals Orientation of South African First Year University Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain; Ramaila, Sam

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the achievement goals orientation of first year physics students at a South African university. The mixed methods design involved a quantitative survey of 291 students using an achievement goals questionnaire and individual interviews of selected participants. Results showed that the students perceived they have a stronger…

  5. Developing Self-Expression and Community among South African Women with Persona Doll Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Dorothy Yumi

    2014-01-01

    Township-dwelling Black South African women must cope with an array of traumatizing stressors that stunt individual voice and diminish the creation of supportive female communities. At issue was the capacity of women under these conditions to thrive as individuals and contributing members of society, thus the rationale for this project study. The…

  6. Government Funding as Leverage for Quality Teaching and Learning: A South African Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essack, Sabiha Y.; Naidoo, Indirani; Barnes, Glen

    2010-01-01

    The South African Higher Education Funding Framework uses funding as a lever to achieve equitable student access, quality teaching and research, and improved student retention and success. Maximising a university subsidy from the national Department of Education necessitates innovative strategies at the pre- and post-student admission stages. This…

  7. Provision of Mental Health Services in South African Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan

    2009-01-01

    To date, South African research has not examined mental health service provision in substance abuse treatment facilities, even though these services improve client retention and treatment outcomes. To describe the extent to which substance abuse treatment facilities in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provide clients with mental health services…

  8. Learning Difficulties Experienced by Grade 12 South African Students in the Chemical Representation of Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Joseph, Aleyamma

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the learning difficulties of grade 12 South African students in a national chemistry examination. A quantitative analysis of students' performance in the examination revealed there was a significant difference between student performance in questions where students needed to execute a transformation across levels of…

  9. Attitudes of Department of Education District Officials towards Inclusive Education in South African Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Rashid; Govender, Sumeshni; Nzima, Dumisani

    2015-01-01

    Since the inception of inclusive education (IE) much energy has focused on educators and learners. This study addresses a gap in literature by analysing an important component of the transformation process in the South African educational landscape--Department of Education (DoE) district-based officials. This descriptive research project conducted…

  10. Rainbow Nation's "Ubuntu": Discovering Distinctness as a Spectrum through South African Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Colin Bridges

    2007-01-01

    Apartheid created more than physical distances between color groups; South Africa is made up of people with often separated minds. Leaders of the democratic government draw from and modify the ancient African tribal value called "ubuntu" as the philosophic basis for their cultural strategy of unification. Sandra Chait has pointed out…

  11. Judgments of Widely Held Beliefs about Psychological Phenomena among South African Postgraduate Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagee, A.; Harper, M.; Spies, G.

    2008-01-01

    Lay understandings of human cognition, affect, and behaviour often diverge from the findings of scientific investigations. The present study examined South African fourth year psychology students' judgments about the factual correctness of statements of psychological phenomena that have been demonstrated to be incorrect by empirical research.…

  12. Game Playing Strategy as an Indicator of Racial Prejudice among South African Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, G. A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a study which examined the racial discrimination of South African students using a playing strategy in the prisoners dilemma game as an unobtrusive measure. Concludes that both Black and White students cooperated to a greater extent with a Black co-player, revealing a paternalistic approach on the part of some Whites and apparent reverse…

  13. Substance Abuse, Suicidality, and Self-Esteem in South African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Bhana, Arvin; Lombard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Associations among six different domains of self-esteem (peers, school, family, sports/athletics, body image, and global self-worth) and risk behaviors related to substance use and suicidality were investigated in a sample of South African adolescents. Students enrolled in Grades 8 and 11 at independent secondary schools in Cape Town (N = 116)…

  14. Hybrid Discursive Practices in a South African Multilingual Primary Classroom: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoe, Pinky; McKinney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The data discussed in this paper is drawn from research conducted in a multilingual urban primary school in Johannesburg, South Africa, where the official language of instruction is English and the majority of learners are African language speakers, frequently with very limited English proficiency. The paper presents a case study of one child who…

  15. Explaining the Ordinary Magic of Stable African Multilingualism in the Vaal Triangle Region in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee-Van Rooy, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The academic and public debates about language maintenance and language shift in the post-1994 South Africa distract attention from the more productive and important endeavour of explaining the nature of the multilingualism observed among users of African languages in urban contexts. An explanation for this phenomenon is offered here, based on…

  16. The Cultural Contours of Democracy: Indigenous Epistemologies Informing South African Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubow, Patricia K.; Min, Mina

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon the African concept of "ubuntu," this article examines the epistemic orientations toward individual-society relations that inform democratic citizenship and identity in South Africa. Findings from focus group interviews conducted with 50 Xhosa teachers from all seven primary and intermediate schools in a township outside…

  17. Perceptions of Fortune and Misfortune in Older South African Households: Social Assistance and the "Good Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Valerie; Radloff, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that better living standards will boost subjective well-being. The post-apartheid South African government subscribes to this idea; its social policies aim to provide "a better life for all". Since the coming of democracy in 1994, the state has built over 3 million houses and supplied electricity and clean water to…

  18. An Assessment of the State of South African Universities from 1994 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mngomezulu, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    South African universities have arguably performed well in many areas since the advent of democracy in 1994. Discernible measurements can be gleaned from: curriculum changes, research outputs and student admission policies. However, these universities have not performed to their optimal level due to a confluence of factors. The purpose of this…

  19. South African Academia in Crisis: The Spread of "Contrived Collegial Managerialism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, on the eve of rationalisation of South African higher education, J. M. Coetzee published a book entitled "Disgrace". In this publication he narrates the tale of a Classics and Modern Languages professor transformed into an adjunct professor of Communications, a marketable identity, as a consequence of rationalisation. Coetzee,…

  20. Motion Event Categorisation in a Nativised Variety of South African English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Emanuel; Athanasopoulos, Panos

    2015-01-01

    The present study seeks to expand the current focus on acquisition situations in linguistic relativity research by exploring the effects of nativisation (the process by which a L2 is acquired as a L1) on language-specific cognitive behaviour. Categorisation preferences of goal-oriented motion events were investigated in South African speakers who…

  1. Sexuality Education in South African Schools: The Challenge for Civil Society Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams Tucker, Leigh; George, Gavin; Reardon, Candice; Panday, Saadhna

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Drawing on the perceptions of various key stakeholders, the paper explores the strengths and limitations of involving civil society organisations in the delivery of HIV and AIDS and sexuality education in South African schools. Design: Qualitative study with a cross-sectional design. Setting: Research was conducted at 16 public…

  2. Unpacking the Predominance of Case Study Methodology in South African Postgraduate Educational Research, 1995-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, P.; Davey, B.; Balfour, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Project Postgraduate Educational Research (PPER) data indicate that case study is the most popular methodology among South African education masters and doctorate students in the period 1995-2004. This article reflects on the reasons for the preference for case study by considering epistemological and contextual factors. It unpacks the links…

  3. Implications of the South African Constitution on Quality Assurance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, K. John

    2006-01-01

    The article addresses the concept of quality assurance (QA) and its relation to quality in higher education which itself is a component of total quality management. It then examines the regulatory policies for higher education followed by the meaning of the concept of democracy in the South African Constitution and its impact and implications on…

  4. How Would Ludwig Wittgenstein Have Performed in the Current South African Higher Education System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2009-01-01

    The pressure to perform has migrated from the corporate world into academe. Academics across the globe feel this pressure to perform, often expressed as "publish or perish". I reflect on the rising culture of performativity in recent decades and how it has penetrated South African universities. In doing so, I specifically look at the…

  5. Using Collaborative Learning Exercises to Transfer Pervasive Skills: Some South African Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss-Keevy, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The Competency Framework, introduced by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA) details technical competencies, but also places emphasis on the pervasive skills that need to be attained by candidates for them to qualify as chartered accountants (CAs). Thus, an additional onus has been placed on academics to ensure that they…

  6. Adding Net Value: The Nature of Online Education at a South African Residential Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axmann, Mandi; Fourie, Wiida; Papo, William Duncan

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of online learning focuses on course development at a South African residential institution that incorporated online assignments into a face-to-face journalism course to introduce information technology. Describes course structure, activities, assessment methods, student involvement, and problems with students' lack of computer skills…

  7. Technophobia and Personality Subtypes in a Sample of South African University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, L. M.; Clarke, M. C.; Anderson, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined levels of techophobia, described as negative psychological reactions toward technology, in a sample of South African university students. Describes use of the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and reports results that show techophobia was inversely correlated with computer experience, weakly correlated with age, but not associated with…

  8. Drivers of Learning Management System Use in a South African Open and Distance Learning Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venter, Peet; van Rensburg, Mari Jansen; Davis, Annemarie

    2012-01-01

    The study on which this article reports examined the determinants of usage of an online learning management system (LMS) by fourth level business students at a South African open and distance learning university using an extension of the widely used technology acceptance model (TAM) as a theoretical basis. A survey was conducted among students at…

  9. Career Choice and Unemployment Length: A Study of Graduates from a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncayi, Precious; Dunga, Steven Henry

    2016-01-01

    Graduate unemployment is especially problematic in a country where much emphasis is placed on furthering academic studies for economic and personal rewards. This article investigates the relationship between career choice and unemployment length among graduates from a South African university. Data were collected by means of a survey questionnaire…

  10. Comparing Three South African Student Cohorts on Their Attitudes to the Rights of Working Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Cynthia Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study compares three cohorts (1998-1999, 2005-2006 and 2010) of undergraduate psychology students at a South African university on the level of support for working women (women in paid employment) on various issues considered to be feminist. Cohort 1 (n?=?244), cohort 2 (n?=?311) and cohort 3 (n?=?266) completed an adapted version of a…

  11. Transformation Challenges in the South African Workplace: A Conversation with Melissa Steyn of iNCUDISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Terri

    2007-01-01

    Diversity communication and training are recent phenomena in South African workplaces. The demise of apartheid, new political dispensation, and reentry onto the world stage have all contributed to creating an opportunity for diversity. Accelerated corporate interest in this field may be linked to government pressure, globalization, and the much…

  12. The Lifecycle of a South African Non-governmental Organisation: Primary Science Programme, 1983-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Stephen; Peacock, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Traces the lifecycle of the Primary Science Programme (PSP), 1983-99, a representative South African nongovernmental organization. Shows how the social and economic environment shaped PSP development and demise. Highlights tensions between quality versus quantity, subject versus holistic focus, and participatory versus authoritarian management…

  13. Can "Any" Teacher Teach Sexuality and HIV/AIDS? Perspectives of South African Life Orientation Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helleve, Arnfinn; Flisher, Alan J.; Onya, Hans; Mukoma, Wanjiru; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the perceived desirable characteristics of South African Life Orientation teachers for teaching sexuality and HIV/AIDS. We also investigate the extent to which these characteristics can be understood as parts of a role script for teaching HIV/AIDS and sexuality. Data were collected from teachers who taught Grade Eight and…

  14. Learner Support Requirements for Online Workplace Training in the South African Furniture Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Iain S.; Bullen, Mark; Kozak, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    A qualitative research project was conducted to evaluate the suitability of e-learning as a means of delivering training to workplace learners in the South African furniture manufacturing sector. Twenty learners participated in a three-month pilot e-learning course and were monitored throughout. While the study was designed primarily to…

  15. Generating Social Capital at the Workplace: A South African Case of Inside-Out Social Renewal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovey, Ken; Onyx, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    A case study of a South African workplace illustrated how workplace learning and experience of team culture influenced changes in workers' family life and community participation. Results showed how social capital is generated from within for the benefit of civil society. (Contains 35 references.) (SK)

  16. A Culture in Transition: Poor Reading and Writing Ability among Children in South African Townships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors contributing to poor literacy and numeracy development among black South African children ages 5.5 to 7 years. Findings pointed to a conglomerate of factors, namely inadequate visual-motor integration, poor visual analysis and synthesis, poor fine motor development, and inadequate exposure to mediated reading and…

  17. Creating Supportive Learning Environments: Experiences of Lesbian and Gay-Parented Families in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breshears, Diana; Lubbe-De Beer, Carien

    2016-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews with 21 parents and 12 children in lesbian/gay-parented families, we explored the experiences of this unique family form in South African schools. Specifically, families reflected on their positive and negative experiences in the children's education and used these reflections to offer advice to teachers and…

  18. Applied Research Centres at South African Universities. The Relationship between 'Base' Internal Structures and Network 'Superstructures'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the way in which applied research centres and units at South African higher education institutions enhance their networks with industry, government and community organizations. The findings from 12 case studies of research groupings at higher education institutions in Cape Town support the author's argument for a more…

  19. The Youth Book. A Directory of South African Youth Organisations, Service Providers and Resource Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, David, Ed.

    With the goal of enhancing cooperation and interaction among youth, youth organizations, and other service providers to the youth sector, this directory aims to give youth, as well as people and organizations involved and interested in youth-related issues, a comprehensive source of information on South African youth organizations and related…

  20. The Emergence of Marketing and Communications Strategy in South African Further Education and Training Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Simon; Akoojee, Salim

    2007-01-01

    South African further education and training (FET) colleges have been enjoined to become more responsive to their external environment, in keeping with international trends in public vocational education and training (VET) reform. One mechanism for achieving this goal is to market colleges and communicate more effectively to future students,…

  1. Problematising the Standardisation of Leadership and Management Development in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    In 2007 the Department of Education introduced the standards-based Advanced Certificate in Education: School Management and Leadership. The standardisation of leadership and management development in South African schools has been uncritically accepted by most academics and professionals. The purpose of this article is to problematise the…

  2. Approaching Southern Theory: Explorations of Gender in South African Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on the five other papers from South Africa in this issue of "Gender and Education" to consider how Southern theory has been developed and is developing in relation to gender and education in South Africa. We argue that Southern theory is not an on-the-shelf solution to global geopolitical inequalities but a work in…

  3. Storytelling and the Web in South African Museums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnow, Katherine J.; Natland, Yngvar

    The Iziko museums in Cape Town, South Africa in collaboration with the International Museums Studies Programme at the University of Bergen, Norway, have jointly developed a Web-based concept that combines oral storytelling with new technology to connect schools in the South and North. Awaiting funding at the time of publication, this project was…

  4. The South African Higher Education System: Performance and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloete, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Transformation in higher education in South Africa over the last 20 years has been strongly shaped by post-apartheid pressures. Recent research shows that South Africa's current higher education system can be described as medium knowledge-producing and differentiated, with low participation and high attrition. In the decade following 1994, both…

  5. Teaching about South African Laws and Deprivation of Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Bojana

    1985-01-01

    Social studies teachers must help students understand how key institutions in South Africa, especially the law, help perpetuate racial discrimination and the denial of human rights. Students should be made aware of the legislation and resultant practices of the major components of the apartheid policy in South Africa. (RM)

  6. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in South Africa: analysis from the South African Stress and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background South Africa’s unique history, characterised by apartheid, a form of constitutional racial segregation and exploitation, and a long period of political violence and state-sponsored oppression ending only in 1994, suggests a high level of trauma exposure in the general population. The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the South African general population. Methods The South African Stress and Health Study is a nationally representative survey of South African adults using the WHO’s Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and presence of DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The most common traumatic events were the unexpected death of a loved one and witnessing trauma occurring to others. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of PTSD were 2.3% and 0.7% respectively, while the conditional prevalence of PTSD after trauma exposure was 3.5%. PTSD conditional risk after trauma exposure and probability of chronicity after PTSD onset were both highest for witnessing trauma. Socio-demographic factors such as sex, age and education were largely unrelated to PTSD risk. Conclusions The occurrence of trauma and PTSD in South Africa is not distributed according to the socio-demographic factors or trauma types observed in other countries. The dominant role of witnessing in contributing to PTSD may reflect the public settings of trauma exposure in South Africa and highlight the importance of political and social context in shaping the epidemiology of PTSD. PMID:23819543

  7. U.S. Church-Related Funding for Change in South Africa: An Analysis and an Inventory. South African Information Exchange Working Paper Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micou, Ann McKinstry

    A working paper on U.S. church-related funding for (or sponsorship of) South African programs is presented to guide support-seeking organizations in South Africa to appropriate resources and to inform interested parties outside South Africa about potential resources and ways in which they might cooperate or assist. Information is provided in two…

  8. Moffies, artists, and queens: race and the production of South African gay male drag.

    PubMed

    Swarr, Amanda Lock

    2004-01-01

    This article draws on seventeen months of ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa to explore the experiences of urban and township drag performers. I show that two distinct sex-gender-sexuality systems have emerged based in the sociopolitical history of South Africa, and I argue that urban drag produces race oppositionally and examine how township femininity creates raced forms of gender, sex, and sexuality. Contemporary South African drag foregrounds the performativity and constitution of race and gender. My analysis attempts to challenge definitions of "drag" and "audience," suggesting the necessity for an integrated reconceptualization of drag studies.

  9. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, Crohn's disease and HLA-B27 in black South African women.

    PubMed

    Buchel, O C; Bosch, F J; Janse van Rensburg, J; Bezuidenhout, E; de Vries, C S; van Zyl, J H; Middlecote, B D; de K Grundling, H; Fevery, J

    2012-12-01

    Crohn's disease is rare in South African black people and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is also rare in black patients with IBD, from South Africa. The presence of HLA-B27 is generally associated with seronegative spondylo-arthropathies and correlates with the occurrence of ankylosing spondylitis, recurrent mouth ulcers and uveitis, in patients with IBD. We describe two women with the combination of Crohn's disease, PSC and HLA-B27 from our cohort of the last 5 years of three black patients with Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease, PSC and HLA-B27 respectively, occur rarely in black South Africans and their concurrent presence in two black women suggests a pathogenetic link of HLA-B27 between Crohn's disease and PSC in this population. Female gender might be an additional determinant in this setting.

  10. Child consent in South African law: implications for researchers, service providers and policy-makers.

    PubMed

    Strode, Ann; Slack, Catherine; Essack, Zaynab

    2010-03-30

    Children under 18 are legal minors who, in South African law, are not fully capable of acting independently without assistance from parents/legal guardians. However, in recognition of the evolving capacity of children, there are exceptional circumstances where the law has granted minors the capacity to act independently. We describe legal norms for child consent to health-related interventions in South Africa, and argue that the South African parliament has taken an inconsistent approach to: the capacity of children to consent; the persons able to consent when children do not have capacity; and restrictions on the autonomy of children or their proxies to consent. In addition, the rationale for the differing age limitations, capacity requirements and public policy restrictions has not been specified. These inconsistencies make it difficult for stakeholders interacting with children to ensure that they act lawfully.

  11. In vivo Studies on Antidiabetic Plants Used in South African Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    J. Afolayan, Anthony; O. Sunmonu, Taofik

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders worldwide. It is a major health problem with its frequency increasing every day in most countries. The disease is generally believed to be incurable; and the few orthodox drugs available to manage the disease are not readily affordable to the poor. Based on the historical success of natural products as antidiabetic agents and the ever increasing need for new antidiabetics, a number of South African medicinal plants have been evaluated for their antidiabetic properties. In this article, we review the major studies conducted based on ethnobotanical surveys carried out between 2005 and 2008 in South Africa on plants that are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. Overall, the results of the studies conducted confirmed the potential of South African medicinal plants in antidiabetic drug discovery and identified a number of promising taxa for further in vivo investigation as plant-based antidiabetic agents. PMID:20838564

  12. Relative Motion of Africa Plate with Respect to South African Kalahari Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoroge, Mary; Malservisi, Rocco; Hugentobler, Urs; Voytenko, Denis

    2014-05-01

    The presence of the Rift Valley within the African continent and its eventual propagation southward in the Okavango rift zone (ORZ) strongly affects the regional seismic hazard evaluation. Here we use a comparison of the motion inferred from the South African GPS network TrigNet with the motion of instruments with the rest of the African continent to evaluate the propagation of the Rift Valley to Botswana. We use data from all the available GPS stations located in the Nubian plate to develop two reference frames north and south of the ORZ. The data was processed using two major codes (Bernese and Gipsy-oasis) to evaluate effects on the references due to processing assumptions. Given the importance of uncertainties in understanding the significance of small signals, a full analysis of the Allan Variance of the velocity has been performed. Preliminary results suggest that although still within the limits of the uncertainties, the data are compatible with relative motion between the TrigNet network and the rest of Nubia, and does not exclude a possible counter clockwise rotation of the South African Kalahari craton with respect to the Nubian plate, and thus a southward propagation of the Rift Valley.

  13. Establishment of a cancer surveillance programme: the South African experience

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Elvira; Ruff, Paul; Babb, Chantal; Sengayi, Mazvita; Beery, Moira; Khoali, Lerato; Kellett, Patricia; Underwood, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is projected to become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries in the future. However, cancer incidence in South Africa is largely under-reported because of a lack of nationwide cancer surveillance networks. We describe present cancer surveillance activities in South Africa, and use the International Agency for Research on Cancer framework to propose the development of four population-based cancer registries in South Africa. These registries will represent the ethnic and geographical diversity of the country. We also provide an update on a cancer surveillance pilot programme in the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan District, and the successes and challenges in the implementation of the IARC framework in a local context. We examine the development of a comprehensive cancer surveillance system in a middle-income country, which might serve to assist other countries in establishing population-based cancer registries in a resource-constrained environment. PMID:26248849

  14. SAHRIS: using the South African Heritage Register to report, track and monitor heritage crime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuts, K.

