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Sample records for south australian government

  1. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper…

  2. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Design Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. Setting 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectancy estimation including agreement analysis of life expectancy estimates and comparison of estimate SEs. Results Chiang II and Silcocks methods produced almost identical life expectancy estimates across a large range of population sizes but calculation failures and excessively large SEs limited their use in small populations. A population of 25 000 or greater was required to estimate life expectancy with SE of 1 year or less using adjusted Chiang II (a composite of Chiang II and Silcocks methods). Data aggregation offered some remedy for extending the use of adjusted Chiang II in small populations but reduced estimate currency. A recently developed Bayesian random effects model utilising the correlation in mortality rates between genders, age groups and geographical areas markedly improved the precision of life expectancy estimates in small populations. Conclusions We propose a hybrid approach for the calculation of life expectancy using the Bayesian random effects model in populations of 25 000 or lower permitting the precise derivation of life expectancy in small populations. In populations above 25 000, we propose the use of adjusted Chiang II to guard against violations of spatial correlation, to benefit from a widely accepted method that is simpler to communicate to local health authorities and where its slight inferior performance compared with the Bayesian approach is of minor practical significance. PMID:24302503

  3. Australian Lesbian Teachers--A Reflection of Homophobic Harassment of High School Teachers in New South Wales Government Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferfolja, Tania

    1998-01-01

    Examines the homophobic harassment of lesbian teachers working in government high schools in Sydney (Australia). The experiences of six lesbian teachers show that harassment based on sexual orientation is often an invisible issue in schools, as is homosexuality in general. Recommendations are made for teaching about homosexual tolerance. (SLD)

  4. Geography: The South Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Malcolm; Shepherd, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Geography as a discipline has a long and healthy history in South Australia. Due to the passion of individual educators and the activities of the Geography Teachers Association of South Australia (GTASA) since its foundation in 1936, South Australia has experienced ongoing curriculum development and indeed innovation in the geographical studies in…

  5. Beyond Professionalisation: Enhancing the Governance Culture for Australian University Governing Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jeanette

    2006-01-01

    This article examines emerging norms of good practice for Australian university governing boards and issues that university governing boards could address to develop effective governance cultures. It firstly considers the ways in which support for many Australian university governing boards has become professionalised over the past decade. At the…

  6. Australian Early Childhood Educators: From Government Policy to University Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…

  7. The Role of Further Government Intervention in Australian International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Roger; Meek, V. Lynn; Wood, Fiona Q.

    2007-01-01

    Trade in Australian education services has expanded rapidly over recent years. The sector is the third largest exporter of Australian services. In 2001-2002, exports of education were about $A 4.2 billion. Government assistance to the sector includes export market development, regulation of education standards, and funding education activities;…

  8. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  9. Peer and Teacher Bullying/Victimization of South Australian Secondary School Students: Prevalence and Psychosocial Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfabbro, Paul; Winefield, Tony; Trainor, Sarah; Dollard, Maureen; Anderson, Sarah; Metzer, Jacques; Hammarstrom, Anne

    2006-01-01

    ;This study examined the nature and prevalence of bullying/victimization by peers and teachers reported by 1,284 students (mean age = 15.2 years) drawn from a representative sample of 25 South Australian government and private schools. Students completed a self-report survey containing questions relating to teacher and peer-related bullying,…

  10. The Australian "Landcare" Movement: Towards "Post-Productivist" Rural Governance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Geoff A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses whether the Australian Landcare movement complies with notions of "post-productivist rural governance." The paper argues that Landcare has been a vast improvement on previous approaches to the management of the countryside in Australia, and that it has managed to mobilise a large cross-section of stakeholders.…

  11. Would the Formation of a Combat Maneuver Corps Support the Transformation of the Australian Army as Envisaged in the Hardened and Networked Army Concept?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-16

    1978. Australian Armour. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: The Australian War Memorial and the Australian Government Publishing Service. Jones ... Ian . 1987. The Australian Light Horse. Sydney, New South Wales: Time Life Books. Krause, Michael, Lieutenant Colonel. 2004. Lest We Forget

  12. Fragmentation in Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State policy on mental health and older people: A governmentality analysis.

    PubMed

    Oster, Candice; Henderson, Julie; Lawn, Sharon; Reed, Richard; Dawson, Suzanne; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Fuller, Jeffrey

    2016-05-04

    Mental health care for older people is a significant and growing issue in Australia and internationally. This article describes how older people's mental health is governed through policy discourse by examining Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State government policy documents, and commentaries from professional groups, advocacy groups and non-governmental organisations. Documents published between 2009 and 2014 were analysed using a governmentality approach, informed by Foucault. Discourses of 'risk', 'ageing as decline/dependence' and 'healthy ageing' were identified. Through these discourses, different neo-liberal governmental strategies are applied to 'target' groups according to varying risk judgements. Three policy approaches were identified where older people are (1) absent from policy, (2) governed as responsible, active citizens or (3) governed as passive recipients of health care. This fragmented policy response to older people's mental health reflects fragmentation in the Australian policy environment. It constructs an ambiguous place for older people within neo-liberal governmental rationality, with significant effects on the health system, older people and their carers.

  13. Fragmentation in Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State policy on mental health and older people: A governmentality analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Candice; Henderson, Julie; Lawn, Sharon; Reed, Richard; Dawson, Suzanne; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Fuller, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Mental health care for older people is a significant and growing issue in Australia and internationally. This article describes how older people’s mental health is governed through policy discourse by examining Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State government policy documents, and commentaries from professional groups, advocacy groups and non-governmental organisations. Documents published between 2009 and 2014 were analysed using a governmentality approach, informed by Foucault. Discourses of ‘risk’, ‘ageing as decline/dependence’ and ‘healthy ageing’ were identified. Through these discourses, different neo-liberal governmental strategies are applied to ‘target’ groups according to varying risk judgements. Three policy approaches were identified where older people are (1) absent from policy, (2) governed as responsible, active citizens or (3) governed as passive recipients of health care. This fragmented policy response to older people’s mental health reflects fragmentation in the Australian policy environment. It constructs an ambiguous place for older people within neo-liberal governmental rationality, with significant effects on the health system, older people and their carers. PMID:27147440

  14. Australian and South Pacific External Studies Association: Odlaa's Regional Predecessor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bewley, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The Australian and South Pacific External Studies Association (ASPESA)-- the predecessor of the Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, Inc. (ODLAA)--was founded in 1973. From the outset, ASPESA adopted a broader-than-Australia focus for open and distance learning that included New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the member countries…

  15. The Issue of Teacher Accountability: A South Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author critiques the notion of accountability in teachers' work. It serves to place in context the rationale and introduction of accountability mechanisms, such as the performance management policy, as implemented in South Australian public education. Further, it serves to illustrate what MacPherson (1998, p. 4) describes as…

  16. Increased Government Intervention versus Increased Institutional Autonomy: The Recent Case of Australian Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant

    A new theme in the old tension between centralization and decentralization in the governance and administration of Australian higher education is explored. The argument is that the various major attempts to restructure Australian education systems both in centralizing and decentralizing forces have gained new strength, and that the recent stated…

  17. Non-Government Distance Education Funding: The Need for Equity in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Terry

    2012-01-01

    This reflection outlines the problems associated with the Australian Government's recurrent funding policy for non-government distance education. It demonstrates the policy's inconsistencies with stated government educational policy and with commonly held expectations of fairness in a democratic society. A comparison of the current funding of…

  18. Government-Funded Program Completions 2014. Preliminary. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides data on Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) programs completed from 2010 to 2014 in Australia's government-funded vocational education and training (VET) system (broadly defined as all activity delivered by government providers and government-funded activity delivered by community education and other registered…

  19. Choosers and Losers: The Impact of Government Subsidies on Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Louise; Ryan, Chris

    2010-01-01

    For over three decades, government subsidies have been a major source of funds for private schools in Australia. Private schools now enrol more than one-third of all students. Analysing administrative and participation data, we find that Australian private schools have used government subsidies to increase the quality of their services (that is,…

  20. Seasonality of gestational diabetes mellitus: a South Australian population study

    PubMed Central

    Verburg, Petra E; Tucker, Graeme; Scheil, Wendy; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Dekker, Gus A; Roberts, Claire T

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether there is a seasonal variation in the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Research design and methods This retrospective cohort study of 60 306 eligible South Australian live-born singletons during 2007–2011 recorded in the South Australian Perinatal Statistics Collection (SAPSC) examined the incidence of GDM in relation to estimated date of conception (eDoC). Fourier series analysis was used to model seasonal trends. Results During the study period, 3632 (6.0%) women were diagnosed with GDM. Seasonal modeling showed a strong relation between GDM and eDoC (p<0.001). Unadjusted and adjusted models (adjusted for maternal age, body mass index (BMI), parity, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and chronic hypertension) demonstrated the presence of a peak incidence occurring among pregnancies with eDoC in winter (June/July/August), with a trough for eDoc in summer (December/January/February). As this was a retrospective study, we could only use variables that had been collected as part of the routine registration system, the SAPSC. Conclusions This study is the first population-based study to demonstrate a seasonal variation for GDM. Several maternal lifestyle and psychosocial factors associated with seasonality and GDM may be influential in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of GDM. Ambient temperature, physical activity, nutrient intake, and vitamin D levels may affect maternal physiology, and fetal and placental development at the cellular level and contribute to the development of GDM. The mechanisms underlying these possible associations are not fully understood and warrant further investigation. PMID:27843556

  1. Australian Higher Education: Regional Universities under a Coalition Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Projected student enrolment growth places the Australian higher education system on the precipice of significant change, leading to philosophical debates about how the system should respond. One suggested policy change is that resources be redirected from non-research intensive regional universities to other providers. The Liberal Party is the…

  2. Australian Public Universities: Are They Practising a Corporate Approach to Governance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and a qualitative research method to examine the extent to which the corporate approach is practised in Australian public universities. The findings reveal that in meeting the needs of multiple stakeholders, universities are faced with a number of structural, legalistic, and…

  3. Structure and Function of South-east Australian Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. S.; Williams, R. J.; Jones, A. R.; Yassini, I.; Gibbs, P. J.; Coates, B.; West, R. J.; Scanes, P. R.; Hudson, J. P.; Nichol, S.

    2001-09-01

    An attempt is made to synthesize the geological properties, water quality attributes and aspects of the ecology of south-east Australian estuaries so as to provide a framework for addressing coastal management issues. The approach is based on the underlying causal factors of geology and morphology and more immediate environmental factors (e.g. salinity and sediments) which are associated with ecological distributions, species richness and fisheries catch. This ' broad brush ' approach seeks to maximize reality and generality, albeit at the expense of precision and local variability in individual circumstances. It disregards small-scale ecological patterns as noise. Unlike in the Northern Hemisphere, conditions in temperate Australia are characterized by irregular flood and fire regimes that strongly influence estuary hydrology and nutrient inputs. Three main types of estuary (tide-dominated, wave-dominated and intermittently closed) are recognized based on geological criteria and having particular entrance conditions that control tidal exchange. Four zones (marine flood-tidal delta, central mud basin, fluvial delta and riverine channel/alluvial plain) are also recognized common to each type of estuary. These zones correspond to mappable sedimentary environments in all estuaries and have characteristic water quality, nutrient cycling/primary productivity signatures and ecosystems. The ecology of a zone is modified by (a) estuary type which determines the salinity regime; (b) stage of sediment filling (evolutionary maturity) which controls the spatial distribution/size of the zones; and (c) impacts of various forms of development. By using the zones/habitats as a common currency among all estuaries, it is possible to link ecological aspects such as species richness and commercial fisheries production so as to compare different estuaries or within-estuary zones.

  4. Ethics creep or governance creep? Challenges for Australian Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECS).

    PubMed

    Gorman, Susanna M

    2011-09-01

    Australian Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) have to contend with ever-increasing workloads and responsibilities which go well beyond questions of mere ethics. In this article, I shall examine how the roles of HRECs have changed, and show how this is reflected in the iterations of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research 2007 (NS). In particular I suggest that the focus of the National Statement has shifted to concentrate on matters of research governance at the expense of research ethics, compounded by its linkage to the Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research (2007) in its most recent iteration. I shall explore some of the challenges this poses for HRECs and institutions and the risks it poses to ensuring that Australian researchers receive clear ethical guidance and review.

  5. Laptop Classes in Some Australian Government Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluck, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Australia was once a world leader for laptop adoption in schools. Now overtaken by extensive roll-outs of laptops in Maine and Uruguay, this paper seeks to explain why this lead was lost. Six case studies of government primary schools were undertaken to gather data about current initiatives. Comparative analysis shows how the potential of…

  6. Peer and teacher bullying/victimization of South Australian secondary school students: prevalence and psychosocial profiles.

    PubMed

    Delfabbro, Paul; Winefield, Tony; Trainor, Sarah; Dollard, Maureen; Anderson, Sarah; Metzer, Jacques; Hammarstrom, Anne

    2006-03-01

    This study examined the nature and prevalence of bullying/victimization by peers and teachers reported by 1,284 students (mean age = 15.2 years) drawn from a representative sample of 25 South Australian government and private schools. Students completed a self-report survey containing questions relating to teacher and peer-related bullying, measures of psychosocial adjustment, and personality. The results showed that students could be clearly differentiated according to the type of victimization they had experienced. Students reporting peer victimization typically showed high levels of social alienation, poorer psychological functioning, and poorer self-esteem and self-image. By contrast, victims of teacher victimization were more likely to be rated as less able academically, had less intention to complete school and were more likely to be engaged in high-risk behaviours such as gambling, drug use and under-age drinking. Most bullying was found to occur at school rather than outside school and involved verbal aggression rather than physical harm. Boys were significantly more likely to be bullied than girls, with the highest rates being observed amongst boys attending single-sex government schools. Girls were more likely to be subject to bullying if they attended coeducational private schools. The implications of this work for enhancing school-retention rates and addressing psychological distress amongst adolescent students are discussed.

  7. Planning for Learning: An Exploration of Reception Teachers' Attitudes and Practices around the South Australian School Entry Assessment Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lees, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    The South Australian Education Department introduced the School Entry Assessment (SEA) Policy in 2001 to help teachers assess young learners and plan relevant learning events, to help collect information about South Australian education from Pre-School to Year 3, and to facilitate collaboration within and between educational and social…

  8. South Australian Science Teachers Association Conference and Science Fair, Salisbury Teachers College, July 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    The major papers presented at the 1971 conference of the South Australian Science Teachers Association are included in this pamphlet. Scientists from industry, research institutions, and the police forensic laboratory, and practicing teachers presented papers which included descriptions of modern scientific techniques, discussions of the role of…

  9. Career Maturity of Australian and South African High School Students: Developmental and Contextual Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Watson, Mark B.; Creed, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigates the career maturity of 1090 high school students in Years 8 to 12 in Australia (n = 656) and South Africa (n = 434). Scores on the Australian version of the "Career Development Inventory" were analysed. While a developmental explanation for career maturity was supported, gender differences between countries…

  10. Performance Management as a Means of Teacher Evaluation: A South Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of performance management in South Australian public schools raises a number of issues regarding the structure, purpose and control of the process itself and the consequences of teacher evaluation. Performance management has the potential to shape teaching and the culture of schools according to what it values and what it ignores.…

  11. The Role of Democratic Governing Bodies in South African Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jenni

    2002-01-01

    School governance reform in post-apartheid South Africa aimed to democratize schooling while accommodating diverse school histories of underdevelopment or self-management. Analysis of relevant legislation shows the reform was structured to allow representative democracy and partnerships. But two recent studies suggest that governance reforms have…

  12. Managerialism and Higher Education Governance: Implications for South African Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, F.

    2006-01-01

    This article identifies some of the implications of corporate forms of higher education governance for the management of South African universities. It explores corporate higher educational governance with reference to institutional autonomy incorporating academic freedom. It is the contention of this article that the primary driver of higher…

  13. [Supply of health care in the Australian bush: human resources and government policy].

    PubMed

    Stuer, Anny

    2003-01-01

    The Australian bush--the heart of Australian folklore and a fascinating attraction for tourists, whether from within Australia or other countries--does not enjoy the same attraction for professionals across a range of industries including health, where there is a chronic shortage of human resources. Whilst data vary considerably between regions, in many cases, Australians from rural and remote regions have a lower health status than the overall population. This is particularly true of the population of Indigenous origin. There are about 250 medical practitioners for 100,000 people in Australia. This number varies between about 300 in the capital cities and just over 100 in the remote areas, the latter being mostly general practitioners as there are hardly any hospitals and specialists in those remote areas. The data change across professions--for example the number of nurses is about the same in capital cities and in remote areas: about 1000 full time equivalent for 100,000 people. They change too when we consider rural regions that are less or not isolated: in some instances, these are less supplied than remote areas, where access to care however remains more critical because of distance. The demographic profile of the professions examined in this paper also vary between regions, giving more urgency to workforce planning issues. The Australian government has embarked on the delivery of a major rural health strategy aimed at increasing access to health care in the rural and remote regions--through the provision of more and better services (specialist services; multipurpose centres); attracting more health professionals (scholarships for health students; setting up of rural universities); and retaining and supporting those professionals in rural and remote areas (on-going training; support programs for families and overseas trained doctors; practice management and financial incentives).

  14. The Computerized Medical Record as a Tool for Clinical Governance in Australian Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Christine; Hall, Sally; Travaglia, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background Computerized medical records (CMR) are used in most Australian general practices. Although CMRs have the capacity to amalgamate and provide data to the clinician about their standard of care, there is little research on the way in which they may be used to support clinical governance: the process of ensuring quality and accountability that incorporates the obligation that patients are treated according to best evidence. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the capability, capacity, and acceptability of CMRs to support clinical governance. Methods We conducted a realist review of the role of seven CMR systems in implementing clinical governance, developing a four-level maturity model for the CMR. We took Australian primary care as the context, CMR to be the mechanism, and looked at outcomes for individual patients, localities, and for the population in terms of known evidence-based surrogates or true outcome measures. Results The lack of standardization of CMRs makes national and international benchmarking challenging. The use of the CMR was largely at level two of our maturity model, indicating a relatively simple system in which most of the process takes place outside of the CMR, and which has little capacity to support benchmarking, practice comparisons, and population-level activities. Although national standards for coding and projects for record access are proposed, they are not operationalized. Conclusions The current CMR systems can support clinical governance activities; however, unless the standardization and data quality issues are addressed, it will not be possible for current systems to work at higher levels. PMID:23939340

  15. Governing childhood obesity: framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Taylor, Anne

    2009-11-01

    Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to children. Content and thematic analysis of the articles reveal conflicting perspectives on the role of the state; the level of accountability of the food and advertising industries; and responsibilities of parents for regulating fast food consumption in children. The Federal Government, food and advertising industries and free to air broadcasters favour industry self-regulation and personal responsibility for fast food consumption while the proponents of government regulation include consumer groups, state government health ministers, nutrition and public health academics and medical and health foundations. The regulation of fast food advertising to children is discussed in relation to ideas about governance and the public health strategies which follow from these ideas. The paper argues that all proposed solutions are indicative of a neoliberal approach to the governance of health insofar as the responsibility for regulation of food marketing is viewed as lying with industry and the regulation of lifestyle risk is viewed as an individual responsibility.

  16. Rejecting Ahmed's "Melancholy Migrant": South Sudanese Australians in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anne; Marlowe, Jay; Nyuon, Nyadol

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on related research studies in two urban centres (Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia) with South Sudanese men and women engaged in varying degrees with higher education. The co-authors examine some gendered differences in the process and demands of resettlement, including within employment and education, and its implications for…

  17. Using economic policy to tackle chronic disease: options for the Australian Government.

    PubMed

    Kaplin, Lauren; Thow, Anne Marie

    2013-03-01

    Australia suffers from one of the highest prevalences among developed countries of persons being overweight and obese, these conditions arising from the overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that are generally less expensive than healthier options. One potential avenue for intervention is to influence the price of foods such that healthier options are less expensive and, therefore, are an easier choice to make. This article considers the potential for fiscal policies that would realign food prices with health incentives. Through a review of consumption taxes, consumer subsidies, trade policies, agricultural support policies, and other incentive programs as possible avenues for intervention, this article asks what the Commonwealth Government has already done to help improve Australian diets, and looks at where further improvements could be made.

  18. Governance, agricultural intensification, and land sparing in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Ceddia, Michele Graziano; Bardsley, Nicholas Oliver; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Sedlacek, Sabine

    2014-05-20

    In this paper we address two topical questions: How do the quality of governance and agricultural intensification impact on spatial expansion of agriculture? Which aspects of governance are more likely to ensure that agricultural intensification allows sparing land for nature? Using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the World Database on Protected Areas, and the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, we estimate a panel data model for six South American countries and quantify the effects of major determinants of agricultural land expansion, including various dimensions of governance, over the period 1970-2006. The results indicate that the effect of agricultural intensification on agricultural expansion is conditional on the quality and type of governance. When considering conventional aspects of governance, agricultural intensification leads to an expansion of agricultural area when governance scores are high. When looking specifically at environmental aspects of governance, intensification leads to a spatial contraction of agriculture when governance scores are high, signaling a sustainable intensification process.

  19. Governance, agricultural intensification, and land sparing in tropical South America

    PubMed Central

    Ceddia, Michele Graziano; Bardsley, Nicholas Oliver; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Sedlacek, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address two topical questions: How do the quality of governance and agricultural intensification impact on spatial expansion of agriculture? Which aspects of governance are more likely to ensure that agricultural intensification allows sparing land for nature? Using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the World Database on Protected Areas, and the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, we estimate a panel data model for six South American countries and quantify the effects of major determinants of agricultural land expansion, including various dimensions of governance, over the period 1970–2006. The results indicate that the effect of agricultural intensification on agricultural expansion is conditional on the quality and type of governance. When considering conventional aspects of governance, agricultural intensification leads to an expansion of agricultural area when governance scores are high. When looking specifically at environmental aspects of governance, intensification leads to a spatial contraction of agriculture when governance scores are high, signaling a sustainable intensification process. PMID:24799696

  20. The Adoption of Internal Audit as a Governance Control Mechanism in Australian Public Universities--Views from the CEOs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and the views of university chief executive officers (CEOs) to examine the extent to which internal auditing as a control mechanism is adopted in Australian public universities under an environment of change management. The findings highlight negative consequences of change and their…

  1. NAPLAN and the Role of Edu-Business: New Governance, New Privatisations and New Partnerships in Australian Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of the edu-businesses currently working in partnership with the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority to deliver the Commonwealth government policy initiative of the National Assessment Program--Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). These emerging public--private partnerships (PPPs) exemplify…

  2. Entanglement of Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals in lost fishing gear and other marine debris before and after Government and industry attempts to reduce the problem.

    PubMed

    Page, Brad; McKenzie, Jane; McIntosh, Rebecca; Baylis, Alastair; Morrissey, Adam; Calvert, Norna; Haase, Tami; Berris, Mel; Dowie, Dave; Shaughnessy, Peter D; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, Australian governments and fishing industry associations have developed guiding principles aimed at reducing the impact of fishing on non-target species and the benthos and increasing community awareness of their efforts. To determine whether they reduced seal entanglement in lost fishing gear and other marine debris, we analysed Australian sea lion and New Zealand fur seal entanglement data collected from Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Contrary to our expectations, we found that entanglement rates did not decrease in recent years. The Australian sea lion entanglement rate (1.3% in 2002) and the New Zealand fur seal entanglement rate (0.9% in 2002) are the third and fourth highest reported for any seal species. Australian sea lions were most frequently entangled in monofilament gillnet that most likely originated from the shark fishery, which operates in the region where sea lions forage--south and east of Kangaroo Island. In contrast, New Zealand fur seals were most commonly entangled in loops of packing tape and trawl net fragments suspected to be from regional rock lobster and trawl fisheries. Based on recent entanglement studies, we estimate that 1478 seals die from entanglement each year in Australia. We discuss remedies such as education programs and government incentives that may reduce entanglements.

  3. Democracy, Social Capital and School Governing Bodies in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolman, S.; Fleisch, B.

    2008-01-01

    Critics of school governing bodies (SGBs)--both on the left and on the right--tend to rely upon arguments that ignore significant portions of the act that created SGBs--the South African Schools Act (SASA)--the exact nature of the changes to SGBs wrought by amendments to the act and the manner in which the courts, in interpreting the act, have…

  4. Young people's comparative recognition and recall of an Australian Government Sexual Health Campaign.

    PubMed

    Lim, Megan S C; Gold, Judy; Bowring, Anna L; Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, the Australian Government's National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program launched a multi-million dollar sexual health campaign targeting young people. We assessed campaign recognition among a community sample of young people. Individuals aged 16-29 years self-completed a questionnaire at a music festival. Participants were asked whether they recognised the campaign image and attempted to match the correct campaign message. Recognition of two concurrent campaigns, GlaxoSmithKline's The Facts genital herpes campaign (targeting young women) and the Drama Downunder campaign (targeting gay men) were assessed simultaneously. Among 471 participants, just 29% recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. This compared to 52% recognising The Facts and 27% recognising Drama Downunder. Of 134 who recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign, 27% correctly recalled the campaign messages compared to 61% of those recognising the Facts campaign, and 25% of those recognising the Drama Downunder campaign. There was no difference in National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign recognition by gender or age. Campaign recognition and message recall of the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign was comparatively low. Future mass media sexual health campaigns targeting young people can aim for higher recognition and recall rates than that achieved by the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. Alternative distribution channels and message styles should be considered to increase these rates.

  5. New South Wales Child Development Study (NSW-CDS): an Australian multiagency, multigenerational, longitudinal record linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Vaughan J; Harris, Felicity; Raudino, Alessandra; Luo, Luming; Kariuki, Maina; Liu, Enwu; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Smith, Maxwell; Holbrook, Allyson; Bore, Miles; Brinkman, Sally; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Dix, Katherine; Dean, Kimberlie; Laurens, Kristin R; Green, Melissa J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The initial aim of this multiagency, multigenerational record linkage study is to identify childhood profiles of developmental vulnerability and resilience, and to identify the determinants of these profiles. The eventual aim is to identify risk and protective factors for later childhood-onset and adolescent-onset mental health problems, and other adverse social outcomes, using subsequent waves of record linkage. The research will assist in informing the development of public policy and intervention guidelines to help prevent or mitigate adverse long-term health and social outcomes. Participants The study comprises a population cohort of 87 026 children in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW). The cohort was defined by entry into the first year of full-time schooling in NSW in 2009, at which time class teachers completed the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC) on each child (with 99.7% coverage in NSW). The AEDC data have been linked to the children's birth, health, school and child protection records for the period from birth to school entry, and to the health and criminal records of their parents, as well as mortality databases. Findings to date Descriptive data summarising sex, geographic and socioeconomic distributions, and linkage rates for the various administrative databases are presented. Child data are summarised, and the mental health and criminal records data of the children's parents are provided. Future plans In 2015, at age 11 years, a self-report mental health survey was administered to the cohort in collaboration with government, independent and Catholic primary school sectors. A second record linkage, spanning birth to age 11 years, will be undertaken to link this survey data with the aforementioned administrative databases. This will enable a further identification of putative risk and protective factors for adverse mental health and other outcomes in adolescence, which can then be tested in subsequent record linkages

  6. Perceptions of the Principal's Role in Democratic School Governance in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncube, Vusi

    2009-01-01

    This article explores governors' perceptions of the role played by school principals in the democratic governance of secondary schools in South Africa. The South African Schools Act No. 84 of 1996 has mandated that all public schools in South Africa must have democratically elected school governing bodies, comprised of the principal (in his or her…

  7. School Governing Bodies in South African Schools: Under Pressure to Enhance Democratization and Improve Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heystek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Governing bodies in South Africa are expected to have an important role in ensuring high quality education in schools as well as in the democratization of the post-apartheid South Africa. However, current legislation precludes governing bodies from involvement in the professional management of schools. Governing bodies are democratically elected…

  8. Different mechanisms of adaptation to cyclic water stress in two South Australian bread wheat cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Izanloo, Ali; Condon, Anthony G.; Langridge, Peter; Tester, Mark; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    In the South Australian wheat belt, cyclic drought is a frequent event represented by intermittent periods of rainfall which can occur around anthesis and post-anthesis in wheat. Three South Australian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Excalibur, Kukri, and RAC875, were evaluated in one greenhouse and two growth-room experiments. In the first growth-room experiment, where plants were subjected to severe cyclic water-limiting conditions, RAC875 and Excalibur (drought-tolerant) showed significantly higher grain yield under cyclic water availability compared to Kukri (drought-susceptible), producing 44% and 18% more grain compared to Kukri, respectively. In the second growth-room experiment, where plants were subjected to a milder drought stress, the differences between cultivars were less pronounced, with only RAC875 showing significantly higher grain yield under the cyclic water treatment. Grain number per spike and the percentage of aborted tillers were the major components that affected yield under cyclic water stress. Excalibur and RAC875 adopted different morpho-physiological traits and mechanisms to reduce water stress. Excalibur was most responsive to cyclic water availability and showed the highest level of osmotic adjustment (OA), high stomatal conductance, lowest ABA content, and rapid recovery from stress under cyclic water stress. RAC875 was more conservative and restrained, with moderate OA, high leaf waxiness, high chlorophyll content, and slower recovery from stress. Within this germplasm, the capacity for osmotic adjustment was the main physiological attribute associated with tolerance under cyclic water stress which enabled plants to recover from water deficit. PMID:18703496

  9. Assuming too much? Participatory water resource governance in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that participation in natural resource management, which is often coupled with moves for more local ownership of decision making, is based on three sets of assumptions: about the role of the state, the universality of application of such approaches and the transformatory potential of institutional reform. The validity of these assumptions requires investigation in view of the rapid institutionalisation and scaling-up of participatory approaches, particularly in developing country contexts. Post-apartheid South Africa is widely recognised as a pioneer of participatory and devolutionary approaches, particularly in the field of water resources. It is 12 years since the promulgation of the forward-thinking 1998 National Water Act, and thus an opportune moment to reflect on South Africa's experiences of participatory governance. Drawing on empirical research covering the establishment of the first Catchment Management Agency, and the transformation of existing Irrigation Boards into more inclusive Water User Associations in the Inkomati Water Management Area, it emerges that there may be fundamental weaknesses in the participatory model and underlying assumptions, and indeed such approaches may actually reinforce inequitable outcomes: the legacy of long-established institutional frameworks and powerful actors therein continues to exert influence in post-apartheid South Africa, and has the potential to subvert the democratic and redistributive potential of the water reforms. It is argued that a reassessment of the role of the state is necessary: where there is extreme heterogeneity in challenging catchments more, rather than less, state intervention may be required to uphold the interests of marginalised groups and effect redistribution.

