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  1. Supportive environments for physical activity and the local government agenda: a South Australian example.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Colin; Wright, Cheryl; Atkinson, Rick

    2002-01-01

    In the promotion of moderate physical activity it is increasingly argued that a supportive physical environment is a key factor, and that local government is ideally placed to play an important role. This study reports on the factors that led one local government to take such a leading role. A semi-structured interview was conducted to find out why a chief executive officer of a local government decided that the creation of supportive environments for physical activity was the core business of council. The results show that key ingredients were that local government should take a strategic rather than an operational focus on the issue, that there should be open organisational structures to allow the various functions of local government to work together, and that there must be appropriate leadership. The findings suggest ways for engaging local government as a key partner in promoting supportive environments that are consistent with literature on policy, organisational structure and leadership theory.

  2. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper…

  3. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper…

  4. Not addressing the root cause: An analysis of submissions made to the South Australian Government on a Proposal to Protect Midwifery Practice.

    PubMed

    Rigg, Elizabeth; Schmied, Virginia; Peters, Kath; Dahlen, Hannah

    2015-06-01

    Reports of unregulated birth workers attending birth at home, with no registered midwife in attendance (freebirth), have become more frequent in Australia in recent years. A Coronial Inquiry (2012) into the deaths of three babies born at home in South Australia resulted in a call for legislation to restrict the practice of midwifery to registered midwives. A Proposal to Protect Midwifery Practice in South Australia was issued as a consultation paper in January 2013. To report the views of those making a submission to the Proposal to Protect Midwifery Practice in South Australia. Thirty submissions to the South Australian Government were downloaded, read and thematically analysed. Twenty-five (81%) submissions supported the legislation, 5 (16%) opposed it and 2 (6%) were neither for nor against. Support for the proposed legislation was strong, however the underlying root causes that have led to the rise of UBWs attending homebirth in Australia were not addressed. Recommendations called for all stakeholders to work with women to develop a better framework of care that respected and met their needs and choices whilst safeguarding maternal and neonatal health. The Proposal to Protect Midwifery Practice may promote greater protection of midwifery practice however, Private Indemnity Insurance (PII), collaborative agreements and power struggles associated with the medical domination of childbirth continue to marginalise homebirth and prevent women from accessing the care they want and need. These unresolved issues represent the root causes for UBWs attending homebirth; hence the proposal is only a partial solution. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Design Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. Setting 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectancy estimation including agreement analysis of life expectancy estimates and comparison of estimate SEs. Results Chiang II and Silcocks methods produced almost identical life expectancy estimates across a large range of population sizes but calculation failures and excessively large SEs limited their use in small populations. A population of 25 000 or greater was required to estimate life expectancy with SE of 1 year or less using adjusted Chiang II (a composite of Chiang II and Silcocks methods). Data aggregation offered some remedy for extending the use of adjusted Chiang II in small populations but reduced estimate currency. A recently developed Bayesian random effects model utilising the correlation in mortality rates between genders, age groups and geographical areas markedly improved the precision of life expectancy estimates in small populations. Conclusions We propose a hybrid approach for the calculation of life expectancy using the Bayesian random effects model in populations of 25 000 or lower permitting the precise derivation of life expectancy in small populations. In populations above 25 000, we propose the use of adjusted Chiang II to guard against violations of spatial correlation, to benefit from a widely accepted method that is simpler to communicate to local health authorities and where its slight inferior performance compared with the Bayesian approach is of minor practical significance. PMID:24302503

  6. Australian Lesbian Teachers--A Reflection of Homophobic Harassment of High School Teachers in New South Wales Government Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferfolja, Tania

    1998-01-01

    Examines the homophobic harassment of lesbian teachers working in government high schools in Sydney (Australia). The experiences of six lesbian teachers show that harassment based on sexual orientation is often an invisible issue in schools, as is homosexuality in general. Recommendations are made for teaching about homosexual tolerance. (SLD)

  7. Beyond Professionalisation: Enhancing the Governance Culture for Australian University Governing Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jeanette

    2006-01-01

    This article examines emerging norms of good practice for Australian university governing boards and issues that university governing boards could address to develop effective governance cultures. It firstly considers the ways in which support for many Australian university governing boards has become professionalised over the past decade. At the…

  8. Geography: The South Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Malcolm; Shepherd, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Geography as a discipline has a long and healthy history in South Australia. Due to the passion of individual educators and the activities of the Geography Teachers Association of South Australia (GTASA) since its foundation in 1936, South Australia has experienced ongoing curriculum development and indeed innovation in the geographical studies in…

  9. Australian Early Childhood Educators: From Government Policy to University Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…

  10. Australian Early Childhood Educators: From Government Policy to University Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…

  11. The Role of Further Government Intervention in Australian International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Roger; Meek, V. Lynn; Wood, Fiona Q.

    2007-01-01

    Trade in Australian education services has expanded rapidly over recent years. The sector is the third largest exporter of Australian services. In 2001-2002, exports of education were about $A 4.2 billion. Government assistance to the sector includes export market development, regulation of education standards, and funding education activities;…

  12. The Role of Further Government Intervention in Australian International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Roger; Meek, V. Lynn; Wood, Fiona Q.

    2007-01-01

    Trade in Australian education services has expanded rapidly over recent years. The sector is the third largest exporter of Australian services. In 2001-2002, exports of education were about $A 4.2 billion. Government assistance to the sector includes export market development, regulation of education standards, and funding education activities;…

  13. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  14. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  15. Peer and Teacher Bullying/Victimization of South Australian Secondary School Students: Prevalence and Psychosocial Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfabbro, Paul; Winefield, Tony; Trainor, Sarah; Dollard, Maureen; Anderson, Sarah; Metzer, Jacques; Hammarstrom, Anne

    2006-01-01

    ;This study examined the nature and prevalence of bullying/victimization by peers and teachers reported by 1,284 students (mean age = 15.2 years) drawn from a representative sample of 25 South Australian government and private schools. Students completed a self-report survey containing questions relating to teacher and peer-related bullying,…

  16. Peer and Teacher Bullying/Victimization of South Australian Secondary School Students: Prevalence and Psychosocial Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfabbro, Paul; Winefield, Tony; Trainor, Sarah; Dollard, Maureen; Anderson, Sarah; Metzer, Jacques; Hammarstrom, Anne

    2006-01-01

    ;This study examined the nature and prevalence of bullying/victimization by peers and teachers reported by 1,284 students (mean age = 15.2 years) drawn from a representative sample of 25 South Australian government and private schools. Students completed a self-report survey containing questions relating to teacher and peer-related bullying,…

  17. The Australian "Landcare" Movement: Towards "Post-Productivist" Rural Governance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Geoff A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses whether the Australian Landcare movement complies with notions of "post-productivist rural governance." The paper argues that Landcare has been a vast improvement on previous approaches to the management of the countryside in Australia, and that it has managed to mobilise a large cross-section of stakeholders.…

  18. The Australian "Landcare" Movement: Towards "Post-Productivist" Rural Governance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Geoff A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses whether the Australian Landcare movement complies with notions of "post-productivist rural governance." The paper argues that Landcare has been a vast improvement on previous approaches to the management of the countryside in Australia, and that it has managed to mobilise a large cross-section of stakeholders.…

  19. School Governance in the New South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Heystek, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses early experiences of school governing bodies in South Africa. Examines governing bodies' powers to set fees, resulting impact on resources for different types of schools, and implications for equity and equality. Explores governing bodies' admission policies and how this led to school populations differentiated by class and race. (CAJ)

  20. Fragmentation in Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State policy on mental health and older people: A governmentality analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Candice; Henderson, Julie; Lawn, Sharon; Reed, Richard; Dawson, Suzanne; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Fuller, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Mental health care for older people is a significant and growing issue in Australia and internationally. This article describes how older people’s mental health is governed through policy discourse by examining Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State government policy documents, and commentaries from professional groups, advocacy groups and non-governmental organisations. Documents published between 2009 and 2014 were analysed using a governmentality approach, informed by Foucault. Discourses of ‘risk’, ‘ageing as decline/dependence’ and ‘healthy ageing’ were identified. Through these discourses, different neo-liberal governmental strategies are applied to ‘target’ groups according to varying risk judgements. Three policy approaches were identified where older people are (1) absent from policy, (2) governed as responsible, active citizens or (3) governed as passive recipients of health care. This fragmented policy response to older people’s mental health reflects fragmentation in the Australian policy environment. It constructs an ambiguous place for older people within neo-liberal governmental rationality, with significant effects on the health system, older people and their carers. PMID:27147440

  1. Fragmentation in Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State policy on mental health and older people: A governmentality analysis.

    PubMed

    Oster, Candice; Henderson, Julie; Lawn, Sharon; Reed, Richard; Dawson, Suzanne; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Fuller, Jeffrey

    2016-05-04

    Mental health care for older people is a significant and growing issue in Australia and internationally. This article describes how older people's mental health is governed through policy discourse by examining Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State government policy documents, and commentaries from professional groups, advocacy groups and non-governmental organisations. Documents published between 2009 and 2014 were analysed using a governmentality approach, informed by Foucault. Discourses of 'risk', 'ageing as decline/dependence' and 'healthy ageing' were identified. Through these discourses, different neo-liberal governmental strategies are applied to 'target' groups according to varying risk judgements. Three policy approaches were identified where older people are (1) absent from policy, (2) governed as responsible, active citizens or (3) governed as passive recipients of health care. This fragmented policy response to older people's mental health reflects fragmentation in the Australian policy environment. It constructs an ambiguous place for older people within neo-liberal governmental rationality, with significant effects on the health system, older people and their carers.

  2. Social determinants of health and local government: understanding and uptake of ideas in two Australian states.

    PubMed

    Lawless, Angela; Lane, Anna; Lewis, Felicity-Ann; Baum, Fran; Harris, Patrick

    2016-10-23

    To examine the awareness and perceptions of local government staff about the social determinants of health (SDoH) and health inequity and use of these ideas to shape policy and practice. 96 staff at 17 councils in South Australia or New South Wales responded to questions in a pilot online survey concerning: sources of knowledge about, familiarity with the evidence on, attitudes towards, and uses of ideas about the social determinants of health. Eight of 68 SA councils and 16 of 152 NSW councils were randomly selected stratified by state and metropolitan status. Differences between states and metropolitan/non-metropolitan status were explored. The majority of respondents (88.4%) reported some familiarity with ideas about the broad determinants of health and 90% agreed that the impact of policy action on health determinants should be considered in all major government policy and planning initiatives. Research articles, government/professional reports, and professional contacts were rated as important sources of knowledge about the social determinants of health. Resources need to be dedicated to systematic research on practical implementation of interventions on social determinants of health inequities and towards providing staff with more practical information about interventions and tools to evaluate those interventions. The findings suggest there is support for action addressing the social determinants of health in local government. The findings extend similar research regarding SDoH and government in NZ and Canada to Australian local government. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. The Issue of Teacher Accountability: A South Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author critiques the notion of accountability in teachers' work. It serves to place in context the rationale and introduction of accountability mechanisms, such as the performance management policy, as implemented in South Australian public education. Further, it serves to illustrate what MacPherson (1998, p. 4) describes as…

  4. Australian and South Pacific External Studies Association: Odlaa's Regional Predecessor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bewley, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The Australian and South Pacific External Studies Association (ASPESA)-- the predecessor of the Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, Inc. (ODLAA)--was founded in 1973. From the outset, ASPESA adopted a broader-than-Australia focus for open and distance learning that included New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the member countries…

  5. Increased Government Intervention versus Increased Institutional Autonomy: The Recent Case of Australian Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant

    A new theme in the old tension between centralization and decentralization in the governance and administration of Australian higher education is explored. The argument is that the various major attempts to restructure Australian education systems both in centralizing and decentralizing forces have gained new strength, and that the recent stated…

  6. South Australian adolescent ophthalmic sun protective behaviours.

    PubMed

    Pakrou, N; Casson, R; Fung, S; Ferdowsi, N; Lee, G; Selva, D

    2008-06-01

    To study student's knowledge of the effects of sunlight on the eyes, as well as their sun protective behaviours. In total, 640 [corrected] students aged 13-18 years were surveyed in South Australia, during August-September 2004, using a standardized previously used survey. Scores were calculated regarding knowledge about ultraviolet light, sunlight effects on eyes, as well as eye and body protection. Risk factor scores were produced for each student. The data were analysed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA), as well as the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel methods. Results were compared to the same survey conducted in 1995 in Queensland Australia. This group demonstrated a moderate level of knowledge, similar to the 1995 survey. Students in the older age groups demonstrated significantly higher knowledge. The majority of students (74%) owned a pair of sunglasses; however, 44.5% almost never wore their glasses. The reported frequency of wearing sunglasses was significantly related to advertising, believing sunglasses protect the eyes, as well as personal, family, and peer attitudes towards wearing sunglasses. The results of our survey suggest no significant change in knowledge and behaviours of students, compared to the 1995 survey. We feel it is imperative that adolescents be made more aware of the damaging effects of sunlight and the benefits of eye protection. Health promotion campaigns should target the youth and consider that as a group, they are significantly influenced by the media, peers, and family attitudes.

  7. Non-Government Distance Education Funding: The Need for Equity in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Terry

    2012-01-01

    This reflection outlines the problems associated with the Australian Government's recurrent funding policy for non-government distance education. It demonstrates the policy's inconsistencies with stated government educational policy and with commonly held expectations of fairness in a democratic society. A comparison of the current funding of…

  8. Government-Funded Program Completions 2014. Preliminary. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides data on Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) programs completed from 2010 to 2014 in Australia's government-funded vocational education and training (VET) system (broadly defined as all activity delivered by government providers and government-funded activity delivered by community education and other registered…

  9. Choosers and Losers: The Impact of Government Subsidies on Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Louise; Ryan, Chris

    2010-01-01

    For over three decades, government subsidies have been a major source of funds for private schools in Australia. Private schools now enrol more than one-third of all students. Analysing administrative and participation data, we find that Australian private schools have used government subsidies to increase the quality of their services (that is,…

  10. Choosers and Losers: The Impact of Government Subsidies on Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Louise; Ryan, Chris

    2010-01-01

    For over three decades, government subsidies have been a major source of funds for private schools in Australia. Private schools now enrol more than one-third of all students. Analysing administrative and participation data, we find that Australian private schools have used government subsidies to increase the quality of their services (that is,…

  11. Australian Higher Education: Regional Universities under a Coalition Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Projected student enrolment growth places the Australian higher education system on the precipice of significant change, leading to philosophical debates about how the system should respond. One suggested policy change is that resources be redirected from non-research intensive regional universities to other providers. The Liberal Party is the…

  12. Seasonality of gestational diabetes mellitus: a South Australian population study

    PubMed Central

    Verburg, Petra E; Tucker, Graeme; Scheil, Wendy; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Dekker, Gus A; Roberts, Claire T

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether there is a seasonal variation in the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Research design and methods This retrospective cohort study of 60 306 eligible South Australian live-born singletons during 2007–2011 recorded in the South Australian Perinatal Statistics Collection (SAPSC) examined the incidence of GDM in relation to estimated date of conception (eDoC). Fourier series analysis was used to model seasonal trends. Results During the study period, 3632 (6.0%) women were diagnosed with GDM. Seasonal modeling showed a strong relation between GDM and eDoC (p<0.001). Unadjusted and adjusted models (adjusted for maternal age, body mass index (BMI), parity, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and chronic hypertension) demonstrated the presence of a peak incidence occurring among pregnancies with eDoC in winter (June/July/August), with a trough for eDoc in summer (December/January/February). As this was a retrospective study, we could only use variables that had been collected as part of the routine registration system, the SAPSC. Conclusions This study is the first population-based study to demonstrate a seasonal variation for GDM. Several maternal lifestyle and psychosocial factors associated with seasonality and GDM may be influential in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of GDM. Ambient temperature, physical activity, nutrient intake, and vitamin D levels may affect maternal physiology, and fetal and placental development at the cellular level and contribute to the development of GDM. The mechanisms underlying these possible associations are not fully understood and warrant further investigation. PMID:27843556

  13. Microbiological evaluation of South Australian rock lobster meat.

    PubMed Central

    Yap, A. S.

    1977-01-01

    Samples of frozen precooked rock lobster meat from five South Australian fish-processing plants situated in the West Coast and south-east regions were tested over a period of six months during the 1974/5 lobster fishing season. The most probable number (MPN) of E. coli and coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella, as well as total plate count (TPC) were determined in 480 samples. Monthly geometric mean TPC ranged from 1600/g to 25,000/g. The highest geometric mean of the MPN of coliforms and E. coli were 4.9/g and 1.8/g respectively. The highest geometric mean number of staphylococci was 18.6/g. Salmonella was not detected in the 480 units tested. Only 0.4% of the samples had TPC exceeding 100,000/g. Coliforms and E. coli were not present in 76.1% and 92.7% respectively of the samples tested. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in 67.7% of the samples. The numbers of organisms in 82% of the samples fall within the microbiological standards proposed by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia for frozen precooked foods. The results of this study demonstrate the microbial quality of precooked lobster meat attainable when good manufacturing practices are used. PMID:336790

  14. GRATIS: The Cooperative Solution to Inter-library Loans and The South Australian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keast, Don; Hooke, Julie

    1985-01-01

    Describes the growth, rationale, and operation of a no-charge cooperative formed in 1982 by group of small Australian health science libraries to combat rising costs of interlibrary loans (GRATIS), and its South Australian equivalent (GRATISSA). Membership, coverage, features, problems, applications, and future developments are noted. Nine…

  15. Conceptualising Hy-Bivalent Subjectivities to Facilitate an Examination of Australian Government Mutual Obligations Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jan

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates how the work of feminist theorists Valerie Walkerdine, Helen Lucey and June Melody, Beverly Skeggs, and Nancy Fraser were used together to examine the lived effects of Australian government Mutual Obligations policies. As "active" welfare policies, Mutual Obligations construct particular relations between…

  16. Australian Public Universities: Are They Practising a Corporate Approach to Governance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and a qualitative research method to examine the extent to which the corporate approach is practised in Australian public universities. The findings reveal that in meeting the needs of multiple stakeholders, universities are faced with a number of structural, legalistic, and…

  17. Losing Sight of Humboldt: A Synoptic Review of Australian Government Policy over the Last 35 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 35 years Australian higher education policy, like that of most countries, has undergone radical changes. This article reviews these changes in terms of four key periods, beginning with the abolition of student fees, through to the recent unprecedented levels of government control and intervention. Policies are compared with each…

  18. Australian Public Universities: Are They Practising a Corporate Approach to Governance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and a qualitative research method to examine the extent to which the corporate approach is practised in Australian public universities. The findings reveal that in meeting the needs of multiple stakeholders, universities are faced with a number of structural, legalistic, and…

  19. Understanding and Practice of Information Literacy in Australian Government Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirton, Jennifer; Barham, Lyn; Brady, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Most research on information literacy has emerged from the academic sector and there is a lack of research undertaken in the workplace. To further expand on this area of study, a survey was undertaken to investigate librarians' understanding of information literacy and the application of information literacy in government libraries in Australia.…

  20. Laptop Classes in Some Australian Government Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluck, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Australia was once a world leader for laptop adoption in schools. Now overtaken by extensive roll-outs of laptops in Maine and Uruguay, this paper seeks to explain why this lead was lost. Six case studies of government primary schools were undertaken to gather data about current initiatives. Comparative analysis shows how the potential of…

  1. Laptop Classes in Some Australian Government Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluck, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Australia was once a world leader for laptop adoption in schools. Now overtaken by extensive roll-outs of laptops in Maine and Uruguay, this paper seeks to explain why this lead was lost. Six case studies of government primary schools were undertaken to gather data about current initiatives. Comparative analysis shows how the potential of…

  2. South Australian school teachers' perceptions of occupational therapy reports.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Robyn; Stewart, Hugh; Harrison, Jo

    2008-09-01

    The qualitative research reported here investigated the perceptions of primary school teachers regarding the usefulness of occupational therapy reports from the Flinders Medical Centre. The reports included either recommendations alone or in conjunction with written programs for the students. This qualitative descriptive study employed in-depth semistructured interviews to gather the perspectives of four school teachers from primary schools in the southern suburbs of Adelaide. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analysed using a thematic inductive approach. Four themes emerged from the data in relation to teachers' perceptions of the reports: (i) Understandable but not always useful; (ii) It's important ... we can't do it all; (iii) We never actually speak; and (iv) It's probably impossible but ... in an ideal world. The research findings provide an insight into the professional relationship between education and health professionals in the presence of minimal collaboration. The participants in this study described the occupational therapy reports as useful but they all wanted a higher level of interaction with therapists. The participants also gave suggestions for improving the current procedure to increase collaboration between health and education professionals. Such improvements could enhance educational outcomes for South Australian children with a disability.

  3. The Role of Democratic Governing Bodies in South African Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jenni

    2002-01-01

    School governance reform in post-apartheid South Africa aimed to democratize schooling while accommodating diverse school histories of underdevelopment or self-management. Analysis of relevant legislation shows the reform was structured to allow representative democracy and partnerships. But two recent studies suggest that governance reforms have…

  4. Managerialism and Higher Education Governance: Implications for South African Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, F.

    2006-01-01

    This article identifies some of the implications of corporate forms of higher education governance for the management of South African universities. It explores corporate higher educational governance with reference to institutional autonomy incorporating academic freedom. It is the contention of this article that the primary driver of higher…

  5. Managerialism and Higher Education Governance: Implications for South African Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, F.

    2006-01-01

    This article identifies some of the implications of corporate forms of higher education governance for the management of South African universities. It explores corporate higher educational governance with reference to institutional autonomy incorporating academic freedom. It is the contention of this article that the primary driver of higher…

  6. Peer and teacher bullying/victimization of South Australian secondary school students: prevalence and psychosocial profiles.

    PubMed

    Delfabbro, Paul; Winefield, Tony; Trainor, Sarah; Dollard, Maureen; Anderson, Sarah; Metzer, Jacques; Hammarstrom, Anne

    2006-03-01

    This study examined the nature and prevalence of bullying/victimization by peers and teachers reported by 1,284 students (mean age = 15.2 years) drawn from a representative sample of 25 South Australian government and private schools. Students completed a self-report survey containing questions relating to teacher and peer-related bullying, measures of psychosocial adjustment, and personality. The results showed that students could be clearly differentiated according to the type of victimization they had experienced. Students reporting peer victimization typically showed high levels of social alienation, poorer psychological functioning, and poorer self-esteem and self-image. By contrast, victims of teacher victimization were more likely to be rated as less able academically, had less intention to complete school and were more likely to be engaged in high-risk behaviours such as gambling, drug use and under-age drinking. Most bullying was found to occur at school rather than outside school and involved verbal aggression rather than physical harm. Boys were significantly more likely to be bullied than girls, with the highest rates being observed amongst boys attending single-sex government schools. Girls were more likely to be subject to bullying if they attended coeducational private schools. The implications of this work for enhancing school-retention rates and addressing psychological distress amongst adolescent students are discussed.

  7. Planning for Learning: An Exploration of Reception Teachers' Attitudes and Practices around the South Australian School Entry Assessment Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lees, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    The South Australian Education Department introduced the School Entry Assessment (SEA) Policy in 2001 to help teachers assess young learners and plan relevant learning events, to help collect information about South Australian education from Pre-School to Year 3, and to facilitate collaboration within and between educational and social…

  8. The computerized medical record as a tool for clinical governance in Australian primary care.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Christopher Martin; de Lusignan, Simon; Phillips, Christine; Hall, Sally; Travaglia, Joanne

    2013-08-12

    Computerized medical records (CMR) are used in most Australian general practices. Although CMRs have the capacity to amalgamate and provide data to the clinician about their standard of care, there is little research on the way in which they may be used to support clinical governance: the process of ensuring quality and accountability that incorporates the obligation that patients are treated according to best evidence. The objective of this study was to explore the capability, capacity, and acceptability of CMRs to support clinical governance. We conducted a realist review of the role of seven CMR systems in implementing clinical governance, developing a four-level maturity model for the CMR. We took Australian primary care as the context, CMR to be the mechanism, and looked at outcomes for individual patients, localities, and for the population in terms of known evidence-based surrogates or true outcome measures. The lack of standardization of CMRs makes national and international benchmarking challenging. The use of the CMR was largely at level two of our maturity model, indicating a relatively simple system in which most of the process takes place outside of the CMR, and which has little capacity to support benchmarking, practice comparisons, and population-level activities. Although national standards for coding and projects for record access are proposed, they are not operationalized. The current CMR systems can support clinical governance activities; however, unless the standardization and data quality issues are addressed, it will not be possible for current systems to work at higher levels.

  9. Development of South Australian-Victorian Prostate Cancer Health Outcomes Research Dataset.

    PubMed

    Ruseckaite, Rasa; Beckmann, Kerri; O'Callaghan, Michael; Roder, David; Moretti, Kim; Zalcberg, John; Millar, Jeremy; Evans, Sue

    2016-01-22

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed and prevalent malignancy reported to Australian cancer registries, with numerous studies from single institutions summarizing patient outcomes at individual hospitals or States. In order to provide an overview of patterns of care of men with prostate cancer across multiple institutions in Australia, a specialized dataset was developed. This dataset, containing amalgamated data from South Australian and Victorian prostate cancer registries, is called the South Australian-Victorian Prostate Cancer Health Outcomes Research Dataset (SA-VIC PCHORD). A total of 13,598 de-identified records of men with prostate cancer diagnosed and consented between 2008 and 2013 in South Australia and Victoria were merged into the SA-VIC PCHORD. SA-VIC PCHORD contains detailed information about socio-demographic, diagnostic and treatment characteristics of patients with prostate cancer in South Australia and Victoria. Data from individual registries are available to researchers and can be accessed under individual data access policies in each State. The SA-VIC PCHORD will be used for numerous studies summarizing trends in diagnostic characteristics, survival and patterns of care in men with prostate cancer in Victoria and South Australia. It is expected that in the future the SA-VIC PCHORD will become a principal component of the recently developed bi-national Australian and New Zealand Prostate Cancer Outcomes Registry to collect and report patterns of care and standardised patient reported outcome measures of men nation-wide in Australia and New Zealand.

  10. Performance Management as a Means of Teacher Evaluation: A South Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of performance management in South Australian public schools raises a number of issues regarding the structure, purpose and control of the process itself and the consequences of teacher evaluation. Performance management has the potential to shape teaching and the culture of schools according to what it values and what it ignores.…

  11. South Australian Science Teachers Association Conference and Science Fair, Salisbury Teachers College, July 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    The major papers presented at the 1971 conference of the South Australian Science Teachers Association are included in this pamphlet. Scientists from industry, research institutions, and the police forensic laboratory, and practicing teachers presented papers which included descriptions of modern scientific techniques, discussions of the role of…

  12. Career Maturity of Australian and South African High School Students: Developmental and Contextual Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Watson, Mark B.; Creed, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigates the career maturity of 1090 high school students in Years 8 to 12 in Australia (n = 656) and South Africa (n = 434). Scores on the Australian version of the "Career Development Inventory" were analysed. While a developmental explanation for career maturity was supported, gender differences between countries…

  13. South Australian Science Teachers Association Conference and Science Fair, Salisbury Teachers College, July 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    The major papers presented at the 1971 conference of the South Australian Science Teachers Association are included in this pamphlet. Scientists from industry, research institutions, and the police forensic laboratory, and practicing teachers presented papers which included descriptions of modern scientific techniques, discussions of the role of…

  14. [Supply of health care in the Australian bush: human resources and government policy].

    PubMed

    Stuer, Anny

    2003-01-01

    The Australian bush--the heart of Australian folklore and a fascinating attraction for tourists, whether from within Australia or other countries--does not enjoy the same attraction for professionals across a range of industries including health, where there is a chronic shortage of human resources. Whilst data vary considerably between regions, in many cases, Australians from rural and remote regions have a lower health status than the overall population. This is particularly true of the population of Indigenous origin. There are about 250 medical practitioners for 100,000 people in Australia. This number varies between about 300 in the capital cities and just over 100 in the remote areas, the latter being mostly general practitioners as there are hardly any hospitals and specialists in those remote areas. The data change across professions--for example the number of nurses is about the same in capital cities and in remote areas: about 1000 full time equivalent for 100,000 people. They change too when we consider rural regions that are less or not isolated: in some instances, these are less supplied than remote areas, where access to care however remains more critical because of distance. The demographic profile of the professions examined in this paper also vary between regions, giving more urgency to workforce planning issues. The Australian government has embarked on the delivery of a major rural health strategy aimed at increasing access to health care in the rural and remote regions--through the provision of more and better services (specialist services; multipurpose centres); attracting more health professionals (scholarships for health students; setting up of rural universities); and retaining and supporting those professionals in rural and remote areas (on-going training; support programs for families and overseas trained doctors; practice management and financial incentives).

  15. Trends in Australian government health expenditure by age: a fiscal incidence analysis.

    PubMed

    Tapper, Alan; Phillimore, John

    2014-11-01

    Australian government health expenditure per capita has grown steadily across the past few decades, but little is known about trends in the age distribution of health expenditure. In this paper, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) fiscal incidence studies, which track expenditure at the household level between 1984 and 2010, are used to shed light on this topic. The main finding was that spending has shifted focus from the younger half to the older half of the population. This shift is evident in three areas: (1) acute care (hospitals); (2) community health services (doctors); and (3) pharmaceuticals. Together, these areas account for approximately 88% of expenditure. The trend is independent of demographic aging. It is unlikely to reflect changes in population health. Its explanation is open to debate. Growth in expenditure per household has been more than threefold faster for elderly than young households. Across this period, expenditure per household per week has increased by 51% for the young, by 79% for the middle aged and by 179% for the elderly. This age-related growth is most prominent in expenditure on acute care, community health services and pharmaceuticals. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: The Productivity Commission has published figures that relate age and Australian heath expenditure. However, there has been no published study of age-related trends in Australian health expenditure. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: In addition to tracking age-related trends across 26 years, this paper adds a breakdown of those trends into four categories of expenditure, namely acute care, community health services, pharmaceutical benefits, and other. This breakdown shows that the trends vary by expenditure type. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS?: The paper shows that forward projections in health expenditure need to take into account age-related trends as well as demographic trends.

  16. Governance, agricultural intensification, and land sparing in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Ceddia, Michele Graziano; Bardsley, Nicholas Oliver; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Sedlacek, Sabine

    2014-05-20

    In this paper we address two topical questions: How do the quality of governance and agricultural intensification impact on spatial expansion of agriculture? Which aspects of governance are more likely to ensure that agricultural intensification allows sparing land for nature? Using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the World Database on Protected Areas, and the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, we estimate a panel data model for six South American countries and quantify the effects of major determinants of agricultural land expansion, including various dimensions of governance, over the period 1970-2006. The results indicate that the effect of agricultural intensification on agricultural expansion is conditional on the quality and type of governance. When considering conventional aspects of governance, agricultural intensification leads to an expansion of agricultural area when governance scores are high. When looking specifically at environmental aspects of governance, intensification leads to a spatial contraction of agriculture when governance scores are high, signaling a sustainable intensification process.

  17. Governance, agricultural intensification, and land sparing in tropical South America

    PubMed Central

    Ceddia, Michele Graziano; Bardsley, Nicholas Oliver; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Sedlacek, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address two topical questions: How do the quality of governance and agricultural intensification impact on spatial expansion of agriculture? Which aspects of governance are more likely to ensure that agricultural intensification allows sparing land for nature? Using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the World Database on Protected Areas, and the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, we estimate a panel data model for six South American countries and quantify the effects of major determinants of agricultural land expansion, including various dimensions of governance, over the period 1970–2006. The results indicate that the effect of agricultural intensification on agricultural expansion is conditional on the quality and type of governance. When considering conventional aspects of governance, agricultural intensification leads to an expansion of agricultural area when governance scores are high. When looking specifically at environmental aspects of governance, intensification leads to a spatial contraction of agriculture when governance scores are high, signaling a sustainable intensification process. PMID:24799696

  18. Governing childhood obesity: framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Taylor, Anne

    2009-11-01

    Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to children. Content and thematic analysis of the articles reveal conflicting perspectives on the role of the state; the level of accountability of the food and advertising industries; and responsibilities of parents for regulating fast food consumption in children. The Federal Government, food and advertising industries and free to air broadcasters favour industry self-regulation and personal responsibility for fast food consumption while the proponents of government regulation include consumer groups, state government health ministers, nutrition and public health academics and medical and health foundations. The regulation of fast food advertising to children is discussed in relation to ideas about governance and the public health strategies which follow from these ideas. The paper argues that all proposed solutions are indicative of a neoliberal approach to the governance of health insofar as the responsibility for regulation of food marketing is viewed as lying with industry and the regulation of lifestyle risk is viewed as an individual responsibility.

  19. The Computerized Medical Record as a Tool for Clinical Governance in Australian Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Christine; Hall, Sally; Travaglia, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background Computerized medical records (CMR) are used in most Australian general practices. Although CMRs have the capacity to amalgamate and provide data to the clinician about their standard of care, there is little research on the way in which they may be used to support clinical governance: the process of ensuring quality and accountability that incorporates the obligation that patients are treated according to best evidence. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the capability, capacity, and acceptability of CMRs to support clinical governance. Methods We conducted a realist review of the role of seven CMR systems in implementing clinical governance, developing a four-level maturity model for the CMR. We took Australian primary care as the context, CMR to be the mechanism, and looked at outcomes for individual patients, localities, and for the population in terms of known evidence-based surrogates or true outcome measures. Results The lack of standardization of CMRs makes national and international benchmarking challenging. The use of the CMR was largely at level two of our maturity model, indicating a relatively simple system in which most of the process takes place outside of the CMR, and which has little capacity to support benchmarking, practice comparisons, and population-level activities. Although national standards for coding and projects for record access are proposed, they are not operationalized. Conclusions The current CMR systems can support clinical governance activities; however, unless the standardization and data quality issues are addressed, it will not be possible for current systems to work at higher levels. PMID:23939340

  20. Democracy, Social Capital and School Governing Bodies in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolman, S.; Fleisch, B.

    2008-01-01

    Critics of school governing bodies (SGBs)--both on the left and on the right--tend to rely upon arguments that ignore significant portions of the act that created SGBs--the South African Schools Act (SASA)--the exact nature of the changes to SGBs wrought by amendments to the act and the manner in which the courts, in interpreting the act, have…

  1. South Australian rural women's views of their pregnancy, birthing and postnatal care.

    PubMed

    Guest, Mandy L; Stamp, Georgina E

    2009-01-01

    This study considered the views and experiences of 85 rural women, most of whom gave birth in two regional South Australian hospitals. This descriptive survey used a validated questionnaire, modified for use in rural South Australia, which included open-ended questions to invite further comment. Women were invited to participate while in hospital after giving birth and those who agreed (n = 136) were mailed a questionnaire 6-8 weeks after the birth. Data were collected on demographic and other information including: age, smoking status, model of antenatal and birth care, birth method, women's views of their care in pregnancy, labour and after the birth, breastfeeding uptake and continuance rates, and prevalence of possible depression after birth using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Non-identifiable data were described using descriptive statistics and analysed using t-tests, 2 x 2 contingency tables and relative risks, as appropriate. Where available, comparisons were made with other rural and South Australian data. Qualitative data were themed by consensus. Eighty-five women (63%) returned a completed questionnaire. Rates of spontaneous vaginal birth were significantly lower in the study than for 5257 South Australian rural residents who gave birth in 2006 (n = 38, 45% vs 3057, 58%). While caesarean rates overall were similar, elective caesarean rates were higher (25% vs 15%), while fewer study women smoked throughout pregnancy (9% vs 24%). Overall, women in the study rated their care as 'very good' for antenatal care(59%), for labour and birth care (73%) and postnatal care (53%). More women stayed in hospital for 5 days or more than South Australian women overall (53% vs 40%). Open-ended comments confirmed reasons that were related to their choice. Breastfeeding was commenced by 95% of the women and 69% were breastfeeding at 6 weeks. The findings confirm Victorian rural women's ratings, and further highlight that in the postnatal period women often feel

  2. Rejecting Ahmed's "Melancholy Migrant": South Sudanese Australians in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anne; Marlowe, Jay; Nyuon, Nyadol

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on related research studies in two urban centres (Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia) with South Sudanese men and women engaged in varying degrees with higher education. The co-authors examine some gendered differences in the process and demands of resettlement, including within employment and education, and its implications for…

  3. Rejecting Ahmed's "Melancholy Migrant": South Sudanese Australians in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anne; Marlowe, Jay; Nyuon, Nyadol

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on related research studies in two urban centres (Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia) with South Sudanese men and women engaged in varying degrees with higher education. The co-authors examine some gendered differences in the process and demands of resettlement, including within employment and education, and its implications for…

  4. Using economic policy to tackle chronic disease: options for the Australian Government.

    PubMed

    Kaplin, Lauren; Thow, Anne Marie

    2013-03-01

    Australia suffers from one of the highest prevalences among developed countries of persons being overweight and obese, these conditions arising from the overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that are generally less expensive than healthier options. One potential avenue for intervention is to influence the price of foods such that healthier options are less expensive and, therefore, are an easier choice to make. This article considers the potential for fiscal policies that would realign food prices with health incentives. Through a review of consumption taxes, consumer subsidies, trade policies, agricultural support policies, and other incentive programs as possible avenues for intervention, this article asks what the Commonwealth Government has already done to help improve Australian diets, and looks at where further improvements could be made.

  5. Governing mobile technology use for continuing professional development in the Australian nursing profession.

    PubMed

    Mather, Carey Ann; Gale, Fred; Cummings, Elizabeth Anne

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth in the use of mobile technology in Australia has outpaced its governance, especially in healthcare settings. Whilst some Australian professional bodies and organisations have developed standards and guidelines to direct appropriate use of social media and mobile technology, clear governance arrangements regarding when, where and how to use mobile technology at point of care in nursing are currently lacking. This paper analyses how the use of mobile technology by nurses at point of care is governed. It highlights the existence of a mobile technology paradox: an identified inability of nurses to access mobile technology in a context where it is increasingly recognised that its use in situ can enhance nursing practice while contributing to mobile learning and continuing professional development. While the recent release of the Registered Nurse Standards for Practice and accompanying Standard for Continuing Professional Development provides some direction regarding professional standards to support the use of mobile technology for mobile learning, we argue a more inclusive approach is required if emerging technologies are to be fully embraced. We describe how an implementation framework, underpinned by more detailed standards, guidelines and codes, could enable the nursing profession to be leaders in embedding mobile technology in healthcare environments nationally and globally. The prevalence of mobile technology in Australia has outpaced its governance in healthcare environments. Its limited availability at point of care is hindering nursing practice, mobile learning and continuing professional development. We discuss the emergence of mobile technology and impediments for its use by nurses in situ. We analyse the professional codes governing nursing, outlining potential reforms to enable implementation of mobile technology at point of care by nurses.

  6. Chronic kidney disease management--what can we learn from South African and Australian efforts?

    PubMed

    Katz, I J; Hoy, W E; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, S; Gerntholtz, T; Scheppingen, J; Sharma, S; Butler, O; Shezi, E; Mdleleni, G; Mthombeni, D

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease is on the rise. Our objective is to describe two programs to improve the awareness and management of hypertension, renal disease, and diabetes in remote Australian Aboriginal and urban and periurban South African communities. We focus on how the Australian Aboriginal and South African Chronic Disease Outreach Programs have worked together. The establishment of prevention programs in developing countries is a challenge. The paper evaluates these challenges, including accessing international aid. The programs advocate that regular integrated checks for chronic disease and their risk factors are essential elements of regular adult health care. Programs should be run by primary health workers, following algorithms for testing and treatment, and a backup provided by nurse coordinators. Constant evaluation is essential to develop community health profiles and adapt program structure. Both programs are discussed, including how they are organized to deliver preventative and treatment strategies. The challenges and adaptations required are outlined. It is the aim of the international kidney community to prevent chronic kidney disease. The South African and Australian groups highlight the need for a systematic and sustained approach to the management of chronic diseases to achieve this goal. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A conceptual schema for government purchasing arrangements for Australian alcohol and other drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alison; Hull, Philip; Berends, Lynda; Chalmers, Jenny; Lancaster, Kari

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a conceptual schema for government purchasing of alcohol and other drug treatment in Australia which could encompass the diversity and variety in purchasing arrangements, and facilitate better decision-maker by purchasers. There is a limited evidence base on purchasing arrangements in alcohol and drug treatment despite the clear impact of purchasing arrangements on both treatment processes and treatment outcomes. The relevant health and social welfare literature on purchasing arrangements was reviewed; data were collected from Australian purchasers and providers of treatment giving detailed descriptions of the array of purchasing arrangements. Combined analysis of the literature and the Australian purchasing data resulted in a draft schema which was then reviewed by an expert committee and subsequently finalised. The conceptual schema presented here was purpose-built for alcohol and other drug treatment, with its overlap between health and social welfare services. It has three dimensions: 1. The ways in which providers are chosen; 2. The ways in which services are paid for; and 3. How price is managed. Distinguishing between the methods for choosing providers (such as competitive or individually negotiated processes) from the way in which organisations are paid for their provision of treatment (such as via a block grant or payment for activity) provides conceptual clarity and enables closer analysis of each mechanism. Governments can improve health and wellbeing by making informed decisions about the way they purchase and fund alcohol and other drug treatment. Research comparing different purchasing arrangements can provide a vital evidence-base to inform funders; however a first step is to accurately and consistently categorise current approaches against a typology or conceptual schema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Adoption of Internal Audit as a Governance Control Mechanism in Australian Public Universities--Views from the CEOs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and the views of university chief executive officers (CEOs) to examine the extent to which internal auditing as a control mechanism is adopted in Australian public universities under an environment of change management. The findings highlight negative consequences of change and their…

  9. NAPLAN and the Role of Edu-Business: New Governance, New Privatisations and New Partnerships in Australian Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of the edu-businesses currently working in partnership with the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority to deliver the Commonwealth government policy initiative of the National Assessment Program--Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). These emerging public--private partnerships (PPPs) exemplify…

  10. The Adoption of Internal Audit as a Governance Control Mechanism in Australian Public Universities--Views from the CEOs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and the views of university chief executive officers (CEOs) to examine the extent to which internal auditing as a control mechanism is adopted in Australian public universities under an environment of change management. The findings highlight negative consequences of change and their…

  11. NAPLAN and the Role of Edu-Business: New Governance, New Privatisations and New Partnerships in Australian Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of the edu-businesses currently working in partnership with the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority to deliver the Commonwealth government policy initiative of the National Assessment Program--Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). These emerging public--private partnerships (PPPs) exemplify…

  12. The social determinants of youth gambling in South Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Delfabbro, Paul; Thrupp, Letitia

    2003-06-01

    Recent Australian studies (Moore, S.M., and Ohtsuka, K. (1997). Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 207-236) have revealed a strong youth interest in gambling in Australia, as reflected in current participation levels, future intentions and attitudes. Implicit in much of this attitudinal research is that youth gambling is strongly influenced by the familial, social and cultural norms to which young people are exposed. In this paper, we investigate the hypothesis that gambling can be understood in terms of variations in economic socialization, namely, the way in which children learn about money, risk, and saving. A school survey of 505 adolescents (aged 15-17 years) showed that over 60% of adolescents were gambling annually and that 3.5% scored in the problematic range on the DSM-IV-J (Fisher, S.E. (1999). Addiction Research, 7, 509-538). More frequent gambling was associated with parental and peer gambling and pro-gambling attitudes, but unrelated to adolescents' attitudes towards economic concepts. Nevertheless, in partial support of the hypotheses, adolescents whose parents taught them about keeping to a budget, saving money, and maintaining their finances were less likely to express an interest in future gambling.

  13. The Impact of Reagan Federalism on South Dakota and South Dakota Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farber, William O.

    This field network study is an account of how three essential features of Reagan federalism affected South Dakota government and programs from 1981-1983: (1) tightening eligibility requirements for entitlement programs to reduce costs; (2) combining 57 categorical grants into 9 block grants, which broadened program goals to permit wider state…

  14. Entanglement of Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals in lost fishing gear and other marine debris before and after Government and industry attempts to reduce the problem.

    PubMed

    Page, Brad; McKenzie, Jane; McIntosh, Rebecca; Baylis, Alastair; Morrissey, Adam; Calvert, Norna; Haase, Tami; Berris, Mel; Dowie, Dave; Shaughnessy, Peter D; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, Australian governments and fishing industry associations have developed guiding principles aimed at reducing the impact of fishing on non-target species and the benthos and increasing community awareness of their efforts. To determine whether they reduced seal entanglement in lost fishing gear and other marine debris, we analysed Australian sea lion and New Zealand fur seal entanglement data collected from Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Contrary to our expectations, we found that entanglement rates did not decrease in recent years. The Australian sea lion entanglement rate (1.3% in 2002) and the New Zealand fur seal entanglement rate (0.9% in 2002) are the third and fourth highest reported for any seal species. Australian sea lions were most frequently entangled in monofilament gillnet that most likely originated from the shark fishery, which operates in the region where sea lions forage--south and east of Kangaroo Island. In contrast, New Zealand fur seals were most commonly entangled in loops of packing tape and trawl net fragments suspected to be from regional rock lobster and trawl fisheries. Based on recent entanglement studies, we estimate that 1478 seals die from entanglement each year in Australia. We discuss remedies such as education programs and government incentives that may reduce entanglements.