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has experienced a recent increase in thefts of heritage objects from museums and galleries around the country. While the exact number of incidences is not known, the increase in thefts is nonetheless apparent, and has revealed the weaknesses of the systems currently in place to respond to these crimes. The South African Heritage Resources Information System (SAHRIS) is an integrated, online heritage resources management tool developed by the South African Heritage Resources Agency (SAHRA) in 2011 in terms of Section 39 of the National Heritage Resources Act (NHRA), No. 25 of 1999. The system's combined heritage resources and site and object management functionality has been expanded to provide an integrated, responsive tool for reporting heritage crimes and tracking the progress of the resultant cases. This paper reviews existing legislative frameworks and crime reporting and monitoring systems relevant to fighting heritage crime, and identifies current gaps in those responses. SAHRIS is presented as an innovative tool to combat heritage crime effectively in the South African context by offering a centralised, consolidated platform that provides the various stakeholders involved in reporting heritage crimes and locating and retrieving stolen objects with a means to coordinate their responses to such instances.

  15. Managing trauma in the South African mining industry.

    PubMed

    Maiden, R Paul

    2005-01-01

    Deep sub-surface mining is one of South Africa s leading industries. It is also one of the most dangerous. While safety is maintained as much as possible to minimize cave-ins and other accidents, underground tremors and earthquakes are commonplace and unpredictable and usually involve life threatening injuries and loss of life. Crisis intervention and trauma management are essential to helping workers cope with mining accidents. This article describes the trauma management program developed by the employee assistance program at the Chamber of Mines in South Africa to respond to workplace accidents.

  16. South African Deaf education and the Deaf community.

    PubMed

    Storbeck, Claudine; Martin, David; Parkin, Ingrid; Magongwa, Lucas; Druchen, Bruno Peter Nkosi; Batchelor, Michelle; McIlroy, Guy; De Villiers, Deon; Captieux-Bhana, Nazereen; Rasebopye, Lorato; Rasebopye, Dorothy; Krige-Henderson, Susanna; Krige, Frans; Louw, Albie; Surtees, Tanya; Smit, A L; Cox, Roy; Henderson, Murdock

    2010-01-01

    In a special section of the american Annals of the Deaf, Deaf education and the Deaf community in South Africa are discussed. The special section is organized into 7 segments: a historical overview to establish context, the educational context, educators and learners, postgraduate education and employment, perspectives of Deaf children and their parents, sport and the arts, and spiritual lives and mental health. Throughout the entire section, however, the central focus is on the overall foundation (or lack thereof) of education for Deaf learners in South Africa.

  17. Environmental Stressors, Low Well-being, Smoking, and Alcohol Use Among South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N=2,195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2,195 Black, mixed ancestry (“Coloured”), Indian, and White youth, aged 12 to 17 years old (mean age=14.6; SD=1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant’s preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies. PMID:21492977

  18. Familial-Environmental Risk Factors in South African Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Leana; Springer, Priscilla; Kidd, Martin; Steyn, Nellie; Solomons, Regan; van Toorn, Ronald

    2015-09-01

    We investigated familial and environmental risk factors in a cohort of South African children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A prospective, hospital-based case control study was conducted comprising 50 children diagnosed with ADHD and 50 matched non-ADHD controls. The adjusted effect of familial-environmental risk factors on ADHD was determined by systematic assessment. Birth complications, parental psychiatric disorder, maternal ADHD, early childhood trauma, and nonmaternal child care were significant risk factors for ADHD. Prolonged breastfeeding was found to be protective. In a multivariable logistic regression model, 5 criteria (birth complications, breastfeeding <3 months, at least 1 parent with tertiary education, presence of parental psychiatric disorder, and nonmaternal primary caregiver) differentiated ADHD from non-ADHD controls with a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 86%, respectively. We found a correlation between certain familial and environmental risk factors and ADHD. A 5-criterion multivariable logistic regression model may offer clinical guidance in ADHD diagnosis.

  19. Junctophilin 3 (JPH3) expansion mutations causing Huntington disease like 2 (HDL2) are common in South African patients with African ancestry and a Huntington disease phenotype.

    PubMed

    Krause, Amanda; Mitchell, Claire; Essop, Fahmida; Tager, Susan; Temlett, James; Stevanin, Giovanni; Ross, Christopher; Rudnicki, Dobrila; Margolis, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by abnormal movements, cognitive decline, and psychiatric symptoms, caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene on chromosome 4p. A CAG/CTG repeat expansion in the junctophilin-3 (JPH3) gene on chromosome 16q24.2 causes a Huntington disease-like phenotype (HDL2). All patients to date with HDL2 have some African ancestry. The present study aimed to characterize the genetic basis of the Huntington disease phenotype in South Africans and to investigate the possible origin of the JPH3 mutation. In a sample of unrelated South African individuals referred for diagnostic HD testing, 62% (106/171) of white patients compared to only 36% (47/130) of black patients had an expansion in HTT. However, 15% (20/130) of black South African patients and no white patients (0/171) had an expansion in JPH3, confirming the diagnosis of Huntington disease like 2 (HDL2). Individuals with HDL2 share many clinical features with individuals with HD and are clinically indistinguishable in many cases, although the average age of onset and diagnosis in HDL2 is 5 years later than HD and individual clinical features may be more prominent. HDL2 mutations contribute significantly to the HD phenotype in South Africans with African ancestry. JPH3 haplotype studies in 31 families, mainly from South Africa and North America, provide evidence for a founder mutation and support a common African origin for all HDL2 patients. Molecular testing in individuals with an HD phenotype and African ancestry should include testing routinely for JPH3 mutations.

  20. JUNCTOPHILIN 3 (JPH3) EXPANSION MUTATIONS CAUSING HUNTINGTON DISEASE LIKE 2 (HDL2) ARE COMMON IN SOUTH AFRICAN PATIENTS WITH AFRICAN ANCESTRY AND A HUNTINGTON DISEASE PHENOTYPE

    PubMed Central

    Krause, A; Mitchell, CL; Essop, F; Tager, S; Temlett, J; Stevanin, G; Ross, CA; Rudnicki, DD; Margolis, RL

    2015-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by abnormal movements, cognitive decline and psychiatric symptoms, caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene on chromosome 4p. A CAG/CTG repeat expansion in the junctophilin-3 (JPH3) gene on chromosome 16q24.2 causes a Huntington disease-like phenotype (HDL2). All patients to date with HDL2 have some African ancestry. The present study aimed to characterize the genetic basis of the Huntington disease phenotype in South Africans and to investigate the possible origin of the JPH3 mutation. In a sample of unrelated South African individuals referred for diagnostic HD testing, 62% (106/171) of white patients compared to only 36% (47/130) of black patients had an expansion in HTT. However, 15% (20/130) of black South African patients and no white patients (0/171) had an expansion in JPH3, confirming the diagnosis of Huntington disease like 2 (HDL2). Individuals with HDL2 share many clinical features with individuals with HD and are clinically indistinguishable in many cases, although the average age of onset and diagnosis in HDL2 is 5 years later than HD and individual clinical features may be more prominent. HDL2 mutations contribute significantly to the HD phenotype in South Africans with African ancestry. JPH3 haplotype studies in 31 families, mainly from South Africa and North America, provide evidence for a founder mutation and support a common African origin for all HDL2 patients. Molecular testing in individuals with an HD phenotype and African ancestry should include testing routinely for JPH3 mutations. PMID:26079385

  1. Transition and the Education of the New South African Citizen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammett, Daniel; Staeheli, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    South Africa's democratic transition was a time of optimism, with immense hopes pinned on the youth who would be educated to see themselves as equal citizens. It was also a time of pragmatic decision making, not least in the education sector, which would shape the future of the country. Negotiating the imperatives of redress, development, and…

  2. Improvement in South African Students' Outlook Due to Music Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Michael M.; Devroop, Karendra; Getz, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2009, we started a concert band programme at a high school in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In the fall of 2011, we returned to the school to measure the impact of participating in a concert band on the students' attitude and outlook. During our initial and return visits, we measured feelings of self-esteem, optimism, positive…

  3. Journal of South African Trip: January 14-March 1, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a personal account, dictated en route, of Carl Rogers' experiences during his trip to South Africa. Documents extensive commitment to people and to a process leading to peace. Journal ends with conviction that violence can be avoided and that no group really wants violence. (Author)

  4. The Circle of Courage: Restorative Approaches in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee, Charles

    2005-01-01

    An entirely different approach is needed regarding the way in which troubled learners are perceived and approached. The removal of traditional punitive methods has left many educators unequipped for youth showing destructive behavior. This article reviews the shift towards a restorative approach within education in the Western Cape, South Africa.…

  5. The Doctoral Degree in Geography: A South African Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Enrolments in doctoral degrees in South Africa mirror international trends and there is a strong national policy emphasis on these higher qualifications to fulfil needs, not only of the academy, but also of the economy and broader society. There are significant constraints, however, including the historical legacy of apartheid that has left the…

  6. Sources of Stress: Perceptions of South African TESOL Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study investigating which factors inside and outside the classroom result in feelings of stress for TESOL teachers working at private language schools in South Africa. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews, the findings reveal three main areas that cause stress for TESOL teachers: the job of…

  7. Pedagogical Translanguaging: Bridging Discourses in South African Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probyn, Margie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the classroom languaging practices of a group of science teachers in rural and township schools in South Africa where the majority of learners learn through the medium of English, despite the fact that it is the home language of only a small minority; and learners' poor English proficiency frequently restricts their access to…

  8. Exploring South African Mathematics Teachers' Experiences of Learner Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Sally-Ann; Graven, Mellony

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on patterns of post-apartheid learner migration between schools previously segregated along racial lines. South Africa's shift away from cultural and linguistic isolationism and the ways this has impacted educational arrangements in this country, most particularly in relation to the language of learning and teaching, affects…

  9. Road to Equality in South African Education: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    South Africa is currently experiencing a crisis in its educational systems that if not addressed, could threaten the stability of the newly established democracy. A lack of access to quality education and severe shortage of skilled trained educators is perpetuating vestiges of the old apartheid state in the nation. Approximately 6,000 students…

  10. Christian Hip Hop as Pedagogy: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on interviews with creators of Christian hip hop music in South Africa, this article demonstrates that this genre of popular music and youth culture is utilised as a form of pedagogy to transmit religious beliefs and values to contemporary youth. The pedagogical aspects of hip hop have been recognised in research on the topic, but the…

  11. Clifford Malcolm: Glimpses of His South African Legacy of Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govender, Nadaraj; Ramsuran, Anitha; Dhunpath, Rubby

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the contributions of Cliff Malcolm while in South Africa during the period 1997-2005. It focuses on his contribution to the fields of science education, teacher education, learner-centered education, transformational outcomes-based education and HIV/AIDS education. In this paper we provide snapshots of his work as an academic,…

  12. Social Justice Implications of South African School Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, P.; van Louw, T.

    2011-01-01

    Central to the pursuit of education and its functions like assessment, is social justice. Given the (still) existing inequalities brought about by years of neglect, it is clear that the building of a just society is indeed fraught with challenges. This article explores the extent to which all learners in South Africa are afforded fair treatment…

  13. Conflict and Peace Research: South African Realities and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwmeijer, Louise, Ed.; Olivier, Johan, Ed.

    This report resulted from a national workshop held September 5-6, 1995, near Johannesburg, South Africa. The theme of the workshop, "Reflections on Conflict and Peace," was chosen to echo the nature and purpose of the workshop. The major papers presented include: (1) "Conflict and Peace Research Methodology" (Louise…

  14. Perceptions of Computer Science at a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galpin, Vashti C.; Sanders, Ian D.

    2007-01-01

    First year students at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, were surveyed about their perceptions of Computer Science before and towards the end of their first year courses. The aim of this research was to investigate how the students' attitudes changed during these courses and to assess the impact of the innovative…

  15. Youth and Well-Being: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makiwane, Monde; Kwizera, Stella

    2009-01-01

    This paper was a result of an analysis from various data sources with a purpose to develop a better understanding of the level of socio-economic well being of young people in South Africa. Such understanding is aimed at enabling government to plan and implement well-structured and integrated development programmes that are relevant to the…

  16. South African Deaf Education and the Deaf Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storbeck, Claudine, Ed.; Martin, David, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    In a special section of the "American Annals of the Deaf", Deaf education and the Deaf community in South Africa are discussed. The special section is organized into 7 segments: a historical overview to establish context, the educational context, educators and learners, postgraduate education and employment, perspectives of Deaf children…

  17. The South African PhD: Insights from Employer Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treptow, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Current international trends reveal that doctoral education is increasingly expected to satisfy workplace demands. In South Africa, "Work Integrated Learning" (WIL), introduced as part of the HEQF, is the principal initiative to facilitate greater relevance of higher education in the workplace. There has, however, been significant…

  18. Steering the South African Higher Education Sector towards Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntshoe, Isaac; De Villiers, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which funding is used to steer the public higher education sector towards meeting the social, political and economic imperatives of post-1994 South Africa. It argues that the design of the funding framework influenced the direction of higher education after 1994, and that funding mechanisms explicitly or…

  19. Bullying, Violence, and Risk Behavior in South African School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Holan; Flisher, Alan J.; Lombard, Carl J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the prevalence of bullying behavior in adolescents from Cape Town and Durban, South Africa, and the association of these behaviors with levels of violence and risk behavior. Method: Five thousand and seventy-four adolescent schoolchildren in grade 8 (mean age 14.2 years) and grade 11 (mean age 17.4 years) at 72 Government…

  20. Teacher Mobility: A Loss to South African Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2007-01-01

    In this conversation, triggered by display of a poster in the workplace, the author discusses migration of certified teachers away from South Africa, and cites a belief that a personal choice to seek employment in a foreign country seems inconsistent with the premise of communitarianism. Waghid argues that such teacher loss may exacerbate…

  1. Reflections on Our South African Experience (January-February 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carl R.; Sanford, Ruth

    1987-01-01

    Describes a seven-week experience working with groups composed of diverse races in South Africa. Reflects on the human drama of direct and honest confrontation and proposes that major changes are precipitated from great stress or crisis. Presents evidence of the potential of person-centered communication in conflict resolution. (Author/NB)

  2. Impact of Line 1 on the South African Hereford Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this research was to document the influence of Line 1 Hereford cattle, developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) at its research facility in Miles City, Montana, on Hereford cattle in South Africa. Analytical approaches made use of both recorded pedigree and microsa...

  3. South African Curriculum Reform: Education for Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Juliana; Arendse, Agnetha

    2016-01-01

    The changing societal context in South Africa (SA) has necessitated curriculum reform to deal with the challenges of education, from apartheid to democracy, with the aim of promoting active citizenship education. The aim of the paper is thus to illuminate to what extent the Grade 11 Life Orientation (LO) curriculum prepares learners for active…

  4. Remedying Misdemeanors at South African Higher Education and Training Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumadi, Mutendwahothe Walter

    2008-01-01

    In 2004 South Africa embarked on a mission of reforming its higher education system, merging and incorporating small universities into larger institutions, and renaming all higher education institutions university. The democratic country's universities and technikons, which were incorporated with others and thus no longer exist, will be mentioned…

  5. Exploring Internal Segregation in the South African Medical Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildschut, Angelique

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the motivations underlying the specialisation choices of six female specialist doctors working in Cape Town, South Africa and to investigate whether the specific gender work identity associated with that specialism resulted in their motivation to enter it. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  6. The Role of Democratic Governing Bodies in South African Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jenni

    2002-01-01

    School governance reform in post-apartheid South Africa aimed to democratize schooling while accommodating diverse school histories of underdevelopment or self-management. Analysis of relevant legislation shows the reform was structured to allow representative democracy and partnerships. But two recent studies suggest that governance reforms have…

  7. Landscapes of Leadership in South African Schools: Mapping the Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Pam

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that the work of school principals in South Africa is shaped by two major sets of constructs or "landscapes": the literature on leadership and management which provides particular constructions of the field and its changes; and the terrain of new policy frameworks adopted after apartheid to transform the education…

  8. Digital model evaluation of the predevelopment flow system of the Tertiary limestone aquifer, Southeast Georgia, Northeast Florida, and South South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krause, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model using finite-difference techniques was used successfully to simulate the predevelopment flow regime within the multilayered Tertiary limestone aquifer system in Southeastern Georgia, Northeastern Florida, and Southern South Carolina as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's Tertiary Limestone Regional Aquifer System analysis. The aquifer, of early Eocene to Miocene age, ranges from thin interbedded clastics and marl in the updip area to massive limestone and dolomite 1,500 feet thick in the downdip area. The aquifer is confined above by Miocene clay beds, and terminates at depth in low-permeability rocks or the saltwater interface. Model-simulated transmissivity of the upper permeable zone ranged from about 1 x 10 super 3 foot squared per day in the updip area and within parts of the Gulf Trough (a series of alinement basins filled by fine clastic in material) to about 1 x 10 super 6 foot squared per day in South Georgia, and area having large secondarily developed solution channels. The model results indicate that only about 540 cubic feet per second of water flowed through the predeveloped system, from the updip highland area of high altitude and in the areas north of Valdosta and southwest of Jacksonville, to discharge along streams in the updip area and diffuse upward leakage in the downdip area near the coast and offshore. (USGS)

  9. Not Merely a Matter of Academics: Student Experiences of a South African University as Study-Abroad Destination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paola, R. J.; Lemmer, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Study abroad programmes attract considerable numbers of American college students; however, very few select an African country as their study-abroad destination. This article explores the experiences of American undergraduates who made the uncommon choice of a South African university as destination for a mid-length immersion type programme. The…

  10. Experiential Learning in Entrepreneurship Education: A Prospective Model for South African Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhliwayo, Shepherd

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a prospective entrepreneurship training model based on experiential learning which will enable the "production" of small business owners or entrepreneurs which is not being achieved by the current methods. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper. It analyses the current…

  11. Black South African psychiatric recipients: have they been overlooked under the recent democratization?

    PubMed

    Jones, Lani V

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the literature on service accessibility, utilization, and treatment needs for Black South African adults with psychiatric disabilities and highlights the paucity of empirical studies in these areas. Current research draws attention to the finding that Black South Africans essentially have been neglected or ignored in the mental health system, suggesting that the government should formulate and implement programs and policies to ensure the effective delivery of psychiatric services. A framework for practice is warranted in which traditional health practices are parallel to mainstream westernized psychiatric care that emphasizes culturally relevant care and naturally occurring community supports rather than large psychiatric institutions. It is suggested here that "psychosocial competence" may provide a resonant and particularly useful framework for practice in this population.

  12. Report of the 7th African Rotavirus Symposium, Cape Town, South Africa, 8th November 2012.

    PubMed

    Seheri, L M; Mwenda, J M; Page, N

    2014-11-12

    The 7th African Rotavirus Symposium was held in Cape Town, South Africa, on the 8th November 2012 as a Satellite Symposium at the First International African Vaccinology Conference. Over 150 delegates participated in this symposium including scientists, clinicians, health officials, policymakers and vaccine manufacturers from across Africa. Key topics discussed included rotavirus surveillance, rotavirus vaccine introduction, post rotavirus vaccine impact analysis and intussusception data and surveillance in Africa. The symposium provided early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in Africa (South Africa, Ghana and Botswana) an opportunity to share up-to-date information on vaccine introduction, and allowed colleagues to share experiences in establishing routine rotavirus surveillance (Tanzania, Niger and Rwanda). Overall, the symposium highlighted the high burden of rotavirus in Africa, and the need to continue to strengthen efforts in preventing rotavirus diarrhoea in Africa.

  13. Psychological strengths and posttraumatic growth in the successful reintegration of South African ex-offenders.

    PubMed

    Guse, Tharina; Hudson, Daphne

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to explore the possible presence of psychological strengths and posttraumatic growth in the life stories of ex-offenders who desisted returning to crime. Recidivism rates in South African offenders released from prison remain as high as 97%. Little is known about positive psychological factors that may facilitate successful reentry of ex-offenders in the South African context. In an exploratory qualitative study, three adult male ex-offenders who had successfully reintegrated into society were interviewed, using a semi-structured interview schedule focusing on their life stories. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Several psychological strengths, including hope, gratitude, and spirituality, were evident in the responses of the participants. Furthermore, they seemed to experience a sense of posttraumatic growth. Identifying psychological strengths, including character strengths, may add to understanding and facilitating successful reintegration of ex-offenders. From these preliminary findings, implications for practice and research are proposed.