  10. Moving beyond a "Bums-on-Seats" Analysis of Progress towards Widening Participation: Reflections on the Context, Design and Evaluation of an Australian Government-Funded Mentoring Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Julianne; Walker-Gibbs, Bernadette; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Australian government established the Higher Education Participation and Partnerships Programme--a funding agenda to promote programmes that respond to the under-representation in higher education of people from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Many government-funded programmes and projects have since emerged that respond…

  11. South Australian historical earthquakes in the pre-instrumental period 1837-1963: A comprehensive chronicle and analysis of available intensity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, Katherine; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2014-05-01

    Macroseismic data in the form of felt reports of earthquake shaking is vital to seismic hazard assessment, especially in view of the relatively short period of instrumental recording in many countries. During the early 1990s, we conducted a very detailed examination of historical earthquake records held in the State Government archives and the Public Library (newspaper accounts) of South Australia. This work resulted in the compilation of a list of just over 460 earthquakes in the period prior to seismic network recording, which commenced in 1963. A single Milne (and later Milne-Shaw) seismograph had been operated in Adelaide from 1908 to 1948 to record worldwide events but it was not suitable for studying local seismic activity. The majority of the historical events uncovered had escaped mention in any previous publications on South Australian seismicity and seismic risk. This historical earthquake research, including the production of a large number of isoseismal maps to enable quantification in terms of magnitude and location, appears to have been the only study of its kind in South Australia performed so comprehensively, and resulted in the most extensive list available. After 20 years, it still stands as the definitive list of historical earthquake events in the State. The incorporation of these additional historical events into the South Australian Earthquake Catalogue maintained by the SA Department of Primary Industries and Resources had the potential to raise the previous listing of just 49 pre-instrumental events to 511 earthquakes, and to extend the record back another 46 years to 1837, the date the colony of South Australia was proclaimed. Some of the major events have been formally included in the South Australian Earthquake Catalogue. However, for many events there was insufficient information and/or time to finalize the source parameters due to the onerous task of manually trawling through historical records and newspapers for felt reports. With the

  12. 78 FR 16028 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to South Sudan, and I hereby waive this restriction....

  13. Parent Involvement in Public School Governance: The United States and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Wayne D.; Colditz, Paul; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    This article explores parent involvement in decision making in the United States and in postapartheid South Africa and highlights similarities and differences in how parents in these two countries participate in public school governance and decision making. Parents' role in public school governance in South Africa is significant and entrenched in…

  14. Budget Monitoring and Control in South African Township Schools: Democratic Governance at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestry, Raj; Naidoo, Gans

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates budget monitoring and control in township schools in South Africa. The enactment of the Schools Act 1996 revolutionized school financial management in South Africa, making it part of the drive for democratic school governance. School governing bodies had to be established, whose responsibility it became to manage finances…

  15. Academic Governance Provided by Academic Boards within the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; Peters, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Academic boards play a key role in the maintenance of quality standards and the provision of strategic leadership on academic issues. The current research investigated the role provided at present to Australian universities through their academic boards. All universities described their academic boards as their principal academic body. The…

  16. Internal Audit: Does it Enhance Governance in the Australian Public University Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to confirm if internal audit, a corporate control process, is functioning effectively in Australian public universities. The study draws on agency theory, published literature and best-practice guidelines to develop an internal audit evaluation framework. A survey instrument is thereafter developed from the framework and used as a…

  17. Eight new species of Australian stiletto flies in the genus Anabarhynchus Macquart (Diptera: Therevidae) from South East Queensland.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David J; Lambkin, Christine L; Yeates, David K

    2014-05-28

    We describe, diagnose and illustrate eight new species in the genus Anabarhynchus Macquart, 1848 as follows: Anabarhynchus cretatus sp. n., Anabarhynchus darembal sp. n., Anabarhynchus iancommoni sp. n., Anabarhynchus longiseta sp. n. Anabarhynchus lyncurium sp. n., Anabarhynchus moretonensis sp. n., Anabarhynchus neboensis sp. n. and Anabarhynchus wintertoni sp. n. These represent all new species in collections from south east Queensland. These new species bring the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 112.

  18. Holocene denudation pattern across the South-Eastern Australian Escarpment and implications for its evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, Vincent; Dosseto, Anthony; Bellier, Olivier; Bourlès, Didier; Fleury, Jules; Aster Team

    2016-04-01

    Developing a process based understanding of continental relief evolution requires to quantify rates of denudation and to compare their distribution with the evolution of geomorphic parameters. The analysis of denudation and exhumation spatial patterns based from cosmogenic nuclides and low temperature thermochronology are routinely used to document the processes associated with the geomorphic evolution of continental relief over various timescales. Passive margin escarpments are among some of the most salient continental geomorphic features outside of orogenic areas. Their evolution have been studied intensively over the long-term (several Ma to tens of Ma), using for example low-temperature thermochronology. However, datasets documenting their shorter-term (1-10 ka) dynamics are scarcer, and only a limited number of case studies have used quantitative techniques such as cosmogenic nuclides to document the denudation pattern across such escarpments. The South Eastern Australian Escarpment is such a place where cosmogenic nuclides have been intensively used over the last two decades to constrain processes of landscape evolution over short wavelength, with, for example the calibration of the soil production function. Such existing data and constraints provide an ideal setting to carry on further long-wavelength exploration of the dynamics of the whole escarpment. We have sampled 17 catchments across the South Eastern Australian Escarpment, starting from the coastal plain and moving westward up to the low relief plateau surface. The observed landscape denudation rates are 10-20 mm/ka in the coastal area and progressively increases up to ~60 mm/ka toward the edge of the escarpment. In the low-relief areas located west of the continental drainage divide denudation rates fall back to 10-20 mm/ka. This nearly four-fold contrast in denudation across the divide is characteristic of a major disequilibrium in the dynamics of the river network associated with a progressive

  19. Government-Funded Student Outcomes, 2016: Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of the outcomes of students who completed government-funded vocational education and training (VET) during 2015, with the data collected in mid-2016. Government-funded VET is broadly defined as all activity delivered by government providers and government-funded activity delivered by community education and…

  20. Status of emergency obstetric care in a local government area in south-south Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mezie-Okoye, Margaret M; Adeniji, Foluke O; Tobin-West, Charles I; Babatunde, Seye

    2012-09-01

    This study assessed the status of the availability and performance of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in 12 functional public health facilities out of the existing 19 in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State in south-south Nigeria, prior to the midwives service scheme (MSS) launch in 2009. No facility qualified as basic EmOC, while one had comprehensive EmOC status. Signal functions that required supply of medical consumables were performed by more facilities than services that required special training, equipment and maintenance. Only two facilities (16.67%) had the minimum requirement of > or =4 midwives for 24-hour EmOC service; while only 2.2% of expected births occurred at the facilities. The poor state of maternal health resources in the study area requires urgent interventions by Local and State Governments for infrastructure upgrade and deployment and training of staff towards attainment of MDG-5. A follow-up evaluation would be required since the commencement of the MSS.

  1. New approaches to predicting surface fuel moisture in south east Australian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Hawthorne, Sandra; Bovill, William; Walsh, Sean; Baillie, Craig; Duff, Thomas; Tolhurst, Kevin; Lane, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The capacity to predict of the moisture content (FMC) of fine surface fuels in mountainous south east Australian forests has improved dramatically in recent years due to the convergence of several new technologies, including i) improved process-based account-keeping type FMC models, ii) improved understanding and representation of topographic effects (aspect, drainage position, elevation) on surface fuel and soil moisture, iii) improved methods for downscaling weather variables (eg. rainfall/throughfall, short-wave radiation) using digital elevation models and airborne LIDaR, and, iv) new in-situ sensor technologies (fuelsticks, capacitance sensors, Ibuttons) for continuously monitoring surface fuels and within-litter micro-climate conditions, generating datasets of unprecedented temporal resolution and continuity for model development and testing under real field conditions across a broad range of forests, landscapes and climates. In this study the combined improvements in predictive capacity were quantified by comparing the field FMC observations with predictions from traditional, widely used operational FMC models, and with two new process-based models, including improved spatial parameterisation provided by the new technologies outlined above. The results are interpreted in the context of planned-burning decision making and outcomes, and bushfire modelling and management. The initial results showed that the new approaches to FMC prediction offered substantial improvements over the traditional methods and could be reasonably implemented at operational scales.

  2. Parent Participation in School Governance: A Legal Analysis of Experiences in South Africa and Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathon, Justin; Beckmann, Johan; Bjork, Lars G.

    2011-01-01

    This comparative study on the educational governance systems of South Africa and the Commonwealth of Kentucky examines legal evidence from judicial decisions and administrative law to understand similarities in how school-based governance structures have been developed. We found that although school-level governance structures may provide greater…

  3. Consumer involvement in the South Australian state policy for planned home birth.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lareen; Hood, Jo

    2009-03-01

    Two consumer representatives were participants in the development of their state government's Policy for Planned Birth At Home in South Australia. It was released in November 2007 to guide staff in public hospital and community midwifery programs, and the first hospital-based home birth service is commencing in February 2009. Consumer experiences of policy development and perceived benefits of consumer involvement for policy and transparency processes are described. Inclusion of consumers widely and actively during development and reform of maternity care is essential if real consumer participation is to occur and contribute to care that is truly woman-centered.

  4. Government-Funded Students and Courses: January to September 2015. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of data relating to students, programs, training providers and funding in Australia's government-funded vocational education and training (VET) system (broadly defined as all activity delivered by government providers and government-funded activity delivered by community education and private training…

  5. Government-Funded Students and Courses, 2015. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of 2015 and time-series data relating to students, programs, subjects, training providers and funding in Australia's government-funded vocational education and training (VET) system (broadly defined as all activity delivered by government providers and government-funded activity delivered by community education…

  6. Government-Funded Students and Courses: January to March 2015. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of data relating to students, programs, training providers, and funding in Australia's government-funded vocational education and training (VET) system (broadly defined as all activity delivered by government providers and government-funded activity delivered by community education and other registered…

  7. Biogeography and speciation of terrestrial fauna in the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Rix, Michael G; Edwards, Danielle L; Byrne, Margaret; Harvey, Mark S; Joseph, Leo; Roberts, J Dale

    2015-08-01

    The south-western land division of Western Australia (SWWA), bordering the temperate Southern and Indian Oceans, is the only global biodiversity hotspot recognised in Australia. Renowned for its extraordinary diversity of endemic plants, and for some of the largest and most botanically significant temperate heathlands and woodlands on Earth, SWWA has long fascinated biogeographers. Its flat, highly weathered topography and the apparent absence of major geographic factors usually implicated in biotic diversification have challenged attempts to explain patterns of biogeography and mechanisms of speciation in the region. Botanical studies have always been central to understanding the biodiversity values of SWWA, although surprisingly few quantitative botanical analyses have allowed for an understanding of historical biogeographic processes in both space and time. Faunistic studies, by contrast, have played little or no role in defining hotspot concepts, despite several decades of accumulating quantitative research on the phylogeny and phylogeography of multiple lineages. In this review we critically analyse datasets with explicit supporting phylogenetic data and estimates of the time since divergence for all available elements of the terrestrial fauna, and compare these datasets to those available for plants. In situ speciation has played more of a role in shaping the south-western Australian fauna than has long been supposed, and has occurred in numerous endemic lineages of freshwater fish, frogs, reptiles, snails and less-vagile arthropods. By contrast, relatively low levels of endemism are found in birds, mammals and highly dispersive insects, and in situ speciation has played a negligible role in generating local endemism in birds and mammals. Quantitative studies provide evidence for at least four mechanisms driving patterns of endemism in south-western Australian animals, including: (i) relictualism of ancient Gondwanan or Pangaean taxa in the High Rainfall

  8. "I Love to Teach but No Thank You!" Factors Responsible for the Demise of Teaching as a Profession: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the decline in teacher numbers has become an important topic for discussion in the field of teachers' work in Australia. The purpose of this article is to discuss current initiatives being implemented by both the Australian federal government and the South Australian state government to retain and attract prospective teachers and some…

  9. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics: Government-Funded Students and Courses-- January to September 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of data relating to students, programs, subjects and training providers in Australia's government-funded vocational education and training (VET) system (defined as Commonwealth and state/territory government-funded training). The data in this publication cover the period of 1 January to 30 September 2016. For…

  10. Regulation to Create Environments Conducive to Physical Activity: Understanding the Barriers and Facilitators at the Australian State Government Level

    PubMed Central

    Shill, Jane; Mavoa, Helen; Crammond, Brad; Loff, Bebe; Peeters, Anna; Lawrence, Mark; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Policy and regulatory interventions aimed at creating environments more conducive to physical activity (PA) are an important component of strategies to improve population levels of PA. However, many potentially effective policies are not being broadly implemented. This study sought to identify potential policy/regulatory interventions targeting PA environments, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state/territory government level. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n = 40) to examine participants': 1) suggestions for regulatory interventions to create environments more conducive to PA; 2) support for preselected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Thematic and constant comparative analyses were conducted. Results Policy interventions most commonly suggested by participants fell into two areas: 1) urban planning and provision of infrastructure to promote active travel; 2) discouraging the use of private motorised vehicles. Of the eleven preselected interventions presented to participants, interventions relating to walkability/cycling and PA facilities received greatest support. Interventions involving subsidisation (of public transport, PA-equipment) and the provision of more public transport infrastructure received least support. These were perceived as not economically viable or unlikely to increase PA levels. Dominant barriers were: the powerful ‘road lobby’, weaknesses in the planning system and the cost of potential interventions. Facilitators were: the provision of evidence, collaboration across sectors, and synergies with climate change/environment agendas. Conclusion This study points to how difficult it will be to achieve policy change when there is a powerful ‘road lobby’ and government investment prioritises road infrastructure over PA

  11. Teacher Governance Reforms and Social Cohesion in South Africa: From Intention to Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Thomas; Sayed, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    The governance of teachers during apartheid in South Africa was characterised by high levels of disparity in teacher distribution and in conditions of labour. In the post-apartheid context policies and interventions that govern teachers are critical, and teachers can be seen to be placed in a central role as actors whose distribution, employment,…

  12. South African Higher Education in the First Decade of Democracy: From Cooperative Governance to Conditional Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Martin; Symes, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This paper tracks policies in the governance of higher education over the first decade of South Africa's democracy. The first democratically elected government of 1994 was faced with the formidable task of dismantling the structures of apartheid education. The foundations for a new policy were laid by a National Commission that reported in 1996,…

  13. An Ambiguous, Contested Terrain: Governance Models for a New South African Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Everard

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of education governance in South Africa during the 1990s. It outlines ambiguities within and between competing policies, tracing the historical trajectory and explaining its outcome. Apartheid governance, the attempts to reform it, policy options originating within the anti-apartheid movement, and the law passed…

  14. Experiences and Perceptions of Physical Activity Among South Asian and Anglo-Australians With Type 2 Diabetes or Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sabrina S; Aroni, Rosalie; Teede, Helena

    2016-07-28

    Research indicates that there are worryingly low levels of physical activity among South Asians compared with Anglo-Australians with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared perceptions, barriers, and enablers of physical activity in these groups. We used a qualitative design, conducting in-depth, semistructured iterative interviews in Victoria with 57 South Asian and Anglo-Australian participants with either type 2 diabetes or CVD. While both groups exhibited knowledge of the value of physical activity in health maintenance and disease management, they wished for more specific and culturally tailored advice from clinicians about the type, duration, and intensity of physical activity required. Physical activity identities were tied to ethnic identities, with members of each group aspiring to meet the norms of their culture regarding engagement with physical activity as specific exercise or as incidental exercise. Individual personal exercise was deemed important by Anglo-Australians whereas South Asians preferred family-based physical activity.

  15. Good governance of animal health systems and public-private partnerships: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Black, P F

    2012-08-01

    The animal health system in Australia has evolved over more than 100 years and includes innovative public-private partnership arrangements. The establishment in 1996 of Animal Health Australia (AHA), a not-for-profit company, was a crucial development which formalised arrangements for shared decision-making and funding across both government and industry stakeholders. However, Federal and State governments retain legislative authority for animal health control. Accordingly, all programmes must recognise that the public sector remains an executive arm of government, accountable for its actions. Hence, much effort has been invested in ensuring that the governance arrangements within AHA are lawful and transparent. The Emergency Animal Disease Response Agreement (EADRA) is a very good example of governance arrangements that are sustainably financed, widely available, provided efficiently, without waste or duplication, and in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. The benefits of EADRA include certainty and greater transparency of funding; greater efficiency through increased probability of a rapid response to an occurrence of any of 65 diseases; and industry participation in the management and financing of such a response.

  16. Roll-Out Neoliberalism and Hybrid Practices of Regulation in Australian Agri-Environmental Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockie, Stewart; Higgins, Vaughan

    2007-01-01

    In the last 15 years, agri-environmental programmes in Australia have been underpinned by a neoliberal regime of governing which seeks to foster participation and "bottom-up" change at the regional level at the same time as encouraging farmers to become entrepreneurial and improve their productivity and environmental performance without…

  17. Governments and Universities as the Main Drivers of Enhanced Australian University Research Commercialisation Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant; Harman, Kay

    2004-01-01

    In building capacity in research commercialisation and science-based entrepreneurship, Australia has adopted neither the Swedish top-down approach depending on government initiative, nor the American bottom-up approach depending on incentive systems related to university ownership of intellectual property and a highly competitive and…

  18. Government Research Evaluations and Academic Freedom: A UK and Australian Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Sardesai, Ann; Irvine, Helen; Tooley, Stuart; Guthrie, James

    2017-01-01

    Performance management systems have been an inevitable consequence of the development of government research evaluations (GREs) of university research, and have also inevitably affected the working life of academics. The aim of this paper is to track the development of GREs over the past 25 years, by critically evaluating their adoption in the UK…

  19. Social Inclusion for South Australian Schooling? Trying to Reconcile the Promise and the Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This paper will trace the adoption of a policy of Social Inclusion in schools in one Australian state in terms of the way in which the policy direction, its discourses and adoption reflect a rhetoric of what Ball has labelled a "paradigm of convergence". The analysis will show that the policy discourse, especially in its focus on school…

  20. Current Trends of the Linguistic and Cultural Values of the Greek Australian Community in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holeva, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates the perspectives of Greek origin people as regards their intention to maintain their ancestral culture within the Australian context of social values. This qualitative research study, influenced by Humanistic Sociology, analyses data collected through questionnaires from first and second generation parents and teachers of…

  1. Australian Transnational Education Programmes in South East Asia: Student Satisfaction with the Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miliszewska, Iwona; Sztendur, Ewa M.

    2012-01-01

    In view of the strong growth of transnational education programmes in Australian universities, there is growing interest in the experiences of students participating in such programmes. This article reports on the perceived student satisfaction with several aspects of their transnational programmes, including instructors, technology, and programme…

  2. Evaluation of the Rural South Australian Tri-Division Adolescent Health Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naccarella, Lucio

    2003-01-01

    An Australian project aimed to strengthen relationships of general practitioners (GPs) with rural adolescents and school personnel through GP school visits, educational seminars on health topics for students, and student visits to GP clinics. Surveys of 5 project personnel, 6 GPs, 3 school counselors, and 30 secondary school students found…

  3. Cross-Cultural Equivalence of the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form: An Australian and South African Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Watson, Mark B.

    2002-01-01

    The Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form was completed by 416 South African and 563 Australian high school students. Analysis found three factors in each sample, but the factors differed between samples and from those of a U.S. sample, suggesting cultural differences in self-efficacy and lack of cultural equivalence for the…

  4. Re-Positioning as a Response to Government Higher Education Policy Development--An Australian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Ruth; Jones, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Australian Catholic University (ACU) has had a long-standing commitment to social justice and to engaging with the rest of the community, arising from its Catholic intellectual tradition and its creation from Catholic teaching institutions. As a university created in 1991 as part of a radical re-structure of Australian higher education, ACU has…

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of an Australian obesity mass-media campaign: how did the 'Measure-Up' campaign measure up in New South Wales?

    PubMed

    King, E L; Grunseit, A C; O'Hara, B J; Bauman, A E

    2013-12-01

    In 2008, the Australian Government launched a mass-media campaign 'Measure-Up' to reduce lifestyle-related chronic disease risk. Innovative campaign messages linked waist circumference and chronic disease risk. Communication channels for the campaign included television, press, radio and outdoor advertising and local community activities. This analysis examines the impact of the campaign in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Cross-sectional telephone surveys (n = 1006 adults pre- and post-campaign) covered self-reported diet and physical activity, campaign awareness, knowledge about waist circumference, personal relevance of the message, perceived confidence to make lifestyle changes and waist-measuring behaviours. The campaign achieved high unprompted (38%) and prompted (89%) awareness. From pre- to post-campaign, knowledge and personal relevance of the link between waist circumference and chronic disease and waist measuring behaviour increased, although there were no significant changes in reported fruit and vegetable intake nor in physical activity. Knowledge of the correct waist measurement threshold for chronic disease risk increased over 5-fold, adjusted for demographic characteristics. 'Measure-Up' was successful at communicating the new campaign messages. Continued long-term investment in campaigns such as 'Measure-Up', supplemented with community-based health promotion, may contribute to population risk factor understanding and behaviour change to reduce chronic disease.

  6. Partnering Healthy@Work: an Australian university-government partnership facilitating policy-relevant research.

    PubMed

    Jose, Kim; Venn, Alison; Jarman, Lisa; Seal, Judy; Teale, Brook; Scott, Jennifer; Sanderson, Kristy

    2016-05-06

    Research funding is increasingly supporting collaborations between knowledge users and researchers. Partnering Healthy@Work (pH@W), an inaugural recipient of funding through Australia's Partnership for Better Health Grants scheme, was a 5-year partnership between the Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania and the Tasmanian State Service (TSS). The partnerships purpose was to evaluate a comprehensive workplace health promotion programme (Healthy@Work) targeting 30 000 public sector employees; generating new knowledge and influencing workplace health promotion policy and decision-making. This mixed methods study evaluates the partnership between policy-makers and academics and identifies strategies that enabled pH@W to deliver key project outcomes. A pH@W document review was conducted, two partnership assessment tools completed and semi-structured interviews conducted with key policy-makers and academics. Analysis of the partnership assessment tools and interviews found that pH@W had reached a strong level of collaboration. Policy-relevant knowledge was generated about the health of TSS employees and their engagement with workplace health promotion. Knowledge exchange of a conceptual and instrumental nature occurred and was facilitated by the shared grant application, clear governance structures, joint planning, regular information exchange between researchers and policy-makers and research student placements in the TSS. Flexibility and acknowledgement of different priorities and perspectives of partner organizations were identified as critical factors for enabling effective partnership working and research relevance. Academic-policy-maker partnerships can be a powerful mechanism for improving policy relevance of research, but need to incorporate strategies that facilitate regular input from researchers and policy-makers in order to achieve this.

  7. Luteocirrhus shearii gen. sp. nov. (Diaporthales, Cryphonectriaceae) pathogenic to Proteaceae in the South Western Australian Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    Crane, Colin; Burgess, Treena I

    2013-07-01

    Morphological and DNA sequence characteristics of a pathogenic fungus isolated from branch cankers in Proteaceae of the South West Australian Floristic Region elucidated a new genus and species within Cryphonectriaceae (Diaporthales). The pathogen has been isolated from canker lesions in several Banksia species and Lambertia echinata subsp. citrina, and is associated with a serious decline of the rare B. verticillata. Lack of orange pigment in all observed structures except cirrhi, combined with pulvinate to globose black semi-immersed conidiomata with paraphyses, distinguishes the canker fungus from other genera of Cryphonectriaceae. This was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis of the ITS regions, β-tubulin, and LSU genes. The fungus (sexual morph unknown) is described as Luteocirrhus shearii gen. sp. nov. Lesions in seedlings of Banksia spp. following wound inoculation and subsequent recovery confirm Koch's postulates for pathogenicity. This pathogen of native Proteaceae is currently an emerging threat, particularly toward B. baxteri and B. verticillata.

  8. The presence of opportunistic pathogens, Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex, in South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines.

    PubMed

    Whiley, H; Keegan, A; Fallowfield, H; Bentham, R

    2015-06-01

    Water reuse has become increasingly important for sustainable water management. Currently, its application is primarily constrained by the potential health risks. Presently there is limited knowledge regarding the presence and fate of opportunistic pathogens along reuse water distribution pipelines. In this study opportunistic human pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction along two South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines at maximum concentrations of 10⁵, 10³ and 10⁵ copies/mL, respectively. During the summer period of sampling the concentration of all three organisms significantly increased (P < 0.05) along the pipeline, suggesting multiplication and hence viability. No seasonality in the decrease in chlorine residual along the pipelines was observed. This suggests that the combination of reduced chlorine residual and increased water temperature promoted the presence of these opportunistic pathogens.

  9. Watershed Governance in South-Central Texas: Working from the Bottom up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, V. L.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to introduce a set of key concepts that can guide the development of ecological governance systems and briefly describe a watershed ecological governance project in south-central Texas. Ecological governance is a form of governance embedding ecological principles and values in all levels of decision making and action, from the personal to the global. The model of ecological governance discussed here incorporates ideas and approaches that are already being put into practice in many watershed governance projects in the US and abroad; it is based on the premise that contemporary governance systems will continue to evolve in this direction, incorporating more and more of the features of ecological governance. The watershed governance project described here was devised to ensure that the long-term ecological integrity of a small urbanazing waterhed in south-central Texas is preserved and that the water quality standards are maintained for present and future generations. The ecological integrity of small spring-fed watersheds in Texas are under serious threat due to rapid urban development dependent on groundwater supplies, continued drilling of personal wells that are exempt from pumping regulation, and lack of adequate legal jurisdiction for managing development in rural and semi-rural areas. The watershed governance project was motivated by a firm belief of local stakeholders that watershed protection is an individual as well as a community responsibility, and the recognition that a balance between growth and protection is essential to maintain watershed integrity. It is concluded that whereas emergent systems of ecological governance struggle to succeed in an institutional context oriented towards the pursuit of self-interest and competition, their acceptance will happen more readily as ecological principles and values diffuses throughout modern society.

  10. Chaos or Coherence? Further Education and Training College Governance in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedekind, Volker

    2010-01-01

    This article frames the lived experiences of management and educators in further education and training (FET) colleges in South Africa, against the backdrop of the radical transformation in the governance of this sector over the past twenty years. The reforms are first described and analysed in terms of their integration and rationale for agency.…

  11. Educational Decentralization and School Governance in South Africa: From Policy to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Jordan P.

    2005-01-01

    This booklet explores the nature of participation, representation and decision-making in school governance in South Africa based on a collective case-study of six schools in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) that was undertaken between 2002 and 2004. The different types of schools were compared by the following criteria: their interpretation of the…

  12. One Health research and training and government support for One Health in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Joanna S.; Dahal, Rojan; Kakkar, Manish; Debnath, Nitish; Rahman, Mahmudur; Dorjee, Sithar; Naeem, Khalid; Wijayathilaka, Tikiri; Sharma, Barun Kumar; Maidanwal, Nasir; Halimi, Asmatullah; Kim, Eunmi; Chatterjee, Pranab; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Considerable advocacy, funding, training, and technical support have been provided to South Asian countries to strengthen One Health (OH) collaborative approaches for controlling diseases with global human pandemic potential since the early 2000s. It is essential that the OH approach continues to be strengthened given South Asia is a hot spot for emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. The objectives of this article are to describe OH research and training and capacity building activities and the important developments in government support for OH in these countries to identify current achievements and gaps. Materials and methods A landscape analysis of OH research, training, and government support in South Asia was generated by searching peer-reviewed and grey literature for OH research publications and reports, a questionnaire survey of people potentially engaged in OH research in South Asia and the authors’ professional networks. Results Only a small proportion of zoonotic disease research conducted in South Asia can be described as truly OH, with a significant lack of OH policy-relevant research. A small number of multisectoral OH research and OH capacity building programmes were conducted in the region. The governments of Bangladesh and Bhutan have established operational OH strategies, with variable progress institutionalising OH in other countries. Identified gaps were a lack of useful scientific information and of a collaborative culture for formulating and implementing integrated zoonotic disease control policies and the need for ongoing support for transdisciplinary OH research and policy-relevant capacity building programmes. Discussion Overall we found a very small number of truly OH research and capacity building programmes in South Asia. Even though significant progress has been made in institutionalising OH in some South Asian countries, further behavioural, attitudinal, and institutional changes are required to strengthen OH research

  13. Operational benefits from optimal volt/var scheduling in the south-east Australian transmission network

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.; Eichler, R.; Lyons, M.

    1995-12-31

    The Victorian power system supplies the Australian federal state of Victoria (population: 4.5 million; capital city: Melbourne) with electricity. Over the last three years an extensive EMS computer system has been installed at the System Control Centre in Melbourne. It includes among other functions a complete set of Optimal Power Flow (OPF) applications. This paper reports on the results gained during the first year of daily application of the Optimal Volt/Var Scheduling (VVS) function and ends with an outlook on planned future extensions.

  14. The South Australian Allied Health Workforce survey: helping to fill the evidence gap in primary health workforce planning.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Deirdre; Smith, Tony; Newbury, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of detailed evidence about the allied health workforce to inform proposed health care reforms. The South Australian Allied Health Workforce (SAAHW) survey collected data about the demographic characteristics, employment, education and recruitment and retention of allied health professionals in South Australia. The SAAHW questionnaire was widely distributed and 1539 responses were received. The average age of the sample was 40 years; males were significantly older than females, the latter making up 82% of respondents. Three-quarters of the sample worked in the city; 60% worked full time and the remainder in part-time, casual or locum positions. 'Work-life balance' was the most common attraction to respondents' current jobs and 'Better career prospects' the most common reason for intending to leave. Practice in a rural location was influenced by rural background and rural experience during training. A greater proportion of Generation Y (1982-2000) respondents intended to leave within 2 years than Generation X (1961-81) or Baby Boomers (1943-60). Most respondents were satisfied with their job, although some reported lack of recognition of their knowledge and skills. Systematic, robust allied health workforce data are required for integrated and sustainable primary health care delivery.

  15. Governance Dynamics and the Application of the Multilevel Governance Approach in Vocational Education and Training (VET) in the European Neighbourhood Countries: The Case of the ENPI South Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin Arribas, J. Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses moves towards good multilevel governance approaches in Vocational Education and Training (VET) as an effective way to improve VET policy making in transition and developing countries, focusing on the Southern Neighbourhood of the EU (ENPI South). The centralised approaches in public administration and to VET governance still…

  16. Australian governments' spending on preventing and responding to drug abuse should target the main sources of drug-related harm and the most cost-effective interventions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, David

    2011-01-01

    A notable feature of Australian drug policy is the limited public and professional attention given to the financial costs of drug abuse and to the levels and patterns of government expenditures incurred in preventing and responding to this. Since 1991, Collins and Lapsley have published scholarly reports documenting the social costs of drug abuse in Australia and their reports also contain estimates of governments' drug budgets: revenue and expenditures. They show that, in 2004-2005, Australian governments expended at least $5288 million on drug abuse, with 50% of the expenditure directed to preventing and dealing with alcohol-related problems, 45% to illicit drugs and just 5% to tobacco. Some 60% of the expenditure was directed at drug crime and 37% at health interventions. This pattern of resource allocation does not adequately reflect an evidence-informed policy orientation in that it largely fails to focus on the drug types that are the sources of the most harm (tobacco and alcohol rather than illicit drugs), and the sectors for which we have the strongest evidence of the cost-effectiveness of the available interventions (treatment and harm reduction rather than legislation and law enforcement). The 2010-2014 phase of Australia's National Drug Strategy should include incremental changes to the resource allocation mix, and not simply maintain the historical resource allocation formulae.