  15. Factors Relating to Access to Dental Care for Indigenous South Australians.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelly; Keeler, Ngara; Morris, Chris; Brennan, David; Roberts-Thompson, Kaye; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    To explore and document self-reported factors contributing to Indigenous Australians' attendance and non-attendance at South Australian public dental clinics. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people (18 males and 26 females) referred for oral care through the Aboriginal Liaison Program of the South Australian Dental Service. Thematic analysis was performed on 44 transcribed conversations and a conceptual model developed. Persons completing all recommended treatment reported high self-efficacy, health literacy, social cohesion and previous use of dental services and presence of a health advocate. Those completing some recommended treatment reported achieving desired oral health outcome of relief of pain or system-level barriers to completion. Those reporting accessing no dental treatment in contrast reported varied and complex barriers to dental care. Differences in both individual and health service-related factors were evident. Individual-level factors related to health literacy, self-efficacy, and social control. Service factors related to availability of an advocate, service delivery, and culture. Practical service-level changes may alleviate the effects of individual-level factors.

  16. Perceptions of the Principal's Role in Democratic School Governance in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncube, Vusi

    2009-01-01

    This article explores governors' perceptions of the role played by school principals in the democratic governance of secondary schools in South Africa. The South African Schools Act No. 84 of 1996 has mandated that all public schools in South Africa must have democratically elected school governing bodies, comprised of the principal (in his or her…

  17. Perceptions of the Principal's Role in Democratic School Governance in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncube, Vusi

    2009-01-01

    This article explores governors' perceptions of the role played by school principals in the democratic governance of secondary schools in South Africa. The South African Schools Act No. 84 of 1996 has mandated that all public schools in South Africa must have democratically elected school governing bodies, comprised of the principal (in his or her…

  18. Decline in the prevalence of dental fluorosis among South Australian children.

    PubMed

    Do, L G; Spencer, A J

    2007-08-01

    The use of fluoride involves a balance between protection against dental caries and risk of dental fluorosis. Fluorosis in Australian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990 s. Policy measures were introduced to control fluoride exposure so as to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. To evaluate the effectiveness of policy measures in reducing the prevalence of fluorosis among Australian children. A random sample of South Australian children born in 1989-1994 was selected in 2002/2003, stratified by fluoridation status and urban/rural residence. Children were targeted to form three successive birth cohorts: those children born in 1989/1990, 1991/1992 and 1993/1994, respectively. Fluoride exposures were assessed by questionnaire. One dentist examined 677 children for fluorosis using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) Index. Data were reweighted to reflect the state's child population. Case definitions of fluorosis were: having a TF score of 1+ (TF1+) or a TF score of 2+ (TF2+) on one or both maxillary central incisors. A higher proportion of children in the later birth cohorts used low-concentration fluoridated toothpaste, and a smaller amount of toothpaste was used when they commenced toothbrushing. The fluorosis experience in this population was mostly very mild to mild. There was a significant decline in the prevalence of fluorosis across the three successive birth cohorts. The prevalence of fluorosis by TF1+ case definition declined from 34.7% to 22.1% and by TF2+ case definition from 17.9% to 8.3%. Risk factors for fluorosis were use of standard-concentration fluoridated toothpaste, an eating and/or licking toothpaste habit and exposure to fluoridated water. The experience of fluorosis among the South Australian child population was mostly very mild to mild. There was a marked decline in the prevalence of fluorosis across the three successive birth cohorts. The decline was mainly linked with the reduction in exposure to fluoride from fluoridated toothpaste.

  19. Acetic acid bacteria isolated from grapes of South Australian vineyards.

    PubMed

    Mateo, E; Torija, M J; Mas, A; Bartowsky, E J

    2014-05-16

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) diversity from healthy, mould-infected and rot-affected grapes collected from three vineyards of Adelaide Hills (South Australia) was analyzed by molecular typing and identification methods. Nine different AAB species were identified from the 624 isolates recovered: Four species from Gluconobacter genus, two from Asaia and one from Acetobacter were identified by the analysis of 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer. However, the identification of other isolates that were assigned as Asaia sp. and Ameyamaea chiangmaiensis required more analysis for a correct species classification. The species of Gluconobacter cerinus was the main one identified; while one genotype of Asaia siamensis presented the highest number of isolates. The number of colonies recovered and genotypes identified was strongly affected by the infection status of the grapes; the rot-affected with the highest number. However, the species diversity was similar in all the cases. High AAB diversity was detected with a specific genotype distribution for each vineyard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. School Governing Bodies in South African Schools: Under Pressure to Enhance Democratization and Improve Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heystek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Governing bodies in South Africa are expected to have an important role in ensuring high quality education in schools as well as in the democratization of the post-apartheid South Africa. However, current legislation precludes governing bodies from involvement in the professional management of schools. Governing bodies are democratically elected…

  1. The psychiatric profession and the Australian government: the debate over collective depression syndrome among asylum-seeking detainees.

    PubMed

    Bostock, William W

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatrists have long had involvement with the political process, both individually and as a profession. They have made valuable contributions to debate over such issues as war, conflict, terrorism, torture, human rights abuse, drug abuse, suicide and other public health issues. However, they have also been complicit in some gross atrocities. Over several years there has been debate over the Australian Government's treatment of asylum seekers, and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists took the unusual step of publicly criticizing the Australian Government's policy on grounds of its toxicity leading to a diagnosis of collective depression syndrome, particularly among child detainees, but also adult detainees. The official Ministerial response was to deny that collective depression exists and to assert that the concept is meaningless. Can this intervention by psychiatrists be interpreted as a product of earlier political behaviors by psychiatrists? The willingness of psychiatrists to cooperate with other professions, notably psychologists, pediatricians, physicians and lawyers, is noted, as is presence of minority voices within the Australian psychiatric profession. The significance of the debate over the mental condition of asylum-seeking detainees is that its outcome has implications for how Australia sees itself and is seen by the rest of the world, that is, its national identity.

  2. Young people's comparative recognition and recall of an Australian Government Sexual Health Campaign.

    PubMed

    Lim, Megan S C; Gold, Judy; Bowring, Anna L; Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, the Australian Government's National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program launched a multi-million dollar sexual health campaign targeting young people. We assessed campaign recognition among a community sample of young people. Individuals aged 16-29 years self-completed a questionnaire at a music festival. Participants were asked whether they recognised the campaign image and attempted to match the correct campaign message. Recognition of two concurrent campaigns, GlaxoSmithKline's The Facts genital herpes campaign (targeting young women) and the Drama Downunder campaign (targeting gay men) were assessed simultaneously. Among 471 participants, just 29% recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. This compared to 52% recognising The Facts and 27% recognising Drama Downunder. Of 134 who recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign, 27% correctly recalled the campaign messages compared to 61% of those recognising the Facts campaign, and 25% of those recognising the Drama Downunder campaign. There was no difference in National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign recognition by gender or age. Campaign recognition and message recall of the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign was comparatively low. Future mass media sexual health campaigns targeting young people can aim for higher recognition and recall rates than that achieved by the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. Alternative distribution channels and message styles should be considered to increase these rates. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Can clinical governance deliver quality improvement in Australian general practice and primary care? A systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christine B; Pearce, Christopher M; Hall, Sally; Travaglia, Joanne; de Lusignan, Simon; Love, Tom; Kljakovic, Marjan

    2010-11-15

    To review the literature on different models of clinical governance and to explore their relevance to Australian primary health care, and their potential contributions on quality and safety. 25 electronic databases, scanning reference lists of articles and consultation with experts in the field. We searched publications in English after 1999, but a search of the German language literature for a specific model type was also undertaken. The grey literature was explored through a hand search of the medical trade press and websites of relevant national and international clearing houses and professional or industry bodies. 11 software packages commonly used in Australian general practice were reviewed for any potential contribution to clinical governance. 19 high-quality studies that assessed outcomes were included. All abstracts were screened by one researcher, and 10% were screened by a second researcher to crosscheck screening quality. Studies were reviewed and coded by four reviewers, with all studies being rated using standard critical appraisal tools such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist. Two researchers reviewed the Australian general practice software. Interviews were conducted with 16 informants representing service, regional primary health care, national and international perspectives. Most evidence supports governance models which use targeted, peer-led feedback on the clinician's own practice. Strategies most used in clinical governance models were audit, performance against indicators, and peer-led reflection on evidence or performance. The evidence base for clinical governance is fragmented, and focuses mainly on process rather than outcomes. Few publications address models that enhance safety, efficiency, sustainability and the economics of primary health care. Locally relevant clinical indicators, the use of computerised medical record systems, regional primary health care organisations that have the

  4. A systematic interim assessment of the Australian Government's Food and Health Dialogue.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Tamara; Trevena, Helen; Sacks, Gary; Dunford, Elizabeth; Martin, Jane; Webster, Jacqui; Swinburn, Boyd; Moodie, A Rob; Neal, Bruce C

    2014-02-03

    To evaluate whether the Food and Health Dialogue (the Dialogue), established by the Australian Government in 2009, is having an impact on reducing premature death and disability caused by poor diet in Australia. We used information derived from the Dialogue website, media releases, communiqués and e-newsletters to evaluate the Dialogue's achievements from October 2009 to September 2013, using the RE-AIM (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance) framework. Data describing the processed foods marketed in Australia were extracted from an existing food composition database. Achievements of the Dialogue (goals, targets, actions and health outcomes). The primary goal of the Dialogue was identified as "raising the nutritional profile of foods" to be achieved "through reformulation, consumer education and portion standardisation". Employing a public-private partnership model, the Dialogue has established a framework for collaboration between government, public health groups and industry. In the first 4 years, targets were set for 11 (8.9%) of a total of 124 possible action areas for food reformulation and portion standardisation. None were yet due to have been achieved. There was no evidence that any education programs had been implemented by the Dialogue. There are no indicators of the extent to which population exposure to target nutrients has changed or whether any positive or negative health impacts have ensued. The Dialogue has highly creditable goals but the mechanism for delivering on them has proved inadequate. Explicit processes and the outcomes to be delivered within defined timelines are required, along with a clear plan for remediation if they are not achieved.

  5. Using taxes to curb drinking: a report card on the Australian government's alcopops tax.

    PubMed

    Doran, Christopher M; Digiusto, Erol

    2011-11-01

    In 2008, the Australian government introduced an 'alcopops tax' on spirit-based ready-to-drink (RTD) beverages to reduce alcohol consumption and particularly binge drinking by young people. Data regarding sales of alcoholic beverages in Australia from 2004 to 2009 were used to examine the possible effects of the alcopops tax. In addition, population data were used to calculate and examine per capita consumption. Various measures of consumption of wine-based RTDs, spirits, cider, wine and beer remained fairly stable or increased annually from 2004 to 2009. Consumption of spirit-based RTDs increased annually from 2004 to 2007, but then decreased in 2008 and 2009. Per capita alcohol consumption in terms of pure alcohol increased annually from 11.52 litres in 2004 to a peak of 11.79 litres in 2007, but then dropped to 11.55 litres and 11.41 litres in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Consumption of spirit-based RTDs dropped and consumption of other alcoholic beverages increased following the introduction of the tax. The increased consumption of other alcoholic beverages could be interpreted as indicating that RTD drinkers switched to purchasing spirits or wine-based RTDs or cider. However, those increases could also be interpreted as a continuation of long-term trends rather than a 'substitution effect'. It is impossible to know how much of the changes were due to the tax, to the 'global financial crisis', to adaptive marketing by the alcohol industry, to the Government's national binge drinking strategy, to mass media coverage of these issues or to other factors. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Assuming too much? Participatory water resource governance in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that participation in natural resource management, which is often coupled with moves for more local ownership of decision making, is based on three sets of assumptions: about the role of the state, the universality of application of such approaches and the transformatory potential of institutional reform. The validity of these assumptions requires investigation in view of the rapid institutionalisation and scaling-up of participatory approaches, particularly in developing country contexts. Post-apartheid South Africa is widely recognised as a pioneer of participatory and devolutionary approaches, particularly in the field of water resources. It is 12 years since the promulgation of the forward-thinking 1998 National Water Act, and thus an opportune moment to reflect on South Africa's experiences of participatory governance. Drawing on empirical research covering the establishment of the first Catchment Management Agency, and the transformation of existing Irrigation Boards into more inclusive Water User Associations in the Inkomati Water Management Area, it emerges that there may be fundamental weaknesses in the participatory model and underlying assumptions, and indeed such approaches may actually reinforce inequitable outcomes: the legacy of long-established institutional frameworks and powerful actors therein continues to exert influence in post-apartheid South Africa, and has the potential to subvert the democratic and redistributive potential of the water reforms. It is argued that a reassessment of the role of the state is necessary: where there is extreme heterogeneity in challenging catchments more, rather than less, state intervention may be required to uphold the interests of marginalised groups and effect redistribution.

  7. Health priorities and perceived health determinants among South Australians attending GLBTI festival events.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Gary

    2007-04-01

    Health differentials related to the social position of people whose sexual attraction or gender identity differs from that of the majority may be the 'forgotten inequity' in contemporary Australian discourses on health inequalities and social inclusion. What sexually- and gender-diverse communities see as health priorities and the social determinants of their health have been little studied in Australia. This survey explored the experience and opinions of a convenience sample of gay, lesbian, bisexual, trangender and intersex (GLBTI) people in South Australia. A pencil and paper survey was administered to people attending events associated with the Feast GLBTI festival in Adelaide in 2004 and good participation rates were obtained. Two hundred and fifty-three people completed the survey, of which 122 identified as female, 124 as male and seven as other genders. Depression, HIV, suicide, family relationship problems and alcohol problems were seen as the most important health issues for these communities, while discrimination under the law and in daily life were rated the most important health determinants. GLBTI South Australians surveyed identified priority health issues for their communities and identified legal and personal discrimination as significant determinants of their health.

  8. The impact of socioeconomic position on sport participation among South Australian youth.

    PubMed

    Dollman, James; Lewis, Nicole R

    2010-05-01

    Organised sport among youth makes a substantial contribution to daily energy expenditure. This study investigated socioeconomic gradients in sport participation and predictors of participation. A representative sample of young South Australians (10-15 y; n=1737) was surveyed on organised sport participation in the previous 12 months, and predictors derived from the Children's Physical Activity Correlates scale and a parent survey. Four constructs were derived: 'is it worth it?' (perceived outcomes); 'am I able?' (perceived competency); 'reinforcing' (parental support); and 'enabling' (perceived barriers, from the parent survey). Socioeconomic position (SEP) was operationalized by an area-level indicator, the Socioeconomic Indicator for Advantage (SEIFA), split into tertiles. Sport participation was higher among high (highest SEIFA tertile) compared with low (lowest SEIFA tertile) SEP children. All predictors except 'am I able?' were positively associated with sport participation among boys and girls. Of these predictors, the 'enabling' construct varied by SEP among both boys and girls, with high SEP children reporting fewer barriers to participation. High SEP girls reported higher scores on 'reinforcing' and 'is it worth it?' than their low SEP counterparts. Low SEP girls reported lower levels of both instrumental and affective support from parents to play sport. There are distinct SEP gradients in sport participation, as well as its psychosocial and environmental predictors among South Australian youth. Low SEP girls are the most disadvantaged in terms of parental support to participate in sport. Interventions targeting this vulnerable group are urgently required. 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New South Wales Child Development Study (NSW-CDS): an Australian multiagency, multigenerational, longitudinal record linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Vaughan J; Harris, Felicity; Raudino, Alessandra; Luo, Luming; Kariuki, Maina; Liu, Enwu; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Smith, Maxwell; Holbrook, Allyson; Bore, Miles; Brinkman, Sally; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Dix, Katherine; Dean, Kimberlie; Laurens, Kristin R; Green, Melissa J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The initial aim of this multiagency, multigenerational record linkage study is to identify childhood profiles of developmental vulnerability and resilience, and to identify the determinants of these profiles. The eventual aim is to identify risk and protective factors for later childhood-onset and adolescent-onset mental health problems, and other adverse social outcomes, using subsequent waves of record linkage. The research will assist in informing the development of public policy and intervention guidelines to help prevent or mitigate adverse long-term health and social outcomes. Participants The study comprises a population cohort of 87 026 children in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW). The cohort was defined by entry into the first year of full-time schooling in NSW in 2009, at which time class teachers completed the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC) on each child (with 99.7% coverage in NSW). The AEDC data have been linked to the children's birth, health, school and child protection records for the period from birth to school entry, and to the health and criminal records of their parents, as well as mortality databases. Findings to date Descriptive data summarising sex, geographic and socioeconomic distributions, and linkage rates for the various administrative databases are presented. Child data are summarised, and the mental health and criminal records data of the children's parents are provided. Future plans In 2015, at age 11 years, a self-report mental health survey was administered to the cohort in collaboration with government, independent and Catholic primary school sectors. A second record linkage, spanning birth to age 11 years, will be undertaken to link this survey data with the aforementioned administrative databases. This will enable a further identification of putative risk and protective factors for adverse mental health and other outcomes in adolescence, which can then be tested in subsequent record linkages

  10. Estimated impacts of alternative Australian alcohol taxation structures on consumption, public health and government revenues.

    PubMed

    Doran, Christopher M; Byrnes, Joshua M; Cobiac, Linda J; Vandenberg, Brian; Vos, Theo

    2013-11-04

    To examine health and economic implications of modifying taxation of alcohol in Australia. Economic and epidemiological modelling of four scenarios for changing the current taxation of alcohol products, including: replacing the wine equalisation tax (WET) with a volumetric tax; applying an equal tax rate to all beverages equivalent to a 10% increase in the current excise applicable to spirits and ready-to-drink products; applying an excise tax rate that increases exponentially by 3% for every 1% increase in alcohol content above 3.2%; and applying a two-tiered volumetric tax. We used annual sales data and taxation rates for 2010 as the base case. Alcohol consumption, taxation revenue, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted and health care costs averted. In 2010, the Australian Government collected close to $8.6 billion from alcohol taxation. All four of the proposed variations to current rates of alcohol excise were shown to save money and more effectively reduce alcohol-related harm compared with the 2010 base case. Abolishing the WET and replacing it with a volumetric tax on wine would increase taxation revenue by $1.3 billion per year, reduce alcohol consumption by 1.3%, save $820 million in health care costs and avert 59 000 DALYs. The alternative scenarios would lead to even higher taxation receipts and greater reductions in alcohol use and harm. Our research findings suggest that any of the proposed variations to current rates of alcohol excise would be a cost-effective health care intervention; they thus reinforce the evidence that taxation is a cost-effective strategy. Of all the scenarios, perhaps the most politically feasible policy option at this point in time is to abolish the WET and replace it with a volumetric tax on wine. This analysis supports the recommendation of the National Preventative Health Taskforce and the Henry Review towards taxing alcohol according to alcohol content.

  11. 78 FR 16028 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to South Sudan, and I hereby waive this restriction....

  12. Parent Involvement in Public School Governance: The United States and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Wayne D.; Colditz, Paul; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    This article explores parent involvement in decision making in the United States and in postapartheid South Africa and highlights similarities and differences in how parents in these two countries participate in public school governance and decision making. Parents' role in public school governance in South Africa is significant and entrenched in…

  13. Budget Monitoring and Control in South African Township Schools: Democratic Governance at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestry, Raj; Naidoo, Gans

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates budget monitoring and control in township schools in South Africa. The enactment of the Schools Act 1996 revolutionized school financial management in South Africa, making it part of the drive for democratic school governance. School governing bodies had to be established, whose responsibility it became to manage finances…

  14. Budget Monitoring and Control in South African Township Schools: Democratic Governance at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestry, Raj; Naidoo, Gans

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates budget monitoring and control in township schools in South Africa. The enactment of the Schools Act 1996 revolutionized school financial management in South Africa, making it part of the drive for democratic school governance. School governing bodies had to be established, whose responsibility it became to manage finances…

  15. Status of emergency obstetric care in a local government area in south-south Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mezie-Okoye, Margaret M; Adeniji, Foluke O; Tobin-West, Charles I; Babatunde, Seye

    2012-09-01

    This study assessed the status of the availability and performance of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in 12 functional public health facilities out of the existing 19 in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State in south-south Nigeria, prior to the midwives service scheme (MSS) launch in 2009. No facility qualified as basic EmOC, while one had comprehensive EmOC status. Signal functions that required supply of medical consumables were performed by more facilities than services that required special training, equipment and maintenance. Only two facilities (16.67%) had the minimum requirement of > or =4 midwives for 24-hour EmOC service; while only 2.2% of expected births occurred at the facilities. The poor state of maternal health resources in the study area requires urgent interventions by Local and State Governments for infrastructure upgrade and deployment and training of staff towards attainment of MDG-5. A follow-up evaluation would be required since the commencement of the MSS.

  16. Internet access for delivery of health information to South Australians older than 50.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Carlene; Flight, Ingrid; Hart, Elizabeth; Turnbull, Deborah; Cole, Steve; Young, Graeme

    2008-04-01

    An exploratory study to determine the proportion of people aged 50-76 years who have Internet access, the location of this access, predictive characteristics of such access, and preparedness to receive unsolicited health information through this medium. A random sample of 1,000 South Australians was identified from the Australian Electoral Commission roll and contacted by telephone in 2006. They were invited to answer questions about their access to the Internet and attitude towards receiving unsolicited health information via the Internet. Of those contacted, 41% provided information. Of this group, 59% indicated that they had Internet access, mostly at home. Men were more likely than women to have home access (p<0.05). Higher educational achievement, higher economic status and younger age were all significantly associated with access. Of those who had access, 65% would be willing to receive health information through the Internet. More than half the population older than 50 years has access to the Internet at some location, and there is a general acceptance of the possibility of receiving health-promoting material via this medium. However, delivery via the Internet alone would disadvantage those who are less educated, less financially well off and older. It is likely that a generational change in the entire nature of public communication will influence the efficiency and effectiveness of preventive health promotion delivery via the Internet. In order to facilitate improved health outcomes, issues of disparity of access must be addressed.

  17. Owners' insights into private practice dentistry in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory.

    PubMed

    Fischer, J E; Marchant, T

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of practice ownership including debt on graduation, the time period between graduation and acquiring practice ownership and small business skills. A mail survey of 400 dentists with practice ownership, in New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), addressed demographics, setting up practice, technology and business management. Most respondents were male and nearly half had 20 years of practice ownership. Dentists agreed with the need to be taught small business management skills. Average debt on graduation was AUD$18 000 and the figure was higher for post 1995 graduates. On average, it took five years to acquire some form of practice ownership, but nearly half acquired ownership within three years. Few favoured opening a new practice. Staff were the most frequently nominated contributors to a successful practice, with fees, profit and parking noted least frequently. There was no question that these experienced dentists thought small business skills should be taught to the dental fraternity. Given the significance of staff to a successful practice, dentists may need to learn more about advanced human resource management including professional development and performance management. © 2010 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Parent Participation in School Governance: A Legal Analysis of Experiences in South Africa and Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathon, Justin; Beckmann, Johan; Bjork, Lars G.

    2011-01-01

    This comparative study on the educational governance systems of South Africa and the Commonwealth of Kentucky examines legal evidence from judicial decisions and administrative law to understand similarities in how school-based governance structures have been developed. We found that although school-level governance structures may provide greater…

  19. Parent Participation in School Governance: A Legal Analysis of Experiences in South Africa and Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathon, Justin; Beckmann, Johan; Bjork, Lars G.

    2011-01-01

    This comparative study on the educational governance systems of South Africa and the Commonwealth of Kentucky examines legal evidence from judicial decisions and administrative law to understand similarities in how school-based governance structures have been developed. We found that although school-level governance structures may provide greater…

  20. South Australian Scleroderma Register: autoantibodies as predictive biomarkers of phenotype and outcome.

    PubMed

    Graf, Scott W; Hakendorf, Paul; Lester, Sue; Patterson, Karen; Walker, Jenny G; Smith, Malcolm D; Ahern, Michael J; Roberts-Thomson, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between scleroderma-specific autoantibodies and clinical phenotype and survival in South Australian patients with scleroderma. Two cohorts of patients were studied from the South Australian Scleroderma Register (SASR). In the first, the sera of 129 consecutive patients were analyzed for anticentromere (ACA), anti-Scl70, anti-RNA polymerase III, anti-U1RNP, anti-Th/To, anti-Pm/Scl, anti-Ku and anti-fibrillarin antibodies using the Euroline immunoblot assay. Statistical analysis was performed to look for a significant association between specific antibodies and various clinical features. In the second cohort survival from first symptom onset was analyzed in 285 patients in whom the autoantibody profile was available, including ACA, Anti-Scl70, anti-U1RNP and anti-RNA polymerase III measured using multiple methods. Survival analysis compared mortality between different groups of patients with specific antibodies. ACA, Th/To and Ku antibodies were associated with limited scleroderma, Scl70 and RNA Pol III antibodies were associated with diffuse scleroderma and antibodies to U1RNP were associated with overlap syndrome. Significant associations between Scl70 and interstitial lung disease (P = 0.004), RNA Pol III and renal crisis (P = 0.002), U1RNP and pulmonary hypertension (P = 0.006) and Th/To and pulmonary hypertension (P = 0.034) were seen. Trends were observed with an increased frequency of lung disease with Pm/Scl and Th/To and an increased frequency of myositis with Ku. The presence of Scl70, RNA Pol III and U1RNP was associated with significantly reduced survival as compared with patients with ACA. Scleroderma-specific autoantibodies are associated with clinical phenotype and survival. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2011 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Different mechanisms of adaptation to cyclic water stress in two South Australian bread wheat cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Izanloo, Ali; Condon, Anthony G.; Langridge, Peter; Tester, Mark; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    In the South Australian wheat belt, cyclic drought is a frequent event represented by intermittent periods of rainfall which can occur around anthesis and post-anthesis in wheat. Three South Australian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Excalibur, Kukri, and RAC875, were evaluated in one greenhouse and two growth-room experiments. In the first growth-room experiment, where plants were subjected to severe cyclic water-limiting conditions, RAC875 and Excalibur (drought-tolerant) showed significantly higher grain yield under cyclic water availability compared to Kukri (drought-susceptible), producing 44% and 18% more grain compared to Kukri, respectively. In the second growth-room experiment, where plants were subjected to a milder drought stress, the differences between cultivars were less pronounced, with only RAC875 showing significantly higher grain yield under the cyclic water treatment. Grain number per spike and the percentage of aborted tillers were the major components that affected yield under cyclic water stress. Excalibur and RAC875 adopted different morpho-physiological traits and mechanisms to reduce water stress. Excalibur was most responsive to cyclic water availability and showed the highest level of osmotic adjustment (OA), high stomatal conductance, lowest ABA content, and rapid recovery from stress under cyclic water stress. RAC875 was more conservative and restrained, with moderate OA, high leaf waxiness, high chlorophyll content, and slower recovery from stress. Within this germplasm, the capacity for osmotic adjustment was the main physiological attribute associated with tolerance under cyclic water stress which enabled plants to recover from water deficit. PMID:18703496

  2. A balanced Kalman filter ocean data assimilation system with application to the South Australian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Toumi, Ralf

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) based regional ocean data assimilation system has been developed and applied to the South Australian Sea. This system consists of the data assimilation algorithm provided by the NCAR Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). We describe the first implementation of the physical balance operator (temperature-salinity, hydrostatic and geostrophic balance) to DART, to reduce the spurious waves which may be introduced during the data assimilation process. The effect of the balance operator is validated in both an idealised shallow water model and the ROMS model real case study. In the shallow water model, the geostrophic balance operator eliminates spurious ageostrophic waves and produces a better sea surface height (SSH) and velocity analysis and forecast. Its impact increases as the sea surface height and wind stress increase. In the real case, satellite-observed sea surface temperature (SST) and SSH are assimilated in the South Australian Sea with 50 ensembles using the Ensemble Adjustment Kalman Filter (EAKF). Assimilating SSH and SST enhances the estimation of SSH and SST in the entire domain, respectively. Assimilation with the balance operator produces a more realistic simulation of surface currents and subsurface temperature profile. The best improvement is obtained when only SSH is assimilated with the balance operator. A case study with a storm suggests that the benefit of the balance operator is of particular importance under high wind stress conditions. Implementing the balance operator could be a general benefit to ocean data assimilation systems.

  3. Preterm infant outcomes in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory.

    PubMed

    Bolisetty, Srinivas; Legge, Nele; Bajuk, Barbara; Lui, Kei

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to provide updated information on gestation-specific hospital outcomes of extreme to very preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. A population-based retrospective cohort study of infants born between 23(+0) and 31(+6) weeks gestation and admitted to a network of neonatal intensive care units between 2007 and 2011 in a well-defined geographic area of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Main outcome measures were survival and major morbidities prior to hospital discharge. Of 4454 infants included, hospital survival rates based on gestational age alone were 27%, 59%, 76%, 85%, 91% and over 95% at 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28-31 weeks, respectively. Survival rates for each week up to 29 weeks gestation differed by at least 5% when perinatal risk factors including birthweight percentile, exposure to antenatal steroids, birth outside a tertiary hospital and gender were included in the survival estimation. All the major outcome figures were then simplified and displayed in a simple, easy-to-understand preterm outcome table for counselling purposes. We report the latest hospital outcomes of extreme to very preterm infants in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Survival rates based on gestational age alone may not provide the true estimate as the survival for these infants can vary based on the presence or absence of other relevant perinatal factors. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. The role of the general practitioner in the Australian approach to HIV care: interviews with 'key informants' from government, non-government and professional organisations.

    PubMed

    Newman, Christy E; de Wit, John B F; Kippax, Susan C; Reynolds, Robert H; Canavan, Peter G; Kidd, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    HIV care is provided in a range of settings in Australia, but advances in HIV treatment and demographic and geographic changes in the affected population and general practitioner (GP) workforce are testing the sustainability of the special role for GPs. This paper explores how a group of 'key informants' described the role of the GP in the Australian approach to HIV care, and conceptualised the challenges currently inspiring debate around future models of care. A thematic analysis was conducted of semistructured interviews carried out in 2010 with 24 professionals holding senior roles in government, non-government and professional organisations that influence Australian HIV care policy. The strengths of the role of the GP were described as their community setting, collaborative partnership with other medical and health professions, and focus on patient needs. A number of associated challenges were also identified including the different needs of GPs with high and low HIV caseloads, the changing expectations of professional roles in general practice, and barriers to service accessibility for people living with HIV. While there are many advantages to delivering HIV services in primary care, GPs need flexible models of training and accreditation, support in strengthening relationships with other health and medical professionals, and assistance in achieving service accessibility. Consideration of how to support the GP workforce so that care can be made available in the broadest range of geographical and service settings is also critical if systems of HIV care delivery are to be realistic and cost-effective and meet consumer needs.

  5. Mental health screening in immigration detention: A fresh look at Australian government data.

    PubMed

    Young, Peter; Gordon, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    The poor mental health of asylum seekers and refugees in immigration detention has consistently been reported in peer-reviewed literature internationally; however, data on the mental health of asylum seekers and refugees detained in Australian immigration has been very limited. We re-analysed mental health screening data obtained by the Human Rights Commission. Longer time in detention was associated with higher self-reported depression scores, with female individuals being more vulnerable to time in detention than those of male gender. Approximately one-half of the refugee group who agreed to complete the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire had post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. On clinician-rated measures, one-third of the children, adolescents and adults suffered with clinical symptoms requiring tertiary outpatient assessment. This paper consolidates the findings of the 2014 Australian Human Rights Commission report and it provides an argument for public reporting of refugee data. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  6. Moving beyond a "Bums-on-Seats" Analysis of Progress towards Widening Participation: Reflections on the Context, Design and Evaluation of an Australian Government-Funded Mentoring Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Julianne; Walker-Gibbs, Bernadette; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Australian government established the Higher Education Participation and Partnerships Programme--a funding agenda to promote programmes that respond to the under-representation in higher education of people from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Many government-funded programmes and projects have since emerged that respond…

  7. Moving beyond a "Bums-on-Seats" Analysis of Progress towards Widening Participation: Reflections on the Context, Design and Evaluation of an Australian Government-Funded Mentoring Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Julianne; Walker-Gibbs, Bernadette; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Australian government established the Higher Education Participation and Partnerships Programme--a funding agenda to promote programmes that respond to the under-representation in higher education of people from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Many government-funded programmes and projects have since emerged that respond…

  8. Use of imaging studies for determination of brain death in South Australian intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Brett G; Datson, Luke D; Bihari, Shailesh

    2017-03-01

    To describe the use of imaging studies (four-vessel angiography or radionuclide scan) for brain death determination in South Australian intensive care units, and to determine the rates of adherence with The ANZICS statement on death and organ donation of the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS). Retrospective case-note review of 190 South Australian adult patients (≥ 18 years) who were brain dead and were organ donors (actual and intended), from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2014. We compared brain death determination by clinical examination and by imaging, and identified, using logistic regression, the independent predictors of brain death determination by imaging (and for imaging without a documented indication). Brain death determination by imaging occurred for 79 patients who were brain-dead donors (41.6%), with a documented indication in only 38 patients (48.1%), of whom 35 had an indication which adhered to ANZICS recommendations. The group who had brain death determined by imaging were younger (P < 0.001), with a higher proportion of hypoxic brain injury (P = 0.01) and therapeutic hypothermia (P = 0.02). Independent predictors of brain death determination by imaging were female sex (Β = 3.101, P = 0.03), age (Β = 0.964, P = 0.01), brain death determination between 5 pm and 8 am (Β = 0.332, P = 0.04), cause of death (Β = 1.833, P = 0.04), therapeutic hypothermia (Β = 0.162, P = 0.04) and terminal serum sodium level ≥ 150 mmol/L (Β = 0.131, P = 0.005); Nagelkerke R(2) = 0.669. Hypoxia was the only independent predictor of imaging without a documented ANZICS indication (Β = 0.071, P = 0.032; Nagelkerke R(2) = 0.581). Therapeutic hypothermia, terminal serum sodium level ≥ 150 mmol/L and cause of death were independent predictors of brain death determination by imaging study. Documentation of imaging indication was poor, particularly after hypoxic brain injury. This may reflect emerging indications for imaging, poor adherence to

  9. Government-Funded Student Outcomes, 2016: Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of the outcomes of students who completed government-funded vocational education and training (VET) during 2015, with the data collected in mid-2016. Government-funded VET is broadly defined as all activity delivered by government providers and government-funded activity delivered by community education and…

  10. Internal Audit: Does it Enhance Governance in the Australian Public University Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to confirm if internal audit, a corporate control process, is functioning effectively in Australian public universities. The study draws on agency theory, published literature and best-practice guidelines to develop an internal audit evaluation framework. A survey instrument is thereafter developed from the framework and used as a…

  11. Academic Governance Provided by Academic Boards within the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; Peters, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Academic boards play a key role in the maintenance of quality standards and the provision of strategic leadership on academic issues. The current research investigated the role provided at present to Australian universities through their academic boards. All universities described their academic boards as their principal academic body. The…

  12. Academic Governance Provided by Academic Boards within the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; Peters, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Academic boards play a key role in the maintenance of quality standards and the provision of strategic leadership on academic issues. The current research investigated the role provided at present to Australian universities through their academic boards. All universities described their academic boards as their principal academic body. The…

  13. Internal Audit: Does it Enhance Governance in the Australian Public University Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to confirm if internal audit, a corporate control process, is functioning effectively in Australian public universities. The study draws on agency theory, published literature and best-practice guidelines to develop an internal audit evaluation framework. A survey instrument is thereafter developed from the framework and used as a…

  14. South Australian historical earthquakes in the pre-instrumental period 1837-1963: A comprehensive chronicle and analysis of available intensity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, Katherine; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2014-05-01

    Macroseismic data in the form of felt reports of earthquake shaking is vital to seismic hazard assessment, especially in view of the relatively short period of instrumental recording in many countries. During the early 1990s, we conducted a very detailed examination of historical earthquake records held in the State Government archives and the Public Library (newspaper accounts) of South Australia. This work resulted in the compilation of a list of just over 460 earthquakes in the period prior to seismic network recording, which commenced in 1963. A single Milne (and later Milne-Shaw) seismograph had been operated in Adelaide from 1908 to 1948 to record worldwide events but it was not suitable for studying local seismic activity. The majority of the historical events uncovered had escaped mention in any previous publications on South Australian seismicity and seismic risk. This historical earthquake research, including the production of a large number of isoseismal maps to enable quantification in terms of magnitude and location, appears to have been the only study of its kind in South Australia performed so comprehensively, and resulted in the most extensive list available. After 20 years, it still stands as the definitive list of historical earthquake events in the State. The incorporation of these additional historical events into the South Australian Earthquake Catalogue maintained by the SA Department of Primary Industries and Resources had the potential to raise the previous listing of just 49 pre-instrumental events to 511 earthquakes, and to extend the record back another 46 years to 1837, the date the colony of South Australia was proclaimed. Some of the major events have been formally included in the South Australian Earthquake Catalogue. However, for many events there was insufficient information and/or time to finalize the source parameters due to the onerous task of manually trawling through historical records and newspapers for felt reports. With the

  15. Distribution and establishment of the alien Australian redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, in South Africa and Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ana L; Zengeya, Tsungai A; Hoffman, Andries C; Measey, G John; Weyl, Olaf L F

    2017-01-01

    The Australian redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus, von Martens), is native to Australasia, but has been widely translocated around the world due to aquaculture and aquarium trade. Mostly as a result of escape from aquaculture facilities, this species has established extralimital populations in Australia and alien populations in Europe, Asia, Central America and Africa. In South Africa, C. quadricarinatus was first sampled from the wild in 2002 in the Komati River, following its escape from an aquaculture facility in Swaziland, but data on the current status of its populations are not available. To establish a better understanding of its distribution, rate of spread and population status, we surveyed a total of 46 sites in various river systems in South Africa and Swaziland. Surveys were performed between September 2015 and August 2016 and involved visual observations and the use of collapsible crayfish traps. Cherax quadricarinatus is now present in the Komati, Lomati, Mbuluzi, Mlawula and Usutu rivers, and it was also detected in several off-channel irrigation impoundments. Where present, it was generally abundant, with populations having multiple size cohorts and containing ovigerous females. In the Komati River, it has spread more than 112 km downstream of the initial introduction point and 33 km upstream of a tributary, resulting in a mean spread rate of 8 km year(-1) downstream and 4.7 km year(-1) upstream. In Swaziland, estimated downstream spread rate might reach 14.6 km year(-1). Individuals were generally larger and heavier closer to the introduction site, which might be linked to juvenile dispersal. These findings demonstrate that C. quadricarinatus is established in South Africa and Swaziland and that the species has spread, not only within the river where it was first introduced, but also between rivers. Considering the strong impacts that alien crayfish usually have on invaded ecosystems, assessments of its potential impacts on native freshwater

  16. Distribution and establishment of the alien Australian redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, in South Africa and Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Zengeya, Tsungai A.; Hoffman, Andries C.; Measey, G. John; Weyl, Olaf L.F.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Australian redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus, von Martens), is native to Australasia, but has been widely translocated around the world due to aquaculture and aquarium trade. Mostly as a result of escape from aquaculture facilities, this species has established extralimital populations in Australia and alien populations in Europe, Asia, Central America and Africa. In South Africa, C. quadricarinatus was first sampled from the wild in 2002 in the Komati River, following its escape from an aquaculture facility in Swaziland, but data on the current status of its populations are not available. Methods To establish a better understanding of its distribution, rate of spread and population status, we surveyed a total of 46 sites in various river systems in South Africa and Swaziland. Surveys were performed between September 2015 and August 2016 and involved visual observations and the use of collapsible crayfish traps. Results Cherax quadricarinatus is now present in the Komati, Lomati, Mbuluzi, Mlawula and Usutu rivers, and it was also detected in several off-channel irrigation impoundments. Where present, it was generally abundant, with populations having multiple size cohorts and containing ovigerous females. In the Komati River, it has spread more than 112 km downstream of the initial introduction point and 33 km upstream of a tributary, resulting in a mean spread rate of 8 km year−1 downstream and 4.7 km year−1 upstream. In Swaziland, estimated downstream spread rate might reach 14.6 km year−1. Individuals were generally larger and heavier closer to the introduction site, which might be linked to juvenile dispersal. Discussion These findings demonstrate that C. quadricarinatus is established in South Africa and Swaziland and that the species has spread, not only within the river where it was first introduced, but also between rivers. Considering the strong impacts that alien crayfish usually have on invaded ecosystems, assessments of its

  17. Government-Funded Students and Courses, 2015. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of 2015 and time-series data relating to students, programs, subjects, training providers and funding in Australia's government-funded vocational education and training (VET) system (broadly defined as all activity delivered by government providers and government-funded activity delivered by community education…

  18. Government-Funded Students and Courses: January to September 2015. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of data relating to students, programs, training providers and funding in Australia's government-funded vocational education and training (VET) system (broadly defined as all activity delivered by government providers and government-funded activity delivered by community education and private training…

  19. Government-Funded Students and Courses: January to March 2015. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of data relating to students, programs, training providers, and funding in Australia's government-funded vocational education and training (VET) system (broadly defined as all activity delivered by government providers and government-funded activity delivered by community education and other registered…

  20. Occupational allergies in the seafood industry--a comparative study of Australian and South African workplaces.

    PubMed

    Lopata, A L; Baatjies, R; Thrower, S J; Jeebhay, M F

    2004-01-01

    Although seafood allergy due to ingestion is commonly observed in clinical practice, the incidence of seafood allergies in general and more specifically in the occupational setting in Australia is largely unknown. The work practices, occupational health services and allergic health problems in 140 seafood processing workplaces in Australia were examined and compared to previous studies in South Africa. A cross-sectional employer-based survey design was used to conduct the study in both countries. In the South African study a response rate of 60% (n = 41) was obtained, compared to a response rate of 18% (n = 140) in Australia. The most common seafood processed by workplaces in South Africa was finfish (76%) and rock lobster (34%). Similarly in Australia, finfish (34%) was the most frequently handled seafood. However, processing of prawns (24%) and oysters (21%) was more common in Australia. Common work processes in South Africa involved freezing (71%), cutting/filleting (63%) and degutting (58%) procedures. Similar processes were followed in Australian industries with the exception of shucking of oysters, particularly common in the aquaculture industries. About half of the workplaces in both countries provided an occupational health service and medical surveillance of workers. However, none of the workplaces in South Africa and only 9% of the workplaces in Australia had industrial hygiene programs for seafood aerosols in place. In both countries positive trends were observed between the size of the workforce and the provision of occupational health services (p<0.005). Similarly, skin rash accounted for highest of all reported health problems (78-81%) followed by asthmatic symptoms (7-10%) and other non-specific allergic symptoms (9-15%) in both countries. Most workplaces reported the annual prevalence of work-related symptoms to be less than 5%. In Australia 7% of respondents in workplaces reported workers having left their workplace due to work-related allergic

  1. Holocene denudation pattern across the South-Eastern Australian Escarpment and implications for its evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, Vincent; Dosseto, Anthony; Bellier, Olivier; Bourlès, Didier; Fleury, Jules; Aster Team

    2016-04-01

    Developing a process based understanding of continental relief evolution requires to quantify rates of denudation and to compare their distribution with the evolution of geomorphic parameters. The analysis of denudation and exhumation spatial patterns based from cosmogenic nuclides and low temperature thermochronology are routinely used to document the processes associated with the geomorphic evolution of continental relief over various timescales. Passive margin escarpments are among some of the most salient continental geomorphic features outside of orogenic areas. Their evolution have been studied intensively over the long-term (several Ma to tens of Ma), using for example low-temperature thermochronology. However, datasets documenting their shorter-term (1-10 ka) dynamics are scarcer, and only a limited number of case studies have used quantitative techniques such as cosmogenic nuclides to document the denudation pattern across such escarpments. The South Eastern Australian Escarpment is such a place where cosmogenic nuclides have been intensively used over the last two decades to constrain processes of landscape evolution over short wavelength, with, for example the calibration of the soil production function. Such existing data and constraints provide an ideal setting to carry on further long-wavelength exploration of the dynamics of the whole escarpment. We have sampled 17 catchments across the South Eastern Australian Escarpment, starting from the coastal plain and moving westward up to the low relief plateau surface. The observed landscape denudation rates are 10-20 mm/ka in the coastal area and progressively increases up to ~60 mm/ka toward the edge of the escarpment. In the low-relief areas located west of the continental drainage divide denudation rates fall back to 10-20 mm/ka. This nearly four-fold contrast in denudation across the divide is characteristic of a major disequilibrium in the dynamics of the river network associated with a progressive

  2. Eight new species of Australian stiletto flies in the genus Anabarhynchus Macquart (Diptera: Therevidae) from South East Queensland.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David J; Lambkin, Christine L; Yeates, David K

    2014-05-28

    We describe, diagnose and illustrate eight new species in the genus Anabarhynchus Macquart, 1848 as follows: Anabarhynchus cretatus sp. n., Anabarhynchus darembal sp. n., Anabarhynchus iancommoni sp. n., Anabarhynchus longiseta sp. n. Anabarhynchus lyncurium sp. n., Anabarhynchus moretonensis sp. n., Anabarhynchus neboensis sp. n. and Anabarhynchus wintertoni sp. n. These represent all new species in collections from south east Queensland. These new species bring the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 112.