  14. Positive and negative qualities of South African adolescents' parent and peer relationships.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Elmien; de Jager, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Parent and peer relationships are important social resources for adolescents. South African research on adolescents' relationships, however, underemphasises these relationships as potential positive resources. Studies also tend to use samples from urban populations, while rural and semi-rural adolescent populations are neglected. This study focused on White and Coloured adolescents living in one South African semi-rural community and their ratings of positive and negative relationship qualities in relationships with parents and peers. Using the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI), we found that mothers, best friends and romantic partners were relatively equal sources of social support. Mothers' high ratings for support, conflict and punishment may point to mothers bearing the primary responsibility for child care. Fathers' low support ratings raise concern as father involvement is important for adolescents' well-being. White participants overall rated their relationship higher for support and lower for negative qualities than the Coloured participants.

  15. South African Zulu widows in a time of poverty and social change.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Paul C; Nkosi, Busisiwe Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Interviews were carried out with 16 South African Zulu widows. Much of what the widows had to say seemed like what one might hear from widows in economically developed countries, but there were also striking differences. All the widows lived in poverty, and for some their grief seemed much more about the poverty than about the husband's death. Most widows observed a year of traditional ukuzila mourning practices, which made them a threat to others and which is difficult to carry out in the social upheaval of modern South Africa. Widowhood was in some cases a struggle with witchcraft--as cause of the death or as an accusation directed at the widow.

  16. Discovery of the South African fauna of Allophrys Förster (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tersilochinae). [corrected].

    PubMed

    Khalaim, A I

    2013-01-01

    Eight species of the genus Allophrys Förster are found to occur in South Africa: A. astafurovae sp. nov., A. broadi sp. nov., A. calculator sp. nov., A. dictator sp. nov., A. excavator sp. nov., A. granulata sp. nov., A. scitula sp. nov. and A. tractor sp. nov. All these species have body length 2.5-3.4 mm and fore wing length 1.7-2.3 mm, and along with members of the genus Aneuclis Förster are the smallest Afrotropical tersilochines. An identification key to eight South African species of Allophrys is provided.

  17. The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura)

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The toad species Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 was erected for a single specimen from South Africa which has never been properly studied and allocated to a known species. A morphometrical and morphological analysis of this specimen and its comparison with 75 toad specimens referred to five South African toad species allowed to allocate this specimen to the species currently known as Amietophrynus rangeri. In consequence, the nomen Sclerophrys must replace Amietophrynus as the valid nomen of the genus, and capensis as the valid nomen of the species. This work stresses the usefulness of natural history collections for solving taxonomic and nomenclatural problems. PMID:26788431

  18. Factor analysis of the Career Decision Scale on South African high school students.

    PubMed

    Watson, M B; Foxcroft, C D; Stead, G B

    1991-12-01

    A factor analytic study of the Career Decision Scale-High School version of Hartman and Hartman on 312 white South African adolescents from Grades 11 and 12 was undertaken. A simple two-factor structure emerged which accounted for 47.36% of the total variance in the scores. These results support the use of the version as a differential measure of career indecision and indicate that the number and structure of factors can change across populations. The implications of these results for research in South Africa are considered.

  19. A Xhosa language translation of the CORE-OM using South African university student samples.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Megan M; Young, Charles

    2016-10-01

    The translation of well established psychometric tools from English into Xhosa may assist in improving access to psychological services for Xhosa speakers. The aim of this study was to translate the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), a measure of general distress and dysfunction developed in the UK, into Xhosa for use at South African university student counselling centres. The CORE-OM and embedded CORE-10 were translated into Xhosa using a five-stage translation design. This design included (a) forward-translation, (b) back-translation, (c) committee approach, (d) qualitative piloting, and (e) quantitative piloting on South African university students. Clinical and general samples were drawn from English-medium South African universities. Clinical samples were generated from university student counselling centres. General student samples were generated through random stratified cluster sampling of full-time university students. Qualitative feedback from the translation process and results from quantitative piloting of the 34-item CORE-OM English and Xhosa versions supported the reduction of the scale to 10 items. This reduced scale is referred to as the South African CORE-10 (SA CORE-10). A measurement and structural model of the SA CORE-10 English version was developed and cross-validated using an English-speaking university student sample. Equivalence of this model with the SA CORE-10 Xhosa version was investigated using a first-language Xhosa-speaking university sample. Partial measurement equivalence was achieved at the metric level. The resultant SA CORE-10 Xhosa and English versions provide core measures of distress and dysfunction. Additional, culture- and language-specific domains could be added to increase sensitivity and specificity.

  20. The irrational beliefs inventory: cross-cultural comparisons between South African and previously published Dutch and American samples.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Marilize; Möller, André T; Steel, Henry R

    2004-12-01

    The Irrational Beliefs Inventory gives a measure of irrational beliefs, as postulated by Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavior therapy. Given the increasing cross-cultural use of psychometric scales, it is important to assess whether the psychometric properties of the inventory are consistent across cultures. In the present study cross-cultural applicability, in terms of internal consistency and independence of subscales, was investigated for an ad hoc sample of White (n= 100, M age = 21.3 yr., SD=4.0) and Black (n=82, M age=19.8 yr., SD=2.2) undergraduate South African university students. Cronbach coefficients alpha for the subscales and Pearson correlations between subscales for American and Dutch students, as reported by Bridges and Sanderman, were compared with those indices for the South African students. The magnitude and rank order of Cronbach alpha, as well as the correlations between subscales for the three groups showed strong similarities. Values of alpha for the Black South African students were lower in magnitude on all subscales than those for American, Dutch, and White South African samples, but intercorrelations between subscale scores were consistent. Findings in the present study are supportive of the cross-cultural applicability of the Irrational Beliefs Inventory to White South African students but not to South African Black students.

  1. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of South African Cashew Apple Juice as a Biofuel Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Rumbold, Karl; Daramola, Michael; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    Cashew apple juice (CAJ) is one of the feedstocks used for biofuel production and ethanol yield depends on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted juice. As far as can be ascertained, information on physical and chemical properties of South African cashew apple juice is limited in open literature. Therefore, this study provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the South African cashew apple juice. Physicochemical characteristics of the juice, such as specific gravity, pH, sugars, condensed tannins, Vitamin C, minerals, and total protein, were measured from a mixed variety of cashew apples. Analytical results showed the CAJ possesses specific gravity and pH of 1.050 and 4.52, respectively. The highest sugars were glucose (40.56 gL−1) and fructose (57.06 gL−1). Other chemical compositions of the juice were condensed tannin (55.34 mgL−1), Vitamin C (112 mg/100 mL), and total protein (1.78 gL−1). The minerals content was as follows: zinc (1.39 ppm), copper (2.18 ppm), magnesium (4.32 ppm), iron (1.32 ppm), sodium (5.44 ppm), and manganese (1.24 ppm). With these findings, South African CAJ is a suitable biomass feedstock for ethanol production. PMID:26345160

  2. A Systemic Functional Linguistic Analysis of the Utterances of Three South African Physical Sciences Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawahar, Kavish; Dempster, Edith R.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the sociocultural view of science as a language and some quantitative language features of the complementary theoretical framework of systemic functional linguistics are employed to analyse the utterances of three South African Physical Sciences teachers. Using a multi-case study methodology, this study provides a sophisticated description of the utterances of Pietermaritzburg Physical Sciences teachers in language contexts characterised by varying proportions of English Second Language (ESL) students in each class. The results reveal that, as expected, lexical cohesion as measured by the cohesive harmony index and proportion of repeated content words relative to total words, increased with an increasing proportion of ESL students. However, the use of nominalisation by the teachers and the lexical density of their utterances did not decrease with an increasing proportion of ESL students. Furthermore, the results reveal that each individual Physical Sciences teacher had a 'signature' talk, unrelated to the language context in which they taught. This study signals the urgent and critical need for South African science teacher training programmes to place a greater emphasis on the functional use of language for different language contexts in order to empower South African Physical Sciences teachers to adequately apprentice their students into the use of the register of scientific English.

  3. Occupational respiratory diseases in the South African mining industry

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Background Crystalline silica and asbestos are common minerals that occur throughout South Africa, exposure to either causes respiratory disease. Most studies on silicosis in South Africa have been cross-sectional and long-term trends have not been reported. Although much research has been conducted on the health effects of silica dust and asbestos fibre in the gold-mining and asbestos-mining sectors, little is known about their health effects in other mining sectors. Objective The aims of this thesis were to describe silicosis trends in gold miners over three decades, and to explore the potential for diamond mine workers to develop asbestos-related diseases and platinum mine workers to develop silicosis. Methods Mine workers for the three sub-studies were identified from a mine worker autopsy database at the National Institute for Occupational Health. Results From 1975 to 2007, the proportions of white and black gold mine workers with silicosis increased from 18 to 22% and from 3 to 32% respectively. Cases of diamond and platinum mine workers with asbestos-related diseases and silicosis, respectively, were also identified. Conclusion The trends in silicosis in gold miners at autopsy clearly demonstrate the failure of the gold mines to adequately control dust and prevent occupational respiratory disease. The two case series of diamond and platinum mine workers contribute to the evidence for the risk of asbestos-related diseases in diamond mine workers and silicosis in platinum mine workers, respectively. The absence of reliable environmental dust measurements and incomplete work history records impedes occupational health research in South Africa because it is difficult to identify and/or validate sources of dust exposure that may be associated with occupational respiratory disease. PMID:23364097

  4. First report of perfluoroalkyl substances in South African Odonata.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Velesia; Bouwman, Hindrik; Kinoshita, Ayako; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2017-05-01

    Perfluorinated substances are global and ubiquitous pollutants. However, very little is known about these substances in invertebrates, and even less in terrestrial invertebrates in particular. We analysed adult male dragonflies from six sites in South Africa for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluro-n-undecanoic acid (PFUnA), perfluoro-n-dodecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). PFOS was detected in all individuals, with less quantifiable occurrences of the other substances. The dragonflies from the three northern sites located in farming areas had significantly lower ΣPFASs concentrations than the southern sites located closer to industrial areas (median ΣPFASs of 0.32 ng/g wm (wet mass) for North, and 9.3 ng/g wm for South). All substances except PFOS occurred at similar concentrations at all six sites when quantifiable, but PFOS dominated in the Southern sites. The highest median concentration was from Bloemhof Dam (ΣPFASs = 21 ng/g wm), which is known to be polluted by PFOS. Perfluorinated substances are not known to be manufactured in South Africa, therefore the residues detected are likely to have been derived from imported products. Odonata play a significant role in freshwater ecology. Any impacts on these aquatic and aerial predators are likely to have effects on aquatic and associated ecosystems. Further studies are required over a much larger geographic region and to investigate sources.

  5. Influence of Tertiary paleoenvironmental changes on the diversification of South American mammals: a relaxed molecular clock study within xenarthrans

    PubMed Central

    Delsuc, Frédéric; Vizcaíno, Sergio F; Douzery, Emmanuel JP

    2004-01-01

    Background Comparative genomic data among organisms allow the reconstruction of their phylogenies and evolutionary time scales. Molecular timings have been recently used to suggest that environmental global change have shaped the evolutionary history of diverse terrestrial organisms. Living xenarthrans (armadillos, anteaters and sloths) constitute an ideal model for studying the influence of past environmental changes on species diversification. Indeed, extant xenarthran species are relicts from an evolutionary radiation enhanced by their isolation in South America during the Tertiary era, a period for which major climate variations and tectonic events are relatively well documented. Results We applied a Bayesian approach to three nuclear genes in order to relax the molecular clock assumption while accounting for differences in evolutionary dynamics among genes and incorporating paleontological uncertainties. We obtained a molecular time scale for the evolution of extant xenarthrans and other placental mammals. Divergence time estimates provide substantial evidence for contemporaneous diversification events among independent xenarthran lineages. This correlated pattern of diversification might possibly relate to major environmental changes that occurred in South America during the Cenozoic. Conclusions The observed synchronicity between planetary and biological events suggests that global change played a crucial role in shaping the evolutionary history of extant xenarthrans. Our findings open ways to test this hypothesis further in other South American mammalian endemics like hystricognath rodents, platyrrhine primates, and didelphid marsupials. PMID:15115541

  6. An Elite South African University Seeks To Make Itself More "African."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergnani, Linda

    1998-01-01

    The administration of the University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa) is committed to increasing the number of black faculty and providing support to reduce their isolation. This year, for the first time, blacks make up 51% of the student population. The new president, a white man, appears to have won strong, broad-based support within the…

  7. Further data about venous channels in South African Plio-Pleistocene hominids.

    PubMed

    Braga, J; Boesch, C

    1997-10-01

    Original data about venous channels in South African Plio-Pleistocene hominids are discussed. To assess possible changes in blood volume flow of fossil hominids, we test whether dimensions of three extracranial venous foramina were different between Australopithecus africanus and Australopithecus (Paranthropus) robustus. Moreover, providing further data about the small sample of South African Plio-Pleistocene hominids, we also attempt to re-analyse the incidence of divided hypoglossal canals and four emissary foramina in a very large sample of extant African apes representing all ages, species and subspecies, in A. africanus and in "robust australopithecines". Up to now, only very poor data on extracranial dimensions of venous foramina were available for fossil hominids. However, this topic provides interesting information about the modifications of volume flow during human evolution. Assuming that in fossil hominids, as in humans, dimensions of condylar and mastoid foramina, as well as those of jugular foramina, depended on volume flow through them, we conclude, first, that volume flow through internal jugular veins was comparable in South African australopithecines, extant chimpanzees and humans, and second, that, in comparison with the extant less-encephalized chimpanzees (presumably reflecting the ancestral condition), volume flow was higher through condylar veins in A. (P.) robustus. This increase was responsible for a significantly greater amount of blood drainage from the brain (and consequently an increased arterial blood supply). We support the view that encephalization was the prevailing functional explanation for volume flow increase through condylar veins in A. (P.) robustus, in comparison with its ancestor with its presumably more ape-like degree of encephalization. Considering the incidence of emissary canals and foramina, significant differences between A. africanus, "robust australopithecines" and all the extant African ape species, were tested

  8. “You Must Know Where You Come From”: South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change

    PubMed Central

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural coding. Beliefs about the function of religion were captured by the following themes: provides support, connection to the past, moral compass, promotes healthy development, and intersections between African traditional practices and Christian beliefs. Themes are discussed and directions for future research are presented. In addition, applications of the current research and implications for promoting youths' resilience are offered. PMID:24932064

  9. The Contribution of Information Acquisition and Management Capacity to Administrators' Decision-Making Effectiveness in Tertiary Institutions in South-Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabunmi, Martins; Erwat, Eseza Akiror

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated through empirical methods the extent to which information acquisition and information management capacity of administrators in tertiary institutions in South-Western Nigeria contributed to their decision-making effectiveness. It adopted the ex post facto survey research design, using the random sampling technique to select…

  10. Four p67 alleles identified in South African Theileria parva field samples.

    PubMed

    Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Geysen, Dirk; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Matthee, Conrad A; Troskie, Milana; Potgieter, Frederick T; Coetzer, Jacobus A W; Collins, Nicola E

    2010-02-10

    Previous studies characterizing the Theileria parva p67 gene in East Africa revealed two alleles. Cattle-derived isolates associated with East Coast fever (ECF) have a 129bp deletion in the central region of the p67 gene (allele 1), compared to buffalo-derived isolates with no deletion (allele 2). In South Africa, Corridor disease outbreaks occur if there is contact between infected buffalo and susceptible cattle in the presence of vector ticks. Although ECF was introduced into South Africa in the early 20th century, it has been eradicated and it is thought that there has been no cattle to cattle transmission of T. parva since. The variable region of the p67 gene was amplified and the gene sequences analyzed to characterize South African T. parva parasites that occur in buffalo, in cattle from farms where Corridor disease outbreaks were diagnosed and in experimentally infected cattle. Four p67 alleles were identified, including alleles 1 and 2 previously detected in East African cattle and buffalo, respectively, as well as two novel alleles, one with a different 174bp deletion (allele 3), the other with a similar sequence to allele 3 but with no deletion (allele 4). Sequence variants of allele 1 were obtained from field samples originating from both cattle and buffalo. Allele 1 was also obtained from a bovine that tested T. parva positive from a farm near Ladysmith in the KwaZulu-Natal Province. East Coast fever was not diagnosed on this farm, but the p67 sequence was identical to that of T. parva Muguga, an isolate that causes ECF in Kenya. Variants of allele 2 were obtained from all T. parva samples from both buffalo and cattle, except Lad 10 and Zam 5. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that alleles 3 and 4 are monophyletic and diverged early from the other alleles. These novel alleles were not identified from South African field samples collected from cattle; however allele 3, with a p67 sequence identical to those obtained in South African field samples from

  11. Blood lead levels in South African inner-city children

    SciTech Connect

    von Schirnding, Y.; Bradshaw, D. ); Fuggle, R. ); Stokol, M. )

    1991-08-01

    Little is known about childhood lead absorption in South Africa. In this study a cross-sectional analytic survey was carried out to determine the blood lead levels and associated risk factors for inner-city, first-grade schoolchildren. Blood lead analyses, hematological and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and a pretested questionnaire was administered to parents to identify risk factors for lead exposure. In detailed environmental study, daily air and dust samples were collected over a period of 1 year from several sites in the study area, contemporaneously with the blood and questionnaire surveys. Spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric lead were determined. It was found that 13% of mixed race children, but no white children, had blood lead levels {ge} 25 {mu}g/dL, the US action level. Air lead levels averaged around 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, and dust lead levels ranged from 410 to 3620 ppm. Environmental lead levels were significantly elevated near heavy traffic, where Environmental Protection Agency standards were exceeded mainly during winter months. Baseline exposure was of significance in influencing blood lead levels of children attending schools in direct proximity to heavy traffic, where blood lead levels were elevated irrespective of other influencing factors. Primary and secondary preventive measures are urgently needed in South Africa to reduce environmental lead exposure.

  12. Two new Phytophthora species from South African Eucalyptus plantations.

    PubMed

    Maseko, Bongani; Burgess, Treena I; Coutinho, Teresa A; Wingfield, Michael J

    2007-11-01

    A recent study to determine the cause of collar and root rot disease outbreaks of cold tolerant Eucalyptus species in South Africa resulted in the isolation of two putative new Phytophthora species. Based on phylogenetic comparisons using the ITS and beta-tubulin gene regions, these species were shown to be distinct from known species. These differences were also supported by robust morphological characteristics. The names, Phytophthora frigida sp. nov. and Phytophthora alticola sp. nov. are thus provided for these taxa, which are phylogenetically closely related to species within the ITS clade 2 (P. citricola, P. tropicali and P.multivesiculata) and 4 (P. arecae and P. megakarya), respectively. Phytophthora frigida is heterothallic, and produces stellate to rosaceous growth patterns on growth medium, corraloid hyphae, sporangia with a variety of distorted shapes and has the ability to grow at low temperatures. Phytophthora alticola is homothallic and has a slower growth rate in culture. Both P. frigida and P. alticola are pathogenic to Eucalyptus dunnii. In pathogenicity tests, they were, however, less pathogenic than P. cinnamomi, which is a well-known pathogen of Eucalyptus in South Africa.

  13. Entrepreneurial Education in a Tertiary Context: A Perspective of the University of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadi-Echendu, Anthea P.; Phillips, Magaret; Chodokufa, Kudakwashe; Visser, Thea

    2016-01-01

    South Africa is characterised by high unemployment levels, a low Total Early Stage Entrepreneurial Activity rate, and a high small business failure rate. Entrepreneurship and small business development is seen as a solution to end unemployment in South Africa. A study to understand how to improve small business support was conducted at the…

  14. A review of Tertiary climate changes in southern South America and the Antarctic Peninsula. Part 1: Oceanic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, J. P.