  17. Long-term marine litter monitoring in the remote Great Australian Bight, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Edyvane, K S; Dalgetty, A; Hone, P W; Higham, J S; Wace, N M

    2004-06-01

    The Anxious Bay beach litter clearance is the longest running annual survey of ocean-based litter in Australia. It's remoteness from centres of human population and location (with respect to prevailing winds and currents) make it an ideal place for monitoring ocean or ship-based litter in Australia's southern oceans and particularly, the Great Australian Bight. Over the 1991-1999 period, a large but gradual decline in the amount of beach washed litter was recorded (with minor peaks recorded during the 1992 and 1994 surveys). Beach washed litter decreased by approximately 86%, from 344 kg recorded in 1991 (13.2 kg/km) to 49 kg in 1999 (i.e. 1.9 kg/km), reaching a maximum of 390 kg in 1992 (or 15 kg/km of beach). However, a sharp increase in litter was recorded in 2000 (i.e. 252 kg or 9.7 kg/km). This increase in litter yield in 2000 is probably due to stronger than average onshore surface flow (or Ekman Transport) in the western Eyre Peninsula and Bight region. Prior to the survey in 2000, the results appeared to indicate that ocean litter on Anxious Bay beach was beginning to level out at around 50-70 kg/year (i.e. 2-3 kg/km). As the beach surveys involve the assumption that the beach is completely cleared of litter, this may represent a baseline level for ocean-based litter in the region. The yields and type of litter collected from the annual survey indicates that the majority of litter washed ashore originates from commercial fishing activities within the Great Australian Bight. Most of the fishing-related litter was directly sourced to the Southern Rock Lobster Fishery (i.e. bait buckets, baskets, pots), the Great Australian Bight Trawl Fishery (i.e. codends, trawl nets) and the Southern Shark Fishery (i.e. monofilament gillnets and longlines). Between 1994 and 1999, large reductions were observed in the amount of bait straps (77% reduction), lobster bait baskets/buckets (86% reduction), nets/ropes (62% reduction) and floats/buoys (83% reduction). Significantly

  18. Health promotion in Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care services: case studies from South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael; Värttö, Kaisu; Boffa, John; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on the health promotion and disease prevention conducted at Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care (PHC) services and considers the ways in which the organizational environment affects the extent and type of health promotion and disease prevention activity. The study involves five PHC services in Adelaide and one in Alice Springs. Four are managed by a state health department and two by boards of governance. The study is based on an audit of activities and on 68 interviews conducted with staff. All the sites undertake health promotion and recognize its importance but all report that this activity is under constant pressure resulting from the need to provide services to people who have health problems. We also found an increased focus on chronic disease management and prevention which prioritized individuals and behavioural change strategies rather than addressing social determinants affecting whole communities. There was little health promotion work that reflected a salutogenic approach to the creation of health. Most activity falls under three types: parenting and child development, chronic disease prevention and mental health. Only the non-government organizations reported advocacy on broader policy issues. Health reform and consequent reorganizations were seen to reduce the ability of some services to undertake health promotion. The paper concludes that PHC in Australia plays an important role in disease prevention, but that there is considerable scope to increase the amount of community-based health promotion which focuses on a salutogenic view of health and which engages in community partnerships.

  19. Implications of high species turnover on the south-western Australian sandplains

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Neil; Prober, Suzanne; Meissner, Rachel; van Leeuwen, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Species turnover and its components related to replacement and nestedness form a significant element of diversity that is historically poorly accounted for in conservation planning. To inform biodiversity conservation and contribute to a broader understanding of patterns in species turnover, we undertook a floristic survey of 160 plots along an 870 km transect across oligotrophic sandplains, extending from the mesic south coast to the arid interior of south-western Australia. A nested survey design was employed to sample distances along the transect as evenly as possible. Species turnover was correlated with geographic distance at both regional and local scales, consistent with dispersal limitation being a significant driver of species turnover. When controlled for species richness, species replacement was found to be the dominant component of species turnover and was uniformly high across the transect, uncorrelated with either climatic or edaphic factors. This high replacement rate, well documented in the mega-diverse south-west, appears to also be a consistent feature of arid zone vegetation systems despite a decrease in overall species richness. Species turnover increased rapidly with increasing extent along the transect reaching an asymptote at ca. 50 km. These findings are consistent with earlier work in sandplain and mallee vegetation in the south-west and suggests reserve based conservation strategies are unlikely to be practicable in the south-western Australia sandplains when communities are defined by species incidence rather than dominance. PMID:28245232

  20. The Likelihood of Completing a Government-Funded VET Program, 2010-14. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Australian vocational education and training (VET) system provides training across a wide range of subject areas and is delivered through a variety of training institutions and enterprises (including to apprentices and trainees). The system provides training for students of all ages and backgrounds. Students may study individual subjects or…

  1. Morchella australiana sp. nov., an apparent Australian endemic from New South Wales and Victoria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An abundant fruiting of a black morel was encountered in temperate northwestern New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during a mycological survey in August 2010. The collection site was west of the Great Dividing Range in a young, dry sclerophyll woodland forest dominated by Eucalyptus and Callitris nor...

  2. Investigating Literacy Language & Numeracy in Training Packages. Report on the South Australian Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenerry, Ruth

    The implementation and effectiveness of the inclusion of literacy and numeracy in industry training packages was examined in a case study that focused on the use the horticulture industry training package in South Australia. Data were gathered from the following activities: a literature review; consultations with stakeholders in the package's…

  3. Nature of Educational Disadvantage in Country Schools: A South Australian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, David

    This paper identifies differences in educational outcomes for rural students in South Australia compared to their metropolitan peers. This information was compiled by a task force whose aim was to develop an action plan to achieve equality of educational opportunities for rural students. Available information suggests that students in country…

  4. Coevolution of soil and vegetation in the South Eastern Australian uplands with variable climate and fire regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Assaf; Petter, Nyman; Patrick, Lane; Gary, Sheridan

    2016-04-01

    The south east Australian forested uplands are characterized by complex and inter-correlated spatial patterns in forest types, soil depths and fire regimes, even within areas with similar sedimentary geology and catenary position. The ecohydrology of these system-state combinations varies markedly, and is difficult to predict. Here we present preliminary results from a soil and vegetation co-evolutionary framework that represents the key feedbacks that have resulted in the current quasi-equilibrium system states of standing biomass, soil depth and fire frequency. The model is based on a modification of an existing mechanistic model, and includes an ecohydrological engine that drives a vegetation dynamics and a geomorphic submodels. Five sites with similar parent material and slope along a rainfall gradient and opposing aspects were chosen to test the model outputs: soil depth and above-ground biomass. In three of the sites, microclimate conditions were extensively monitored in a clear ridge-top (Open), and North and South facing aspects. The data was used to calibrate and test the ecohydrology modelling according to landscape position. Geomorphic processes that control soil depth were modeled using existing transport functions which varied with climate and forest type, and fire regime was set to be a function of biomass state and water deficit. In the next step, the model will have the potential to be incorporated into a 2D landscape evolution model in order to route sediment and water in a dynamic landscape. Using this model allows us to explore how, and in what rate, did each of the different systems evolve into their current state, and what is the unique and combined part of climate and fire regimes in the coevolution process, and predict the response of the current systems to change in a changing climate.

  5. Temporal variations in latest Quaternary slip across the Australian-Pacific Plate Boundary, northeastern South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuepfer, Peter L. K.

    1992-06-01

    Rates of latest Quaternary slip from stream terraces and moraines displaced by faults of the Alpine shear system in NE South Island, New Zealand, vary in space and time. Detailed histories of fault slip are obtained from combining displacement data with estimates of the age of the surface from weathering characteristics. Precision in surface ages is 5-20% using rock weathering rinds and 15-50% using soil properties. The oldest surfaces examined are 15-20 ka and have right-lateral fault offsets up to 400-600 m. The main faults of the in the NE South Island (the Wairau, Awatere, Clarence, Hope, Kekerengu, and Porters Pass faults) have average latest Quaternary right-lateral slip rates of 3-10, 5-10, 7-10, 25-40, 5-7, and 3-4 mm/yr respectively. Every fault has undergone a substantial decrease in lateral slip rate in the last 3-5 kyr. Summed across the plate boundary, the average latest Quaternary slip rates are comparable to long-term rates of horizontal slip across the Australian-Pacific plate boundary (around 40 mm/yr parallel to the boundary) and rates of geodetic strain and seismic moment release over the last 50-100 years (approximately the same). However, sums of lateral fault-slip rates over the interval from 15 to 5 ka exceed the plate motions, whereas late Holocene lateral fault-slip rates are less than half the long-term average. The best explanation of these variations is slip across the plate boundary is episodic, varying over perhaps 5-kyr intervals. This implies that 15-20 kyr is the time interval necessary to average out shorter, 5-kyr episodic variations in plate boundary motions.

  6. Fair and just or just fair? Examining models of government--not-for-profit engagement under the Australian Social Inclusion Agenda.

    PubMed

    Carey, Gemma; Riley, Therese

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores the interrelationship between two contemporary policy debates: one focused on the social determinants of health and the other on social (inclusion) policy within contemporary welfare regimes. In both debates, academics and policy makers alike are grappling with the balance between universal and targeted policy initiatives and the role of local 'delivery' organizations in promoting health and social equality. In this paper, we discuss these debates in the context of a recent social policy initiative in Australia: the Social Inclusion Agenda. We examine two proposed models of engagement between the government and the not-for-profit welfare sector for the delivery of social services. We conclude that the two models of engagement currently under consideration by the Australian government have substantially different outcomes for the health of disadvantaged communities and the creation of a more socially inclusive Australia.

  7. Promoting physical activity among children and youth in disadvantaged South Australian CALD communities through alternative community sport opportunities.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Edoardo; McGrath, Richard

    2016-02-29

    Issue addressed: Recently arrived migrants and refugees from a culturally and linguistically diverse background (CALD) may be particularly vulnerable to social exclusion. Participation in sport is endorsed as a vehicle to ease the resettlement process; however, in Australia, this is often thought as a simple matter of integration into existing sport structures (e.g. clubs). This approach fails to place actual community needs at the centre of sport engagement efforts.Methods: A consultation framework was established with South Australian CALD community leaders and organisations to scope needs for community-based alternatives to participation in traditional sport (e.g. clubs), co-design a suitable community sport program and pilot it in five communities. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted with participants, community representatives, stakeholders and volunteers.Results: Regular, free soccer activities engaged 263 young people from a great variety of nationalities, including over 50% refugees, in secondary state school and community-based sites.Conclusion: Alternative community sport programs can provide a basic but valuable forum to promote physical activity and associated well being in CALD and refugee communities.So what?: Alternative approaches can extend the health benefits of sport participation to disadvantaged children and youth who are excluded from traditional sport participation opportunities.

  8. Is a history of school bullying victimization associated with adult suicidal ideation?: a South Australian population-based observational study.

    PubMed

    Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen; Korossy-Horwood, Rebecca; Eckert, Kerena A; Goldney, Robert D

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether a history of school bullying victimization is associated with suicidal ideation in adult life. A random and representative sample of 2907 South Australian adults was surveyed in Autumn, 2008. Respondents were asked "When you were at school, did you experience traumatic bullying by peers that was particularly severe, for example, being frequently targeted or routinely harassed in any way by 'bullies'?" Depression was determined by the mood module of the PRIME-MD which includes a suicidal ideation question; "In the last 2 weeks, have you had thoughts that you would be better off dead or hurting yourself in some way?" The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation in postschool age respondents was 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 2.8%-4.2%) in 2008. Bullying by peers was recalled by 18.7% (17.2%-20.3%). Respondents with a history of being bullied were approximately 3 times (odds ratio: 3.2) more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with those who did not. The association between being bullied and suicidal ideation remained after controlling for both depression and sociodemographic variables (odds ratio: 2.1). The results from the present research suggest that there is a strong association between a history of childhood bullying victimization and current suicidal ideation that persists across all ages. Bullying prevention programs in schools could hold the potential for longer lasting benefits in this important area of public health.

  9. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery. PMID:26489035

  10. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery.

  11. Reviewing South Australian ESL Programs and Services: Implications for Teachers and Learners at Senior Secondary Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Currently each state and territory in Australia offers its own range of ESOL services and programs, guided by policy and supported by funding from both national, state and territory authorities, with some variations occurring across jurisdictions (government, independent, Catholic). The National Curriculum Board (now renamed the Australian…

  12. Government-Funded Students and Courses--January to June 2016. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of data relating to students, programs, subjects, and training providers in Australia's government-funded vocational education and training (VET) system. This is broadly defined as all activity delivered by government providers and government-funded activity delivered by community education and other registered…

  13. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics: Government-Funded Students and Courses--January to March 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of data relating to students, programs, subjects, and training providers in Australia's government-funded vocational education and training (VET) system (defined as Commonwealth and state/territory government funded training). This is the first time that government-funded data from one quarter is compared with…

  14. Governments' perceptions and policies of population redistribution in East and South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, L A

    1981-01-01

    "This paper is based on the results of the Third Inquiry among Governments on Population and Development carried out in 1977 by the UN Secretariat. It reports on perceptions and policies concerning international migrations, spatial distribution of the national population, internal migration and settlement patterns in fourteen South East and East Asian countries. "It appears that nearly all countries under consideration were concerned with the spatial distribution of population both as a factor related to problems caused by excessive natural increase and as a problem on its own right. The majority of countries were prepared to pursue policies affecting basic trends in internal migration. Most governments declared their willingness to alter patterns of rural or both rural and urban settlement. Only two countries were interested in increasing emigration; the remaining ones were satisfied with the existing levels of international migration."

  15. Effect of common polymorphisms in folate uptake and metabolism genes on frequency of micronucleated lymphocytes in a South Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Varinderpal; Thomas, Philip; Fenech, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes that control folate uptake and metabolism may have an important effect on chromosomal stability. The present study investigated the effect of common SNPs in some of these critical genes on frequency of lymphocytes with micronuclei, a biomarker of chromosome breakage or loss. 164 individuals (94 males and 70 females) of different age ranging from 18 to 73 years participated in this study. Polymorphisms in GCPII (C1561T), RFC (G80A), MTR (A2756G), MTRR (A66G and C524T), TS (tandem repeats, 6bp deletion in 3'-UTR region) and MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) were detected using PCR-based methods. Frequency of binucleated (BN) lymphocytes containing one or more micronuclei (BN-MN) was determined using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and adjusted for the effects of age and gender. We did not find any significant association between BN-MN frequency and the common SNPs in GCPII, MTRR, TS and MTHFR genes. BN-MN frequency in individuals who carried at least one copy of the rarer G allele for MTR (A2756G) or were homozygotes for the more common G allele for RFC (G80A) had a 14% or 19% lower BN-MN frequency compared to the alternative genotypes for that SNP respectively. It was evident from genotype combination analyses that BN-MN frequency per 1000 BN cells was highest in those with the combined MTR (2756) AA and RFC (80) GA or AA genotype (13.6 per thousand) and lowest in those with the combined MTR (2756) AG or GG and RFC (80) GG genotypes (9.5 per thousand) (P trend=0.015). The RFC G80A and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and their combinations may be important variables that substantially affect lymphocyte BN-MN frequency in this South Australian cohort.

  16. Extending our understanding of South Pacific gyre "spin-up": Modeling the East Australian Current in a future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, E. C. J.; Holbrook, N. J.

    2014-05-01

    The western Tasman Sea represents a global warming marine "hot spot," where the waters are warming at almost 4 times the global average rate, argued in the literature to be due to a "spin-up" of the South Pacific subtropical gyre and extension of the East Australian Current (EAC). To further investigate and test this paradigm, we analyze climate change simulations of Tasman Sea circulation and metrics on output from the Ocean Forecasting Australia Model for the 20th and 21st centuries, forced by a global climate model simulation under the A1B carbon emissions scenario. First, we show that the 1990s simulation estimates of mean dynamic topography, present-day location of the EAC separation point, and volume transports of the EAC, EAC extension, and flow along the Tasman Front, are consistent with recent observations. We further demonstrate that between the 1990s and 2060s, the volume transport of the EAC extension is projected to increase by 4.3 Sv at the expense of the flow along the Tasman Front (projected to decrease by 2.7 Sv). The transport of the EAC core flow (equatorward of the separation point) is projected to change very little (increase of 0.2 Sv). The model projects a Tasman Sea-wide warming, with mean increases of up to 3°C. These results are interpreted using a simple linear, barotropic model which captures both the sign and meridional distribution of the projected changes in mean transport, including negligible change in core EAC transport but enhanced EAC extension. This meridional asymmetry in the transports is consistent with the wind-forced ocean response to changes in the basin-wide wind stress curl.

  17. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  18. Information and communication technology use among Victorian and South Australian oral health professions students.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Habibi, Elmira; Morgan, Michael; Au-Yeung, Winnie

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine and analyze the use of information and communication technology (ICT) by oral health professions students in Victoria and South Australia. Data were collected during the 2009 and 2010 academic years via electronic survey. Out of 1,138 students studying in Adelaide and Victorian dental schools, 740 students participated, for an overall response rate of 65 percent. The majority were dental students (n=609) with 131 seeking a Bachelor of Oral Health (B.O.H.) degree. The majority were female (62.0 percent), had home Internet access (91.7 percent), and no barriers to accessing the Internet (87.2 percent). Among those who mentioned barriers, difficult access and cost were the most common. The Internet was accessed at least once a week by the majority for general purposes (93.5 percent) and for study purposes (84.2 percent). Nonetheless, thirty-nine students (5.3 percent) were non-frequent ICT users. The probability of an oral health professions student being in the non-ICT users group was explored utilizing a logistic regression analysis. The final model contained three predictors: location of school, ethnic background, and place of Internet use (χ(2) [3]=117.7; p<0.0001). After controlling for other variables in the model, those studying in South Australia were significantly more likely (OR=2.32; 95 percent CI 1.05 to 5.11) to be in the non-users groups. In the same manner, students from an Asian background were three times more likely to be non-users (OR=3.06; 95 percent CI 1.16 to 8.08). Those who had access to the Internet at home (OR=0.02; 95 percent CI 0.01 to 0.05) were less likely to be a non-user. These results represent a preliminary evaluation of ICT use among oral health professions students in Australia. It seems that a digital divide exists among these students. The information can be utilized in planning dental education programs and incorporating the use of ICT suitable for oral health professions students and

  19. The soil bacterial communities of South African fynbos riparian ecosystems invaded by Australian Acacia species.

    PubMed

    Slabbert, Etienne; Jacobs, Shayne Martin; Jacobs, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Riparian ecosystem along rivers and streams are characterised by lateral and longitudinal ecological gradients and, as a result, harbour unique biodiversity. Riparian ecosystems in the fynbos of the Western Cape, South Africa, are characterised by seasonal dynamics, with summer droughts followed by high flows during winter. The unique hydrology and geomorphology of riparian ecosystems play an important role in shaping these ecosystems. The riparian vegetation in the Western Cape has, however, largely been degraded due to the invasion of non-indigenous plants, in particular Acacia mearnsii, A. saligna and A. dealbata. This study investigated the effect of hydrology and invasion on the bacterial communities associated with fynbos riparian ecosystems. Bacterial communities were characterised with automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and 454 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Chemical and physical properties of soil within sites were also determined and correlated with community data. Sectioning across the lateral zones revealed significant differences in community composition, and the specific bacterial taxa influenced. Results also showed that the bacterial community structure could be linked to Acacia invasion. The presence of invasive Acacia was correlated with specific bacterial phyla. However, high similarity between cleared and pristine sites suggests that the effect of Acacia on the soil bacterial community structure may not be permanent. This study demonstrates how soil bacterial communities are influenced by hydrological gradients associated with riparian ecosystems and the impact of Acacia invasion on these communities.

  20. Impact of green roofs on stormwater quality in a South Australian urban environment.

    PubMed

    Razzaghmanesh, M; Beecham, S; Kazemi, F

    2014-02-01

    Green roofs are an increasingly important component of water sensitive urban design systems and can potentially improve the quality of urban runoff. However, there is evidence that they can occasionally act as a source rather than a sink for pollutants. In this study, the water quality of the outflow from both intensive and extensive green roof systems were studied in the city of Adelaide, South Australia over a period of nine months. The aim was to examine the effects of different green roof configurations on stormwater quality and to compare this with runoff from aluminium and asphalt roofs as control surfaces. The contaminant concentrations in runoff from both intensive and extensive green roofs generally decreased during the study period. A comparison between the two types of green roof showed that except for some events for EC, TDS and chloride, the values of the parameters such as pH, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate and potassium in intensive green roof outflows were higher than in the outflows from the extensive green roofs. These concentrations were compared to local, state, national and international water quality guidelines in order to investigate the potential for outflow runoff from green roofs to be reused for potable and non-potable purposes. The study found that green roof outflow can provide an alternative water source for non-potable purposes such as urban landscape irrigation and toilet flushing.

  1. Homicide among Indigenous South Australians: a forty-year study (1969-2008).

    PubMed

    Temlett, Julia; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    A retrospective review of homicide cases among Aboriginal people in South Australia examined at Forensic Science SA was undertaken over a 40-year period from 1969 to 2008. A total of 90 Indigenous homicide victims were identified compared to 599 non-Indigenous victims over the same time period. Although homicide rates have fallen, the Indigenous homicide rate (ranging from 73.5 to 223.97 per 100,000) significantly exceeded the non-Indigenous rate (ranging from 8.16 to 12.6 per 100,000) for all decades (p<0.001). The most common methods of homicide in the Indigenous population involved blunt force and sharp force trauma, with gunshot, strangulation and other forms of homicides being encountered less often. While lack of access to firearms may explain the lower numbers of gunshot deaths it would not explain the low numbers of deaths due to strangulation. Considerable variability may, therefore, exist in the types of unnatural deaths that may be found in different cultural and ethnic groups, even within the same community.

  2. Morchella australiana sp. nov., an apparent Australian endemic from New South Wales and Victoria.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Todd F; Bougher, Neale L; O'Donnell, Kerry; Trappe, James M

    2014-01-01

    An abundant fruiting of a black morel was encountered in temperate northwestern New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during a mycological survey in Sep 2010. The site was west of the Great Dividing Range in a young, dry sclerophyll forest dominated by Eucalyptus and Callitris north of Coonabarabran in an area known as the Pilliga Scrub. Although the Pilliga Scrub is characterized by frequent and often large, intense wildfires, the site showed no sign of recent fire, which suggests this species is not a postfire morel. Caps of the Morchella elata-like morel were brown with blackish ridges supported by a pubescent stipe that became brown at maturity. Because no morel has been described as native to Australia, the collections were subjected to multilocus molecular phylogenetic and morphological analyses to assess its identity. Results of these analyses indicated that our collection, together with collections from NSW and Victoria, represented a novel, genealogically exclusive lineage, which is described and illustrated here as Morchella australiana T. F. Elliott, Bougher, O'Donnell & Trappe, sp. nov.

  3. The Soil Bacterial Communities of South African Fynbos Riparian Ecosystems Invaded by Australian Acacia Species

    PubMed Central

    Slabbert, Etienne; Jacobs, Shayne Martin; Jacobs, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Riparian ecosystem along rivers and streams are characterised by lateral and longitudinal ecological gradients and, as a result, harbour unique biodiversity. Riparian ecosystems in the fynbos of the Western Cape, South Africa, are characterised by seasonal dynamics, with summer droughts followed by high flows during winter. The unique hydrology and geomorphology of riparian ecosystems play an important role in shaping these ecosystems. The riparian vegetation in the Western Cape has, however, largely been degraded due to the invasion of non-indigenous plants, in particular Acacia mearnsii, A. saligna and A. dealbata. This study investigated the effect of hydrology and invasion on the bacterial communities associated with fynbos riparian ecosystems. Bacterial communities were characterised with automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and 454 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Chemical and physical properties of soil within sites were also determined and correlated with community data. Sectioning across the lateral zones revealed significant differences in community composition, and the specific bacterial taxa influenced. Results also showed that the bacterial community structure could be linked to Acacia invasion. The presence of invasive Acacia was correlated with specific bacterial phyla. However, high similarity between cleared and pristine sites suggests that the effect of Acacia on the soil bacterial community structure may not be permanent. This study demonstrates how soil bacterial communities are influenced by hydrological gradients associated with riparian ecosystems and the impact of Acacia invasion on these communities. PMID:24475145

  4. The South Australian Safe Drinking Water Act: summary of the first year of operation.

    PubMed

    Froscio, Suzanne M; Bolton, Natalie; Cooke, Renay; Wittholz, Michelle; Cunliffe, David

    2016-06-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act 2011 was introduced in South Australia to provide clear direction to drinking water providers on how to achieve water safety. The Act requires drinking water providers to register with SA Health and develop a risk management plan (RMP) for their water supply that includes operational and verification monitoring plans and an incident notification and communication protocol. During the first year of operation, 212 drinking water providers registered under the Act, including one major water utility and a range of small to medium sized providers in regional and remote areas of the State. Information was captured on water source(s) used and water treatment. Rainwater was the most frequently reported drinking water source (66%), followed by bore water (13%), on-supply or carting of mains water (13%), mixed source (rainwater with bore water backup) (6%) and surface water (3%). The majority of providers (91%) treated the water supply, 87% used disinfection. During the first year of operation, 16 water quality incidents were formally reported to SA Health. These included both microbial and chemical incidents. Case studies presented highlight how the RMPs are assisting drinking water providers to identify incidents of potential health concern and implement corrective actions.

  5. Hurricane & Tropical Storm Impacts over the South Florida Metropolitan Area: Mortality & Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon Pagan, I. C.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1985, the South Florida Metropolitan area (SFMA), which covers the counties of Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach, has been directly affected by 9 tropical cyclones: four tropical storms and 5 hurricanes. This continuous hurricane and tropical storm activity has awakened the conscience of the communities, government, and private sector, about the social vulnerability, in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, and others. Several factors have also been significant enough to affect the vulnerability of the South Florida Metropolitan area, like its geographic location which is at the western part of the Atlantic hurricane track, with a surface area of 6,137 square miles, and elevation of 15 feet. And second, from the 2006 Census estimate, this metropolitan area is the 7th most populous area in the United States supporting almost 1,571 individuals per square mile. Mortality levels due to hurricanes and tropical storms have fluctuated over the last 21 years without any signal of a complete reduction, a phenomenon that can be related to both physical characteristics of the storms and government actions. The average annual death count remains almost the same from 4.10 between 1985 and 1995 to 4 from 1996 to 2006. However, the probability of occurrence of a direct impact of an atmospheric disturbance has increase from 0.3 to 0.6, with an average of three hurricane or tropical storm direct impacts for every five. This analysis suggests an increasing problem with regard to atmospheric disturbances-related deaths in the South Florida Metropolitan area. In other words, despite substantial increases in population during the last 21 years, the number of tropical cyclone-related deaths is not declining; it's just being segregated among more storms. Gaps between each impact can be related to mortality levels. When that time increases in five years or more, such as Bob and Andrew or Irene and Katrina, or decreases in weeks or months, such as Harvey and Irene or Katrina and Wilma

  6. Moving towards universal coverage in South Africa? Lessons from a voluntary government insurance scheme

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Veloshnee; Chersich, Matthew F.; Harris, Bronwyn; Alaba, Olufunke; Ataguba, John E.; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Goudge, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2005, the South African government introduced a voluntary, subsidised health insurance scheme for civil servants. In light of the global emphasis on universal coverage, empirical evidence is needed to understand the relationship between new health financing strategies and health care access thereby improving global understanding of these issues. Objectives This study analysed coverage of the South African government health insurance scheme, the population groups with low uptake, and the individual-level factors, as well as characteristics of the scheme, that influenced enrolment. Methods Multi-stage random sampling was used to select 1,329 civil servants from the health and education sectors in four of South Africa's nine provinces. They were interviewed to determine factors associated with enrolment in the scheme. The analysis included both descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Results Notwithstanding the availability of a non-contributory option within the insurance scheme and access to privately-provided primary care, a considerable portion of socio-economically vulnerable groups remained uninsured (57.7% of the lowest salary category). Non-insurance was highest among men, black African or coloured ethnic groups, less educated and lower-income employees, and those living in informal-housing. The relatively poor uptake of the contributory and non-contributory insurance options was mostly attributed to insufficient information, perceived administrative challenges of taking up membership, and payment costs. Conclusion Barriers to enrolment include insufficient information, unaffordability of payments and perceived administrative complexity. Achieving universal coverage requires good physical access to service providers and appropriate benefit options within pre-payment health financing mechanisms. PMID:23364093

  7. Corporate Sector Practice Informs Online Workforce Training for Australian Government Agencies: Towards Effective Educational-Learning Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Elspeth; Vilela, Cenie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline government online training practice. We searched individual research domains of the human-dimensions of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), information and communications technologies (ICT) and instructional design for evidence of either corporate sector or government training practices. We overlapped these…

  8. Why the Distilled Spirits Industry Council of Australia is not a credible partner for the Australian government in making alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Munro, Geoffrey

    2012-06-01

    In 2008 the Australian government increased the excise rate on ready-to-drink premixed spirits or 'alcopops' by 70% to reduce their attraction to young people. A campaign against the decision was led by the Distilled Spirits Industry Council of Australia, whose members include representatives of the world's largest spirits producers and which aspires to partner the government in making alcohol policy. Distilled Spirits Industry Council of Australia's central thesis appeared to lack substance and sincerity: first, it promoted industry data that were evidently premature and misleading; second, it claimed ready-to-drinks were a safer alternative to the consumption of full-strength spirits because spirits pose a threat to drinkers due to their higher alcoholic content. For spirits producers to concede that drinking spirits is generically hazardous may be unprecedented and contradicts the spirits industry's long-standing opposition to the introduction of health warnings on product labels. Although that admission did not survive the resolution of the case, the effect may be profound, as it might justify the demand for greater control of the labelling and marketing of spirits, and reduce the credibility of spirits producers, and the broader alcohol industry, on matters of policy.

  9. Summary of government sponsored foreign electronics: European union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, United Kingdom, France, and Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garian, Robert

    1994-10-01

    This report provides basic information and statistical data on foreign electronics research and development sponsored by the governments of the European Union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, France, and Singapore. Industrial R&D funding was found to be highly significant in all of the countries studied. Government and industry typically collaborate closely in the planning of economic strategies for capturing new or larger shares of targeted segments of the electronics market.

  10. Is "Learning" Science Enough?--A Cultural Model of Religious Students of Science in an Australian Government School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joseph Paul; Kameniar, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the cognitive experiences of four religious students studying evolutionary biology in an inner city government secondary school in Melbourne, Australia. The participants in the study were identified using the Religious Background and Behaviours questionnaire (Connors, Tonigan, & Miller, 1996). Participants were…

  11. The Impact of the Australian Government's Quality Assurance Program on Institutional Roles and Management Processes. AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Alan

    In Australia the Federal Government plays a dominant role in higher education funding. Changes to the role and structure of the higher education system in 1988 aligned the universities more closely with national economic goals and sent the message to institutions that they were expected to adopt a more managerial mode of operation in order to…

  12. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, K. D.

    The author notes that two trends appear to be developing in litigation over the governance of the public schools. One trend is increasing participation of organized groups in suits against the schools. The other is a greater volume of litigation dealing with open meeting laws and freedom of information acts. Reflecting the second trend, the…

  13. Education for Citizenship in South Australian Public Schools: A Pilot Study of Senior Leader and Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Andrew; Bentley, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Preparing students for informed and active citizenship is a core goal of education and schooling in Australia. The ways schools educate and prepare young Australians for citizenship involves a range of processes and initiatives central to the work of schools, including school ethos, mission, extracurricular activities and community-based…

  14. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  15. Challenging urban health: towards an improved local government response to migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Vearey, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD thesis undertaken by Joanna Vearey that explores local government responses to the urban health challenges of migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa. Urbanisation in South Africa is a result of natural urban growth and (to a lesser extent) in-migration from within the country and across borders. This has led to the development of informal settlements within and on the periphery of urban areas. The highest HIV prevalence nationally is found within urban informal settlements. South African local government has a 'developmental mandate' that calls for government to work with citizens to develop sustainable interventions to address their social, economic, and material needs. Through a mixed-methods approach, four studies were undertaken within inner-city Johannesburg and a peripheral urban informal settlement. Two cross-sectional surveys - one at a household level and one with migrant antiretroviral clients - were supplemented with semi-structured interviews with multiple stakeholders involved with urban health and HIV in Johannesburg, and participatory photography and film projects undertaken with urban migrant communities. The findings show that local government requires support in developing and implementing appropriate intersectoral responses to address urban health. Existing urban health frameworks do not deal adequately with the complex health and development challenges identified; it is essential that urban public health practitioners and other development professionals in South Africa engage with the complexities of the urban environment. A revised, participatory approach to urban health - 'concept mapping' - is suggested which requires a recommitment to intersectoral action, 'healthy urban governance' and public health advocacy.