  3. South African Higher Education in the First Decade of Democracy: From Cooperative Governance to Conditional Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Martin; Symes, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This paper tracks policies in the governance of higher education over the first decade of South Africa's democracy. The first democratically elected government of 1994 was faced with the formidable task of dismantling the structures of apartheid education. The foundations for a new policy were laid by a National Commission that reported in 1996,…

  4. Teacher Governance Reforms and Social Cohesion in South Africa: From Intention to Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Thomas; Sayed, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    The governance of teachers during apartheid in South Africa was characterised by high levels of disparity in teacher distribution and in conditions of labour. In the post-apartheid context policies and interventions that govern teachers are critical, and teachers can be seen to be placed in a central role as actors whose distribution, employment,…

  5. An Ambiguous, Contested Terrain: Governance Models for a New South African Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Everard

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of education governance in South Africa during the 1990s. It outlines ambiguities within and between competing policies, tracing the historical trajectory and explaining its outcome. Apartheid governance, the attempts to reform it, policy options originating within the anti-apartheid movement, and the law passed…

  6. South African Higher Education in the First Decade of Democracy: From Cooperative Governance to Conditional Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Martin; Symes, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This paper tracks policies in the governance of higher education over the first decade of South Africa's democracy. The first democratically elected government of 1994 was faced with the formidable task of dismantling the structures of apartheid education. The foundations for a new policy were laid by a National Commission that reported in 1996,…

  7. Teacher Governance Reforms and Social Cohesion in South Africa: From Intention to Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Thomas; Sayed, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    The governance of teachers during apartheid in South Africa was characterised by high levels of disparity in teacher distribution and in conditions of labour. In the post-apartheid context policies and interventions that govern teachers are critical, and teachers can be seen to be placed in a central role as actors whose distribution, employment,…

  8. Consumer involvement in the South Australian state policy for planned home birth.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lareen; Hood, Jo

    2009-03-01

    Two consumer representatives were participants in the development of their state government's Policy for Planned Birth At Home in South Australia. It was released in November 2007 to guide staff in public hospital and community midwifery programs, and the first hospital-based home birth service is commencing in February 2009. Consumer experiences of policy development and perceived benefits of consumer involvement for policy and transparency processes are described. Inclusion of consumers widely and actively during development and reform of maternity care is essential if real consumer participation is to occur and contribute to care that is truly woman-centered.

  9. Examination of the role of the combination of alcohol and cannabis in South Australian road crashes.

    PubMed

    Baldock, M R J; Lindsay, V L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the role of cannabis in road crashes in South Australia, with a particular focus on the extent to which crashes involving cannabis also involve alcohol. Hospital data, police-reported crash data, and the results of forensic tests of blood samples for drugs and alcohol were collected for 1,074 crash participants (drivers or motorcyclists) admitted to hospital. A sample of 135 coroners' reports was also examined to determine the role of alcohol and cannabis in fatal crashes. The 3 years of linked data for hospital admission cases revealed that alcohol played a greater role in road crashes than other drugs. Approximately 1 in 5 drivers or motorcyclists had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) above the legal limit of 0.05. Routine testing for cannabis, methamphetamine, and MDMA revealed a drug-positive rate of approximately 1 in 10 of those tested, with over half of these positive to cannabis. More than a third of cannabis cases also involved alcohol. The majority of those who were positive for alcohol had a BAC above 0.15 g/100 mL. BACs were similarly high among drivers positive for both alcohol and cannabis. The findings of the hospital data and the coroners' reports were consistent with each other in terms of providing confirmation that alcohol is still the drug associated with the greatest level of road trauma on South Australian roads. Furthermore, alcohol was also present in around half of the cannabis cases and, when present, tended to be present at very high levels. The results of this study emphasize that, although drug driving is clearly a problem, the most important form of impaired driving that needs to be the target of enforcement is drink driving. Roadside drug testing is important but should not be conducted in such a way that reduces the deterrent value of random breath testing.

  10. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics: Government-Funded Students and Courses-- January to September 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of data relating to students, programs, subjects and training providers in Australia's government-funded vocational education and training (VET) system (defined as Commonwealth and state/territory government-funded training). The data in this publication cover the period of 1 January to 30 September 2016. For…

  11. A Critique of "New" Rural Local Governance: The Case of Gender in a Rural Australian Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pini, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade rural social scientists have demonstrated significant interest in documenting the new forms of governance emerging in rural and regional areas. However, little attention has been given to examining the gendered aspects of these new arrangements. This paper takes up the issue of gender and governance in rural areas by reporting…

  12. PREVALENCE AND PATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF CHLAMYDIA PECORUM INFECTIONS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIAN KOALAS (PHASCOLARCTOS CINEREUS).

    PubMed

    Speight, K Natasha; Polkinghorne, Adam; Penn, Rachel; Boardman, Wayne; Timms, Peter; Fraser, Tamieka; Johnson, Kathryn; Faull, Rachel; Bate, Sarah; Woolford, Lucy

    2016-04-28

    Chlamydia pecorum infection is highly prevalent in many koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) populations in the eastern states of Australia, causing ocular and urogenital tract disease. In contrast, the current prevalence of chlamydiosis in South Australian (SA) koalas is largely unknown, with few reports of clinical cases. We examined 65 SA rescued wild koalas at necropsy and collected ocular and urogenital swabs for the detection of C. pecorum by PCR. We detected C. pecorum in ocular or urogenital swabs from 57 koalas (88%), and 34 koalas were positive at both ocular and urogenital sites. Clinically overt chlamydial disease was present in only 12 (21%) positive koalas. Gross lesions were often externally inapparent as they affected the urogenital tract (n=5), and 24 infected koalas had microscopically evident lesions only. Lesions were predominantly mild and included conjunctivitis, cystitis, and urethritis. Reproductive tract disease was infrequently observed. We detected C. pecorum in 16 (28%) koalas with no evidence of chlamydial disease, suggesting the presence of subclinical carriers in this population. Based on these findings, chlamydiosis has a higher occurrence in SA koala populations than previously thought, but is most often mild and does not always result in overt clinical disease; inapparent and subclinical infections appear common. Further studies of the prevalence in wild-caught SA koalas are needed along with research into the host and bacterial factors that may influence disease outcome in these animals.

  13. New approaches to predicting surface fuel moisture in south east Australian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Hawthorne, Sandra; Bovill, William; Walsh, Sean; Baillie, Craig; Duff, Thomas; Tolhurst, Kevin; Lane, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The capacity to predict of the moisture content (FMC) of fine surface fuels in mountainous south east Australian forests has improved dramatically in recent years due to the convergence of several new technologies, including i) improved process-based account-keeping type FMC models, ii) improved understanding and representation of topographic effects (aspect, drainage position, elevation) on surface fuel and soil moisture, iii) improved methods for downscaling weather variables (eg. rainfall/throughfall, short-wave radiation) using digital elevation models and airborne LIDaR, and, iv) new in-situ sensor technologies (fuelsticks, capacitance sensors, Ibuttons) for continuously monitoring surface fuels and within-litter micro-climate conditions, generating datasets of unprecedented temporal resolution and continuity for model development and testing under real field conditions across a broad range of forests, landscapes and climates. In this study the combined improvements in predictive capacity were quantified by comparing the field FMC observations with predictions from traditional, widely used operational FMC models, and with two new process-based models, including improved spatial parameterisation provided by the new technologies outlined above. The results are interpreted in the context of planned-burning decision making and outcomes, and bushfire modelling and management. The initial results showed that the new approaches to FMC prediction offered substantial improvements over the traditional methods and could be reasonably implemented at operational scales.

  14. Regulation to create environments conducive to physical activity: understanding the barriers and facilitators at the Australian state government level.

    PubMed

    Shill, Jane; Mavoa, Helen; Crammond, Brad; Loff, Bebe; Peeters, Anna; Lawrence, Mark; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2012-01-01

    Policy and regulatory interventions aimed at creating environments more conducive to physical activity (PA) are an important component of strategies to improve population levels of PA. However, many potentially effective policies are not being broadly implemented. This study sought to identify potential policy/regulatory interventions targeting PA environments, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state/territory government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n = 40) to examine participants': 1) suggestions for regulatory interventions to create environments more conducive to PA; 2) support for preselected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Thematic and constant comparative analyses were conducted. POLICY INTERVENTIONS MOST COMMONLY SUGGESTED BY PARTICIPANTS FELL INTO TWO AREAS: 1) urban planning and provision of infrastructure to promote active travel; 2) discouraging the use of private motorised vehicles. Of the eleven preselected interventions presented to participants, interventions relating to walkability/cycling and PA facilities received greatest support. Interventions involving subsidisation (of public transport, PA-equipment) and the provision of more public transport infrastructure received least support. These were perceived as not economically viable or unlikely to increase PA levels. Dominant barriers were: the powerful 'road lobby', weaknesses in the planning system and the cost of potential interventions. Facilitators were: the provision of evidence, collaboration across sectors, and synergies with climate change/environment agendas. This study points to how difficult it will be to achieve policy change when there is a powerful 'road lobby' and government investment prioritises road infrastructure over PA-promoting infrastructure. It highlights the pivotal role of the

  15. Regulation to Create Environments Conducive to Physical Activity: Understanding the Barriers and Facilitators at the Australian State Government Level

    PubMed Central

    Shill, Jane; Mavoa, Helen; Crammond, Brad; Loff, Bebe; Peeters, Anna; Lawrence, Mark; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Policy and regulatory interventions aimed at creating environments more conducive to physical activity (PA) are an important component of strategies to improve population levels of PA. However, many potentially effective policies are not being broadly implemented. This study sought to identify potential policy/regulatory interventions targeting PA environments, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state/territory government level. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n = 40) to examine participants': 1) suggestions for regulatory interventions to create environments more conducive to PA; 2) support for preselected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Thematic and constant comparative analyses were conducted. Results Policy interventions most commonly suggested by participants fell into two areas: 1) urban planning and provision of infrastructure to promote active travel; 2) discouraging the use of private motorised vehicles. Of the eleven preselected interventions presented to participants, interventions relating to walkability/cycling and PA facilities received greatest support. Interventions involving subsidisation (of public transport, PA-equipment) and the provision of more public transport infrastructure received least support. These were perceived as not economically viable or unlikely to increase PA levels. Dominant barriers were: the powerful ‘road lobby’, weaknesses in the planning system and the cost of potential interventions. Facilitators were: the provision of evidence, collaboration across sectors, and synergies with climate change/environment agendas. Conclusion This study points to how difficult it will be to achieve policy change when there is a powerful ‘road lobby’ and government investment prioritises road infrastructure over PA

  16. Biogeography and speciation of terrestrial fauna in the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Rix, Michael G; Edwards, Danielle L; Byrne, Margaret; Harvey, Mark S; Joseph, Leo; Roberts, J Dale

    2015-08-01

    The south-western land division of Western Australia (SWWA), bordering the temperate Southern and Indian Oceans, is the only global biodiversity hotspot recognised in Australia. Renowned for its extraordinary diversity of endemic plants, and for some of the largest and most botanically significant temperate heathlands and woodlands on Earth, SWWA has long fascinated biogeographers. Its flat, highly weathered topography and the apparent absence of major geographic factors usually implicated in biotic diversification have challenged attempts to explain patterns of biogeography and mechanisms of speciation in the region. Botanical studies have always been central to understanding the biodiversity values of SWWA, although surprisingly few quantitative botanical analyses have allowed for an understanding of historical biogeographic processes in both space and time. Faunistic studies, by contrast, have played little or no role in defining hotspot concepts, despite several decades of accumulating quantitative research on the phylogeny and phylogeography of multiple lineages. In this review we critically analyse datasets with explicit supporting phylogenetic data and estimates of the time since divergence for all available elements of the terrestrial fauna, and compare these datasets to those available for plants. In situ speciation has played more of a role in shaping the south-western Australian fauna than has long been supposed, and has occurred in numerous endemic lineages of freshwater fish, frogs, reptiles, snails and less-vagile arthropods. By contrast, relatively low levels of endemism are found in birds, mammals and highly dispersive insects, and in situ speciation has played a negligible role in generating local endemism in birds and mammals. Quantitative studies provide evidence for at least four mechanisms driving patterns of endemism in south-western Australian animals, including: (i) relictualism of ancient Gondwanan or Pangaean taxa in the High Rainfall

  17. "I Love to Teach but No Thank You!" Factors Responsible for the Demise of Teaching as a Profession: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the decline in teacher numbers has become an important topic for discussion in the field of teachers' work in Australia. The purpose of this article is to discuss current initiatives being implemented by both the Australian federal government and the South Australian state government to retain and attract prospective teachers and some…

  18. Good governance of animal health systems and public-private partnerships: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Black, P F

    2012-08-01

    The animal health system in Australia has evolved over more than 100 years and includes innovative public-private partnership arrangements. The establishment in 1996 of Animal Health Australia (AHA), a not-for-profit company, was a crucial development which formalised arrangements for shared decision-making and funding across both government and industry stakeholders. However, Federal and State governments retain legislative authority for animal health control. Accordingly, all programmes must recognise that the public sector remains an executive arm of government, accountable for its actions. Hence, much effort has been invested in ensuring that the governance arrangements within AHA are lawful and transparent. The Emergency Animal Disease Response Agreement (EADRA) is a very good example of governance arrangements that are sustainably financed, widely available, provided efficiently, without waste or duplication, and in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. The benefits of EADRA include certainty and greater transparency of funding; greater efficiency through increased probability of a rapid response to an occurrence of any of 65 diseases; and industry participation in the management and financing of such a response.

  19. Risk of an equine influenza virus reservoir establishing in wild horses in New South Wales during the Australian epidemic.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, P; Sergeant, E S G

    2011-07-01

    Australia has the world's largest population of wild equids and equine influenza (EI) was confirmed on several properties in New South Wales (NSW) close to uncontrolled areas of land during the 2007 outbreak. Likelihood and risk management assessments were carried out to determine the risk of EI infection of the wild horse populations. The likelihood of spread to the wild horse population was determined to be extremely low, but the likelihood of spread from an established wild horse reservoir back to domestic horses was considered high. The most effective mechanism of control was determined to be prevention of the spread of EI into the wild horse population through a vaccination buffer zone between EI infection foci and known wild horse populations. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Learning about knowledge management for improving environmental impact assessment in a government agency: the Western Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Luis Enrique; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2011-09-01

    How does knowledge management (KM) by a government agency responsible for environmental impact assessment (EIA) potentially contribute to better environmental assessment and management practice? Staff members at government agencies in charge of the EIA process are knowledge workers who perform judgement-oriented tasks highly reliant on individual expertise, but also grounded on the agency's knowledge accumulated over the years. Part of an agency's knowledge can be codified and stored in an organizational memory, but is subject to decay or loss if not properly managed. The EIA agency operating in Western Australia was used as a case study. Its KM initiatives were reviewed, knowledge repositories were identified and staff surveyed to gauge the utilisation and effectiveness of such repositories in enabling them to perform EIA tasks. Key elements of KM are the preparation of substantive guidance and spatial information management. It was found that treatment of cumulative impacts on the environment is very limited and information derived from project follow-up is not properly captured and stored, thus not used to create new knowledge and to improve practice and effectiveness. Other opportunities for improving organizational learning include the use of after-action reviews. The learning about knowledge management in EIA practice gained from Western Australian experience should be of value to agencies worldwide seeking to understand where best to direct their resources for their own knowledge repositories and environmental management practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Survival in scleroderma: results from the population-based South Australian Register.

    PubMed

    Hissaria, P; Lester, S; Hakendorf, P; Woodman, R; Patterson, K; Hill, C; Ahern, M J; Smith, M D; Walker, J G; Roberts-Thomson, P J

    2011-05-01

    To ascertain the mortality risk and investigate clinical and serological factors influencing survival of patients listed on the South Australian Scleroderma Register (SASR). The SASR is a population-based register, which was commenced in 1993 and has actively sought to recruit all scleroderma patients diagnosed in SA over a 15-year period. Clinical and serological details have been accessed from questionnaires or from clinical and laboratory files. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated and survival analyses performed on all living and deceased patients listed on this SASR (n = 786). Patients with scleroderma had increased mortality compared with the general SA population (SMR 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-1.69)). Factors that adversely altered survival included older age at onset, male gender, diffuse skin involvement, presence of scleroderma renal crisis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, cancer and anti-topoisomerase (Scl-70) and anti-U1 RNP antibodies, while a trend was observed with increased nailfold capillary dropout. Mean age of death for patients with limited scleroderma was 74.1 years (95% CI 72.5-75.7), diffuse scleroderma 62.9 years (95% CI 59.4-66.4) and overlap disease 57.8 years (95% CI 48.7-66.9). Survival improved over the 15-year study period. Scleroderma substantially reduces life expectancy. Survival is influenced by age at onset, gender, diffuse involvement of skin fibrosis, visceral involvement, development of cancer, extent of microvascular capillary damage and by the presence of scleroderma-associated antibodies, Scl-70 and RNP. Scleroderma renal crisis continues to carry high mortality. Survival improved over the 15-year study period. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Building chronic disease management capacity in General Practice: The South Australian GP Plus Practice Nurse Initiative.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Koehne, Kristy; Verrall, Claire C; Szabo, Natalie; Bollen, Chris; Parker, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on the implementation experience of the South Australian GP Plus Practice Nurse Initiative in order to establish what is needed to support the development of the chronic disease management role of practice nurses. The Initiative was delivered between 2007 and 2010 to recruit, train and place 157 nurses across 147 General Practices in Adelaide. The purpose was to improve chronic disease management in General Practice, by equipping nurses to work as practice nurses who would coordinate care and establish chronic disease management systems. Secondary analysis of qualitative data contained in the Initiative evaluation report, specifically drawing on quarterly project records and four focus groups conducted with practice nurses, practice nurse coordinators and practice nurse mentors. As evidenced by the need to increase the amount of support provided during the implementation of the Initiative, nurses new to General Practice faced challenges in their new role. Nurses described a big learning curve as they dealt with role transition to a new work environment and learning a range of new skills while developing chronic disease management systems. Informants valued the skills development and support offered by the Initiative, however the ongoing difficulties in implementing the role suggested that change is also needed at the level of the Practice. While just over a half of the placement positions were retained, practice nurses expressed concern with having to negotiate the conditions of their employment. In order to advance the role of practice nurses as managers of chronic disease support is needed at two levels. At one level support is needed to assist practice nurses to build their own skills. At the level of the Practice, and in the wider health workforce system, support is also needed to ensure that Practices are organisationally ready to include the practice nurse within the practice team.

  3. Government Research Evaluations and Academic Freedom: A UK and Australian Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Sardesai, Ann; Irvine, Helen; Tooley, Stuart; Guthrie, James

    2017-01-01

    Performance management systems have been an inevitable consequence of the development of government research evaluations (GREs) of university research, and have also inevitably affected the working life of academics. The aim of this paper is to track the development of GREs over the past 25 years, by critically evaluating their adoption in the UK…

  4. Governments and Universities as the Main Drivers of Enhanced Australian University Research Commercialisation Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant; Harman, Kay

    2004-01-01

    In building capacity in research commercialisation and science-based entrepreneurship, Australia has adopted neither the Swedish top-down approach depending on government initiative, nor the American bottom-up approach depending on incentive systems related to university ownership of intellectual property and a highly competitive and…

  5. Government Research Evaluations and Academic Freedom: A UK and Australian Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Sardesai, Ann; Irvine, Helen; Tooley, Stuart; Guthrie, James

    2017-01-01

    Performance management systems have been an inevitable consequence of the development of government research evaluations (GREs) of university research, and have also inevitably affected the working life of academics. The aim of this paper is to track the development of GREs over the past 25 years, by critically evaluating their adoption in the UK…

  6. Governments and Universities as the Main Drivers of Enhanced Australian University Research Commercialisation Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant; Harman, Kay

    2004-01-01

    In building capacity in research commercialisation and science-based entrepreneurship, Australia has adopted neither the Swedish top-down approach depending on government initiative, nor the American bottom-up approach depending on incentive systems related to university ownership of intellectual property and a highly competitive and…

  7. Roll-Out Neoliberalism and Hybrid Practices of Regulation in Australian Agri-Environmental Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockie, Stewart; Higgins, Vaughan

    2007-01-01

    In the last 15 years, agri-environmental programmes in Australia have been underpinned by a neoliberal regime of governing which seeks to foster participation and "bottom-up" change at the regional level at the same time as encouraging farmers to become entrepreneurial and improve their productivity and environmental performance without…

  8. Prevalence of hot weather conditions related to sports participation guidelines: a South Australian investigation.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, K; King, E; Larsen, T; Farquharson, T; Potter, A; Sharpe, P; de Wit, H

    2006-05-01

    There is scant guidance in the literature on the most appropriate Australian measures of, and thresholds for, extreme heat regarding giving advice on safe sports participation in hot weather. The purpose of this paper is to present a process for investigating two common measures of heat (air temperature, wet bulb globe temperature (WGBT)) in one state in Australia (South Australia), regarding their usefulness in making decisions regarding sports participation in the heat. Commonly reported measures and thresholds of extreme heat were identified from a systematic review of guidelines regarding sports participation in hot weather. Dry air temperature (threshold of 35 degrees C), and WBGT index (threshold of 28 degrees C) were highlighted. Repeated daily measures of dry air temperature by the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and WBGT index from 12 meteorological recording sites in South Australia (SA) for four consecutive summer periods (2000-2004) were analysed using these thresholds to investigate the prevalence of extremely hot temperatures in SA during these periods. The extremely hot hours-per-day data were standardised using a denominator of per-day-month across the 12 SA recording regions. Across the four summer seasons of data in SA, there were similar standardised numbers of hours-per-day of extremely hot dry air temperature and WBGT index. There was a high correlation between these hours of hot weather measures, highlighting the congruence between hot air and humidity measures. Three distinct regional site groupings were identified, in which there was a different prevalence of extremely hot weather conditions. In SA, dry air temperature is an appropriate and robust measure of extreme heat related to sports participation, this measure providing as much information as WBGT in identifying extremely hot periods of weather. Dry air temperature can be readily measured by sports participants or officials irrespective of the geographical location in SA. Three SA regions

  9. Watershed Governance in South-Central Texas: Working from the Bottom up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, V. L.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to introduce a set of key concepts that can guide the development of ecological governance systems and briefly describe a watershed ecological governance project in south-central Texas. Ecological governance is a form of governance embedding ecological principles and values in all levels of decision making and action, from the personal to the global. The model of ecological governance discussed here incorporates ideas and approaches that are already being put into practice in many watershed governance projects in the US and abroad; it is based on the premise that contemporary governance systems will continue to evolve in this direction, incorporating more and more of the features of ecological governance. The watershed governance project described here was devised to ensure that the long-term ecological integrity of a small urbanazing waterhed in south-central Texas is preserved and that the water quality standards are maintained for present and future generations. The ecological integrity of small spring-fed watersheds in Texas are under serious threat due to rapid urban development dependent on groundwater supplies, continued drilling of personal wells that are exempt from pumping regulation, and lack of adequate legal jurisdiction for managing development in rural and semi-rural areas. The watershed governance project was motivated by a firm belief of local stakeholders that watershed protection is an individual as well as a community responsibility, and the recognition that a balance between growth and protection is essential to maintain watershed integrity. It is concluded that whereas emergent systems of ecological governance struggle to succeed in an institutional context oriented towards the pursuit of self-interest and competition, their acceptance will happen more readily as ecological principles and values diffuses throughout modern society.

  10. Experiences and Perceptions of Physical Activity Among South Asian and Anglo-Australians With Type 2 Diabetes or Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sabrina S; Aroni, Rosalie; Teede, Helena

    2016-07-28

    Research indicates that there are worryingly low levels of physical activity among South Asians compared with Anglo-Australians with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared perceptions, barriers, and enablers of physical activity in these groups. We used a qualitative design, conducting in-depth, semistructured iterative interviews in Victoria with 57 South Asian and Anglo-Australian participants with either type 2 diabetes or CVD. While both groups exhibited knowledge of the value of physical activity in health maintenance and disease management, they wished for more specific and culturally tailored advice from clinicians about the type, duration, and intensity of physical activity required. Physical activity identities were tied to ethnic identities, with members of each group aspiring to meet the norms of their culture regarding engagement with physical activity as specific exercise or as incidental exercise. Individual personal exercise was deemed important by Anglo-Australians whereas South Asians preferred family-based physical activity.

  11. Local Government Manpower Requirements for Community Development in South Carolina. Memorandum No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Research and Management, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

    Local government manpower requirements and training needs as related to the process of community development in South Carolina are discussed in this preparatory report. The process of community development is defined in terms of the responsibilities of major public, quasi-public, and private participants with an emphasis on the role of local…

  12. Chaos or Coherence? Further Education and Training College Governance in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedekind, Volker

    2010-01-01

    This article frames the lived experiences of management and educators in further education and training (FET) colleges in South Africa, against the backdrop of the radical transformation in the governance of this sector over the past twenty years. The reforms are first described and analysed in terms of their integration and rationale for agency.…

  13. Educational Decentralization and School Governance in South Africa: From Policy to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Jordan P.

    2005-01-01

    This booklet explores the nature of participation, representation and decision-making in school governance in South Africa based on a collective case-study of six schools in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) that was undertaken between 2002 and 2004. The different types of schools were compared by the following criteria: their interpretation of the…

  14. A Qualitative Analysis of Facilities Maintenance--A School Governance Function in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xaba, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    I analysed school facilities maintenance, a school governance function in South Africa. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 principals and three deputy principals as coordinators of this function at their schools. The interviews were purposively and conveniently selected to gather data regarding school facilities maintenance and gain…

  15. One Health research and training and government support for One Health in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Joanna S.; Dahal, Rojan; Kakkar, Manish; Debnath, Nitish; Rahman, Mahmudur; Dorjee, Sithar; Naeem, Khalid; Wijayathilaka, Tikiri; Sharma, Barun Kumar; Maidanwal, Nasir; Halimi, Asmatullah; Kim, Eunmi; Chatterjee, Pranab; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Considerable advocacy, funding, training, and technical support have been provided to South Asian countries to strengthen One Health (OH) collaborative approaches for controlling diseases with global human pandemic potential since the early 2000s. It is essential that the OH approach continues to be strengthened given South Asia is a hot spot for emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. The objectives of this article are to describe OH research and training and capacity building activities and the important developments in government support for OH in these countries to identify current achievements and gaps. Materials and methods A landscape analysis of OH research, training, and government support in South Asia was generated by searching peer-reviewed and grey literature for OH research publications and reports, a questionnaire survey of people potentially engaged in OH research in South Asia and the authors’ professional networks. Results Only a small proportion of zoonotic disease research conducted in South Asia can be described as truly OH, with a significant lack of OH policy-relevant research. A small number of multisectoral OH research and OH capacity building programmes were conducted in the region. The governments of Bangladesh and Bhutan have established operational OH strategies, with variable progress institutionalising OH in other countries. Identified gaps were a lack of useful scientific information and of a collaborative culture for formulating and implementing integrated zoonotic disease control policies and the need for ongoing support for transdisciplinary OH research and policy-relevant capacity building programmes. Discussion Overall we found a very small number of truly OH research and capacity building programmes in South Asia. Even though significant progress has been made in institutionalising OH in some South Asian countries, further behavioural, attitudinal, and institutional changes are required to strengthen OH research

  16. One Health research and training and government support for One Health in South Asia.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Joanna S; Dahal, Rojan; Kakkar, Manish; Debnath, Nitish; Rahman, Mahmudur; Dorjee, Sithar; Naeem, Khalid; Wijayathilaka, Tikiri; Sharma, Barun Kumar; Maidanwal, Nasir; Halimi, Asmatullah; Kim, Eunmi; Chatterjee, Pranab; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2016-01-01

    Considerable advocacy, funding, training, and technical support have been provided to South Asian countries to strengthen One Health (OH) collaborative approaches for controlling diseases with global human pandemic potential since the early 2000s. It is essential that the OH approach continues to be strengthened given South Asia is a hot spot for emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. The objectives of this article are to describe OH research and training and capacity building activities and the important developments in government support for OH in these countries to identify current achievements and gaps. A landscape analysis of OH research, training, and government support in South Asia was generated by searching peer-reviewed and grey literature for OH research publications and reports, a questionnaire survey of people potentially engaged in OH research in South Asia and the authors' professional networks. Only a small proportion of zoonotic disease research conducted in South Asia can be described as truly OH, with a significant lack of OH policy-relevant research. A small number of multisectoral OH research and OH capacity building programmes were conducted in the region. The governments of Bangladesh and Bhutan have established operational OH strategies, with variable progress institutionalising OH in other countries. Identified gaps were a lack of useful scientific information and of a collaborative culture for formulating and implementing integrated zoonotic disease control policies and the need for ongoing support for transdisciplinary OH research and policy-relevant capacity building programmes. Overall we found a very small number of truly OH research and capacity building programmes in South Asia. Even though significant progress has been made in institutionalising OH in some South Asian countries, further behavioural, attitudinal, and institutional changes are required to strengthen OH research and training and implementation of sustainably effective

  17. Crustal and upper mantle seismic structure of the Australian Plate, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melhuish, Anne; Holbrook, W. Steven; Davey, Fred; Okaya, David A.; Stern, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Seismic reflection and refraction data were collected west of New Zealand's South Island parallel to the Pacific-Australian Plate boundary. The obliquely convergent plate boundary is marked at the surface by the Alpine Fault, which juxtaposes continental crust of each plate. The data are used to study the crustal and uppermost mantle structure and provide a link between other seismic transects which cross the plate boundary. Arrival times of wide-angle reflected and refracted events from 13 recording stations are used to construct a 380-km long crustal velocity model. The model shows that, beneath a 2-4-km thick sedimentary veneer, the crust consists of two layers. The upper layer velocities increase from 5.4-5.9 km/s at the top of the layer to 6.3 km/s at the base of the layer. The base of the layer is mainly about 20 km deep but deepens to 25 km at its southern end. The lower layer velocities range from 6.3 to 7.1 km/s, and are commonly around 6.5 km/s at the top of the layer and 6.7 km/s at the base. Beneath the lower layer, the model has velocities of 8.2-8.5 km/s, typical of mantle material. The Mohorovicic discontinuity (Moho) therefore lies at the base of the second layer. It is at a depth of around 30 km but shallows over the south-central third of the profile to about 26 km, possibly associated with a southwest dipping detachment fault. The high, variable sub-Moho velocities of 8.2 km/s to 8.5 km/s are inferred to result from strong upper mantle anisotropy. Multichannel seismic reflection data cover about 220 km of the southern part of the modelled section. Beneath the well-layered Oligocene to recent sedimentary section, the crustal section is broadly divided into two zones, which correspond to the two layers of the velocity model. The upper layer (down to about 7-9 s two-way travel time) has few reflections. The lower layer (down to about 11 s two-way time) contains many strong, subparallel reflections. The base of this reflective zone is the Moho. Bi

  18. Practitioner insights on obesity prevention: the voice of South Australian OPAL workers.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge based on science has been central to implementing community-based childhood obesity prevention interventions. The art of practitioner wisdom is equally critical to ensure locally relevant responses. In South Australia (SA), the OPAL (Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle) program has been implemented to reduce childhood obesity across 20 communities reaching nearly one quarter of the state's population. Staff from across the State come together at regular intervals to share practice challenges and insights and refine the model of practice. Over a 3-year period 12 reflective practice workshops were held with OPAL staff (n = 46). OPAL staff were guided by an external facilitator using inquiring questions to reflect on their health promotion practice within local government. Three themes were identified as central within the reflections. The first theme is shared clarity through the OPAL obesity prevention model highlighting the importance of working to a clearly articulated, holistic obesity prevention model. The second theme is practitioner skill and sensitivity required to implement the model and deal with the 'politics' of obesity prevention. The final theme is the power of relationships as intrinsic to effective community based health promotion. Insights into the daily practices and reflections from obesity prevention practitioners are shared to shed light on the skills required to contribute to individual and social change. OPAL staff co-authored this paper. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Partnering Healthy@Work: an Australian university-government partnership facilitating policy-relevant research.

    PubMed

    Jose, Kim; Venn, Alison; Jarman, Lisa; Seal, Judy; Teale, Brook; Scott, Jennifer; Sanderson, Kristy

    2016-05-06

    Research funding is increasingly supporting collaborations between knowledge users and researchers. Partnering Healthy@Work (pH@W), an inaugural recipient of funding through Australia's Partnership for Better Health Grants scheme, was a 5-year partnership between the Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania and the Tasmanian State Service (TSS). The partnerships purpose was to evaluate a comprehensive workplace health promotion programme (Healthy@Work) targeting 30 000 public sector employees; generating new knowledge and influencing workplace health promotion policy and decision-making. This mixed methods study evaluates the partnership between policy-makers and academics and identifies strategies that enabled pH@W to deliver key project outcomes. A pH@W document review was conducted, two partnership assessment tools completed and semi-structured interviews conducted with key policy-makers and academics. Analysis of the partnership assessment tools and interviews found that pH@W had reached a strong level of collaboration. Policy-relevant knowledge was generated about the health of TSS employees and their engagement with workplace health promotion. Knowledge exchange of a conceptual and instrumental nature occurred and was facilitated by the shared grant application, clear governance structures, joint planning, regular information exchange between researchers and policy-makers and research student placements in the TSS. Flexibility and acknowledgement of different priorities and perspectives of partner organizations were identified as critical factors for enabling effective partnership working and research relevance. Academic-policy-maker partnerships can be a powerful mechanism for improving policy relevance of research, but need to incorporate strategies that facilitate regular input from researchers and policy-makers in order to achieve this.

  20. Re-Positioning as a Response to Government Higher Education Policy Development--An Australian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Ruth; Jones, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Australian Catholic University (ACU) has had a long-standing commitment to social justice and to engaging with the rest of the community, arising from its Catholic intellectual tradition and its creation from Catholic teaching institutions. As a university created in 1991 as part of a radical re-structure of Australian higher education, ACU has…

  1. Governance Dynamics and the Application of the Multilevel Governance Approach in Vocational Education and Training (VET) in the European Neighbourhood Countries: The Case of the ENPI South Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin Arribas, J. Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses moves towards good multilevel governance approaches in Vocational Education and Training (VET) as an effective way to improve VET policy making in transition and developing countries, focusing on the Southern Neighbourhood of the EU (ENPI South). The centralised approaches in public administration and to VET governance still…

  2. Governance Dynamics and the Application of the Multilevel Governance Approach in Vocational Education and Training (VET) in the European Neighbourhood Countries: The Case of the ENPI South Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin Arribas, J. Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses moves towards good multilevel governance approaches in Vocational Education and Training (VET) as an effective way to improve VET policy making in transition and developing countries, focusing on the Southern Neighbourhood of the EU (ENPI South). The centralised approaches in public administration and to VET governance still…

  3. Australian Transnational Education Programmes in South East Asia: Student Satisfaction with the Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miliszewska, Iwona; Sztendur, Ewa M.

    2012-01-01

    In view of the strong growth of transnational education programmes in Australian universities, there is growing interest in the experiences of students participating in such programmes. This article reports on the perceived student satisfaction with several aspects of their transnational programmes, including instructors, technology, and programme…

  4. Current Trends of the Linguistic and Cultural Values of the Greek Australian Community in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holeva, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates the perspectives of Greek origin people as regards their intention to maintain their ancestral culture within the Australian context of social values. This qualitative research study, influenced by Humanistic Sociology, analyses data collected through questionnaires from first and second generation parents and teachers of…

  5. Evaluation of the Rural South Australian Tri-Division Adolescent Health Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naccarella, Lucio

    2003-01-01

    An Australian project aimed to strengthen relationships of general practitioners (GPs) with rural adolescents and school personnel through GP school visits, educational seminars on health topics for students, and student visits to GP clinics. Surveys of 5 project personnel, 6 GPs, 3 school counselors, and 30 secondary school students found…

  6. Social Inclusion for South Australian Schooling? Trying to Reconcile the Promise and the Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This paper will trace the adoption of a policy of Social Inclusion in schools in one Australian state in terms of the way in which the policy direction, its discourses and adoption reflect a rhetoric of what Ball has labelled a "paradigm of convergence". The analysis will show that the policy discourse, especially in its focus on school…

  7. Evaluation of the Rural South Australian Tri-Division Adolescent Health Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naccarella, Lucio

    2003-01-01

    An Australian project aimed to strengthen relationships of general practitioners (GPs) with rural adolescents and school personnel through GP school visits, educational seminars on health topics for students, and student visits to GP clinics. Surveys of 5 project personnel, 6 GPs, 3 school counselors, and 30 secondary school students found…

  8. "Either You Have Misunderstood the Directions, or You Are Not Playing the Game". South Australian Women in Educational Administration 1900-1960

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trethewey, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    This article examines continuity and change in the management of gender with specific reference to infant mistresses, whose quest for autonomous control of their own departments in the largest South Australian primary schools threatened the maintenance of patriarchal authority in and through the administration of state schooling. The complex…

  9. Cross-Cultural Equivalence of the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form: An Australian and South African Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Watson, Mark B.

    2002-01-01

    The Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form was completed by 416 South African and 563 Australian high school students. Analysis found three factors in each sample, but the factors differed between samples and from those of a U.S. sample, suggesting cultural differences in self-efficacy and lack of cultural equivalence for the…

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of an Australian obesity mass-media campaign: how did the 'Measure-Up' campaign measure up in New South Wales?

    PubMed

    King, E L; Grunseit, A C; O'Hara, B J; Bauman, A E

    2013-12-01

    In 2008, the Australian Government launched a mass-media campaign 'Measure-Up' to reduce lifestyle-related chronic disease risk. Innovative campaign messages linked waist circumference and chronic disease risk. Communication channels for the campaign included television, press, radio and outdoor advertising and local community activities. This analysis examines the impact of the campaign in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Cross-sectional telephone surveys (n = 1006 adults pre- and post-campaign) covered self-reported diet and physical activity, campaign awareness, knowledge about waist circumference, personal relevance of the message, perceived confidence to make lifestyle changes and waist-measuring behaviours. The campaign achieved high unprompted (38%) and prompted (89%) awareness. From pre- to post-campaign, knowledge and personal relevance of the link between waist circumference and chronic disease and waist measuring behaviour increased, although there were no significant changes in reported fruit and vegetable intake nor in physical activity. Knowledge of the correct waist measurement threshold for chronic disease risk increased over 5-fold, adjusted for demographic characteristics. 'Measure-Up' was successful at communicating the new campaign messages. Continued long-term investment in campaigns such as 'Measure-Up', supplemented with community-based health promotion, may contribute to population risk factor understanding and behaviour change to reduce chronic disease.

  11. Referral to Chinese medicine practitioners in Australian primary care: a survey of New South Wales rural and regional general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chinese medicine practitioners (CMPs) play an important part in rural and regional Australian healthcare. A survey was conducted to investigate referral practices between Chinese medicine (CM) and conventional primary health care practitioners in this region. Methods A 27-item questionnaire was sent to all 1486 general practitioners (GPs) currently practising in rural and regional Divisions of General Practice in New South Wales, Australia. This survey explored GP opinions, perceptions and practices in relation to complementary and alternative medicine or Chinese medicine specifically. Results A total of 585 GPs completed the questionnaire. Forty-nine were returned as ‘no longer at this address’, resulting in an adjusted response rate of 40.7%. One in ten GPs (9.9%) had referred their patients to CMPs at least a few times over the past 12 months, one in five GPs (17.4%) could not locate a CMP to refer to in their local area, and over one-third of GPs (37.7%) stated they would not refer to a CMP under any circumstances. GPs that had graduated from an Australian medical college (OR = 3.71; CI: 1.22, 11.23), GPs observing positive responses previously in patients using CM (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.12, 8.58), GPs perceiving a lack of other options for patients (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.12, 8.58), GPs reporting satisfactory or higher levels of CM knowledge (OR = 15.62; 95% CI: 5.47, 44.56), and GPs interested in increasing their complementary and alternative medicine knowledge (OR = 3.28; 95% CI: 1.17, 9.21) referred to CMPs more frequently than did other groups of GPs amongst the rural GPs included in this study. Conclusion There has been little interaction between CMPs and Australian rural and regional GPs. PMID:23566291

  12. Luteocirrhus shearii gen. sp. nov. (Diaporthales, Cryphonectriaceae) pathogenic to Proteaceae in the South Western Australian Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    Crane, Colin; Burgess, Treena I

    2013-07-01

    Morphological and DNA sequence characteristics of a pathogenic fungus isolated from branch cankers in Proteaceae of the South West Australian Floristic Region elucidated a new genus and species within Cryphonectriaceae (Diaporthales). The pathogen has been isolated from canker lesions in several Banksia species and Lambertia echinata subsp. citrina, and is associated with a serious decline of the rare B. verticillata. Lack of orange pigment in all observed structures except cirrhi, combined with pulvinate to globose black semi-immersed conidiomata with paraphyses, distinguishes the canker fungus from other genera of Cryphonectriaceae. This was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis of the ITS regions, β-tubulin, and LSU genes. The fungus (sexual morph unknown) is described as Luteocirrhus shearii gen. sp. nov. Lesions in seedlings of Banksia spp. following wound inoculation and subsequent recovery confirm Koch's postulates for pathogenicity. This pathogen of native Proteaceae is currently an emerging threat, particularly toward B. baxteri and B. verticillata.

  13. Mental health diversion courts: a two year recidivism study of a South Australian mental health court program.

    PubMed

    Lim, Loraine; Day, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The need to develop specialized judicial processes to deal with offenders with mental illnesses is now widely recognized and has led to the introduction of mental health court diversion programs around the world. At present, however, there is only limited evidence from which to assess the impact of these initiatives. This paper describes the South Australian model of diversion, with specific reference to the relationship between identified participant characteristics, program compliance rates, and re-offending outcomes. The results of a two-year recidivism study suggest that involvement with the program has a positive impact on recidivism, but that this is independent from the individual's level of success in the program. Lower risk offenders were more likely to achieve successful outcomes than those in the higher risk categories. The implications of these results, as well the factors that might inform the ongoing development of mental health court programs, are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The presence of opportunistic pathogens, Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex, in South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines.

    PubMed

    Whiley, H; Keegan, A; Fallowfield, H; Bentham, R

    2015-06-01

    Water reuse has become increasingly important for sustainable water management. Currently, its application is primarily constrained by the potential health risks. Presently there is limited knowledge regarding the presence and fate of opportunistic pathogens along reuse water distribution pipelines. In this study opportunistic human pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction along two South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines at maximum concentrations of 10⁵, 10³ and 10⁵ copies/mL, respectively. During the summer period of sampling the concentration of all three organisms significantly increased (P < 0.05) along the pipeline, suggesting multiplication and hence viability. No seasonality in the decrease in chlorine residual along the pipelines was observed. This suggests that the combination of reduced chlorine residual and increased water temperature promoted the presence of these opportunistic pathogens.

  15. Australian governments' spending on preventing and responding to drug abuse should target the main sources of drug-related harm and the most cost-effective interventions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, David

    2011-01-01

    A notable feature of Australian drug policy is the limited public and professional attention given to the financial costs of drug abuse and to the levels and patterns of government expenditures incurred in preventing and responding to this. Since 1991, Collins and Lapsley have published scholarly reports documenting the social costs of drug abuse in Australia and their reports also contain estimates of governments' drug budgets: revenue and expenditures. They show that, in 2004-2005, Australian governments expended at least $5288 million on drug abuse, with 50% of the expenditure directed to preventing and dealing with alcohol-related problems, 45% to illicit drugs and just 5% to tobacco. Some 60% of the expenditure was directed at drug crime and 37% at health interventions. This pattern of resource allocation does not adequately reflect an evidence-informed policy orientation in that it largely fails to focus on the drug types that are the sources of the most harm (tobacco and alcohol rather than illicit drugs), and the sectors for which we have the strongest evidence of the cost-effectiveness of the available interventions (treatment and harm reduction rather than legislation and law enforcement). The 2010-2014 phase of Australia's National Drug Strategy should include incremental changes to the resource allocation mix, and not simply maintain the historical resource allocation formulae.

  16. The inpatient costs and hospital service use associated with invasive meningococcal disease in South Australian children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Haji Ali Afzali, Hossein; Marshall, Helen

    2014-08-20

    Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) remains a serious public health concern due to a sustained high case fatality rate and morbidity in survivors. This study aimed to estimate the hospital service costs associated with IMD and variables associated with the highest costs in Australian children admitted to a tertiary paediatric hospital. Clinical details were obtained from medical records and associated inpatient costs were collected and inflated to 2011 Australian dollars using the medical and hospital services component of the Australian Consumer Price Index. Both unadjusted and adjusted analyses were undertaken. Multivariate regression models were used to adjust for potential covariates and determine independent predictors of high costs and increased length of hospital stay. Of 109 children hospitalised with IMD between May 2000 and April 2011, the majority were caused by serogroup B (70.6%). Presence of sequelae, serogroup B infection, male gender, infants less than one year of age, and previous medical diagnosis were associated with higher inpatient costs and length of stay (LOS) in hospital (p<0.001) during the acute admissions. Children diagnosed with septicaemia had a longer predicted LOS (p=0.033) during the acute admissions compared to those diagnosed with meningitis alone or meningitis with septicaemia. Serogroup B cases incurred a significantly higher risk of IMD related readmissions (IRR: 21.1, p=0.008) for patients with sequelae. Serogroup B infection, male gender, diagnosis of septicaemia, infants less than one year of age, and no previous medical diagnosis were more likely to have higher inpatient costs and LOS during the IMD related readmissions for patients with sequelae (p<0.05). Although IMD is uncommon, the disease severity and associated long-term sequelae result in high health care costs, which should be considered in meningococcal B vaccine funding considerations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Operational benefits from optimal volt/var scheduling in the south-east Australian transmission network

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.; Eichler, R.; Lyons, M.