    2012-03-01

    Oceanic conditions around southern South America and the Antarctic Peninsula have a major influence on climate patterns in these subcontinents. During the Tertiary, changes in ocean water temperatures and currents also strongly affected the continental climates and seem to have been controlled in turn by global tectonic events and sea-level changes. During periods of accelerated sea-floor spreading, an increase in the mid-ocean ridge volumes and the outpouring of basaltic lavas caused a rise in sea-level and mean ocean temperature, accompanied by the large-scale release of CO2. The precursor of the South Equatorial Current would have crossed the East Pacific Rise twice before reaching the coast of southern South America, thus heating up considerably during periods of ridge activity. The absence of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current before the opening of the Drake Passage suggests that the current flowing north along the present western seaboard of southern South American could have been temperate even during periods of ridge inactivity, which might explain the generally warm temperatures recorded in the Southeast Pacific from the early Oligocene to middle Miocene. Along the east coast of southern South America, water temperatures also fluctuated between temperate-cool and warm until the early Miocene, when the first incursion of temperate-cold to cold Antarctic waters is recorded. The cold Falkland/Malvinas Current initiated only after the middle Miocene. After the opening of the Drake Passage, the South Equatorial Current would have joined the newly developed, cold Antarctic Circumpolar Current on its way to Southern South America. During periods of increased sea-floor spreading, it would have contributed heat to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that caused a poleward shift in climatic belts. However, periods of decreased sea-floor spreading would have been accompanied by diminishing ridge volumes and older, cooler and denser oceanic plates, causing global sea

  15. The Cost-effectiveness of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Infection in South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Walensky, Rochelle P.; Park, Ji-Eun; Wood, Robin; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Scott, Callie A.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Losina, Elena; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Seage, George R.; Paltiel, A. David

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recent trials report the short-term efficacy of tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PrEP’s long-term impact on patient outcomes, population-level transmission, and cost-effectiveness remains unknown. Methods. We linked data from recent trials to a computer model of HIV acquisition, screening, and care to project lifetime HIV risk, life expectancy (LE), costs, and cost-effectiveness, using 2 PrEP-related strategies among heterosexual South African women: (1) women receiving no PrEP and (2) women not receiving PrEP (a tenofovir-based vaginal microbicide). We used a South African clinical cohort and published data to estimate population demographic characteristics, age-adjusted incidence of HIV infection, and HIV natural history and treatment parameters. Baseline PrEP efficacy (percentage reduction in HIV transmission) was 39% at a monthly cost of $5 per woman. Alternative parameter values were examined in sensitivity analyses. Results. Among South African women, PrEP reduced mean lifetime HIV risk from 40% to 27% and increased population discounted (undiscounted) LE from 22.51 (41.66) to 23.48 (44.48) years. Lifetime costs of care increased from $7280 to $9890 per woman, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $2700/year of life saved, and may, under optimistic assumptions, achieve cost savings. Under baseline HIV infection incidence assumptions, PrEP was not cost saving, even assuming an efficacy >60% and a cost <$1. At an HIV infection incidence of 9.1%/year, PrEP achieved cost savings at efficacies ≥50%. Conclusions. PrEP in South African women is very cost-effective by South African standards, conferring excellent value under virtually all plausible data scenarios. Although optimistic assumptions would be required to achieve cost savings, these represent important benchmarks for future PrEP study design. PMID:22474224

  16. Post-Pan-African tectonic evolution of South Malawi in relation to the Karroo and recent East African rift systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaing, C.

    1991-05-01

    Structural studies conducted in the Lengwe and Mwabvi Karroo basins and in the basement in South Malawi, using regional maps and published data extended to cover Southeast Africa, serve to propose a series of geodynamic reconstructions which reveal the persistence of an extensional tectonic regime, the minimum stress σ3 of which has varied through time. The period of Karroo rifting and the tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism which terminated it, were controlled by NW-SE extension, which resulted in the creation of roughly NE-SW troughs articulated by the Tanganyika-Malawi and Zambesi pre-transform systems. These were NW-SE sinistral-slip systems with directions of movement dipping slightly to the Southeast, which enabled the Mwanza fault to play an important role in the evolution of the Karroo basins of the Shire Valley. The Cretaceous was a transition period between the Karroo rifting and the formation of the Recent East African Rift System. Extension was NE-SW, with some evidence for a local compressional episode in the Lengwe basin. Beginning in the Cenozoic, the extension once more became NW-SE and controlled the evolution in transtension of the Recent East African Rift System. This history highlights the major role of transverse faults systems dominated by strike-slip motion in the evolution and perpetuation of the continental rift systems. These faults are of a greater geological persistence than the normal faults bounding the grabens, especially when they are located on major basement anisotropies.

  17. Preparedness for Tertiary Chemistry: Multiple Applications of the Chemistry Competence Test for Diagnostic and Prediction Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potgieter, Marietjie; Davidowitz, Bette

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Chemistry Competence Test was prompted by the extensive curriculum changes in the South African school system after democracy was established in 1994. As chemists, we were concerned that there might be a lack of articulation between secondary and tertiary levels, since we anticipated that curriculum changes would have an…

  18. Discrimination against South African adolescents orphaned by AIDS.

    PubMed

    Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria; Mokomane, Zitha

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the discrimination against adolescents orphaned by AIDS. A qualitative phenomenological approach using reflective diaries was used to extract how this population is discriminated on. Fifteen adolescents ages 14 to 18 living in an urban area in South Africa participated in the study. Data were collected as part of a larger study in which a peer-based mental health intervention was designed for use with adolescents orphaned by AIDS. Colaizzi's seven stages were used to analyze the data from the reflective diaries. Analysis revealed that adolescents orphaned by AIDS experienced physical, social, and institutional expressions of stigma leading to discrimination. Adolescents were discriminated on by peers, caregivers, and teachers. The results of this study show that adolescents orphaned by AIDS face discrimination; further studies on the topic with a larger sample are needed to verify these findings.

  19. The use of analgesic drugs by South African veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Joubert, K E

    2001-03-01

    According to a survey, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents were the most popular analgesic used in South Africa for management of peri-operative pain, acute post-operative pain and chronic pain. The most popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone. The most popular opioid type drug is buprenorphine, followed by morphine. In the peri-operative setting, analgesic agents were not actively administered to 86.3% of cats and 80.7% of dogs. Analgesic premedications were frequently administered, e.g. xylazine or ketamine, but no specific drug was administered for post-operative pain. Veterinarians need to critically review their anaesthetic and analgesic practices in order to achieve balanced anaesthesia.

  20. Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines - a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Visser, Adele; Hoosen, Anwar

    2012-09-07

    Introduction of Hib vaccine is known to positively impact on reduction of both morbidity and mortality in children less than 5 years of age. Incorporation of this vaccine into a National EPI, however, does come at a significant cost, which is especially important in non-GAVI funded countries. Compounded reduction in response in certain patient populations and possible indication of booster doses further impacts on cost-benefit analyses. Despite these issues, South Africa has supplied Hib vaccine as part of the National EPI in the form of a combination vaccine, Pentaxim, which combines Hib with Diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular Pertussis (DTP) and Poliomyelitis since 2009. Prior to this, another combination vaccine was utilized containing Hib and DTP. This has subsequently lead to a significant reduction in invasive Hib disease post-introduction, therefore largely justifying utilization.

  1. Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management--a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2010-11-01

    This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

  2. Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2010-11-15

    This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

  3. Impediments to the adoption of alternative sewerage in South African urban informal settlements.

    PubMed

    Ashipala, N; Armitage, N P

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades South Africa has witnessed a substantial growth in its urban population. This growth has been accompanied by the mushrooming of informal settlements (shantytowns) flanking more formal development. The lack of adequate urban drainage in many of these informal settlements has resulted in extremely polluted environments which add to the disease burden of the poor people who live there. In many instances, informal settlements in South Africa are established on marginal land that is inherently difficult to service using conventional gravity sewerage. International experience has shown that various alternative wastewater collection systems may present more appropriate ways of providing water-borne sewerage in areas that are difficult to service by conventional means. Alternative sewerage schemes have however had a poor record of success in South African informal settlements - primarily stemming from the implementing agencies' failure to adequately address various social and institutional factors. In this paper, a review of South African experiences with simplified sewerage, settled sewerage and vacuum sewerage in urban informal settlements is used to highlight the key constraints that currently impede the application of these technologies.

  4. Thermal history from both sides of the South Atlantic passive margin - A comparison: Argentinean pampa vs. South African escarpement.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollenz, Sebastian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2014-05-01

    The eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin is distinguished by a very flat topography. Out of the so called Pampean flat two mountain ranges are arising. These mountain ranges, the Sierras Australes and the Sierras Septentrionales, are located in the State of Buenos Aires south of the capital Buenos Aires. In existing literature the Sierras Australes are correlated with the South African cape fold belt (Torsvik 2009; Lopez Gamundi & Rossello 1998). Existing thermochronological data shows different post-breakup cooling histories for both areas and different AFT-ages. Published thermochronological ages (e.g. Raab et al. 2002, 2005, Gallagher et al et al. 1998)from the south African escarpement vary around 150 and 100 Ma (Gallagher et al. 1998). Only some spots in the eastern part of South Africa towards the pacific margin show older ages of 250 Ma and older than 350 Ma (Gallagher et al. 1998). New thermochronological data (AHe, AFT and ZHe) from the Sierras Australes indicate a different cooling history by revealing a range of varying ages due to younger tectonic activity. By comparing the data sets from both areas it is getting clear that the post-rift evolution of both continents is differing very strong. Gallagher, K., Brown, R. and Johnson, C. 1998. Fission track analysis and its application to geological problems. Annual review of Earth and Planetary Science, 26, 519-572. Lopez Gamundi, O.R., Rossello, E.A. (1998): Basin fill evolution and paleotectonic patterns along the Samfrau geosyncline: the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina) and Karoo basin-Cape foldbelt (South Africa) revisited. Geol Rundsch 86 :819-834. Raab, M.J., Brown, R.W., Gallagher, K., Carter, A. and Webber, K. 2002. late Cretaceous reactivation of major crustal shear zones in northern Namibia: constraints from apatite fission track analysis. Tectonophysics. 349, 75-92. Raab, M.J., Brown, R.W., Gallagher, K., Webber, K. and Gleadow, A.J.W. 2005. denudational and

  5. Narratives of Agency: The Experiences of Braille Literacy Practitioners in the "Kha Ri Gude" South African Mass Literacy Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Veronica I.; Romm, Norma R. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we locate the "Kha Ri Gude" South African Mass Literacy Campaign within the context of the problem of illiteracy and exclusion in South Africa, while concentrating on various post-apartheid initiatives designed to give visually challenged adults the opportunity to become literate. We shall provide a detailed account of…

  6. Finding the Best Fit: The Adaptation and Translation of the Performance Indicators for Primary Schools for the South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Elizabeth; Scherman, Vanessa; Coe, Robert; Howie, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Reform and improvement are imperative in the current South African education system. Monitoring of school and learner achievement is an essential for establishing praxis for school improvement. Diversity of culture and South Africa's 11 official languages make it difficult to develop valid monitoring systems. Limited resources, time constraints…

  7. The Birth of a South African Child Development Center for 2- to 6-Year-Olds: An International Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarie, Darlene; Cherian, Lily

    2012-01-01

    Providing high-quality education and care for young children at a historically Black university in rural South Africa was a challenging task. But despite many obstacles, two teacher educators (an American and a South African) worked together, partnered with a surprising collection of others, seized every possible opportunity, and persisted, seeing…

  8. Addressing the Local in Localization: A Case Study of Open Textbook Adoption by Three South African Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimes, Cynthia; Weiss, Shenandoah; Keep, Renae

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the adoption and use of open textbooks by three high school teachers in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The textbooks, collaboratively authored and distributed through the South African initiative, Siyavula, are available online and are openly licensed, allowing teachers to freely use, modify,…

  9. Clinical features, spectrum of causal genetic mutations and outcome of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in South Africans

    PubMed Central

    Ntusi, Ntobeko AB; Shaboodien, Gasnat; Badri, Motasim; Mayosi, Bongani M; Badri, Motasim; Gumedze, Freedom

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Little is known about the clinical characteristics, spectrum of causal genetic mutations and outcome of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in Africans. The objective of this study was to delineate the clinical and genetic features and outcome of HCM in African patients. Methods Information on clinical presentation, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings, and outcome of cases with HCM was collected from the Cardiac Clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital over a mean duration of follow up of 9.1 ± 3.4 years. Genomic DNA was screened for mutations in 15 genes that cause HCM, i.e. cardiac myosinbinding protein C (MYBPC3), cardiac β-myosin heavy chain (MYH7), cardiac troponin T2 (TNNT2), cardiac troponin I (TNNI3), regulatory light chain of myosin (MYL2), essential light chain of myosin (MYL3), tropomyosin 1 (TPM1), phospholamban (PLN), α-actin (ACTC1), cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3), AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKAG2), α-galactosidase (GLA), four-and-a-half LIM domains 1 (FHL1), lamin A/C (LMNA) and lysosomeassociated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2). Survival and its predictors were analysed using the Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression methods, respectively. Results Forty-three consecutive patients [mean age 38.5 ± 14.3 years; 25 (58.1%) male; and 13 (30.2%) black African] were prospectively enrolled in the study from January 1996 to December 2012. Clinical presentation was similar to that reported in other studies. The South African founder mutations that cause HCM were not found in the 42 probands. Ten of 35 index cases (28.6%) tested for mutations in 15 genes had disease-causing mutations in MYH7 (six cases or 60%) and MYBPC3 (four cases or 40%). No disease-causing mutation was found in the other 13 genes screened. The annual mortality rate was 2.9% per annum and overall survival was 74% at 10 years, which was similar to the general South African population. Cox’s proportional hazards regression showed

  10. Infant feeding dilemmas created by HIV: South African experiences.

    PubMed

    Coutsoudis, Anna

    2005-04-01

    Breast-feeding is a route of HIV transmission from an HIV infected mother to her infant. However, breast-feeding is an important pillar of child survival and part of a mother's womanhood. This paper highlights the dilemma created by the risks and the benefits of breast-feeding and will discuss the implementation in South Africa, of the Safer Breastfeeding Programme, to reduce some of the known risk factors associated with HIV transmission. Operations research was carried out, including infant HIV testing at 6 wk, and 9, 12, and 15 mo. Among 188 breast-fed infants enrolled in the program who were HIV negative at 6 wk, 4 became infected by 9 mo of age (2.6%). Infants enrolled in the Safer Breastfeeding Programme had less breast pathology than is usually reported for HIV infected women. Limited success was attained in promoting heat treatment of expressed breast milk; however, it does appear to be a feasible option after 6 mo of age, and it is believed that mothers would practice it more widely if sufficient promotion and support was given to it. Mothers found it difficult to stop breast-feeding earlier than the norm, and it therefore is important that mothers considering early cessation of breast-feeding be given sufficient preparation and support.

  11. Exposure to respirable crystalline silica in South African farm workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanepoel, Andrew; Rees, David; Renton, Kevin; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-02-01

    Although listed in some publications as an activity associated with silica (quartz) exposure, agriculture is not widely recognized as an industry with a potential for silica associated diseases. Because so many people work in agriculture; and because silica exposure and silicosis are associated with serious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), particular in those immunological compromised by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), silica exposure in agriculture is potentially very important. But in South Africa (SA) very little is known about silica exposure in this industry. The objectives of this project are: (a) to measure inhalable and respirable dust and its quartz content on two typical sandy soil farms in the Free State province of SA for all major tasks done on the farms; and (b) to characterise the mineralogy soil type of these farms. Two typical farms in the sandy soil region of the Free State province were studied. The potential health effects faced by these farm workers from exposure to respirable crystalline silica are discussed.

  12. Analysis of licensed South African diagnostic imaging equipment

    PubMed Central

    Kabongo, Joseph Mwamba; Nel, Susan; Pitcher, Richard Denys

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Objective To conduct an analysis of all registered South Africa (SA) diagnostic radiology equipment, assess the number of equipment units per capita by imaging modality, and compare SA figures with published international data, in preparation for the introduction of national health insurance (NHI) in SA. Methods The SA Radiation Control Board's database of registered diagnostic radiology equipment was analysed by modality, province and healthcare sector. Access to services was reflected as number of units/million population, and compared with published international data. Results General X-ray units are the most equitably distributed and accessible resource (34.8/million). For fluoroscopy (6.6/million), mammography (4.96/million), computed tomography (5.0/million) and magnetic resonance imaging (2.9/million), there are at least 10-fold discrepancies between the least and best resourced provinces. Although SA's overall imaging capacity is well above that of other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, it is lower than that of all Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). While SA's radiological resources most closely approximate those of the United Kingdom, they are substantially lower than the UK. Conclusion SA access to radiological services is lower than that of any OECD country. For the NHI to achieve equitable access to diagnostic imaging for all citizens, SA will need a more homogeneous distribution of specialised radiological resources and customized imaging guidelines. PMID:26834910

  13. Modelling New Particle Formation Events in the South African Savannah

    SciTech Connect

    Gierens, Rosa; Laakso, Lauri; Mogensen, Ditte; Vakkari, Ville; Beukes, J. P.; Van Zyl, Pieter; Hakola, H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Pienaar, J. J.; Boy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Africa is one of the less studied continents with respect to atmospheric aerosols. Savannahs are complex dynamic systems sensitive to climate and land-use changes, but the interaction with the atmosphere is not well understood. Atmospheric particles, aka aerosols, affect the climate on regional and global scale, and are an important factor in air quality. In this study measurements from a relatively clean savannah environment in South Africa were used to model new particle formation and growth. There are already some combined long-term measurements of trace gas concentrations together with aerosol and meteorological variables available, but to our knowledge this is the first time detailed simulations, that include all the main processes relevant to particle formation, were done. The results show that both investigated particle formation mechanisms overestimated the formation rates dependency on sulphuric acid. The approach including low volatile organic compounds to the particle formation process was more accurate in describing the nucleation events. To get reliable estimation of aerosol concentration in simulations for larger scales, nucleation mechanisms would need to include organic compounds, at least in southern Africa.

  14. Clifford Malcolm: glimpses of his South African legacy of hope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Nadaraj; Ramsuran, Anitha; Dhunpath, Rubby

    2008-09-01

    This article reviews the contributions of Cliff Malcolm while in South Africa during the period 1997-2005. It focuses on his contribution to the fields of science education, teacher education, learner-centered education, transformational outcomes-based education and HIV/AIDS education. In this paper we provide snapshots of his work as an academic, researcher, writer and humanist as he attempted to redefine scientific literacy to acknowledge the primacy of context and culture as mediating influences on meaningful learning, especially in rural communities. We make brief reference to his use of the Foucauldian conception of power to articulate the complementarity of power and energy as an expression of agency and action, the ultimate goal of a relevant science education. An important aspect of his empirical work with research units, universities and schools, was promoting an awareness of the foundational value of learner centred education which acknowledged the child as a `collective self' rather than an `autonomous self' as derived from the Western canon. Critical of imposing Western conceptions of science on Africa, he appropriates the indigenous concept of `ubuntu,' to demonstrate the danger of dichotomising and essentialising scientific truth while simultaneously marginalising indigenous knowledges.

  15. Systematic review: antihypertensive drug therapy in patients of African and South Asian ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Lizzy M; van Montfrans, Gert A; Oehlers, Glenn P; Seedat, Yackoob K

    2016-04-01

    Despite the large differences in the epidemiology of hypertension across Europe, treatment strategies are similar for national populations of white European descent. However, hypertensive patients of African or South Asian ethnicity may require ethnic-specific approaches, as these population subgroups tend to have higher blood pressure at an earlier age that is more difficult to control, a higher occurrence of diabetes, and more target organ damage with earlier cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the evidence on antihypertensive drug treatment in South Asian and African ethnicity patients. We used the Cochrane systematic review methodology to retrieve trials in electronic databases including CENTRAL, PubMed, and Embase from their inception through November 2015; and with handsearch. We retrieved 4596 reports that yielded 35 trials with 7 classes of antihypertensive drugs in 25,540 African ethnicity patients. Aside from the well-known blood pressure efficacy of calcium channel blockers and diuretics, with lesser effect of ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers, nebivolol was not more effective than placebo in reducing systolic blood pressure levels. Trials with morbidity and mortality outcomes indicated that lisinopril and losartan-based therapy were associated with a greater incidence of stroke and sudden death. Furthermore, 1581 reports yielded 16 randomized controlled trials with blood pressure outcomes in 1719 South Asian hypertensive patients. In contrast with the studies in African ethnicity patients, there were no significant differences in blood pressure lowering efficacy between drugs, and no trials available with mortality outcomes. In conclusion, in patients of African ethnicity, treatment initiated with ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker monotherapy was associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We found no evidence of different efficacy of antihypertensive drugs in South Asians, but there is a need for trials

  16. Justice and justiciability: advancing solidarity and justice through South Africans' right to health jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Forman, Lisa

    2008-09-01

    The South African Constitutional Court's jurisprudence provides a path-breaking illustration of the social justice potential of an enforceable right to health. It challenges traditional objections to social rights by showing that their enforcement need not be democratically unsound or make zero-sum claims on limited resources. Indeed the South African experience suggests that enforcing health rights may in fact contribute to greater degrees of collective solidarity and justice as the Court has sought to ensure that the basic needs of the poor are not unreasonably restricted by competing public and private interests. This approach has seen the Court adopt a novel fights paradigm which locates individual civil and social rights within a communitarian framework drawing from the traditional African notion of'ubuntu', denoting collective solidarity, humaneness and mutual responsibilities to recognize the respect, dignity and value of all members of society. Yet this jurisprudence also illustrates the limits of litigation as a tool of social transformation, and of social rights that remain embedded in ideological baggage even where they have been constitutionally entrenched and enforced. This paper explores the Constitutional Court's unfolding jurisprudence on the right to health, providing background to the constitutional entrenchment of a justiciable right to health; exploring early Constitutional Court jurisprudence on this right; turning to the forceful application of this right in relation to government policy on AIDS treatment; and concluding with thoughts about the strengths and limits of this jurisprudence in light of subsequent case-law.