  16. Is `Learning' Science Enough? - A Cultural Model of Religious Students of Science in an Australian Government School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Joseph Paul; Kameniar, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the cognitive experiences of four religious students studying evolutionary biology in an inner city government secondary school in Melbourne, Australia. The participants in the study were identified using the Religious Background and Behaviours questionnaire (Connors, Tonigan, & Miller, 1996). Participants were interviewed and asked to respond to questions about their cognitive experiences of studying evolutionary biology. Students' responses were analysed using cultural analysis of discourse to construct a cultural model of religious students of science. This cultural model suggests that these students employ a human schema and a non-human schema, which assert that humans are fundamentally different from non-humans in terms of origins and that humans have a transcendental purpose in life. For these students, these maxims seem to be challenged by their belief that evolutionary biology is dictated by metaphysical naturalism. The model suggests that because the existential foundation of these students is challenged, they employ a believing schema to classify their religious explanations and a learning schema to classify evolutionary biology. These schemas are then hierarchically arranged with the learning schema being made subordinate to the believing schema. Importantly, these students are thus able to maintain their existential foundation while fulfilling the requirements of school science. However, the quality of this "learning" is questionable.

  17. Seasonal Variations in Physical Characteristics of the South Australian Shelf Waters -Results from the Southern Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (SAIMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, C.; Luick, J.; Leterme, S. C.; Middleton, J.; Seuront, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern Australia Integrated Marine Observing System, or SAIMOS, is one of five nodes operating as part of the Australia-wide Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). This is a collaborative program designed to observe Australia's oceans, both coastal and blue-water. Since February 2008 Physical Data has been collected for SAIMOS in both summer and winter months during 8 surveys. The data collected during summer are used to characterise the nature and dynamics of the Kangaroo Island-Eyre Peninsula upwelling system during a record upwelling event in February 2008. During this event a plume of very cool water was observed along the bottom from South of KI to the Eyre Peninsula. This plume dissipated rapidly after the end of upwelling favourable winds and by March 2008 had disappeared entirely from the observations. The data are also used to study the dense high salinity outflow from Spencer Gulf observed during the winter months. The dense plume result from surface cooling of high salinity waters at the head of Spencer Gulf. One striking result of these observations is that the outflow occurs during a series of strong pulses with a period of approximately 2 weeks and duration of 1-3 days. During these pulses bottom velocities at 100 m can exceed 1 m/s.

  18. Questioning the Pace and Pathway of E-Government Development in Africa: A Case Study of South Africa's Cape Gateway Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maumbe, Blessing Mukabeta; Owei, Vesper; Alexander, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines e-government development in Africa. This study is based on the Cape Gateway project in South Africa, a leading e-government initiative on the continent. We observe that African countries have jumped on the e-government band wagon by looking mostly at the benefits without a clear risk assessment. We argue that African countries…

  19. Estimation of potential scour at bridges on local government roads in South Dakota, 2009-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ryan F.; Wattier, Chelsea M.; Liggett, Richard R.; Truax, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) began a study to estimate potential scour at selected bridges on local government (county, township, and municipal) roads in South Dakota. A rapid scour-estimation method (level-1.5) and a more detailed method (level-2) were used to develop estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Data from 41 level-2 analyses completed for this study were combined with data from level-2 analyses completed in previous studies to develop new South Dakota-specific regression equations: four regional equations for main-channel velocity at the bridge contraction to account for the widely varying stream conditions within South Dakota, and one equation for head change. Velocity data from streamgages also were used in the regression for average velocity through the bridge contraction. Using these new regression equations, scour analyses were completed using the level-1.5 method on 361 bridges on local government roads. Typically, level-1.5 analyses are completed at flows estimated to have annual exceedance probabilities of 1 percent (100-year flood) and 0.2 percent (500-year flood); however, at some sites the bridge would not pass these flows. A level-1.5 analysis was then completed at the flow expected to produce the maximum scour. Data presented for level-1.5 scour analyses at the 361 bridges include contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Estimates of potential contraction scour ranged from 0 to 32.5 feet for the various flows evaluated. Estimated potential abutment scour ranged from 0 to 40.9 feet for left abutments, and from 0 to 37.7 feet for right abutments. Pier scour values ranged from 2.7 to 31.6 feet. The scour depth estimates provided in this report can be used by the SDDOT to compare with foundation depths at each bridge to determine if abutments or piers are at risk of being undermined by scour at the flows evaluated. Replicate analyses were completed at 24 of the 361 bridges

  20. Australian Film Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  1. Do thin, overweight and obese children have poorer development than their healthy-weight peers at the start of school? Findings from a South Australian data linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Anna; Scalzi, Daniel; Lynch, John; Smithers, Lisa G.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the holistic development of children who are not healthy-weight when they start school, despite one fifth of preschool-aged children in high income countries being overweight or obese. Further to this, there is a paucity of research examining low body mass index (BMI) in contemporary high-income populations, although evidence from the developing world demonstrates a range of negative consequences in childhood and beyond. We investigated the development of 4–6 year old children who were thin, healthy-weight, overweight, or obese (as defined by BMI z-scores) across the five domains of the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC): Physical Health and Wellbeing, Social Competence, Emotional Maturity, Language and Cognitive Skills, and Communication Skills and General Knowledge. We used a linked dataset of South Australian routinely collected data, which included the AEDC, school enrollment data, and perinatal records (n = 7533). We found that the risk of developmental vulnerability among children who were thin did not differ from healthy-weight children, after adjusting for a range of perinatal and socio-economic characteristics. On the whole, overweight children also had similar outcomes as their healthy-weight peers, though they may have better Language and Cognitive skills (adjusted Risk Ratio [aRR] = 0.73 [95% CI 0.50–1.05]). Obese children were more likely to be vulnerable on the Physical Health and Wellbeing (2.20 [1.69, 2.87]) and Social Competence (1.31 [0.94, 1.83]) domains, and to be vulnerable on one or more domains (1.45 [1.18, 1.78]). We conclude that children who are obese in the first year of school may already be exhibiting some developmental vulnerabilities (relative to their healthy-weight peers), lending further support for strategies to promote healthy development of preschoolers. PMID:27158187

  2. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  3. Australian Indigenous Perspectives on Quality Assurance in Children's Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Teresa; Frances, Katie; Saggers, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government has recently committed to the development of an integrated system of assuring national quality standards for Australian childcare and preschool services (Australian Government, 2008). This article addresses two fundamental issues relating to the development of an integrated system as it applies to Indigenous children's…

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the South american and the Australian lungfish: testing of the phylogenetic performance of mitochondrial data sets for phylogenetic problems in tetrapod relationships.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Henner; Denk, Angelika; Zitzler, Jürgen; Joss, Jean J; Meyer, Axel

    2004-12-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequences (16403 and 16572 base pairs, respectively) of the mitochondrial genomes of the South American lungfish, Lepidosiren paradoxa, and the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Sarcopterygii, Dipnoi). The mitochondrial DNA sequences were established in an effort to resolve the debated evolutionary positions of the lungfish and the coelacanth relative to land vertebrates. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on complete mtDNA sequences, including only the African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, sequence were able to strongly reject the traditional textbook hypothesis that coelacanths are the closest relatives of land vertebrates. However, these studies were unable to statistically significantly distinguish between the two remaining scenarios: lungfish as the closest relatives to land vertebrates and lungfish and coelacanths jointly as their sister group (Cao et al. 1998; Zardoya et al. 1998; Zardoya and Meyer 1997a). Lungfish, coelacanths, and the fish ancestors of the tetrapod lineage all originated within a short time window of about 20 million years, back in the early Devonian (about 380 to 400 million years ago). This short divergence time makes the determination of the phylogenetic relationships among these three lineages difficult. In this study, we attempted to break the long evolutionary branch of lungfish, in an effort to better resolve the phylogenetic relationships among the three extant sarcopterygian lineages. The gene order of the mitochondrial genomes of the South American and Australian lungfish conforms to the consensus gene order among gnathostome vertebrates. The phylogenetic analyses of the complete set of mitochondrial proteins (without ND6) suggest that the lungfish are the closest relatives of the tetrapods, although the support in favor of this scenario is not statistically significant. The two other smaller data sets (tRNA and rRNA genes) give inconsistent results depending on the

  5. A State-Wide Survey of South Australian Secondary Schools to Determine the Current Emphasis on Ergonomics and Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Penman, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pattern of teaching of healthy computing skills to high school students in South Australia. A survey approach was used to collect data, specifically to determine the emphasis placed by schools on ergonomics that relate to computer use. Participating schools were recruited through the Department for Education and Child…

  6. School Governance and the Pursuit of Democratic Participation: Lessons from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Suzanne Grant; Naidoo, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    This article examines experiences in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces with devolved school governance, introduced in 1996 to promote democratic participation in education decision making. Utilizing the ''theory of action'' framework, this analysis is an effort to de-center the school governance debate by moving from a central government…

  7. Paleosols in laterite and silcrete profiles Evidence from the South East Margin of the Australian Precambrian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firman, J. B.

    1994-08-01

    Laterite and silcrete profiles are common in the arid and semi-arid areas of the Australian Precambrian Shield - a vast planar surface masked by the regolith. Much of the geological history of the shield subsequent to its early development is recorded in ancient cover rocks and younger basin sediments which occur in important stratigraphic sequences, particularly on the margins of the shield. Within these sequences, stratigraphically associated or as companion materials, weathering zones and paleosols were developed which individually and as assemblages of layers and horizons record the history of weathering and of soil formation since the Proterozoic. Laterite and silcrete profiles are seen to be assemblages of paleosols, stratigraphically associated deposits and companion materials which were formed in response to changes in groundwater conditions at particular times in the past. The paleosols record the evolution of the regolith: Older weathering zones and bleached rocks were features of successive landscapes after the early Palaeozoic; ferruginous mottling, ferricrete and silcrete pans were formed after the early Cainozoic; ferricretes and mottled clay paleosols - some of which have been described as "laterite" - were formed during and after the Pliocene. Materials in laterite and silcrete profiles are overlain in places by calcretes formed after the early Pleistocene and by younger soils. The assemblages are distinctive and are characteristic of particular morpholithogical provinces.

  8. Distribution and mechanism of Neogene to present-day vertical axis rotations, Pacific-Australian Plate Boundary Zone, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy A.; Roberts, Andrew P.

    1997-01-01

    Remarkably little knowledge exists about mechanisms of vertical axis rotation in continental crust. Steeply dipping basement rocks in South Island, New Zealand, provide an opportunity to map the distribution of rotations across the Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone, and to delineate boundaries of rotated blocks in unusual detail. We synthesize new structural data with new and existing paleomagnetic data, with geodetic data, and with patterns of Neogene-Quaternary faulting in the strike-slip Marlborough fault system. For the past 20 m.y., vertical axis rotations have been hinged about two crustal-scale boundaries near the east coast. The NE hinge accommodated ˜50° of early-middle Miocene clockwise rotation, which caused deformation of the eastern ends of the Alpine-Wairau and Clarence strike-slip faults. The SW hinge has accommodated a further 30°-50° of finite clockwise rotation since ˜4 Ma and deflects active fault traces. The locus of rotation has shifted southwestward astride a subduction margin that is lengthening in that direction. Rotating rocks are pinned to the south against a locked collision zone where the continental Chatham Rise impinges against the margin. Slip on inland strike-slip faults is transformed seaward across a zone of fault termination into rigid body rotation of a large continental block that has been thrust eastward over the downgoing subducted slab of the Pacific plate. The rotation mechanism is a "migrating hinge," which resembles a flexed telephone book. Strike-slip faults are translated through a brecciated hinge region that does not coincide with a fixed material line in the rock.

  9. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in liver tissue of dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar C. plumbeus and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jann M; Baduel, Christine; Li, Yan; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; McGrath, Shane P; Peddemors, Victor M; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen; Christidis, Les

    2015-12-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the marine environment that are known to accumulate in apex predators such as sharks. Liver samples from dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar Carcharhinus plumbeus, and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters were analysed for the seven indicator PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180. Median ∑PCBs were significantly higher in white than sandbar sharks (3.35 and 0.36 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively, p=0.05) but there were no significant differences between dusky sharks (1.31 μg g(-1) lipid) and the other two species. Congener concentrations were also significantly higher in white sharks. Significant differences in PCB concentrations between mature and immature dusky (3.78 and 0.76 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) and sandbar (1.94 and 0.18 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) sharks indicated that PCB concentrations in these species increased with age/growth. Higher-chlorinated congeners (hexa and heptachlorobiphenyls) dominated results, accounting for ~90% of ∑PCBs.

  10. The effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve knowledge and perceptions for reducing organophosphate pesticide exposure among Indonesian and South Australian migrant farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Suratman, Suratman; Ross, Kirstin E; Babina, Kateryna; Edwards, John William

    2016-01-01

    Background Farmworkers are at risk of exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs). Improvements of knowledge and perceptions about organophosphate (OP) exposure may be of benefit for the reduction in OP exposure. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve knowledge and perceptions for reducing OP exposure among Indonesian and South Australian (SA) migrant farmworkers. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study. The educational intervention used a method of group communication for 30 Indonesian farmworkers and individual communication for seven SA migrant farmworkers. Knowledge and perceptions about OP exposure were measured pre-intervention and 3 months after the intervention. Results Unadjusted intervention effects at follow-up showed statistically significantly improved scores of knowledge (both adverse effects of OPs and self-protection from OP exposure), perceived susceptibility, and perceived barriers among Indonesian farmworkers compared with SA migrant farmworkers. Furthermore, these four significant variables in the unadjusted model and the two other variables (perceived severity and perceived benefits) were statistically significant after being adjusted for the level of education and years working as a farmworker. In contrast, knowledge about adverse effects of OPs was the only variable that was statistically significantly improved among SA migrant farmworkers. The results of this study suggests educational interventions using a method of group communication could be more effective than using individual intervention. Conclusion These improvements provide starting points to change health behavior of farmworkers, particularly to reduce OP exposure, both at the workplace and at home. PMID:26855602

  11. Mid-Adolescent Predictors of Adult Drinking Levels in Early Adulthood and Gender Differences: Longitudinal Analyses Based on the South Australian School Leavers Study

    PubMed Central

    Winefield, Helen R.; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable public health interest in understanding what factors during adolescence predict longer-term drinking patterns in adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in the age 15 social and psychological predictors of less healthy drinking patterns in early adulthood. The study investigates the relative importance of internalising problems, other risky health behaviours, and peer relationships after controlling for family background characteristics. A sample of 812 young people who provided complete alcohol consumption data from the age of 15 to 20 years (5 measurement points) were drawn from South Australian secondary schools and given a detailed survey concerning their psychological and social wellbeing. Respondents were classified into two groups based upon a percentile division: those who drank at levels consistently below NHMRC guidelines and those who consistently drank at higher levels. The results showed that poorer age 15 scores on measures of psychological wellbeing including scores on the GHQ-12, self-esteem, and life-satisfaction as well as engagement in health-related behaviours such as smoking or drug-taking were associated with higher drinking levels in early adulthood. The pattern of results was generally similar for both genders. Higher drinking levels were most strongly associated with smoking and marijuana use and poorer psychological wellbeing during adolescence. PMID:27635278

  12. Assessment of the Government of South Sudan’s Potential for Survival as an Independent Nation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-25

    AUTHOR: Major Michael Hyde AY 10-11 Approved: 1::::~_,_~~~Ř-’"""-"~~:::e:_----zJ"------;-- Dme : ________ ~~~~~~-=~HL- Executive Summary Title...became the dominant force in the region. 5 Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement At the beginning of the Second Civil War in Sudan, a rebel group...over the North on most regional issues but also sees the south as a moderating force in Sudan.48 Any instability in the North or South puts their

  13. School Quality, Clustering and Government Subsidy in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Futoshi

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines a range of historical and geographic factors that determine the quality of public school education in post-apartheid South Africa. Empirical analysis shows, first, that population groups are still spatially segregated due to the legacy of apartheid, which implies that, given the positive correlation between school quality and…

  14. Government Funding as Leverage for Quality Teaching and Learning: A South African Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essack, Sabiha Y.; Naidoo, Indirani; Barnes, Glen

    2010-01-01

    The South African Higher Education Funding Framework uses funding as a lever to achieve equitable student access, quality teaching and research, and improved student retention and success. Maximising a university subsidy from the national Department of Education necessitates innovative strategies at the pre- and post-student admission stages. This…

  15. [Comparing ethnic structures and government policies affecting minorities in South Tyrol (Alto Adige) and Burgenland].

    PubMed

    Munz, R

    1991-01-01

    The ethnic minorities of lands that became parts of Italy, Germany, Hungary, and Austria after World War I are discussed in terms of their assimilation and legal and political rights in the various countries. Particular attention is given to South Tyrol and Burgenland. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  16. USGS analysis of the Australian UNCLOS submission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Rowland, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, the Government of Australia made a submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) for 10 extended continental shelf (ECS) regions, utilizing Article-76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With information provided in the Australian Executive Summary, the USGS examined the 10 regions of the submission from geological, morphological, and resource perspectives. By their own request, the Australians asked that CLCS take no action on the Australian-Antarctic Territory. The major limitation in this analysis is that no bathymetric soundings or detailed hydrographic profiles were provided in the Australian Executive Summary that might show why the Foot of the Slope (FOS) was chosen or where the 2,500-m contour is located. This represents a major limitation because more than half of the 4,205 boundary points utilize the bathymetric formula line and more than one-third of them utilize the bathymetric constraint line. CLCS decisions on the components of this submission may set a precedent for how ECSs are treated in future submissions. Some of the key decisions will cover (a) how a 'natural prolongation' of a continental margin is determined, particularly if a bathymetric saddle that appears to determine the prolongation is in deep water and is well outside of the 200-nm limit (Exmouth Plateau), (b) defining to what extent that plateaus, rises, caps, banks and spurs that are formed of oceanic crust and from oceanic processes can be considered to be 'natural prolongations' (Kerguelen Plateau), (c) to what degree UNCLOS recognizes reefs and uninhabited micro-islands (specifically, rocks and/or sand shoals) as islands that can have an EEZ (Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs north of Lord Howe Island), and (d) how the Foot of the Slope (FOS) is chosen (Great Australian Bight). The submission contains situations that are relevant to potential future U.S. submissions and are potentially analogous to certain

  17. The role of continental shelf width in determining freshwater phylogeographic patterns in south-eastern Australian pygmy perches (Teleostei: Percichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Unmack, Peter J; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Johnson, Jerald B; Dowling, Thomas E

    2013-03-01

    Biogeographic patterns displayed by obligate freshwater organisms are intimately related to the nature and extent of connectivity between suitable habitats. Two of the more significant barriers to freshwater connections are seawater and major drainage divides. South-eastern Australia provides a contrast between these barriers as it has discrete areas that are likely influenced to a greater or lesser extent by each barrier type. We use continental shelf width as a proxy for the potential degree of river coalescence during low sea levels. Our specific hypothesis is that the degree of phylogeographic divergence between coastal river basins should correspond to the continental shelf width of each region. This predicts that genetic divergences between river basins should be lowest in regions with a wider continental shelf and that regions with similar continental shelf width should have similar genetic divergences. Pygmy perches (Nannoperca australis and Nannoperca 'flindersi') in south-eastern Australia provide an ideal opportunity to test these biogeographic hypotheses. Phylogeographic patterns were examined based on range-wide sampling of 82 populations for cytochrome b and 23 polymorphic allozyme loci. Our results recovered only limited support for our continental shelf width hypothesis, although patterns within Bass clade were largely congruent with reconstructed low sea-level drainage patterns. In addition, we identified several instances of drainage divide crossings, typically associated with low elevational differences. Our results demonstrate high levels of genetic heterogeneity with important conservation implications, especially for declining populations in the Murray-Darling Basin and a highly restricted disjunct population in Ansons River, Tasmania.

  18. Eighteen-year study of South Australian dolphins shows variation in lung nematodes by season, year, age class, and location.

    PubMed

    Tomo, Ikuko; Kemper, Catherine M; Lavery, Trish J

    2010-04-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, carcasses of opportunistically collected short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis; n=238), Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus; n=167), and common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus; n=15) were examined for parasites and life history data. Three species of lung nematodes (Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Stenurus ovatus, Pharurus alatus) were identified in surface nodules, subsurface lesions, or airways. Nematode burdens were light to heavy and, in many cases, would have compromised the dolphins' health. The number of dolphins infected was related to species, year, season, age class, and geographic region. Nematodes were found in all three species but were more prevalent in short-beaked common dolphins (mean annual prevalence=26%) than in bottlenose dolphins (12%). There was a significant increase in prevalence of nematodes in short-beaked common dolphins in 2005-06 (63%) compared to 1990-2004 (14%), with a peak in April-June. More young short-beaked common dolphins were infected than subadults and adults and, during the unusual infection event, there were more dependent calves (<130 cm) than juveniles. There were also more infections in dependent bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) calves but no increase in overall prevalence was detected during 2005-06. Because neonates of both short-beaked common dolphins and bottlenose dolphins were infected, mother-to-calf transmission is suspected for these species in South Australia. Numbers of infections in short-beaked common dolphins were higher in Gulf St Vincent than elsewhere in South Australia, particularly in 2005-06. The cause of the unusual infection event in short-beaked common dolphins is unknown. We discuss the influence of dolphin diet, life history, and external factors.

  19. Australian Defense.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Australia in World Affairs 1966-1970, (Melbourne: Cheshire Publishing Pty Ltd , 1974), p. 258. 6Department of Defence, Australian Defence Review...Pvt, Ltd .: 1977), p. 69. 74 17Desmond Ball, "American Bases: Implications for Australian Securi- ty" The Strategic and Defence Studies Centre...million with aircraft, or 3) a " Woolworth " carrier costing $300-400 million with aircraft.33 Defence planners are now faced with determin- ing which

  20. Inter-decadal variations in the linkages between ENSO, the IOD and south-eastern Australian springtime rainfall in the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H.; Zhao, Mei; Yin, Yonghong

    2016-08-01

    The 30 year period 1985-2014 experienced a swing of the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) from the warm phase to the cold phase. Here we investigate variation of the relation between El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole mode (IOD) and resultant changes in the predictability of the IOD and south-eastern Australian (SEA) springtime rainfall associated with this swing in the IPO. Using observational analyses, we show that during the warm phase of the IPO in the 1980s-1990s, the amplitudes of ENSO and the IOD were large, and the correlation between them was high; thus predictability of the IOD was high. Nevertheless, during these decades SEA spring rainfall was only weakly related to ENSO and the IOD, and therefore predictability of SEA rainfall was low. In contrast, during the cold phase of the IPO in the 2000s, the opposite was found: the IOD occurred more independently from ENSO, so the IOD was less predictable. Nonetheless, SEA spring rainfall was more strongly related to ENSO and the IOD, and therefore, SEA rainfall was more predictable in the 2000s than in the 1980s-1990s. The cause of this decadal variation in the relationship of SEA rainfall with ENSO and the IOD between the recent warm and cold states of the IPO appears to be a systematic zonal variation of the rainfall anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific associated with the IOD and ENSO and related changes in the Rossby wave train path over Australia.

  1. Effects of vicariant barriers, habitat stability, population isolation and environmental features on species divergence in the south-western Australian coastal reptile community.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D L; Keogh, J S; Knowles, L L

    2012-08-01

    Identifying explicit hypotheses regarding the factors determining genetic structuring within species can be difficult, especially in species distributed in historically dynamic regions. To contend with these challenges, we use a framework that combines species distribution models, environmental data and multi-locus genetic data to generate and explore phylogeographic hypotheses for reptile species occupying the coastal sand-dune and sand-plain habitats of the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot, a community which has both a high diversity of endemics and has varied dramatically in spatial extent over time. We use hierarchical amova, summary statistic and distance-based analyses to explicitly test specific phylogeographic hypotheses. Namely, we test if biogeographic vicariance across barriers, habitat stability, population isolation along a linear habitat or fragmentation across different environments can explain genetic divergence within five co-distributed squamate reptile species. Our results show that patterns of genetic variation reflect complex and species-specific interactions related to the spatial distribution of habitats present currently and during repeated glacial minima, as opposed to being associated with historical factors such as habitat stability between glacial and inter-glacial periods or vicariant barriers. We suggest that the large impact of habitat characteristics over time (i.e. relative levels of habitat connectivity, climatic gradients and spatial heterogeneity of soil types) reflects the ecological restrictions of the sand-dune and sand-plain reptile communities and may explain the lack of concordance across taxa. The study demonstrates the general utility of the approach for assemblage-level, as well as single species, phylogeographic study, including its usefulness for exploring biologically informed hypotheses about what factors have influenced patterns of genetic variation.

  2. Rehabilitating mussel beds in Coffee Bay, South Africa: Towards fostering cooperative small-scale fisheries governance and enabling community upliftment.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Ugarteburu, Gurutze; Raemaekers, Serge; Halling, Christina

    2017-03-01

    Along the coast of South Africa, marine resources play a significant role in supporting livelihoods and contributing to food security in impoverished rural communities. Post-apartheid fisheries laws and policies have begun to address traditional fishing rights and development needs, and new management arrangements are being implemented. One such initiative has been the Mussel Rehabilitation Project in Coffee Bay, which piloted a resource rehabilitation technique at several over-exploited fishing sites. Mussel stocks in these exploited areas had dropped to under 1 % mussel cover, and during the project period, stocks increased to >80 % cover, supporting a sustainable harvest well above national daily bag limits. This stock enhancement was achieved only after the project had started to address social challenges such as the lack of local management institutions and the need to enhance food security. The project embarked on training and institution-building; it formed a robust community mussel management committee; and developed a local resource management plan, facilitating increased community participation in the day-to-day management of the resource. The project also saw the initiation of various ancillary projects aimed at improving food security and stimulating the local economy and hence alleviating pressure on the marine resources. Here we review this 10-year project's outcomes, and present lessons for small-scale fisheries governance in South Africa and internationally. We show, through empirical experience, that balancing stock rebuilding needs in a context of widespread poverty and dependency on natural resources by a local fisher community can only be addressed through an integrated approach to development. Participation of resource users and a thorough understanding of the local context are imperative to negotiating appropriate small-scale fisheries governance approaches. We recommend that the implementation of South Africa's newly minted Small

  3. War, Law and Order - Case Study: Australian Whole-of-Government Efforts to Develop the Security and Criminal Justice Sectors in Stabilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    responses from Government forces. More philosophically, foreign forces should not give up their own national values in the name of supporting another...delineate the responsibilities of each Government agency to realise that policy.220 It could also usefully describe the future international environment...protect the population and key infrastructure; promote political processes and governance structures, which lead to a political settlement that

  4. Morbillivirus-associated unusual mortality event in South Australian bottlenose dolphins is largest reported for the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Tomo, I.; Bingham, J.; Bastianello, S. S.; Wang, J.; Gibbs, S. E.; Woolford, L.; Dickason, C.; Kelly, D.

    2016-01-01

    Cases of morbillivirus have been recorded in the Southern Hemisphere but have not been linked to significant marine mammal mortality. Post-mortems were conducted on 58 carcasses (44 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, two common bottlenose dolphins, 12 short-beaked common dolphins) from South Australia during 2005–2013, including an unusual mortality event (UME) in St Vincent Gulf Bioregion (SVG) during 2013. Diagnostic pathology, circumstance of death, body condition, age and stomach contents were documented for Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins. At least 50 dolphins died during the UME, 41 were Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and most were young. The UME lasted about seven months and had two peaks, the first being the largest. Effect on the population is unknown. Diagnostic testing for morbillivirus was conducted on 57 carcasses, with evidence for infection in all species during 2011–2013. All tested UME bottlenose dolphins were positive for cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV), and the pathology included interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion and syncytia. Concurrent pathologies, including lung parasite and fungal infections, and severe cutaneous bruising were observed in many dolphins. The event coincided with elevated water temperatures, a diatom bloom and significant fish die-offs. We conclude that the cause for the UME was multifactorial and that CeMV was a major contributor. PMID:28083115

  5. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  6. Training at the Australian school of nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Culley, D.; Fredsall, J.R.; Toner, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important century for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region.

  7. delta13C and water-use efficiency in Australian grasstrees and South African conifers over the last century.

    PubMed

    Swanborough, Perry W; Lamont, Byron B; February, Edmund C

    2003-07-01

    Annual or biannual time courses of plant delta13C (delta13C(p)) over the last century (70-100 years) were recorded for leafbases of four grasstrees (Xanthorrhoea preissii) at four sites in mediterranean Australia and wood of four conifers (Widdringtonia cedarbergensis) at two sites in mediterranean South Africa. There was a strong downward trend of 2-5.5(per thousand ) from 1935 to 1940 to the present in the eight plants. Trends were more variable from 1900 to 1940 with plants at two sites of each species showing an upward trend of 1-2.5 per thousand. Accepting that delta13C of the air (delta13C(a)) fell by almost 2 per thousand over the last century, the ratio of leaf intercellular CO2 to atmospheric CO2 (c(i)/c(a)) rose in five plants and remained unchanged in three over that period. Changes in c(i)/c(a) rather than delta13C(a) were more closely correlated with changes in delta13C(p) and accounted for 6.7-71.8% (22.6 c(i)/c(a)) and 28.2-93.3% (delta13C(a)) of the variation in delta13C(p). We doubt that possible changing patterns of rainfall, water availability, temperature, shade, air pollution or clearing for agriculture have contributed to the overall trend for c(i)/c(a) to rise over time. Instead, we provide evidence (concentrations of Fe and Mn in the grasstree leafbases) that decreasing photosynthetic capacity associated with falling nutrient availability due to the reduced occurrence of fire may have contributed to rising c(i)/c(a). Intrinsic water-use efficiency (W(i)) as a function of (c(a)-c(i)) usually increased linearly over the period, with the two exceptions explained by their marked increase in c(i)/c(a). We conclude that grasstrees may provide equivalent delta13C(p )and W(i) data to long-lived conifers and that their interpretation requires a consideration of the causes of variation in both c(i)/c(a )and delta13C(a).

  8. Biobank classification in an Australian setting.

    PubMed

    Rush, Amanda; Christiansen, Jeffrey H; Farrell, Jake P; Goode, Susan M; Scott, Rodney J; Spring, Kevin J; Byrne, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    In 2011, Watson and Barnes proposed a schema for classifying biobanks into 3 groups (mono-, oligo-, and poly-user), primarily based upon biospecimen access policies. We used results from a recent comprehensive survey of cancer biobanks in New South Wales, Australia to assess the applicability of this biobank classification schema in an Australian setting. Cancer biobanks were identified using publically available data, and by consulting with research managers. A comprehensive survey was developed and administered through a face-to-face setting. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel™ 2010 and IBM SPSS Statistics™ version 21.0. The cancer biobank cohort (n=23) represented 5 mono-user biobanks, 7 oligo-user biobanks, and 11 poly-user biobanks, and was analyzed as two groups (mono-/oligo- versus poly-user biobanks). Poly-user biobanks employed significantly more full-time equivalent staff, and were significantly more likely to have a website, share staff between biobanks, access governance support, utilize quality control measures, be aware of biobanking best practice documents, and offer staff training. Mono-/oligo-user biobanks were significantly more likely to seek advice from other biobanks. Our results further delineate a biobank classification system that is primarily based on access policy, and demonstrate its relevance in an Australian setting.