    1995-12-31

    The Victorian power system supplies the Australian federal state of Victoria (population: 4.5 million; capital city: Melbourne) with electricity. Over the last three years an extensive EMS computer system has been installed at the System Control Centre in Melbourne. It includes among other functions a complete set of Optimal Power Flow (OPF) applications. This paper reports on the results gained during the first year of daily application of the Optimal Volt/Var Scheduling (VVS) function and ends with an outlook on planned future extensions.

  18. The South Australian Allied Health Workforce survey: helping to fill the evidence gap in primary health workforce planning.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Deirdre; Smith, Tony; Newbury, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of detailed evidence about the allied health workforce to inform proposed health care reforms. The South Australian Allied Health Workforce (SAAHW) survey collected data about the demographic characteristics, employment, education and recruitment and retention of allied health professionals in South Australia. The SAAHW questionnaire was widely distributed and 1539 responses were received. The average age of the sample was 40 years; males were significantly older than females, the latter making up 82% of respondents. Three-quarters of the sample worked in the city; 60% worked full time and the remainder in part-time, casual or locum positions. 'Work-life balance' was the most common attraction to respondents' current jobs and 'Better career prospects' the most common reason for intending to leave. Practice in a rural location was influenced by rural background and rural experience during training. A greater proportion of Generation Y (1982-2000) respondents intended to leave within 2 years than Generation X (1961-81) or Baby Boomers (1943-60). Most respondents were satisfied with their job, although some reported lack of recognition of their knowledge and skills. Systematic, robust allied health workforce data are required for integrated and sustainable primary health care delivery.

  19. Governments' perceptions and policies of population redistribution in East and South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, L A

    1981-01-01

    "This paper is based on the results of the Third Inquiry among Governments on Population and Development carried out in 1977 by the UN Secretariat. It reports on perceptions and policies concerning international migrations, spatial distribution of the national population, internal migration and settlement patterns in fourteen South East and East Asian countries. "It appears that nearly all countries under consideration were concerned with the spatial distribution of population both as a factor related to problems caused by excessive natural increase and as a problem on its own right. The majority of countries were prepared to pursue policies affecting basic trends in internal migration. Most governments declared their willingness to alter patterns of rural or both rural and urban settlement. Only two countries were interested in increasing emigration; the remaining ones were satisfied with the existing levels of international migration."

  20. The Likelihood of Completing a Government-Funded VET Program, 2010-14. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Australian vocational education and training (VET) system provides training across a wide range of subject areas and is delivered through a variety of training institutions and enterprises (including to apprentices and trainees). The system provides training for students of all ages and backgrounds. Students may study individual subjects or…

  1. A comparison of Demirjian's four dental development methods for forensic age estimation in South Australian sub-adults.

    PubMed

    Flood, Sara J; Franklin, Daniel; Turlach, Berwin A; McGeachie, John

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of Demirjian's four dental development methods for forensic age assessment in a South Australian population. The sample comprised orthopantomograms (OPGs) of 408 sub-adult individuals (211 male; 197 female) with an age range of 4.9-14.5 years. The OPGs were obtained from various dental schools and clinics in urban Adelaide. The following Demirjian methods were evaluated: the original 7-tooth technique; the revised 7-tooth system; the 4-tooth method; and the alternate 4-tooth approach. The left mandibular teeth in each OPG were assessed and rated according to the eight stages (A-H) defined and illustrated in Demirjian et al.(5) Differences between chronological and estimated ages were calculated for males and females separately; 95% confidence intervals of mean age differences were calculated and ANOVA used to assess the significance of mean differences. When comparing all four methods there were significant differences overall (and in individual age groups) between mean chronological and estimated age in both sexes. In addition, each method consistently overestimated chronological age. We also demonstrate that the accuracy of the dental age methods evaluated varies in different subsets of an Australian population, a finding that parallels previous research in other global populations. Based on our analyses we conclude that population-specific standards based on dental maturity curves, as opposed to estimated ages, would provide more accurate and statistically robust age estimations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Implications of high species turnover on the south-western Australian sandplains

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Neil; Prober, Suzanne; Meissner, Rachel; van Leeuwen, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Species turnover and its components related to replacement and nestedness form a significant element of diversity that is historically poorly accounted for in conservation planning. To inform biodiversity conservation and contribute to a broader understanding of patterns in species turnover, we undertook a floristic survey of 160 plots along an 870 km transect across oligotrophic sandplains, extending from the mesic south coast to the arid interior of south-western Australia. A nested survey design was employed to sample distances along the transect as evenly as possible. Species turnover was correlated with geographic distance at both regional and local scales, consistent with dispersal limitation being a significant driver of species turnover. When controlled for species richness, species replacement was found to be the dominant component of species turnover and was uniformly high across the transect, uncorrelated with either climatic or edaphic factors. This high replacement rate, well documented in the mega-diverse south-west, appears to also be a consistent feature of arid zone vegetation systems despite a decrease in overall species richness. Species turnover increased rapidly with increasing extent along the transect reaching an asymptote at ca. 50 km. These findings are consistent with earlier work in sandplain and mallee vegetation in the south-west and suggests reserve based conservation strategies are unlikely to be practicable in the south-western Australia sandplains when communities are defined by species incidence rather than dominance. PMID:28245232

  3. Long-term marine litter monitoring in the remote Great Australian Bight, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Edyvane, K S; Dalgetty, A; Hone, P W; Higham, J S; Wace, N M

    2004-06-01

    The Anxious Bay beach litter clearance is the longest running annual survey of ocean-based litter in Australia. It's remoteness from centres of human population and location (with respect to prevailing winds and currents) make it an ideal place for monitoring ocean or ship-based litter in Australia's southern oceans and particularly, the Great Australian Bight. Over the 1991-1999 period, a large but gradual decline in the amount of beach washed litter was recorded (with minor peaks recorded during the 1992 and 1994 surveys). Beach washed litter decreased by approximately 86%, from 344 kg recorded in 1991 (13.2 kg/km) to 49 kg in 1999 (i.e. 1.9 kg/km), reaching a maximum of 390 kg in 1992 (or 15 kg/km of beach). However, a sharp increase in litter was recorded in 2000 (i.e. 252 kg or 9.7 kg/km). This increase in litter yield in 2000 is probably due to stronger than average onshore surface flow (or Ekman Transport) in the western Eyre Peninsula and Bight region. Prior to the survey in 2000, the results appeared to indicate that ocean litter on Anxious Bay beach was beginning to level out at around 50-70 kg/year (i.e. 2-3 kg/km). As the beach surveys involve the assumption that the beach is completely cleared of litter, this may represent a baseline level for ocean-based litter in the region. The yields and type of litter collected from the annual survey indicates that the majority of litter washed ashore originates from commercial fishing activities within the Great Australian Bight. Most of the fishing-related litter was directly sourced to the Southern Rock Lobster Fishery (i.e. bait buckets, baskets, pots), the Great Australian Bight Trawl Fishery (i.e. codends, trawl nets) and the Southern Shark Fishery (i.e. monofilament gillnets and longlines). Between 1994 and 1999, large reductions were observed in the amount of bait straps (77% reduction), lobster bait baskets/buckets (86% reduction), nets/ropes (62% reduction) and floats/buoys (83% reduction). Significantly

  4. Reflections on Aboriginal perinatal mental health, mothers, babies, families and community: A South Australian trainee's experience.

    PubMed

    Laddipeerla, Aparna; Alexander, Jacob; Lattanzio, Adriana

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores novel training opportunities that the Expanded Setting Training Program (ESTP) provides for advanced psychiatry trainees. It is a reflection of a trainee's learning experiences during a year-long posting in Aboriginal Perinatal Mental Health, working alongside the Aboriginal Family Birthing Program, coupled with reflection and supervision. ESTP provided a fertile area to hone an advanced trainee's skills in the niche areas of Aboriginal mental health, perinatal mental health, culture and psychiatry. In addition, it provided skills in the area of leadership, health advocacy and the establishment and maintenance of successful programs in disadvantaged, culturally and linguistically diverse communities. The ESTP Aboriginal Mental Health rotation provides a unique experience for training, and the learning opportunities are limited only by the creativity of the trainee and supervisor. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. Fair and just or just fair? Examining models of government--not-for-profit engagement under the Australian Social Inclusion Agenda.

    PubMed

    Carey, Gemma; Riley, Therese

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores the interrelationship between two contemporary policy debates: one focused on the social determinants of health and the other on social (inclusion) policy within contemporary welfare regimes. In both debates, academics and policy makers alike are grappling with the balance between universal and targeted policy initiatives and the role of local 'delivery' organizations in promoting health and social equality. In this paper, we discuss these debates in the context of a recent social policy initiative in Australia: the Social Inclusion Agenda. We examine two proposed models of engagement between the government and the not-for-profit welfare sector for the delivery of social services. We conclude that the two models of engagement currently under consideration by the Australian government have substantially different outcomes for the health of disadvantaged communities and the creation of a more socially inclusive Australia.

  6. Morchella australiana sp. nov., an apparent Australian endemic from New South Wales and Victoria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An abundant fruiting of a black morel was encountered in temperate northwestern New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during a mycological survey in August 2010. The collection site was west of the Great Dividing Range in a young, dry sclerophyll woodland forest dominated by Eucalyptus and Callitris nor...

  7. Nature of Educational Disadvantage in Country Schools: A South Australian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, David

    This paper identifies differences in educational outcomes for rural students in South Australia compared to their metropolitan peers. This information was compiled by a task force whose aim was to develop an action plan to achieve equality of educational opportunities for rural students. Available information suggests that students in country…

  8. Investigating Literacy Language & Numeracy in Training Packages. Report on the South Australian Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenerry, Ruth

    The implementation and effectiveness of the inclusion of literacy and numeracy in industry training packages was examined in a case study that focused on the use the horticulture industry training package in South Australia. Data were gathered from the following activities: a literature review; consultations with stakeholders in the package's…

  9. Hurricane & Tropical Storm Impacts over the South Florida Metropolitan Area: Mortality & Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon Pagan, I. C.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1985, the South Florida Metropolitan area (SFMA), which covers the counties of Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach, has been directly affected by 9 tropical cyclones: four tropical storms and 5 hurricanes. This continuous hurricane and tropical storm activity has awakened the conscience of the communities, government, and private sector, about the social vulnerability, in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, and others. Several factors have also been significant enough to affect the vulnerability of the South Florida Metropolitan area, like its geographic location which is at the western part of the Atlantic hurricane track, with a surface area of 6,137 square miles, and elevation of 15 feet. And second, from the 2006 Census estimate, this metropolitan area is the 7th most populous area in the United States supporting almost 1,571 individuals per square mile. Mortality levels due to hurricanes and tropical storms have fluctuated over the last 21 years without any signal of a complete reduction, a phenomenon that can be related to both physical characteristics of the storms and government actions. The average annual death count remains almost the same from 4.10 between 1985 and 1995 to 4 from 1996 to 2006. However, the probability of occurrence of a direct impact of an atmospheric disturbance has increase from 0.3 to 0.6, with an average of three hurricane or tropical storm direct impacts for every five. This analysis suggests an increasing problem with regard to atmospheric disturbances-related deaths in the South Florida Metropolitan area. In other words, despite substantial increases in population during the last 21 years, the number of tropical cyclone-related deaths is not declining; it's just being segregated among more storms. Gaps between each impact can be related to mortality levels. When that time increases in five years or more, such as Bob and Andrew or Irene and Katrina, or decreases in weeks or months, such as Harvey and Irene or Katrina and Wilma

  10. Moving towards universal coverage in South Africa? Lessons from a voluntary government insurance scheme

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Veloshnee; Chersich, Matthew F.; Harris, Bronwyn; Alaba, Olufunke; Ataguba, John E.; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Goudge, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2005, the South African government introduced a voluntary, subsidised health insurance scheme for civil servants. In light of the global emphasis on universal coverage, empirical evidence is needed to understand the relationship between new health financing strategies and health care access thereby improving global understanding of these issues. Objectives This study analysed coverage of the South African government health insurance scheme, the population groups with low uptake, and the individual-level factors, as well as characteristics of the scheme, that influenced enrolment. Methods Multi-stage random sampling was used to select 1,329 civil servants from the health and education sectors in four of South Africa's nine provinces. They were interviewed to determine factors associated with enrolment in the scheme. The analysis included both descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Results Notwithstanding the availability of a non-contributory option within the insurance scheme and access to privately-provided primary care, a considerable portion of socio-economically vulnerable groups remained uninsured (57.7% of the lowest salary category). Non-insurance was highest among men, black African or coloured ethnic groups, less educated and lower-income employees, and those living in informal-housing. The relatively poor uptake of the contributory and non-contributory insurance options was mostly attributed to insufficient information, perceived administrative challenges of taking up membership, and payment costs. Conclusion Barriers to enrolment include insufficient information, unaffordability of payments and perceived administrative complexity. Achieving universal coverage requires good physical access to service providers and appropriate benefit options within pre-payment health financing mechanisms. PMID:23364093

  11. Government-Funded Students and Courses--January to March 2016. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of data relating to students, programs, subjects, and training providers in Australia's government-funded vocational education and training (VET) system (defined as Commonwealth and state/territory government funded training). This is the first time that government-funded data from one quarter is compared with…

  12. Government-Funded Students and Courses--January to June 2016. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of data relating to students, programs, subjects, and training providers in Australia's government-funded vocational education and training (VET) system. This is broadly defined as all activity delivered by government providers and government-funded activity delivered by community education and other registered…

  13. Reviewing South Australian ESL Programs and Services: Implications for Teachers and Learners at Senior Secondary Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Currently each state and territory in Australia offers its own range of ESOL services and programs, guided by policy and supported by funding from both national, state and territory authorities, with some variations occurring across jurisdictions (government, independent, Catholic). The National Curriculum Board (now renamed the Australian…

  14. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery. PMID:26489035

  15. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery.

  16. Coevolution of soil and vegetation in the South Eastern Australian uplands with variable climate and fire regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Assaf; Petter, Nyman; Patrick, Lane; Gary, Sheridan

    2016-04-01

    The south east Australian forested uplands are characterized by complex and inter-correlated spatial patterns in forest types, soil depths and fire regimes, even within areas with similar sedimentary geology and catenary position. The ecohydrology of these system-state combinations varies markedly, and is difficult to predict. Here we present preliminary results from a soil and vegetation co-evolutionary framework that represents the key feedbacks that have resulted in the current quasi-equilibrium system states of standing biomass, soil depth and fire frequency. The model is based on a modification of an existing mechanistic model, and includes an ecohydrological engine that drives a vegetation dynamics and a geomorphic submodels. Five sites with similar parent material and slope along a rainfall gradient and opposing aspects were chosen to test the model outputs: soil depth and above-ground biomass. In three of the sites, microclimate conditions were extensively monitored in a clear ridge-top (Open), and North and South facing aspects. The data was used to calibrate and test the ecohydrology modelling according to landscape position. Geomorphic processes that control soil depth were modeled using existing transport functions which varied with climate and forest type, and fire regime was set to be a function of biomass state and water deficit. In the next step, the model will have the potential to be incorporated into a 2D landscape evolution model in order to route sediment and water in a dynamic landscape. Using this model allows us to explore how, and in what rate, did each of the different systems evolve into their current state, and what is the unique and combined part of climate and fire regimes in the coevolution process, and predict the response of the current systems to change in a changing climate.

  17. Temporal variations in latest Quaternary slip across the Australian-Pacific Plate Boundary, northeastern South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuepfer, Peter L. K.

    1992-06-01

    Rates of latest Quaternary slip from stream terraces and moraines displaced by faults of the Alpine shear system in NE South Island, New Zealand, vary in space and time. Detailed histories of fault slip are obtained from combining displacement data with estimates of the age of the surface from weathering characteristics. Precision in surface ages is 5-20% using rock weathering rinds and 15-50% using soil properties. The oldest surfaces examined are 15-20 ka and have right-lateral fault offsets up to 400-600 m. The main faults of the in the NE South Island (the Wairau, Awatere, Clarence, Hope, Kekerengu, and Porters Pass faults) have average latest Quaternary right-lateral slip rates of 3-10, 5-10, 7-10, 25-40, 5-7, and 3-4 mm/yr respectively. Every fault has undergone a substantial decrease in lateral slip rate in the last 3-5 kyr. Summed across the plate boundary, the average latest Quaternary slip rates are comparable to long-term rates of horizontal slip across the Australian-Pacific plate boundary (around 40 mm/yr parallel to the boundary) and rates of geodetic strain and seismic moment release over the last 50-100 years (approximately the same). However, sums of lateral fault-slip rates over the interval from 15 to 5 ka exceed the plate motions, whereas late Holocene lateral fault-slip rates are less than half the long-term average. The best explanation of these variations is slip across the plate boundary is episodic, varying over perhaps 5-kyr intervals. This implies that 15-20 kyr is the time interval necessary to average out shorter, 5-kyr episodic variations in plate boundary motions.

  18. The impact of employee level and work stress on mental health and GP service use: an analysis of a sample of Australian government employees

    PubMed Central

    Parslow, Ruth A; Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen; Broom, Dorothy H; Strazdins, Lyndall; D' Souza, Rennie M

    2004-01-01

    Background This study sought to identify the extent to which employee level and work stressors were associated with mental health problems experienced by Australian government employees, and with their use of primary care services. Methods 806 government employees aged between 40 and 44 years were surveyed as part of an epidemiological study conducted in Australia. Data collected from participants included sociodemographic attributes, physical health, psychological measures and work stressors relating to job control, job demands, job security and skills discretion at work. For 88% of these participants, information on visits made to general practitioners (GPs) for the six months before and after their survey interview was obtained from health insurance records. Results When work stress and personal factors were taken into account, men at more junior levels reported better mental health, more positive affect and used fewer GP services. Women at middle-management levels obtained less GP care than their more senior counterparts. Both men and women who reported higher levels of work stress were found to have poorer mental health and well-being. The impact of such stressors on GP service use, however, differed for men and women. Conclusion Measures of work stress and not employee level affect the mental health and well-being of government employees. For governments with responsibility for funding health care services, reducing work stress experienced by their own employees offers potential benefits by improving the health of their workforce and reducing outlays for such services. PMID:15456518

  19. The impact of employee level and work stress on mental health and GP service use: an analysis of a sample of Australian government employees.

    PubMed

    Parslow, Ruth A; Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen; Broom, Dorothy H; Strazdins, Lyndall; D' Souza, Rennie M

    2004-09-30

    This study sought to identify the extent to which employee level and work stressors were associated with mental health problems experienced by Australian government employees, and with their use of primary care services. 806 government employees aged between 40 and 44 years were surveyed as part of an epidemiological study conducted in Australia. Data collected from participants included sociodemographic attributes, physical health, psychological measures and work stressors relating to job control, job demands, job security and skills discretion at work. For 88% of these participants, information on visits made to general practitioners (GPs) for the six months before and after their survey interview was obtained from health insurance records. When work stress and personal factors were taken into account, men at more junior levels reported better mental health, more positive affect and used fewer GP services. Women at middle-management levels obtained less GP care than their more senior counterparts. Both men and women who reported higher levels of work stress were found to have poorer mental health and well-being. The impact of such stressors on GP service use, however, differed for men and women. Measures of work stress and not employee level affect the mental health and well-being of government employees. For governments with responsibility for funding health care services, reducing work stress experienced by their own employees offers potential benefits by improving the health of their workforce and reducing outlays for such services.

  20. Is a history of school bullying victimization associated with adult suicidal ideation?: a South Australian population-based observational study.

    PubMed

    Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen; Korossy-Horwood, Rebecca; Eckert, Kerena A; Goldney, Robert D

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether a history of school bullying victimization is associated with suicidal ideation in adult life. A random and representative sample of 2907 South Australian adults was surveyed in Autumn, 2008. Respondents were asked "When you were at school, did you experience traumatic bullying by peers that was particularly severe, for example, being frequently targeted or routinely harassed in any way by 'bullies'?" Depression was determined by the mood module of the PRIME-MD which includes a suicidal ideation question; "In the last 2 weeks, have you had thoughts that you would be better off dead or hurting yourself in some way?" The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation in postschool age respondents was 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 2.8%-4.2%) in 2008. Bullying by peers was recalled by 18.7% (17.2%-20.3%). Respondents with a history of being bullied were approximately 3 times (odds ratio: 3.2) more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with those who did not. The association between being bullied and suicidal ideation remained after controlling for both depression and sociodemographic variables (odds ratio: 2.1). The results from the present research suggest that there is a strong association between a history of childhood bullying victimization and current suicidal ideation that persists across all ages. Bullying prevention programs in schools could hold the potential for longer lasting benefits in this important area of public health.

  1. Promoting physical activity among children and youth in disadvantaged South Australian CALD communities through alternative community sport opportunities.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Edoardo; McGrath, Richard

    2016-02-29

    Issue addressed: Recently arrived migrants and refugees from a culturally and linguistically diverse background (CALD) may be particularly vulnerable to social exclusion. Participation in sport is endorsed as a vehicle to ease the resettlement process; however, in Australia, this is often thought as a simple matter of integration into existing sport structures (e.g. clubs). This approach fails to place actual community needs at the centre of sport engagement efforts.Methods: A consultation framework was established with South Australian CALD community leaders and organisations to scope needs for community-based alternatives to participation in traditional sport (e.g. clubs), co-design a suitable community sport program and pilot it in five communities. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted with participants, community representatives, stakeholders and volunteers.Results: Regular, free soccer activities engaged 263 young people from a great variety of nationalities, including over 50% refugees, in secondary state school and community-based sites.Conclusion: Alternative community sport programs can provide a basic but valuable forum to promote physical activity and associated well being in CALD and refugee communities.So what?: Alternative approaches can extend the health benefits of sport participation to disadvantaged children and youth who are excluded from traditional sport participation opportunities.

  2. The impact of Australian legislative changes on synthetic cannabinoid exposures reported to the New South Wales Poisons Information Centre.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Rose; Brown, Jared A; Gunja, Naren; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2017-05-01

    The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), including synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) poses novel challenges for drug regulation and public health. Misconceptions of safety and legality, coupled with the fact that NPS are undetectable on routine drugs screens contributes to their popularity. Concerns over the unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential of NPS has led to a variety of legislative responses worldwide. We wish to describe Australian trends in SCRA use, examining the effects of legislative changes on calls to Australia's largest poisons centre. A retrospective review of calls to the New South Wales Poisons Information Centre (NSWPIC). Cases occurring between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2015 with documented use of SCRAs were included. There were 146 exposures to SCRAs recorded in the NSWPIC database. Federal bans of specific SCRA compounds in 2011/2012 had little impact on call volumes. State-based legislation introduced in 2013 banning specific brand names of SCRA products was followed by a dramatic, sustained decrease in exposures. The most common symptoms reported with SCRA use were tachycardia, vomiting, drowsiness, anxiety/panic, decreased level of consciousness, chest pain, agitation, hallucinations, confusion, seizures and hypertension. Banning of specific brand names of SCRA (timed with raids and social media campaigns) appears effective at reducing SCRA exposures. We postulate that this raised awareness within the community of the illegality of these substances while also reducing supply through bricks-and-mortar shops. These results could help inform future legislative responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Health promotion in Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care services: case studies from South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael; Värttö, Kaisu; Boffa, John; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on the health promotion and disease prevention conducted at Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care (PHC) services and considers the ways in which the organizational environment affects the extent and type of health promotion and disease prevention activity. The study involves five PHC services in Adelaide and one in Alice Springs. Four are managed by a state health department and two by boards of governance. The study is based on an audit of activities and on 68 interviews conducted with staff. All the sites undertake health promotion and recognize its importance but all report that this activity is under constant pressure resulting from the need to provide services to people who have health problems. We also found an increased focus on chronic disease management and prevention which prioritized individuals and behavioural change strategies rather than addressing social determinants affecting whole communities. There was little health promotion work that reflected a salutogenic approach to the creation of health. Most activity falls under three types: parenting and child development, chronic disease prevention and mental health. Only the non-government organizations reported advocacy on broader policy issues. Health reform and consequent reorganizations were seen to reduce the ability of some services to undertake health promotion. The paper concludes that PHC in Australia plays an important role in disease prevention, but that there is considerable scope to increase the amount of community-based health promotion which focuses on a salutogenic view of health and which engages in community partnerships. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, K. D.

    The author notes that two trends appear to be developing in litigation over the governance of the public schools. One trend is increasing participation of organized groups in suits against the schools. The other is a greater volume of litigation dealing with open meeting laws and freedom of information acts. Reflecting the second trend, the…

  5. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, K. D.

    This chapter summarized and analyzes all state supreme court and federal court decisions as well as other significant court decisions affecting the realm of school governance. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1974 and reported in the General Digest on or before March 1, 1975. Because of its unusual significance,…

  6. Corporate Sector Practice Informs Online Workforce Training for Australian Government Agencies: Towards Effective Educational-Learning Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Elspeth; Vilela, Cenie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline government online training practice. We searched individual research domains of the human-dimensions of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), information and communications technologies (ICT) and instructional design for evidence of either corporate sector or government training practices. We overlapped these…

  7. Summary of government sponsored foreign electronics: European union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, United Kingdom, France, and Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garian, Robert

    1994-10-01

    This report provides basic information and statistical data on foreign electronics research and development sponsored by the governments of the European Union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, France, and Singapore. Industrial R&D funding was found to be highly significant in all of the countries studied. Government and industry typically collaborate closely in the planning of economic strategies for capturing new or larger shares of targeted segments of the electronics market.

  8. Measuring changes in the illicit cigarette market using government revenue data: the example of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    van Walbeek, Corné

    2014-01-01

    Background The tobacco industry claims that illicit trade in cigarettes has increased sharply since the 1990s and that government has lost substantial tax revenue. Objectives (1) To determine whether cigarette excise tax revenue has been below budget in recent years, compared with previous decades. (2) To determine trends in the size of the illicit market since 1995. Methods For (1), mean percentage errors and root mean square percentage errors were calculated for budget revenue deviation for three products (cigarettes, beer and spirits), for various subperiods. For (2), predicted changes in total consumption, using actual cigarette price and GDP changes and previously published price and income elasticity estimates, were calculated and compared with changes in tax-paid consumption. Results Cigarette excise revenues were 0.7% below budget for 2000–2012 on average, compared with 3.0% below budget for beer and 4.7% below budget for spirits. There is no evidence that illicit trade in cigarettes in South Africa increased between 2002 and 2009. There is a substantial increase in illicit trade in 2010, probably peaking in 2011. In 2012 tax-paid consumption of cigarettes increased 2.6%, implying that the illicit market share decreased an estimated 0.6 percentage points. Conclusions Other than in 2010, there is no evidence that illicit trade is significantly undermining government revenue. Claims that illicit trade has consistently increased over the past 15 years, and has continued its sharp increase since 2010, are not supported. PMID:24431121

  9. Information and communication technology use among Victorian and South Australian oral health professions students.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Habibi, Elmira; Morgan, Michael; Au-Yeung, Winnie

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine and analyze the use of information and communication technology (ICT) by oral health professions students in Victoria and South Australia. Data were collected during the 2009 and 2010 academic years via electronic survey. Out of 1,138 students studying in Adelaide and Victorian dental schools, 740 students participated, for an overall response rate of 65 percent. The majority were dental students (n=609) with 131 seeking a Bachelor of Oral Health (B.O.H.) degree. The majority were female (62.0 percent), had home Internet access (91.7 percent), and no barriers to accessing the Internet (87.2 percent). Among those who mentioned barriers, difficult access and cost were the most common. The Internet was accessed at least once a week by the majority for general purposes (93.5 percent) and for study purposes (84.2 percent). Nonetheless, thirty-nine students (5.3 percent) were non-frequent ICT users. The probability of an oral health professions student being in the non-ICT users group was explored utilizing a logistic regression analysis. The final model contained three predictors: location of school, ethnic background, and place of Internet use (χ(2) [3]=117.7; p<0.0001). After controlling for other variables in the model, those studying in South Australia were significantly more likely (OR=2.32; 95 percent CI 1.05 to 5.11) to be in the non-users groups. In the same manner, students from an Asian background were three times more likely to be non-users (OR=3.06; 95 percent CI 1.16 to 8.08). Those who had access to the Internet at home (OR=0.02; 95 percent CI 0.01 to 0.05) were less likely to be a non-user. These results represent a preliminary evaluation of ICT use among oral health professions students in Australia. It seems that a digital divide exists among these students. The information can be utilized in planning dental education programs and incorporating the use of ICT suitable for oral health professions students and

  10. Canopy Profiling for Vegetation Mapping in South-Western Australian Forested Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schut, A. G. T.; Wardell-Johnson, G. W.; Baran, I.

    2012-09-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is already impacting native vegetation world-wide. Thus accurate mapping of current vegetation condition is necessary for benchmarking and conservation planning. We examine the potential for the mapping of native vegetation of forested ecosystems in south-western Australia using LiDAR data. Airborne LiDAR (distance between data points 1.2 m) and RGB imagery was acquired with a discrete 4-return Leica ALS 50-II system in April 2011 and vertical canopy profiles determined in Boyagin Nature Reserve. Elevation, slope and geomorphological descriptions of the terrain in combination with vertical canopy profiles based on presence/absence of returns within voxels were derived from the LiDAR data and processed at a spatial resolution of 4.0 meters. Based on these profiles, crown height and depth, ground cover, mean intensity of crown returns, presence of understory and number of vegetation layers were determined for each grid cell. Unsupervised classification revealed distinctive canopy profiles. Vegetation is strongly linked to geomorphology in this old landscape. Thus Kwongan shrubland occurs on the plateaus, Allocasuarina heugeliana woodland on the fringes of rock outcrops, Eucalyptus astringens and E. accedens woodland on breakaways and E. wandoo and Corymbia calophylla woodland in more fertile valley systems. The vegetation types present within distinctive spatial clusters were determined in two field visits. Vegetation types were mapped with an object-based image analysis approach at geomorphological, vegetation and tree scales using the geomorphology of the terrain and structural, textural and reflective characteristics of the canopy. All vertical profiles identified were present on each geomorphological unit. Tree species with a distinctive vertical profile such as Eucalyptus astringens and Allocasuarina heugeliana were defined and distinguished in combination with object-based geomorphological and spatial characteristics. Vegetation

  11. The accuracy of caries risk assessment in children attending South Australian School Dental Service: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Diep H; Spencer, A John; Slade, Gary D; Chartier, Andrew D

    2014-01-29

    To determine the accuracy of the caries risk assessment system and performance of clinicians in their attempts to predict caries for children during routine practice. Longitudinal study. Data on caries risk assessment conducted by clinicians during routine practice while providing care for children in the South Australian School Dental Service (SA SDS) were collected from electronic patient records. Baseline data on caries experience, clinicians' ratings of caries risk status and child demographics were obtained for all SA SDS patients aged 5-15 years examined during 2002-2005. Children's caries incidence rate, calculated using examination data after a follow-up period of 6-48 months from baseline, was used as the gold standard to compute the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of clinicians' baseline ratings of caries risk. Multivariate binomial regression models were used to evaluate effects of children's baseline characteristics on Se and Sp. A total of 133 clinicians rated caries risk status of 71 430 children during 2002-2005. The observed Se and Sp were 0.48 and 0.86, respectively (Se+Sp=1.34). Caries experience at baseline was the strongest factor influencing accuracy in multivariable regression model. Among children with no caries experience at baseline, overall accuracy (Se+Sp) was only 1.05, whereas it was 1.28 among children with at least one tooth surfaces with caries experience at baseline. Clinicians' accuracy in predicting caries risk during routine practice was similar to levels reported in research settings that simulated patient care. Accuracy was acceptable in children who had prior caries experience at the baseline examination, while it was poor among children with no caries experience.

  12. The accuracy of caries risk assessment in children attending South Australian School Dental Service: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Diep H; Spencer, A John; Slade, Gary D; Chartier, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the accuracy of the caries risk assessment system and performance of clinicians in their attempts to predict caries for children during routine practice. Design Longitudinal study. Setting and participants Data on caries risk assessment conducted by clinicians during routine practice while providing care for children in the South Australian School Dental Service (SA SDS) were collected from electronic patient records. Baseline data on caries experience, clinicians’ ratings of caries risk status and child demographics were obtained for all SA SDS patients aged 5–15 years examined during 2002–2005. Outcome measure Children’s caries incidence rate, calculated using examination data after a follow-up period of 6–48 months from baseline, was used as the gold standard to compute the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of clinicians’ baseline ratings of caries risk. Multivariate binomial regression models were used to evaluate effects of children's baseline characteristics on Se and Sp. Results A total of 133 clinicians rated caries risk status of 71 430 children during 2002–2005. The observed Se and Sp were 0.48 and 0.86, respectively (Se+Sp=1.34). Caries experience at baseline was the strongest factor influencing accuracy in multivariable regression model. Among children with no caries experience at baseline, overall accuracy (Se+Sp) was only 1.05, whereas it was 1.28 among children with at least one tooth surfaces with caries experience at baseline. Conclusions Clinicians’ accuracy in predicting caries risk during routine practice was similar to levels reported in research settings that simulated patient care. Accuracy was acceptable in children who had prior caries experience at the baseline examination, while it was poor among children with no caries experience. PMID:24477318

  13. Effect of common polymorphisms in folate uptake and metabolism genes on frequency of micronucleated lymphocytes in a South Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Varinderpal; Thomas, Philip; Fenech, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes that control folate uptake and metabolism may have an important effect on chromosomal stability. The present study investigated the effect of common SNPs in some of these critical genes on frequency of lymphocytes with micronuclei, a biomarker of chromosome breakage or loss. 164 individuals (94 males and 70 females) of different age ranging from 18 to 73 years participated in this study. Polymorphisms in GCPII (C1561T), RFC (G80A), MTR (A2756G), MTRR (A66G and C524T), TS (tandem repeats, 6bp deletion in 3'-UTR region) and MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) were detected using PCR-based methods. Frequency of binucleated (BN) lymphocytes containing one or more micronuclei (BN-MN) was determined using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and adjusted for the effects of age and gender. We did not find any significant association between BN-MN frequency and the common SNPs in GCPII, MTRR, TS and MTHFR genes. BN-MN frequency in individuals who carried at least one copy of the rarer G allele for MTR (A2756G) or were homozygotes for the more common G allele for RFC (G80A) had a 14% or 19% lower BN-MN frequency compared to the alternative genotypes for that SNP respectively. It was evident from genotype combination analyses that BN-MN frequency per 1000 BN cells was highest in those with the combined MTR (2756) AA and RFC (80) GA or AA genotype (13.6 per thousand) and lowest in those with the combined MTR (2756) AG or GG and RFC (80) GG genotypes (9.5 per thousand) (P trend=0.015). The RFC G80A and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and their combinations may be important variables that substantially affect lymphocyte BN-MN frequency in this South Australian cohort.

  14. Extending our understanding of South Pacific gyre "spin-up": Modeling the East Australian Current in a future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, E. C. J.; Holbrook, N. J.

    2014-05-01

    The western Tasman Sea represents a global warming marine "hot spot," where the waters are warming at almost 4 times the global average rate, argued in the literature to be due to a "spin-up" of the South Pacific subtropical gyre and extension of the East Australian Current (EAC). To further investigate and test this paradigm, we analyze climate change simulations of Tasman Sea circulation and metrics on output from the Ocean Forecasting Australia Model for the 20th and 21st centuries, forced by a global climate model simulation under the A1B carbon emissions scenario. First, we show that the 1990s simulation estimates of mean dynamic topography, present-day location of the EAC separation point, and volume transports of the EAC, EAC extension, and flow along the Tasman Front, are consistent with recent observations. We further demonstrate that between the 1990s and 2060s, the volume transport of the EAC extension is projected to increase by 4.3 Sv at the expense of the flow along the Tasman Front (projected to decrease by 2.7 Sv). The transport of the EAC core flow (equatorward of the separation point) is projected to change very little (increase of 0.2 Sv). The model projects a Tasman Sea-wide warming, with mean increases of up to 3°C. These results are interpreted using a simple linear, barotropic model which captures both the sign and meridional distribution of the projected changes in mean transport, including negligible change in core EAC transport but enhanced EAC extension. This meridional asymmetry in the transports is consistent with the wind-forced ocean response to changes in the basin-wide wind stress curl.

  15. Morchella australiana sp. nov., an apparent Australian endemic from New South Wales and Victoria.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Todd F; Bougher, Neale L; O'Donnell, Kerry; Trappe, James M

    2014-01-01

    An abundant fruiting of a black morel was encountered in temperate northwestern New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during a mycological survey in Sep 2010. The site was west of the Great Dividing Range in a young, dry sclerophyll forest dominated by Eucalyptus and Callitris north of Coonabarabran in an area known as the Pilliga Scrub. Although the Pilliga Scrub is characterized by frequent and often large, intense wildfires, the site showed no sign of recent fire, which suggests this species is not a postfire morel. Caps of the Morchella elata-like morel were brown with blackish ridges supported by a pubescent stipe that became brown at maturity. Because no morel has been described as native to Australia, the collections were subjected to multilocus molecular phylogenetic and morphological analyses to assess its identity. Results of these analyses indicated that our collection, together with collections from NSW and Victoria, represented a novel, genealogically exclusive lineage, which is described and illustrated here as Morchella australiana T. F. Elliott, Bougher, O'Donnell & Trappe, sp. nov.

  16. The Soil Bacterial Communities of South African Fynbos Riparian Ecosystems Invaded by Australian Acacia Species

    PubMed Central

    Slabbert, Etienne; Jacobs, Shayne Martin; Jacobs, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Riparian ecosystem along rivers and streams are characterised by lateral and longitudinal ecological gradients and, as a result, harbour unique biodiversity. Riparian ecosystems in the fynbos of the Western Cape, South Africa, are characterised by seasonal dynamics, with summer droughts followed by high flows during winter. The unique hydrology and geomorphology of riparian ecosystems play an important role in shaping these ecosystems. The riparian vegetation in the Western Cape has, however, largely been degraded due to the invasion of non-indigenous plants, in particular Acacia mearnsii, A. saligna and A. dealbata. This study investigated the effect of hydrology and invasion on the bacterial communities associated with fynbos riparian ecosystems. Bacterial communities were characterised with automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and 454 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Chemical and physical properties of soil within sites were also determined and correlated with community data. Sectioning across the lateral zones revealed significant differences in community composition, and the specific bacterial taxa influenced. Results also showed that the bacterial community structure could be linked to Acacia invasion. The presence of invasive Acacia was correlated with specific bacterial phyla. However, high similarity between cleared and pristine sites suggests that the effect of Acacia on the soil bacterial community structure may not be permanent. This study demonstrates how soil bacterial communities are influenced by hydrological gradients associated with riparian ecosystems and the impact of Acacia invasion on these communities. PMID:24475145

  17. Homicide among Indigenous South Australians: a forty-year study (1969-2008).

    PubMed

    Temlett, Julia; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    A retrospective review of homicide cases among Aboriginal people in South Australia examined at Forensic Science SA was undertaken over a 40-year period from 1969 to 2008. A total of 90 Indigenous homicide victims were identified compared to 599 non-Indigenous victims over the same time period. Although homicide rates have fallen, the Indigenous homicide rate (ranging from 73.5 to 223.97 per 100,000) significantly exceeded the non-Indigenous rate (ranging from 8.16 to 12.6 per 100,000) for all decades (p<0.001). The most common methods of homicide in the Indigenous population involved blunt force and sharp force trauma, with gunshot, strangulation and other forms of homicides being encountered less often. While lack of access to firearms may explain the lower numbers of gunshot deaths it would not explain the low numbers of deaths due to strangulation. Considerable variability may, therefore, exist in the types of unnatural deaths that may be found in different cultural and ethnic groups, even within the same community.

  18. A study of environmental tobacco smoke in South Australian pubs, clubs and cafes.

    PubMed

    Cenko, Clinton; Pisaniello, Dino; Esterman, Adrian

    2004-02-01

    Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in hotels and clubs is of community concern and may lead to a variety of adverse health outcomes for workers and patrons. This study sought to measure ETS in both smoking and non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in South Australia and to assess the effectiveness of ETS control measures. Seven hotels, clubs and cafes were investigated and the concentrations of airborne nicotine and particulate matter (PM(10)) were measured as markers of ETS exposure during normal to busy periods. Overall average concentrations were higher in smoking areas (nicotine = 15 microg/m(3) and PM(10) = 255microg/m(3)) compared with non-smoking dining areas (nicotine = 7 microg/m(3) and PM(10) = 192 microg/m(3)). The data demonstrate an approximate two-fold reduction of ETS within non-smoking areas and suggest that mechanical ventilation is only partially effective in preventing propagation of ETS throughout premises. Risk models suggest that ETS exposures in non-smoking areas may still represent an appreciable health risk. It is recommended that smoking be totally banned in enclosed publicly accessible areas.

  19. The South Australian Safe Drinking Water Act: summary of the first year of operation.

    PubMed

    Froscio, Suzanne M; Bolton, Natalie; Cooke, Renay; Wittholz, Michelle; Cunliffe, David

    2016-06-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act 2011 was introduced in South Australia to provide clear direction to drinking water providers on how to achieve water safety. The Act requires drinking water providers to register with SA Health and develop a risk management plan (RMP) for their water supply that includes operational and verification monitoring plans and an incident notification and communication protocol. During the first year of operation, 212 drinking water providers registered under the Act, including one major water utility and a range of small to medium sized providers in regional and remote areas of the State. Information was captured on water source(s) used and water treatment. Rainwater was the most frequently reported drinking water source (66%), followed by bore water (13%), on-supply or carting of mains water (13%), mixed source (rainwater with bore water backup) (6%) and surface water (3%). The majority of providers (91%) treated the water supply, 87% used disinfection. During the first year of operation, 16 water quality incidents were formally reported to SA Health. These included both microbial and chemical incidents. Case studies presented highlight how the RMPs are assisting drinking water providers to identify incidents of potential health concern and implement corrective actions.

  20. Impact of green roofs on stormwater quality in a South Australian urban environment.

    PubMed

    Razzaghmanesh, M; Beecham, S; Kazemi, F

    2014-02-01

    Green roofs are an increasingly important component of water sensitive urban design systems and can potentially improve the quality of urban runoff. However, there is evidence that they can occasionally act as a source rather than a sink for pollutants. In this study, the water quality of the outflow from both intensive and extensive green roof systems were studied in the city of Adelaide, South Australia over a period of nine months. The aim was to examine the effects of different green roof configurations on stormwater quality and to compare this with runoff from aluminium and asphalt roofs as control surfaces. The contaminant concentrations in runoff from both intensive and extensive green roofs generally decreased during the study period. A comparison between the two types of green roof showed that except for some events for EC, TDS and chloride, the values of the parameters such as pH, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate and potassium in intensive green roof outflows were higher than in the outflows from the extensive green roofs. These concentrations were compared to local, state, national and international water quality guidelines in order to investigate the potential for outflow runoff from green roofs to be reused for potable and non-potable purposes. The study found that green roof outflow can provide an alternative water source for non-potable purposes such as urban landscape irrigation and toilet flushing. © 2013.

  1. The soil bacterial communities of South African fynbos riparian ecosystems invaded by Australian Acacia species.

    PubMed

    Slabbert, Etienne; Jacobs, Shayne Martin; Jacobs, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Riparian ecosystem along rivers and streams are characterised by lateral and longitudinal ecological gradients and, as a result, harbour unique biodiversity. Riparian ecosystems in the fynbos of the Western Cape, South Africa, are characterised by seasonal dynamics, with summer droughts followed by high flows during winter. The unique hydrology and geomorphology of riparian ecosystems play an important role in shaping these ecosystems. The riparian vegetation in the Western Cape has, however, largely been degraded due to the invasion of non-indigenous plants, in particular Acacia mearnsii, A. saligna and A. dealbata. This study investigated the effect of hydrology and invasion on the bacterial communities associated with fynbos riparian ecosystems. Bacterial communities were characterised with automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and 454 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Chemical and physical properties of soil within sites were also determined and correlated with community data. Sectioning across the lateral zones revealed significant differences in community composition, and the specific bacterial taxa influenced. Results also showed that the bacterial community structure could be linked to Acacia invasion. The presence of invasive Acacia was correlated with specific bacterial phyla. However, high similarity between cleared and pristine sites suggests that the effect of Acacia on the soil bacterial community structure may not be permanent. This study demonstrates how soil bacterial communities are influenced by hydrological gradients associated with riparian ecosystems and the impact of Acacia invasion on these communities.

  2. Detaining the Usual Suspects: Charting the Use of Segregated Settings in New South Wales Government Schools, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Linda J.; Sweller, Naomi; Van Bergen, Penny

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the increase in segregated placements in the New South Wales government school sector. Using disaggregated enrolment data, it points to the growing over-representation of boys in special schools and classes, particularly those of a certain age in certain support categories. In the discussion that follows, the authors question…

  3. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  4. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  5. Why the Distilled Spirits Industry Council of Australia is not a credible partner for the Australian government in making alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Munro, Geoffrey

    2012-06-01

    In 2008 the Australian government increased the excise rate on ready-to-drink premixed spirits or 'alcopops' by 70% to reduce their attraction to young people. A campaign against the decision was led by the Distilled Spirits Industry Council of Australia, whose members include representatives of the world's largest spirits producers and which aspires to partner the government in making alcohol policy. Distilled Spirits Industry Council of Australia's central thesis appeared to lack substance and sincerity: first, it promoted industry data that were evidently premature and misleading; second, it claimed ready-to-drinks were a safer alternative to the consumption of full-strength spirits because spirits pose a threat to drinkers due to their higher alcoholic content. For spirits producers to concede that drinking spirits is generically hazardous may be unprecedented and contradicts the spirits industry's long-standing opposition to the introduction of health warnings on product labels. Although that admission did not survive the resolution of the case, the effect may be profound, as it might justify the demand for greater control of the labelling and marketing of spirits, and reduce the credibility of spirits producers, and the broader alcohol industry, on matters of policy.