  17. Surgical anatomy of the pudendal nerve and its branches in South Africans.

    PubMed

    van der Walt, S; Oettlé, A C; Patel, H R H

    2015-07-01

    Dissection of the pudendal nerve (PN) and its branches in 71 cadavers revealed anatomic variations not previously described. Knowledge of this variation is necessary to prevent nerve injury resulting in sexual of sensory dysfunction. Because descriptions vary, this study re-evaluated the anatomy of the PN as implicated in perineal procedures in South Africans. The course of the PN from the gluteal region into the perineum was dissected in an adult sample of both sexes and of African and European ancestry. Distances between PN and branches to applicable landmarks were measured. Basic descriptive statistics and comparisons were carried out between groups. In 5/13 African females, the inferior rectal nerve (IRN) entered the gluteal region separately and in 12/13 cases it passed medial to the ischial spine with the PN. The dorsal nerve of the clitoris or penis (DNC/DNP) was closer to the bony frame in those of European ancestry. The IRN branches were more superficial in females, but deeper in males of European ancestry. In African females, a PN block and Richter stitch should be placed more medial. Outside-in transobturator tape procedures might endanger the DNC/DNP in obese individuals. In females of European ancestry the IRN branches are compromised during ischioanal abscess drainage. In males of European ancestry, the dorsal penile nerve block might be less effective. Predictions should be verified clinically.

  18. Prenatal exposure to manganese in South African coastal communities.

    PubMed

    Röllin, Halina B; Kootbodien, Tahira; Theodorou, Penny; Odland, Jon Ø

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to environmental sources and altered physiological processes of manganese uptake during pregnancy and its possible effect on prenatal and postnatal development are of concern. This study investigates manganese blood levels at the time of delivery across four cohorts of pregnant women residing in coastal communities of South Africa and examines birth outcomes and environmental factors that could influence manganese levels in the study population. The geometric mean (GM) manganese blood levels (MnB) for all women at delivery was 15.2 μg L(-1). Collectively, rural women reported higher MnB concentrations (GM, 16.1 μg L(-1)) than urban women (GM, 13.5 μg L(-1), p < 0.001). Of the 302 cord blood samples drawn from the study participants (rural women only), GM MnB levels reported for three rural sites were 25.8 μg L(-1) (Rural 1), 33.4 μg L(-1) (Rural 2) and 43.0 μg L(-1) (Rural 3) and were twice as high as their respective maternal levels. However, no significant correlations were found between maternal and cord MnB levels across the 3 study areas. Factors associated with elevated maternal MnB levels, after adjusting for gestational age were: women living in a rural area (Rural 2) (p = 0.021); women drinking potable water from an outdoor/communal tap sourced from municipality (p = 0.021); drinking water from river/stream (p = 0.036); younger maternal age (p = 0.026); consuming leafy vegetables once a week (p = 0.034); and elevated maternal blood lead concentrations (PbB) (p = 0.002). The results indicate that MnB concentration in rural women during pregnancy is higher compared to urban women and increases with manganese intake from food and water.

  19. Modelling new particle formation events in the South African savannah

    SciTech Connect

    Gierens, Rosa; Laakso, Lauri; Mogensen, Ditte; Vakkari, Ville; Buekes, Johan P.; Van Zyl, Pieter; Hakola, H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Pienaar, J. J.; Boy, Michael

    2014-05-28

    Africa is one of the less studied continents with respect to atmospheric aerosols. Savannahs are complex dynamic systems sensitive to climate and land-use changes, but the interaction of these systems with the atmosphere is not well understood. Atmospheric particles, called aerosols, affect the climate on regional and global scales, and are an important factor in air quality. In this study, measurements from a relatively clean savannah environment in South Africa were used to model new particle formation and growth. There already are some combined long-term measurements of trace gas concentrations together with aerosol and meteorological variables available, but to our knowledge this is the first detailed simulation that includes all the main processes relevant to particle formation. The results show that both of the particle formation mechanisms investigated overestimated the dependency of the formation rates on sulphuric acid. From the two particle formation mechanisms tested in this work, the approach that included low volatile organic compounds to the particle formation process was more accurate in describing the nucleation events than the approach that did not. To obtain a reliable estimate of aerosol concentration in simulations for larger scales, nucleation mechanisms would need to include organic compounds, at least in southern Africa. This work is the first step in developing a more comprehensive new particle formation model applicable to the unique environment in southern Africa. Such a model will assist in better understanding and predicting new particle formation – knowledge which could ultimately be used to mitigate impacts of climate change and air quality.

  20. New Partnerships for a New Era: Enhancing the South African Army’s Stabilization Role in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ii ***** The author would like to thank the South Africa Army Vision 2020 team and the leadership of the South...Army, have made a considerable contribution to efforts to bring peace and stability to the African continent. A critical step in building a capable... build stronger and more con- structive ties between the United States and South Africa. President Obama’s international popularity is arguably

  1. Using Decision Tree Analysis to Understand Foundation Science Student Performance. Insight Gained at One South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Nicola Frances; Dempster, Edith Roslyn

    2014-01-01

    The Foundation Programme of the Centre for Science Access at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa provides access to tertiary science studies to educationally disadvantaged students who do not meet formal faculty entrance requirements. The low number of students proceeding from the programme into mainstream is of concern, particularly…

  2. Introducing E-Learning in a South African Higher Education Institution: Challenges Arising from an Intervention and Possible Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharuthram, Sharita; Kies, Carolynn

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on research conducted at a tertiary institution in South Africa as part of the redesigning of an English for Educational Development (EED) course to include an e-learning online discussion component. The subject material used was based on HIV/AIDS topics that students had to debate within an online discussion forum. Framed by…

  3. Microbial Profile of Corneal Ulcers in a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Ranjini, Chittur Y.; Waddepally, Vishnu V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the prevalence and microbial profile of infectious keratitis in a tertiary eye care hospital, and to test for the in vitro antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial isolates. Methods: A total of 312 patients presenting to a tertiary eye care hospital with infected corneal ulcer were enrolled in this study. Their socio-demographic data and risk factors were recorded. Corneal scrapings collected from the edge of the ulcer were processed for direct gram stain and KOH mount. Culture was recovered on blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey agar and Sabouraud's dextrose (SDA) agar in multiple C shaped streaks. After overnight incubation, bacterial culture was followed by standard biochemical tests and antimicrobial sensitivity according to the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) guidelines. Inoculated SDA was inspected daily for up to 10 days and the growth was identified by its colony morphology, pigment production and lacto-phenol cotton blue mount examination. Results: Of 312 patients, a microbial etiology was established in 117 cases (37.5%). Of these, 72 (61.5%) were male. The age range of 41-60 years was the most affected group. Of 117 positive cases, 52 (44.5%) were bacterial, 58 (49.5%) were fungal and 7 (6%) patients showed mixed bacterial and fungal infection. The most common isolated fungus was Fusarium which was detected in 36 (31%) cases, followed by Aspergillus spp in 13 (11%) subjects. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated bacteria. All Gram positive cocci were susceptible to vancomycin followed by gatifloxacin, whereas all Gram negative bacilli were susceptible to gatifloxacin. Conclusion: Routine microbiological examination of patients with corneal ulcer is necessary in order to analyze and compare the changing trends of the etiology and their susceptibility patterns. PMID:27994804

  4. An Exploratory Study of Staff Capture at the South African Inspectorate of Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Steven

    2012-01-01

    When prison inspectorates are co-opted or “captured” by those they are monitoring, their ability to bring transparency, accountability, and a human rights culture to prisons becomes harder. Using survey data from 102 staff at the South African Judicial Inspectorate of Prisons (JIOP), this exploratory study measured the severity of staff capture (i.e. they were not protecting the exclusive interests of prisoners) and potential correlates of capture. Overall, study participants exhibited significant levels of capture with Ordinary Least Squares regression indicating higher levels of capture among staff that were African, thought about someday working for the Department of Correctional Services, felt powerless when prison officials ignored them, and if prison officials respected their work (p’s < .05). Length of JIOP employment was not associated with capture. These findings suggest that the JIOP’s policy of not renewing many staffs’ three year contracts could ironically be putting them at risk for capture. PMID:22581999

  5. The role of public schools in HIV prevention: perspectives from African Americans in the rural South.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Stacey W; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha

    2012-02-01

    Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates of HIV infection with marked racial disparities. Focus group discussions explored participant views on contributors to the elevated rates of HIV and resources available to reduce transmission. Participants consistently identified the public schools' sex education policies and practices as major barriers toward preventing HIV infection among youth in their community. Ideas for decreasing youth's risk of HIV included public schools providing access to health services and sex education. Policymakers, school administrators, and other stakeholders should consider the public school setting as a place to provide HIV prevention education for youth in rural areas.

  6. Understanding teenage pregnancy in a post-apartheid South African township.

    PubMed

    Mkhwanazi, Nolwazi

    2010-05-01

    Although South Africa's total fertility rate is one of the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, high rates of early childbearing remain a concern. Most teenage pregnancies occur among poor black and coloured South Africans. The majority of these pregnancies are said to be unwanted and unplanned and the teenager's relationships, unstable. Becoming a mother during one's teenage years is perceived to be socially, economically and physically deleterious for the teenager and her baby. This paper presents ethnographic data collected over a five-year period in the South African township of Nyanga East in the Western Cape. It draws attention to the circumstances that surround teenage pregnancy and discusses reactions to teenage pregnancies in this community. Findings highlight that despite the negative perception of teenage pregnancy within the township, particular social and cultural circumstances provided fertile ground for its occurrence. Furthermore, the paper argues that in this particular community the management of a teenage pregnancy played a functional and critical role in maintaining and reproducing social norms and ideals regarding intergenerational relationships, which ultimately ensured that the rates of early childbearing remained high.

  7. Current management for word finding difficulties by speech-language therapists in South African remedial schools.

    PubMed

    de Rauville, Ingrid; Chetty, Sandhya; Pahl, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Word finding difficulties frequently found in learners with language learning difficulties (Casby, 1992) are an integral part of Speech-Language Therapists' management role when working with learning disabled children. This study investigated current management for word finding difficulties by 70 Speech-Language Therapists in South African remedial schools. A descriptive survey design using a quantitative and qualitative approach was used. A questionnaire and follow-up focus group discussion were used to collect data. Results highlighted the use of the Renfrew Word Finding Scale (Renfrew, 1972, 1995) as the most frequently used formal assessment tool. Language sample analysis and discourse analysis were the most frequently used informal assessment procedures. Formal intervention programmes were generally not used. Phonetic, phonemic or phonological cueing were the most frequently used therapeutic strategies. The authors note strengths and raise concerns about current management for word finding difficulties in South African remedial schools, particularly in terms of bilingualism. Opportunities are highlighted regarding the development of assessment and intervention measures relevant to the diverse learning disabled population in South Africa.

  8. South African herbal teas: Aspalathus linearis, Cyclopia spp. and Athrixia phylicoides--a review.

    PubMed

    Joubert, E; Gelderblom, W C A; Louw, A; de Beer, D

    2008-10-28

    Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Brum.f) Dahlg.) and honeybush (Cyclopia Vent. species) are popular indigenous South African herbal teas enjoyed for their taste and aroma. Traditional medicinal uses of rooibos in South Africa include alleviation of infantile colic, allergies, asthma and dermatological problems, while a decoction of honeybush was used as a restorative and as an expectorant in chronic catarrh and pulmonary tuberculosis. Traditional medicinal uses of Athrixia phylicoides DC., or bush tea, another indigenous South African plant with very limited localised use as herbal tea, include treatment of boils, acne, infected wounds and infected throats. Currently rooibos and honeybush are produced for the herbal tea market, while bush tea has potential for commercialisation. A summary of the historical and modern uses, botany, distribution, industry and chemical composition of these herbal teas is presented. A comprehensive discussion of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo biological properties, required to expand their applications as nutraceutical and cosmeceutical products, is included, with the main emphasis on rooibos. Future research needs include more comprehensive chemical characterisation of extracts, identification of marker compounds for extract standardisation and quality control, bioavailability and identification of bio-markers of dietary exposure, investigation of possible herb-drug interactions and plant improvement with regards to composition and bioactivity.

  9. Cancer perceptions of South African mothers and daughters: implications for health promotion programs.

    PubMed

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Simon, Christian; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-09-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. A major reason why women do not obtain cancer screening procedures relates to the high levels of fear associated with cancer. In this study, we explored South African mothers' and daughters' reaction to the word "cancer" specifically. The study sample included 157 randomly selected mother and adolescent daughter pairs from an urban community in Cape Town, South Africa. Mothers and their adolescent daughters had very similar responses to the term "cancer." We found that most South African mothers and daughters had a fear-based attitude toward the illness. When we asked mothers what they immediately thought of upon hearing "cancer," a majority of women (69%) thought of death, and another 43% thought of suffering and the detrimental consequences of the illness. Similarly, 50% of the daughters also thought of death, and 42% thought of the detrimental aspects of cancer. Fatalistic attitudes and negative emotional reactions have important implications in cancer prevention and need to be addressed within a public health context.

  10. The role of ancestry in TB susceptibility of an admixed South African population.

    PubMed

    Daya, Michelle; van der Merwe, Lize; van Helden, Paul D; Möller, Marlo; Hoal, Eileen G

    2014-07-01

    Genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) has been well established and this, taken together with variation in susceptibility observed between different geographic and ethnic populations, implies that susceptibility to TB may in part be affected by ethnicity. In a previous genome-wide TB case-control study (642 cases and 91 controls) of the admixed South African Coloured (SAC) population, we found a positive correlation between African San ancestry and TB susceptibility, and negative correlations with European and Asian ancestries. Since genome-wide data was available for only a small number of controls in the previous study, we endeavored to validate this finding by genotyping a panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) in additional individuals, yielding a data set of 918 cases and 507 controls. Ancestry proportions were estimated using the AIMs for each of the source populations of the SAC (African San, African non-San, European, South Asian and East Asian). Using logistic regression models to test for association between TB and ancestry, we confirmed the substantial effect of ancestry on TB susceptibility. We also investigated the effect of adjusting for ancestry in candidate gene TB association studies of the SAC. We report a polymorphism that is no longer significantly associated with TB after adjustment for ancestry, a polymorphism that is significantly associated with TB only after adjustment for ancestry, and a polymorphism where the association significance remains unchanged. By comparing the allele frequencies of these polymorphisms in the source populations of the SAC, we demonstrate that association results are likely to be affected by adjustment for ancestry if allele frequencies differ markedly in the source populations of the SAC.

  11. Morphometric variation in the papionin muzzle and the biochronology of the South African Plio-Pleistocene karst cave deposits.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher C; Grine, Frederick E

    2010-03-01

    Papionin monkeys are widespread, relatively common members of Plio-Pleistocene faunal assemblages across Africa. For these reasons, papionin taxa have been used as biochronological indicators by which to infer the ages of the South African karst cave deposits. A recent morphometric study of South African fossil papionin muzzle shape concluded that its variation attests to a substantial and greater time depth for these sites than is generally estimated. This inference is significant, because accurate dating of the South African cave sites is critical to our knowledge of hominin evolution and mammalian biogeographic history. We here report the results of a comparative analysis of extant papionin monkeys by which variability of the South African fossil papionins may be assessed. The muzzles of 106 specimens representing six extant papionin genera were digitized and interlandmark distances were calculated. Results demonstrate that the overall amount of morphological variation present within the fossil assemblage fits comfortably within the range exhibited by the extant sample. We also performed a statistical experiment to assess the limitations imposed by small sample sizes, such as typically encountered in the fossil record. Results suggest that 15 specimens are sufficient to accurately represent the population mean for a given phenotype, but small sample sizes are insufficient to permit the accurate estimation of the population standard deviation, variance, and range. The suggestion that the muzzle morphology of fossil papionins attests to a considerable and previously unrecognized temporal depth of the South African karst cave sites is unwarranted.

  12. Targeted high-throughput growth hormone 1 gene sequencing reveals high within-breed genetic diversity in South African goats.

    PubMed

    Ncube, K T; Mdladla, K; Dzomba, E F; Muchadeyi, F C

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the genetic diversity in the growth hormone 1 gene (GH1) within and between South African goat breeds. Polymerase chain reaction-targeted gene amplification together with Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to generate the full length (2.54 kb) of the growth hormone 1 gene and screen for SNPs in the South African Boer (SAB) (n = 17), Tankwa (n = 15) and South African village (n = 35) goat populations. A range of 27-58 SNPs per population were observed. Mutations resulting in amino acid changes were observed at exons 2 and 5. Higher within-breed diversity of 97.37% was observed within the population category consisting of SA village ecotypes and the Tankwa goats. Highest pairwise FST values ranging from 0.148 to 0.356 were observed between the SAB and both the South African village and Tankwa feral goat populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated nine genetic clusters, which reflected close relationships between the South African populations and the other international breeds with the exception of the Italian Sarda breeds. Results imply greater potential for within-population selection programs, particularly with SA village goats.

  13. Biomass and productivity of fishes in estuaries: a South African case study.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, A K

    2016-10-01

    Estuaries are well known for their role as nutrient and detrital sinks that stimulate high levels of both primary and secondary production which, in turn, support a large biomass of fishes per unit area. This study reviews available information on coastal fish biomasses (g m(-2) wet mass) and productivity (g m(-2) wet mass year(-1) ) in order to place South African data on these topics into a global perspective. Using biogeographic fish productivity estimates, together with estuarine water area, the approximate annual teleost production in South African estuaries was calculated at 585, 1706 and 13 904 t in the cool temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. Total annual fish production in estuaries on the subcontinent is conservatively estimated at 16 195 t, but this figure is likely to fluctuate widely, depending on recruitment success and annual environmental conditions pertaining to these systems. Approximately 2000 t of fish are estimated to be harvested by fishing activities in South African estuaries each year, which represents c. 12% of annual fish production. Although this figure may appear sustainable, the reality is that there are a few heavily targeted estuary-associated marine species at the top of the food chain that are being overexploited by both anglers and subsistence fishermen. Natural mortalities due to piscivorous fish and bird predation has been estimated at c. 3% of total fish biomass per month in the East Kleinemonde Estuary, but this figure will vary considerably depending on bird abundance and foraging patterns along the coast. In contrast to catches made by the fishermen, piscivorous fishes and birds are targeting mainly juvenile marine fish and small estuarine resident species that are very abundant and generally low down in the food web.

  14. Stature estimation from the femur and tibia in Black South African sub-adults.

    PubMed

    Brits, Desiré M; Bidmos, Mubarak A; Manger, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    Stature estimation can play a role in the positive identification of unknown individuals and as such it is routinely assessed during the examination of adult remains. Unfortunately, this is not a standard procedure when dealing with sub-adult remains due to the general lack of standard procedures for the estimation of sub-adult stature. The aim of this study was therefore to derive regression equations for the estimation of stature in black South African sub-adults. Fifty nine black South African sub-adult males and females, aged 10-17 years, voluntarily participated in the study by undergoing a full body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan. Living stature was measured with a stadiometer and the maximum and diaphyseal lengths of the femur and tibia were measured from the MRI scans using the image processing software OsiriX. Pearson's correlation coefficients and linear least square regression analyses were used to assess the correlations between living stature and the measurements and to generate sub-adult stature estimation equations for males, females and a combined sex sample. Measurements of the femur, tibia and the combined measures thereof showed strong statistically significant positive correlations with living stature, while the obtained regression equations were characterized by low standard error of estimates. The strong correlations and low standard error of estimates are comparable to stature estimation models reported for Black South African adults and therefore these variables can be considered good estimators of sub-adult stature which will contribute valuable information to the biological profile of unidentified sub-adult skeletal remains.