  9. Impact of Corporate Governance on Research and Development Investment in the Pharmaceutical Industry in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Munjae

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the corporate governance of pharmaceutical companies on research and development (R&D) investment. Methods The period of the empirical analysis is from 2000 to 2012. Financial statements and comments in general, and internal transactions were extracted from TS-2000 of the Korea Listed Company Association. Sample firms were those that belong to the medical substance and drug manufacturing industries. Ultimately, 786 firm-year data of 81 firms were included in the sample (unbalanced panel data). Results The shareholding ratio of major shareholders and foreigners turned out to have a statistically significant influence on R&D investment (p < 0.05). No statistical significance was found in the shareholding ratio of institutional investors and the ratio of outside directors. Conclusion The higher the shareholding ratio of the major shareholders, the greater the R&D investment. There will be a need to establish (or switch to) a holding company structure. Holding companies can directly manage R&D in fields with high initial risks, and they can diversify these risks. The larger the number of foreign investors, the greater the R&D investment, indicating that foreigners directly or indirectly impose pressure on a manager to make R&D investments that bring long-term benefits. PMID:26473092

  10. Instructional Supervisory Practices and Teachers' Role Effectiveness in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, Mary Anike; Eyiene, Ameh; Egbai, Mercy E.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between instructional supervisory practices and teachers' role effectiveness in public secondary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State. Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study…

  11. Big Ideas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Within weeks of taking office, Australia's new Labor government commissioned two major reviews--one of Australia's innovation system and one of Australian higher education. Taken together, these reviews will have major implications for the future of research and teaching in Australia for decades to come. This paper discusses the main…

  12. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  13. The foot and mouth disease network in the southern cone of South America: an example of regional governance.

    PubMed

    Corrales Irrazábal, H A

    2012-08-01

    The fact that foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, easily spread and of major commercial importance makes it a redoubtable challenge for animal health in South American countries and the world over. A number of factors impact directly on the effectiveness of national programmes to eradicate foot and mouth disease. Therefore, in order to meet the challenges posed by today's globalised world, it is of the utmost importance that national level eradication programmes be considered state policies and that they be the subject of broad political agreement at the highest level and consolidated as regional programmes between national Veterinary Services. The programmes, agreements and technical cooperation projects established jointly by Member Countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) were a key factor in building management capacity to control foot and mouth disease in the area. Another key factor has been a partnership with one of the most sensitive sectors--the private production sector. Its active and responsible participation in operational functions has done much to strengthen and ensure the competitive development of South American countries and consolidate their role as global beef exporters. However, to prevent further outbreaks it is essential to maintain and reinforce the structure of national programmes and to have strong and highly trained Veterinary Services and sufficient funding to ensure efficient and sustainable plans. These plans must enable Veterinary Services, by means of good governance, to implement effective measures in the areas of animal health and international trade in animals and animal products/by-products, thereby achieving rapid and more equitable social and economic development.

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHOICE OF HEALTH CARE PROVIDING FACILITY AMONG WORKERS IN A LOCAL GOVERNMENT SECRETARIAT IN SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Uchendu, O.C.; Ilesanmi, O.S.; Olumide, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in the choice of health care providing facility in Nigeria. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the factors influencing choice and satisfaction with health service providers among local government staff. Methods: A cross sectional survey of all 312 workers in a Local Government Secretariat in South West Nigeria was done. Chi Square and logistic regression analysis was done. Results: The mean age was 38.6 ± 7.5 years, 55% were females and 71.7% had tertiary education. The median monthly family income of the respondents was N 28, 000 (N3,000 – N500,000), with 24.4% earning a monthly income of N21, 000 to N30, 000. Many (72.3%) utilized public health facilities attributing the choice to the low cost of services. Respondents who are satisfied with their usual care providing facilities are 12.2 times more likely to have used public facilities than private facilities (95%, CI 3.431 – 43.114). Respondents who described the quality with ease of getting care/short waiting times as being good are 3.9 times more likely to have private facilities as their chosen health care providing facility (95%, CI 1.755 – 8.742). Cost/payment for service is 2.9 times more likely to predict the use of public health facility as the usual health care provider. Conclusion: Private facilities though costlier do not appear to be providing better services than public facilities. To increase access to health care the cost of services and the waiting time are important factors to address. PMID:25161426

  15. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  16. Values-Based Education in Schools in the 2000s: The Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leichsenring, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the teaching of values in Australian schools through a framework established by the Australian Federal government during the 2000s. This paper focuses on: the approaches employed by the Australian Federal government in the implementation of Values Education; and the application of cases of values-based education utilized by…

  17. Regional scale groundwater resource assessment in the Australian outback - Geophysics is the only way.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, T. J.; Davis, A. C.; Gilfedder, M.; Annetts, D.

    2015-12-01

    Resource development, whether in agriculture, mining and/or energy, is set to have significant consequences for the groundwater resources of Australia in the short to medium term. These industry sectors are of significant economic value to the country and consequently their support remains a priority for State and Federal Governments alike. The scale of potential developments facilitated in large part by the Government Programs, like the West Australian (WA) Government's "Water for Food" program, and the South Australian's Government's PACE program, will result in an increase in infrastructure requirements, including access to water resources and Aboriginal lands to support these developments. However, the increased demand for water, particularly groundwater, is likely to be compromised by the limited information we have about these resources. This is particularly so for remote parts of the country which are targeted as primary development areas. There is a recognised need to expand this knowledge so that water availability is not a limiting factor to development. Governments of all persuasions have therefore adopted geophysical technologies, particularly airborne electromagnetics (AEM), as a basis for extending the hydrogeological knowledge of data poor areas. In WA, the State Government has employed regional-scale AEM surveys as a basis for defining groundwater resources to support mining, regional agricultural developments whilst aiming to safeguard regional population centres, and environmental assets. A similar approach is being employed in South Australia. These surveys are being used to underpin conceptual hydrogeological frameworks, define basin-scale hydrogeological models, delimit the extent of saltwater intrusion in coastal areas, and to determine the groundwater resource potential of remote alluvial systems aimed at supporting new, irrigation-based, agricultural developments in arid parts of the Australian outback. In the absence of conventional

  18. Educational Technology for the Clever Country. Selected Papers from the Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, October 1-3, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedberg, John G., Ed.; Steele, James, Ed.

    This proceeding includes the following 28 papers selected from the 1992 Conference of the Australian Society for Educational Technology: "Ecunet, Edith Cowan University's Video Conferencing Network: Two Years On" (Michael Grant); "Navigation Options in Interactive Multimedia" (John G. Hedberg & Barry Harper); "The…

  19. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, Ted

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this "market" agenda of government in terms of…

  20. Metal and metalloid concentrations in the tissues of dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar C. plumbeus and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters, and the implications for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jann M; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; McGrath, Shane P; Peddemors, Victor M; Bowling, Alison C; Christidis, Les

    2015-03-15

    Shark fisheries have expanded due to increased demand for shark products. As long-lived apex predators, sharks are susceptible to bioaccumulation of metals and metalloids, and biomagnification of some such as Hg, primarily through diet. This may have negative health implications for human consumers. Concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn were analysed in muscle, liver and fin fibres (ceratotrichia) from dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar Carcharhinus plumbeus, and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters. Concentrations of analytes were generally higher in liver than in muscle and lowest in fin fibres. Muscle tissue concentrations of Hg were significantly correlated with total length, and >50% of sampled individuals had concentrations above Food Standards Australia New Zealand's maximum limit (1 mg kg(-1) ww). Arsenic concentrations were also of concern, particularly in fins. Results warrant further investigation to accurately assess health risks for regular consumption of shark products.

  1. Australian Brain Alliance.

    PubMed

    2016-11-02

    A proposal for an Australian Brain Initiative (ABI) is under development by members of the Australian Brain Alliance. Here we discuss the goals of the ABI, its areas of research focus, its context in the Australian research setting, and its necessity for ensuring continued success for Australian brain research.

  2. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  3. Selection of the Australian indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Each Australian state was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data, area, yield, and production characteristics, statistics, crop calendars, and other ancillary data. Agrophysical conditions that could influence labeling and classification accuracies were identified in connection with the highest producing states as determined from available Australian crop statistics. Based primarily on these production statistics, Western Australia and New South Wales were selected as the wheat indicator region for Australia. The general characteristics of wheat in the indicator region, with potential problems anticipated for proportion estimation are considered. The varieties of wheat, the diseases and pests common to New South Wales, and the wheat growing regions of both states are examined.

  4. The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, S

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy.

  5. The Contribution of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association towards Developing Talent in Australian 12-Year-Old Female Swimmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that inquired into the influence of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association competitive swimming structure on the development of talented 12-year old female swimmers. The study focused on ten 12-year old girls in the New South Wales team that contested the 2009 national swimming championships…

  6. The 2 March 2016 Wharton Basin Mw 7.8 earthquake: High stress drop north-south strike-slip rupture in the diffuse oceanic deformation zone between the Indian and Australian Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Thorne; Ye, Lingling; Ammon, Charles J.; Dunham, Audrey; Koper, Keith D.

    2016-08-01

    The diffuse deformation zone between the Indian and Australian plates has hosted numerous major and great earthquakes during the seismological record, including the 11 April 2012 Mw 8.6 event, the largest recorded intraplate earthquake. On 2 March 2016, an Mw 7.8 strike-slip faulting earthquake occurred in the northwestern Wharton Basin, in a region bracketed by north-south trending fracture zones with no previously recorded large event nearby. Despite the large magnitude, only minor source finiteness is evident in aftershock locations or resolvable from seismic wave processing including high-frequency P wave backprojections and Love wave directivity analysis. Our analyses indicate that the event ruptured bilaterally on a north-south trending fault over a length of up to 70 km, with rupture speed of ≤ 2 km/s, and a total duration of 35 s. The estimated stress drop, 20 MPa, is high, comparable to estimates for other large events in this broad intraplate oceanic deformation zone.

  7. Leadership and Autonomy: An Examination of the Governance and Management Practices of Four Charter Schools in Charleston, South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnstengel, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Charter schools are deregulated institutions that are provided considerable autonomy in order to spur innovation, yet little is known about their governance practices. The studies of charter school governance that do exist, however, typically concern cases of charter school failure. The causes of charter school failure are often clear and…

  8. Strengthening mental health system governance in six low- and middle-income countries in Africa and South Asia: challenges, needs and potential strategies.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Inge; Marais, Debbie; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Chisholm, Dan; Egbe, Catherine; Gureje, Oye; Hanlon, Charlotte; Lund, Crick; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Mugisha, James; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Thornicroft, Graham

    2017-02-27

    Poor governance has been identified as a barrier to effective integration of mental health care in low- and middle-income countries. Governance includes providing the necessary policy and legislative framework to promote and protect the mental health of a population, as well as health system design and quality assurance to ensure optimal policy implementation. The aim of this study was to identify key governance challenges, needs and potential strategies that could facilitate adequate integration of mental health into primary health care settings in low- and middle-income countries. Key informant qualitative interviews were held with 141 participants across six countries participating in the Emerging mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries (Emerald) research program: Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda. Data were transcribed (and where necessary, translated into English) and analysed thematically using framework analysis, first at the country level, then synthesized at a cross-country level. While all the countries fared well with respect to strategic vision in the form of the development of national mental health policies, key governance strategies identified to address challenges included: strengthening capacity of managers at sub-national levels to develop and implement integrated plans; strengthening key aspects of the essential health system building blocks to promote responsiveness, efficiency and effectiveness; developing workable mechanisms for inter-sectoral collaboration, as well as community and service user engagement; and developing innovative approaches to improving mental health literacy and stigma reduction. Inadequate financing emerged as the biggest challenge for good governance. In addition to the need for overall good governance of a health care system, this study identifies a number of specific strategies to improve governance for integrated mental health care in low- and middle-income countries.

  9. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  10. The Future of Religious Freedom in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babie, Paul; Mylius, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the place of religion within Australian primary and secondary education. It is divided into three parts. The first examines religion within the Australian legal and constitutional structure. The second considers the accommodation of religion in government (public or state) and nongovernment (private) schools, using the State…

  11. Australian Education: An Overview of a System Adapting to a Post-Industrial Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    This paper offers a brief overview of the Australian education system and compares it with the United States system of education. The Australian economy presents no threat to U.S. hegemony, but its education system presents an interesting contrast. The paper describes the following features of the Australian education system: governance; school…

  12. Enhancing Educational Performance for Remote Aboriginal Australians: What Is the Impact of Attendance on Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…

  13. Evolution of water recycling in Australian cities since 2003.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, J C

    2010-01-01

    The prolonged Australian drought which commenced in 2002, and the agreement between Australia's Commonwealth and States/Territories governments to progress water reform through the National Water Initiative, has resulted in many new recycling projects in Australia's capital cities. Dual reticulation systems are being advanced in new subdivision developments in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide. Brisbane has installed three large Advanced Water Treatment Plants that are designed to send indirect potable recycled water to the Wivenhoe Dam which is Brisbane's principal water reservoir. Numerous water recycling projects are serving industry and agriculture. Experimental managed aquifer recharge is being undertaken with wetland-treated stormwater in Adelaide and reverse osmosis treated wastewater in Perth. New National Water Quality Management Strategy recycled water guidelines have been developed for managing environmental risks, for augmentation of drinking water supplies, for managed aquifer recharge and for stormwater harvesting and reuse. Many recent investments are part-supported through Commonwealth government grants. Desalination plants are being established in Melbourne and Adelaide and a second one in Perth in addition to the newly-operational plants in Perth, South-East Queensland and Sydney. Despite there being numerous examples of unplanned indirect potable recycling, most governments remain reluctant about moving towards planned potable recycling. There is evidence of some policy bans still being maintained by governments but the National Water Commission continues to reinforce the necessity of an even-handed objective consideration of all water supply options.

  14. Educational Policy and the Choice of Language in Linguistically Complex South African Schools. Formative Decision-Making by Significant Language Professionals and Governing Bodies. Education Policy Unit (Natal) Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David

    A 1996 South African law vested elementary/secondary school governing bodies with formation of school policy concerning both language(s) used for instruction and those selected for second-language study. The study reported here investigated the perceptions of language teachers, principals, and governing body members on language policy, policy…

  15. Communication: Are Australians Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansford, B. C.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the question of the distinctive nature of communication in Australia. Discusses nonverbal messages, gender concerns, historical influences on communication, the Australian accent, communication with indigenous persons, communication apprehension, and classroom communication. Argues that Australians' communication is relatively similar to…

  16. When Does a Nation-Level Analysis Make Sense? ESD and Educational Governance in Brazil, South Africa, and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2013-01-01

    International policy analysis tends to simplify the nation state, portraying countries as coherent units that can be described by one statistic or placed into one category. As scholars from Brazil, South Africa, and the USA, we find the nation-centric research perspective particularly challenging. In each of our home countries, the effective…

  17. Governance and Trust in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidovich, Lesley; Currie, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of more corporate models of governance is a contemporary trend in higher education. In the early 2000s, the Australian Government legislated national governance protocols for universities, using the policy lever of financial sanctions. These more corporate-style governance protocols followed similar changes in the UK, consistent with…

  18. Native Americans and Aboriginal Australian Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    Aboriginal Australians represent 1.5% of Australia's population, nearly double the percentage of native people in the U.S. population. While indigenous peoples throughout the world share common similarities, particularly contemporary issues and their spiritual regard for nature, many aspects of their lifestyles are different, such as governance,…

  19. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  20. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  1. Australian trachoma surveillance annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Cowling, Carleigh S; Liu, Bette C; Snelling, Thomas L; Ward, James S; Kaldor, John M; Wilson, David P

    2016-06-30

    Australia remains the only developed country to have endemic levels of trachoma (a prevalence of 5% or greater among children) in some regions. Endemic trachoma in Australia is found predominantly in remote and very remote Aboriginal communities. The Australian Government funds the National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit to collate, analyse and report trachoma prevalence data and document trachoma control strategies in Australia through an annual surveillance report. This report presents data collected in 2013. Data are collected from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island communities designated at-risk for endemic trachoma within New South Wales, the Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia. The World Health Organization grading criteria were used to diagnose cases of trachoma in Aboriginal children, with jurisdictions focusing screening activities on the 5-9 years age group; but some children in the 1-4 and 10-14 years age groups were also screened. The prevalence of trachoma within a community was used to guide treatment strategies as a public health response. Aboriginal adults aged 40 years or over were screened for trichiasis. Screening coverage for the estimated population of children aged 5-9 years and adults aged 40 years or over in at-risk communities required to be screened in 2013 was 84% and 30%, respectively. There was a 4% prevalence of trachoma among children aged 5-9 years who were screened. Of communities screened, 50% were found to have no cases of active trachoma and 33% were found to have endemic levels of trachoma. Treatment was required in 75 at-risk communities screened. Treatment coverage for active cases and their contacts varied between jurisdictions from 79% to 100%. Trichiasis prevalence was 1% within the screened communities.

  2. Widening and Expanding Participation in Australian Higher Education: In the Absence of Sociological Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Social inclusion in Australian higher education was high on the agenda of the recent Rudd/Gillard Australian Government. This paper offers an assessment of that agenda, particularly the extent to which it worked in favour of under-represented groups. It argues that the Government's widening and expansion policies and its equity and aspiration…

  3. Indigenizing Teacher Professional Development: Anticipating the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Zane Ma

    2012-01-01

    It is the Australian Government's intention that all teachers will have, as a minimum, a proficient level of demonstrable professional expertise in both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education and Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. A raft of government policies are giving shape to the engagement of the Australian…

  4. Securitisation and/or Westernisation: Dominant Discourses of Australian Values and the Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Andrew; Bentley, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Debates concerning the nature, purpose and importance of Australian values have resurfaced in Australia following the election of the Liberal-led Coalition Government in September 2013. Two dominant discourses on Australian values have emerged within recent government rhetoric and public policy, both of which have included a demand for changes to…

  5. "Kairos" and the Time of Gender Equity Policy in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Almost 20 years ago the Australian government released "Gender Equity: A Framework for Australian Schools" (1997). It was adopted by all states but almost immediately disappeared from sight after a conservative change of government. This was followed by the dismantling of gender equity units in each state, and a turn to boys' education…

  6. Does time off work after injury vary by jurisdiction? A comparative study of eight Australian workers' compensation systems

    PubMed Central

    Collie, Alex; Lane, Tyler J; Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Thompson, Jason; McLeod, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the jurisdiction in which a work-related injury compensation claim is made is an independent predictor of duration of time off work following work injury, and if so, the magnitude of the effect. Setting Eight Australian state and territory workers' compensation systems, providing coverage for more than 90% of the Australian labour force. Administrative claims data from these systems were provided by government regulatory authorities for the study. Participants 95 976 Australian workers with workers' compensation claims accepted in 2010 and with at least 2 weeks of compensated time off work. Primary outcome measure Duration of time lost from work in weeks, censored at 104 weeks. Results After controlling for demographic, worker, injury and employer factors in a Cox regression model, significant differences in duration of time loss between state and territory of claim were observed. Compared with New South Wales, workers in Victoria, South Australia and Comcare had significantly longer durations of time off work and were more likely to be receiving income benefits at 104 weeks postinjury, while workers in Tasmania and Queensland had significantly shorter durations of time off work. Conclusions The jurisdiction in which an injured worker makes a compensation claim has a significant and independent impact on duration of time loss. Further research is necessary to identify specific compensation system policies and practices that promote timely and appropriate return to work and reduce duration of time off work. PMID:27150186

  7. Research in Science Education, Volume 5. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (6th, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, May 19-21, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, A. M., Ed.; Power, Colin, N., Ed.

    This volume contains papers presented at the sixth Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (ASERA) held at Flinders University in May, 1975. Paper topics include: pupil learning and classroom climate, teacher structuring behavior, the Australian Science Education Project (ASEP), cognitive preference and…

  8. How Will Access and Reliability of Information Communications Technology Resources Affect the Potential Implementation of the Australian Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    The Australian Government has recently introduced a national based curriculum, known as The Australian Curriculum. This new curriculum is intended to provide quality education for all students (Australian Curriculum, Reporting and Assessment Authority, [ACARA], 2013). This article considers some of the possible implications of the Australian…

  9. Australian DefenceScience. Volume 15, Number 2, Winter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    sources, including the original builders, Vickers Shipyards, the Royal Australian Navy Archives, the Australian National Archives, the British...South Australia. The trial team also included personnel from the Army 3rd/9th Light Horse as well the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology and Vision...the Austeyr and AK47 weapons. The two torsos presented for testing were made of a 20% strength solution of gelatine jelly , which, at a temperature of

  10. The Use of a Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance System to Determine the Age, Period and Cohort Effects on the Prevalence of Obesity and Diabetes in South Australian Adults - 2003–2013

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anne W.; Shi, Zumin; Montgomerie, Alicia; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Campostrini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Background Age, period and cohort (APC) analyses, using representative, population-based descriptive data, provide additional understanding behind increased prevalence rates. Methods Data on obesity and diabetes from the South Australian (SA) monthly chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system from July 2002 to December 2013 (n = 59,025) were used. Age was the self-reported age of the respondent at the time of the interview. Period was the year of the interview and cohort was age subtracted from the survey year. Cohort years were 1905 to 1995. All variables were treated as continuous. The age-sex standardised prevalence for obesity and diabetes was calculated using the Australia 2011 census. The APC models were constructed with ‘‘apcfit’’ in Stata. Results The age-sex standardised prevalence of obesity and diabetes increased in 2002-2013 from 18.6% to 24.1% and from 6.2% to 7.9%. The peak age for obesity was approximately 70 years with a steady increasing rate from 20 to 70 years of age. The peak age for diabetes was approximately 80 years. There were strong cohort effects and no period effects for both obesity and diabetes. The magnitude of the cohort effect is much more pronounced for obesity than for diabetes. Conclusion The APC analyses showed a higher than expected peak age for both obesity and diabetes, strong cohort effects with an acceleration of risk after 1960s for obesity and after 1940s for diabetes, and no period effects. By simultaneously considering the effects of age, period and cohort we have provided additional evidence for effective public health interventions. PMID:25923664

  11. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  12. Variants within the COMP and THBS2 genes are not associated with Achilles tendinopathy in a case-control study of South African and Australian populations.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Colleen J; Van Der Merwe, Lize; Cook, Jill; Handley, Christopher J; Collins, Malcolm; September, Alison V

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix, while thrombospondin-2 is a matricellular protein involved in cell-matrix interactions. Recent studies have shown that genetic variation is a significant risk factor for Achilles tendinopathy, and the genes encoding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and thrombospondin-2 (THBS2) were identified as good candidate genes for association with Achilles tendinopathy. This study aimed to test the association of sequence variants within these candidate genes with the risk of Achilles tendinopathy in participants from South Africa (SA) and Australia (AUS). Three-hundred and forty (133 SA; 207 AUS) control participants with no history of Achilles tendinopathy and 178 (94 SA; 84 AUS) participants clinically diagnosed with Achilles tendinopathy were genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms within the COMP and THBS2 genes in this case-control study. There was no difference in genotype distributions between control and tendinopathy groups for either the THBS2 variants rs9505888, rs6422747 and rs9283850, or the COMP variants rs730079 and rs28494505 in the SA and AUS populations. As the selection of COMP and THBS2 as candidate genes was hypothesis driven, based on biological function, the possibility that other variants within these genes are associated with Achilles tendinopathy cannot be excluded.

  13. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  14. Delta lobe degradation and hurricane impacts governing large-scale coastal behavior, South-central Louisiana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miner, Michael D.; Kulp, Mark A.; Fitzgerald, Duncan M.; Flocks, James G.; Weathers, H. Dallon

    2009-12-01

    A large deficit in the coastal sediment budget, high rates of relative sea-level rise (~0.9 cm/year), and storm-induced current and wave erosion are forcing barrier shoreface retreat along the periphery of the Mississippi River delta plain. Additionally, conversion of interior wetlands to open water has increased the bay tidal prism, resulting in degradation of barrier islands due to inlet widening, formation of new inlets, and sediment sequestration at ebb-tidal deltas. Single-beam bathymetric surveys along a 165-km stretch of south-central Louisiana barrier coast, from Raccoon Point in Terrebonne Parish to Sandy Point in Plaquemines Parish, were conducted in 2006. These data, combined with historical bathymetry from three time periods (dating to the 1880s), provide a series of digital elevation models that were used to calculate sediment volumetric changes and determine long-term erosional-depositional trends. Dominant patterns during the 125-year period include (1) erosion of ~1.6 × 109 m3 from the shoreface, forcing up to 3 km of shoreface retreat, (2) sediment deposition in coastal bights and at ebb-tidal deltas, and (3) a combined increase in tidal inlet cross-sectional area from ~41,400 m2 to ~139,500 m2. Bathymetric and shoreline change datasets separated by shorter time periods (sub-annual) demonstrate that these long-term trends are driven by processes associated with major hurricane impacts, and that rates of shoreface erosion are an order of magnitude greater during active hurricane seasons compared to long-term trends.

  15. Delta lobe degradation and hurricane impacts governing large-scale coastal behavior, South-central Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miner, M.D.; Kulp, M.A.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Flocks, J.G.; Weathers, H.D.

    2009-01-01

    A large deficit in the coastal sediment budget, high rates of relative sea-level rise (???0.9 cm/year), and storm-induced current and wave erosion are forcing barrier shoreface retreat along the periphery of the Mississippi River delta plain. Additionally, conversion of interior wetlands to open water has increased the bay tidal prism, resulting in degradation of barrier islands due to inlet widening, formation of new inlets, and sediment sequestration at ebb-tidal deltas. Single-beam bathymetric surveys along a 165-km stretch of south-central Louisiana barrier coast, from Raccoon Point in Terrebonne Parish to Sandy Point in Plaquemines Parish, were conducted in 2006. These data, combined with historical bathymetry from three time periods (dating to the 1880s), provide a series of digital elevation models that were used to calculate sediment volumetric changes and determine long-term erosional-depositional trends. Dominant patterns during the 125-year period include (1) erosion of ???1.6????????109 m3 from the shoreface, forcing up to 3 km of shoreface retreat, (2) sediment deposition in coastal bights and at ebb-tidal deltas, and (3) a combined increase in tidal inlet cross-sectional area from ???41,400 m2 to ???139,500 m 2. Bathymetric and shoreline change datasets separated by shorter time periods (sub-annual) demonstrate that these long-term trends are driven by processes associated with major hurricane impacts, and that rates of shoreface erosion are an order of magnitude greater during active hurricane seasons compared to long-term trends. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Combustion of Australian spent shales compared

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The combustion kinetics of spent oil shales from seven major Australian deposits have been examined using a fluidized bed batch technique. Chemical rate constants were shown to vary between the shales and to be less than extrapolations of data from American spent oil shales. The effective diffusivity also varies widely among the shales. The seven oil shales were from the Condor, Duaringa, Lowmead, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Rundle and Stuart deposits in Queensland. Results are briefly described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  17. The role of HIV/AIDS committees in effective workplace governance of HIV/AIDS in South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    PubMed

    Vaas, Jocelyn R

    2008-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the role, status and scope of workplace HIV/AIDS committees as a means of effective workplace governance of the HIV/AIDS impact, and their role in extending social protective HIV/AIDS-related rights to employees. In-depth qualitative case studies were conducted in five South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were actively implementing HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes through a workplace committee dedicated to HIV/AIDS or a generic committee dealing with issues other than HIV/ AIDS. Management, through the human resources department and the occupational health practitioner often drove initial policy formulation, and had virtually sole control of the HIV/AIDS budget. Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often production or blue collar employees, while there was a notable lack of participation by white-collar employees, line management and trade unions. While the powers of workplace committees were largely consultative, employee committee members often managed in an indirect manner to secure and extend social protective rights on HIV/AIDS to employees, and monitor their effective implementation in practice. In the interim, workplace committees represented one of the best means to facilitate more effective workplace HIV/AIDS governance. However, the increased demands on collective bargaining as a result of an anticipated rises in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality might prove to be beyond the scope of such voluntary committees in the longer term.

  18. Who Chooses Teaching and Why? Profiling Characteristics and Motivations across Three Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Paul W.; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2006-01-01

    In this large-scale Australian study, we profile the background characteristics and teaching motivations for individuals entering teacher education across three major established urban teacher provider universities in the Australian States of New South Wales and Victoria. Our recently developed and validated "FIT-Choice" (Factors…

  19. Governing Knowledge: The Formalization Dilemma in the Governance of the Public Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelert, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a conceptually novel contribution to the understanding of the distinctive governance challenges arising from the increasing reliance on formalized knowledge in the governance of research activities. It uses the current Australian research governance system as an example--a system which exhibits a comparatively strong degree of…

  20. Performance Government: Activating and Regulating the Self-Governing Capacities of Teachers and School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses "performance government" as an emergent form of rule in advanced liberal democracies. It discloses how teachers and school leaders in Australia are being governed by the practices of performance government which centre on the recently established Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and…

  1. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2015-09-30

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP) has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2014, 4,804 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC value 0.06-0.125 mg/L) was found nationally in 5.4% of isolates, a lower proportion than that reported in the AGSP 2013 annual report (8.8%). The highest proportions were reported from New South Wales and Victoria (7.1% and 6.6% respectively). The proportion of strains resistant to penicillin in urban and rural Australia ranged from 11% in South Australia to 43% in New South Wales. In rural and remote Northern Territory penicillin resistance rates remained low (1.5%). In remote Western Australia relatively low numbers of strains are available for testing, however there is now widespread molecular testing for penicillin resistance in Western Australia to monitor resistance and inform guidelines and, for first time, these data are included in the AGSP annual report. Quinolone resistance ranged from 27% in the urban and rural areas of the Northern Territory, to 44% in the Australian Capital Territory, and quinolone resistance rates remain comparatively low in remote areas of the Northern Territory (3.1%) and remote areas of Western Australia (5.6%). Azithromycin resistance ranged from 0.5% in South Australia to 5.3% in rural and urban Western Australia. High rates were also reported from the Australian Capital Territory but relatively low numbers were tested. High level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥256 mg/L) was again reported in 2014, in 2 strains from New South Wales. No resistance was reported from the Northern Territory, or remote Western Australia.

  2. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed

  3. Climate impacts of Australian land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    distance from the land cover changes. The Australian continental and regional analyses demonstrated that Australian land cover change did have statistically significant impacts on air temperature and precipitation simulated in the CSIRO GCM. While none of the statistically significant trends in annual precipitation were found to be statistically significant in the climate modelling experiments, the modelled reductions in annual precipitation for south east Queensland and eastern New South Wales corresponded with the strong drying trends in those areas for 1950 - 1999. Larger scale analysis of differences in climate suggested the local changes in surface fluxes had strong impacts on atmospheric circulation. The largest changes were in austral summer (DJF) circulation where monsoon flow into northern Australia was reduced, corresponding with increased monsoon flow into the South Pacific Convergence Zone and increased south easterly wind flow into eastern Queensland. These changes in circulation influenced DJF moisture flux into northern and eastern Australia, which intensified the direct warming and drying impact caused by the reduced transpiration from land cover change.

  4. Australian Mineral Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

  5. Research Readings. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Nigel, Ed.

    This volume on apprenticeships in Australia summarizes 11 research studies. After an "Introduction" (Nigel Smart), the reports are: "Apprenticeship in Australia: A Concise History" (John Ray); "Issues and Directions from the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature" (Stephen Saunders); "Determinants…

  6. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia.