  6. Measuring changes in the illicit cigarette market using government revenue data: the example of South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Walbeek, Corné

    2014-05-01

    The tobacco industry claims that illicit trade in cigarettes has increased sharply since the 1990s and that government has lost substantial tax revenue. (1) To determine whether cigarette excise tax revenue has been below budget in recent years, compared with previous decades. (2) To determine trends in the size of the illicit market since 1995. For (1), mean percentage errors and root mean square percentage errors were calculated for budget revenue deviation for three products (cigarettes, beer and spirits), for various subperiods. For (2), predicted changes in total consumption, using actual cigarette price and GDP changes and previously published price and income elasticity estimates, were calculated and compared with changes in tax-paid consumption. Cigarette excise revenues were 0.7% below budget for 2000-2012 on average, compared with 3.0% below budget for beer and 4.7% below budget for spirits. There is no evidence that illicit trade in cigarettes in South Africa increased between 2002 and 2009. There is a substantial increase in illicit trade in 2010, probably peaking in 2011. In 2012 tax-paid consumption of cigarettes increased 2.6%, implying that the illicit market share decreased an estimated 0.6 percentage points. Other than in 2010, there is no evidence that illicit trade is significantly undermining government revenue. Claims that illicit trade has consistently increased over the past 15 years, and has continued its sharp increase since 2010, are not supported. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Geographic variation in suicide rates in Australian farmers: Why is the problem more frequent in Queensland than in New South Wales?

    PubMed

    Arnautovska, Urska; McPhedran, S; Kelly, B; Reddy, P; De Leo, D

    2016-07-01

    Research on farmer suicide is limited in explaining the variations in farmers' demographic characteristics. This study examines farmer suicides in two Australian states: Queensland (QLD) and New South Wales (NSW). Standardized suicide rates over 2000-2009 showed a 2 times higher prevalence of suicide in QLD than NSW (147 vs. 92 cases, respectively). Differences in age and suicide method were observed between states, although they do not appear to account for the sizeable intra- and interstate variations. Suicide prevention initiatives for farmers should account for different age groups and also specific place-based risk factors that may vary between and within jurisdictions.

  8. The Impact of the Australian Government's Quality Assurance Program on Institutional Roles and Management Processes. AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Alan

    In Australia the Federal Government plays a dominant role in higher education funding. Changes to the role and structure of the higher education system in 1988 aligned the universities more closely with national economic goals and sent the message to institutions that they were expected to adopt a more managerial mode of operation in order to…

  9. Is "Learning" Science Enough?--A Cultural Model of Religious Students of Science in an Australian Government School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joseph Paul; Kameniar, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the cognitive experiences of four religious students studying evolutionary biology in an inner city government secondary school in Melbourne, Australia. The participants in the study were identified using the Religious Background and Behaviours questionnaire (Connors, Tonigan, & Miller, 1996). Participants were…

  10. Unavailability of Essential Obstetric Care Services in a Local Government Area of South-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fatusi, Adesegun O.; Orji, Ernest O.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Owolabi, Olabimpe O.; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O.; Omideyi, Adekunbi K.; Adewuyi, Alfred A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the findings at baseline in a multi-phase project that aimed at reducing maternal mortality in a local government area (LGA) of South-West Nigeria. The objectives were to determine the availability of essential obstetric care (EOC) services in the LGA and to assess the quality of existing services. The first phase of this interventional study, which is the focus of this paper, consisted of a baseline health facility and needs assessment survey using instruments adapted from the United Nations guidelines. Twenty-one of 26 health facilities surveyed were public facilities, and five were privately owned. None of the facilities met the criteria for a basic EOC facility, while only one private facility met the criteria for a comprehensive EOC facility. Three facilities employed a nurse and/or a midwife, while unskilled health attendants manned 46% of the facilities. No health worker in the LGA had ever been trained in lifesaving skills. There was a widespread lack of basic EOC equipment and supplies. The study concluded that there were major deficiencies in the supply side of obstetric care services in the LGA, and EOC was almost non-existent. This result has implications for interventions for the reduction of maternal mortality in the LGA and in Nigeria. PMID:17615909

  11. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms in South Australian preschool children. II. Factors associated with indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Volkmer, R E; Ruffin, R E; Wigg, N R; Davies, N

    1995-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between indoor air quality and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in South Australian preschool children. Data were collected from 14,124 families with a child aged 4 years 3 months to 5 years of age. This sample represents 73% of the targeted State preschool population. At the time of a routine preschool health check, parents completed a questionnaire regarding: their child's respiratory health and place of residence (postcode), parental smoking, type of fuel used for cooking and heating and method used for home cooling. For preschool children residing in the greater Adelaide region, logistic regression analyses found that having a natural gas stove compared to an electric stove was significantly associated with increased prevalence rates for: (i) asthma (odds ratio [OR] 1.24); (ii) wheezing in the preceding 12 months (OR 1.16); excessive colds (OR 1.14); and hay fever (OR 1.13). The use of a liquid petroleum gas stove compared to an electric stove was not associated with any respiratory symptoms. The use of a flueless gas heater compared to other forms of heating was significantly associated with increased prevalence rates for dry cough (OR 1.26), ever having wheezed (OR 1.15) and wheezing in the preceding 12 months (OR 1.18). The use of a wood fire/heater compared to other forms of heating was significantly associated with a reduced prevalence rate for dry cough (OR 0.84) and ever having wheezed (OR 0.82). Parental smoking was significantly associated with increased prevalence rates for bronchitis (OR 1.21) and ever having wheezed (OR 1.24). The form of home cooling used was not associated with prevalence rates, after accounting for geographic location. Socio-economic status (postcode level) was not generally associated with prevalence rates. These results suggest that respiratory symptom prevalence is related to the fuel used for cooking and heating and parental smoking. Prospective investigation regarding indoor air

  12. Challenging urban health: towards an improved local government response to migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Vearey, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD thesis undertaken by Joanna Vearey that explores local government responses to the urban health challenges of migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa. Urbanisation in South Africa is a result of natural urban growth and (to a lesser extent) in-migration from within the country and across borders. This has led to the development of informal settlements within and on the periphery of urban areas. The highest HIV prevalence nationally is found within urban informal settlements. South African local government has a 'developmental mandate' that calls for government to work with citizens to develop sustainable interventions to address their social, economic, and material needs. Through a mixed-methods approach, four studies were undertaken within inner-city Johannesburg and a peripheral urban informal settlement. Two cross-sectional surveys - one at a household level and one with migrant antiretroviral clients - were supplemented with semi-structured interviews with multiple stakeholders involved with urban health and HIV in Johannesburg, and participatory photography and film projects undertaken with urban migrant communities. The findings show that local government requires support in developing and implementing appropriate intersectoral responses to address urban health. Existing urban health frameworks do not deal adequately with the complex health and development challenges identified; it is essential that urban public health practitioners and other development professionals in South Africa engage with the complexities of the urban environment. A revised, participatory approach to urban health - 'concept mapping' - is suggested which requires a recommitment to intersectoral action, 'healthy urban governance' and public health advocacy.

  13. Questioning the Pace and Pathway of E-Government Development in Africa: A Case Study of South Africa's Cape Gateway Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maumbe, Blessing Mukabeta; Owei, Vesper; Alexander, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines e-government development in Africa. This study is based on the Cape Gateway project in South Africa, a leading e-government initiative on the continent. We observe that African countries have jumped on the e-government band wagon by looking mostly at the benefits without a clear risk assessment. We argue that African countries…

  14. Toward improved understanding of the quantitative linkage between ecological processes and hydrologic dynamics in south-east Australian catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharun, M.; Henry, J.; Vervoort, R. W.; Turnbull, T. L.; Adams, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The high country catchments in south-east Australia are probably the most important of all ecosystems in terms of water supply for millions of urban people in the major cities. These mountainous catchments are predominantly forested with mixed-species native eucalypts that are relatively unknown hydrologically. In the context of climate change, rising temperature and increasing frequency of high intensity bushfires, the questions we are trying to answer are threefold: 1) How does plant structure and physiology control water use; 2) How does spatial variation in water use affect water yield; and 3) do physiological controls or biophysical constraints determine variation in water yields. This information is necessary to assess the consequences of climate change on the terrestrial water cycle, and guiding hydrological models for managing catchments in south-east Australia. In this study, water relations of high country forests in response to the environment were studied at the leaf, tree, and stand scale, using a range of measurements and modelling frame works. A large proportion of the analyses in this study rely on sap flow measurements collected using the Heat Ratio Method. Eucalypt water use in the high country was largely governed by the atmospheric environment, mainly vapour pressure deficit and radiation, compared to soil moisture and wind speed, with species-specific sensitivity to atmospheric drought that were supported by species distribution patterns within the landscape. A generic model is developed using data-driven techniques to estimate tree water use from atmospheric demand and potential incoming radiation derived from digital elevation model. According to modelled sap flow tree water use is lowest on higher elevations, and is greatest on steep southern aspects. Upscaling evapotranspiration (ET) to a catchment scale was subject to fundamental issues. The accuracy of ET derived from stream flow integration was limited to wet conditions when the

  15. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in pregnant Australian Indigenous women residing in rural and remote New South Wales: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Mah, Beth; Weatherall, Loretta; Burrows, Julie; Blackwell, Caroline C; Gwynn, Josephine; Wadhwa, Pathik; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Smith, Roger; Rae, Kym M

    2017-10-01

    Pregnancy can be a stressful time for many women. There is ample evidence of numerous physical and mental health inequities for Indigenous Australians. For those Indigenous women who are pregnant, it is established that there is a higher incidence of poor physical perinatal outcomes when compared with non-Indigenous Australians. However, little evidence exists that examines stressful events and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pregnant women who are members of this community. To quantify the rates of stressful events and PTSD symptoms in pregnant Indigenous women. One hundred and fifty rural and remote Indigenous women were invited to complete a survey during each trimester of their pregnancy. The survey measures were the stressful life events and the Impact of Events Scale. Extremely high rates of PTSD symptoms were reported by participants. Approximately 40% of this group exhibited PTSD symptoms during their pregnancy with mean score 33.38 (SD = 14.37) significantly higher than a study of European victims of crisis, including terrorism attacks (20.6, SD = 18.5). The extreme levels of PTSD symptoms found in the women participating in this study are likely to result in negative implications for both mother and infant. An urgent response must be mounted at government, health, community development and research levels to address these findings. Immediate attention needs to focus on the development of interventions to address the high levels of PTSD symptoms that pregnant Australian Indigenous women experience. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Estimation of potential scour at bridges on local government roads in South Dakota, 2009-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ryan F.; Wattier, Chelsea M.; Liggett, Richard R.; Truax, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) began a study to estimate potential scour at selected bridges on local government (county, township, and municipal) roads in South Dakota. A rapid scour-estimation method (level-1.5) and a more detailed method (level-2) were used to develop estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Data from 41 level-2 analyses completed for this study were combined with data from level-2 analyses completed in previous studies to develop new South Dakota-specific regression equations: four regional equations for main-channel velocity at the bridge contraction to account for the widely varying stream conditions within South Dakota, and one equation for head change. Velocity data from streamgages also were used in the regression for average velocity through the bridge contraction. Using these new regression equations, scour analyses were completed using the level-1.5 method on 361 bridges on local government roads. Typically, level-1.5 analyses are completed at flows estimated to have annual exceedance probabilities of 1 percent (100-year flood) and 0.2 percent (500-year flood); however, at some sites the bridge would not pass these flows. A level-1.5 analysis was then completed at the flow expected to produce the maximum scour. Data presented for level-1.5 scour analyses at the 361 bridges include contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Estimates of potential contraction scour ranged from 0 to 32.5 feet for the various flows evaluated. Estimated potential abutment scour ranged from 0 to 40.9 feet for left abutments, and from 0 to 37.7 feet for right abutments. Pier scour values ranged from 2.7 to 31.6 feet. The scour depth estimates provided in this report can be used by the SDDOT to compare with foundation depths at each bridge to determine if abutments or piers are at risk of being undermined by scour at the flows evaluated. Replicate analyses were completed at 24 of the 361 bridges

  17. Estimation of potential scour at bridges on local government roads in South Dakota, 2009-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ryan F.; Wattier, Chelsea M.; Liggett, Richard R.; Truax, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) began a study to estimate potential scour at selected bridges on local government (county, township, and municipal) roads in South Dakota. A rapid scour-estimation method (level-1.5) and a more detailed method (level-2) were used to develop estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Data from 41 level-2 analyses completed for this study were combined with data from level-2 analyses completed in previous studies to develop new South Dakota-specific regression equations: four regional equations for main-channel velocity at the bridge contraction to account for the widely varying stream conditions within South Dakota, and one equation for head change. Velocity data from streamgages also were used in the regression for average velocity through the bridge contraction. Using these new regression equations, scour analyses were completed using the level-1.5 method on 361 bridges on local government roads. Typically, level-1.5 analyses are completed at flows estimated to have annual exceedance probabilities of 1 percent (100-year flood) and 0.2 percent (500-year flood); however, at some sites the bridge would not pass these flows. A level-1.5 analysis was then completed at the flow expected to produce the maximum scour. Data presented for level-1.5 scour analyses at the 361 bridges include contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Estimates of potential contraction scour ranged from 0 to 32.5 feet for the various flows evaluated. Estimated potential abutment scour ranged from 0 to 40.9 feet for left abutments, and from 0 to 37.7 feet for right abutments. Pier scour values ranged from 2.7 to 31.6 feet. The scour depth estimates provided in this report can be used by the SDDOT to compare with foundation depths at each bridge to determine if abutments or piers are at risk of being undermined by scour at the flows evaluated. Replicate analyses were completed at 24 of the 361 bridges

  18. Challenging urban health: towards an improved local government response to migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Vearey, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD thesis undertaken by Joanna Vearey that explores local government responses to the urban health challenges of migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa. Urbanisation in South Africa is a result of natural urban growth and (to a lesser extent) in-migration from within the country and across borders. This has led to the development of informal settlements within and on the periphery of urban areas. The highest HIV prevalence nationally is found within urban informal settlements. South African local government has a ‘developmental mandate’ that calls for government to work with citizens to develop sustainable interventions to address their social, economic, and material needs. Through a mixed-methods approach, four studies were undertaken within inner-city Johannesburg and a peripheral urban informal settlement. Two cross-sectional surveys – one at a household level and one with migrant antiretroviral clients – were supplemented with semi-structured interviews with multiple stakeholders involved with urban health and HIV in Johannesburg, and participatory photography and film projects undertaken with urban migrant communities. The findings show that local government requires support in developing and implementing appropriate intersectoral responses to address urban health. Existing urban health frameworks do not deal adequately with the complex health and development challenges identified; it is essential that urban public health practitioners and other development professionals in South Africa engage with the complexities of the urban environment. A revised, participatory approach to urban health – ‘concept mapping’ – is suggested which requires a recommitment to intersectoral action, ‘healthy urban governance’ and public health advocacy. PMID:21686331

  19. Measures to assess the performance of an Australian non-government charitable non-acute health service: A Delphi Survey of Organisational Stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Colbran, Richard; Ramsden, Robyn; Stagnitti, Karen; Adams, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Organisation performance measurement is relevant for non-profit charitable organisations as they strive for security in an increasingly competitive funding environment. This study aimed to identify the priority measures and indicators of organisational performance of an Australian non-government charitable organisation that delivers non-acute health services. Seventy-seven and 59 participants across nine stakeholder groups responded to a two-staged Delphi technique study of a case study organisation. The stage one questionnaire was developed using information garnered through a detailed review of literature. Data from the first round were aggregated and analysed for the stage two survey. The final data represented a group consensus. Quality of care was ranked the most important of six organisational performance measures. Service user satisfaction was ranked second followed by financial performance, internal processes, employee learning and growth and community engagement. Thirteen priority indicators were determined across the six measures. Consensus was reached on the priority organisational performance measures and indicators. Stakeholders of the case study organisation value evidence-based practice, technical strength of services and service user satisfaction over more commercially orientated indicators.

  20. Local evidenced-based policy options to improve food security in South Australia: the use of local knowledge in policy development.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Amber; Coveney, John

    2012-08-01

    To examine realist policy options for the South Australian government to improve food security. Semi-structured interviews with twenty-four key South Australian food security stakeholders. Food security is a global issue that affects both developing and developed countries. Governments are well placed to improve food security but the solutions are not always evident. Policy makers, leaders of non-government organisations, private enterprise and front-line food security workers in South Australia. The research produced forty-four potential policy options for the South Australian government to improve food security. Stakeholders offered detailed policy solutions for the local context. This illustrates how gathering local evidence expands understanding on an issue. The process used to generate these policy options is applicable to other public health problems and other contexts.

  1. Education for Citizenship in South Australian Public Schools: A Pilot Study of Senior Leader and Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Andrew; Bentley, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Preparing students for informed and active citizenship is a core goal of education and schooling in Australia. The ways schools educate and prepare young Australians for citizenship involves a range of processes and initiatives central to the work of schools, including school ethos, mission, extracurricular activities and community-based…

  2. Is `Learning' Science Enough? - A Cultural Model of Religious Students of Science in an Australian Government School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Joseph Paul; Kameniar, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the cognitive experiences of four religious students studying evolutionary biology in an inner city government secondary school in Melbourne, Australia. The participants in the study were identified using the Religious Background and Behaviours questionnaire (Connors, Tonigan, & Miller, 1996). Participants were interviewed and asked to respond to questions about their cognitive experiences of studying evolutionary biology. Students' responses were analysed using cultural analysis of discourse to construct a cultural model of religious students of science. This cultural model suggests that these students employ a human schema and a non-human schema, which assert that humans are fundamentally different from non-humans in terms of origins and that humans have a transcendental purpose in life. For these students, these maxims seem to be challenged by their belief that evolutionary biology is dictated by metaphysical naturalism. The model suggests that because the existential foundation of these students is challenged, they employ a believing schema to classify their religious explanations and a learning schema to classify evolutionary biology. These schemas are then hierarchically arranged with the learning schema being made subordinate to the believing schema. Importantly, these students are thus able to maintain their existential foundation while fulfilling the requirements of school science. However, the quality of this "learning" is questionable.

  3. Homeopathy in rural Australian primary health care: a survey of general practitioner referral and practice in rural and regional New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Wardle, J; Adams, J; Sibbritt, D

    2013-07-01

    Homeopathy has attracted considerable recent attention from the Australian conventional medical community. However, despite such increased attention there has been little exploration of the interface between homeopathy and Australian conventional medical practice. This article addresses this research gap by exploring homeopathic practice and referral by rural and regional Australian general practitioners (GPs). A 27-item questionnaire was sent to all 1486 GPs currently practising in rural and regional New South Wales, Australia (response rate 40.7%). Few GPs in this study utilised homeopathy in their personal practice, with only 0.5% of GPs prescribing homeopathy in the past 12 months, and 8.5% referring patients for homeopathic treatment at least a few times over the past 12 months. Nearly two-thirds of GPs (63.9%) reported that they would not refer for homeopathy under any circumstances. Being in a remote location, receiving patient requests for homeopathy, observing positive responses from homeopathy previously, using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners as information sources, higher levels of knowledge of homeopathy, and being interested in increasing CAM knowledge were all independently predictive of increased referral to homeopathy amongst GPs in this study. GPs in this study were less likely to refer to homeopathy if they used peer-reviewed literature as the major source of their information on CAM. Homeopathy is not integrated significantly in rural general practice either via GP utilisation or referral. There is significant opposition to homeopathy referral amongst rural and regional GPs, though some level of interaction with homeopathic providers exists. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Object-based target search using remotely sensed data: A case study in detecting invasive exotic Australian Pine in south Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhixiao; Roberts, Charles; Johnson, Brian

    This study developed an object-based geographic image retrieval (GIR) approach for detecting invasive exotic Australian Pine in south Florida, USA. To filter out non-tree image objects, a hierarchical multi-resolution segmentation and filtering approach was first adopted to segment remote sensing images (DOQQs) into image objects (image regions) of irregular shape, compared to a regular square shape used in the literature. The study then computed object-level spectral, texture, and three-dimensional information for image object content representation using NDVI-based spectral, wavelet transform-based texture, variogram -based texture, and canopy surface height information. The effectiveness of content representation was evaluated using these different properties and their combinations in 10 sets of replica retrieval experiments with 5% random sample fractions of ground-truth identified Australian Pine image objects as query templates. The set of features providing the best fit was found to be a combination of canopy surface height and wavelet transform-based texture. These variables were selected for further tests to determine the similarity threshold beyond which retrieval is regarded as irrelevant. A series of regression tree models were built based on replica retrieval experiments with sample fractions of 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. The predicted results were analyzed to examine the sensitivity of retrieval performance (precision and recall) to the sample fraction and similarity threshold. A moderate retrieval performance was achieved in detecting Australian Pine in the study area. The study suggested that GIR with target search as its major objective by design could be an important supplement to image classification for invasive exotic plant species detection from remotely sensed images.

  5. School Governance and the Pursuit of Democratic Participation: Lessons from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Suzanne Grant; Naidoo, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    This article examines experiences in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces with devolved school governance, introduced in 1996 to promote democratic participation in education decision making. Utilizing the ''theory of action'' framework, this analysis is an effort to de-center the school governance debate by moving from a central government…

  6. Use of social audits to examine unofficial payments in government health services: experience in South Asia, Africa, and Europe.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J; Cockcroft, Anne

    2011-12-21

    Unofficial payments in health services around the world are widespread and as varied as the health systems in which they occur. We reviewed the main lessons from social audits of petty corruption in health services in South Asia (Bangladesh, Pakistan), Africa (Uganda and South Africa) and Europe (Baltic States). The social audits varied in purpose and scope. All covered representative sample communities and involved household interviews, focus group discussions, institutional reviews of health facilities, interviews with service providers and discussions with health authorities. Most audits questioned households about views on health services, perceived corruption in the services, and use of government and other health services. Questions to service users asked about making official and unofficial payments, amounts paid, service delivery indicators, and satisfaction with the service. Contextual differences between the countries affected the forms of petty corruption and factors related to it. Most households in all countries held negative views about government health services and many perceived these services as corrupt. There was little evidence that better off service users were more likely to make an unofficial payment, or that making such a payment was associated with better or quicker service; those who paid unofficially to health care workers were not more satisfied with the service. In South Asia, where we conducted repeated social audits, only a minority of households chose to use government health services and their use declined over time in favour of other providers. Focus groups indicated that reasons for avoiding government health services included the need to pay for supposedly free services and the non-availability of medicines in facilities, often perceived as due to diversion of the supplied medicines. Unofficial expenses for medical care represent a disproportionate cost for vulnerable families; the very people who need to make use of supposedly

  7. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  8. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  9. Seasonal Variations in Physical Characteristics of the South Australian Shelf Waters -Results from the Southern Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (SAIMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, C.; Luick, J.; Leterme, S. C.; Middleton, J.; Seuront, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern Australia Integrated Marine Observing System, or SAIMOS, is one of five nodes operating as part of the Australia-wide Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). This is a collaborative program designed to observe Australia's oceans, both coastal and blue-water. Since February 2008 Physical Data has been collected for SAIMOS in both summer and winter months during 8 surveys. The data collected during summer are used to characterise the nature and dynamics of the Kangaroo Island-Eyre Peninsula upwelling system during a record upwelling event in February 2008. During this event a plume of very cool water was observed along the bottom from South of KI to the Eyre Peninsula. This plume dissipated rapidly after the end of upwelling favourable winds and by March 2008 had disappeared entirely from the observations. The data are also used to study the dense high salinity outflow from Spencer Gulf observed during the winter months. The dense plume result from surface cooling of high salinity waters at the head of Spencer Gulf. One striking result of these observations is that the outflow occurs during a series of strong pulses with a period of approximately 2 weeks and duration of 1-3 days. During these pulses bottom velocities at 100 m can exceed 1 m/s.

  10. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  11. Government Funding as Leverage for Quality Teaching and Learning: A South African Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essack, Sabiha Y.; Naidoo, Indirani; Barnes, Glen

    2010-01-01

    The South African Higher Education Funding Framework uses funding as a lever to achieve equitable student access, quality teaching and research, and improved student retention and success. Maximising a university subsidy from the national Department of Education necessitates innovative strategies at the pre- and post-student admission stages. This…

  12. [Comparing ethnic structures and government policies affecting minorities in South Tyrol (Alto Adige) and Burgenland].

    PubMed

    Munz, R

    1991-01-01

    The ethnic minorities of lands that became parts of Italy, Germany, Hungary, and Austria after World War I are discussed in terms of their assimilation and legal and political rights in the various countries. Particular attention is given to South Tyrol and Burgenland. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  13. Assessment of the Government of South Sudan’s Potential for Survival as an Independent Nation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-25

    the borders of the North and the South in order to use traditional grazing lands. These tribes are deeply concerned that a new two state environment ...handcuffs, mdios , and uniforms.9g In many cases, the civilian population that they are trying to police, is heavier armed than the police themselves

  14. School Quality, Clustering and Government Subsidy in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Futoshi

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines a range of historical and geographic factors that determine the quality of public school education in post-apartheid South Africa. Empirical analysis shows, first, that population groups are still spatially segregated due to the legacy of apartheid, which implies that, given the positive correlation between school quality and…

  15. School Quality, Clustering and Government Subsidy in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Futoshi

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines a range of historical and geographic factors that determine the quality of public school education in post-apartheid South Africa. Empirical analysis shows, first, that population groups are still spatially segregated due to the legacy of apartheid, which implies that, given the positive correlation between school quality and…

  16. Anoplodiscus Sonsino, 1890 (Monogenea: Anoplodiscidae): a new Australian species, and the first African record from South African hosts.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, David B; Christison, Kevin W

    2017-09-01

    Species of Anoplodiscus Sonsino, 1890 were previously only known from host members of Sparidae. A new species, Anoplodiscus hutsonae n. sp. is proposed for museum specimens originally collected from species of Scolopsis Cuvier (Nemipteridae) off Heron Island and Lizard Island, Australia. Additionally, Anoplodiscus tai Ogawa, 1994 is synonymised with Anoplodiscus cirrusspiralis Roubal, Armitage & Rohde, 1983 due to a lack of support for differential characters, and Anoplodiscus richiardii is considered a species inquirenda. Anoplodiscus cirrusspiralis causes visible lesions on the skin and fins of its host, and may also contribute to poor food conversion rates in sparid aquaculture. Anoplodiscus cirrusspiralis has been recorded from cultured sparids in Australia, Japan, South Africa, and South Korea, and was implicated as a disease agent in fish from the former two countries. However, the discovery of A. cirrusspiralis on Chrysoblephus gibbiceps (Valenciennes), Ch. laticeps (Valenciennes) and Cymatoceps nasutus (Castelnau) in South Africa, ?Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel) in South Korea, and P. auratus (Forster) in Australia, New Zealand and Japan suggests that this species may have a wide distribution and low host-specificity within the Sparidae. In South Africa, A. cirrusspiralis was first encountered on a morbid C. nasutus and Ch. gibbiceps from two public aquaria in 2009 (Two Oceans Aquarium, Cape Town and uShaka Sea World, Durban, respectively). Additional material was collected from C. laticeps kept at an abalone farm in Hermanus that originated from Struisbaai on the South African south coast. Anoplodiscus cirrusspiralis is redescribed from the South African specimens. This is the first record of a member of Anoplodiscidae Tagliani, 1912 from Africa.

  17. Providers' Knowledge, Attitude and Dispensing Practices of E-Pills in Government Dispensaries of South District in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Vertika; Misro, Man M; Nandan, Deoki

    2010-01-01

    Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills) were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428) providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively (P < 0.05) correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R2 = 0.35). Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills. PMID:20606919

  18. Providers' knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of e-pills in government dispensaries of South district in delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Vertika; Misro, Man M; Nandan, Deoki

    2010-01-01

    South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills) were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. A descriptive epidemiological study. Both medical and paramedical (n = 428) providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively (P < 0.05) correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R(2) = 0.35). Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.

  19. Mental health service delivery: a profile of mental health non-government organisations in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Louise; Wilson, Michael; Burke, Karena J; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Happell, Brenda

    2014-05-01

    Non-government organisations make a substantial contribution to the provision of mental health services; despite this, there has been little research and evaluation targeted at understanding the role played by these services within the community mental health sector. The aim of the present study was to examine the depth and breadth of services offered by these organisations in south-east Queensland, Australia, across five key aspects of reach and delivery. Representatives from 52 purposively targeted non-government organisations providing mental health services to individuals with significant mental health challenges were interviewed regarding their approach to mental health service provision. The findings indicated a diverse pattern of service frameworks across the sector. The results also suggested a positive approach to the inclusion of consumer participation within the organisations, with most services reporting, at the very least, some form of consumer advocacy within their processes and as part of their services. This paper offers an important first look at the nature of non-government service provision within the mental health sector and highlights the importance of these organisations within the community sector. What is known about the topic? Non-government organisations make a substantial contribution to the multisectorial provision of services to mental health consumers in community settings. Non-government organisations in Australia are well established, with 79.9% of them being in operation for over 10 years. There is an increasing expectation that consumers influence the development, delivery and evaluation of mental health services, especially in the community sector. What does this paper add? This paper provides a profile of non-government organisations in one state in Australia with respect to the services they provide, the consumers they target, the practice frameworks they use, the use of peer workers and consumer participation, the success they

  20. Australian Film Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  1. Australian Film Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  2. Outcomes of high-risk obstetric transfers in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory: The High-Risk Obstetric Transfer Study.

    PubMed

    Goh, Amy; Browning Carmo, Kathryn; Morris, Jonathan; Berry, Andrew; Wall, Margaret; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    In New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, in utero transfers to manage maternal or neonatal risks are highly challenging owing to geography and centralisation of tertiary perinatal care. The study aims to document the outcomes of high-risk obstetric transfers. A prospective observational study was conducted from 2010 to 2011 documenting urgent requests for obstetric transfers to tertiary centres across NSW/ACT for pregnancies 20 weeks' gestation or greater. Outcomes of transfers were allocated apriori to 'delivered at the receiving hospital', 'failed/delayed transfer' or 'discharged/transferred undelivered'. Our hypothesis is that each outcome has a specific group of associated clinical factors. Of the 249 transfer requests included in the study, 40% delivered at the receiving hospital, 7% were failed/delayed transfers, and 45% were discharged/transferred undelivered. Cases delivering at the receiving hospital were significantly associated with older mothers, twin pregnancies, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) or premature rupture of membranes (PROM) with/without threatened preterm labour (TPL) as the indications for transfer and having three indications for transfer. Cases that were discharged/transferred undelivered were significantly associated with singleton pregnancies, TPL and/or antepartum haemorrhage (APH) as the indication for transfer and having one indication for transfer. There were no significantly associated factors for failed/delayed transfers. The study confirms the hypothesis that particular transfer outcomes are associated with different factors. The findings also show that less than half of urgent obstetric transfers result in delivery at the receiving hospital, suggesting that there exists significant opportunities for further research into predicting preterm delivery, thereby improving the care of women with high-risk pregnancies. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Do thin, overweight and obese children have poorer development than their healthy-weight peers at the start of school? Findings from a South Australian data linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Anna; Scalzi, Daniel; Lynch, John; Smithers, Lisa G.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the holistic development of children who are not healthy-weight when they start school, despite one fifth of preschool-aged children in high income countries being overweight or obese. Further to this, there is a paucity of research examining low body mass index (BMI) in contemporary high-income populations, although evidence from the developing world demonstrates a range of negative consequences in childhood and beyond. We investigated the development of 4–6 year old children who were thin, healthy-weight, overweight, or obese (as defined by BMI z-scores) across the five domains of the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC): Physical Health and Wellbeing, Social Competence, Emotional Maturity, Language and Cognitive Skills, and Communication Skills and General Knowledge. We used a linked dataset of South Australian routinely collected data, which included the AEDC, school enrollment data, and perinatal records (n = 7533). We found that the risk of developmental vulnerability among children who were thin did not differ from healthy-weight children, after adjusting for a range of perinatal and socio-economic characteristics. On the whole, overweight children also had similar outcomes as their healthy-weight peers, though they may have better Language and Cognitive skills (adjusted Risk Ratio [aRR] = 0.73 [95% CI 0.50–1.05]). Obese children were more likely to be vulnerable on the Physical Health and Wellbeing (2.20 [1.69, 2.87]) and Social Competence (1.31 [0.94, 1.83]) domains, and to be vulnerable on one or more domains (1.45 [1.18, 1.78]). We conclude that children who are obese in the first year of school may already be exhibiting some developmental vulnerabilities (relative to their healthy-weight peers), lending further support for strategies to promote healthy development of preschoolers. PMID:27158187

  4. Governance Issues in South East Asian Higher Education: Finance, Devolution and Transparency in the Global Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Using Castells' four principal functions of universities, this article examines several key dilemmas relating to governance of higher education in SE Asia, (specifically Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam). While all five nations value universities highly, and aspire to widen access to higher education, none can provide public…

  5. Clinical diagnosis of syphilis: a ten-year retrospective analysis in a South Australian urban sexual health clinic.

    PubMed

    Forrest, C E; Ward, A

    2016-12-01

    National notifications for infectious syphilis in Australia have increased in recent years. Outside of sexual health clinics, junior clinicians seldom encounter this disease in its infectious stage (primary, secondary and early latent). With such a variable clinical presentation, textbook teaching is no substitute for real-life experience. The importance of accurate classification and staging of disease is relevant to the risk of transmission and determines treatment duration. In this article, the authors review the clinical presentation of syphilis over ten years in an urban sexual health clinic with a focus on the clinical presentation and diagnosis of infectious syphilis, in particular secondary syphilis, compared with that outlined in the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System guidelines. This retrospective review of all patients diagnosed with syphilis at an urban sexual health clinic showed that between 2005 and 2015, 226 cases of syphilis were diagnosed. Documentation of impression of clinical staging of disease was present in 46% of the cases. Seventeen of these cases were recorded as secondary syphilis. The criteria used by clinicians to diagnose the secondary syphilis cases were consistent with criteria defined by the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. All cases of secondary syphilis had at least one cutaneous manifestation of disease. The demographic of the cohort of syphilis cases was consistent with that recorded in the literature. This review showed that the clinician's diagnosis of secondary syphilis in this service is consistent with the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System guidelines. Continuing education of junior medical staff is important to facilitate diagnosis and improve documentation of clinical staging, minimise disease transmission and ensure appropriate treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Australian Indigenous Perspectives on Quality Assurance in Children's Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Teresa; Frances, Katie; Saggers, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government has recently committed to the development of an integrated system of assuring national quality standards for Australian childcare and preschool services (Australian Government, 2008). This article addresses two fundamental issues relating to the development of an integrated system as it applies to Indigenous children's…

  7. Government public health policy: three cautionary tales from Malaysia, South Africa and the United States.

    PubMed

    Blum, John; Carstens, Pieter; Talib, Norchaya

    2007-12-01

    Three authors describe problematic scenarios of health policy in their respective countries. These examples illustrate the role of government influences in determining resource allocation, legislation, health provision and health outcomes in very different situations. These outcomes are affected not only by attitudes to public health, but also by the legal systems in the countries which are the subjects of this study. The authors draw conclusions about the use and abuse of public health regulation.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the South american and the Australian lungfish: testing of the phylogenetic performance of mitochondrial data sets for phylogenetic problems in tetrapod relationships.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Henner; Denk, Angelika; Zitzler, Jürgen; Joss, Jean J; Meyer, Axel

    2004-12-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequences (16403 and 16572 base pairs, respectively) of the mitochondrial genomes of the South American lungfish, Lepidosiren paradoxa, and the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Sarcopterygii, Dipnoi). The mitochondrial DNA sequences were established in an effort to resolve the debated evolutionary positions of the lungfish and the coelacanth relative to land vertebrates. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on complete mtDNA sequences, including only the African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, sequence were able to strongly reject the traditional textbook hypothesis that coelacanths are the closest relatives of land vertebrates. However, these studies were unable to statistically significantly distinguish between the two remaining scenarios: lungfish as the closest relatives to land vertebrates and lungfish and coelacanths jointly as their sister group (Cao et al. 1998; Zardoya et al. 1998; Zardoya and Meyer 1997a). Lungfish, coelacanths, and the fish ancestors of the tetrapod lineage all originated within a short time window of about 20 million years, back in the early Devonian (about 380 to 400 million years ago). This short divergence time makes the determination of the phylogenetic relationships among these three lineages difficult. In this study, we attempted to break the long evolutionary branch of lungfish, in an effort to better resolve the phylogenetic relationships among the three extant sarcopterygian lineages. The gene order of the mitochondrial genomes of the South American and Australian lungfish conforms to the consensus gene order among gnathostome vertebrates. The phylogenetic analyses of the complete set of mitochondrial proteins (without ND6) suggest that the lungfish are the closest relatives of the tetrapods, although the support in favor of this scenario is not statistically significant. The two other smaller data sets (tRNA and rRNA genes) give inconsistent results depending on the

  9. Rehabilitating mussel beds in Coffee Bay, South Africa: Towards fostering cooperative small-scale fisheries governance and enabling community upliftment.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Ugarteburu, Gurutze; Raemaekers, Serge; Halling, Christina

    2017-03-01

    Along the coast of South Africa, marine resources play a significant role in supporting livelihoods and contributing to food security in impoverished rural communities. Post-apartheid fisheries laws and policies have begun to address traditional fishing rights and development needs, and new management arrangements are being implemented. One such initiative has been the Mussel Rehabilitation Project in Coffee Bay, which piloted a resource rehabilitation technique at several over-exploited fishing sites. Mussel stocks in these exploited areas had dropped to under 1 % mussel cover, and during the project period, stocks increased to >80 % cover, supporting a sustainable harvest well above national daily bag limits. This stock enhancement was achieved only after the project had started to address social challenges such as the lack of local management institutions and the need to enhance food security. The project embarked on training and institution-building; it formed a robust community mussel management committee; and developed a local resource management plan, facilitating increased community participation in the day-to-day management of the resource. The project also saw the initiation of various ancillary projects aimed at improving food security and stimulating the local economy and hence alleviating pressure on the marine resources. Here we review this 10-year project's outcomes, and present lessons for small-scale fisheries governance in South Africa and internationally. We show, through empirical experience, that balancing stock rebuilding needs in a context of widespread poverty and dependency on natural resources by a local fisher community can only be addressed through an integrated approach to development. Participation of resource users and a thorough understanding of the local context are imperative to negotiating appropriate small-scale fisheries governance approaches. We recommend that the implementation of South Africa's newly minted Small

  10. A State-Wide Survey of South Australian Secondary Schools to Determine the Current Emphasis on Ergonomics and Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Penman, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pattern of teaching of healthy computing skills to high school students in South Australia. A survey approach was used to collect data, specifically to determine the emphasis placed by schools on ergonomics that relate to computer use. Participating schools were recruited through the Department for Education and Child…

  11. Over the horizon Ka Band Radio Wave Propagation Studies in the Coastal South Australian Spencer Gulf Region (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-09

    Marwood, M. Forrest and O. Reinhold RFT Group EWRD The Defence Science Technology Organisation Salisbury, South Australia hedley.hansen...interface. This paper describes an analysis of received signal strengths associated with a low-height evaporative ducting structure that was present...measurements at heights above the sea surface ducting structure are consistent with the presence of a stable refractivity profile. Keywords

  12. A State-Wide Survey of South Australian Secondary Schools to Determine the Current Emphasis on Ergonomics and Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Penman, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pattern of teaching of healthy computing skills to high school students in South Australia. A survey approach was used to collect data, specifically to determine the emphasis placed by schools on ergonomics that relate to computer use. Participating schools were recruited through the Department for Education and Child…

  13. Phylogeography of two Australian species of funnel web spider (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Hexathelidae) in Tallaganda State Forest, New South Wales

    Treesearch

    Amber S. Beavis; David M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    Decomposing logs are habitat for invertebrate species occupying a range of ecological niches. A collaborative research project is examining patterns of genetic endemism among saproxylic (dependent on decaying wood) invertebrates across the Tallaganda region of New South Wales, Australia. An earlier study of an unnamed species of 'giant' Collembolon revealed...

  14. Leadership and governance of community health worker programmes at scale: a cross case analysis of provincial implementation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Helen; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla

    2017-09-15

    National community health worker (CHW) programmes are returning to favour as an integral part of primary health care systems, often on the back of pre-existing community based initiatives. There are significant challenges to the integration and support of such programmes, and they require coordination and stewardship at all levels of the health system. This paper explores the leadership and governance tasks of large-scale CHW programmes at sub-national level, through the case of national reforms to South Africa's community based sector, referred to as the Ward Based Outreach Team (WBOT) strategy. A cross case analysis of leadership and governance roles, drawing on three case studies of adoption and implementation of the WBOTs strategy at provincial level (Western Cape, North West and Gauteng) was conducted. The primary case studies mapped system components and assessed implementation processes and contexts. They involved teams of researchers and over 200 interviews with stakeholders from senior to frontline, document reviews and analyses of routine data. The secondary, cross case analysis specifically focused on the issues and challenges facing, and strategies adopted by provincial and district policy makers and managers, as they engaged with the new national mandate. From this key sub-national leadership and governance roles were formulated. Four key roles are identified and discussed: 1. Negotiating a fit between national mandates and provincial and district histories and strategies of community based services 2. Defining new organisational and accountability relationships between CHWs, local health services, communities and NGOs 3. Revising and developing new aligned and integrated planning, human resource, financing and information systems 4. Leading change by building new collective visions, mobilising political, including budgetary, support and designing implementation strategies. This analysis, from real-life systems, adds to understanding of the processes

  15. Establishment of government-initiated comprehensive stroke centers for acute ischemic stroke management in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jei; Hwang, Yang-Ha; Kim, Joon-Tae; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Kang, Sa-Yoon; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Ha, Yeon Soo; Shin, Dong-Ick; Kim, Seongheon; Lim, Byeong-Hoon

    2014-08-01

    In 2008, the Ministry of Health and Welfare of South Korea initiated the Regional Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) program to decrease the incidence and mortality of stroke nationwide. We evaluated the performance of acute ischemic stroke management after the Regional CSC program was introduced. The Ministry of Health and Welfare established 9 Regional CSCs in different provinces from 2008 to 2010. All Regional CSCs have been able to execute the critical processes independently for stroke management since 2011. The Ministry of Health and Welfare was responsible for program development and financial support, the Regional CSC for program execution, and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for auditing the execution. We analyzed prospectively collected data on the required indices from 2011 and repeated the analysis the following year for comparison. After the Regional CSCs were established, the first brain image was taken within 1 hour from arrival at the emergency room for all patients with stroke; the length of hospital stay decreased from 14 to 12 days; for the rapid execution of thrombolysis, the first brain image was taken within 12 minutes; intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis were started within 40 and 110 minutes, respectively, after emergency room arrival; and the hospital stay of thrombolytic patients decreased from 19 to 15 days. The Regional CSC program has improved the performance of acute stroke management in South Korea and can be used as a model for rapidly improving stroke management. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. A situational analysis of current antimicrobial governance, regulation and utilisation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schellack, Natalie; Benjamin, Deon; Brink, Adrian; Duse, Adriano; Faure, Kim; Goff, Debra; Mendelson, Marc; Meyer, Johanna; Miot, Jacqui; Perovic, Olga; Pople, Troy; Suleman, Fatima; van Vuuren, Moritza; Essack, Sabiha

    2017-09-08

    The Global Action Plan (GAP) on AMR calls for optimising the use of antimicrobial medicines in human and animal health, in tandem with strengthening of the knowledge and evidence base through surveillance and research. However, there is a paucity of consumption data in African countries such as South Africa. Determining antimicrobial consumption data in low resource settings remains a challenge. This paper describes alternative mechanisms of assessing antimicrobial consumption data such as Intercontinental Marketing Services (IMS), and contract data arising from tenders (an open Request for Proposal, RFP) as opposed to the international norms of daily defined doses per 100 patient days, or per 1000 of the population. Despite its limitations, this serves as an indicator of antimicrobial exposure at population level and as an alternate method for ascertaining antimicrobial consumption in human health. Furthermore, South Africa has the largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme globally and carries a high burden of tuberculosis (TB). This prompted the inclusion of antiretroviral and anti-TB antibiotic consumption data. Knowledge of antimicrobial utilisation is imperative to make meaningful future interventions. Baseline antimicrobial utilisation data could guide future research initiatives that could provide a better understanding of the different measures of antibiotic use and the level of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A case of Murray Valley encephalitis in a 2-year-old Australian Stock Horse in south-east Queensland.

    PubMed

    Barton, A J; Prow, N A; Hall, R A; Kidd, L; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H

    2015-03-01

    This report summarises the findings from a case of naturally-occurring Murray Valley encephalitis in a 2-year-old filly presenting with acute onset of depression and weakness. Serum samples tested at the onset of clinical signs were negative for Hendra and Kunjin virus antibodies, but positive for Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) using IgM-capture ELISA (1 : 300 dilution). A virus neutralisation assay performed 4 weeks later confirmed a titre of 1 : 160. Sera collected in the weeks preceding neurological signs returned a negative titre for MVEV 2 weeks prior followed by a titre of 1:80 in the week prior to illness. Serological surveillance conducted on 67 co-located horses returned a positive titre of 1 : 20 in one in-contact horse. There was no history of clinical disease in that horse. At 3 months after the onset of clinical signs in the index case, the filly continued to show mild facial paresis and hypermetria; the owners elected euthanasia and gave permission for necropsy. Histopathological analysis of the brain showed a mild meningoencephalitis. The progression of a naturally-occurring MVEV infection in a horse has been documented in this case. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. Paleosols in laterite and silcrete profiles Evidence from the South East Margin of the Australian Precambrian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firman, J. B.