  15. Carotid characteristics of black South Africans with five-year sustained hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Maritz, Melissa; Fourie, Carla MT; van Rooyen, Johannes M; Huisman, Hugo W; Schutte, Aletta E; Schutte, Aletta E

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction An important feature of hypertension is a reduction in large artery distensibility, which may be due to structural and functional adaptations. Black populations are particularly prone to the development of hypertension. We therefore compared the carotid characteristics between fiveyear sustained hypertensive and normotensive black South Africans, and investigated how carotid characteristics relate to cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammation, endothelial activation and health behaviours. Methods We included HIV-free black South Africans who were either consistently hypertensive (n = 351) or normotensive (n = 241) from 2005 to 2010. We assessed carotid characteristics, including intima–media thickness (IMT), distensibility and lumen diameter with B-mode ultrasound, and calculated Young’s elastic modulus, cross-sectional wall area and beta-stiffness index. We measured the carotid dorsalis pedis pulse-wave velocity, brachial and central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) and determined metabolic, inflammatory and endothelial activation markers from blood samples. Health behaviours were reported in questionnaires. Results The hypertensive group presented with higher brachial and central blood pressure, thicker IMT and stiffer carotid arteries (all p < 0.001). However, after adjustment for cSBP but not mean arterial pressure (MAP), all significant differences in carotid characteristics were lost. The carotid thickness measurements did not differ after adjustment for MAP. After adjustment, metabolic, inflammatory and endothelial activation markers did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion Our results suggest that besides structural changes, functional adaptations are also involved in deterioration of the carotid wall characteristics of hypertensive black South Africans. These results highlight the importance of proper hypertension control in Africa. PMID:27841914

  16. Racial and nonracial discrimination and smoking status among South African adults ten years after apartheid

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite a long history of discrimination and persisting racial disparities in smoking prevalence, little research exists on the relationship between discrimination and smoking in South Africa. Methods This analysis examined chronic (day to day) and acute (lifetime) experiences of racial and nonracial (e.g., age, gender, or physical appearance) discrimination and smoking status among respondents to the South Africa Stress and Health Study (SASH). Logistic regression models were constructed using SAS-Callable SUDAAN. Results Both chronic racial discrimination (RR=1.45, 95%CI: 1.14–1.85) and chronic nonracial discrimination (RR=1.69, 95%CI: 1.37–2.08) predicted a higher risk of smoking, but neither type of acute discrimination did. Total (sum of racial and nonracial) chronic discrimination (RR=1.46, 95%CI: 1.20–1.78) and total acute discrimination (RR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.01–1.60) predicted a higher risk of current smoking. Conclusions Racial and nonracial discrimination may be related to South African adults’ smoking behavior, but this relationship likely varies by the timing and frequency of these experiences. Future research should use longitudinal data to identify the temporal ordering of the relationships studied, include areas outside of South Africa to increase generalizability, and consider the implications of these findings for smoking cessation approaches in South Africa. PMID:24789604

  17. A review of Tertiary climate changes in southern South America and the Antarctic Peninsula. Part 2: continental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, J. P.

    2012-03-01

    Climate changes in southern South America and the Antarctic Peninsula during the Tertiary show a strong correlation with ocean warming and cooling events, which are in turn related to tectonic processes. During periods of accelerated sea-floor spreading and mid-ocean ridge activity, sea-levels rose so that parts of the continents were flooded and forests were destroyed. However, this was balanced by the large-scale release of CO2 during volcanic outgassing and carbonate precipitation on the continental shelves, which caused rising air temperatures and the poleward expansion of (sub)tropical and temperate forests. Cooling episodes generally caused an increase in the north-south thermal gradient because of an equatorward shift in climate belts, so that the Westerly Winds intensified and brought higher rainfall to the lower latitudes. An increase in wind-blown dust caused temperatures to drop further by reflecting sunlight back into space. The rising Andes Range had a marked influence on climate patterns. Up to the middle Miocene it was still low enough to allow summer rainfall to reach central and north-central Chile, but after about 14 Ma it rose rapidly and effectively blocked the spill-over of moisture from the Atlantic Ocean and Amazon Basin. At this time, the cold Humboldt Current was also established, which together with the Andes helped to create the "Arid Diagonal" of southern South America stretching from the Atacama Desert to the dry steppes of Patagonia. This caused the withdrawal of subtropical forests to south-central Chile and the expansion of sclerophytic vegetation to central Chile. However, at the same time it intercepted more rain from the northeast, causing the effect of the South American monsoon to intensify in northwestern Argentina and southern Bolivia, where forest communities presently occur. In Patagonia, glaciation started as early as 10.5 Ma, but by 7 Ma had become a prominent feature of the landscape and continued apparently

  18. Drinking in the Context of Life Stressors: A Multidimensional Coping Strategy among South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Karmel W.; Watt, Melissa H.; MacFarlane, Jessica C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored narratives of drinking as a coping strategy among female drinkers in a South African township. In 2010–11, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 54 women recruited from 12 alcohol-serving venues. Most women drank heavily and linked their drinking to stressors. They were motivated to use drinking to manage their emotions, facilitate social engagement, and achieve a sense of empowerment, even while recognizing the limitations of this strategy. This study helps to contextualize heavy drinking behavior among women in this setting. Multifaceted interventions that help female drinkers to more effectively manage stressors may aid in reducing hazardous drinking. PMID:23905586

  19. Career decision-making self-efficacy of South African high school boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Mark C; Watson, Mark B; Foxcroft, Cheryl D; Patton, Wendy

    2004-04-01

    Social cognitive career theory suggests that males and females may not differ in career decision-making self-efficacy, but this statement requires extension of research to high school samples. The Career Decision-making Self-efficacy Scale-Short Form was administered to white South African high school students in Grades 9 to 11, of whom 368 were boys and 494 girls. No significant sex differences were found, suggesting that career interventions based on social cognitive career theory in high school need not be sex-specific in content.

  20. A comparison of Nd isotopes in seawater and authigenic sediments from the South African Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. M.; Goldstein, S. L.; Hemming, S. R.; Murthy, P.; Hall, I.; Zahn, R.

    2008-12-01

    The neodymium isotopic composition of marine archives is an exciting paleocirculation tracer with the potential to provide information on changes in ocean circulation during periods of drastically different climate. An outstanding question that this tracer may help to answer is how the vertical structure of the ocean has changed through time. With this goal in mind we analyzed seawater and leachates of authigenic core-tops sediments from the South African margin, essentially creating depth profiles for seawater and modern sediments for this margin, which can be directly compared. We use this to evaluate the suitability of using leachates of authigenic sediments to recreate the water mass distribution along this margin, where NADW is exported out of the Atlantic system, through time. We report Nd isotopes in two seawater depth profiles as well as in authigenic leachates of multiple sediment core-tops collected from depths ranging between 1010m and 3706m. The core locations span nearly the entire South African margin, from near Durbin to near Cape Town, and the locations of the seawater profiles fall within this span. The seawater profiles show low ɛNd values (ɛNd ~ - 13.5) in the near surface Agulhas Current waters, then trend toward higher values (ɛNd ~ -9) at intermediate depths where waters represent mainly AAIW. The ɛNd values in deep waters show a minimum (ɛNd ~ -12) at depths of the core of NADW (depth ~2500m) then trend toward higher values, with a maximum of -10.5 in the deepest sample (~3600m), which is a NADW-AABW mixture. Some simple calculations show that these profiles are consistent with mixtures of the major end-member water masses present at this location. The Nd isotope ratios of the core-top leachates range in ɛNd from -14 to -9. Some core-top leachates do not match seawater measurements from the same depth, with a maximum deviation of nearly 4 ɛ-units at a depth of 1000m near the Tugela River cone. However, when sediment cores located near

  1. Occupational lung disease in the South African mining industry: research and policy implementation.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jill; Davies, Tony; Rees, David

    2011-01-01

    South African miners face an epidemic of occupational lung diseases. Despite a plethora of research on the mining industry, and the gold mining industry in particular, research impact (including disease surveillance) on policy implementation and occupational health systems performance lags. We describe the gold mining environment, and research on silicosis, tuberculosis, HIV and AIDS, and compensation for occupational disease including initiatives to influence policy and thus reduce dust levels and disease. As these have been largely unsuccessful, we identify possible impediments, some common to other low- and middle-income countries, to the translation of research findings and policy initiatives into effective interventions.

  2. The structure of submicron ash from combustion of pulverized South African and Colombian coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kauppinen, E.I.; Lind, T.M.; Valmarui, T.; Ylaetalo, S.; Jokiniemi, J.K.; Powell, Q.; Gurav, A.S.; Kodas, T.T.; Mohr, M.

    1996-12-31

    The formation of submicron ash particles during the utility-scale pulverized combustion of South African Klein Kopie and Colombian El Dorado coals was studied by measuring the ash particle number and mass size distributions in the size range 0.01--1 {micro}m upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Ash morphology, composition and microstructure were studied by high resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM and TEM). The authors propose new mechanisms for the formation of submicron agglomerated ash particles in pulverized coal-fired boiler flames.

  3. Early Tertiary Age of Pitchstone in the Northern Black Hills, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redden, Jack A.; Obradovich, John D.; Naeser, Charles W.; Zartman, Robert E.; Norton, James J.

    1983-06-01

    A block of pitchstone in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota, is Paleocene in age, according to potassium-argon dating of biotite and fission-track dating of zircon in the sample. These data invalidate published suggestions that the age is much younger. The pitchstone is not extrusive in its present position but instead is in a volcanic pipe with other fragments that came downward from as much as 1100 meters above the modern surface.

  4. The African swine fever control zone in South Africa and its current relevance.

    PubMed

    Magadla, Noluvuyo R; Vosloo, Wilna; Heath, Livio; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-05-23

    African swine fever (ASF) has been reported in South Africa since the early 20th century. The disease has been controlled and confined to northern South Africa over the past 80 years by means of a well-defined boundary line, with strict control measures and movement restrictions north of this line. In 2012, the first outbreak of ASF outside the ASF control zone since 1996 occurred. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current relevance of the ASF control line as a demarcation line between endemic ASF (north) areas and ASF-free (south) area and to determine whether there was a need to realign its trajectory, given the recent outbreaks of ASF, global climate changes and urban development since the line's inception. A study of ASF determinants was conducted in an area 20 km north and 20 km south of the ASF control line, in Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West and Gauteng provinces between May 2008 and September 2012. The study confirmed that warthogs, warthog burrows and the soft tick reservoir, Ornithodoros moubata, are present south of the ASF control line, but no virus or viral DNA was detected in these ticks. There appears to be an increasing trend in the diurnal maximum temperature and a decrease in humidity along the line, but the impact of these changes is uncertain. No discernible changes in minimum temperatures and average rainfall along the disease control line were observed between 1992 and 2014. Even though the reservoirs were found south of the ASF boundary line, the study concluded that there was no need to realign the trajectory of the ASF disease control line, with the exception of Limpopo Province. However, the provincial surveillance programmes for the reservoir, vector and ASF virus south of this line needs to be maintained and intensified as changing farming practices may favour the spread of ASF virus beyond the control line.

  5. Molecular characterization of Babesia and Cytauxzoon species in wild South-African meerkats.

    PubMed

    Leclaire, Sarah; Menard, Sandie; Berry, Antoine

    2015-04-01

    Piroplasms, including Babesia, Cytauxzoon and Theileria species, frequently infect domestic and wild mammals. At present, there is no information on the occurrence and molecular identity of these tick-borne blood parasites in the meerkat, one of South Africa's most endearing wildlife celebrities. Meerkats live in territorial groups, which may occur on ranchland in close proximity to humans, pets and livestock. Blood collected from 46 healthy meerkats living in the South-African Kalahari desert was screened by microscopy and molecular methods, using PCR and DNA sequencing of 18S rRNA and ITS1 genes. We found that meerkats were infected by 2 species: one species related to Babesia sp. and one species related to Cytauxzoon sp. Ninety one percent of the meerkats were infected by the Cytauxzoon and/or the Babesia species. Co-infection occurred in 46% of meerkats. The pathogenicity and vectors of these two piroplasm species remains to be determined.

  6. A descriptive analysis of South African and Islamic abortion legislation and local Muslim community responses.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Najma

    2002-01-01

    The issue of abortion has been the subject of much debate in the recent past in South Africa. Prior to 1996 abortion legislation was punitive and therefore one with which conservative Muslims could identify. Since 1996 the law has been liberalized and replaced by a new Act. The final Constitution (1996) took a neutral stance regarding abortion. The enactment of the Choice on Termination on Pregnancy Act (1996) finally ensured this right. The Act, a critical milestone for gender equality, secured all South African women (including minors) the right to make decisions about reproduction and according to their individual beliefs. Muslim organizations participated in this abortion debate making formal but opposing submissions to Parliament. These opposing views of Muslims came as no surprise and reflect the different norms of Islamic law which varies between countries and was indicative of the interpretative duality evident in most matters of Islamic law.

  7. The challenges of rescaling South African water resources management: Catchment Management Agencies and interbasin transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourblanc, Magalie; Blanchon, David

    2014-11-01

    The implementation of Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs) was supposed to be the cornerstone of the rescaling process of the South African water reform policy. Yet, less than 10 years after the adoption of the National Water Act, the process was suspended for 4 years and by 2012 only two CMAs had been established. Combining approaches in geography and political science, this paper investigates the reasons for the delays in CMAs' implementation in South Africa. It shows that the construction of interbasin transfers (IBTs) since the 1950s by the apartheid regime and nowadays the power struggles between CMAs and the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) are two of the main obstacles to the creation of CMAs planned by the 1998 National Water Act (NWA). Finally, the paper advocates taking the "hydrosocial cycle" as an analytical framework for designing new institutional arrangements that will include both rectifying the legacy of the past (the specific role of DWA) and acknowledging legitimate local interests.

  8. Correlates of Sexual Risk Among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual South African Youths

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Janan; Bogart, Laura M.; Otwombe, Kennedy N.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Nkala, Busiswe; Gray, Glenda E.

    2014-01-01

    We explored psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among heterosexual and sexual minority youths (SMYs) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Young people 16 to 18 years old (n = 822) were administered surveys assessing demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, mental health, and parent–child communication. Adjusted multivariate regressions examining correlates of sexual risk revealed that SMYs had more sexual partners than heterosexual youths (B = 3.90; SE = 0.95; P < .001) and were more likely to engage in sex trading (OR = 3.11; CI = 1.12-8.62; P < .05). South African SMYs are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. PMID:24832149

  9. Nurses, industrial action and ethics: considerations from the 2010 South African public-sector strike.

    PubMed

    van Rensburg, André J; van Rensburg, Dingie J

    2013-11-01

    Several important ethical dilemmas emerge when nurses join a public-sector strike. Such industrial action is commonplace in South Africa and was most notably illustrated by a national wage negotiation in 2010. Media coverage of the proceedings suggested unethical behaviour on the part of nurses, and further exploration is merited. Laws, policies and provisional codes are meant to guide nurses' behaviour during industrial action, while ethical theories can be used to further illuminate the role of nurses in industrial action. There are, however, important aspects to consider before judging whether nurses act unethically when striking. Following Loewy's suggestion that the nature of the work, the proceeding commitment of the nurse to the patient, the prevailing situation when the strike is planned and the person(s) who stand(s) to benefit from the strike be considered, coupled with a consideration of the South African historical socio-political context, important aspects of the ethics of nurses' behaviour in industrial action transpire.

  10. Foreign Mission Funding in South Africa. South African Information Exchange Working Paper Number 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micou, Ann McKinstry

    This volume is an update of a 1990 report that described the guidelines of various foreign governments for internal funding programs for their missions in South Africa. Of the 18 participants, 16 were the embassies of Australia, Austria, Great Britain, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands,…

  11. Human rights violations and smoking status among South African adults enrolled in the South Africa Stress and Health (SASH) study.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Gupta, Jhumka; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-03-01

    Despite South Africa's history of violent political conflict, and the link between stressful experiences and smoking in the literature, no public health study has examined South Africans' experiences of human rights violations and smoking. Using data from participants in the nationally representative cross-sectional South Africa Stress and Health study (SASH), this analysis examined the association between respondent smoking status and both human rights violations experienced by the respondent and violations experienced by the respondents' close friends and family members. SAS-Callable SUDAAN was used to construct separate log-binomial models by political affiliation during apartheid (government or liberation supporters). In comparison to those who reported no violations, in adjusted analyses, government supporters who reported violations of themselves but not others (RR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.25-2.46) had a significantly higher smoking prevalence. In comparison to liberation supporters who reported no violations, those who reported violations of self only (RR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.07-2.29), close others only (RR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.12-3.47), or violations of self and close others due to close others' political beliefs and the respondent's political beliefs (RR = 2.86, 95%CI: 1.70-4.82) had a significantly higher prevalence of smoking. The results of this analysis suggest that a relationship may exist between human rights violations and smoking among South Africa adults. Future research should use longitudinal data to assess causality, test the generalizability of these findings, and consider how to apply these findings to smoking cessation interventions.

  12. Early Menopause in Type 2 Diabetes – A Study from a South Indian Tertiary Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, T.V.D. Sasi; Rahman, Arifa; Adapa, Satya Sahi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Menopause marks the end of ovarian function and it is called ‘early’ or ‘premature’ if it occurs before 45 years. Very little is known about the menopause transition in Diabetic women. Metabolic disorders like diabetes will accelerate the reproductive ageing and determine premature ovarian failure by various mechanisms. Early menopause along with diabetes has a synergistic effect over the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and other illnesses. There is no data regarding menopausal age in Indian population. Hence, present study was aimed at understanding the age of menopause in diabetic Indian women. Materials and Methods This study was carried out at a tertiary care, teaching hospital in Southern India. Post-menopausal women who attended the Department of Medicine during August 2013 to August 2014, were included in the study. Six hundred patients were recruited by a systematic random sampling, 300 diabetic and 300 non-diabetic after obtaining their consents. They were all non-smokers, took mixed diet and other somatometric variables were similar in both the groups. Results Average age of menopause among diabetic women was 44.65 years which is much earlier than the menopause in non-diabetic women (48.2 years). Out of the 600 women, 212 women had an early menopause (<45 yrs.). Among them, 54 were non-diabetic and 158 were diabetic. Present study also revealed a higher BMI among the diabetics than the non-diabetic women. This may be due to the changes in body composition and increase in abdominal fat after menopause. This change is more in diabetics due to the disturbances in insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Conclusion The present study confirms that Type 2 Diabetes increases the risk of early menopause. The study reinforces the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of diabetes for a long term well being of a woman. PMID:26557555

  13. The Golden Lady: The Storied Life of a Multilingual Teacher and Author of Supplemental Reading Materials in a Marginalized South African Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Deborah A.; Sailors, Misty; Martinez, Miriam; Skerrett, Allison; Makalela, Leketi

    2012-01-01

    Personal narratives can be powerful venues for understanding human experiences. In this paper, we tell the story of Lutanyani, a Black South African multilingual teacher and author of supplemental reading materials in a marginalized South African language. Through various word images, we convey the role of language, in particular written language,…

  14. U.S. Professional Association Initiatives Related to Black South Africans: An Analysis and An Inventory. Information Exchange: Working Paper #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Julie D.

    The nature and level of activity among U.S. private sector groups seeking to expand educational opportunities for black South Africans is examined. The Information Exchange of the Institute of International Education (South African Programs) did research on such categories of organizations as foundations, church groups, educational institutions,…

  15. A Comparison of Faculty Dominance in U.S. and South African University Classrooms as It Relates to Cross-Cultural Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, James A.

    The South African educational system and race relations were studied in the context of effects on cross-cultural relations in the classroom. An examination of South African faculty perspectives was compared and contrasted witht U.S. faculty perspectives and was interpreted in relation to the cross-cultural relations that exist in the two…

  16. Nematodes of the small intestine of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Taylor, William A; Skinner, John D; Boomker, Joop

    2013-05-16

    The abundance and distribution of parasitic helminths in populations of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, have not been well documented. A total of 28 buffaloes of different ages and sexeswere sampled in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, for nematodes of the small intestine. Three nematode species were identified, namely Cooperia fuelleborni, Cooperia hungi and Trichostrongylus deflexus, with C. hungi being a new country record for African buffalo in South Africa. The overall prevalence was 71%and the average number of worms was 2346 (range: 0-15 980). This is a small burden for such a large mammal. Sex, age and body condition of the buffaloes had no significant effect on worm occurrence.

  17. An informatics system to support knowledge management in the health sector--the South African National Health Knowledge Network.

    PubMed

    Louw, J A; Seebregts, C J; Makgoba, W M; Fouché, B

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the planning and development of a South African national health knowledge network. The methodology is in essence based on the principles of knowledge management and the drivers of a system of innovation. The knowledge network, SA HealthInfo, aims to provide a one-stop interactive forum/resource, for quality-controlled and evidence-based health research information, to a wide spectrum of users, at various levels of aggregation, with the necessary security arrangements and facilities for interaction among users to promote explicit (codified) and tacit knowledge flow. It will therefore stimulate the process of innovation within the South African health system.

  18. Equity in Science at South African Schools: A pious platitude or an achievable goal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewnarain Ramnarain, Umesh

    2011-07-01

    The apartheid policies in South Africa had a marked influence on the accessibility and quality of school science experienced by the different race groups. African learners in particular were seriously disadvantaged in this regard. The issues of equity and redress were foremost in transformation of the education system, and the accompanying curriculum reform. This paper reports on equity in terms of equality of outputs and equality of inputs in South African school science, with a particular focus on the implementation of practical science investigations. This was a qualitative case study of two teachers on their implementation of science investigations at two schools, one a township school, previously designated for black children, and the other a former Model C school, previously reserved for white children. My study was guided by the curriculum implementation framework by Rogan and Grayson in trying to understand the practice of these teachers at schools located in contextually diverse communities. The framework helped profile the implementation of science investigations and also enabled me to explore the factors which are able to support or hinder this implementation.