  7. Welcome to 2012: Australian Academic Developers and Student-Driven University Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Peter; Fraser, Kym; Gosling, David

    2013-01-01

    Are there consequences for academic development arising from the move to student-driven funding in the Australian higher education sector from 2012? In a move that has similarities to the UK, Australian government-supported student university funding will, from 2012, attach to students who can select a programme at the university of their choice…

  8. Making Space for Theological Research in the New Environment of Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines 2 recent Australian government issues papers on higher education and research policy, indicating areas both of concern and opportunity for Australian higher education providers in theology and their research efforts. The paper then offers suggestions as to how providers of theological education might position themselves as…

  9. Expansion and Equity in Australian Higher Education: Three Propositions for New Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines three broad propositions for student equity in Australian higher education (HE), arising from the Australian Government's recent policy announcement to expand and widen student participation. The first is that a new relationship between student demand for places and their supply is on the horizon, unlike any other in…

  10. Defence Science Research, Higher Education and the Australian Quest for the Atomic Bomb, 1945-60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the efforts of the Australian government to create an atomic research and development program after World War II. Describes initial cooperation with Britain and the push for the transformation of Australian higher and secondary education in service of national scientific development. Discusses effects of the end of Commonwealth…

  11. Total VET Students and Courses 2014: Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    In November 2012, the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Standing Council on Tertiary Education, Skills and Employment (SCOTESE) agreed to the introduction of mandatory reporting of nationally recognised training activity from 2014 onward. Under the mandatory reporting requirements, all Australian providers (excluding those exempted by…

  12. Trends in the Proportion of Students with a Disability in Australian Schools, 2000-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies and discusses recent trends in the percentage of students with a disability identified in Australian schools in the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009. In addition, these trends are examined across government and nongovernment schools and considered in the light of the definition of disability used by Australian schools. In…

  13. ICTs for Learning: An Overview of Systemic Initiatives in the Australian States and Territories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Glenn; Trinidad, Sue

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an overview of Systemic Initiatives in the Australian States and Territories. This updated overview acknowledges the help and information provided by key contacts whom the authors contacted from each of the Australian State and Territory government education systems. In addition, the role of the Ministerial Council for…

  14. Changes in Australian Disability Service Use by Selected Primary Disability Groups 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian

    2012-01-01

    For the last two decades, the Australian Federal Government has taken responsibility for funding disability employment services, and the states and territories are responsible for accommodation, respite, and community access services (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2004-2011). Replacing the existing Commonwealth State Territory…

  15. Science at the Crossroads? The Decline of Science in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Ian R.

    2006-01-01

    The Australian Government has stressed the important role universities play in producing knowledge workers to service the needs of the technology-driven "new economy". The massification of Australian higher education from 1989 rapidly increased the stock of university-educated people in all disciplines. Although university science…

  16. Who's Steering the Ship? National Curriculum Reform and the Re-Shaping of Australian Federalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Glenn C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the repositioning of state curriculum agencies in response to the establishment of the Australian Curriculum and the key national policy organisation responsible for its development: the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). I begin with an analysis of the federal Labor government's role in the…

  17. The National Action Plan. Australian School Science Education National Action Plan, 2008-2012. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrum, Denis; Rennie, Leonie J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the Australian Government released a report, commissioned by the then Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, entitled "The Status and Quality of Teaching and Learning of Science in Australian Schools" (Goodrum, Hackling, & Rennie, 2001). Its recommendations included actions to address raising community…

  18. Moving from local to State water governance to resolve a local conflict between irrigated agriculture and commercial forestry in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Virginie; McKay, Jennifer; Keremane, Ganesh

    2014-11-01

    In the Lower Limestone Coast, South Australia, a unique water allocation plan has been under consideration for several years. This plan is the first in Australia to consider forestry as a water affecting activity. Indeed, forestry plantations have a twofold impact on water-rainfall or aquifer recharge interception and direct extraction of groundwater in shallow water table areas-and alter the available water for irrigation as a result of the previous water budget. This paper examines how water is allocated across the competing requirements for water but also across the competing legal, economic and administrative scales embodied by the competing water users; and thus it also details the pre-judicial mechanism used to resolve the conflict over these competing scales. Qualitative and quantitative content analysis in Nvivo was applied to: (i) 180 local newspaper articles on the planning process, (ii) 65 submission forms filled in by the community during a public consultation on the draft water plan and (iii) 20 face-to-face interviews of keys stakeholders involved in the planning process. The social sustainability perspective taken in this study establishes the legal, economic and administrative competitive scales at stake in the conflict regarding water between forestry and irrigation. It also evidences the special feature of this paper, which is that to overcome these competitions and resolve the local conflict before judicial process, the water governance moved up in the administrative scale, from local/regional to State level. Initiated and initially prepared at regional level through the local Natural Resources Management Board, the water planning process was taken up to State level through the formation of an Interdepartmental Committee and the establishment of a Taskforce in charge of developing a policy. These were supported by an amendment of a State legislation on Natural Resources Management to manage the water impacts of forestry plantations.

  19. The limitations of environmental management systems in Australian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Cary, John; Roberts, Anna

    2011-03-01

    The efficacy of government-supported programs to encourage improved management of land and water systems associated with agricultural land in Australia has been mixed. The broad approach of Australian governments is reviewed briefly. Evidence is presented from case assessments of a program to promote adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs) to improve environmental outcomes from agricultural practices. EMSs are systems implemented to manage the environmental impacts and ameliorate environmental risk associated with business activity. Data are presented on reported EMS activity and experience of four selected groups of farmers in Victoria, south-eastern Australia, representing broad-acre cropping, beef and dairy farming. The pro-environmental behaviours of farmers were mediated through voluntary adoption of government and industry sponsored EMSs, often with financial incentives and other support. Findings from the study were that adoption of EMS practices with sufficient public benefits is unlikely to occur at sufficient scale for significant environmental impact. Farmers more readily adopted practices which were financially beneficial than those which had a positive environmental impact. Although the focus on voluntary market-based instrument (MBI) type programs is popular in western countries, enforcing regulation is an important, but usually politically unpopular, component of land use policy. The comparative advantage of EMSs differed for the industries studied, but overall there were insufficient market drivers for widespread EMS adoption in Australia. Environmental outcomes could be more effectively achieved by directly funding land management practices which have highest public net benefits. Having a clear and unambiguous management objective for a particular land management policy is more likely to achieve outcomes than having multiple objectives as occurs in a number of international programs currently.

  20. Developing Sustainable Language Learning Pathways: An Australian Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesterton, Paul; Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports some key findings from an external evaluation of an innovative programme for foreign and heritage languages in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW). The programme, entitled the Languages Continuity Initiative (LCI), was funded by the NSW Department of Education and Training and involved over 200 schools in its initial…

  1. Multicultural Education: The State of Play from an Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Megan; Lean, Garth; Noble, Greg

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the first comprehensive survey of public school teachers in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) around issues of multicultural and English as Second Language (ESL) education. While there is substantial literature on multicultural education--what it should and shouldn't be--there is much that is left unexplored in…

  2. Prosocial Behaviour and Political Culture among Australian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saha, Lawrence J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which forms of prosocial behaviour and values of social responsibility are related to various domains of political culture among Australian youth. Using data from a survey of 1311 senior secondary students from the ACT and South Australia, it was found that 14 per cent had participated in one or more volunteer…

  3. Who regulates food? Australians' perceptions of responsibility for food safety.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Food scares have diminished trust in public institutions to guarantee food safety. Food governance after the food scare era is concerned with institutional independence and transparency leading to a hybrid of public and private sector management and to mechanisms for consumer involvement in food governance. This paper explores Australian consumers' perceptions of who is, and should be responsible for food safety. Forty-seven participants were interviewed as part of a larger study on trust in the food system. Participants associate food governance with government, industry, and the individual. While few participants can name the national food regulator, there is a strong belief that the government is responsible for regulating the quality and safety of food. Participants are wary of the role of the food industry in food safety, believing that profit motives will undermine effective food regulation. Personal responsibility for food safety practices was also identified. While there are fewer mechanisms for consumer involvement and transparency built into the food governance system, Australian consumers display considerable trust in government to protect food safety. There is little evidence of the politicisation of food, reflecting a level of trust in the Australian food governance system that may arise from a lack of exposure to major food scares.

  4. Application of spatial analysis technology to the planning of access to oral health care for at-risk populations in Australian capital cities.

    PubMed

    Almado, Haidar; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Australians are one of the healthiest populations in the world but there is strong evidence that health inequalities exist. Australia has 23.1 million people spread very unevenly over -20 million square kilometres. This study aimed to apply spatial analysis tools to measure the spatial distribution of fixed adult public dental clinics in the eight metropolitan capital cities of Australia. All population data for metropolitan areas of the eight capital cities were integrated with socioeconomic data and health-service locations, using Geographic Information Systems, and then analysed. The adult population was divided into three subgroups according to age, consisting of 15-year-olds and over (n = 7.2 million), retirees 65 years and over (n = 1.2 million), and the elderly, who were 85 years and over (n = 0.15 million). It was evident that the States fell into two groups; Tasmania, Northern Territory, Australian Capital Territory and Western Australia in one cluster, and Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia in the other. In the first group, the average proportion of the population of low socioeconomic status living in metropolitan areas within 2.5 km of a government dental clinic is 13%, while for the other cluster, it is 42%. The clustering remains true at 5 km from the clinics. The first cluster finds that almost half (46%) of the poorest 30% of the population live within 5km of a government dental clinic. The other cluster of States finds nearly double that proportion (86%). The results from this study indicated that access distances to government dental services differ substantially in metropolitan areas of the major Australian capital cities.

  5. Research in Science Education, Volume 6. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (7th, The University of Newcastle, New South Wales, May 17-19, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddock, M. N., Ed.; Power, Colin N., Ed.

    This volume contains papers presented at the seventh Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association held at the University of Newcastle in May, 1976. Paper topics include: undergraduate research experience for future teachers, programmable calculator effects on attitude towards physics, development of science concepts…

  6. Population and Australian development assistance.

    PubMed

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  7. Research Performance of Australian Universities. Policy Note. Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Go8 universities account for over two-thirds of the research undertaken at Australian universities. Go8 universities attract the highest levels of industry and competitive government grant funding for research. This paper presents an analysis of trends in research performance for Go8 and non-Go8 universities including research income as reported…

  8. Sexuality Education School Policy for Australian GLBTIQ Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany Mary; Hillier, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Education is state-run in Australia, and within each of the eight states and territories there are both government and independent schooling systems. This paper details the position of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer (GLBTIQ) students within Australian education policy documents nationally, focusing on the three largest…

  9. Efficiency of Australian Technical and Further Education Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fieger, Peter; Villano, Renato; Cooksey, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Budgetary constraints on the public purse have led Australian Federal and State governments to focus increasingly on the efficiency of public institutions, including Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutes. In this study, we define efficiency as the relationship between financial and administrative inputs and educational outputs. We…

  10. Pathways from Casual Employment to Economic Security: The Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, John; Campbell, Iain; May, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Casual employment is extensive and has been increasing for more than two decades in Australia. The concept of casual employment used in the Australian context is unusual, but it is directly linked to benefit and rights exclusion within the regulatory framework governing employment. The expansion in casual employment has spread across all sectors,…

  11. The Importance of Social Context for an Australian Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, David

    The study of education systems and educational programs cannot be adequate without reference to those systems' social context. This paper examines the Australian Transition Education program, enacted by the government in 1979, in light of its social context. The program's ostensible purpose was to prepare students for employment. The Liberal…

  12. Australian Curriculum Reform II: Health and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    It is implied by governing organizations that Australia is presently experiencing its first national curriculum reform, when as the title suggests it is the second. However, until now Australian states and territories have been responsible for the education curriculum delivered within schools. The present national curriculum reform promises one…

  13. Policy Borrowing, Policy Learning: Testing Times in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a contextualised and critical policy analysis of the Rudd government's national schooling agenda in Australia. The specific focus is on the introduction of national literacy and numeracy testing and the recent creation by the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority of the website "My School", which…

  14. Australian Indigenous Higher Education: Politics, Policy and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Katie; Wilks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The growth of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participation in Australian higher education from 1959 to the present is notable statistically, but below population parity. Distinct patterns in government policy-making and programme development, inconsistent funding and political influences, together with Indigenous representation during the…

  15. Educating Refugee-Background Students in Australian Schools and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2015-01-01

    The Australian federal government recently set a challenging national aim: By 2020, 20% of higher education enrolment at the undergraduate level will include students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Although refugee-background students are often members of the targeted sub-population, their educational journeys frequently require special forms…

  16. Australian Library & Information Studies (LIS) Researchers Ranking of LIS Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kerry; Middleton, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the processes and outcomes of the ranking of LIS journal titles by Australia's LIS researchers during 2007-8, first through the Australian federal government's Research Quality Framework (RQF) process, and then by its replacement, the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative. The requirement to rank the journals'…

  17. Secrets and Lies: Sex Education and Gendered Memories of Childhood's End in an Australian Provincial City, 1930s-1950s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Josephine

    2006-01-01

    There are few historical studies about the sex education of Australian youth. Drawing on a range of sources, including the oral histories of 40 women and men who attended two single-sex, selective high schools in a provincial Australian city (Newcastle, New South Wales) in the 1930s-1950s, this paper explores the adolescent experience of sex…

  18. A new era in Australian migration policy.

    PubMed

    Birrell, R

    1984-01-01

    The discussion traces the evolution of Australian migration policy since 1975, arguing that the primary factor shaping policy has been interparty competition for influence within Australia's ethnic communities. Since late 1975 when the Liberal/National Country Party (LibNCP) Conservative Government returned to power, Australian immigration policy has moved in different directions from the previous post World War II experience. The demographic implications have been profound. In 1975 the LibNCP government returned to office committed to restoring an active migration program. By 1980-81 it had largely succeeded in this numerical goal. Australia's migration growth rate at .82% of the total population exceeded almost all other Western society. What was new, in comparison to previous policy, was the migrant selection system and source countries. By the time the government lost office in March 1983, family reunion had become the major migration program souce and Asia was rapidly becoming the dominant place of migrant origin. This emphasis on family reunion was not intended by government immigration planners but was a product of domestic political change and resultant new influences over migration policy. As to the increasing Asian component, it has mainly been an unintended consequence of the expansion in the family reunion program. Although the liberalization of family reunion eligibility has largely been designed to appease the major Southern European ethnic communities, few applications have been forthcoming from these countries. Asian applicants have been numerous. Labor government policy since March 1983 has shown remarkable continuity with that of the LibNCP both in its selection system and in the size of the migrant intake. The motivation for the commitment to immigration derived first from longstanding traditions within the Australian business community that Australia's economic growth and dynamism depended on rapid population growth. More specifically there

  19. Trialling the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashman, Di

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, St. Leonards Primary School in Tasmania, along with other selected schools throughout Australia, trialled the draft Australian Curriculum: Mathematics. Mathematics had been a whole school focus at St. Leonards Primary School for several years, and the school found that the opportunity to be part of the trial strongly connected with their…

  20. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes…

  1. Numeracy and Australian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen; Leder, Gilah

    2016-01-01

    Australian teachers, recruited via Facebook, completed an online survey about aspects of numeracy. The survey was designed to explore views on numeracy and capacity to respond to numeracy tasks. In this paper, we focus primarily on responses to two numeracy tasks--one numerical, the other requiring critical evaluation. On the first item, 40%…

  2. Music in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle, Graham

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a survey of music in Australian schools. The survey included all types of schools, and includes facilities and equipment for musical education, and the use made of them. The courses of study, organization of musical activities, finance, supervision, teacher training, and…

  3. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  4. Study Protocol: establishing good relationships between patients and health care providers while providing cardiac care. Exploring how patient-clinician engagement contributes to health disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies that compare Indigenous Australian and non-Indigenous patients who experience a cardiac event or chest pain are inconclusive about the reasons for the differences in-hospital and survival rates. The advances in diagnostic accuracy, medication and specialised workforce has contributed to a lower case fatality and lengthen survival rates however this is not evident in the Indigenous Australian population. A possible driver contributing to this disparity may be the impact of patient-clinician interface during key interactions during the health care process. Methods/Design This study will apply an Indigenous framework to describe the interaction between Indigenous patients and clinicians during the continuum of cardiac health care, i.e. from acute admission, secondary and rehabilitative care. Adopting an Indigenous framework is more aligned with Indigenous realities, knowledge, intellects, histories and experiences. A triple layered designed focus group will be employed to discuss patient-clinician engagement. Focus groups will be arranged by geographic clusters i.e. metropolitan and a regional centre. Patient informants will be identified by Indigenous status (i.e. Indigenous and non-Indigenous) and the focus groups will be convened separately. The health care provider focus groups will be convened on an organisational basis i.e. state health providers and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. Yarning will be used as a research method to facilitate discussion. Yarning is in congruence with the oral traditions that are still a reality in day-to-day Indigenous lives. Discussion This study is nestled in a larger research program that explores the drivers to the disparity of care and health outcomes for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians who experience an acute cardiac admission. A focus on health status, risk factors and clinical interventions may camouflage critical issues within a patient-clinician exchange. This approach may

  5. A short history of the Australian Society of Soil Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennison, Linda

    2013-04-01

    In 1955 a resolution, "that the Australian Society of Soil Science be inaugurated as from this meeting" was recorded in Melbourne Australia. The following year in Queensland, the first official meeting of the Society took place with a Federal Executive and Presidents from the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australian and Victorian branches forming the Federal Council. In later years the executive expanded with the addition of the Western Australia branch in 1957, the Riverina Branch in 1962 and most recently the Tasmania Branch in 2008. The objects of the Society were 1) the advancement of soil science and studies therein with particular reference to Australia and 2) to provide a link between soil scientists and kindred bodies within Australia and between them and other similar organisations in other countries. Membership was restricted to persons engaged in the scientific study of the soil and has grown steadily from to 147 members in 1957 to 875 members in 2012. The first issue of the Society newsletter, Soils News, was published in January 1957 and continued to be published twice yearly until 1996. A name change to Profile and an increase to quarterly publication occurred in 1997; circulation remained restricted to members. The Publications Committee in 1968 determined the Publication Series would be the medium for occasional technical papers, reviews and reports but not research papers and in 1962 the Australian Journal of Soil Research was established by CSIRO in response to continued representations from the Society. By 1960 a draft constitution was circulated to, and adopted by members. The first honorary life membership of the Society was awarded to Dr. J A Prescott. Honorary memberships are still awarded for service to the Society and to soil science and are capped at 25. In 1964 the ISSS awarded honorary membership to Dr. Prescott. Now known as IUSS Honorary members other Australians recognised have been EG Hallsworth

  6. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2015-03-31

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2013, 4,897 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC value 0.06-0.125 mg/L) was found nationally in 8.8% of isolates, double that reported in 2012 (4.4%). The highest proportions were reported from New South Wales and Victoria (both states reporting 11.8%), with a high proportion of strains also reported from Tasmania but a low number of isolates were tested. In addition, there was a multi-drug-resistant strain of N. gonorrhoeae isolated from a traveller to Australia, with a ceftraixone MIC value of 0.5 mgL-the highest ever reported in Australia. These antimicrobial resistance data from Australia in 2013 are cause for considerable concern. With the exception of remote Northern Territory where penicillin resistance rates remain low (1.3%) the proportion of strains resistant to penicillin remained high in all jurisdictions ranging from 15.6% in the Australian Capital Territory to 44.1% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance ranged from 16% in the Australian Capital Territory to 46% in Victoria. Azithromycin susceptibility testing was performed in all jurisdictions and resistance ranged from 0.3% in the Northern Territory to 5.7% in Queensland. High level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value was > 256 mg/L) was reported for the first time in Australia, in 4 strains: 2 each from Queensland and Victoria. Azithromycin resistant gonococci were not detected in the Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania or from the remote Northern Territory. Nationally, all isolates remained susceptible to spectinomycin.

  7. The Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri: a personal story.

    PubMed

    Joss, Jean M P

    2011-08-01

    The following is a brief description of how lungfish research at Macquarie University began, of the period in which it flourished, and, most recently, of the winding down of the University's involvement with this research. During this latter period, the Australian lungfish in the wild were threatened by the construction of a megadam in their very limited habitat. Fortunately, this was averted in December 2009, after 3 years of lobbying the Federal Government. They now await another "Aussie" to make them accessible for further research by Australian and international researchers.

  8. The Australian Geodetic Observing Program. Current Status and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, G.; Dawson, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Australian government has through programs like AuScope, the Asia Pacific Reference Frame (APREF), and the Pacific Sea Level Monitoring (PSLM) Project made a significant contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Program. In addition to supporting the national research priorities, this contribution is justified by Australia's growing economic dependence on precise positioning to underpin efficient transportation, geospatial data management, and industrial automation (e.g., robotic mining and precision agriculture) and the consequent need for the government to guarantee provision of precise positioning products to the Australian community. It is also well recognised within Australia that there is an opportunity to exploit our near unique position as being one of the few regions in the world to see all new and emerging satellite navigation systems including Galileo (Europe), GPS III (USA), GLONASS (Russia), Beidou (China), QZSS (Japan) and IRNSS (India). It is in this context that the Australian geodetic program will build on earlier efforts and further develop its key geodetic capabilities. This will include the creation of an independent GNSS analysis capability that will enable Australia to contribute to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and an upgrade of key geodetic infrastructure including the national VLBI and GNSS arrays. This presentation will overview the significant geodetic activities undertaken by the Australian government and highlight its future plans.

  9. Are Australian Universities Promoting Learning and Teaching Activity Effectively? An Assessment of the Effects on Science and Engineering Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cretchley, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government and Australian universities have embarked on a bid to raise the profile of learning and teaching (L&T) in universities. Current strategies include increased funding of competitive grants for L&T projects, a wider range of teaching awards and fellowships and a controversial new national competitive Learning…

  10. Using Entrepreneurial Activities as a Means of Survival: Investigating the Processes Used by Australian Universities to Diversify their Revenue Streams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zilwa, Deanna

    2005-01-01

    This study provides a profile of the actions taken by Australian universities to diversify their revenue streams in order to generate more independent non-government) income. Marginson's taxonomy of Australian universities is used to catergorise universities and contrast levels of independent income (Marginson and Considine 2000). This study finds…

  11. Hardening: Australian for Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    ADF towards homeland defense. For further details, see Jeffrey Grey. A Military History of Australia. Melbourne, Australia, Cambridge University...is a simplified explanation of the hardene d force structure proposed by FLW. The hardened concept encompasses other aspects that enhance Army...standardized with three rifle companies. A 196 Leahy “ A Land Force for the Future: The Australian Army in the Early 21st Century.” 2003: 19. 197 See Monk, Paul

  12. Australian barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica), distributions and biogeographical affinities.

    PubMed

    Jones, Diana S

    2012-09-01

    Currently, 279 barnacle species are recognized in Australia waters. The barnacle fauna of tropical Australia exhibits high species diversity (221), with a high incidence of tropical species (87 Indo-west Pacific [IWP], 16 West Pacific and 65 Indo-Malayan), a low species endemicity (8), and 44 cosmopolitan and 1 Australasian species. Conversely, that of temperate Australia shows lower species diversity (129), with a lower incidence of tropical species (26 IWP, 10 West Pacific and 25 Indo-Malayan), higher species endemicity (23), 37 cosmopolitan, 6 Australasian species, and 3 Australasian/Antarctic species. Distributions corroborate the general patterns demonstrated by the shallow-water biota of northern tropical and southern temperate Australian biogeographic provinces. Tropical and temperate provinces grade into each other in a broad overlap zone along both the western and eastern Australian coasts. This overlap zone is essentially a transitional region, with the gradual replacement of a tropical barnacle fauna in the north by a predominantly temperate barnacle fauna in the south. Both western and eastern Australian coasts are bounded by major poleward-flowing warm currents that have considerable influence on the marine flora and fauna, distributing tropical species of many taxa much farther south than could be predicted by latitude. Currently, 16 barnacle species introduced into Australian waters are identified, although this number may increase in the future due to new port developments and increased shipping arrivals.

  13. Government Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell

    1979-01-01

    Reviews recent federal publications on government information, particularly in the area of general informational services, public access to government information and privacy issues, coordination of government information systems, and congressional information needs. (Author)

  14. Inclusion of Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Government Schools in New South Wales, Australia: Development and Implementation of a Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Linda J.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Rickards, Field W.; Brown, P. Margaret

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on how the policy and continuum of services in New South Wales, Australia, for serving students who are deaf or hard of hearing have developed and the attitudes of stakeholders toward both policy and practice. It concludes by attempting to assess the potential effects on students. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  15. The use and impact of cancer medicines in routine clinical care: methods and observations in a cohort of elderly Australians

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Sallie-Anne; Schaffer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Introduction After medicines have been subsidised in Australia we know little about their use in routine clinical practice, impact on resource utilisation, effectiveness or safety. Routinely collected administrative health data are available to address these issues in large population-based pharmacoepidemiological studies. By bringing together cross-jurisdictional data collections that link drug exposure to real-world outcomes, this research programme aims to evaluate the use and impact of cancer medicines in a subset of elderly Australians in the real-world clinical setting. Methods and analysis This ongoing research programme involves a series of retrospective cohort studies of Australian Government Department of Veterans’ Affairs (DVA) clients. The study population includes 104 635 veterans who reside in New South Wales, Australia, and were aged 65 years and over as of 1 July 2004. We will investigate trends in cancer medicines use according to cancer type and other sociodemographic characteristics as well as predictors of the initiation of cancer medicines and other treatment modalities, survival and adverse outcomes among patients with cancer. The programme is underpinned by the linkage of eight health administrative databases under the custodianship of the DVA and the New South Wales Ministry of Health, including cancer notifications, medicines dispensing data, hospitalisation data and health services data. The cancer notifications database is available from 1994 with all other databases available from 2005 onwards. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the DVA and New South Wales Population and Health Service Research Ethics Committees. Results Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and policy forums. The programme has high translational potential, providing invaluable evidence about cancer medicines in an elderly population who are under-represented in clinical trials. PMID:24793244

  16. Potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus, Queensland, 1996-1999.

    PubMed Central

    McCall, B. J.; Epstein, J. H.; Neill, A. S.; Heel, K.; Field, H.; Barrett, J.; Smith, G. A.; Selvey, L. A.; Rodwell, B.; Lunt, R.

    2000-01-01

    Two human deaths caused by Australian bat lyssavirus (ABL) infection have been reported since 1996. Information was obtained from 205 persons (mostly adults from south Brisbane and the South Coast of Queensland), who reported potential ABL exposure to the Brisbane Southside Public Health Unit from November 1,1996, to January 31, 1999. Volunteer animal handlers accounted for 39% of potential exposures, their family members for 12%, professional animal handlers for 14%, community members who intentionally handled bats for 31%, and community members with contacts initiated by bats for 4%. The prevalence of Lyssavirus detected by fluorescent antibody test in 366 sick, injured, or orphaned bats from the area was 6%. Sequelae of exposure, including the requirement for expensive postexposure prophylaxis, may be reduced by educating bat handlers and the public of the risks involved in handling Australian bats. PMID:10827115

  17. Australian University International Student Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  18. The Quality Imperative: Tracing the Rise of "Quality" in Australian Early Childhood Education and Care Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Helen; Press, Frances; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Quality in early childhood development was barely mentioned in government policy four decades ago. But this has changed. Using discourses and gazes as analytical tools, and by examining the recent past (1972-2009), this article traces how and why "quality" has become a key component of the current Council of Australian Governments'…

  19. The Market as a New Steering Strategy for Australian Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, V. Lynn; Wood, Fiona Q.

    1997-01-01

    Examines financial and ideological aspects of increased market orientation in Australian higher education. A common policy response to increased costs of mass higher education has been to pressure institutions into seeking a higher proportion of revenue from non-government sources, even rewarding institutions for non-government funding secured.…

  20. An Investigation on Allocative Efficiency and Implications of New Funding Plans for the Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamun, Shamsul Arifeen Khan; Rahman, Mohammand Mafizur

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 and 2014, the Australian Federal Government introduced the Gonski reforms and fee deregulation measures to reform the prevailing financing provisions for education sectors in Australia. The central proposition of the proposed new measures was to reduce the funding of public universities by the Federal Government. One likely consequence of…

  1. Endangered Species? Less Commonly Taught Languages in the Linguistic Ecology of Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Kerry; Palvyshyn, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Hindi, a less commonly taught language in Australian higher education, was catapulted into the list of four strategically significant languages in the Commonwealth Government's 2012 White Paper, Australia in the Asian Century. Hindi's inclusion is, perhaps, predictable in view of the Commonwealth Government's economic and trade agendas, though the…

  2. Evaluation of current Australian health service accreditation processes (ACCREDIT-CAP): protocol for a mixed-method research project

    PubMed Central

    Hinchcliff, Reece; Greenfield, David; Moldovan, Max; Pawsey, Marjorie; Mumford, Virginia; Westbrook, Johanna Irene; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Accreditation programmes aim to improve the quality and safety of health services, and have been widely implemented. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the outcomes of existing programmes. The Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork-Current Accreditation Processes (ACCREDIT-CAP) project is designed to address key gaps in the literature by evaluating the current processes of three accreditation programmes used across Australian acute, primary and aged care services. Methods and design The project comprises three mixed-method studies involving documentary analyses, surveys, focus groups and individual interviews. Study samples will comprise stakeholders from across the Australian healthcare system: accreditation agencies; federal and state government departments; consumer advocates; professional colleges and associations; and staff of acute, primary and aged care services. Sample sizes have been determined to ensure results allow robust conclusions. Qualitative information will be thematically analysed, supported by the use of textual grouping software. Quantitative data will be subjected to a variety of analytical procedures, including descriptive and comparative statistics. The results are designed to inform health system policy and planning decisions in Australia and internationally. Ethics and dissemination The project has been approved by the University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number HREC 10274). Results will be reported to partner organisations, healthcare consumers and other stakeholders via peer-reviewed publications, conference and seminar presentations, and a publicly accessible website. PMID:22864419

  3. Can a regional government's social inclusion initiative contribute to the quest for health equity?

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Newman, Lareen; Biedrzycki, Katherine; Patterson, Jan

    2010-12-01

    Despite decades of concern about reducing health inequity, the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) painted a picture of persistent and, in some cases, increasing health inequity. It also made a call for increased evaluation of interventions that might reduce inequities. This paper describes such an intervention-the Social Inclusion Initiative (SII) of the South Australian Government-that was documented for the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network of the CSDH. This initiative is designed to increase social inclusion by addressing key determinants of health inequity-in the study period these were education, homelessness and drug use. Our paper examines evidence from a rapid appraisal to determine whether a social inclusion initiative is a useful aspect of government action to reduce health inequity. It describes achievements in each specific area and the ways they can be expected to affect health equity. Our study highlighted four factors central to the successes achieved by the SII. These were the independent authority and influence of the leadership of the SII, the whole of government approach supported by an overarching strategic plan which sets clear goals for government and the clear and unambiguous support from the highest level of government. We conclude that a social inclusion approach can be valuable in the quest to reduce inequities and that further research on innovative social policy approaches is required to examine their likely impact on health equity.

  4. The Impact of Governance on the Performance of the Higher Education Sector in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Silva Lokuwaduge, Chitra; Armstrong, Anona

    2015-01-01

    Australian government concern for improved governance in the higher education sector over recent years has driven the implementation of governance protocols. However, there has been little evidence of any evaluation of the impact of the governance structures on the performance of universities. This paper presents an analysis of the impact of the…

  5. The "lessons" of the Australian "heroin shortage".

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Day, Carolyn; Gilmour, Stuart; Hall, Wayne

    2006-05-02

    Heroin use causes considerable harm to individual users including dependence, fatal and nonfatal overdose, mental health problems, and blood borne virus transmission. It also adversely affects the community through drug dealing, property crime and reduced public amenity. During the mid to late 1990s in Australia the prevalence of heroin use increased as reflected in steeply rising overdose deaths. In January 2001, there were reports of an unpredicted and unprecedented reduction in heroin supply with an abrupt onset in all Australian jurisdictions. The shortage was most marked in New South Wales, the State with the largest heroin market, which saw increases in price, dramatic decreases in purity at the street level, and reductions in the ease with which injecting drug users reported being able to obtain the drug. The abrupt onset of the shortage and a subsequent dramatic reduction in overdose deaths prompted national debate about the causes of the shortage and later international debate about the policy significance of what has come to be called the "Australian heroin shortage". In this paper we summarise insights from four years' research into the causes, consequences and policy implications of the "heroin shortage".