    1994-08-01

    Laterite and silcrete profiles are common in the arid and semi-arid areas of the Australian Precambrian Shield - a vast planar surface masked by the regolith. Much of the geological history of the shield subsequent to its early development is recorded in ancient cover rocks and younger basin sediments which occur in important stratigraphic sequences, particularly on the margins of the shield. Within these sequences, stratigraphically associated or as companion materials, weathering zones and paleosols were developed which individually and as assemblages of layers and horizons record the history of weathering and of soil formation since the Proterozoic. Laterite and silcrete profiles are seen to be assemblages of paleosols, stratigraphically associated deposits and companion materials which were formed in response to changes in groundwater conditions at particular times in the past. The paleosols record the evolution of the regolith: Older weathering zones and bleached rocks were features of successive landscapes after the early Palaeozoic; ferruginous mottling, ferricrete and silcrete pans were formed after the early Cainozoic; ferricretes and mottled clay paleosols - some of which have been described as "laterite" - were formed during and after the Pliocene. Materials in laterite and silcrete profiles are overlain in places by calcretes formed after the early Pleistocene and by younger soils. The assemblages are distinctive and are characteristic of particular morpholithogical provinces.

  19. Distribution and mechanism of Neogene to present-day vertical axis rotations, Pacific-Australian Plate Boundary Zone, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy A.; Roberts, Andrew P.

    1997-01-01

    Remarkably little knowledge exists about mechanisms of vertical axis rotation in continental crust. Steeply dipping basement rocks in South Island, New Zealand, provide an opportunity to map the distribution of rotations across the Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone, and to delineate boundaries of rotated blocks in unusual detail. We synthesize new structural data with new and existing paleomagnetic data, with geodetic data, and with patterns of Neogene-Quaternary faulting in the strike-slip Marlborough fault system. For the past 20 m.y., vertical axis rotations have been hinged about two crustal-scale boundaries near the east coast. The NE hinge accommodated ˜50° of early-middle Miocene clockwise rotation, which caused deformation of the eastern ends of the Alpine-Wairau and Clarence strike-slip faults. The SW hinge has accommodated a further 30°-50° of finite clockwise rotation since ˜4 Ma and deflects active fault traces. The locus of rotation has shifted southwestward astride a subduction margin that is lengthening in that direction. Rotating rocks are pinned to the south against a locked collision zone where the continental Chatham Rise impinges against the margin. Slip on inland strike-slip faults is transformed seaward across a zone of fault termination into rigid body rotation of a large continental block that has been thrust eastward over the downgoing subducted slab of the Pacific plate. The rotation mechanism is a "migrating hinge," which resembles a flexed telephone book. Strike-slip faults are translated through a brecciated hinge region that does not coincide with a fixed material line in the rock.

  20. Mid-Adolescent Predictors of Adult Drinking Levels in Early Adulthood and Gender Differences: Longitudinal Analyses Based on the South Australian School Leavers Study

    PubMed Central

    Winefield, Helen R.; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable public health interest in understanding what factors during adolescence predict longer-term drinking patterns in adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in the age 15 social and psychological predictors of less healthy drinking patterns in early adulthood. The study investigates the relative importance of internalising problems, other risky health behaviours, and peer relationships after controlling for family background characteristics. A sample of 812 young people who provided complete alcohol consumption data from the age of 15 to 20 years (5 measurement points) were drawn from South Australian secondary schools and given a detailed survey concerning their psychological and social wellbeing. Respondents were classified into two groups based upon a percentile division: those who drank at levels consistently below NHMRC guidelines and those who consistently drank at higher levels. The results showed that poorer age 15 scores on measures of psychological wellbeing including scores on the GHQ-12, self-esteem, and life-satisfaction as well as engagement in health-related behaviours such as smoking or drug-taking were associated with higher drinking levels in early adulthood. The pattern of results was generally similar for both genders. Higher drinking levels were most strongly associated with smoking and marijuana use and poorer psychological wellbeing during adolescence. PMID:27635278

  1. The effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve knowledge and perceptions for reducing organophosphate pesticide exposure among Indonesian and South Australian migrant farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Suratman, Suratman; Ross, Kirstin E; Babina, Kateryna; Edwards, John William

    2016-01-01

    Background Farmworkers are at risk of exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs). Improvements of knowledge and perceptions about organophosphate (OP) exposure may be of benefit for the reduction in OP exposure. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve knowledge and perceptions for reducing OP exposure among Indonesian and South Australian (SA) migrant farmworkers. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study. The educational intervention used a method of group communication for 30 Indonesian farmworkers and individual communication for seven SA migrant farmworkers. Knowledge and perceptions about OP exposure were measured pre-intervention and 3 months after the intervention. Results Unadjusted intervention effects at follow-up showed statistically significantly improved scores of knowledge (both adverse effects of OPs and self-protection from OP exposure), perceived susceptibility, and perceived barriers among Indonesian farmworkers compared with SA migrant farmworkers. Furthermore, these four significant variables in the unadjusted model and the two other variables (perceived severity and perceived benefits) were statistically significant after being adjusted for the level of education and years working as a farmworker. In contrast, knowledge about adverse effects of OPs was the only variable that was statistically significantly improved among SA migrant farmworkers. The results of this study suggests educational interventions using a method of group communication could be more effective than using individual intervention. Conclusion These improvements provide starting points to change health behavior of farmworkers, particularly to reduce OP exposure, both at the workplace and at home. PMID:26855602

  2. Hospital admissions in poorly nourished, compared with well-nourished, older South Australians receiving 'Meals on Wheels': findings from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate whether 'Meals on Wheels' (MOW) improves health and reduces hospital admissions in poorly nourished (PN) older people. Two hundred and fifty older South Australians were retrospectively classified: (i) PN (MNA score <24) receiving MOW (MOW PN); (ii) PN not receiving MOW (non-MOW PN); and (iii) well-nourished (WN). Data regarding their health were compared. Health outcomes at baseline for MOW PN and non-MOW PN were not different, but both were worse than the WN. Over 12 months, weight loss was ∼2-3 times greater in both PN than WN groups. Hospital admissions were not different for MOW PN compared with non-MOW PN and WN, but non-MOW PN had 2.9 as many admissions and spent 5 days more in hospital than WN (all Ps < 0.05). Providing MOW to nutritionally vulnerable older people may not prevent age-related decline in health, although a potential reduction in hospital admissions warrants investigation. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  3. Who provides care for people dying of cancer? A comparison of a rural and metropolitan cohort in a South Australian bereaved population study.

    PubMed

    Burns, Catherine M; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Tieman, Jennifer; Abernethy, Amy P; Currow, David C

    2015-02-01

    To examine and compare urban and rural palliative care service availability and patterns of care from randomised, population-based surveys of caregivers of people at the end of life. Survey responses on the death of 'someone close' from 23,588 interviews of South Australians conducted between 2001 and 2007 are analysed. A randomised population survey. Explored palliative care service availability, caregiving provided, and characteristics of the deceased and their caregivers. There was no difference in reported rates of accessing specialist palliative care services between rural and urban respondents (in unadjusted and adjusted analyses) nor did the proportion of people for whom cancer was their life-limiting illness. There was greater reliance on friends than first degree relatives in hands-on care provided at the end of life in rural settings. The rates of reported need for more support did not differ between urban and rural respondents for caregivers of people at the end of life. Use of palliative care services was similar for rural and urban caregivers for someone close at the end of life with similar levels of met and unmet needs. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  4. Does mindfulness matter? Everyday mindfulness, mindful eating and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods among a sample of South Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2013-08-01

    Serving size is a modifiable determinant of energy consumption, and an important factor to address in the prevention and treatment of obesity. The present study tested an hypothesised negative association between individuals' everyday mindfulness and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods. The mediating role of mindful eating was also explored. A community sample of 171 South Australian adults completed self-report measures of everyday mindfulness and mindful eating. The dependent measure was participants' self-reported average serving size of energy dense foods consumed in the preceding week. Participants who reported higher levels of everyday mindfulness were more mindful eaters (r=0.41, p<0.05) and reported smaller serving size estimates of energy dense foods (r=-.25, p<0.05). Mindful eating fully mediated the negative association between everyday mindfulness and serving size. The domains of mindful eating most relevant to serving size included emotional and disinhibited eating. Results suggest that mindful eating may have a greater influence on serving size than daily mindfulness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using the risk behaviour diagnosis scale to understand Australian Aboriginal smoking — A cross-sectional validation survey in regional New South Wales

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To validate, for the first time, the Risk Behaviour Diagnosis (RBD) Scale for Aboriginal Australian tobacco smokers, based on the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). Despite high smoking prevalence, little is known about how Indigenous peoples assess their smoking risks. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 121 aboriginal smokers aged 18–45 in regional New South Wales, in 2014, RBD subscales were assessed for internal consistency. Scales included measures of perceived threat (susceptibility to and severity of smoking risks) and perceived efficacy (response efficacy and self-efficacy for quitting). An Aboriginal community panel appraised face and content validity. EPPM constructs of danger control (protective motivation) and fear control (defensive motivation) were assessed for cogency. Results Scales had acceptable to good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.65–1.0). Most participants demonstrated high-perceived threat (77%, n = 93); and half had high-perceived efficacy (52%, n = 63). High-perceived efficacy with high-threat appeared consistent with danger control dominance; low-perceived efficacy with high-threat was consistent with fear control dominance. Conclusions In these Aboriginal smokers of reproductive age, the RBD Scale appeared valid and reliable. Further research is required to assess whether the RBD Scale and EPPM can predict quit attempts and assist with tailored approaches to counselling and targeted health promotion campaigns. PMID:26844043

  6. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in liver tissue of dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar C. plumbeus and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jann M; Baduel, Christine; Li, Yan; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; McGrath, Shane P; Peddemors, Victor M; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen; Christidis, Les

    2015-12-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the marine environment that are known to accumulate in apex predators such as sharks. Liver samples from dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar Carcharhinus plumbeus, and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters were analysed for the seven indicator PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180. Median ∑PCBs were significantly higher in white than sandbar sharks (3.35 and 0.36 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively, p=0.05) but there were no significant differences between dusky sharks (1.31 μg g(-1) lipid) and the other two species. Congener concentrations were also significantly higher in white sharks. Significant differences in PCB concentrations between mature and immature dusky (3.78 and 0.76 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) and sandbar (1.94 and 0.18 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) sharks indicated that PCB concentrations in these species increased with age/growth. Higher-chlorinated congeners (hexa and heptachlorobiphenyls) dominated results, accounting for ~90% of ∑PCBs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Rural and Metropolitan Pediatric Burns in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory: Does Distance Make a Difference?

    PubMed

    Hyland, Ela J; Zeni, Geoffrey; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    To determine if differences exist between children who sustain burns in rural areas and in metropolitan areas, an analysis of children presenting to the Burns Unit at The Children's Hospital at Westmead, from the January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012 was performed. In all, 4326 children met the inclusion criteria, of which 21.2% came from rural regions. Just more than a quarter (26.0%) of rural children and 11.6% from metropolitan areas were Indigenous Australian (P < 0.0001). The average age of rural child was 4.5 years; metropolitan child was 3.9 years (P = 0.0001). Boys were more likely to sustain burns in both populations. Of the rural children, 40.8% sustained contact burns, 37.7% scald, and 12.5% flame. In contrast, 58.8% metropolitan children sustained scalds, 27.4% contact, and 4.5% flame. The home was the most common place for all burns to occur, but rural injuries commonly occurred outdoors. Burns were associated with risk-taking behavior in 15.3% rural and 8.7% metropolitan children (P < 0.0001). Nearly two thirds (65.9%) of children in both groups received adequate first aid (20 minutes of cool running water). Major burn injuries (≥10% Total BSA) occurred in 3.4% of rural and 2.1% metropolitan children (P = 0.02). Skin grafting was required in 28.3% rural and 16.3% metropolitan children (P = 0.0001). Nearly 32% of rural children required admission to the Burns Unit for >24 hours (15.9% metropolitan; P = 0.0001). Significant differences exist between burns sustained by rural and metropolitan children. This should be accounted for in burns prevention campaigns and the education of local health practitioners.

  8. The role of continental shelf width in determining freshwater phylogeographic patterns in south-eastern Australian pygmy perches (Teleostei: Percichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Unmack, Peter J; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Johnson, Jerald B; Dowling, Thomas E

    2013-03-01

    Biogeographic patterns displayed by obligate freshwater organisms are intimately related to the nature and extent of connectivity between suitable habitats. Two of the more significant barriers to freshwater connections are seawater and major drainage divides. South-eastern Australia provides a contrast between these barriers as it has discrete areas that are likely influenced to a greater or lesser extent by each barrier type. We use continental shelf width as a proxy for the potential degree of river coalescence during low sea levels. Our specific hypothesis is that the degree of phylogeographic divergence between coastal river basins should correspond to the continental shelf width of each region. This predicts that genetic divergences between river basins should be lowest in regions with a wider continental shelf and that regions with similar continental shelf width should have similar genetic divergences. Pygmy perches (Nannoperca australis and Nannoperca 'flindersi') in south-eastern Australia provide an ideal opportunity to test these biogeographic hypotheses. Phylogeographic patterns were examined based on range-wide sampling of 82 populations for cytochrome b and 23 polymorphic allozyme loci. Our results recovered only limited support for our continental shelf width hypothesis, although patterns within Bass clade were largely congruent with reconstructed low sea-level drainage patterns. In addition, we identified several instances of drainage divide crossings, typically associated with low elevational differences. Our results demonstrate high levels of genetic heterogeneity with important conservation implications, especially for declining populations in the Murray-Darling Basin and a highly restricted disjunct population in Ansons River, Tasmania.

  9. Examining primary and secondary school canteens and their place within the school system: a South Australian study.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Claire; Sheppard, Lorraine

    2011-08-01

    In Australia, school canteens are an integral part of the school environment and an ideal site to encourage healthy eating. However, when the canteen is not supported within the school system, healthy menus may be difficult to implement. The aim of this study was to investigate school canteens and their place within the school system in primary and secondary schools in South Australia. Using a systems approach, 14 schools and their canteens located throughout metropolitan and rural South Australia are discussed. A range of qualitative interviews was conducted with school principals (n = 14), canteen managers (n = 14), parents (n = 50), teachers (n = 10) and focus group interviews were held with students (n = 450). This study showed that although school canteens were located on school grounds and should be supported as an integral part of the school system, in many cases they were not. A range of influences such as: maintaining profit, reduced volunteer support and student choice negatively impacted what was sold on the canteen menu. This study indicated that offering a sustainable healthy school canteen menu largely depended on the support and resources provided to the canteen by the school system in which it belonged.

  10. Impact of Corporate Governance on Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Munjae

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the corporate governance of pharmaceutical companies on research and development (R&D) investment. The period of the empirical analysis is from 2000 to 2012. Financial statements and comments in general, and internal transactions were extracted from TS-2000 of the Korea Listed Company Association. Sample firms were those that belong to the medical substance and drug manufacturing industries. Ultimately, 786 firm-year data of 81 firms were included in the sample (unbalanced panel data). The shareholding ratio of major shareholders and foreigners turned out to have a statistically significant influence on R&D investment (p < 0.05). No statistical significance was found in the shareholding ratio of institutional investors and the ratio of outside directors. The higher the shareholding ratio of the major shareholders, the greater the R&D investment. There will be a need to establish (or switch to) a holding company structure. Holding companies can directly manage R&D in fields with high initial risks, and they can diversify these risks. The larger the number of foreign investors, the greater the R&D investment, indicating that foreigners directly or indirectly impose pressure on a manager to make R&D investments that bring long-term benefits.

  11. Impact of Corporate Governance on Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Munjae

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the corporate governance of pharmaceutical companies on research and development (R&D) investment. Methods The period of the empirical analysis is from 2000 to 2012. Financial statements and comments in general, and internal transactions were extracted from TS-2000 of the Korea Listed Company Association. Sample firms were those that belong to the medical substance and drug manufacturing industries. Ultimately, 786 firm-year data of 81 firms were included in the sample (unbalanced panel data). Results The shareholding ratio of major shareholders and foreigners turned out to have a statistically significant influence on R&D investment (p < 0.05). No statistical significance was found in the shareholding ratio of institutional investors and the ratio of outside directors. Conclusion The higher the shareholding ratio of the major shareholders, the greater the R&D investment. There will be a need to establish (or switch to) a holding company structure. Holding companies can directly manage R&D in fields with high initial risks, and they can diversify these risks. The larger the number of foreign investors, the greater the R&D investment, indicating that foreigners directly or indirectly impose pressure on a manager to make R&D investments that bring long-term benefits. PMID:26473092

  12. NatureLinks: Protected areas, wilderness, and landscape connectivity in South Australia, Australia

    Treesearch

    Adrian Stokes; Greg Leaman

    2007-01-01

    The South Australian Government has recognized that, despite an extensive protected area system (26 percent of the State), Statewide ecological goals will not be achieved on protected areas alone. The NatureLinks model promotes protected areas acting as “ecological cores” in landscapes managed with conservation objectives. To implement this model, partnerships with...

  13. Instructional Supervisory Practices and Teachers' Role Effectiveness in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, Mary Anike; Eyiene, Ameh; Egbai, Mercy E.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between instructional supervisory practices and teachers' role effectiveness in public secondary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State. Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study…

  14. Lateness: A Recurrent Problem among Secondary School Students in Akoko South East Local Government Area of Ondo State Nigeria, Implications for Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoyase, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated lateness as a recurrent problem among secondary school students in Akoko South East Local Government Area of Ondo State. Four hypotheses were formulated and an instrument titled "Cause of Lateness to School Questionnaire" (COLTSQ) used to gather data for the study. The instrument had a reliability coefficient of…

  15. Eighteen-year study of South Australian dolphins shows variation in lung nematodes by season, year, age class, and location.

    PubMed

    Tomo, Ikuko; Kemper, Catherine M; Lavery, Trish J

    2010-04-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, carcasses of opportunistically collected short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis; n=238), Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus; n=167), and common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus; n=15) were examined for parasites and life history data. Three species of lung nematodes (Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Stenurus ovatus, Pharurus alatus) were identified in surface nodules, subsurface lesions, or airways. Nematode burdens were light to heavy and, in many cases, would have compromised the dolphins' health. The number of dolphins infected was related to species, year, season, age class, and geographic region. Nematodes were found in all three species but were more prevalent in short-beaked common dolphins (mean annual prevalence=26%) than in bottlenose dolphins (12%). There was a significant increase in prevalence of nematodes in short-beaked common dolphins in 2005-06 (63%) compared to 1990-2004 (14%), with a peak in April-June. More young short-beaked common dolphins were infected than subadults and adults and, during the unusual infection event, there were more dependent calves (<130 cm) than juveniles. There were also more infections in dependent bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) calves but no increase in overall prevalence was detected during 2005-06. Because neonates of both short-beaked common dolphins and bottlenose dolphins were infected, mother-to-calf transmission is suspected for these species in South Australia. Numbers of infections in short-beaked common dolphins were higher in Gulf St Vincent than elsewhere in South Australia, particularly in 2005-06. The cause of the unusual infection event in short-beaked common dolphins is unknown. We discuss the influence of dolphin diet, life history, and external factors.

  16. The foot and mouth disease network in the southern cone of South America: an example of regional governance.

    PubMed

    Corrales Irrazábal, H A

    2012-08-01

    The fact that foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, easily spread and of major commercial importance makes it a redoubtable challenge for animal health in South American countries and the world over. A number of factors impact directly on the effectiveness of national programmes to eradicate foot and mouth disease. Therefore, in order to meet the challenges posed by today's globalised world, it is of the utmost importance that national level eradication programmes be considered state policies and that they be the subject of broad political agreement at the highest level and consolidated as regional programmes between national Veterinary Services. The programmes, agreements and technical cooperation projects established jointly by Member Countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) were a key factor in building management capacity to control foot and mouth disease in the area. Another key factor has been a partnership with one of the most sensitive sectors--the private production sector. Its active and responsible participation in operational functions has done much to strengthen and ensure the competitive development of South American countries and consolidate their role as global beef exporters. However, to prevent further outbreaks it is essential to maintain and reinforce the structure of national programmes and to have strong and highly trained Veterinary Services and sufficient funding to ensure efficient and sustainable plans. These plans must enable Veterinary Services, by means of good governance, to implement effective measures in the areas of animal health and international trade in animals and animal products/by-products, thereby achieving rapid and more equitable social and economic development.

  17. USGS analysis of the Australian UNCLOS submission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Rowland, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, the Government of Australia made a submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) for 10 extended continental shelf (ECS) regions, utilizing Article-76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With information provided in the Australian Executive Summary, the USGS examined the 10 regions of the submission from geological, morphological, and resource perspectives. By their own request, the Australians asked that CLCS take no action on the Australian-Antarctic Territory. The major limitation in this analysis is that no bathymetric soundings or detailed hydrographic profiles were provided in the Australian Executive Summary that might show why the Foot of the Slope (FOS) was chosen or where the 2,500-m contour is located. This represents a major limitation because more than half of the 4,205 boundary points utilize the bathymetric formula line and more than one-third of them utilize the bathymetric constraint line. CLCS decisions on the components of this submission may set a precedent for how ECSs are treated in future submissions. Some of the key decisions will cover (a) how a 'natural prolongation' of a continental margin is determined, particularly if a bathymetric saddle that appears to determine the prolongation is in deep water and is well outside of the 200-nm limit (Exmouth Plateau), (b) defining to what extent that plateaus, rises, caps, banks and spurs that are formed of oceanic crust and from oceanic processes can be considered to be 'natural prolongations' (Kerguelen Plateau), (c) to what degree UNCLOS recognizes reefs and uninhabited micro-islands (specifically, rocks and/or sand shoals) as islands that can have an EEZ (Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs north of Lord Howe Island), and (d) how the Foot of the Slope (FOS) is chosen (Great Australian Bight). The submission contains situations that are relevant to potential future U.S. submissions and are potentially analogous to certain

  18. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHOICE OF HEALTH CARE PROVIDING FACILITY AMONG WORKERS IN A LOCAL GOVERNMENT SECRETARIAT IN SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Uchendu, O.C.; Ilesanmi, O.S.; Olumide, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in the choice of health care providing facility in Nigeria. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the factors influencing choice and satisfaction with health service providers among local government staff. Methods: A cross sectional survey of all 312 workers in a Local Government Secretariat in South West Nigeria was done. Chi Square and logistic regression analysis was done. Results: The mean age was 38.6 ± 7.5 years, 55% were females and 71.7% had tertiary education. The median monthly family income of the respondents was N 28, 000 (N3,000 – N500,000), with 24.4% earning a monthly income of N21, 000 to N30, 000. Many (72.3%) utilized public health facilities attributing the choice to the low cost of services. Respondents who are satisfied with their usual care providing facilities are 12.2 times more likely to have used public facilities than private facilities (95%, CI 3.431 – 43.114). Respondents who described the quality with ease of getting care/short waiting times as being good are 3.9 times more likely to have private facilities as their chosen health care providing facility (95%, CI 1.755 – 8.742). Cost/payment for service is 2.9 times more likely to predict the use of public health facility as the usual health care provider. Conclusion: Private facilities though costlier do not appear to be providing better services than public facilities. To increase access to health care the cost of services and the waiting time are important factors to address. PMID:25161426

  19. Inter-decadal variations in the linkages between ENSO, the IOD and south-eastern Australian springtime rainfall in the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H.; Zhao, Mei; Yin, Yonghong

    2017-07-01

    The 30 year period 1985-2014 experienced a swing of the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) from the warm phase to the cold phase. Here we investigate variation of the relation between El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole mode (IOD) and resultant changes in the predictability of the IOD and south-eastern Australian (SEA) springtime rainfall associated with this swing in the IPO. Using observational analyses, we show that during the warm phase of the IPO in the 1980s-1990s, the amplitudes of ENSO and the IOD were large, and the correlation between them was high; thus predictability of the IOD was high. Nevertheless, during these decades SEA spring rainfall was only weakly related to ENSO and the IOD, and therefore predictability of SEA rainfall was low. In contrast, during the cold phase of the IPO in the 2000s, the opposite was found: the IOD occurred more independently from ENSO, so the IOD was less predictable. Nonetheless, SEA spring rainfall was more strongly related to ENSO and the IOD, and therefore, SEA rainfall was more predictable in the 2000s than in the 1980s-1990s. The cause of this decadal variation in the relationship of SEA rainfall with ENSO and the IOD between the recent warm and cold states of the IPO appears to be a systematic zonal variation of the rainfall anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific associated with the IOD and ENSO and related changes in the Rossby wave train path over Australia.

  20. Inter-decadal variations in the linkages between ENSO, the IOD and south-eastern Australian springtime rainfall in the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H.; Zhao, Mei; Yin, Yonghong

    2016-08-01

    The 30 year period 1985-2014 experienced a swing of the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) from the warm phase to the cold phase. Here we investigate variation of the relation between El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole mode (IOD) and resultant changes in the predictability of the IOD and south-eastern Australian (SEA) springtime rainfall associated with this swing in the IPO. Using observational analyses, we show that during the warm phase of the IPO in the 1980s-1990s, the amplitudes of ENSO and the IOD were large, and the correlation between them was high; thus predictability of the IOD was high. Nevertheless, during these decades SEA spring rainfall was only weakly related to ENSO and the IOD, and therefore predictability of SEA rainfall was low. In contrast, during the cold phase of the IPO in the 2000s, the opposite was found: the IOD occurred more independently from ENSO, so the IOD was less predictable. Nonetheless, SEA spring rainfall was more strongly related to ENSO and the IOD, and therefore, SEA rainfall was more predictable in the 2000s than in the 1980s-1990s. The cause of this decadal variation in the relationship of SEA rainfall with ENSO and the IOD between the recent warm and cold states of the IPO appears to be a systematic zonal variation of the rainfall anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific associated with the IOD and ENSO and related changes in the Rossby wave train path over Australia.

  1. Effects of vicariant barriers, habitat stability, population isolation and environmental features on species divergence in the south-western Australian coastal reptile community.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D L; Keogh, J S; Knowles, L L

    2012-08-01

    Identifying explicit hypotheses regarding the factors determining genetic structuring within species can be difficult, especially in species distributed in historically dynamic regions. To contend with these challenges, we use a framework that combines species distribution models, environmental data and multi-locus genetic data to generate and explore phylogeographic hypotheses for reptile species occupying the coastal sand-dune and sand-plain habitats of the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot, a community which has both a high diversity of endemics and has varied dramatically in spatial extent over time. We use hierarchical amova, summary statistic and distance-based analyses to explicitly test specific phylogeographic hypotheses. Namely, we test if biogeographic vicariance across barriers, habitat stability, population isolation along a linear habitat or fragmentation across different environments can explain genetic divergence within five co-distributed squamate reptile species. Our results show that patterns of genetic variation reflect complex and species-specific interactions related to the spatial distribution of habitats present currently and during repeated glacial minima, as opposed to being associated with historical factors such as habitat stability between glacial and inter-glacial periods or vicariant barriers. We suggest that the large impact of habitat characteristics over time (i.e. relative levels of habitat connectivity, climatic gradients and spatial heterogeneity of soil types) reflects the ecological restrictions of the sand-dune and sand-plain reptile communities and may explain the lack of concordance across taxa. The study demonstrates the general utility of the approach for assemblage-level, as well as single species, phylogeographic study, including its usefulness for exploring biologically informed hypotheses about what factors have influenced patterns of genetic variation.

  2. Morbillivirus-associated unusual mortality event in South Australian bottlenose dolphins is largest reported for the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Tomo, I.; Bingham, J.; Bastianello, S. S.; Wang, J.; Gibbs, S. E.; Woolford, L.; Dickason, C.; Kelly, D.

    2016-01-01

    Cases of morbillivirus have been recorded in the Southern Hemisphere but have not been linked to significant marine mammal mortality. Post-mortems were conducted on 58 carcasses (44 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, two common bottlenose dolphins, 12 short-beaked common dolphins) from South Australia during 2005–2013, including an unusual mortality event (UME) in St Vincent Gulf Bioregion (SVG) during 2013. Diagnostic pathology, circumstance of death, body condition, age and stomach contents were documented for Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins. At least 50 dolphins died during the UME, 41 were Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and most were young. The UME lasted about seven months and had two peaks, the first being the largest. Effect on the population is unknown. Diagnostic testing for morbillivirus was conducted on 57 carcasses, with evidence for infection in all species during 2011–2013. All tested UME bottlenose dolphins were positive for cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV), and the pathology included interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion and syncytia. Concurrent pathologies, including lung parasite and fungal infections, and severe cutaneous bruising were observed in many dolphins. The event coincided with elevated water temperatures, a diatom bloom and significant fish die-offs. We conclude that the cause for the UME was multifactorial and that CeMV was a major contributor. PMID:28083115

  3. Demographic and socio-cultural correlates of medical mistrust in two Australian States: Victoria and South Australia.

    PubMed

    Renzaho, Andre; Polonsky, Michael; McQuilten, Zoe; Waters, Neil

    2013-11-01

    Studies on medical mistrust have mainly focused on depicting the association between medical mistrust and access/utilization of healthcare services. The effect of broader socio-demographic and psycho-social factors on medical mistrust remains poorly documented. The study examined the effect of broader socio-demographic factors, acculturation, and discrimination on medical mistrust among 425 African migrants living in Victoria and South Australia, Australia. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, low medical mistrust scores (i.e., more trusting of the system) were associated with refugee (β=-4.27, p<0.01) and family reunion (β=-4.01, p<0.01) migration statuses, being Christian (β=-2.21, p<0.001), and living in rural or village areas prior to migration (β=-2.09, p<0.05). Medical mistrust did not vary by the type of acculturation, but was positively related to perceived personal (β=0.43, p<0.001) and societal (β=0.38, p<0.001) discrimination. In order to reduce inequalities in healthcare access and utilisation and health outcomes, programs to enhance trust in the medical system among African migrants and to address discrimination within the community are needed. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  4. Morbillivirus-associated unusual mortality event in South Australian bottlenose dolphins is largest reported for the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Kemper, C M; Tomo, I; Bingham, J; Bastianello, S S; Wang, J; Gibbs, S E; Woolford, L; Dickason, C; Kelly, D

    2016-12-01

    Cases of morbillivirus have been recorded in the Southern Hemisphere but have not been linked to significant marine mammal mortality. Post-mortems were conducted on 58 carcasses (44 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, two common bottlenose dolphins, 12 short-beaked common dolphins) from South Australia during 2005-2013, including an unusual mortality event (UME) in St Vincent Gulf Bioregion (SVG) during 2013. Diagnostic pathology, circumstance of death, body condition, age and stomach contents were documented for Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins. At least 50 dolphins died during the UME, 41 were Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and most were young. The UME lasted about seven months and had two peaks, the first being the largest. Effect on the population is unknown. Diagnostic testing for morbillivirus was conducted on 57 carcasses, with evidence for infection in all species during 2011-2013. All tested UME bottlenose dolphins were positive for cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV), and the pathology included interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion and syncytia. Concurrent pathologies, including lung parasite and fungal infections, and severe cutaneous bruising were observed in many dolphins. The event coincided with elevated water temperatures, a diatom bloom and significant fish die-offs. We conclude that the cause for the UME was multifactorial and that CeMV was a major contributor.

  5. delta13C and water-use efficiency in Australian grasstrees and South African conifers over the last century.

    PubMed

    Swanborough, Perry W; Lamont, Byron B; February, Edmund C

    2003-07-01

    Annual or biannual time courses of plant delta13C (delta13C(p)) over the last century (70-100 years) were recorded for leafbases of four grasstrees (Xanthorrhoea preissii) at four sites in mediterranean Australia and wood of four conifers (Widdringtonia cedarbergensis) at two sites in mediterranean South Africa. There was a strong downward trend of 2-5.5(per thousand ) from 1935 to 1940 to the present in the eight plants. Trends were more variable from 1900 to 1940 with plants at two sites of each species showing an upward trend of 1-2.5 per thousand. Accepting that delta13C of the air (delta13C(a)) fell by almost 2 per thousand over the last century, the ratio of leaf intercellular CO2 to atmospheric CO2 (c(i)/c(a)) rose in five plants and remained unchanged in three over that period. Changes in c(i)/c(a) rather than delta13C(a) were more closely correlated with changes in delta13C(p) and accounted for 6.7-71.8% (22.6 c(i)/c(a)) and 28.2-93.3% (delta13C(a)) of the variation in delta13C(p). We doubt that possible changing patterns of rainfall, water availability, temperature, shade, air pollution or clearing for agriculture have contributed to the overall trend for c(i)/c(a) to rise over time. Instead, we provide evidence (concentrations of Fe and Mn in the grasstree leafbases) that decreasing photosynthetic capacity associated with falling nutrient availability due to the reduced occurrence of fire may have contributed to rising c(i)/c(a). Intrinsic water-use efficiency (W(i)) as a function of (c(a)-c(i)) usually increased linearly over the period, with the two exceptions explained by their marked increase in c(i)/c(a). We conclude that grasstrees may provide equivalent delta13C(p )and W(i) data to long-lived conifers and that their interpretation requires a consideration of the causes of variation in both c(i)/c(a )and delta13C(a).

  6. Australian Defense.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Australia in World Affairs 1966-1970, (Melbourne: Cheshire Publishing Pty Ltd , 1974), p. 258. 6Department of Defence, Australian Defence Review...Pvt, Ltd .: 1977), p. 69. 74 17Desmond Ball, "American Bases: Implications for Australian Securi- ty" The Strategic and Defence Studies Centre...million with aircraft, or 3) a " Woolworth " carrier costing $300-400 million with aircraft.33 Defence planners are now faced with determin- ing which

  7. Perception of prescription medicine sample packs among Australian professional, government, industry, and consumer organizations, based on automated textual analysis of one-on-one interviews.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Greg J; Nissen, Lisa; Tett, Susan

    2008-12-01

    Prescription medicine samples provided by pharmaceutical companies are predominantly newer and more expensive products. The range of samples provided to practices may not represent the drugs that the doctors desire to have available. Few studies have used a qualitative design to explore the reasons behind sample use. The aim of this study was to explore the opinions of a variety of Australian key informants about prescription medicine samples, using a qualitative methodology. Twenty-three organizations involved in quality use of medicines in Australia were identified, based on the authors' previous knowledge. Each organization was invited to nominate 1 or 2 representatives to participate in semistructured interviews utilizing seeding questions. Each interview was recorded and transcribed verbatim. Leximancer v2.25 text analysis software (Leximancer Pty Ltd., Jindalee, Queensland, Australia) was used for textual analysis. The top 10 concepts from each analysis group were interrogated back to the original transcript text to determine the main emergent opinions. A total of 18 key interviewees representing 16 organizations participated. Samples, patient, doctor, and medicines were the major concepts among general opinions about samples. The concept drug became more frequent and the concept companies appeared when marketing issues were discussed. The Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme and cost were more prevalent in discussions about alternative sample distribution models, indicating interviewees were cognizant of budgetary implications. Key interviewee opinions added richness to the single-word concepts extracted by Leximancer. Participants recognized that prescription medicine samples have an influence on quality use of medicines and play a role in the marketing of medicines. They also believed that alternative distribution systems for samples could provide benefits. The cost of a noncommercial system for distributing samples or starter packs was a concern

  8. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  9. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  10. Training at the Australian school of nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Culley, D.; Fredsall, J.R.; Toner, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important century for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region.

  11. Australian Vocational Education: Learning from Past Mistakes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, John

    1992-01-01

    Competing pressures on Australian educational managers include pressure to implement competency-based training, to manage using the industrial model, and to husband resources, conflicting with traditional educational goals, government policies, and demands for accountability. (SK)

  12. Biobank classification in an Australian setting.

    PubMed

    Rush, Amanda; Christiansen, Jeffrey H; Farrell, Jake P; Goode, Susan M; Scott, Rodney J; Spring, Kevin J; Byrne, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    In 2011, Watson and Barnes proposed a schema for classifying biobanks into 3 groups (mono-, oligo-, and poly-user), primarily based upon biospecimen access policies. We used results from a recent comprehensive survey of cancer biobanks in New South Wales, Australia to assess the applicability of this biobank classification schema in an Australian setting. Cancer biobanks were identified using publically available data, and by consulting with research managers. A comprehensive survey was developed and administered through a face-to-face setting. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel™ 2010 and IBM SPSS Statistics™ version 21.0. The cancer biobank cohort (n=23) represented 5 mono-user biobanks, 7 oligo-user biobanks, and 11 poly-user biobanks, and was analyzed as two groups (mono-/oligo- versus poly-user biobanks). Poly-user biobanks employed significantly more full-time equivalent staff, and were significantly more likely to have a website, share staff between biobanks, access governance support, utilize quality control measures, be aware of biobanking best practice documents, and offer staff training. Mono-/oligo-user biobanks were significantly more likely to seek advice from other biobanks. Our results further delineate a biobank classification system that is primarily based on access policy, and demonstrate its relevance in an Australian setting.

  13. Big Ideas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Within weeks of taking office, Australia's new Labor government commissioned two major reviews--one of Australia's innovation system and one of Australian higher education. Taken together, these reviews will have major implications for the future of research and teaching in Australia for decades to come. This paper discusses the main…

  14. Big Ideas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Within weeks of taking office, Australia's new Labor government commissioned two major reviews--one of Australia's innovation system and one of Australian higher education. Taken together, these reviews will have major implications for the future of research and teaching in Australia for decades to come. This paper discusses the main…

  15. Regional scale groundwater resource assessment in the Australian outback - Geophysics is the only way.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, T. J.; Davis, A. C.; Gilfedder, M.; Annetts, D.

    2015-12-01

    Resource development, whether in agriculture, mining and/or energy, is set to have significant consequences for the groundwater resources of Australia in the short to medium term. These industry sectors are of significant economic value to the country and consequently their support remains a priority for State and Federal Governments alike. The scale of potential developments facilitated in large part by the Government Programs, like the West Australian (WA) Government's "Water for Food" program, and the South Australian's Government's PACE program, will result in an increase in infrastructure requirements, including access to water resources and Aboriginal lands to support these developments. However, the increased demand for water, particularly groundwater, is likely to be compromised by the limited information we have about these resources. This is particularly so for remote parts of the country which are targeted as primary development areas. There is a recognised need to expand this knowledge so that water availability is not a limiting factor to development. Governments of all persuasions have therefore adopted geophysical technologies, particularly airborne electromagnetics (AEM), as a basis for extending the hydrogeological knowledge of data poor areas. In WA, the State Government has employed regional-scale AEM surveys as a basis for defining groundwater resources to support mining, regional agricultural developments whilst aiming to safeguard regional population centres, and environmental assets. A similar approach is being employed in South Australia. These surveys are being used to underpin conceptual hydrogeological frameworks, define basin-scale hydrogeological models, delimit the extent of saltwater intrusion in coastal areas, and to determine the groundwater resource potential of remote alluvial systems aimed at supporting new, irrigation-based, agricultural developments in arid parts of the Australian outback. In the absence of conventional

  16. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  17. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  18. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  19. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  20. Values-Based Education in Schools in the 2000s: The Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leichsenring, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the teaching of values in Australian schools through a framework established by the Australian Federal government during the 2000s. This paper focuses on: the approaches employed by the Australian Federal government in the implementation of Values Education; and the application of cases of values-based education utilized by…

  1. Effective University Teaching: Views of Australian University Students from Low Socio-Economic Status Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Marcia; O'Shea, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As the Australian higher education population further diversifies as a result of federal government policy changes, the collective understanding of effective university teaching in the Australian context will need to evolve to incorporate such shifts. The Australian Government has set clear targets for increased university participation of people…

  2. Educational Technology for the Clever Country. Selected Papers from the Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, October 1-3, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedberg, John G., Ed.; Steele, James, Ed.

    This proceeding includes the following 28 papers selected from the 1992 Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology: "Ecunet, Edith Cowan University's Video Conferencing Network: Two Years On" (Michael Grant); "Navigation Options in Interactive Multimedia" (John G. Hedberg & Barry Harper); "The…

  3. Educational Technology for the Clever Country. Selected Papers from the Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, October 1-3, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedberg, John G., Ed.; Steele, James, Ed.

    This proceeding includes the following 28 papers selected from the 1992 Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology: "Ecunet, Edith Cowan University's Video Conferencing Network: Two Years On" (Michael Grant); "Navigation Options in Interactive Multimedia" (John G. Hedberg & Barry Harper); "The…

  4. Leadership and Autonomy: An Examination of the Governance and Management Practices of Four Charter Schools in Charleston, South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnstengel, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Charter schools are deregulated institutions that are provided considerable autonomy in order to spur innovation, yet little is known about their governance practices. The studies of charter school governance that do exist, however, typically concern cases of charter school failure. The causes of charter school failure are often clear and…

  5. Strengthening mental health system governance in six low- and middle-income countries in Africa and South Asia: challenges, needs and potential strategies.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Inge; Marais, Debbie; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Chisholm, Dan; Egbe, Catherine; Gureje, Oye; Hanlon, Charlotte; Lund, Crick; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Mugisha, James; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Thornicroft, Graham

    2017-02-27

    Poor governance has been identified as a barrier to effective integration of mental health care in low- and middle-income countries. Governance includes providing the necessary policy and legislative framework to promote and protect the mental health of a population, as well as health system design and quality assurance to ensure optimal policy implementation. The aim of this study was to identify key governance challenges, needs and potential strategies that could facilitate adequate integration of mental health into primary health care settings in low- and middle-income countries. Key informant qualitative interviews were held with 141 participants across six countries participating in the Emerging mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries (Emerald) research program: Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda. Data were transcribed (and where necessary, translated into English) and analysed thematically using framework analysis, first at the country level, then synthesized at a cross-country level. While all the countries fared well with respect to strategic vision in the form of the development of national mental health policies, key governance strategies identified to address challenges included: strengthening capacity of managers at sub-national levels to develop and implement integrated plans; strengthening key aspects of the essential health system building blocks to promote responsiveness, efficiency and effectiveness; developing workable mechanisms for inter-sectoral collaboration, as well as community and service user engagement; and developing innovative approaches to improving mental health literacy and stigma reduction. Inadequate financing emerged as the biggest challenge for good governance. In addition to the need for overall good governance of a health care system, this study identifies a number of specific strategies to improve governance for integrated mental health care in low- and middle-income countries.

  6. Strengthening mental health system governance in six low- and middle-income countries in Africa and South Asia: challenges, needs and potential strategies

    PubMed Central

    Marais, Debbie; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Chisholm, Dan; Egbe, Catherine; Gureje, Oye; Hanlon, Charlotte; Lund, Crick; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Mugisha, James; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Thornicroft, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Poor governance has been identified as a barrier to effective integration of mental health care in low- and middle-income countries. Governance includes providing the necessary policy and legislative framework to promote and protect the mental health of a population, as well as health system design and quality assurance to ensure optimal policy implementation. The aim of this study was to identify key governance challenges, needs and potential strategies that could facilitate adequate integration of mental health into primary health care settings in low- and middle-income countries. Key informant qualitative interviews were held with 141 participants across six countries participating in the Emerging mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries (Emerald) research program: Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda. Data were transcribed (and where necessary, translated into English) and analysed thematically using framework analysis, first at the country level, then synthesized at a cross-country level. While all the countries fared well with respect to strategic vision in the form of the development of national mental health policies, key governance strategies identified to address challenges included: strengthening capacity of managers at sub-national levels to develop and implement integrated plans; strengthening key aspects of the essential health system building blocks to promote responsiveness, efficiency and effectiveness; developing workable mechanisms for inter-sectoral collaboration, as well as community and service user engagement; and developing innovative approaches to improving mental health literacy and stigma reduction. Inadequate financing emerged as the biggest challenge for good governance. In addition to the need for overall good governance of a health care system, this study identifies a number of specific strategies to improve governance for integrated mental health care in low- and middle-income countries

  7. Educational Policy and the Choice of Language in Linguistically Complex South African Schools. Formative Decision-Making by Significant Language Professionals and Governing Bodies. Education Policy Unit (Natal) Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David

    A 1996 South African law vested elementary/secondary school governing bodies with formation of school policy concerning both language(s) used for instruction and those selected for second-language study. The study reported here investigated the perceptions of language teachers, principals, and governing body members on language policy, policy…

  8. Retrospective report of social withdrawal during adolescence and current maladjustment in young adulthood: cross-cultural comparisons between Australian and South Korean students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkwan; Rapee, Ronald M; Ja Oh, Kyung; Moon, Hye-Shin

    2008-10-01

    The current study investigated associations between the frequency of and motivations for social withdrawal during adolescence and emotional distress in young adulthood. Perceived motivations for social withdrawal included unsociability, isolation, shyness, and low mood. Social withdrawal during adolescence was assessed using a retrospective questionnaire completed by Australian and Korean university students. They also completed measures of general self-worth, social relationships, loneliness, social anxiety, and depression at university. Partial correlations and path analyses revealed that different motivations for social withdrawal had different risk status for later adjustment across the two samples. In particular, it appeared that shy and unsociable individuals in Korea showed better social and emotional adjustment than their counterparts in Australia. In contrast, social relationships of sad/depressed and isolated respondents in Korea appeared to be more seriously impaired than their Australian counterparts. These cross-cultural differences are discussed in terms of socio-cultural values and environments unique to the two countries.