  19. The South African Experience of Conservation and Social Forestry Outreach Nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botha, Jenny; Witkowski, Ed T. F.; Cock, Jacklyn

    2006-11-01

    Outreach nurseries are favored conservation and social forestry tools globally, but, as with many integrated conservation and development programs (ICDPs), they do not always produce anticipated results. A synopsis of the experience of South African practitioners is provided in this study of 65 outreach nurseries. South African outreach nurseries frequently include financial objectives, creating additional challenges in simultaneously attaining conservation and socioeconomic goals. Progress was hindered by biophysical problems (e.g., lack of water, poor soils, etc.) as well as the harsh socioeconomic conditions facing most communities in which nurseries had been established. Attaining financial viability was challenging. Business management skills were often restricted, and few viability studies included adequate market research. Costs to community participants were usually high, and benefits were limited. Conservation objectives were frequently lost in the struggle to attain financial viability. The management of social processes also proved challenging. Although small scale and relatively straightforward compared with many ICDPs, nurseries usually require substantial institutional support, including a range of technical, business, and development services. Project time frames need to be reconsidered, as practitioners estimate that it takes 5-10 years for nurseries to start meeting objectives, and donors and implementing agencies often operate on 2-3-year project cycles. Detailed viability studies are essential, incorporating a social probe and an assessment of potential impacts of projects on community participants. Progress needs to be continuously evaluated to enable institutions and community participants to adapt to changing conditions as well as ensure that the spectrum of objectives are being achieved.

  20. Skeletal height reconstruction from measurements of the skull in indigenous South Africans.

    PubMed

    Ryan, I; Bidmos, M A

    2007-03-22

    Stature reconstruction is important as it provides a forensic anthropological estimate of the height of a person in the living state; playing a vital role in the identification of individuals from their skeletal remains. Regression formulae for stature estimation have been generated for indigenous South Africans based on measurements of long bones of upper and lower extremities and the calcaneus. Since these bones are not always available for forensic analysis, it became necessary to use other bones such as the skull for stature estimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of certain measurements of the skull of indigenous South Africans in the estimation of adult stature. Ninety-nine complete skeletons obtained from the Raymond A. Dart Collection, School of Anatomical Sciences of the University of the Witwatersrand, were used. Total skeletal height (TSH) was calculated for each skeleton using the Fully's (anatomical) method. Furthermore, six variables were measured on each skull. TSH was regressed onto these cranial measurements in order to obtain regression formulae. The correlation coefficients obtained ranged between 0.40 and 0.54. The range of the standard errors of estimate from the current study (4.37 and 6.24) is high in comparison to that obtained for stature estimation based on intact long bones and the calcaneus. Therefore, the equations presented in this study should be used with caution in forensic cases when only the skull is available for human identification.

  1. Strength and Conditioning Practices of University and High School Level Cricket Coaches: A South African Context.

    PubMed

    Pote, Lee; Christie, Candice J

    2016-12-01

    Pote, L and Christie, CJ. Strength and conditioning practices of University and high school level cricket coaches: a South African context. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3464-3470, 2016-Although the sport of cricket is well established, the strength and conditioning practices of cricket players are not well known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the current strength and conditioning practices that coaches implement for South African schoolboy and University level cricket players. An online survey, adapted from previous strength and conditioning questionnaires, was sent to 38 schoolboy and 12 University teams that participated in the top competitions in the country (n = 50). Of these, 24 replied indicating a response rate of 48%. Results indicated that although some forms of conditioning, workload monitoring and injury prevention were being implemented, the correct practices were not being administered. Furthermore, it was identified that most coaches had insufficient qualifications and experience to administer the correct training techniques. It was concluded that coaches require further education so that scientifically based training programs can be implemented. This was deemed particularly necessary for adolescent bowlers who are at an increased risk of injury, specifically in the lower back region.

  2. Morphometric variations of the 7th cervical vertebrae of Zulu, White, and Colored South Africans.

    PubMed

    Kibii, Job M; Pan, Rualing; Tobias, Phillip V

    2010-05-01

    The 7th cervical vertebrae of 240 cadavers of South African Zulu, White, and Colored population groups were examined to determine morphometric variation. White and Colored females had statistically significant narrower cervical anteroposterior diameters than their male counterparts, whereas no statistically significant difference between sexes of the Zulu population group was observed in this variable. In addition, although Zulu and Colored females had statistically significant narrower cervical transverse diameters than their male counterparts, there was no statistically significant variation between South African white males and females in this respect. The findings indicate that sexual dimorphism is more apparent in the vertebral centrum, across the three population groups, where males had significantly larger dimensions in centrum anteroposterior diameter, height, and width than their female counterparts. The study further reveals that sexual dimorphism is more apparent when one compares aspects of the 7th cervical vertebra between sexes within the same population group. Overall, the dimensions of the various variates of the vertebra are substantially smaller in women than in men. The smaller dimensions, particularly of the centrum, may be the result of lower skeletal mass in women and render them more vulnerable to fractures resulting from compression forces.

  3. Acknowledging others as 'whole beings'. Managers' perceptions of spirituality and health in the South African workplace.

    PubMed

    Honiball, George; Geldenhuys, Dirk; Mayer, Claude-Hélène

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the concept of spirituality within selected South African managerial work contexts. The aim of the study was to determine managers' perceptions of spirituality and health-related aspects in various South African workplaces. A phenomenological research paradigm was used, applying an in-depth qualitative research approach. The sample consisted of 12 senior managers from different organizations, including, for example, an international healthcare provider, an international auditing and consulting firm, a manufacturer of paint supplies and decorations and an ecclesiastical organization. Research methods included semi-structured interviews and observation. Data was analysed through content analysis, identifying themes, categories and codes. The findings indicate that spirituality promotes the development of health-related aspects of individuals, such as self-awareness, inner peace and the management of stress and depression. Managers emphasize that spirituality also has an impact on managing teams and teamwork, engaging in competitive behaviour, encouraging honesty and reducing selfishness. Based on the findings, a conclusion is given and practical as well as scientific recommendations are emphasized. In love lies the seed of our growth. The more we love, the closer we are to the spiritual experience. (Paulo Coelho, 1994).

  4. South African women's conceptualisations of and responses to sexual coercion in relation to hegemonic masculinities.

    PubMed

    Stern, Erin; Buikema, Rosemarie; Cooper, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Despite the documented relationship between hegemonic norms of masculinities and South African men's use of sexual violence, less is known about how women's engagement with norms of masculinity influences their agency in sexually coercive experiences. This study applied a narrative approach to assess how women's understandings of hegemonic male norms affected their perceptions of and responses to sexually coercive experiences. Twenty-five sexual history narrative interviews were conducted with women across five South African provinces representing a range of ages, language and sociocultural backgrounds. Interviews elicited stories of first experiences of sex and the range of sexual relationships through adulthood. Data were analysed using principles of thematic and narrative analysis. Coercive sexual experiences informed many women's normative ideas about men's sexuality including being impulsive, controlling and aggressive. This could underpin women's limited ability to exercise agency and their increased vulnerability to sexual abuse. Some women reported levels of trust and respect in subsequent relationships, which typically involved deconstructing norms of men's use of coercion and moving beyond self-blame and guilt. The findings highlight the need to appreciate the fluid and situated nature of women's agency from a relational perspective in terms of how women condone and challenge gender norms that support men's use of sexual violence in their relationships.

  5. South African teachers' responses to teenage pregnancy and teenage mothers in schools.

    PubMed

    Bhana, Deevia; Morrell, Robert; Shefer, Tamara; Ngabaza, Sisa

    2010-11-01

    South African law forbids excluding pregnant teenagers from school and permits young parents to continue with their schooling. However, the existence of progressive policy and law does not by itself ensure that pregnant teenagers and young parents remain in school or experience as little disruption to their studies as possible. Two of the factors influencing the experiences that pregnant girls and young parents have are the attitudes and practices of teachers. We explore how teachers in diverse South African secondary schools respond to young women's pregnancy and parenting. Teachers' responses are situated within a complex set of meanings invoking sexuality (and sexual censure), gender, class and race. We argue that many teachers view teenage pregnancy and parenting as social problems - a domain of sexual shame with negative effects and disruptive to the academic life of the school (including teachers and other learners). Teachers do not monolithically subscribe to such negativity and, in the context of changing policy and gender equality, there are glimmers of hope. Without much support, training or any formal school-based support, many teachers show care and concern for pregnant women and young parents, providing some hope for better experiences of schooling.

  6. A performance evaluation of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) processes within the South African context

    SciTech Connect

    Retief, Francois . E-mail: ggffpr@puk.ac.za

    2007-01-15

    SEA has been described as being more about process than about product. Yet very little research has been conducted to gain a better understanding of how SEA processes perform within developing country contexts. To address this gap in knowledge the research underlying this paper aimed to evaluate the quality of SEA processes within the South African context against specifically designed key performance indicators. Comparison of the different data patterns revealed general SEA process features as well as three broad models, namely the 'stand alone', 'central to decision making' and 'integrated' models. The research results suggest a particularly poor performance in terms of process quality for the SEA case studies investigated. Moreover, it shows that there is no one understanding of SEA process within the South African context. The main limitations related to a weak understanding of the decision making processes SEA aimed to inform, as well as an inability to incorporate flexibility into process design. To take the debate forward it is proposed that SEA follow-up and effectiveness research be explored to determine which of these models (if any) ultimately contributed to influencing decision making and promote sustainability.

  7. When HIV is ordinary and diabetes new: Remaking suffering in a South African Township

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Emily; Norris, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    Escalation of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among urban South African populations disproportionately afflicted by HIV/AIDS presents not only medical challenges but also new ways in which people understand and experience sickness. In Soweto, the psychological imprints of political violence of the Apartheid era and structural violence of HIV/AIDS have shaped social and health discourses. Yet, as NCDs increasingly become part of social and biomedical discussions in South African townships, new frames for elucidating sickness are emerging. This article employs the concept of syndemic suffering to critically examine how 27 women living with Type 2 diabetes in Soweto, a township adjacent to Johannesburg known for socio-economic mobility as well as inequality, experience and understand syndemic social and health problems. For example, women described how reconstructing families and raising grandchildren after losing children to AIDS was not only socially challenging but also affected how they ate, and how they accepted and managed their diabetes. Although previously diagnosed with diabetes, women illustrated how a myriad of social and health concerns shaped sickness. Many related diabetes treatment to shared AIDS nosologies, referring to diabetes as ‘the same’ or ‘worse’. These narratives demonstrate how suffering weaves a social history where HIV becomes ordinary, and diabetes new. PMID:25643001

  8. Eastern South African hydroclimate over the past 270,000 years

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Margit H.; Ziegler, Martin; Bosmans, Joyce; Barker, Stephen; Reason, Chris J.C.; Hall, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Processes that control the hydrological balance in eastern South Africa on orbital to millennial timescales remain poorly understood because proxy records documenting its variability at high resolution are scarce. In this work, we present a detailed 270,000 year-long record of terrestrial climate variability in the KwaZulu-Natal province based on elemental ratios of Fe/K from the southwest Indian Ocean, derived from X-ray fluorescence core scanning. Eastern South African climate variability on these time scales reflects both the long-term effect of regional insolation changes driven by orbital precession and the effects associated with high-latitude abrupt climate forcing over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles, including millennial-scale events not previously identified. Rapid changes towards more humid conditions in eastern South Africa as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling were potentially driven by a combination of warming in the Agulhas Current and shifts of the subtropical anticyclones. These climate oscillations appear coherent with other Southern Hemisphere records but are anti-phased with respect to the East Asian Monsoon. Numerical modelling results reveal that higher precipitation in the KwaZulu-Natal province during precession maxima is driven by a combination of increased local evaporation and elevated moisture transport into eastern South Africa from the coast of Mozambique. PMID:26686943

  9. Assessment of Drug-Drug Interactions among Renal Failure Patients of Nephrology Ward in a South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Rama, Mylapuram; Viswanathan, Gayathri; Acharya, Leelavathi D; Attur, R P; Reddy, P N; Raghavan, S V

    2012-01-01

    Polypharmacy is common in drug prescriptions of chronic kidney disease patients. A study of the prescription patterns of drugs with potential interactions would be of interest to prevent drug related adverse events. A prospective observational study of six months (Dec 2009-May 2010) was carried out among the chronic kidney disease patients admitted to the nephrology ward of a South Indian tertiary care hospital. The pattern and rates of drug-drug interactions seen in the prescriptions of these patients was studied. Among the 205 prescriptions included, a total of 474 interactions were reported, making 2.7 interactions per prescription with incidence rates of 76.09%. Around 19.62% of interactions were of major severity. Most common interactions were found between ascorbic acid and cyanocobalamine (12.45%), clonidine and metoprolol (3.80%) respectively. Hypo or hypertension (31.65%), decreased drug efficacy (29.11%) and hypo or hyperglycemia (14.14%), were the most commonly reported clinical outcomes of the drug interactions. Cardiovascular drugs (calcium channel blockers and beta blockers; 52%) constitute the major class of drugs involved in interactions. As most of the interactions had a delayed onset, long term follow-up is essential to predict the clinically significant outcomes of these interactions. Hence, drug interactions are commonly seen in the prescriptions of chronic kidney disease patients which can lead to serious adverse events if not detected early. Need for collaboration with a clinical pharmacist and electronic surveillance, which are absent in developing countries like India, is emphatic.

  10. Correlates of Perceived Risk of Developing Cancer among African-Americans in South Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Wright, Anna; Bazargan, Mohsen; Jones, Loretta; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.; Vargas, Roberto; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Smith, James; Yazdanshenas, Hamed; Maxwell, Annette E.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are differences in cancer-risk perception among racial/ethnic groups that may affect health risk behaviors. Methods Using a community partnered-participatory research approach, we conducted a survey on cancer screening, risk behaviors, and related knowledge/attitudes within 11 churches in South Los Angeles with predominantly African-American parishioners. This analysis examines correlates of perceived risk of developing cancer among 755African American adults. Results Almost 15% of participants indicated higher perceived risk for cancer compared to the average man/woman of the same age, 38% indicated same risk, whereas 48% perceived lower risk. Sixty-nine individuals (9%) reported a cancer history and 63% reported at least one blood relative with cancer. Controlling for demographic characteristics and healthcare access, participants who reported higher risk of cancer had higher level of cancer-related knowledge; were current and ex-smokers; had poorer health status; had a blood relative with cancer; had a cancer history; and had discussed their risk of cancer with their doctor. The bivariate association between high perceived cancer risk and lack of exercise and obesity disappeared after adjusting for demographic characteristics and perceived health status. Conclusions Our data suggest that a substantial proportion of African Americans in South Los Angeles may underestimate their cancer risk. Additionally, lack of exercise and obesity are not recognized as independent cancer risk factors as much as smoking and personal and family history of cancer. Next steps will be to inform participating churches about our findings and explore their interest in taking steps to reduce health risk behaviors among their parishioners. PMID:24026303

  11. Correlates of perceived risk of developing cancer among African-Americans in South Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Wright, Anna; Bazargan, Mohsen; Jones, Loretta; Vadgama, Jaydutt V; Vargas, Roberto; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Smith, James; Yazdanshenas, Hamed; Maxwell, Annette E

    2014-02-01

    There are differences in cancer-risk perception among racial/ethnic groups that may affect health risk behaviors. Using a community partnered-participatory research approach, we conducted a survey on cancer screening, risk behaviors, and related knowledge/attitudes within 11 churches in South Los Angeles with predominantly African-American parishioners. This analysis examines correlates of perceived risk of developing cancer among 755 African American adults. Almost 15 % of participants indicated higher perceived risk for cancer compared to the average man/woman of the same age, 38 % indicated same risk, whereas 48 % perceived lower risk. Sixty-nine individuals (9 %) reported a cancer history and 63 % reported at least one blood relative with cancer. Controlling for demographic characteristics and healthcare access, participants who reported higher risk of cancer had higher level of cancer-related knowledge; were current and ex-smokers; had poorer health status; had a blood relative with cancer; had a cancer history; and had discussed their risk of cancer with their doctor. The bivariate association between high perceived cancer risk and lack of exercise and obesity disappeared after adjusting for demographic characteristics and perceived health status. Our data suggest that a substantial proportion of African Americans in South Los Angeles may underestimate their cancer risk. Additionally, lack of exercise and obesity are not recognized as independent cancer risk factors as much as smoking and personal and family history of cancer. Next steps will be to inform participating churches about our findings and explore their interest in taking steps to reduce health risk behaviors among their parishioners.

  12. Muscle fatigue induced by a soccer match-play simulation in amateur Black South African players.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert I; Ryan, Bennett; Todd, Andrew I

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a soccer-specific fatigue protocol on the temporal changes in torque producing abilities of the thigh within African soccer players. Twenty amateur Black South African soccer players performed the SAFT(90) soccer match-play simulation protocol, while isokinetic measurements were obtained pre-exercise (T0), after the 1st half (T45), after half time (T60) and after the 2nd half (T105). During SAFT(90) performance, significant overall concentric quadriceps peak torque changes were observed (1.05 rad · s(-1) = 16.6%, 3.14 rad · s(-1) = 9.5%). Eccentric hamstring peak torque also decreased significantly over time (1.05 rad · s(-1) = 17.4%, 3.14 rad · s(-1) = 18.5%), with significant reductions occurring during both halves. The functional strength ratio (eccH:conQ) at 3.14 rad · s(-1) was observed to significantly decrease by 10.1% overall. The indicated time-dependent changes in Black South African players have implications for competitive performance and increased predisposition to hamstring muscle injuries. Because of muscle fatigue, the hamstrings may have insufficient eccentric strength during the late swing phase when sprinting, resulting in eccentric overload and damage to the muscle. The changes in strength found in the current study help explain the increased predisposition to hamstring strains during the latter stages of both halves of match-play as reported by epidemiological studies.

  13. Can autonomy be limited--an ethical and legal perspective in a South African context?

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Sidney F

    2014-11-30

    The principle of autonomy acknowledges the positive duty on a health care practitioner to respect the decisions of a patient. The principle of respect for autonomy is codified in the International Bill of Rights, the African Charter, The South African Constitution (108 of 1996) and the Patients' Right Charter. The common notion is to protect a person's liberty, privacy and integrity. Health care practitioners should honour the rights of patients to self-determination or to make their own informed choices. Patients have the right to live their lives by their own beliefs, values and preferences. This implies that a healthcare practitioner should respect the wishes of a patient when a patient makes an autonomous decision. The principle of respect for autonomy takes into consideration a patient's choice based on informed consent and the protection of confidentiality of the patient. Informed consent is a process whereby information is shared with a patient to enable an informed decision. It is therefore important for a patient to be well informed to give effect to the notion of making an informed decision. The relationship between the healthcare practitioner and the patient is based on trust and communication. Full disclosure to a patient will empower a patient to make a true informed decision. It is of particular importance for a health care practitioner to acknowledge and respect the decisions and choice made by a patient so as not to violate a patient's autonomy. Can autonomy be limited? It can, if legally required and duly justified. Section 36 of the South African Constitution (Act 108 of 1996) limits rights in the Bill of Rights by application of a general law.

  14. [Partnership in population and development. First African Meeting on South-South Partnership in Reproductive Health and Population, Tunis, July 9-11, 1997].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    10 southern hemisphere countries (Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, Kenya, Indonesia, Morocco, Mexico, Thailand, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe) have created a new international initiative known as the "Partnership in Population and Development." The principal objective is to create a more effective mechanism for developing countries to share their experiences through technical assistance and south-south coordination. The 10 countries have developed population and family planning programs over the past 2 decades with the support of the Rockefeller Foundation, World Bank, and UN Population Fund. The Partnership in Population and Development is directed by an Administrative Council composed of representatives from each country, who are generally the highest officials in the area of reproductive health and family planning. The First African Meeting for South-South Cooperation in Reproductive Health/Family Planning and Population, held in Tunis in July 1997, was organized in collaboration with the Secretariat of the partnership and with the participation of representatives of 12 French-speaking African countries and of several international organizations. The meeting allowed the participants to express their opinions concerning the principles of the South-South Partnership and the practical mechanisms that would allow it to facilitate exchanges of information and experiences between African countries.

  15. Construction and validation of the South African version of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Käthe; Loxton, Helene; Kagee, Ashraf; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2012-09-01

    The Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (Ollendick, 1983) is an 80-item self-report instrument that has been used internationally to asses the number of fears and general level of fearfulness among children. Despite its widespread use, this instrument has not been adapted to the South African context. The present study addressed this gap by means of a 2-phase investigation aimed at developing a South African version of the instrument. In Phase 1, semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 children (7 to 13 years of age). Qualitative data obtained from these interviews were used to construct additional items for inclusion in the South African Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised. The modified scale, consisting of 97 items, was then administered to a sample of 646 children between the ages of 7 and 13 years. Further psychometric considerations resulted in the final version of the scale consisting of 74 items with high internal consistency (α=.97). The factor structure was explored by means of principal component analysis with varimax rotation and a 5-factor solution was found to provide the best conceptual fit. The factors identified were as follows: Fear of Death and Danger; Fear of the Unknown; Fear of Small Animals and Minor Threats to Self; Large Animal Fears; and Situational Fears. Differences between the South African version and the original Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised are noted and implications for the study of fear in South Africa and other countries are discussed.