  6. Earliest known Australian Tertiary mammal fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godthelp, Henk; Archer, Michael; Cifelli, Richard; Hand, Suzanne J.; Gilkeson, Coral F.

    1992-04-01

    REMAINS of Early Eocene vertebrates from freshwater clays near Murgon, southeastern Queensland, represent Australia's oldest marsupials, bats, non-volant placentals, frogs, madtsoiid snakes, trionychid turtles1and birds. Radiometric dating of illites forming part of the matrix of the mammal-bearing zone has given a minimum age estimate of 54.6 +/- 0.05 x 106 years, which is roughly twice as old as any marsupials previously known from Australia2 and well before the 38 million year (Myr) separation of Australia from Antarctica/South America3. All marsupials so far known from the Tingamarra Local Fauna are more derived (being dilambdodont) than peradectids. None of them is clearly a member of a previously known Australian family, but some could be uniquely plesiomorphic dasyuroids or perameloids. Another is autapomorphically specialized and indicative of at least partial isolation of the Australian portion of Gondwana. Here we report on the discovery of a tooth of the earliest non-volant placental known from Australia, Tingamarra porterorum gen.et sp. nov., which seems to be a condylarth-like placental mammal. The presence of non-volant placentals in the Early Tertiary of Australia challenges a common presumption that marsupials dominated Australia's therian assemblages because of failure of such placentals to reach Australia before the Late Tertiary.

  7. From Alliance to Acquaintance: The Australian-American Security Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    imperial autumn of the late- Victorian and Edwardian periods. + McLachlan calls it the world’s largest natural cordon sanitalre. Not a bad description...was coal ." But this he could not get, at least not in the Western Pacific, because the first act of the Australian and New Zealand governments after...2. According to the English poet John Nasefield, who shared with rather too many bards of his time a ridiculously romantic vision of the glory of war

  8. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  9. The Australian experiment with ETS-V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius; Hase, Yoshihiro

    1989-01-01

    Land-mobile satellite propagation measurements were implemented at L Band (1.5 GHz) in South-Eastern Australia during an 11 day period in October 1988. Transmissions (CW) from both the Japanese ETS-5 and INMARSAT Pacific geostationary satellites were accessed. Previous measurements in this series were performed at both L Band (1.5 GHz) and UHF (870 MHz) in Central Maryland, North-Central Colorado, and the southern United States. The objectives of the Australian campaign were to expand the data base acquired in the U.S. to another continent, to validate a U.S. derived empirical model for estimating the fade distribution, to establish the effects of directive antennas, to assess the isolation between co- and cross-polarized transmissions, to derive estimates of fade as well as non-fade durations, and to evaluate diversity reception. All these objectives were met.

  10. Driving violations observed: an Australian study.

    PubMed

    Glendon, A Ian

    2007-08-01

    This study analyses 2,765 cases of driving behaviours in three Australian states - New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria. Data were gathered from in-car coordinated video and audio recording sequences in free-flowing traffic along two-, three- and four-lane highways with varying speed limits on all days of the week in daylight and fine weather conditions. Explanatory variables included driver age group and gender, passenger characteristics and vehicle age and type. Response variables included driving violations and other driving behaviours, including lane use, speeding, close following (tailgating), driver's hands position and mobile phone use. Data were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. By focusing upon vehicle and driver characteristics, and their impact on driving behaviours, including identified violations, this study explores some implications both for future research and for traffic policy makers.

  11. Government Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    manufacturers. The Navy has a major in- house design capability for ships; the government does not possess such a capability for aircraft or other weapon systems...the Coast Guard, government agencies acquire a wide variety of ships, ranging from sophisticated submarines and nuclear aircraft carriers to much...the initial phase a review was made of written material relating to government procedures in U.S. Government agencies for acquiring vessels, aircraft

  12. Military Government

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-07-01

    CGSC MG MILITARY GOVERNMENT LIBHARY ARI\\’IY WAR COLLEGE CJ\\RLISLE BARRACKS, PAa This text is approved for resident and extension-course...and functions · of ’ military government . It conforms ·substantially to the subject matter , of Field Manual 27-5, Civil Affairs/ Military Government ...Teaching experience at the Command and General Staff College has ···--·demonstrated the need for a military government text which brings to- gether

  13. Occupational heat stress in Australian workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Ollie; Brotherhood, John R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this review was to summarize the current state of knowledge on heat stress risk within typical Australian occupational settings. We assessed identified occupations (mining, agriculture, construction, emergency services) for heat production and heat loss potential, and resultant levels of physiological heat strain. A total of 29 reports were identified that assessed in-situ work settings in Northern Territory, South Australia, Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, that measured physiological responses and characterized the thermal environment. Despite workers across all industries being regularly exposed to high ambient temperatures (32–42°C) often coupled with high absolute humidity (max: 33 hPa), physiological strain is generally low in terms of core temperature (<38°C) and dehydration (<1 % reduction in mass) by virtue of the low energy demands of many tasks, and self-regulated pacing of work possible in most jobs. Heat stress risk is higher in specific jobs in agriculture (e.g. sheep shearing), deep underground mining, and emergency services (e.g., search/rescue and bushfire fighting). Heat strain was greatest in military-related activities, particularly externally-paced marching with carried loads which resulted in core temperatures often exceeding 39.5°C despite being carried out in cooler environments. The principal driver of core temperature elevations in most jobs is the rate of metabolic heat production. A standardized approach to evaluating the risk of occupational heat strain in Australian workplaces is recommended defining the individual parameters that alter human heat balance. Future research should also more closely examine female workers and occupational activities within the forestry and agriculture/horticulture sector. PMID:28349081

  14. A Retrospective View of the Colombo Plan: Government Policy, Departmental Administration and Overseas Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auletta, Alex

    2000-01-01

    Examines Australian government policies involved in the development and implementation of the Colombo Plan, a program that sponsored the education of Asian and Pacific students in Australia. Concludes that the Colombo Plan's original emphasis on aid has had long term effects on the marketing of Australian education to Asian foreign students. (DB)

  15. South Africa's Constitutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Describes the striking dichotomy of South Africa's beauty and the squalor resulting from the apartheid policies of the government. Reviews reactions of black South Africans to recent constitutional changes and details efforts to secure more sweeping reform. Includes stories of several individuals who have taken actions which oppose the system of…

  16. Australian radiation therapy – Part two: Reflections of the past, the present, the future

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Susan; Halkett, Georgia; Sale, Charlotte; Collaboration: Grad Cert Grief & Pall Care Counselling, MIR

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Documentation on the history of Australian radiotherapy is limited. This study provides radiation therapists' (RTs) perspectives of the people, workplace, and work practices in Australian radiotherapy centres from 1960 onwards. It provides a follow-up to our previous study: Australian radiation therapy: An overview – Part one, which outlines the history and development of radiotherapy from conception until present day. Methods: Four focus groups were conducted on separate occasions in 2010, one in South Australia and three in Victoria, Australia. Participants who worked in radiotherapy were purposively selected to ensure a range of experience, age, and years of work. Results: From a RT perspective, radiotherapy has evolved from a physically demanding ‘hands-on’ work environment, often with unpleasant sights and smells of disease, to a more technology-driven workplace. Conclusion: Understanding these changes and their subsequent effects on the role of Australian RTs will assist future directions in advanced role development.

  17. New Australian sauropods shed light on Cretaceous dinosaur palaeobiogeography

    PubMed Central

    Poropat, Stephen F.; Mannion, Philip D.; Upchurch, Paul; Hocknull, Scott A.; Kear, Benjamin P.; Kundrát, Martin; Tischler, Travis R.; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H. K.; Elliott, Judy A.; Elliott, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Australian dinosaurs have played a rare but controversial role in the debate surrounding the effect of Gondwanan break-up on Cretaceous dinosaur distribution. Major spatiotemporal gaps in the Gondwanan Cretaceous fossil record, coupled with taxon incompleteness, have hindered research on this effect, especially in Australia. Here we report on two new sauropod specimens from the early Late Cretaceous of Queensland, Australia, that have important implications for Cretaceous dinosaur palaeobiogeography. Savannasaurus elliottorum gen. et sp. nov. comprises one of the most complete Cretaceous sauropod skeletons ever found in Australia, whereas a new specimen of Diamantinasaurus matildae includes the first ever cranial remains of an Australian sauropod. The results of a new phylogenetic analysis, in which both Savannasaurus and Diamantinasaurus are recovered within Titanosauria, were used as the basis for a quantitative palaeobiogeographical analysis of macronarian sauropods. Titanosaurs achieved a worldwide distribution by at least 125 million years ago, suggesting that mid-Cretaceous Australian sauropods represent remnants of clades which were widespread during the Early Cretaceous. These lineages would have entered Australasia via dispersal from South America, presumably across Antarctica. High latitude sauropod dispersal might have been facilitated by Albian–Turonian warming that lifted a palaeoclimatic dispersal barrier between Antarctica and South America. PMID:27763598

  18. Go8 Guiding Principles for Implementing Part B of the "Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research". Go8 Consultation Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The release of the "Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research 2007" by the Australian Government in 2007 was welcomed by Go8 (Group of Eight) institutions, particularly in relation to the improvements and broader scope of the matters covered by Part A of that Code. However, as foreshadowed by the Go8 during the consultation…

  19. MCEETYA Four-Year Plan, 2009-2012: A Companion Document for the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth (MCEETYA) four-year plan outlines the key strategies and initiatives Australian governments will undertake in each of these eight areas to support the achievement of the educational goals for young Australians and will be reviewed and updated as needed. The plan is aligned with…

  20. Australian helminths in Australian rodents: an issue of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Warner, L R

    1998-06-01

    The Australian public as well as Australian funding bodies are generally unsympathetic to native murids, rats and mice, in spite of the fact that 36% have either become extinct or critically endangered since European settlement. The endemic Australian parasites of these rats and mice have been even less sympathetically regarded. Prior to 1958 very little work was carried out on the helminths of Australian rodents and little more is known today. Records are known from only 28% of the extant host species, comprising some 109 species of helminth identified at least to generic level. The rodents invaded Australia from the north, perhaps through New Guinea in at least two separate waves, 5-8 then about 1 million years ago. The parasites they brought with them have adapted and speciated and there has been some host switching between rodent groups and between rodents and the Australian marsupials. This is illustrated particularly in the Trichostrongyloidea. The origins of the rodents from Southeast Asia down the Indonesian island chain are reflected in the presence of the nematode genus Tikusnema in both Australia and Indonesia, and Cyclodontostomum purvisi across Southeast Asia and into New Guinea. Hydromys chrysogaster, the Australian water-rat, illustrates how the biogeographical influences of the host's distribution and lifestyle can affect its parasite fauna. Most of the research to date is merely indicative of where more data are needed. The links between Australian and New Guinean helminth fauna, as well as the links between rodent and marsupial hosts and their fauna, cannot be determined without further research.

  1. Tackling inequalities in health: the Australian experience.

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, M; Judge, K; Hunter, D J; Maxwell, R; Scheuer, M A

    1993-01-01

    Federal and state governments in Australia have embarked on a series of national initiatives which show a firm commitment to tackling social inequalities in health. The development of national goals and targets for health, for example, covers social and environmental conditions and sets differential targets for specific social groups with very poor health status. In a complementary initiative, a wide ranging analysis of the health care system--the National Health Strategy--has as one of its main objectives to improve the equitable impact of the health system. Where problems of access to and quality of services have been exposed, policies have been devised to deal with them. The exceptionally poor health of the Aboriginal community has elicited cross party support for action. Resources have been allocated to implement the National Aboriginal Health Strategy: to improve living and working conditions, education, and employment opportunities. Britain can glean much from the Australian experience. Images p783-a p787-a PMID:8490345

  2. Nurturing and Sustaining Entrepreneurship. University, Science Park, Business and Government Partnership in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Examines entrepreneurial activities in university science and technology parks that promote innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises. Highlights projects at the University of Adelaide and Australian government programs that support entrepreneurship. (SK)

  3. Sea snakes in Australian waters (Serpentes: subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae)--a review with an updated identification key.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Arne Redsted; Sanders, Kate Laura; Guinea, Michael L; Amey, Andrew P

    2014-10-02

    Sea snakes (Elapidae, subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae) reach high species richness in the South China Sea and in the Australian region; however, most countries in the two regions still lack up-to-date checklists and identification tools for these snakes. We present an updated reviewed checklist and a new complete identification key to sea snakes in Australian waters. The identification key includes 29 species documented and 4 possibly occurring taxa and is based mostly on easy-to-use external characters. We find no evidence for breeding populations of Laticauda in Australian waters, but include the genus on the list of possibly occurring taxa. 

  4. Interaction Patterns in the Extended Classroom via Satellite Technology in the Australian Outback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Andrew R.; Boylan, Colin R.

    This paper reports on research with a group of students in grades 3 and 4 who live on isolated grazing homesteads in the Australian desert in western New South Wales. The paper examines an alternative mode of delivery involving the application of satellite-based systems to provide a teaching-learning environment for these students. The trial of a…

  5. Gender Differences in Beliefs about Condom Use among Young, Heterosexual Australian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Fiona J.; Newton, Joshua D.; Windisch, Lydia; Ewing, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate gender differences in beliefs about condom use among young, sexually active, heterosexual Australian adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey of 1,113 adults aged 18-26 years. Setting: Higher education institutions across New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Method: Participants were recruited during higher-education…

  6. Becoming-Speckled Warbler: Re/Creating Australian Natural History Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    The speckled warbler and other woodland birds of south-eastern Australia have declined dramatically since European settlement; many species are at risk of becoming locally and/or nationally extinct. Coincidently, Australian environmental education research of the last decade has largely been silent on the development of pedagogy that reflects the…

  7. The Civic Mission of Australian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lawrence; Muirhead, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins and meaning of civic responsibility in the Australian model of the university, beginning with medieval European universities and progressing through Australian reforms of the 20th century. Warns against the university without a civic mission. (SLD)

  8. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme monitors antibiotic susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in all states and territories. In 2010 the in vitro susceptibility of 3,997 isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources was determined by standardised methods. Varying antibiotic susceptibility patterns were again reported across jurisdictions and regions. Resistance to the penicillins nationally was 29% and, with the exception of the Northern Territory, ranged from 22% in Queensland to 42% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance, most at high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, was 35% nationally (excepting the Northern Territory), ranging from 28% in Queensland to 44% in Victoria. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC 0.06 mg/L or more), was found nationally in 4.8% of isolates. There has not been an isolate of N. gonorrhoeae with an MIC value greater than 0.125 mg/L reported in Australia. Nationally, all isolates remained sensitive to spectinomycin. Azithromycin surveillance was performed in New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia, the Northern Territory and South Australia, and resistance was found in low numbers of gonococci with MIC values up to 16 mg/L. In larger urban centres the ratio of male to female cases was high, and rectal and pharyngeal isolates were common in men. In other centres, and in rural Australia, the male to female ratio of cases was lower, and most isolates were from the genital tract.

  9. Divergent stakeholder views of corporate social responsibility in the Australian forest plantation sector.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Melissa; Lockwood, Michael; Vanclay, Frank; Hanson, Dallas; Schirmer, Jacki

    2012-12-30

    Although the Australian forest plantation industry acknowledges that there is a role for corporate social responsibility (CSR) in forest management, there is confusion as to what this constitutes in practice. This paper describes the conflicts between internal and external stakeholder views on CSR in plantation forestry. We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants across three plantation management regions in Australia: Tasmania, the Green Triangle and south-west Western Australia. We interviewed a range of stakeholders including forest company employees, local councils, Indigenous representatives, and environmental non-government organisations. CSR-related initiatives that stakeholders believed were important for plantation management included the need for community engagement, accountability towards stakeholders, and contribution to community development and well-being. Although there was wide support for these initiatives, some stakeholders were not satisfied that forest companies were actively implementing them. Due to the perception that forest companies are not committed to CSR initiatives such as community engagement, some stakeholder expectations are not being satisfied.

  10. Quality Assurance Mechanisms and Their Use as Policy Instruments: Major International Approaches and the Australian Experience since 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant

    1998-01-01

    Explores quality-assurance mechanisms for higher education and their use as a government policy instrument. Outlines several national or system-level approaches adopted worldwide; reviews an Australian quality-assurance program conducted from 1993 to 1995 and its successor program; and comments on ways in which the government used quality…

  11. "English" in the "Australian Curriculum: English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the text of a paper given at the 2011 Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities on the theme, "Educating the Nation: The Humanities in the New Australian Curriculum", the 42nd Annual Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities at the University of Melbourne, 17 November 2011. It was presented in a session on…

  12. Embracing Babel: The "Framework for Australian Languages"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Jaky; Walsh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) has been developing language-specific curricula for a range of languages in the "Australian Curriculum: Language"s and has also undertaken development of a "Framework for Australian Languages", to provide guidance for the development of curricula for specific…

  13. Research Ready Program: A First in Regional South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Joy; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In response to the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) Board's introduction in 2010 of the new Research Project subject, the University of South Australia's Centre for Participation and Community Engagement took the opportunity to engage further with school students by organising the Research Ready Program. The adoption of the program…

  14. Divine service, music, sport, and recreation as medicinal in Australian asylums 1860s-1945.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, Dolly

    2009-01-01

    Australian asylum records (circa 1860 to circa 1945) demonstrate that medical staff went to great lengths to provide recreation to suitable patients. This article examines how the demarcation of Australian institutional spaces along gender divisions was also mirrored by the gender-specific recreational activities provided in purpose-built facilities. Using Australian examples I demonstrate how the main forms of recreation-that is divine service, music and dance, and sport-were justified to governments on medical grounds. Some designated recreational spaces even offered select female and male patients the opportunity to mix under medical supervision. Recreation was therapeutic because of its psychological, physical, social, and moral benefits, and government authorities funded the construction of costly chapels, recreation halls, and sports grounds expressly for this medical purpose.

  15. Disentangling the relationship of the Australian marsupial orders using retrotransposon and evolutionary network analyses.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Susanne; Janke, Axel; Kumar, Vikas; Nilsson, Maria A

    2015-03-18

    The ancestors to the Australian marsupials entered Australia around 60 (54-72) Ma from Antarctica, and radiated into the four living orders Peramelemorphia, Dasyuromorphia, Diprotodontia, and Notoryctemorphia. The relationship between the four Australian marsupial orders has been a long-standing question, because different phylogenetic studies have not been able to consistently reconstruct the same topology. Initial in silico analysis of the Tasmanian devil genome and experimental screening in the seven marsupial orders revealed 20 informative transposable element insertions for resolving the inter- and intraordinal relationships of Australian and South American orders. However, the retrotransposon insertions support three conflicting topologies regarding Peramelemorphia, Dasyuromorphia, and Notoryctemorphia, indicating that the split between the three orders may be best understood as a network. This finding is supported by a phylogenetic reanalysis of nuclear gene sequences, using a consensus network approach that allows depicting hidden phylogenetic conflict, otherwise lost when forcing the data into a bifurcating tree. The consensus network analysis agrees with the transposable element analysis in that all possible topologies regarding Peramelemorphia, Dasyuromorphia, and Notoryctemorphia in a rooted four-taxon topology are equally well supported. In addition, retrotransposon insertion data support the South American order Didelphimorphia being the sistergroup to all other living marsupial orders. The four Australian orders originated within 3 Myr at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. The rapid divergences left conflicting phylogenetic information in the genome possibly generated by incomplete lineage sorting or introgressive hybridization, leaving the relationship among Australian marsupial orders unresolvable as a bifurcating process millions of years later.

  16. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Borthwick, Alan M; Nancarrow, Susan A; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21) and focus groups (n = 9) with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory), resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation) and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important. PMID:19216783

  17. Indigenous Gambling Motivations, Behaviour and Consequences in Northern New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.; Hing, Nerilee; Gordon, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Against a background of public health, we sought to examine and explain gambling behaviours, motivations and consequences of Indigenous Australians in northern New South Wales. Adhering to national Aboriginal and ethical guidelines and using qualitative methods, 169 Indigenous Australians were interviewed individually and in small groups using…

  18. Annual report of the Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme, 2011.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2012-06-30

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme monitors antibiotic susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in all states and territories. In 2011, the in vitro susceptibility of 4,133 isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources was determined by standardised methods. Varying antibiotic susceptibility patterns were again reported across jurisdictions and regions. Resistance to the penicillins nationally was 25%, and with the exception of the Northern Territory and Tasmania, ranged from 17% in South Australia and Western Australia, to 44% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance, most at high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, was 27% nationally (except in the Northern Territory and Tasmania), ranging from 12% in the Australian Capital Territory to 40% in Victoria. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC 0.06 mg/L or more), was found nationally in 3.2% of isolates, a decrease from 4.8% in 2010. There has not been an isolate of N. gonorrhoeae with a ceftriaxone MIC value greater than 0.125 mg/L reported in Australia. Nationally, all isolates remained sensitive to spectinomycin. Azithromycin surveillance was performed in the Australian Capital Territory; New South Wales; Queensland; Western Australia; the Northern Territory and South Australia. Resistance was found in low numbers of gonococci, with MIC values up to 16 mg/L. The source and site of the isolates referred to the program varied by geographic location. In larger urban centres the ratio of male to female cases was high, and rectal and pharyngeal isolates were common in men. In other centres, and in rural Australia, the male to female ratio was lower, and most isolates were from the genital tract.

  19. Second Languages and Australian Schooling. Australian Education Review No. 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    It is an underlying principle of Australian Education Review (AER) 54 that active efforts should be made to cultivate the latent bilingual potential within Australia's wider population and that this should be linked to major improvements in the quality of language teaching in schools. A combined approach of this kind will require investment in…

  20. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    support to supplement Korea's efforts to deter aggression. The US also believes that talks between governments are essential if reunification will ultimately occur. South Korea is now the US' largest commercial partner and Korea seems to understand that they can benefit greatly by having increased US private sector involvement in Korea's development.

  1. A Tale of Two Councils: Alternative Discourses on the "Literacy Crisis" in Australian Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Australia appears to be in the grip of a "literacy crisis" in workplaces. Media reports and industry/skills organisations are decrying the low literacy and numeracy levels of workers and the negative effects these have on productivity. As a consequence, the Australian government has increased funding for workplace literacy and numeracy…

  2. New Australian High School Represents the Future of Education Facility Design: Kingston High School, Tasmania, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deni, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    The brief from local government called for an environmentally sustainable school that establishes new models for excellence in curriculum, teaching, and learning. With its visionary sine wave design concept, flexible learning areas, shared community spaces and "extensive" green roof system--a first for an Australian school--the new $33…

  3. The Education of Girls: Policy, Research and the Question of Gender. Australian Education Review No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lyn

    Inequality problems face girls at school, and the attitudes and expectations of others affect educational choices and outcomes. After an overview in chapter 1, chapter 2 provides a discussion of Australian government reports and policies on the education of girls and traces the changes in the treatment of gender inequity. Chapter 3 focuses on the…

  4. Vocational Education and Training: Programs and Outcomes. An Overview. Australian Vocational Education & Training Statistics, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    In the year 2000, approximately 1.75 million Australians (13.2% of the country's population) undertook some form of vocational education and training (VET). Of all VET students, 75.5% undertook training with Technical and Further Education (TAFE) and other government providers versus 13.0% with community providers and 11.5% with other registered…

  5. The Australian Higher Education Quality Assurance Framework: From Improvement-Led to Compliance-Driven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood; Jarzabkowski, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    The Australian government initiated a review of higher education in 2008. One of the outcomes of the review was the formation of a national regulator, the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA), with responsibilities to: register all higher education providers, accredit the courses of the non self-accrediting providers, assure…

  6. Starting to Drink: The Experiences of Australian Lower Secondary Students with Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Gillian; Midford, Richard; Ramsden, Robyn; Cahill, Helen; Venning, Lynne; Lester, Leanne; Murphy, Bernadette; Pose, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This study describes Australian year eight students' (13-14 years old) experiences with alcohol in terms of communication with parents, initiation into drinking, patterns of consumption, context of use, and harms experienced. The sample comprised 521 year eight students from four state government secondary schools in the state of Victoria. Three…

  7. The Australian Telecentre Program: A New Approach to Technology Transfer and Rural Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, Ian R.

    Telecottages originated in Scandinavia in the 1980s in an attempt to reverse the decline of isolated communities by giving them access to information and services, facilities for training and distance education, and the opportunity to produce income through telecommuting. In 1992-1993, the Australian government began funding the Telecentre…

  8. The Literacy and Numeracy "Crisis" in Australian Workplaces: Discursive Rhetoric vs. Production Floor Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen; Yasukawa, Keiko; Brown, Tony

    2015-01-01

    The dominant discourse on adult literacy and numeracy in Australia sees the federal government, industry, workforce skills agencies and the media speaking with one voice on the "crisis" involving workers' low literacy and numeracy skills. Underpinning this discourse are the Australian results of the international Adult Literacy and Life…

  9. The Evolution of the Student as a Customer in Australian Higher Education: A Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Australian Federal Government attempted to de-regulate higher education fees so as to allow universities to set their own tuition fees. The associated public debate offer critical insights into how the identity of a student as a "customer" of higher education is understood and deployed when developing higher education…

  10. Australian University Research Commercialisation: Perceptions of Technology Transfer Specialists and Science and Technology Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant

    2010-01-01

    Australian governments in recent years have invested substantially in innovation and research commercialisation with the aim of enhancing international economic competitiveness, making research findings more readily available to research users, and supporting economic and social development. Although there have been a number of evaluations of…

  11. Casualization of Academics in the Australian Higher Education: Is Teaching Quality at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lama, Tek; Joullié, Jean-Etienne

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the issues casual academics face in Australia and whether these pose risks to teaching quality. The logic of the rampant casualisation in Australian universities is exposed first (i.e., mainly flexibility and cost saving to offset drops in government funding), followed by a discussion on the theoretical risks casualisation…

  12. Australian General Practitioner Uptake of a Remunerated Medicare Health Assessment for People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koritsas, Stella; Iacono, Teresa; Davis, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the Australian Commonwealth Government announced the Medicare Health Assessment for People with an Intellectual Disability as part of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) program (Department of Health and Ageing, 2008). The annual health assessment is a structured framework for general practitioners (GPs), which enables an annual comprehensive…

  13. Too Little and Too Much Trust: Performance Measurement in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelert, Peter; Yates, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    A striking feature of contemporary Australian higher education governance is the strong emphasis on centralized, template style, metric-based, and consequential forms of performance measurement. Such emphasis is indicative of a low degree of political trust among the central authorities in Australia in the intrinsic capacity of universities and…

  14. Is the Enhancement of Student Experience a Strategic Priority in Australian Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood; Richardson, John T. E.

    2016-01-01

    Universities in many countries are developing strategies to enhance the student experience. This focus has never been so important since the development of rankings and the use of student experience measures in institutional performance assessment. Australian government policies to link student experience measures to performance funding were a key…

  15. Directions for Australian Higher Education Institutional Policy and Practice in Supporting Students from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Marcia; O'Shea, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The Australian Government's response to the 2008 Bradley Review of higher education has set clear targets for increased university participation of people from low socioeconomic status backgrounds. Using a "success-focused" methodological approach, this research documents the factors that a sample of 53 later-year, low socioeconomic…

  16. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  17. Australian Circuses as Cooperative Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Beverley J.

    2000-01-01

    Studied how circus personnel of all ages interact in Australian circuses to preserve traditional circus lifestyles and entertainment. Interviews with 30 personnel from 4 circuses show the importance of learning to be a member of a cooperative society through immersion. Results provide information about the education of a community of occupational…

  18. Arabic in Australian Islamic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…

  19. The Spirituality of Young Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael; Singleton, Andrew; Webber, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    A research project conducted in 2003-2006, the Spirit of Generation Y, using both extended interviews and a nationwide survey, revealed three main strands in the spirituality of young Australians: traditional, alternative and humanist. Their involvement in traditional religions was declining, like that of their parents, and although some adopted…

  20. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  1. Catalogue of Australian Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A catalogue of all families, subfamilies, genera, and species of Cynipoidea present in Australia is presented here. The Australian cynipoid fauna is very poorly known, with 37 genera cited: one each for Austrocynipidae, Ibaliidae, Liopteridae, two for Cynipidae, and 32 for Figitidae. The first Austr...

  2. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  3. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  4. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  5. "Keep a low profile": pesticide residue, additives, and freon use in Australian tobacco manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To review the Australian tobacco industry's knowledge of pesticide residue on Australian tobacco and its policies and practices on resisting calls by tobacco control advocates that consumers should be informed about pesticide residue as well as additives. Methods: Review of previously internal industry documents relevant to pesticides and additives in Australian tobacco located from the Master Settlement Agreement websites. Results: Between 1972 and 1994 Philip Morris Australia was aware that its leaf samples were often contaminated with pesticide residue, sometimes including organochlorine levels described by PM's European laboratories as being "extremely high". Consumers were not advised of the contamination nor products withdrawn. From 1981, the industry also resisted calls to declare fully the extent of use and long term safety data on all additives used in their products. They developed standard public responses that were evasive and misleading and, in 2000, implemented voluntary additive disclosure which allowed the companies to continue to avoid disclosure of any ingredient they deemed to be a trade secret. There was extensive use of ozone depleting freon in Australian tobacco manufacturing. Again, the industry kept this information away from consumers. Conclusions: Australian smokers are unable to make informed decisions about smoking because pesticide and additive disclosure remains voluntary. The Australian government should regulate tobacco to require full disclosure including information on the likely health consequences of inhaling pesticide and additive pyrolysis products. PMID:14645948

  6. Why and how to compensate living organ donors: ethical implications of the new Australian scheme.

    PubMed

    Giubilini, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    The Australian Federal Government has announced a two-year trial scheme to compensate living organ donors. The compensation will be the equivalent of six weeks paid leave at the rate of the national minimum wage. In this article I analyse the ethics of compensating living organ donors taking the Australian scheme as a reference point. Considering the long waiting lists for organ transplantations and the related costs on the healthcare system of treating patients waiting for an organ, the 1.3 million AUD the Australian Government has committed might represent a very worthwhile investment. I argue that a scheme like the Australian one is sufficiently well designed to avoid all the ethical problems traditionally associated with attaching a monetary value to the human body or to parts of it, namely commodification, inducement, exploitation, and equality issues. Therefore, I suggest that the Australian scheme, if cost-effective, should represent a model for other countries to follow. Nonetheless, although I endorse this scheme, I will also argue that this kind of scheme raises issues of justice in regard to the distribution of organs. Thus, I propose that other policies would be needed to supplement the scheme in order to guarantee not only a higher number of organs available, but also a fair distribution.

  7. Steady as He Goes: At-Sea Movement of Adult Male Australian Sea Lions in a Dynamic Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, Andrew D.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Page, Bradley; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region. PMID:24086338

  8. Steady as he goes: at-sea movement of adult male Australian sea lions in a dynamic marine environment.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Andrew D; Harcourt, Robert G; Page, Bradley; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region.