  9. Metal and metalloid concentrations in the tissues of dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar C. plumbeus and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters, and the implications for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jann M; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; McGrath, Shane P; Peddemors, Victor M; Bowling, Alison C; Christidis, Les

    2015-03-15

    Shark fisheries have expanded due to increased demand for shark products. As long-lived apex predators, sharks are susceptible to bioaccumulation of metals and metalloids, and biomagnification of some such as Hg, primarily through diet. This may have negative health implications for human consumers. Concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn were analysed in muscle, liver and fin fibres (ceratotrichia) from dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar Carcharhinus plumbeus, and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters. Concentrations of analytes were generally higher in liver than in muscle and lowest in fin fibres. Muscle tissue concentrations of Hg were significantly correlated with total length, and >50% of sampled individuals had concentrations above Food Standards Australia New Zealand's maximum limit (1 mg kg(-1) ww). Arsenic concentrations were also of concern, particularly in fins. Results warrant further investigation to accurately assess health risks for regular consumption of shark products.

  10. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, Ted

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this "market" agenda of government in terms of…

  11. Wilderness quality mapping - the Australian experiences

    Treesearch

    Nick Sawyer

    2015-01-01

    By 1995 wilderness quality maps developed under the Australian Government's National Wilderness Inventory (NWI) program had been published for most of Australia, but few traces of the NWI now remain and the word "wilderness" has become almost unmentionable in government and professional land management circles. Yet its popular appeal is demonstrated by...

  12. When Does a Nation-Level Analysis Make Sense? ESD and Educational Governance in Brazil, South Africa, and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2013-01-01

    International policy analysis tends to simplify the nation state, portraying countries as coherent units that can be described by one statistic or placed into one category. As scholars from Brazil, South Africa, and the USA, we find the nation-centric research perspective particularly challenging. In each of our home countries, the effective…

  13. When Does a Nation-Level Analysis Make Sense? ESD and Educational Governance in Brazil, South Africa, and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2013-01-01

    International policy analysis tends to simplify the nation state, portraying countries as coherent units that can be described by one statistic or placed into one category. As scholars from Brazil, South Africa, and the USA, we find the nation-centric research perspective particularly challenging. In each of our home countries, the effective…

  14. The Contribution of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association towards Developing Talent in Australian 12-Year-Old Female Swimmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that inquired into the influence of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association competitive swimming structure on the development of talented 12-year old female swimmers. The study focused on ten 12-year old girls in the New South Wales team that contested the 2009 national swimming championships…

  15. The Contribution of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association towards Developing Talent in Australian 12-Year-Old Female Swimmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that inquired into the influence of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association competitive swimming structure on the development of talented 12-year old female swimmers. The study focused on ten 12-year old girls in the New South Wales team that contested the 2009 national swimming championships…

  16. Risk factors for visual impairment and blindness amongst black adult diabetics receiving treatment at Government healthcare facilities in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mabaso, Raymond G; Oduntan, Olalekan A

    2014-11-21

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common systemic disease amongst Black South Africans. It may lead to diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common cause of visual impairment (VI) and blindness. DR may signifiantly increase the prevalence of VI and blindness. To assess risk factors for VI and blindness amongst a black diabetic South African population aged ≥ 40 years. The study was conducted in seven Government healthcare facilities (two hospitals, four clinics and one health centre) in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa. This was a cross-sectional health facility-based quantitative study. Structured interviews were used to obtain information, which included sociodemographic profie, knowledge about DM and its ocular complications, presence of hypertension and accessibility to health facilities. Subsequently participants were examined for VI and blindness using an autorefractor, pinhole disc, ophthalmoscope and logMAR visual acuity chart. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist) were also taken. Associations between 31 risk factors and VI as well as blindness were statistically examined. Participants (N = 225) included 161 women and 64 men aged 40-90 years (mean 61.5 ± 10.49 years); 41.3% of them had VI and 3.6% were blind. Cataracts (76.8%) and DR (7.1%) were the common causes of compensated VI and blindness. Risk factors that were associated with VI and blindness were age, monthly income, compliance with losing weight and physical activity. Findings suggest that lifestyle intervention and appropriate eyecare programmes may reduce VI and blindness in this population.

  17. Higher Education and Government: Mutual Expectations and Responsibilities. Regional Spotlight: News of Higher Education in the South. Summer 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, LeRoy

    Views on the partnership of government and higher education and experiences with the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) are presented by the former governor of Florida and former chairman of SREB. SREB has encouraged long-range statewide planning and has brought together legislators, governors, educators, and other public leaders seeking and…

  18. Governance and Trust in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidovich, Lesley; Currie, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of more corporate models of governance is a contemporary trend in higher education. In the early 2000s, the Australian Government legislated national governance protocols for universities, using the policy lever of financial sanctions. These more corporate-style governance protocols followed similar changes in the UK, consistent with…

  19. Governance and Trust in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidovich, Lesley; Currie, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of more corporate models of governance is a contemporary trend in higher education. In the early 2000s, the Australian Government legislated national governance protocols for universities, using the policy lever of financial sanctions. These more corporate-style governance protocols followed similar changes in the UK, consistent with…

  20. Selection of the Australian indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Each Australian state was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data, area, yield, and production characteristics, statistics, crop calendars, and other ancillary data. Agrophysical conditions that could influence labeling and classification accuracies were identified in connection with the highest producing states as determined from available Australian crop statistics. Based primarily on these production statistics, Western Australia and New South Wales were selected as the wheat indicator region for Australia. The general characteristics of wheat in the indicator region, with potential problems anticipated for proportion estimation are considered. The varieties of wheat, the diseases and pests common to New South Wales, and the wheat growing regions of both states are examined.

  1. Taking Action against Victimisation: Australian Middle School Students' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didaskalou, Eleni; Skrzypiec, Grace; Andreou, Eleni; Slee, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    Victimisation among students has been identified as a serious problem in Australian schools. This study investigated approaches taken by South Australian middle school students for dealing with victimisation. Over 170 students (aged 11-16) described how they coped with bullying and situations where they needed to take action against bullying. A…

  2. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  3. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  4. Australian Brain Alliance.

    PubMed

    2016-11-02

    A proposal for an Australian Brain Initiative (ABI) is under development by members of the Australian Brain Alliance. Here we discuss the goals of the ABI, its areas of research focus, its context in the Australian research setting, and its necessity for ensuring continued success for Australian brain research.

  5. The 2 March 2016 Wharton Basin Mw 7.8 earthquake: High stress drop north-south strike-slip rupture in the diffuse oceanic deformation zone between the Indian and Australian Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Thorne; Ye, Lingling; Ammon, Charles J.; Dunham, Audrey; Koper, Keith D.

    2016-08-01

    The diffuse deformation zone between the Indian and Australian plates has hosted numerous major and great earthquakes during the seismological record, including the 11 April 2012 Mw 8.6 event, the largest recorded intraplate earthquake. On 2 March 2016, an Mw 7.8 strike-slip faulting earthquake occurred in the northwestern Wharton Basin, in a region bracketed by north-south trending fracture zones with no previously recorded large event nearby. Despite the large magnitude, only minor source finiteness is evident in aftershock locations or resolvable from seismic wave processing including high-frequency P wave backprojections and Love wave directivity analysis. Our analyses indicate that the event ruptured bilaterally on a north-south trending fault over a length of up to 70 km, with rupture speed of ≤ 2 km/s, and a total duration of 35 s. The estimated stress drop, 20 MPa, is high, comparable to estimates for other large events in this broad intraplate oceanic deformation zone.

  6. The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, S

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy.

  7. Implementation of the Australian Water Observations from Space (WOfS) Algorithm in Africa and South America using the CEOS Data Cube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purss, M. B. J.; Mueller, N. R.; Killough, B.; Oliver, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    In 2014 Geoscience Australia launched Water Observations from Space (WOfS) providing a continental-scale water product that shows how often surface water has been observed across Australia by the Landsat satellites since 1987. WOfS is a 23-step band-based decision tree that classifies pixels as water or non-water with 97% overall accuracy. The enabling infrastructure for WOfS is the Australian Geoscience Data Cube (AGDC), a high performance computing system organising Australian earth observation data into a systematic, consistently corrected analysis engine. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has adopted the AGDC methodology to create a series of international Data Cubes to provide the same capability to areas that would otherwise not be able to undertake time series analysis of the environment at these scales. The CEOS Systems Engineering Office (SEO) recently completed testing of WOfS using Data Cubes based on the AGDC version 2 over Kenya and Colombia. The results show how Data Cubes can provide water management information at large scales, and provide information in remote locations where other sources of water information are unavailable. The results also show an improvement in water detection capability over the Landsat CFmask. This water management product provides critical insight into the behavior of surface water over time and in particular, the extent of flooding.

  8. Changes of Global Infectious Disease Governance in 2000s: Rise of Global Health Security and Transformation of Infectious Disease Control System in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-12-01

    This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government. Additionally, Korea National Health Institute(KNIH) was founded as research and training institute for infectious disease. However, traditional international health regulation system faced a serious challenge by the appearance of emerging and re-emerging infectious disease in 1990s. As a result, global infectious disease governance was rapidly changed under the demand to global disease surveillance and response. Moreover, global health security frame became important after 2001 bioterror and 2003 SARS outbreak. Consequently, international health regulation was fully revised in 2005, which included not only infectious disease but also public health emergency. The new international health regime was differently characterized in several aspects; reinforcement of global cooperation and surveillance, enlargement of the role of supranational and international agencies, and reorganization of national capacity. KNIH was reorganized with epidemic control and research since late 1990s. However, in 2004 Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC) was established as a disease control institution with combining quarantine and other functions after 2003 SARS outbreak. KCDC unified national function against infectious disease including prevention, protection, response and research, as a national representative in disease control. The

  9. Evolution of water recycling in Australian cities since 2003.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, J C

    2010-01-01

    The prolonged Australian drought which commenced in 2002, and the agreement between Australia's Commonwealth and States/Territories governments to progress water reform through the National Water Initiative, has resulted in many new recycling projects in Australia's capital cities. Dual reticulation systems are being advanced in new subdivision developments in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide. Brisbane has installed three large Advanced Water Treatment Plants that are designed to send indirect potable recycled water to the Wivenhoe Dam which is Brisbane's principal water reservoir. Numerous water recycling projects are serving industry and agriculture. Experimental managed aquifer recharge is being undertaken with wetland-treated stormwater in Adelaide and reverse osmosis treated wastewater in Perth. New National Water Quality Management Strategy recycled water guidelines have been developed for managing environmental risks, for augmentation of drinking water supplies, for managed aquifer recharge and for stormwater harvesting and reuse. Many recent investments are part-supported through Commonwealth government grants. Desalination plants are being established in Melbourne and Adelaide and a second one in Perth in addition to the newly-operational plants in Perth, South-East Queensland and Sydney. Despite there being numerous examples of unplanned indirect potable recycling, most governments remain reluctant about moving towards planned potable recycling. There is evidence of some policy bans still being maintained by governments but the National Water Commission continues to reinforce the necessity of an even-handed objective consideration of all water supply options.

  10. The Future of Religious Freedom in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babie, Paul; Mylius, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the place of religion within Australian primary and secondary education. It is divided into three parts. The first examines religion within the Australian legal and constitutional structure. The second considers the accommodation of religion in government (public or state) and nongovernment (private) schools, using the State…

  11. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  12. The Future of Religious Freedom in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babie, Paul; Mylius, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the place of religion within Australian primary and secondary education. It is divided into three parts. The first examines religion within the Australian legal and constitutional structure. The second considers the accommodation of religion in government (public or state) and nongovernment (private) schools, using the State…

  13. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  14. Risk factors for visual impairment and blindness amongst black adult diabetics receiving treatment at Government healthcare facilities in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common systemic disease amongst Black South Africans. It may lead to diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common cause of visual impairment (VI) and blindness. DR may significantly increase the prevalence of VI and blindness. Aim To assess risk factors for VI and blindness amongst a black diabetic South African population aged ≥ 40 years. Setting The study was conducted in seven Government healthcare facilities (two hospitals, four clinics and one health centre) in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa. Methods This was a cross-sectional health facility-based quantitative study. Structured interviews were used to obtain information, which included sociodemographic profile, knowledge about DM and its ocular complications, presence of hypertension and accessibility to health facilities. Subsequently participants were examined for VI and blindness using an autorefractor, pinhole disc, ophthalmoscope and logMAR visual acuity chart. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist) were also taken. Associations between 31 risk factors and VI as well as blindness were statistically examined. Results Participants (N = 225) included 161 women and 64 men aged 40–90 years (mean 61.5 ± 10.49 years); 41.3% of them had VI and 3.6% were blind. Cataracts (76.8%) and DR (7.1%) were the common causes of compensated VI and blindness. Risk factors that were associated with VI and blindness were age, monthly income, compliance with losing weight and physical activity. Conclusion Findings suggest that lifestyle intervention and appropriate eyecare programmes may reduce VI and blindness in this population. PMID:26245418

  15. Enhancing Educational Performance for Remote Aboriginal Australians: What Is the Impact of Attendance on Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…

  16. Enhancing Educational Performance for Remote Aboriginal Australians: What Is the Impact of Attendance on Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…

  17. Australian Education: An Overview of a System Adapting to a Post-Industrial Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    This paper offers a brief overview of the Australian education system and compares it with the United States system of education. The Australian economy presents no threat to U.S. hegemony, but its education system presents an interesting contrast. The paper describes the following features of the Australian education system: governance; school…

  18. Australian Nursing Informatics Competency Project.

    PubMed

    Foster, Joanne; Bryce, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    A study of Australian nurses on their use of information technology in the workplace was undertaken by the Australian Nursing Federation (ANF) in 2007. This study of over 4000 nurses highlighted that nurses recognise benefits to adopting more information technology in the workplace although there are significant barriers to their use. It also identified gross deficits in the capacity of the nursing workforce to engage in the digital processing of information. Following the release of the study last year, the ANF commenced work on a number of key recommendations from the report in order to overcome identified barriers and provide opportunities for nurses to better utilise information technology and information management systems. One of these recommendations was to seek research funding to develop national information technology and information management competency standards for nurses. This project has now received Federal Government funding to undertake this development. This project is being developed in collaboration with the ANF and the Queensland University of Technology. This paper will discuss the methodology, development and publication of the Australian Nursing Informatics Competency Standards Project which is currently underway and due for completion in May 2009. The Australian Nursing Informatics Competencies will be presented at the conference.

  19. Designing and Using an Organisational Culture Inquiry Tool to Glimpse the Relational Nature of Leadership and Organisational Culture within a South Australian Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, David; Bills, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This case study research found that the relational leadership and organisational culture at a public primary school situated in a high poverty location in South Australia was built upon the strength of the inter-relationships between the teachers, teachers and leadership, and between teachers and students. Supported by what we called "dynamic…

  20. Demands of Training: Australian Tourism and Hospitality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Brett

    Qualitative research was conducted as part of a four-industry project studying operation of training markets, one of which was Australian tourism and hospitality (T&H). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 individuals representing stakeholder groups. Interviews were conducted across Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia and…

  1. Governance of stem cell research: public participation and decision-making in China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret; Hwang, Seyoung

    2012-10-01

    This article compares and explores forms of 'public' participation in the development of bioethical governance of human embryonic stem cell research (hESR) in four Asian societies, and in doing so it contributes to the wider discussions on expertise and public inclusion. The article aims to add nuance to the concept of 'public consultation' by focusing on the contested meanings and relationships through which public roles and public debates are defined. The analysis seeks to go beyond a straightforward comparison by interpreting public discussions of hESR as being influenced by both local conditions and interconnected global science institutions. An adequate understanding of the public participation in debates on science requires the analysis of (a) particular reasons for scientific issues to require public discussion; (b) pressures of transnational forces; (c) variability of publics relevant to bioethical regulation; and, (d) the effects of institutionalization of bioethics. This study uses data from fieldwork conducted between 2006 and 2010 in four Asian countries. Most of the interviews were conducted in the local languages and concerned various kinds of public participation in bioethics activities, as well as the views of stem cell scientists on the need to involve the public in discussions on the acceptability of their research.

  2. Delta lobe degradation and hurricane impacts governing large-scale coastal behavior, South-central Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miner, M.D.; Kulp, M.A.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Flocks, J.G.; Weathers, H.D.

    2009-01-01

    A large deficit in the coastal sediment budget, high rates of relative sea-level rise (???0.9 cm/year), and storm-induced current and wave erosion are forcing barrier shoreface retreat along the periphery of the Mississippi River delta plain. Additionally, conversion of interior wetlands to open water has increased the bay tidal prism, resulting in degradation of barrier islands due to inlet widening, formation of new inlets, and sediment sequestration at ebb-tidal deltas. Single-beam bathymetric surveys along a 165-km stretch of south-central Louisiana barrier coast, from Raccoon Point in Terrebonne Parish to Sandy Point in Plaquemines Parish, were conducted in 2006. These data, combined with historical bathymetry from three time periods (dating to the 1880s), provide a series of digital elevation models that were used to calculate sediment volumetric changes and determine long-term erosional-depositional trends. Dominant patterns during the 125-year period include (1) erosion of ???1.6????????109 m3 from the shoreface, forcing up to 3 km of shoreface retreat, (2) sediment deposition in coastal bights and at ebb-tidal deltas, and (3) a combined increase in tidal inlet cross-sectional area from ???41,400 m2 to ???139,500 m 2. Bathymetric and shoreline change datasets separated by shorter time periods (sub-annual) demonstrate that these long-term trends are driven by processes associated with major hurricane impacts, and that rates of shoreface erosion are an order of magnitude greater during active hurricane seasons compared to long-term trends. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Delta lobe degradation and hurricane impacts governing large-scale coastal behavior, South-central Louisiana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miner, Michael D.; Kulp, Mark A.; Fitzgerald, Duncan M.; Flocks, James G.; Weathers, H. Dallon

    2009-12-01

    A large deficit in the coastal sediment budget, high rates of relative sea-level rise (~0.9 cm/year), and storm-induced current and wave erosion are forcing barrier shoreface retreat along the periphery of the Mississippi River delta plain. Additionally, conversion of interior wetlands to open water has increased the bay tidal prism, resulting in degradation of barrier islands due to inlet widening, formation of new inlets, and sediment sequestration at ebb-tidal deltas. Single-beam bathymetric surveys along a 165-km stretch of south-central Louisiana barrier coast, from Raccoon Point in Terrebonne Parish to Sandy Point in Plaquemines Parish, were conducted in 2006. These data, combined with historical bathymetry from three time periods (dating to the 1880s), provide a series of digital elevation models that were used to calculate sediment volumetric changes and determine long-term erosional-depositional trends. Dominant patterns during the 125-year period include (1) erosion of ~1.6 × 109 m3 from the shoreface, forcing up to 3 km of shoreface retreat, (2) sediment deposition in coastal bights and at ebb-tidal deltas, and (3) a combined increase in tidal inlet cross-sectional area from ~41,400 m2 to ~139,500 m2. Bathymetric and shoreline change datasets separated by shorter time periods (sub-annual) demonstrate that these long-term trends are driven by processes associated with major hurricane impacts, and that rates of shoreface erosion are an order of magnitude greater during active hurricane seasons compared to long-term trends.

  4. CD14 (C-260T) polymorphism is not associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in a large South Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Highet, Amanda R; Gibson, Catherine S; Goldwater, Paul N

    2011-02-01

    Similarities have been drawn between models of endotoxic shock and gross and microscopic pathology observed in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases. Polymorphisms in genes that influence the expression of endotoxin receptors could affect the outcome of toxaemia, and could, therefore, play a role in SIDS. The CD14 gene promoter contains a single nucleotide polymorphism that affects the level of CD14 gene expression. The TT genotype of the CD14 (C-260T) polymorphism causes a significantly higher density of CD14 receptor expression on monocytes which makes the individual more sensitive to endotoxin than those with the wild-type (CC). This investigation was designed to determine whether SIDS infants have a higher frequency of the CD14 (C-260T) polymorphism compared with non-SIDS controls. One hundred and sixteen SIDS and 228 control infants were genotyped using PCR followed by restriction fragment length analysis of amplified product. Carriage of the TT or CT genotypes did not significantly differ between SIDS and control infants (P = 0.218 and 0.081, respectively). The frequencies observed in the control group were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and did not differ significantly from the published frequencies in Caucasian Australians. These results suggest that CD14 (C-260T) polymorphism is unlikely to be implicated in SIDS.

  5. Communication: Are Australians Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansford, B. C.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the question of the distinctive nature of communication in Australia. Discusses nonverbal messages, gender concerns, historical influences on communication, the Australian accent, communication with indigenous persons, communication apprehension, and classroom communication. Argues that Australians' communication is relatively similar to…

  6. Expenditure Pattern for TB Treatment among Patients Registered in an Urban Government DOTS Program in Chennai City, South India.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, Ramya; Muniyandi, M; Jeyaraj, Anita; Palani, Gopal; Sathiyasekaran, B W C

    2012-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) patients registered in the government clinics under the DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course) program in Chennai city catering to about 4.3 million population. Objective. To estimate the pattern and overall costs incurred by the new patients (who have never had treatment for tuberculosis or have taken antituberculosis drugs for less than one month) registered under DOTS program in the treatment of tuberculosis in Chennai city. Methodology. A cross-sectional survey among new TB patients, who had completed intensive phase of antituberculosis treatment, was done using a precoded semi-structured questionnaire between March and June 2007. Information was collected on demographic, socioeconomic characteristics and expenditure for before and during treatment. Mean costs were used for comparison. Results. Among the 300 TB patients, most economically productive age group and 186 (62%) were males. The overall estimated total costs incurred right from the onset of symptoms until treatment completion was found to be Rs. 3211 (3.8% of annual family income) under DOTS program, which is less compared to previous studies. The overall mean total cost was significantly high among male (Rs. 3270; P < 0.01), employed (Rs. 3945; P < 0.01), and extrapulmonary patients (Rs. 3915; P < 0.01). Conclusion. The study has reiterated the fact that DOTS helps in reducing out-of-pocket expenses to patients with tuberculosis and hence is a cost-effective health intervention. This cost reduction may help to increase the access to the poor people which would help in achieving universal access to TB care services.

  7. Australian trachoma surveillance annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Cowling, Carleigh S; Liu, Bette C; Snelling, Thomas L; Ward, James S; Kaldor, John M; Wilson, David P

    2016-06-30

    Australia remains the only developed country to have endemic levels of trachoma (a prevalence of 5% or greater among children) in some regions. Endemic trachoma in Australia is found predominantly in remote and very remote Aboriginal communities. The Australian Government funds the National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit to collate, analyse and report trachoma prevalence data and document trachoma control strategies in Australia through an annual surveillance report. This report presents data collected in 2013. Data are collected from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island communities designated at-risk for endemic trachoma within New South Wales, the Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia. The World Health Organization grading criteria were used to diagnose cases of trachoma in Aboriginal children, with jurisdictions focusing screening activities on the 5-9 years age group; but some children in the 1-4 and 10-14 years age groups were also screened. The prevalence of trachoma within a community was used to guide treatment strategies as a public health response. Aboriginal adults aged 40 years or over were screened for trichiasis. Screening coverage for the estimated population of children aged 5-9 years and adults aged 40 years or over in at-risk communities required to be screened in 2013 was 84% and 30%, respectively. There was a 4% prevalence of trachoma among children aged 5-9 years who were screened. Of communities screened, 50% were found to have no cases of active trachoma and 33% were found to have endemic levels of trachoma. Treatment was required in 75 at-risk communities screened. Treatment coverage for active cases and their contacts varied between jurisdictions from 79% to 100%. Trichiasis prevalence was 1% within the screened communities.

  8. Survey of Australians using cannabis for medical purposes

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Wendy; Gates, Peter; Dillon, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Background The New South Wales State Government recently proposed a trial of the medical use of cannabis. Australians who currently use cannabis medicinally do so illegally and without assurances of quality control. Given the dearth of local information on this issue, this study explored the experiences of medical cannabis users. Methods Australian adults who had used cannabis for medical purposes were recruited using media stories. A total of 147 respondents were screened by phone and anonymous questionnaires were mailed, to be returned by postage paid envelope. Results Data were available for 128 participants. Long term and regular medical cannabis use was frequently reported for multiple medical conditions including chronic pain (57%), depression (56%), arthritis (35%), persistent nausea (27%) and weight loss (26%). Cannabis was perceived to provide "great relief" overall (86%), and substantial relief of specific symptoms such as pain, nausea and insomnia. It was also typically perceived as superior to other medications in terms of undesirable effects, and the extent of relief provided. However, nearly one half (41%) experienced conditions or symptoms that were not helped by its use. The most prevalent concerns related to its illegality. Participants reported strong support for their use from clinicians and family. There was almost universal interest (89%) in participating in a clinical trial of medical cannabis, and strong support (79%) for investigating alternative delivery methods. Conclusion Australian medical cannabis users are risking legal ramifications, but consistent with users elsewhere, claim moderate to substantial benefits from its use in the management of their medical condition. In addition to strong public support, medical cannabis users show strong interest in clinical cannabis research, including the investigation of alternative delivery methods. PMID:16202145

  9. A survey of blood conservation methods in clinical practice in some urban south-eastern government hospitals in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Amucheazi, A O; Ajuzeiogu, V O; Ezike, H A; Odiakosa, M C; Nwoke, O M; Onyia, E

    2011-01-01

    , our practice must continually be refined by continuing medical education in order to keep everyone informed of changes in practice. The Government must improve the quality of service by the provision of unavailable infrastructure.

  10. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  11. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  12. Native Americans and Aboriginal Australian Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    Aboriginal Australians represent 1.5% of Australia's population, nearly double the percentage of native people in the U.S. population. While indigenous peoples throughout the world share common similarities, particularly contemporary issues and their spiritual regard for nature, many aspects of their lifestyles are different, such as governance,…

  13. Industrial Relations in Australian Tertiary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Keith

    1989-01-01

    A government official in industrial relations and former university administrator chronicles the emergence of unions in Australian universities and discusses the current state of academic trade unionism, focusing on the restructuring of the compensation system and the problems resulting from the process. (MSE)

  14. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  15. The role of HIV/AIDS committees in effective workplace governance of HIV/AIDS in South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    PubMed

    Vaas, Jocelyn R

    2008-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the role, status and scope of workplace HIV/AIDS committees as a means of effective workplace governance of the HIV/AIDS impact, and their role in extending social protective HIV/AIDS-related rights to employees. In-depth qualitative case studies were conducted in five South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were actively implementing HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes through a workplace committee dedicated to HIV/AIDS or a generic committee dealing with issues other than HIV/ AIDS. Management, through the human resources department and the occupational health practitioner often drove initial policy formulation, and had virtually sole control of the HIV/AIDS budget. Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often production or blue collar employees, while there was a notable lack of participation by white-collar employees, line management and trade unions. While the powers of workplace committees were largely consultative, employee committee members often managed in an indirect manner to secure and extend social protective rights on HIV/AIDS to employees, and monitor their effective implementation in practice. In the interim, workplace committees represented one of the best means to facilitate more effective workplace HIV/AIDS governance. However, the increased demands on collective bargaining as a result of an anticipated rises in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality might prove to be beyond the scope of such voluntary committees in the longer term.

  16. "Kairos" and the Time of Gender Equity Policy in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Almost 20 years ago the Australian government released "Gender Equity: A Framework for Australian Schools" (1997). It was adopted by all states but almost immediately disappeared from sight after a conservative change of government. This was followed by the dismantling of gender equity units in each state, and a turn to boys' education…

  17. "Kairos" and the Time of Gender Equity Policy in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Almost 20 years ago the Australian government released "Gender Equity: A Framework for Australian Schools" (1997). It was adopted by all states but almost immediately disappeared from sight after a conservative change of government. This was followed by the dismantling of gender equity units in each state, and a turn to boys' education…

  18. Securitisation and/or Westernisation: Dominant Discourses of Australian Values and the Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Andrew; Bentley, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Debates concerning the nature, purpose and importance of Australian values have resurfaced in Australia following the election of the Liberal-led Coalition Government in September 2013. Two dominant discourses on Australian values have emerged within recent government rhetoric and public policy, both of which have included a demand for changes to…

  19. Widening and Expanding Participation in Australian Higher Education: In the Absence of Sociological Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Social inclusion in Australian higher education was high on the agenda of the recent Rudd/Gillard Australian Government. This paper offers an assessment of that agenda, particularly the extent to which it worked in favour of under-represented groups. It argues that the Government's widening and expansion policies and its equity and aspiration…

  20. Indigenizing Teacher Professional Development: Anticipating the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Zane Ma

    2012-01-01

    It is the Australian Government's intention that all teachers will have, as a minimum, a proficient level of demonstrable professional expertise in both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education and Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. A raft of government policies are giving shape to the engagement of the Australian…

  1. Early Intervention for Children with Disabilities: The Australian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Moira, Ed.; And Others

    A collection of papers on the Australian experience with early intervention for children with disabilities gives regional overviews, describes specific intervention programs, and discusses a variety of issues. Overviews are given of early intervention in Australia in general, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western…

  2. The "Australian" O.C.D.Q.: A Decade Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Laurie

    1985-01-01

    The Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ), modified by Thomas and Slater for use in South Australian schools in 1970, was based on four factors (rather than the original eight): principal supportiveness or operations emphasis and teacher disaffiliation or intimacy. A recent study in New South Wales has validated this four-factor…

  3. Does time off work after injury vary by jurisdiction? A comparative study of eight Australian workers' compensation systems

    PubMed Central

    Collie, Alex; Lane, Tyler J; Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Thompson, Jason; McLeod, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the jurisdiction in which a work-related injury compensation claim is made is an independent predictor of duration of time off work following work injury, and if so, the magnitude of the effect. Setting Eight Australian state and territory workers' compensation systems, providing coverage for more than 90% of the Australian labour force. Administrative claims data from these systems were provided by government regulatory authorities for the study. Participants 95 976 Australian workers with workers' compensation claims accepted in 2010 and with at least 2 weeks of compensated time off work. Primary outcome measure Duration of time lost from work in weeks, censored at 104 weeks. Results After controlling for demographic, worker, injury and employer factors in a Cox regression model, significant differences in duration of time loss between state and territory of claim were observed. Compared with New South Wales, workers in Victoria, South Australia and Comcare had significantly longer durations of time off work and were more likely to be receiving income benefits at 104 weeks postinjury, while workers in Tasmania and Queensland had significantly shorter durations of time off work. Conclusions The jurisdiction in which an injured worker makes a compensation claim has a significant and independent impact on duration of time loss. Further research is necessary to identify specific compensation system policies and practices that promote timely and appropriate return to work and reduce duration of time off work. PMID:27150186

  4. Research in Science Education, Volume 5. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (6th, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, May 19-21, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, A. M., Ed.; Power, Colin, N., Ed.

    This volume contains papers presented at the sixth Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (ASERA) held at Flinders University in May, 1975. Paper topics include: pupil learning and classroom climate, teacher structuring behavior, the Australian Science Education Project (ASEP), cognitive preference and…

  5. Research in Science Education, Volume 5. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (6th, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, May 19-21, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, A. M., Ed.; Power, Colin, N., Ed.

    This volume contains papers presented at the sixth Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (ASERA) held at Flinders University in May, 1975. Paper topics include: pupil learning and classroom climate, teacher structuring behavior, the Australian Science Education Project (ASEP), cognitive preference and…

  6. Governing Knowledge: The Formalization Dilemma in the Governance of the Public Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelert, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a conceptually novel contribution to the understanding of the distinctive governance challenges arising from the increasing reliance on formalized knowledge in the governance of research activities. It uses the current Australian research governance system as an example--a system which exhibits a comparatively strong degree of…

  7. Governing Knowledge: The Formalization Dilemma in the Governance of the Public Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelert, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a conceptually novel contribution to the understanding of the distinctive governance challenges arising from the increasing reliance on formalized knowledge in the governance of research activities. It uses the current Australian research governance system as an example--a system which exhibits a comparatively strong degree of…

  8. Performance Government: Activating and Regulating the Self-Governing Capacities of Teachers and School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses "performance government" as an emergent form of rule in advanced liberal democracies. It discloses how teachers and school leaders in Australia are being governed by the practices of performance government which centre on the recently established Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and…

  9. Performance Government: Activating and Regulating the Self-Governing Capacities of Teachers and School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses "performance government" as an emergent form of rule in advanced liberal democracies. It discloses how teachers and school leaders in Australia are being governed by the practices of performance government which centre on the recently established Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and…

  10. The Use of a Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance System to Determine the Age, Period and Cohort Effects on the Prevalence of Obesity and Diabetes in South Australian Adults - 2003–2013

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anne W.; Shi, Zumin; Montgomerie, Alicia; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Campostrini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Background Age, period and cohort (APC) analyses, using representative, population-based descriptive data, provide additional understanding behind increased prevalence rates. Methods Data on obesity and diabetes from the South Australian (SA) monthly chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system from July 2002 to December 2013 (n = 59,025) were used. Age was the self-reported age of the respondent at the time of the interview. Period was the year of the interview and cohort was age subtracted from the survey year. Cohort years were 1905 to 1995. All variables were treated as continuous. The age-sex standardised prevalence for obesity and diabetes was calculated using the Australia 2011 census. The APC models were constructed with ‘‘apcfit’’ in Stata. Results The age-sex standardised prevalence of obesity and diabetes increased in 2002-2013 from 18.6% to 24.1% and from 6.2% to 7.9%. The peak age for obesity was approximately 70 years with a steady increasing rate from 20 to 70 years of age. The peak age for diabetes was approximately 80 years. There were strong cohort effects and no period effects for both obesity and diabetes. The magnitude of the cohort effect is much more pronounced for obesity than for diabetes. Conclusion The APC analyses showed a higher than expected peak age for both obesity and diabetes, strong cohort effects with an acceleration of risk after 1960s for obesity and after 1940s for diabetes, and no period effects. By simultaneously considering the effects of age, period and cohort we have provided additional evidence for effective public health interventions. PMID:25923664

  11. Variants within the COMP and THBS2 genes are not associated with Achilles tendinopathy in a case-control study of South African and Australian populations.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Colleen J; Van Der Merwe, Lize; Cook, Jill; Handley, Christopher J; Collins, Malcolm; September, Alison V

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix, while thrombospondin-2 is a matricellular protein involved in cell-matrix interactions. Recent studies have shown that genetic variation is a significant risk factor for Achilles tendinopathy, and the genes encoding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and thrombospondin-2 (THBS2) were identified as good candidate genes for association with Achilles tendinopathy. This study aimed to test the association of sequence variants within these candidate genes with the risk of Achilles tendinopathy in participants from South Africa (SA) and Australia (AUS). Three-hundred and forty (133 SA; 207 AUS) control participants with no history of Achilles tendinopathy and 178 (94 SA; 84 AUS) participants clinically diagnosed with Achilles tendinopathy were genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms within the COMP and THBS2 genes in this case-control study. There was no difference in genotype distributions between control and tendinopathy groups for either the THBS2 variants rs9505888, rs6422747 and rs9283850, or the COMP variants rs730079 and rs28494505 in the SA and AUS populations. As the selection of COMP and THBS2 as candidate genes was hypothesis driven, based on biological function, the possibility that other variants within these genes are associated with Achilles tendinopathy cannot be excluded.

  12. Taxes, Families, and the Labor Party, 1990. The Australian Family Income Transfer Project. AFIT Bulletin No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Helen; And Others

    The Australian Family Income Transfer Project (AFIT) is designed to examine the impact of government policies on the economic wellbeing of Australian families. The AFIT Project uses published national statistics as well as data and information collected by the Australian Institute of Family Studies (the project's sponsor) in its own studies and…

  13. How Will Access and Reliability of Information Communications Technology Resources Affect the Potential Implementation of the Australian Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    The Australian Government has recently introduced a national based curriculum, known as The Australian Curriculum. This new curriculum is intended to provide quality education for all students (Australian Curriculum, Reporting and Assessment Authority, [ACARA], 2013). This article considers some of the possible implications of the Australian…

  14. Moving from local to State water governance to resolve a local conflict between irrigated agriculture and commercial forestry in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Virginie; McKay, Jennifer; Keremane, Ganesh

    2014-11-01

    In the Lower Limestone Coast, South Australia, a unique water allocation plan has been under consideration for several years. This plan is the first in Australia to consider forestry as a water affecting activity. Indeed, forestry plantations have a twofold impact on water-rainfall or aquifer recharge interception and direct extraction of groundwater in shallow water table areas-and alter the available water for irrigation as a result of the previous water budget. This paper examines how water is allocated across the competing requirements for water but also across the competing legal, economic and administrative scales embodied by the competing water users; and thus it also details the pre-judicial mechanism used to resolve the conflict over these competing scales. Qualitative and quantitative content analysis in Nvivo was applied to: (i) 180 local newspaper articles on the planning process, (ii) 65 submission forms filled in by the community during a public consultation on the draft water plan and (iii) 20 face-to-face interviews of keys stakeholders involved in the planning process. The social sustainability perspective taken in this study establishes the legal, economic and administrative competitive scales at stake in the conflict regarding water between forestry and irrigation. It also evidences the special feature of this paper, which is that to overcome these competitions and resolve the local conflict before judicial process, the water governance moved up in the administrative scale, from local/regional to State level. Initiated and initially prepared at regional level through the local Natural Resources Management Board, the water planning process was taken up to State level through the formation of an Interdepartmental Committee and the establishment of a Taskforce in charge of developing a policy. These were supported by an amendment of a State legislation on Natural Resources Management to manage the water impacts of forestry plantations.

  15. Australian DefenceScience. Volume 15, Number 2, Winter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    sources, including the original builders, Vickers Shipyards, the Royal Australian Navy Archives, the Australian National Archives, the British...South Australia. The trial team also included personnel from the Army 3rd/9th Light Horse as well the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology and Vision...the Austeyr and AK47 weapons. The two torsos presented for testing were made of a 20% strength solution of gelatine jelly , which, at a temperature of

  16. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  17. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  18. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  19. Combustion of Australian spent shales compared

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The combustion kinetics of spent oil shales from seven major Australian deposits have been examined using a fluidized bed batch technique. Chemical rate constants were shown to vary between the shales and to be less than extrapolations of data from American spent oil shales. The effective diffusivity also varies widely among the shales. The seven oil shales were from the Condor, Duaringa, Lowmead, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Rundle and Stuart deposits in Queensland. Results are briefly described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  20. Life Satisfaction of Young Australians: Relationships between Further Education, Training and Employment and General and Career Satisfaction. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth Research Report 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Kylie; McMillan, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Prepared by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) under an agreement with the Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), this report has three broad aims: (1) To describe the relationship between life satisfaction and participation in a range of post-school education, training and labour market…

  1. Prevention practices influencing frequency of occurrence of vaso-occlusive crisis among sickle cell patients in Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel; Jimoh, Ahmed Babatunde; Ojo, Omotola; Kuponiyi, Temitope

    2017-01-01

    Africa is the most affected continent with 200,000 new born affected by sickle cell anemia annually with of 5% of under five deaths. Nigeria has the largest sickle cell gene pool in the world with about 2% of all babies born to Nigerian parents. This study therefore sets out to assess the prevention practices influencing the frequency of occurrence of vaso-occlusive crisis among patients in Ogun State. This study is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Abeokuta South Local Government Area Ogun State. A consecutive non randomized sampling of all the sickle cell patients that attend the selected facilities was recruited into the study. Data were collected with the use of questionnaires which were interviewer administered. A total of 415 patients were recruited into the study. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows version 20.0. Two- third [64.8%] of study participants have crisis twice or more in a month. The frequency of crisis was statistically significantly associated with the age of the child [p = 0.006], use of anti-malaria prophylaxis [p = 0.006], analgesics [p = 0.0001], taking of plenty fluid [p = 0.001] and soothing herbs [p = 0.0001]. Lifestyle factors such as giving balance diet [p = 0.217], restriction from strenuous activities [p = 0.08], and attending Clinic appointments regularly [p = 0.126] were not statistically associated with reduction in the frequency of crisis. Logistic regression analysis shows that predictors of frequent crisis were individuals who were using prophylaxis antimalarial drugs [OR = 0.12, CI = 0.05-0.33] and analgesics [OR = 0.15, C.I = 0.06-0.34]. The study reveals that majority of the participants have high frequency of crisis in a month. Drug prophylaxis rather than lifestyle factors may be more important in the prevention of vaso-occlusive crisis among sickle cell patients.

  2. Who Chooses Teaching and Why? Profiling Characteristics and Motivations across Three Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Paul W.; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2006-01-01

    In this large-scale Australian study, we profile the background characteristics and teaching motivations for individuals entering teacher education across three major established urban teacher provider universities in the Australian States of New South Wales and Victoria. Our recently developed and validated "FIT-Choice" (Factors…

  3. Integrative Governance of Environmental Water in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin: Evolving Challenges and Emerging Pathways.

    PubMed

    Bischoff-Mattson, Zachary; Lynch, Amanda H

    2017-07-01

    Integration, a widely promoted response to the multi-scale complexities of social-environmental sustainability, is diversely and sometimes poorly conceptualized. In this paper we explore integrative governance, which we define as an iterative and contextual process for negotiating and advancing the common interest. We ground this definition in a discussion of institutional factors conditioning integrative governance of environmental water in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin. The Murray-Darling Basin is an iconic system of social-ecological complexity, evocative of large-scale conservation challenges in other developed arid river basins. Our critical assessment of integrative governance practices in that context emerges through analysis of interviews with policy participants and documents pertaining to environmental water management in the tri-state area of southwestern New South Wales, northwestern Victoria, and the South Australian Riverland. We identify four linked challenges: (i) decision support for developing socially robust environmental water management goals, (ii) resource constraints on adaptive practice, (iii) inter-state differences in participatory decision-making and devolution of authority, and (iv) representative inclusion in decision-making. Our appraisal demonstrates these as pivotal challenges for integrative governance in the common interest. We conclude by offering a perspective on the potential for supporting integrative governance through the bridging capacity of Australia's Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder.

  4. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2015-09-30

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP) has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2014, 4,804 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC value 0.06-0.125 mg/L) was found nationally in 5.4% of isolates, a lower proportion than that reported in the AGSP 2013 annual report (8.8%). The highest proportions were reported from New South Wales and Victoria (7.1% and 6.6% respectively). The proportion of strains resistant to penicillin in urban and rural Australia ranged from 11% in South Australia to 43% in New South Wales. In rural and remote Northern Territory penicillin resistance rates remained low (1.5%). In remote Western Australia relatively low numbers of strains are available for testing, however there is now widespread molecular testing for penicillin resistance in Western Australia to monitor resistance and inform guidelines and, for first time, these data are included in the AGSP annual report. Quinolone resistance ranged from 27% in the urban and rural areas of the Northern Territory, to 44% in the Australian Capital Territory, and quinolone resistance rates remain comparatively low in remote areas of the Northern Territory (3.1%) and remote areas of Western Australia (5.6%). Azithromycin resistance ranged from 0.5% in South Australia to 5.3% in rural and urban Western Australia. High rates were also reported from the Australian Capital Territory but relatively low numbers were tested. High level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥256 mg/L) was again reported in 2014, in 2 strains from New South Wales. No resistance was reported from the Northern Territory, or remote Western Australia.

  5. Faecal occult blood testing (FOBT)-based colorectal cancer screening trends and predictors of non-use: findings from the South Australian setting and implications for increasing FOBT uptake.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Kamelia; Wilson, Carlene; Sharplin, Greg; Corsini, Nadia

    2017-03-02

    Objective The present study used data from three South Australian population health surveys to examine trends in knowledge, recent use and reasons for use or non-use of faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening from 2011 to 2014. Screening awareness and demographic factors related to non-use were also examined.Methods FOBT trends were examined for respondents aged 50-75 years across survey years (n ~ 1000). Logistic regression analyses were undertaken to determine predictors of non-use and reasons for non-use of FOBT based on latest data.Results The proportion of respondents reporting recent FOBT use has trended up, whereas the proportion reporting non-use has trended down. Awareness of screening recommendations has increased. Respondents who were aware of screening recommendations and those aged 65-69 years were significantly less likely to report non-use. The most commonly reported reasons for FOBT use were as part the national screening program or routine examination, whereas reasons for non-use were not having symptoms and doctor not advising to have the test.Conclusions FOBT screening trends are indicative of the positive effect of the continued expansion of the national screening program. FOBT uptake may be increased by addressing salient barriers, as indicated by persisting reasons for non-use of FOBT.What is known about the topic? Australia has one of the highest age-standardised incidence rates of CRC (or bowel cancer) in the world. Population screening using non-invasive stool-based FOBT was implemented in Australia in 2006 with the introduction of the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP). To date, the NBCSP has been extended to only a small proportion of the target population and FOBT screening rates remain well below desired levels to effect changes in CRC outcomes at the population level. There is a recognised need for more robust data on CRC screening practices to inform interventions aimed at increasing FOBT

  6. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed

  7. The glass bead game: nuclear tourism at the Australian weapon test sites.

    PubMed

    Roff, S R

    1998-01-01

    In mid-summer 1997, just as the United States National Cancer Institute was acknowledging that the nuclear bomb tests at the Nevada Test Site may ultimately cause up to 75,000 cases of thyroid cancer in people who were living in the USA in the 1950s and 1960s, the Australian authorities were mooting the possibility that the Maralinga test sites in South Australia should become a tourist attraction. Some Aboriginal tribal leaders welcomed this proposed use when the 20 million Pounds 'clean-up' being paid for by the United Kingdom government as some compensation for using the area for its weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s is completed. This paper surveys the attempts to clean up the site of UK nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s, not least by attempting to vitrify vast tracts of desert.