  16. Molecular characterisation of Anaplasma species from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sisson, Danielle; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Jolles, Anna; Beechler, Brianna; Jabbar, Abdul

    2017-03-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease, mainly caused by Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale and is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical areas. This study aimed to characterise A. marginale and A. centrale from African buffaloes in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, using the DNA sequences of the genes coding for major surface protein (msp1β) and heat shock protein (groEL), respectively. A total of 747 blood samples were collected from February 2014 to August 2016 from African buffaloes kept in KNP, and DNAs were tested using a molecular-phylogenetic approach. Out of 747 samples tested, 129 (17.3%) and 98 (13.1%) were positive for single infection with A. marginale and A. centrale, respectively; whereas 113 (15.1%) were positive for both Anaplasma spp. Pairwise difference of 1.6-8.5% was observed in msp1β sequences of A. marginale whereas that was only 0.3-2.4% for groEL sequences of A. centrale. Separate phylogenetic analyses of msp1β and groEL sequences of A. marginale and A. centrale, respectively, revealed that sequences of Anaplasma spp. from African buffaloes were unique and they grouped separately when compared with previously published sequences of both species. This is the first study to characterise A. marginale and A. centrale from African buffalo using species specific molecular markers. This study will pave the way for future studies to assess genetic variation among Anaplasma spp. from wild ruminants using molecular markers that are better at differentiating between species and strains than the more commonly used 16S rRNA gene, and help to undertake health and fitness studies and host-parasite dynamics using quantitative molecular tools.

  17. The Natural History and Conservation of Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphins (Sousa plumbea) in South African Waters.

    PubMed

    Plön, Stephanie; Cockcroft, Victor G; Froneman, William P

    2015-01-01

    Although most knowledge on the biology of Sousa plumbea has primarily come from South African waters, a number of research gaps remain on the natural history and status of the species in the region. Research on two populations in South African waters for which some historical data exist may aid in highlighting long-term changes in the biology and natural history of this little known coastal delphinid. Recent studies on the age, growth and reproduction of animals incidentally caught in shark nets in Richards Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, yielded a lower maximum age estimate of 24 (previously 46) growth-layer-groups (GLGs), sexual maturity of 7.5 and 8 GLGs in males and females (previously 12-13 and 10 GLGs, respectively), an ovulation rate of 0.2 and a 5-year calving interval (previously 0.3 and 3-year calving interval) than previously reported. These differences may be due to a difference in the interpretation of GLGs between observers or a predominance of young males being caught in the shark nets. Stomach content analysis revealed a change in the relative proportions of the main prey items over the past 25 years, but no difference in species richness or diversity was found between the sexes. No change in trophic level was recorded between 1972 and 2009. Field studies in Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, conducted 16 years apart indicated a decline in the mean group size (from 7 to 3 animals), a decline in the maximum group size (from 24 to 13 animals), an increase in solitary individuals (15.4-36%), and a change in behaviour from predominantly foraging (64-18%) to mainly travelling (24-49%). The observed changes are suggestive of a change in food availability, resulting in a range shift or a potential decline in numbers. These studies indicate the importance of long-term studies to monitor population changes and their possible causes. A number of threats, such as shark nets, pollution (noise and chemical), and coastal development and disturbance, to the humpback dolphin populations

  18. The relationship between immigration and depression in South Africa: Evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A.; Burns, Jonathan K.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined depression among immigrants in post-apartheid South Africa, and factors that strengthen the relationship between immigration and depression. The first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study was used to investigate links between immigration and depression (n=15,205). Depression symptoms were assessed using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Immigrants in South Africa had fewer depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) than locally-born participants (17.1% vs. 32.4%, F = 13.5, p<0.01). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses found that among immigrant populations, younger age (adjusted OR=1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.05) and black African ethnicity (adjusted OR=3.72, 95% CI = 1.29-10.7) were associated with higher depression. Younger age was associated with lower depression among locally-born study participants (adjusted OR=0.98, 95% CI = 0.97-0.98). The varying relationship between certain demographic factors, depression and the different mental health challenges among these groups requires closer attention. PMID:24526432

  19. Increasing incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in black South Africans in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (1983-2006).

    PubMed

    Mosam, A; Carrara, H; Shaik, F; Uldrick, T; Berkman, A; Aboobaker, J; Coovadia, H M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the temporal trends in the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in black South Africans in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). The study was designed as a retrospective record review. The incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma was estimated using administrative records for patients receiving care for KS through public sector oncology clinics in KZN, 1983-2006. Annual age-standardized incidence rates were calculated using provincial census data for the denominator. Age-specific rates were calculated for the pre-AIDS (1983-1989) and for the generalized AIDS epidemic eras (2006). Age-standardized incidence of KS increased in KZN from <1:100,000 in 1990 to at least 15:100,000 in 2006; this increase was observed in both men and women. There was a shift in the peak age-specific incidence rates from the sixth decade of life in the pre-AIDS era to the fourth and fifth decades in the AIDS era. In conclusion, KS is a growing public health problem in KZN, South Africa. These data reinforce the need for comprehensive national access to and roll-out of antiretroviral drugs, given their success in prevention and treatment of KS in first-world settings.

  20. Gender Factors Associated with Sexual Abstinent Behaviour of Rural South African High School Going Youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlamini, Siyabonga; Taylor, Myra; Mkhize, Nosipho; Huver, Rosemarie; Sathiparsad, Reshma; de Vries, Hein; Naidoo, Kala; Jinabhai, Champak

    2009-01-01

    The cross-sectional study investigated South African rural high school learners' choice of sexual abstinence in order to be able to develop tailored health education messages. All Grade 9 learners from one class at each of 10 randomly selected rural high schools participated. The Integrated Model for Motivational and Behavioural Change was used to…

  1. Well log and seismic character of tertiary terumbu carbonate, South China Sea, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    May, J.A.

    1985-09-01

    The Esso Exploration and Production Inc. Natuna DAlpha block lies approximately 125 mi (200 km) northeast of Natuna Island in the Indonesian portion of the South China Sea. The block contains a large Miocene platform carbonate complex called the L-structure. The Terumbu Formation L-structure, situated in front of and isolated from a much larger carbonate shelf, is similar to the carbonate atolls developed in front of the barrier-reef complex offshore of Belize. The lower platform and upper platform have a similar log character. The detrital facies is composed of fore-reef talus, pelagic, and hemipelagic carbonates. By mapping the Terumbu carbonate facies, the growth history of the L-structure is revealed.

  2. Understanding the response of large South African companies to HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, D; Stevens, M

    2005-07-01

    This paper provides a framework analysing the response of South African companies to HIV/AIDS. Drawing on three case studies of companies, each with over 20,000 South African-based employees, we identify six 'drivers' that influence corporate behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS: legal requirements, voluntary regulation, business costs, social pressures, visibility of the disease, and individuals within companies. We suggest that costs calculations, while possibly underestimating indirect and macro-implications, are not key in driving company responses to HIV/AIDS. The law and voluntary regulation have influenced, but not determined, the response of companies to HIV/AIDS. Social pressures on companies are of importance, but the scale and complexity of need in South Africa has seen the deflecting of this driver. Of greater reference in determining responses has been the social pressure of other companies' responses. The general visibility of the AIDS epidemic is also a significant factor in explaining companies' responses to HIV/AIDS. Moreover, the visibility of HIV/AIDS within companies has influenced the responses of often relatively weak, internal agents who have been attempting to drive companies' HIV/AIDS programmes. We conclude that external drivers--legal requirements, economic performance, and social pressures--have framed corporate responses to HIV/AIDS to a degree, but have generally been weak. Moreover, there has been relatively little synergy between these external drivers and the internal drivers--voluntary regulation, visibility, and company HIV/AIDS 'champions'--that could propel companies into pro-active, bold responses to HIV/AIDS.

  3. Geodynamic Implications of Himu Mantle In The Source of Tertiary Volcanics From The Veneto Region (south Eastern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macera, P.; Gasperini, D.; Blichert-Toft; Bosch, D.; del Moro, A.; Dini, G.; Martin, S.; Piromallo, C.

    DuringTertiary times extensive mafic volcanism took place in the South-Eastern Alps, along a half-graben structure bounded by the Schio-Vicenza main fault. This mag- matism gave rise to four main volcanic centers: Lessini, Berici, Euganei, and Maros- tica. The dominating rock types are alkali basalts, basanites and transitional basalts, with hawaiites, trachybasalts, tephrites, basaltic andesites, and differentiated rocks be- ing less common. Major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic data for the most primitive lavas from each volcanic center show the typical features of HIMU hotspot volcanism, variably diluted by a depleted asthenospheric mantle component (87Sr/86Sr48Ma = 0.70314-0.70321; eNd48Ma = +6.4 to +6.5; eHf48Ma = +6.4 to +8.1, 206Pb/204Pb48Ma = 18.786-19.574). Since the HIMU component is consid- ered to be of deep mantle origin, its presence in a tectonic environment dominated by subduction (the Alpine subduction of the European plate below the Adria plate) has significant geodynamic implications. Slab detachment and ensuing rise of deep man- tle material into the lithospheric gap is proposed to be a viable mechanism of hotspot magmatism in a subduction zone setting. Interaction between deep-seated plume ma- terial and shallow depleted asthenospheric mantle may account for the geochemical features of the Veneto volcanics, as well as those of the so-called enriched astheno- spheric reservoir (EAR) component. Ascending counterflow of deep mantle material through the lithospheric gap to the top of the subducting slab further may induce heat- ing of the overriding plate and trigger it to partially melt. Upwelling of the resulting mafic magmas and their subsequent underplating at the mantle-lower crust bound- ary would favor partial melting of the lower crust, thereby giving rise to the bimodal mafic-felsic magmatism that characterizes the whole Periadriatic province. According to this model, the HIMU-like magmatism of the Alpine foreland is therefore

  4. Meteorology of the Southern Global Plume: African and South American Fires Pollute the South Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Z.; Chatfield, R. B.

    1999-01-01

    An immense global plume of CO meanders widely around the world in the Southern Hemisphere. It arises over Southern America and Africa and flows eastward. The first emissions are in tropical Brazil, and the plume circulates around the world to South America again. The plume was largely unexpected until there were aircraft studies made in NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission - Tropics (Part A). This paper describes the meteorology of the Global Plume, as our simulation, with a synoptic model adapted to global transport, reveals it with a tracer-CO simulation. The observations and their simulation require a particular set of conditions of pollutant accumulation, cumulonimbus venting with required strengths at a narrow range of altitude. Additionally, a particular subtropical conduction region, over the Indian Ocean, Australia, and the westeRNmost South Pacific, relatively free of storms, appears to be a key part of the mechanism. These conclusions are the results of a synoptic reconstruction of the PEMT-A period, September- October, 1996.

  5. Structural and tectonic setting of the Charleston, South Carolina, region: Evidence from the Tertiary stratigraphic record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, R.E.; Lewis, W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Eleven upper Eocene through Pliocene stratigraphic units occur in the subsurface of the region surrounding Charleston, South Carolina. These units contain a wealth of information concerning the long-term tectonic and structural setting of that area. These stratigraphic units have a mosaic pattern of distribution, rather than a simple layered pattern, because deposition, erosion, and tectonic warping have interacted in a complex manner through time. By generating separate structure-contour maps for the base of each stratigraphic unit, an estimate of the original basal surface of each unit can be reconstructed over wide areas. Changes in sea level over geologic time generate patterns of deposition and erosion that are geographically unique for the time of each transgression. Such patterns fail to persist when compared sequentially over time. In some areas, however, there has been persistent, repetitive net downward of upward movement over the past 34 m.y. These repetitive patterns of persistent motion are most readily attributable to tectonism. The spatial pattern of these high and low areas is complex, but it appears to correlate well with known tectonic features of the region. This correlation suggests that the tectonic setting of the Charleston region is controlled by scissors-like compression on a crustal block located between the north-trending Adams Run fault and the northwest-trending Charleston fault. Tectonism is localized in the Charleston region because it lies within a discrete hinge zone that accommodates structural movement between the Cape Fear arch and the Southeast Georgia embayment.

  6. Pathotypes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in children attending a tertiary care hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Priya; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao; Chidambaram, Divya; Chandrabose, Gunasekaran; Thangaraj, Bhuvaneswari; Sarkar, Rajiv; Samuel, Prasanna; Rajan, Deva Prasanna; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in children under 5 years was studied in children with diarrhea and controls in South India. Four polymerase chain reaction (PCR) “schemes” were used to detect genes of the 6 pathotypes of DEC. In 394 children with diarrhea, 203 (52%) DEC infections were found. Among the 198 controls, 126 (63%) DEC infections were found. Enteroaggregative E. coli was the most common pathotype by multiplex PCR both in cases (58, 14.7%) and controls (47, 23.7%), followed by enteropathogenic E. coli seen in 10% cases and 8% of controls. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) were found in 4.1%, 2.0%, 1.0%, and 0.5% of cases, respectively. ETEC was found in 2.5% of controls, but EHEC, EIEC, and DAEC were not detected. Overall, no single assay worked well, but by discounting genes with a pathogenicity index of less than 1, it was possible to use the PCR assays to identify DEC in 75/394 (19%) cases and 12/198 (6.1%) controls, while mixed infection could be identified in 8/394 (2%) cases and 2/198 (1%) controls. PMID:20846583

  7. Implementing oral care to reduce aspiration pneumonia amongst patients with dysphagia in a South African setting.

    PubMed

    Seedat, Jaishika; Penn, Claire

    2016-02-16

    Oral care is a crucial routine for patients with dysphagia that, when completed routinely, can prevent the development of aspiration pneumonia. There is no standardised protocol for oral care within government hospitals in South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the outcome of an oral care protocol. Participants were patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia, with either stroke or traumatic brain injury as the underlying medical pathology, and nurses. All participants were recruited from one tertiary level government hospital in Gauteng, South Africa. 139 nurses participated in the study and received training on the oral care protocol. There were two groups of participants with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Group one (study group, n = 23) was recruited by consecutive sampling, received regular oral care and were not restricted from drinking water; however, all other liquids were restricted. Group two (comparison group, n = 23) was recruited via a retrospective record review, received inconsistent oral care and were placed on thickened liquids or liquid restricted diets. Results showed that a regimen of regular oral care and free water provision when combined with dysphagia intervention did prevent aspiration pneumonia in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. The article highlights two key findings: that regular and routine oral care is manageable within an acute government hospital context and a strict routine of oral care can reduce aspiration pneumonia in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. An implication from these findings is confirmation that teamwork in acute care settings in developing contexts must be prioritised to improve dysphagia management and patient prognosis.

  8. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Steyn, Nelia P; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-09-23

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  9. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Mchiza, Zandile J.; Steyn, Nelia P.; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-01-01

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups. PMID:26404371

  10. The gendered nature of South African teachers' discourse on sex education.

    PubMed

    DePalma, R; Francis, D A

    2014-08-01

    In South Africa, high pregnancy and infection rates show that many teenagers are having sex, and that they are not adequately protecting themselves against undesired pregnancies and disease. Sex education is usually taught as part of the subject area Life Orientation. In a qualitative study of 25 Life Orientation teachers in the South African Free State Province, we used semi-structured interviews to explore the ways in which these teachers understand gender to be a factor in learners' experiences of sexuality. Our analysis draws upon the conceptual framework of heteronormativity, a key aspect of which is that girls and boys are socialized into different gender roles in ways that propagate the patriarchy, and these are largely viewed as part of the natural order of things. Our data revealed a tendency for teachers to cast boys as largely predatory and girls as victims of sexual predation, either by their peers or by older boys or men. Although these assumptions reflect some of the everyday experiences in South Africa and many other countries, these expectations may be transmitted and reinforced unconsciously in well-meaning educational interventions meant to protect girls.

  11. Research vulnerability: an illustrative case study from the South African mining industry.

    PubMed

    Horn, Lyn

    2007-12-01

    The concept of 'vulnerability' is well established within the realm of research ethics and most ethical guidelines include a section on 'vulnerable populations'. However, the term 'vulnerability', used within a human research context, has received a lot of negative publicity recently and has been described as being simultaneously 'too broad' and 'too narrow'. The aim of the paper is to explore the concept of research vulnerability by using a detailed case study - that of mineworkers in post-apartheid South Africa. In particular, the usefulness of Kipnis's taxonomy of research vulnerability will be examined. In recent years the volume of clinical research on human subjects in South Africa has increased significantly. The HIV and TB pandemics have contributed to this increase. These epidemics have impacted negatively on the mining industry; and mining companies have become increasingly interested in research initiatives that address these problems. This case study explores the potential research vulnerability of mineworkers in the context of the South African mining industry and examines measures that can reduce this vulnerability.

  12. Incorporating parasite data in population structure studies of South African sardine Sardinops sagax.

    PubMed

    Van Der Lingen, Carl David; Weston, Laura Frances; Ssempa, Nurudean Norman; Reed, Cecile Catharine

    2015-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach has been applied to examine the population structure of sardine Sardinops sagax off South Africa, where this species supports significant fisheries and is also of ecological and eco-tourism importance. Observations of discontinuous sardine distribution patterns, discrete spawning grounds and significant spatial differences in a variety of phenotypic characteristics have suggested the existence of discrete western, southern and eastern sardine sub-populations or stocks. The use of parasites as biological tags to elucidate sardine population structure has recently been investigated, and strong spatial gradients around South Africa in the prevalence, mean infection intensity and mean abundance of a digenean 'tetracotyle' type metacercarial endoparasite considered to be of the genus Cardiocephaloides and found in the humours of fish eyes support and have proved particularly convincing evidence for the sardine multiple stock hypothesis. A discontinuous distribution in the occurrence of another parasite, the coccidean Eimeria sardinae found in fish testes, has provided additional but weaker evidence of discrete stocks. These results have contributed to a changed understanding of the population structure of South African sardine and have significant implications for management of the fisheries for this species.

  13. The skills gap in hospital management in the South African public health sector.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rubin

    2008-01-01

    A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to the transformation and reconceptualization of the public sector in South Africa into a more effective, efficient, and responsive system of health delivery. As part of the overall management development process, this research aimed to identify the skills important for public sector health management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in the South African public health sector. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Self-assessment of levels of competency showed that managers felt most competent in strategic planning, people management, and self-management, and relatively less competent in the task-related skills and their ability to deliver healthcare. People management, self-management, and task-related skills were rated as being most important, followed by strategic management and health delivery skills, respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating were for people management skills, task-related and self-management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the needs of health managers and will be useful in the conceptualization, design, and delivery of health management programs aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the public health sector in South Africa.

  14. Executive University Managers' Experiences of Strike and Protest Activity: A Qualitative Case Study of a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Whitehead, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Strike and protest activity at South African universities continues to be prevalent nearly two decades after the dismantling of apartheid, although there has been a shift away from directing strikes and protests against the government (during the apartheid era), to directing them against higher education institutions and management (since the…

  15. Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting at School in Contemporary South African Contexts: Deconstructing School Narratives and Understanding Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shefer, Tamara; Bhana, Deevia; Morrell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    South African national education policy is committed to promoting gender equality at school and to facilitating the successful completion of all young people's schooling, including those who may become pregnant and parent while at school. However, the experience of being pregnant and parenting while being a learner is shaped by broader social and…

  16. Teenage sexuality, HIV risk, and the politics of being "duted": perceptions and dynamics in a South African township.

    PubMed

    Hlabangane, Nokuthula

    2014-01-01

    HIV risk among teenagers is argued to be entangled with a plethora of other risks so that HIV-related risk may not be a paramount consideration. Teenage sexuality is a subject fraught with such consideration. This article is an ethnographic rendition of teenage sexuality in action in a South African township.

  17. Service Quality and Students' Satisfaction with the Professional Teacher Development Programmes by Distance Mode in a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the relationship between seven factors that described dimensions of education service quality and overall service quality on one hand, and students' satisfaction with the professional teacher development programmes by distance mode in a South African University on the other. We sought to find out whether students enrolled…

  18. Factors that Enable Women of South Asian and African Descent to Succeed in Leadership Positions in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamassah, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This research study focused on the factors that enable women of South Asian and African descent to succeed as leaders in the college system. The findings were derived from online questionnaires and in-depth interviews of 16 racialized women from two Greater Toronto Area (GTA) colleges. Many factors and recommendations were shared. Some of the…

  19. Language and "New" African Migration to South Africa: An Overview and Some Reflections on Theoretical Implications for Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orman, Jon

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of African migration to post-apartheid South Africa from a language-sociological perspective. Although the subject has been one largely neglected by language scholars, the handful of studies which have addressed the issue have yielded ethnographic data and raised questions of considerable significance for the…

  20. Pushing a Stone up a Hill: A Case Study of the Working Environment of South African Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoi, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    South African higher education has been experiencing profound and vigorous transformations in the post-apartheid era. At the same time, global trends toward competition and employment equity contribute to the complexities of the country's higher education environment. These global and local developments combine to impact the working environment of…