  8. Climate impacts of Australian land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    distance from the land cover changes. The Australian continental and regional analyses demonstrated that Australian land cover change did have statistically significant impacts on air temperature and precipitation simulated in the CSIRO GCM. While none of the statistically significant trends in annual precipitation were found to be statistically significant in the climate modelling experiments, the modelled reductions in annual precipitation for south east Queensland and eastern New South Wales corresponded with the strong drying trends in those areas for 1950 - 1999. Larger scale analysis of differences in climate suggested the local changes in surface fluxes had strong impacts on atmospheric circulation. The largest changes were in austral summer (DJF) circulation where monsoon flow into northern Australia was reduced, corresponding with increased monsoon flow into the South Pacific Convergence Zone and increased south easterly wind flow into eastern Queensland. These changes in circulation influenced DJF moisture flux into northern and eastern Australia, which intensified the direct warming and drying impact caused by the reduced transpiration from land cover change.

  9. The limitations of environmental management systems in Australian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Cary, John; Roberts, Anna

    2011-03-01

    The efficacy of government-supported programs to encourage improved management of land and water systems associated with agricultural land in Australia has been mixed. The broad approach of Australian governments is reviewed briefly. Evidence is presented from case assessments of a program to promote adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs) to improve environmental outcomes from agricultural practices. EMSs are systems implemented to manage the environmental impacts and ameliorate environmental risk associated with business activity. Data are presented on reported EMS activity and experience of four selected groups of farmers in Victoria, south-eastern Australia, representing broad-acre cropping, beef and dairy farming. The pro-environmental behaviours of farmers were mediated through voluntary adoption of government and industry sponsored EMSs, often with financial incentives and other support. Findings from the study were that adoption of EMS practices with sufficient public benefits is unlikely to occur at sufficient scale for significant environmental impact. Farmers more readily adopted practices which were financially beneficial than those which had a positive environmental impact. Although the focus on voluntary market-based instrument (MBI) type programs is popular in western countries, enforcing regulation is an important, but usually politically unpopular, component of land use policy. The comparative advantage of EMSs differed for the industries studied, but overall there were insufficient market drivers for widespread EMS adoption in Australia. Environmental outcomes could be more effectively achieved by directly funding land management practices which have highest public net benefits. Having a clear and unambiguous management objective for a particular land management policy is more likely to achieve outcomes than having multiple objectives as occurs in a number of international programs currently.

  10. The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-06-01

    The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples.

  11. Research Readings. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Nigel, Ed.

    This volume on apprenticeships in Australia summarizes 11 research studies. After an "Introduction" (Nigel Smart), the reports are: "Apprenticeship in Australia: A Concise History" (John Ray); "Issues and Directions from the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature" (Stephen Saunders); "Determinants…

  12. Research Readings. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Nigel, Ed.

    This volume on apprenticeships in Australia summarizes 11 research studies. After an "Introduction" (Nigel Smart), the reports are: "Apprenticeship in Australia: A Concise History" (John Ray); "Issues and Directions from the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature" (Stephen Saunders); "Determinants…

  13. Australian Mineral Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

  14. Government Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell

    1979-01-01

    Reviews recent federal publications on government information, particularly in the area of general informational services, public access to government information and privacy issues, coordination of government information systems, and congressional information needs. (Author)

  15. The Future of Australian Apprenticeships: Report of the Stakeholder Forum. Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couldrey, Margo; Loveder, Phil

    2017-01-01

    "The future of Australian Apprenticeships" stakeholder forum was hosted by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in conjunction with the Australian Government Department of Education and Training in Canberra on 25 October, 2016. The forum was attended by over 60 key stakeholders from across the vocational…

  16. ICTs for Learning: An Overview of Systemic Initiatives in the Australian States and Territories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Glenn; Trinidad, Sue

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an overview of Systemic Initiatives in the Australian States and Territories. This updated overview acknowledges the help and information provided by key contacts whom the authors contacted from each of the Australian State and Territory government education systems. In addition, the role of the Ministerial Council for…

  17. Changes in Australian Disability Service Use by Selected Primary Disability Groups 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian

    2012-01-01

    For the last two decades, the Australian Federal Government has taken responsibility for funding disability employment services, and the states and territories are responsible for accommodation, respite, and community access services (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2004-2011). Replacing the existing Commonwealth State Territory…

  18. Defence Science Research, Higher Education and the Australian Quest for the Atomic Bomb, 1945-60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the efforts of the Australian government to create an atomic research and development program after World War II. Describes initial cooperation with Britain and the push for the transformation of Australian higher and secondary education in service of national scientific development. Discusses effects of the end of Commonwealth…

  19. Defence Science Research, Higher Education and the Australian Quest for the Atomic Bomb, 1945-60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the efforts of the Australian government to create an atomic research and development program after World War II. Describes initial cooperation with Britain and the push for the transformation of Australian higher and secondary education in service of national scientific development. Discusses effects of the end of Commonwealth…

  20. Welcome to 2012: Australian Academic Developers and Student-Driven University Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Peter; Fraser, Kym; Gosling, David

    2013-01-01

    Are there consequences for academic development arising from the move to student-driven funding in the Australian higher education sector from 2012? In a move that has similarities to the UK, Australian government-supported student university funding will, from 2012, attach to students who can select a programme at the university of their choice…

  1. Changes in Australian Disability Service Use by Selected Primary Disability Groups 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian

    2012-01-01

    For the last two decades, the Australian Federal Government has taken responsibility for funding disability employment services, and the states and territories are responsible for accommodation, respite, and community access services (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2004-2011). Replacing the existing Commonwealth State Territory…

  2. Total VET Students and Courses 2014: Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    In November 2012, the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Standing Council on Tertiary Education, Skills and Employment (SCOTESE) agreed to the introduction of mandatory reporting of nationally recognised training activity from 2014 onward. Under the mandatory reporting requirements, all Australian providers (excluding those exempted by…

  3. Trends in the Proportion of Students with a Disability in Australian Schools, 2000-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies and discusses recent trends in the percentage of students with a disability identified in Australian schools in the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009. In addition, these trends are examined across government and nongovernment schools and considered in the light of the definition of disability used by Australian schools. In…

  4. Welcome to 2012: Australian Academic Developers and Student-Driven University Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Peter; Fraser, Kym; Gosling, David

    2013-01-01

    Are there consequences for academic development arising from the move to student-driven funding in the Australian higher education sector from 2012? In a move that has similarities to the UK, Australian government-supported student university funding will, from 2012, attach to students who can select a programme at the university of their choice…

  5. An Examination of the Fatigue Meter Records from the RAAF (Royal Australian Air Force) Caribou Fleet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    Industry Aero-Space Technologies Australia, Manager/Librarian (2 copies) Australian Airlines, Library Qantas Airways Limited Ansett Airlines of...Director Publishing and Marketing , AGPS. Inquiries should be directed to the Manager, AGPS Press, Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84

  6. Making Space for Theological Research in the New Environment of Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines 2 recent Australian government issues papers on higher education and research policy, indicating areas both of concern and opportunity for Australian higher education providers in theology and their research efforts. The paper then offers suggestions as to how providers of theological education might position themselves as…

  7. Expansion and Equity in Australian Higher Education: Three Propositions for New Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines three broad propositions for student equity in Australian higher education (HE), arising from the Australian Government's recent policy announcement to expand and widen student participation. The first is that a new relationship between student demand for places and their supply is on the horizon, unlike any other in…

  8. Who's Steering the Ship? National Curriculum Reform and the Re-Shaping of Australian Federalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Glenn C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the repositioning of state curriculum agencies in response to the establishment of the Australian Curriculum and the key national policy organisation responsible for its development: the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). I begin with an analysis of the federal Labor government's role in the…

  9. The National Action Plan. Australian School Science Education National Action Plan, 2008-2012. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrum, Denis; Rennie, Leonie J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the Australian Government released a report, commissioned by the then Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, entitled "The Status and Quality of Teaching and Learning of Science in Australian Schools" (Goodrum, Hackling, & Rennie, 2001). Its recommendations included actions to address raising community…

  10. The Suppression of Ethical Dispositions through Managerial Governmentality: A Habitus Crisis in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipin, Lew; Brennan, Marie

    2003-01-01

    "Fiscal" and other so-called "crises" in Australian universities are more fundamentally, it is argued in this article, crises of government decision and "governmentality". Using an illustrative "morality tale" drawn from their working knowledge of the Australian university sector, the authors take a…

  11. Science at the Crossroads? The Decline of Science in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Ian R.

    2006-01-01

    The Australian Government has stressed the important role universities play in producing knowledge workers to service the needs of the technology-driven "new economy". The massification of Australian higher education from 1989 rapidly increased the stock of university-educated people in all disciplines. Although university science…

  12. Who's Steering the Ship? National Curriculum Reform and the Re-Shaping of Australian Federalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Glenn C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the repositioning of state curriculum agencies in response to the establishment of the Australian Curriculum and the key national policy organisation responsible for its development: the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). I begin with an analysis of the federal Labor government's role in the…

  13. Science at the Crossroads? The Decline of Science in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Ian R.

    2006-01-01

    The Australian Government has stressed the important role universities play in producing knowledge workers to service the needs of the technology-driven "new economy". The massification of Australian higher education from 1989 rapidly increased the stock of university-educated people in all disciplines. Although university science…

  14. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia.

  15. Application of spatial analysis technology to the planning of access to oral health care for at-risk populations in Australian capital cities.

    PubMed

    Almado, Haidar; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Australians are one of the healthiest populations in the world but there is strong evidence that health inequalities exist. Australia has 23.1 million people spread very unevenly over -20 million square kilometres. This study aimed to apply spatial analysis tools to measure the spatial distribution of fixed adult public dental clinics in the eight metropolitan capital cities of Australia. All population data for metropolitan areas of the eight capital cities were integrated with socioeconomic data and health-service locations, using Geographic Information Systems, and then analysed. The adult population was divided into three subgroups according to age, consisting of 15-year-olds and over (n = 7.2 million), retirees 65 years and over (n = 1.2 million), and the elderly, who were 85 years and over (n = 0.15 million). It was evident that the States fell into two groups; Tasmania, Northern Territory, Australian Capital Territory and Western Australia in one cluster, and Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia in the other. In the first group, the average proportion of the population of low socioeconomic status living in metropolitan areas within 2.5 km of a government dental clinic is 13%, while for the other cluster, it is 42%. The clustering remains true at 5 km from the clinics. The first cluster finds that almost half (46%) of the poorest 30% of the population live within 5km of a government dental clinic. The other cluster of States finds nearly double that proportion (86%). The results from this study indicated that access distances to government dental services differ substantially in metropolitan areas of the major Australian capital cities.

  16. Who regulates food? Australians' perceptions of responsibility for food safety.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Food scares have diminished trust in public institutions to guarantee food safety. Food governance after the food scare era is concerned with institutional independence and transparency leading to a hybrid of public and private sector management and to mechanisms for consumer involvement in food governance. This paper explores Australian consumers' perceptions of who is, and should be responsible for food safety. Forty-seven participants were interviewed as part of a larger study on trust in the food system. Participants associate food governance with government, industry, and the individual. While few participants can name the national food regulator, there is a strong belief that the government is responsible for regulating the quality and safety of food. Participants are wary of the role of the food industry in food safety, believing that profit motives will undermine effective food regulation. Personal responsibility for food safety practices was also identified. While there are fewer mechanisms for consumer involvement and transparency built into the food governance system, Australian consumers display considerable trust in government to protect food safety. There is little evidence of the politicisation of food, reflecting a level of trust in the Australian food governance system that may arise from a lack of exposure to major food scares.

  17. Research in Science Education, Volume 6. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (7th, The University of Newcastle, New South Wales, May 17-19, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddock, M. N., Ed.; Power, Colin N., Ed.

    This volume contains papers presented at the seventh Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association held at the University of Newcastle in May, 1976. Paper topics include: undergraduate research experience for future teachers, programmable calculator effects on attitude towards physics, development of science concepts…

  18. Research in Science Education, Volume 6. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (7th, The University of Newcastle, New South Wales, May 17-19, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddock, M. N., Ed.; Power, Colin N., Ed.

    This volume contains papers presented at the seventh Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association held at the University of Newcastle in May, 1976. Paper topics include: undergraduate research experience for future teachers, programmable calculator effects on attitude towards physics, development of science concepts…

  19. Developing Sustainable Language Learning Pathways: An Australian Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesterton, Paul; Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports some key findings from an external evaluation of an innovative programme for foreign and heritage languages in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW). The programme, entitled the Languages Continuity Initiative (LCI), was funded by the NSW Department of Education and Training and involved over 200 schools in its initial…

  20. Multicultural Education: The State of Play from an Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Megan; Lean, Garth; Noble, Greg

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the first comprehensive survey of public school teachers in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) around issues of multicultural and English as Second Language (ESL) education. While there is substantial literature on multicultural education--what it should and shouldn't be--there is much that is left unexplored in…

  1. Multicultural Education: The State of Play from an Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Megan; Lean, Garth; Noble, Greg

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the first comprehensive survey of public school teachers in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) around issues of multicultural and English as Second Language (ESL) education. While there is substantial literature on multicultural education--what it should and shouldn't be--there is much that is left unexplored in…

  2. Prosocial Behaviour and Political Culture among Australian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saha, Lawrence J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which forms of prosocial behaviour and values of social responsibility are related to various domains of political culture among Australian youth. Using data from a survey of 1311 senior secondary students from the ACT and South Australia, it was found that 14 per cent had participated in one or more volunteer…

  3. 76 FR 69120 - Regulatory Changes To Implement the United States/Australian Agreement for Peaceful Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... of America Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy'' (the Agreement). The Agreement prohibits the... United States of America Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, dated 2010, Australian-obligated... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  4. Is government action out-of-step with public opinion on tobacco control? Results of a New South Wales population survey.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Raoul A; Paul, Christine L; Tzelepis, Flora; Stojanovski, Elizabeth; Tang, Anita

    2008-10-01

    To assess community attitudes towards smoking bans, tobacco availability, promotion and product regulation, tobacco industry donations to political parties, and government spending on tobacco control activities. To compare public preferences on these issues with policies of the NSW and Commonwealth governments. Anonymous, computer assisted telephone interviews of adults from randomly selected households in the NSW Electronic White Pages conducted in 2004. All subjects completed a core question set and subsequently, one of three sub-sets. Overall 49.1% of eligible subjects consented. Data from two sub-samples containing 1,191 and 1,158 subjects are reported. Majority support existed for smoking bans in all six settings assessed: children's playgrounds (89%), sports stadia (77%), licensed premises (72%), outdoor dining (69%), beaches (55%) and motor vehicles carrying children (55%). Respondents nominated vastly higher tobacco control budgets than current levels of government expenditure. On a scale assessing support for tobacco control (maximum score = 13), the mean scores of both non-smokers (10.4) and smokers (8.0) were high. Of seven variables tested, only two: living with a smoker and personal smoking status were independent predictors of having a high pro-tobacco control score. There is strong community support for additional government regulation mandating smoke-free provision and other counter tobacco measures. Continued advocacy campaigns are required to align government tobacco control agenda more closely with public preferences.

  5. Inclusion of Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Government Schools in New South Wales, Australia: Development and Implementation of a Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Linda J.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Rickards, Field W.; Brown, P. Margaret

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on how the policy and continuum of services in New South Wales, Australia, for serving students who are deaf or hard of hearing have developed and the attitudes of stakeholders toward both policy and practice. It concludes by attempting to assess the potential effects on students. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  6. Population and Australian development assistance.

    PubMed

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  7. Australian Courseware in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, John G.; Gerber, Rod

    Students pursuing Australian studies should be given every possible opportunity to work with materials produced in Australia. There is a substantial and growing list of good curriculum software written within Australia and from an Australian perspective which can add interest and excitement to Australian geography classrooms. Computers can be used…

  8. Does time off work after injury vary by jurisdiction? A comparative study of eight Australian workers' compensation systems.

    PubMed

    Collie, Alex; Lane, Tyler J; Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Thompson, Jason; McLeod, Chris

    2016-05-05

    To determine whether the jurisdiction in which a work-related injury compensation claim is made is an independent predictor of duration of time off work following work injury, and if so, the magnitude of the effect. Eight Australian state and territory workers' compensation systems, providing coverage for more than 90% of the Australian labour force. Administrative claims data from these systems were provided by government regulatory authorities for the study. 95 976 Australian workers with workers' compensation claims accepted in 2010 and with at least 2 weeks of compensated time off work. Duration of time lost from work in weeks, censored at 104 weeks. After controlling for demographic, worker, injury and employer factors in a Cox regression model, significant differences in duration of time loss between state and territory of claim were observed. Compared with New South Wales, workers in Victoria, South Australia and Comcare had significantly longer durations of time off work and were more likely to be receiving income benefits at 104 weeks postinjury, while workers in Tasmania and Queensland had significantly shorter durations of time off work. The jurisdiction in which an injured worker makes a compensation claim has a significant and independent impact on duration of time loss. Further research is necessary to identify specific compensation system policies and practices that promote timely and appropriate return to work and reduce duration of time off work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Australian Curriculum Reform II: Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    It is implied by governing organizations that Australia is presently experiencing its first national curriculum reform, when as the title suggests it is the second. However, until now Australian states and territories have been responsible for the education curriculum delivered within schools. The present national curriculum reform promises one…

  10. Pathways from Casual Employment to Economic Security: The Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, John; Campbell, Iain; May, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Casual employment is extensive and has been increasing for more than two decades in Australia. The concept of casual employment used in the Australian context is unusual, but it is directly linked to benefit and rights exclusion within the regulatory framework governing employment. The expansion in casual employment has spread across all sectors,…

  11. Research Performance of Australian Universities. Policy Note. Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Go8 universities account for over two-thirds of the research undertaken at Australian universities. Go8 universities attract the highest levels of industry and competitive government grant funding for research. This paper presents an analysis of trends in research performance for Go8 and non-Go8 universities including research income as reported…

  12. Educating Refugee-Background Students in Australian Schools and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2015-01-01

    The Australian federal government recently set a challenging national aim: By 2020, 20% of higher education enrolment at the undergraduate level will include students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Although refugee-background students are often members of the targeted sub-population, their educational journeys frequently require special forms…

  13. Australian Curriculum Reform II: Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    It is implied by governing organizations that Australia is presently experiencing its first national curriculum reform, when as the title suggests it is the second. However, until now Australian states and territories have been responsible for the education curriculum delivered within schools. The present national curriculum reform promises one…

  14. Efficiency of Australian Technical and Further Education Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fieger, Peter; Villano, Renato; Cooksey, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Budgetary constraints on the public purse have led Australian Federal and State governments to focus increasingly on the efficiency of public institutions, including Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutes. In this study, we define efficiency as the relationship between financial and administrative inputs and educational outputs. We…

  15. Australian Engineering Educators' Attitudes towards Aboriginal Cultures and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfinch, Thomas; Prpic, Juliana Kaya; Jolly, Lesley; Leigh, Elyssebeth; Kennedy, Jade

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, representation of Aboriginal populations within the engineering profession is very low despite participation targets set by Government departments, professional bodies and Universities. Progressing the Aboriginal inclusion agenda within Australian Engineering Education requires a clearer understanding of engineering educators'…

  16. Where to from Here? Australian Higher Education Meets the Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    Australian public universities are hybrid public-private institutions. Though established and regulated by government, they have always enjoyed substantial academic autonomy and for most of their history raised some of their revenue privately. Both these aspects have become more marked over the last twenty years, with increased regulation of…

  17. Policy Borrowing, Policy Learning: Testing Times in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a contextualised and critical policy analysis of the Rudd government's national schooling agenda in Australia. The specific focus is on the introduction of national literacy and numeracy testing and the recent creation by the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority of the website "My School", which…

  18. Australian Indigenous Higher Education: Politics, Policy and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Katie; Wilks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The growth of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participation in Australian higher education from 1959 to the present is notable statistically, but below population parity. Distinct patterns in government policy-making and programme development, inconsistent funding and political influences, together with Indigenous representation during the…

  19. Educating Refugee-Background Students in Australian Schools and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2015-01-01

    The Australian federal government recently set a challenging national aim: By 2020, 20% of higher education enrolment at the undergraduate level will include students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Although refugee-background students are often members of the targeted sub-population, their educational journeys frequently require special forms…

  20. Australian Indigenous Higher Education: Politics, Policy and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Katie; Wilks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The growth of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participation in Australian higher education from 1959 to the present is notable statistically, but below population parity. Distinct patterns in government policy-making and programme development, inconsistent funding and political influences, together with Indigenous representation during the…

  1. Sexuality Education School Policy for Australian GLBTIQ Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany Mary; Hillier, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Education is state-run in Australia, and within each of the eight states and territories there are both government and independent schooling systems. This paper details the position of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer (GLBTIQ) students within Australian education policy documents nationally, focusing on the three largest…

  2. The Importance of Social Context for an Australian Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, David

    The study of education systems and educational programs cannot be adequate without reference to those systems' social context. This paper examines the Australian Transition Education program, enacted by the government in 1979, in light of its social context. The program's ostensible purpose was to prepare students for employment. The Liberal…

  3. Policy Borrowing, Policy Learning: Testing Times in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a contextualised and critical policy analysis of the Rudd government's national schooling agenda in Australia. The specific focus is on the introduction of national literacy and numeracy testing and the recent creation by the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority of the website "My School", which…

  4. Australian Library & Information Studies (LIS) Researchers Ranking of LIS Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kerry; Middleton, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the processes and outcomes of the ranking of LIS journal titles by Australia's LIS researchers during 2007-8, first through the Australian federal government's Research Quality Framework (RQF) process, and then by its replacement, the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative. The requirement to rank the journals'…

  5. Efficiency of Australian Technical and Further Education Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fieger, Peter; Villano, Renato; Cooksey, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Budgetary constraints on the public purse have led Australian Federal and State governments to focus increasingly on the efficiency of public institutions, including Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutes. In this study, we define efficiency as the relationship between financial and administrative inputs and educational outputs. We…

  6. Australian Library & Information Studies (LIS) Researchers Ranking of LIS Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kerry; Middleton, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the processes and outcomes of the ranking of LIS journal titles by Australia's LIS researchers during 2007-8, first through the Australian federal government's Research Quality Framework (RQF) process, and then by its replacement, the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative. The requirement to rank the journals'…

  7. Creativity and Performativity: Counterpoints in British and Australian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnard, Pamela; White, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the complex interplay of power between performativity and creativity agendas--a mutual tension that resides in British and Australian education. Accountability constraints and conflicting policy debates are problematised against the wider imperatives of similar government agendas. This "counterpoint" of freedom and…

  8. Study Protocol: establishing good relationships between patients and health care providers while providing cardiac care. Exploring how patient-clinician engagement contributes to health disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies that compare Indigenous Australian and non-Indigenous patients who experience a cardiac event or chest pain are inconclusive about the reasons for the differences in-hospital and survival rates. The advances in diagnostic accuracy, medication and specialised workforce has contributed to a lower case fatality and lengthen survival rates however this is not evident in the Indigenous Australian population. A possible driver contributing to this disparity may be the impact of patient-clinician interface during key interactions during the health care process. Methods/Design This study will apply an Indigenous framework to describe the interaction between Indigenous patients and clinicians during the continuum of cardiac health care, i.e. from acute admission, secondary and rehabilitative care. Adopting an Indigenous framework is more aligned with Indigenous realities, knowledge, intellects, histories and experiences. A triple layered designed focus group will be employed to discuss patient-clinician engagement. Focus groups will be arranged by geographic clusters i.e. metropolitan and a regional centre. Patient informants will be identified by Indigenous status (i.e. Indigenous and non-Indigenous) and the focus groups will be convened separately. The health care provider focus groups will be convened on an organisational basis i.e. state health providers and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. Yarning will be used as a research method to facilitate discussion. Yarning is in congruence with the oral traditions that are still a reality in day-to-day Indigenous lives. Discussion This study is nestled in a larger research program that explores the drivers to the disparity of care and health outcomes for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians who experience an acute cardiac admission. A focus on health status, risk factors and clinical interventions may camouflage critical issues within a patient-clinician exchange. This approach may

  9. Use of chronic disease management algorithms in Australian community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick; Jackson, David; Pilloto, Louis; Nielsen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, standardized chronic disease management algorithms are available for medical practitioners, nursing practitioners and nurses through a range of sources including prescribing software, manuals and through government and not-for-profit non-government organizations. There is currently no standardized algorithm for pharmacist intervention in the management of chronic diseases.. To investigate if a collaborative community pharmacists and doctors' model of care in chronic disease management could improve patients' outcomes through ongoing monitoring of disease biochemical markers, robust self-management skills and better medication adherence. This project was a pilot pragmatic study, measuring the effect of the intervention by comparing the baseline and the end of the study patient health outcomes, to support future definitive studies. Algorithms for selected chronic conditions were designed, based on the World Health Organisation STEPS™ process and Central Australia Rural Practitioners' Association Standard Treatment Manual. They were evaluated in community pharmacies in 8 inland Australian small towns, mostly having only one pharmacy in order to avoid competition issues. The algorithms were reviewed by Murrumbidgee Medicare Local Ltd, New South Wales, Australia, Quality use of Medicines committee. They constitute a pharmacist-driven, doctor/pharmacist collaboration primary care model. The Pharmacy owners volunteered to take part in the study and patients were purposefully recruited by in-store invitation. Six out of 9 sites' pharmacists (67%) were fully capable of delivering the algorithm (each site had 3 pharmacists), one site (11%) with 2 pharmacists, found it too difficult and withdrew from the study, and 2 sites (22%, with one pharmacist at each site) stated that they were personally capable of delivering the algorithm but unable to do so due to workflow demands. This primary care model can form the basis of workable collaboration between doctors

  10. A new era in Australian migration policy.

    PubMed

    Birrell, R

    1984-01-01

    The discussion traces the evolution of Australian migration policy since 1975, arguing that the primary factor shaping policy has been interparty competition for influence within Australia's ethnic communities. Since late 1975 when the Liberal/National Country Party (LibNCP) Conservative Government returned to power, Australian immigration policy has moved in different directions from the previous post World War II experience. The demographic implications have been profound. In 1975 the LibNCP government returned to office committed to restoring an active migration program. By 1980-81 it had largely succeeded in this numerical goal. Australia's migration growth rate at .82% of the total population exceeded almost all other Western society. What was new, in comparison to previous policy, was the migrant selection system and source countries. By the time the government lost office in March 1983, family reunion had become the major migration program souce and Asia was rapidly becoming the dominant place of migrant origin. This emphasis on family reunion was not intended by government immigration planners but was a product of domestic political change and resultant new influences over migration policy. As to the increasing Asian component, it has mainly been an unintended consequence of the expansion in the family reunion program. Although the liberalization of family reunion eligibility has largely been designed to appease the major Southern European ethnic communities, few applications have been forthcoming from these countries. Asian applicants have been numerous. Labor government policy since March 1983 has shown remarkable continuity with that of the LibNCP both in its selection system and in the size of the migrant intake. The motivation for the commitment to immigration derived first from longstanding traditions within the Australian business community that Australia's economic growth and dynamism depended on rapid population growth. More specifically there

  11. Secrets and Lies: Sex Education and Gendered Memories of Childhood's End in an Australian Provincial City, 1930s-1950s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Josephine

    2006-01-01

    There are few historical studies about the sex education of Australian youth. Drawing on a range of sources, including the oral histories of 40 women and men who attended two single-sex, selective high schools in a provincial Australian city (Newcastle, New South Wales) in the 1930s-1950s, this paper explores the adolescent experience of sex…

  12. Secrets and Lies: Sex Education and Gendered Memories of Childhood's End in an Australian Provincial City, 1930s-1950s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Josephine

    2006-01-01

    There are few historical studies about the sex education of Australian youth. Drawing on a range of sources, including the oral histories of 40 women and men who attended two single-sex, selective high schools in a provincial Australian city (Newcastle, New South Wales) in the 1930s-1950s, this paper explores the adolescent experience of sex…

  13. Military Government

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-07-01

    CGSC MG MILITARY GOVERNMENT LIBHARY ARI\\’IY WAR COLLEGE CJ\\RLISLE BARRACKS, PAa This text is approved for resident and extension-course...and functions · of ’ military government . It conforms ·substantially to the subject matter , of Field Manual 27-5, Civil Affairs/ Military Government ...Teaching experience at the Command and General Staff College has ···--·demonstrated the need for a military government text which brings to- gether

  14. Teacher Unionism in the 1980s: Four Perspectives. Australian Education Review No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaull, Andrew; And Others

    This monograph by four authors examines the structure and role of teacher unions in the three Australian states of New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia, and analyzes the rapidly changing shape of teacher unionism at the federal level. After an introduction by Andrew Spaull, Robert White, in chapter 2, examines developments within the…

  15. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue will focus on Number in the Number and Algebra strand. In this article Derek Hurrell provides a few tried and proven activities to develop place value understanding. These activities are provided for…

  16. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  17. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek; O'Neil, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue the authors focus, on Geometry in the Measurement and Geometry strand with strong links for an integrated focus on the Statistics and Probability strand. The small unit of work on the sorting and…

  18. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes…

  19. Trialling the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashman, Di

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, St. Leonards Primary School in Tasmania, along with other selected schools throughout Australia, trialled the draft Australian Curriculum: Mathematics. Mathematics had been a whole school focus at St. Leonards Primary School for several years, and the school found that the opportunity to be part of the trial strongly connected with their…

  20. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes…

  1. Numeracy and Australian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen; Leder, Gilah

    2016-01-01

    Australian teachers, recruited via Facebook, completed an online survey about aspects of numeracy. The survey was designed to explore views on numeracy and capacity to respond to numeracy tasks. In this paper, we focus primarily on responses to two numeracy tasks--one numerical, the other requiring critical evaluation. On the first item, 40%…

  2. Music in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle, Graham

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a survey of music in Australian schools. The survey included all types of schools, and includes facilities and equipment for musical education, and the use made of them. The courses of study, organization of musical activities, finance, supervision, teacher training, and…

  3. Fraud and Australian Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    A series of highly publicized cases of alleged fraud in the Australian academic community are described. Each case reveals an apparent failure of peer review. The right to pursue investigations and make comments that may offend powerful figures within the scholarly community is precarious. (MLW)

  4. Tobacco interventions for Indigenous Australians: a review of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Power, Jennifer; Grealy, Claire; Rintoul, Duncan

    2009-12-01

    This paper reviewed effective interventions for increasing smoking cessation among Indigenous Australians and identified gaps in evidence regarding smoking cessation interventions for Indigenous Australians. A systematic review of academic literature and reports from government and non-government agencies published between 2001 and 2007 was conducted in early 2008. Initial findings from the review were tested using 16 in-depth interviews and two half-day workshops with practitioners and researchers working in the area of Indigenous health. Seven Australian programs for which there had been well-designed, rigorous evaluations were identified. A further four programs were identified that had limited evaluation information available. These studies provide evidence that face-to-face counselling or quit support used in conjunction with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is likely to increase quit rates among Indigenous people. Training Aboriginal Health Workers to provide brief smoking cessation intervention with patients is also likely to contribute to increased quit rates. Evidence regarding other interventions is more limited. Evidence indicates that smoking cessation strategies targeted at individuals, such as NRT and/ or counselling, may be effective smoking cessation aids for Indigenous Australians. However, there is no evidence regarding interventions likely to be effective in encouraging more Indigenous Australians to access these quit support strategies.

  5. Can a regional government's social inclusion initiative contribute to the quest for health equity?

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Newman, Lareen; Biedrzycki, Katherine; Patterson, Jan

    2010-12-01

    Despite decades of concern about reducing health inequity, the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) painted a picture of persistent and, in some cases, increasing health inequity. It also made a call for increased evaluation of interventions that might reduce inequities. This paper describes such an intervention-the Social Inclusion Initiative (SII) of the South Australian Government-that was documented for the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network of the CSDH. This initiative is designed to increase social inclusion by addressing key determinants of health inequity-in the study period these were education, homelessness and drug use. Our paper examines evidence from a rapid appraisal to determine whether a social inclusion initiative is a useful aspect of government action to reduce health inequity. It describes achievements in each specific area and the ways they can be expected to affect health equity. Our study highlighted four factors central to the successes achieved by the SII. These were the independent authority and influence of the leadership of the SII, the whole of government approach supported by an overarching strategic plan which sets clear goals for government and the clear and unambiguous support from the highest level of government. We conclude that a social inclusion approach can be valuable in the quest to reduce inequities and that further research on innovative social policy approaches is required to examine their likely impact on health equity.

  6. A short history of the Australian Society of Soil Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennison, Linda

    2013-04-01

    In 1955 a resolution, "that the Australian Society of Soil Science be inaugurated as from this meeting" was recorded in Melbourne Australia. The following year in Queensland, the first official meeting of the Society took place with a Federal Executive and Presidents from the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australian and Victorian branches forming the Federal Council. In later years the executive expanded with the addition of the Western Australia branch in 1957, the Riverina Branch in 1962 and most recently the Tasmania Branch in 2008. The objects of the Society were 1) the advancement of soil science and studies therein with particular reference to Australia and 2) to provide a link between soil scientists and kindred bodies within Australia and between them and other similar organisations in other countries. Membership was restricted to persons engaged in the scientific study of the soil and has grown steadily from to 147 members in 1957 to 875 members in 2012. The first issue of the Society newsletter, Soils News, was published in January 1957 and continued to be published twice yearly until 1996. A name change to Profile and an increase to quarterly publication occurred in 1997; circulation remained restricted to members. The Publications Committee in 1968 determined the Publication Series would be the medium for occasional technical papers, reviews and reports but not research papers and in 1962 the Australian Journal of Soil Research was established by CSIRO in response to continued representations from the Society. By 1960 a draft constitution was circulated to, and adopted by members. The first honorary life membership of the Society was awarded to Dr. J A Prescott. Honorary memberships are still awarded for service to the Society and to soil science and are capped at 25. In 1964 the ISSS awarded honorary membership to Dr. Prescott. Now known as IUSS Honorary members other Australians recognised have been EG Hallsworth

  7. The Impact of Governance on the Performance of the Higher Education Sector in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Silva Lokuwaduge, Chitra; Armstrong, Anona

    2015-01-01

    Australian government concern for improved governance in the higher education sector over recent years has driven the implementation of governance protocols. However, there has been little evidence of any evaluation of the impact of the governance structures on the performance of universities. This paper presents an analysis of the impact of the…

  8. The Impact of Governance on the Performance of the Higher Education Sector in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Silva Lokuwaduge, Chitra; Armstrong, Anona

    2015-01-01

    Australian government concern for improved governance in the higher education sector over recent years has driven the implementation of governance protocols. However, there has been little evidence of any evaluation of the impact of the governance structures on the performance of universities. This paper presents an analysis of the impact of the…

  9. Nurse practitioner roles in Australian healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Grainne; Plummer, Virginia; Boyd, Leanne

    2013-05-01

    There is evidence of support for nurse practitioner (NP) roles in national and international literature. However, despite this, and numerous Australian government feasibility and evaluation studies, barriers to implementing NP roles in mainstream health care and developing them to their full potential remain. A study was undertaken to explore nurse practitioners', managers' and nurse policymakers' perceptions of the roles in general, and this article reports on the findings from the initial survey phase. The article also discusses barriers to full integration and development of NPs.

  10. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2015-03-31

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2013, 4,897 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC value 0.06-0.125 mg/L) was found nationally in 8.8% of isolates, double that reported in 2012 (4.4%). The highest proportions were reported from New South Wales and Victoria (both states reporting 11.8%), with a high proportion of strains also reported from Tasmania but a low number of isolates were tested. In addition, there was a multi-drug-resistant strain of N. gonorrhoeae isolated from a traveller to Australia, with a ceftraixone MIC value of 0.5 mgL-the highest ever reported in Australia. These antimicrobial resistance data from Australia in 2013 are cause for considerable concern. With the exception of remote Northern Territory where penicillin resistance rates remain low (1.3%) the proportion of strains resistant to penicillin remained high in all jurisdictions ranging from 15.6% in the Australian Capital Territory to 44.1% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance ranged from 16% in the Australian Capital Territory to 46% in Victoria. Azithromycin susceptibility testing was performed in all jurisdictions and resistance ranged from 0.3% in the Northern Territory to 5.7% in Queensland. High level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value was > 256 mg/L) was reported for the first time in Australia, in 4 strains: 2 each from Queensland and Victoria. Azithromycin resistant gonococci were not detected in the Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania or from the remote Northern Territory. Nationally, all isolates remained susceptible to spectinomycin.

  11. Benchmarking management practices in Australian public healthcare.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Green, Roy; Agarwal, Neeru; Randhawa, Krithika

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the quality of management practices of public hospitals in the Australian healthcare system, specifically those in the state-managed health systems of Queensland and New South Wales (NSW). Further, the authors assess the management practices of Queensland and NSW public hospitals jointly and globally benchmark against those in the health systems of seven other countries, namely, USA, UK, Sweden, France, Germany, Italy and Canada. In this study, the authors adapt the unique and globally deployed Bloom et al. (2009) survey instrument that uses a "double blind, double scored" methodology and an interview-based scoring grid to measure and internationally benchmark the management practices in Queensland and NSW public hospitals based on 21 management dimensions across four broad areas of management - operations, performance monitoring, targets and people management. The findings reveal the areas of strength and potential areas of improvement in the Queensland and NSW Health hospital management practices when compared with public hospitals in seven countries, namely, USA, UK, Sweden, France, Germany, Italy and Canada. Together, Queensland and NSW Health hospitals perform best in operations management followed by performance monitoring. While target management presents scope for improvement, people management is the sphere where these Australian hospitals lag the most. This paper is of interest to both hospital administrators and health care policy-makers aiming to lift management quality at the hospital level as well as at the institutional level, as a vehicle to consistently deliver sustainable high-quality health services. This study provides the first internationally comparable robust measure of management capability in Australian public hospitals, where hospitals are run independently by the state-run healthcare systems. Additionally, this research study contributes to the empirical evidence base on the quality of

  12. Fires in the Australian Capital Territory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The height and extent of billowing smoke plumes from bushfires near Canberra, the Australian capital, are illustrated by these views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were acquired on January 18, 2003. Never before had fires of this magnitude come so close to Australia's capital. Four people lost their lives and over 500 homes were destroyed, mostly in the southwestern suburbs. Australia's famous Mount Stromlo Observatory, located immediately west of the city, was also incinerated by the fires.

    The top panel portrays a natural-color view from MISR's nadir camera, in which the eastern portion of the Australian Capital Territory is located south of a pale, ephemeral lake in the upper left-hand corner (Lake George). Several smoke plumes originate within the eastern part of the Australian Capital Territory, while the major plumes originate to the west of the image area. The Australian Capital Territory and much of New South Wales are completely obscured by the smoke, which is driven by fierce westerly winds and extends eastward to the coast and over the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower panel provides a stereoscopically retrieved height field of the clouds and smoke plumes. The greenish areas indicate where smoke plumes extend several kilometers above a bank of patchy stratus clouds below. A few high clouds appear near the bottom of the image. Wind retrievals were excluded from this image in order to generate a smooth and continuous field. Although relative height variations are well-represented here, the inclusion of wind retrievals for this scene reduces the actual cloud height results by 1 to 2 kilometers. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown as dark gray.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuouslyand every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra

  13. Learning disabilities in Australian universities: hidden, ignored, and unwelcome.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Janette

    2007-01-01

    Although more students with learning disabilities (LD) are enrolling in Australian universities, their learning needs are not well understood. This article reports on the experiences of students with LD who are encouraged to enter the academy by Australian university policies and government legislation but, once there, find that the promise of equal opportunity is often not kept. This article provides some insights into how university lecturers' normative expectations and practices can affect students' everyday experiences. Interviews with students with LD showed that they do not often receive support services, their "stories" are not believed, and they often feel that they do not "belong".

  14. The Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri: a personal story.

    PubMed

    Joss, Jean M P

    2011-08-01

    The following is a brief description of how lungfish research at Macquarie University began, of the period in which it flourished, and, most recently, of the winding down of the University's involvement with this research. During this latter period, the Australian lungfish in the wild were threatened by the construction of a megadam in their very limited habitat. Fortunately, this was averted in December 2009, after 3 years of lobbying the Federal Government. They now await another "Aussie" to make them accessible for further research by Australian and international researchers. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Can human rights discourse improve the health of Indigenous Australians?

    PubMed

    Gray, Natalie; Bailie, Ross

    2006-10-01

    Recognition of the poor health outcomes of Indigenous Australians has led to an interest in using human rights discourse as a framework for arguing that the Australian Government has an international obligation to improve Indigenous health. This paper explores two potential directions for human rights discourse in this context. The first is the development and elaboration of an asserted 'human right to health'. The second focuses on developing an understanding of the interactions between health and human rights, particularly the underlying social determinants of health, and thereby creating an advocacy framework that could be used to promote the inclusion of human rights considerations into the policy-making agenda. This paper argues that despite the symbolic force of human rights discourse, its capacity to improve the health of Indigenous Australians through international law is limited. This is so irrespective of whether recourse is made to a legal or moral imperative. The 'human right to health' is limited primarily by several barriers to its implementation, some of which are perpetuated by the current Australian Government itself. Although the potential advocacy capacity of human rights discourse is similarly limited by the hostility of the Government towards the notion of incorporating human rights considerations into its public policy decision making, it does provide a sustainable intellectual framework in which to consider the social and structural determinants of health and maintain these issues on the political agenda.

  16. The Australian Geodetic Observing Program. Current Status and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, G.; Dawson, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Australian government has through programs like AuScope, the Asia Pacific Reference Frame (APREF), and the Pacific Sea Level Monitoring (PSLM) Project made a significant contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Program. In addition to supporting the national research priorities, this contribution is justified by Australia's growing economic dependence on precise positioning to underpin efficient transportation, geospatial data management, and industrial automation (e.g., robotic mining and precision agriculture) and the consequent need for the government to guarantee provision of precise positioning products to the Australian community. It is also well recognised within Australia that there is an opportunity to exploit our near unique position as being one of the few regions in the world to see all new and emerging satellite navigation systems including Galileo (Europe), GPS III (USA), GLONASS (Russia), Beidou (China), QZSS (Japan) and IRNSS (India). It is in this context that the Australian geodetic program will build on earlier efforts and further develop its key geodetic capabilities. This will include the creation of an independent GNSS analysis capability that will enable Australia to contribute to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and an upgrade of key geodetic infrastructure including the national VLBI and GNSS arrays. This presentation will overview the significant geodetic activities undertaken by the Australian government and highlight its future plans.

  17. Australian Continental Shelf as an Inverse Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjabin, T.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Hetzel, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Transport of inshore waters and suspended material off the continental shelf by Dense Shelf Water Cascades (DSWC) has important ecological and biogeochemical implications in Australian waters. Because of high rates of evaporation, denser saline water along the sea bed occurs in a majority of the shallow coastal regions around Australia, setting up horizontal density gradients that can form DSWC. This study uses data available from the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), which is operated by the Australian National Facility for Ocean Gliders (ANFOG) located at the University of Western Australia, to measure cross-shelf density profiles under varying conditions around the entire continent. Analysis of 143 transects of 97 sets of spatial and temporal resolution data from the ocean gliders under varying wind and tide conditions for seven contrasting regions surrounding Australia has allowed us to confirm that DSWC occurs on a regular basis during autumn and winter seasons. Results indicate that cascades occur during these seasons mainly due to cooling of the coastal water which already have higher salinity due to evaporation during the summer months. The cascades were present under different wind and tidal energy conditions and the controlling parameter for cascade formation is the cross-shelf density gradient. The cross-shelf density gradient in North-West Australia is maximum in July (14.23x10-6 kgm-4); whereas it is a maximum in June in South Australia (18.78x10-6 kgm-4) and in May in South-West Australia (25.884x10-6 kgm-4). Greater knowledge of the occurrence of DSWC will enhance understanding of the offshore transport of larvae, nutrients, salt, heat, carbon, low-oxygen water, sediment, and pollutants in Australian waters.

  18. Are Australian Universities Promoting Learning and Teaching Activity Effectively? An Assessment of the Effects on Science and Engineering Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cretchley, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government and Australian universities have embarked on a bid to raise the profile of learning and teaching (L&T) in universities. Current strategies include increased funding of competitive grants for L&T projects, a wider range of teaching awards and fellowships and a controversial new national competitive Learning…

  19. Are Australian Universities Promoting Learning and Teaching Activity Effectively? An Assessment of the Effects on Science and Engineering Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cretchley, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government and Australian universities have embarked on a bid to raise the profile of learning and teaching (L&T) in universities. Current strategies include increased funding of competitive grants for L&T projects, a wider range of teaching awards and fellowships and a controversial new national competitive Learning…

  20. Using Entrepreneurial Activities as a Means of Survival: Investigating the Processes Used by Australian Universities to Diversify their Revenue Streams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zilwa, Deanna

    2005-01-01

    This study provides a profile of the actions taken by Australian universities to diversify their revenue streams in order to generate more independent non-government) income. Marginson's taxonomy of Australian universities is used to catergorise universities and contrast levels of independent income (Marginson and Considine 2000). This study finds…