  9. Chaplains' Perspectives on Their Work in Tasmanian Government Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Christopher S.; Swabey, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    School chaplaincy services aim to promote student and school community well-being. Given the community interest in chaplaincy services in government schools, it is important that research inform future developments to maximize the potential benefits of chaplaincy services to schools. In this study, 68 chaplains in the Australian state of Tasmania…

  10. Government & Private Enterprise--A Model Partnership Delivering Outstanding Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Mick

    2011-01-01

    In the Australian state of Victoria, the State Government is responsible for delivering a public education system for the compulsory school years. It uses the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) as its agency to develop its educational curriculum, engage with local communities, develop and maintain a portfolio of…

  11. Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews recent research into the ecological impacts of recreation and tourism on coastal marine fauna in Australia. Despite the high and growing importance of water-based recreation to the Australian economy, and the known fragility of many Australian ecosystems, there has been relatively limited research into the effects of marine tourism and recreation, infrastructure and activities, on aquatic resources. In this paper we have reviewed the ecological impacts on fauna that are caused by outdoor recreation (including tourism) in Australian coastal marine ecosystems. We predict that the single most potentially severe impact of recreation may be the introduction and/or dispersal of non-indigenous species of marine organisms by recreational vessels. Such introductions, together with other impacts due to human activities have the potential to increasingly degrade recreation destinations. In response, governments have introduced a wide range of legislative tools (e.g., impact assessment, protected area reservation) to manage the recreational industry. It would appear, however, that these instruments are not always appropriately applied.

  12. Levels of adherence and factors associated with adherence to option B+ prevention of mother-to-child transmission among pregnant and lactating mothers in selected government health facilities of South Wollo Zone, Amhara Region, northeast Ethiopia, 2016

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to measure the levels of adherence and to identify factors associated with adherence to option B+ prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) among pregnant and lactating mothers in selected government health facilities of South Wollo Zone, Amhara Region, northeast Ethiopia. METHODS An institution-based cross-sectional quantitative study design was employed from March 1, 2016 to April 14, 2016, using a standard structured data collection instrument. A sample of 191 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive pregnant and lactating mothers who were receiving PMTCT follow-up in the selected health facilities participated in the study. The data were entered using EpiData 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with adherence. The p-values <0.05 and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to identify associations between independent predictors and the outcome variable. RESULTS The level of adherence to option B+ PMTCT drugs was 87.9%. Women who received in-hospital treatment, who lived in rural areas, and faced challenges in initiating lifelong option B+ treatment on the same-day that they were diagnosed with HIV were less likely to adhere to the treatment (adjusted odds ratios [95% CI] of 0.3 [0.11 to 0.82], 0.26 [0.1 to 0.73], and 0.08 [0.02 to 0.37], respectively). CONCLUSIONS Collaborative efforts of zonal health departments with health facility administrators and counselors are recommended for effective and efficient interventions focusing on hospitals, rural areas, and patients who face challenges on the day of their diagnosis. PMID:27733034

  13. Stable isotopic compositions in Australian precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianrong; Fu, Guobin; Song, Xianfang; Charles, Stephen P.; Zhang, Yinghua; Han, Dongmei; Wang, Shiqin

    2010-12-01

    Stable deuterium (δD) and oxygen-18 (δ18O) isotopes in 1962 to 2002 precipitation from the seven Australian stations of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) were used to investigate isotope characteristics including temporal and spatial distributions across different regions of Australia. On the basis of 1534 samples, the local meteoric water line (LMWL) was established as δD = 7.10δ18O + 8.21. δ18O showed a depletion trend from north and south to central Australia (a continental effect) and from west to east. Precipitation amount effects were generally greater than temperature effects, with quadratic or logarithmic correlations describing δ/T and δ/P better than linear relationships. Nonlinear stepwise regression was used to determine the significant meteorological control factors for each station, explaining about 50% or more of the δ18O variations. Geographical control factors for δ18O were given by the relationship δ18O (‰) = -0.005 longitude (°) - 0.034 latitude (°)-0.003 altitude (m) - 4.753. Four different types of d-excess patterns demonstrated particular precipitation formation conditions for four major seasonal rainfall zones. Finally, wavelet coherence (WTC) between δ18O and SOI confirmed that the influence of ENSO decreased from east and north to west Australia.

  14. Ocean circulation on the North Australian Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    The ocean circulation on Australia's Northern Shelf is dominated by the Monsoon and influenced by large-scale interannual variability. These driving forces exert an ocean circulation that influences the deep Timor Sea Passage of the Indonesian Throughflow, the circulation on the Timor and Arafura Shelves and, further downstream, the Leeuwin Current. Seasonal maxima of northeastward (southwestward) volume transports on the shelf are almost symmetric and exceed 10 6 m 3/s in February (June). The associated seasonal cycle of vertical upwelling from June to August south of 8.5°S and between 124°E and 137.5°E exceeds 1.5×10 6 m 3/s across 40 m depth. During El Niño events, combined anomalies from the seasonal means of high regional wind stresses and low inter-ocean pressure gradients double the northeastward volume transport on the North Australian Shelf to 1.5×10 6 m 3/s which accounts for 20% of the total depth-integrated transport across 124°E and reduce the total transport of the Indonesian Throughflow. Variability of heat content on the shelf is largely determined by Pacific and Indian Ocean equatorial wind stress anomalies with some contribution from local wind stress forcing.

  15. First discovery of monotremes in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Rosendo; Archer, Michael; Jaureguizar, Edgardo Ortiz; Prado, José L.; Godthelp, Henk; Hand, Suzanne J.

    1992-04-01

    UNTIL now, the egg-laying monotremes were only known from the Australian continent, where they have lived since the early Cretaceous period to the present1. Here we report the first monotreme from outside the Australian continent, an ornithorhyn-chid, from sediments of late early Palaeocene age in Patagonia, southern Argentina. This discovery demonstrates the Gondwanan nature of monotremes and supports the hypothesis that the Patagonian Terrane of southern South America had a biotic history distinct from that of the rest of the continent.

  16. Review of the Australian wolf spider genus Venator (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Framenau, Volker W

    2015-09-11

    Species of the Australian wolf spider genus Venator are reviewed including the type species, V. spenceri Hogg, 1900, from south-eastern Australia and V. immansuetus (Simon, 1909) comb. nov., a common species in south-west Western Australia. Venator marginatus Hogg, 1900 is only known from two female specimens and the genital morphology of this species does not conform to the diagnosis of genus as presented here. Therefore V. marginatus is considered incerta sedis. Venator includes medium-sized (9.0-22 mm body length) wolf spiders of overall brownish colouration, and with a black patch covering the anterior three quarters of the venter. They differ from all other wolf spiders in particular by genitalic characters, namely an elevated atrium of the female epigyne that forms a raised edged against the inverted T-shaped median septum. This edge often corresponds to a retrolateral incision on the tegular apophysis of the male pedipalp. The genus is mainly a representative of the Bassian fauna of the Australian continent where it occurs predominantly in dry sclerophyll forests.

  17. Funding emergency care: Australian style.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony; Crilly, Julia; Williams, Ged; Wylie, Kate; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Burke, John; FitzGerald, Gerry

    2014-08-01

    The ongoing challenge for ED leaders is to remain abreast of system-wide changes that impact on the day-to-day management of their departments. Changes to the funding model creates another layer of complexity and this introductory paper serves as the beginning of a discussion about the way in which EDs are funded and how this can and will impact on business decisions, models of care and resource allocation within Australian EDs. Furthermore it is evident that any funding model today will mature and change with time, and moves are afoot to refine and contextualise ED funding over the medium term. This perspective seeks to provide a basis of understanding for our current and future funding arrangements in Australian EDs.

  18. [Australian short-beaked echidna].

    PubMed

    Rismiller, P

    1995-12-01

    The Australian short-beaked echidna, a monotreme, is one of the oldest living mammals on earth. It is recorded to be the most widely distributed native mammal on the island continent and classed as 'common'. Yet, little is known about its natural history and biology in the wild. What science has learned about the echidna in the past 200 years and why there are still large gaps is reported here.

  19. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  20. Policy: Australian astronomy looks forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2005-12-01

    Over the next decade, a new generation of instruments will come into being for the benefit of astronomers across the world. Australian astronomers hope to build on their strong astronomical heritage and continue to take part in astronomy at the highest international level. To this end, they have prepared a Decadal Plan that envisages building, with international partners, a world-class radio telescope, greater invovlement with 8 metre telescopes, as well as making the most of the Antarctic opportunities that Australia offers.

  1. Australian Defence Force Demographic Data and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES Directorate of Strategic Personnel Planning and Research DSPPR Technical Note 10/2001...DATE 00 OCT 2001 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Australian Defence Force Demographic Data and Challenges 5a...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES The findings and views expressed in this report are the results

  2. The Politics Are Personal: "The Australian" vs the Australian Curriculum in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tony; Collins, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the relationship between the conservative newspaper "The Australian" and the development of a national history curriculum in Australia. The lead author surveyed the major Australian press in the five-year period between 2007 and 2012 and found clear patterns of difference between "The Australian" and other…

  3. The Australian Science Facilities Program: A Study of Its Influence on Science Education in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, John G.

    This report is a study conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research to evaluate the influence of science material resources, provided under the Australian Science Facilities Program, on science education in Australia. Under the Australian Science Facilities Program some $123 million was spent, between July 1964 and June 1975, on…

  4. Inside truths: 'truth' and mental illness in the Australian asylum seeker and detention debates.

    PubMed

    Maglen, Krista

    2007-10-01

    This article examines some of the key debates and interactions between the Australian government and medical profession in relation to the mental health consequences of the policy of mandatory detention of asylum seekers. It explores how, in a series of episodes between 2001 and 2005, each side claimed to represent accurately the 'true' nature of the detention system through asserting superior 'objectivity' and commitment to 'scientific truth' in their representations of the mental health of asylum seekers. Placing these debates within the particular political objectives of the Liberal Party during John Howard's term as Prime Minister, the article explores how science and medical advocacy have been characterized and made to signify larger conflicts within the Australian political arena. It shows how populist political ideas of 'elitism' have been used by the government to represent as 'elitist untruths' psychiatric research which has demonstrated a direct causal links between government border control policies and mental ill-health.

  5. The origins and radiation of Australian Coptotermes termites: from rainforest to desert dwellers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Timothy R C; Cameron, Stephen L; Evans, Theodore A; Ho, Simon Y W; Lo, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The termite genus Coptotermes (Rhinotermitidae) is found in Asia, Africa, Central/South America and Australia, with greatest diversity in Asia. Some Coptotermes species are amongst the world's most damaging invasive termites, but the genus is also significant for containing the most sophisticated mound-building termites outside the family Termitidae. These mound-building Coptotermes occur only in Australia. Despite its economic and evolutionary significance, the biogeographic history of the genus has not been well investigated, nor has the evolution of the Australian mound-building species. We present here the first phylogeny of the Australian Coptotermes to include representatives from all described species. We combined our new data with previously generated data to estimate the first phylogeny to include representatives from all continents where the genus is found. We also present the first estimation of divergence dates during the evolution of the genus. We found the Australian Coptotermes to be monophyletic and most closely related to the Asian Coptotermes, with considerable genetic diversity in some Australian taxa possibly representing undescribed species. The Australian mound-building species did not form a monophyletic clade. Our ancestral state reconstruction analysis indicated that the ancestral Australian Coptotermes was likely to have been a tree nester, and that mound-building behaviour has arisen multiple times. The Australian Coptotermes were found to have diversified ∼13million years ago, which plausibly matches with the narrowing of the Arafura Sea allowing Asian taxa to cross into Australia. The first diverging Coptotermes group was found to be African, casting doubt on the previously raised hypothesis that the genus has an Asian origin.

  6. Mental Health of Australian Deaf Adolescents: An Investigation Using an Auslan Version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornes, Andrew J.; Brown, P. Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated mental health problems in 54 deaf adolescents between 11 and 18 years of age residing in the states of New South Wales and Tasmania in Australia. Mental health problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman, 1997). The SDQ Self Report was translated into Australian Sign Language…

  7. Moving into the 'patient-centred medical home': reforming Australian general practice.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Paul; Lynch, Anthony; Stiffe, Jenni

    2016-09-01

    The Australian healthcare system is a complex network of services and providers funded and administered by federal, state and territory governments, supplemented by private health insurance and patient contributions. The broad geographical range, complexity and increasing demand within the Australian healthcare sector mean health expenditure is high. Aspects of current funding for the healthcare system have attracted criticism from medical practitioners, patients, representative organisations and independent statutory agencies. In response to the problems in primary care funding in Australia, The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners developed the Vision for general practice and a sustainable healthcare system (the Vision). The Vision presents a plan to improve healthcare delivery in Australia through greater quality, access and efficiency by reorienting how general practice services are funded based on the 'patient-centred medical home' model.

  8. Taking It on Board: Quality Audit Findings for Higher Education Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    An examination of the reports of quality audits of Australian universities is used to identify quality assurance issues which emerge as more or less important for governing bodies and academic boards respectively. For governing bodies, many issues identified in audit reports reflect established good practice, such as a need to evaluate the…

  9. "There's so Much Data": Exploring the Realities of Data-Based School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selwyn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Educational governance is commonly predicated around the generation, collation and processing of data through digital technologies. Drawing upon an empirical study of two Australian secondary schools, this paper explores the different forms of data-based governance that are being enacted by school leaders, managers, administrators and teachers.…

  10. Australian Seismometers in Schools - eyes on seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, M.; Balfour, N.; Sambridge, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Australian Seismometers in Schools (AuSIS) program has installed 42 research quality broadband seismometers in schools around Australia. The school's infrastructure allows for real time data transfers, and eager young students monitor the instruments and report any recorded events. The reporting feature ("Caught it? Report it!") through our website works as a crude type of detection to inform us of what instruments pick up the earthquakes. It also has the added benefits of keeping schools engaged in the program, ongoing learning about earth science and geography, and obviously keeps them returning to our website. A network of professional and amateur seismologists provides support to the schools and helps promote earth science education and earthquake risk awareness. The data is publically available through the IRIS DMC and is used by not just our volunteers but also by government departments, universities and private agencies for research and monitoring. One of the challenges has been to provide a way for schools and to interact with the real time data in an accessible format. We have achieved this through website and mobile app development alongside step-by step how to guides. These tools have the added advantage that they also allow schools without their own seismometer to connect with nearby schools that do. The government run national network of seismometers in Australia is sparse; the AuSIS program provides additional instruments that are now being incorporated into the national network for improved regional earthquake locations. Although schools are not the ideal site for broadband seismometers, the program has proven that with a well-chosen location within the school we can recover high quality data for much of the day. The schools are generally well distributed across the country enabling the program to supplement the national network at the same time as bringing earth science to rural communities that often miss out on this type of opportunity.

  11. Torres strait islanders and Australian nationhood: Some educational perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Alan

    1992-01-01

    This article analyses the role of education in incorporating Australia's Melanesian minority, the Torres Strait Islanders, into the Australian nation. The analysis begins with the introduction of Queensland government schooling into Torres Strait in 1892, which fostered expectations of Queensland citizenship and employment opportunities available to other races in the economy of the Strait. From 1904 to the outbreak of world war II in the Pacific in 1942 these early directions were altered by educational policies which initially sought to train Islanders for a life in the Islands as a "race apart" from the rest of Australia. Subsequent syllabus reforms, paralleling but not equalling regular schooling offered in Queensland, did not meet Islanders' aspirations for "proper schooling" and the jobs they expected would flow from it. Following world war II, regulations confining Islanders to the Strait were relaxed and many migrated to the Queensland mainland in search of better jobs, better pay, and better education for their children. Those who remained in the Islands received an education which, by 1985, had been brought up to the mainland standard. Yet, neither group's educational aspirations were satisfied despite initiatives and financial incentives of the Commonwealth government aimed at keeping Islander children at school. The article concludes that the way ahead for Islanders in staking out their educational future in the Australian nation on a basis of equality with other Australians lies in educational developments in the Islands themselves, where Islanders are playing an active role in developing, managing, and guiding schooling in directions which recognise their identity and their citizenship aspirations.

  12. Tobacco use among urban Aboriginal Australian young people: a qualitative study of reasons for smoking, barriers to cessation and motivators for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cosh, Suzanne; Hawkins, Kimberley; Skaczkowski, Gemma; Copley, David; Bowden, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence among Aboriginal Australian young people greatly exceeds the prevalence in the broader population of Australian young people, yet limited research has explored the social context in which young Aboriginal Australians smoke. Four focus groups were conducted in 2009 with South Australian Aboriginal smokers aged 15-29 years residing in urban areas (n = 32) to examine attitudes and experiences surrounding smoking and quitting. The primary reasons for smoking initiation and maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people were identified as stress, social influence and boredom. Motivators for quitting were identified as pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons. The barriers to cessation were identified as social influence, the perception of quitting as a distant event and reluctance to access cessation support. However, it appears that social influences and stress were particularly salient contributors to smoking maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people. Smoking cessation interventions targeted at young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers should aim to build motivation to quit by utilising the motivators of pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons, while acknowledging the pertinent role of social influence and stress in the lives of young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers.

  13. Reflections on South African Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the state of higher education in South Africa looks at the economic context, the structure of the higher education system, including the role of apartheid and languages (English and Afrikaans), the government's role in governance and funding, and the actual and potential roles of professional associations in education. (MSE)

  14. “Vicious, Aggressive Bird Stalks Cyclist”: The Australian Magpie (Cracticus tibicen) in the News

    PubMed Central

    van Vuuren, Kitty; O’Keeffe, Scott; Jones, Darryl N.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary This article explores the role of print media in reporting the conflict between the Australian Magpie (Cracticus tibicen) and human populations in Australia. The results indicate that this issue is primarily covered during the spring “swooping” season in the regional and suburban press. Abstract The Australian Magpie (Cracticus tibicen) is a common bird found in urban Australian environments where its nest defense behavior during spring brings it into conflict with humans. This article explores the role of print media in covering this conflict. Leximancer software was used to analyze newspaper reports about the Australian Magpie from a sample of 634 news stories, letters-to-the editor and opinion pieces, published in newspapers from around Australia between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. The results confirm that stories about these birds are primarily published in the daily regional and weekly suburban press, and that the dominant story frame concerns the risk of “swooping” behavior to cyclists and pedestrians from birds protecting their nests during the spring breeding season. The most prominent sources used by journalists are local and state government representatives, as well as members of the public. The results show that the “swooping season” has become a normal part of the annual news cycle for these publications, with the implication that discourse surrounding the Australian Magpie predominantly concerns the risk these birds pose to humans, and ignores their decline in non-urban environments. PMID:27128947

  15. Australian Literature in the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Colleen, Ed.

    This book was designed to supply information on available resources in Australian children's literature and a tradition of teaching which incorporates the Australian experience in an inclusive manner. Essays and their authors consist of the following: (1) "Children's Books in Australia: Two Hundred Years of Social Life" (Maurice Saxby);…

  16. Successful Principal Leadership: Australian Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie; Mulford, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an Australian perspective on successful school leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on case studies in two Australian states (Tasmania and Victoria). Case studies for each state were developed independently and are reported separately. Findings: The findings show a remarkable degree of…

  17. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  18. A National Australian Curriculum: In Whose Interests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…

  19. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  20. Australian Aboriginal Language Early Childhood Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Tony

    This report discusses the provision of culturally appropriate early childhood programs in Australian Aboriginal language in Australia, and the education of teachers for these programs. The first section of the report examines the education of indigenous peoples in the context of the current Australian education system. Evidence in support of the…

  1. The Australian Curriculum: Finding the Hidden Narrative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, Geraldine M.

    2012-01-01

    The Australian curriculum to be introduced in all Australian schools over the next few years provides two competing narratives about curriculum. An overt narrative provides an unproblematic view of curriculum where the rhetoric and discourse that promotes a "world-class curriculum" effectively obscures a second narrative. This second…

  2. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  3. The cost effectiveness of a policy to store carbon in Australian agricultural soils to abate greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Robert E.; Davidson, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Data for cropping and pastoral enterprises in south eastern Australia were used in a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the feasibility of abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through storing soil carbon (C) as soil organic matter under the Australian government's Carbon Farming Initiative. We used the C credit value for 2013-14 of 24.15 per tonne of CO2- equivalent (CO2-e) and a C storage rate of 0.5 tonne C/hectare/year for conversion of cropland to pasture. Given that a change of enterprise is driven primarily by farmer returns, we found that none of the changes were feasible at current prices, with the exception of wheat to cattle or sheep in an irrigated system, and dryland cotton to cattle or sheep. Given that our model scenario assumed the most favourable economic factors, it is unlikely that increased soil C storage through a change from cropping to pasture can make a significant contribution to abating Australia's CO2 emissions. However, of greater concern to society is the methane emissions from grazing cattle or sheep, which would negate any gain in soil C under pasture, except for a switch from dryland cropping to sheep.

  4. Tourist Opinions on Animal Culling: A South Australian Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskwa, Emily C.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental education is commonly used to satisfy the natural curiosity of tourists, increase conservation awareness and strengthen pro-conservation values. Yet it does not always address the more sensitive ecosystem management issues such as animal culling as it may be seen to upset the balance of the positive tourist experience. For this…

  5. Adiaspiromycosis in south Australian hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Mason, R W; Gauhwin, M

    1982-01-01

    Spherical organisms, with an average diameter of about 22 microns, were detected in the lungs of adult and pouched young hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons). Although infections of up to 640 X 10(3) organisms per cubic centimeter were detected, their presence produced only limited pathological change. In-vitro growth was obtained at 30 C but not at 37 C or 40 C. However, at the higher temperatures, typical chlamydospore spherules were produced by colonies initially grown at 30 c. This report presents the first record of adiaspiromycosis in Australia and in wombats.

  6. The Australian Science and Mathematics School, Flinders University, South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the secondary school named in the title, including the educational context and design goals. In conjunction with the science faculty of Flinders University, the school will offer adult learning approaches and develop curriculum based on new sciences such as nano- technology. Describes the design innovations that incorporate…

  7. Australian developments in marine science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2012-07-01

    Australia is an island nation with about two thirds of its jurisdiction underwater. On 25 May 2012, Australia instituted the Seas and Submerged Lands (Limits of Continental Shelf) Proclamation 2012, confirming areas of seabed where Australia has exclusive rights to explore and exploit marine resources. This proclamation follows recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, a body established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, confirming Australia's entitlement to extended continental shelf, i.e., that beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline, of some 2.56 million square kilometers, excluding Australian Antarctic Territory [Symonds et al., 2009] (Figure 1a).

  8. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  9. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  10. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  11. Australian HFC, PFC and SF6 emissions: atmospheric verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, P.; Dunse, B.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, P.; Manning, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    exceptions. References DCCEE (2011), Australian National Greenhouse Accounts, National Inventory Report 2009, Volume 1, Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, 284 pp, April 2011. Miller, B., R. Weiss, P. Salameh, T. Tanhua, B. Greally, J. Muhle & P. Simmonds, Medusa: a sample pre-concentration and GC-MS detector system for in situ measurements of atmospheric trace halocarbons, hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds, Anal. Chem., 80 (5), 1536-1545, 2008. Prinn, R., R. Weiss, P. Fraser, P. Simmonds, D. Cunnold, F. Alyea, S. O'Doherty, P. Salameh, B. Miller, J. Huang, R. Wang, D. Hartley, C. Harth, P. Steele, G. Sturrock, P. Midgley & A. McCulloch, A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE, Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 105 (D14): 17751-17792, 2000.

  12. Continental drift and plateau uplift control origination and evolution of Asian and Australian monsoons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Dong, Buwen; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Smith, Robin S; Guo, Qingchun

    2017-01-13

    Evolutions of Asian and Australian monsoons have important significance for understanding the past global change but are still a controversial subject. Here, we explore systematically the effects of plate movement and plateau uplift on the formation and evolution of the Asian and Australian monsoons by numerical simulations based on land-sea distributions and topographic conditions for five typical geological periods during the Cenozoic. Our results suggest that the timings and causes of formation of the monsoons in South Asia, East Asia and northern Australia are different. The Indian Subcontinent, which was located in the tropical Southern Hemisphere in the Paleocene, was influenced by the austral monsoon system simulated at that time. Once it moved to the tropical Northern Hemisphere in the Eocene, the South Asian monsoon established and remained persistently thereafter. However, the monsoons of East Asia and northern Australia did not appear until the Miocene. The establishment of the simulated low-latitude South Asian (northern Australian) monsoon appeared to have strongly depended on the location of mainland India (Australia), associated with northward plate motion, without much relation to the plateau uplift. On the contrary, the establishment of the mid-latitude East Asian monsoon was mainly controlled by the uplift of Tibetan plateau.

  13. Continental drift and plateau uplift control origination and evolution of Asian and Australian monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Dong, Buwen; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Smith, Robin S.; Guo, Qingchun

    2017-01-01

    Evolutions of Asian and Australian monsoons have important significance for understanding the past global change but are still a controversial subject. Here, we explore systematically the effects of plate movement and plateau uplift on the formation and evolution of the Asian and Australian monsoons by numerical simulations based on land-sea distributions and topographic conditions for five typical geological periods during the Cenozoic. Our results suggest that the timings and causes of formation of the monsoons in South Asia, East Asia and northern Australia are different. The Indian Subcontinent, which was located in the tropical Southern Hemisphere in the Paleocene, was influenced by the austral monsoon system simulated at that time. Once it moved to the tropical Northern Hemisphere in the Eocene, the South Asian monsoon established and remained persistently thereafter. However, the monsoons of East Asia and northern Australia did not appear until the Miocene. The establishment of the simulated low-latitude South Asian (northern Australian) monsoon appeared to have strongly depended on the location of mainland India (Australia), associated with northward plate motion, without much relation to the plateau uplift. On the contrary, the establishment of the mid-latitude East Asian monsoon was mainly controlled by the uplift of Tibetan plateau.

  14. Continental drift and plateau uplift control origination and evolution of Asian and Australian monsoons

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaodong; Dong, Buwen; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Smith, Robin S.; Guo, Qingchun

    2017-01-01

    Evolutions of Asian and Australian monsoons have important significance for understanding the past global change but are still a controversial subject. Here, we explore systematically the effects of plate movement and plateau uplift on the formation and evolution of the Asian and Australian monsoons by numerical simulations based on land-sea distributions and topographic conditions for five typical geological periods during the Cenozoic. Our results suggest that the timings and causes of formation of the monsoons in South Asia, East Asia and northern Australia are different. The Indian Subcontinent, which was located in the tropical Southern Hemisphere in the Paleocene, was influenced by the austral monsoon system simulated at that time. Once it moved to the tropical Northern Hemisphere in the Eocene, the South Asian monsoon established and remained persistently thereafter. However, the monsoons of East Asia and northern Australia did not appear until the Miocene. The establishment of the simulated low-latitude South Asian (northern Australian) monsoon appeared to have strongly depended on the location of mainland India (Australia), associated with northward plate motion, without much relation to the plateau uplift. On the contrary, the establishment of the mid-latitude East Asian monsoon was mainly controlled by the uplift of Tibetan plateau. PMID:28084310

  15. Wildfires, fuel treatment and risk mitigation in Australian eucalypt forests: insights from landscape-scale simulation.

    PubMed

    Bradstock, R A; Cary, G J; Davies, I; Lindenmayer, D B; Price, O F; Williams, R J

    2012-08-30

    Wildfires pose significant risks to people and human infrastructure worldwide. The treatment of fuel in landscapes may alter these risks but the magnitude of this effect on risk is poorly understood. Evidence from Australian Eucalyptus forests suggests that mitigation of risk using prescribed burning as a fuel treatment is partial because weather and fuel dynamics are conducive to regular high intensity fires. We further examine the response of risk to treatment in eucalypt forests using landscape simulation modelling. We model how five key measures of wildfire activity that govern risk to people and property may respond to variations in rate and spatial pattern of prescribed fire. We then model effects of predicted climate change (2050 scenarios) to determine how the response of risk to treatment is likely to be altered in the future. The results indicate that a halving of risk to people and property in these forests is likely to require treatment rates of 7-10% of the area of the landscape per annum. Projections of 2050 weather conditions under climate change further substantially diminished the effect of rate of treatment. A large increase in rates of treatment (i.e. circa. 50% over current levels) would be required to counteract these effects of climate change. Such levels of prescribed burning are unlikely to be financially feasible across eucalypt dominated vegetation in south eastern Australia. Despite policy imperatives to expand fuel treatment, a reduction rather than an elimination of risk will result. Multi-faceted strategies will therefore be required for the management of risk.

  16. Government action on diabetes prevention: time to try something new.

    PubMed

    Kaldor, Jenny C; Magnusson, Roger S; Colagiuri, Stephen

    2015-06-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus, driven by overweight and obesity linked to unhealthy diets, is the fastest-growing non-communicable disease in Australia. Halting the rise of diabetes will require a paradigm shift from personal to shared responsibility, with greater accountability from Australian governments and the food industry. It will also require governments to try something different to the prevailing approaches emphasising education and the provision of information. We propose four priority areas where government regulation could strengthen Australia's response. Those areas relate to mandatory front-of-pack food labelling, regulating junk food advertising, better oversight of food reformulation and taxing sugar-sweetened beverages.

  17. Letting Schools off the Hook? Exploring the Role of Australian Secondary Schools in the COAG Year 12 Attainment Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Jack; Savage, Glenn C.; Polesel, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) set a target to lift Australia's Year 12 or equivalent attainment rate from 83.5 to 90% by 2015. In the context of global financial uncertainty, the target was rationalised as a means for boosting national productivity and developing human capital to help Australia compete in the global…

  18. Student Voice in "Skills for Sustainability": A Missing Component from the Demand Side of Australian Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mike; Sack, Fabian; Piper Rodd, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of the Green Skills Agreement ratified by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) in 2010 provides the national policy context for this analysis of skills for sustainability. Data from three different but complementary studies provide powerful insight into the attitudes and perceptions of young people who are studying, or…

  19. Masculinity and Social Class, Tradition and Change: The Production of "Young Christian Gentlemen" at an Elite Australian Boys' School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Helen

    2011-01-01

    High fee-charging non-government schools for boys comprise a small but significant sector of the Australian schooling market. In different ways in different historical periods these schools have represented themselves as being concerned with more than just an instrumental or utilitarian education, making both explicit and implicit claims about the…

  20. Use of Student Ratings to Benchmark Universities: Multilevel Modeling of Responses to the Australian Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Ginns, Paul; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Nagengast, Benjamin; Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Recently graduated university students from all Australian Universities rate their overall departmental and university experiences (DUEs), and their responses (N = 44,932, 41 institutions) are used by the government to benchmark departments and universities. We evaluate this DUE strategy of rating overall departments and universities rather than…

  1. Beset by Obstacles: A Review of Australian Policy Development to Support Ageing in Place for People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Background: Australian government policy regards people with intellectual disability (ID) as citizens with equal rights, which means that they should have access to the same opportunities as the wider community. Ageing in place is central to aged care policy in Australia for the general population. Method: This paper reviews policy to support the…

  2. School Teacher Parents and the Retreat from Public Secondary Schooling: A View from the Australian Census, 1976-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Helen

    2008-01-01

    This article uses data from the Australian Censuses of 1976 and 2001 to measure the extent to which the children of school teachers participated in the middle class shift from public to non-government secondary schooling of the closing decades of the last century. It builds on recent work by Craig Campbell and Geoffrey Sherington on the history of…

  3. The Theory of "Belonging": Defining Concepts Used within Belonging, Being and Becoming--the Australian Early Years Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris; Fleer, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    The implementation in 2009-10 of the Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) spearheaded the efforts of the Australian Commonwealth government to institute a national curriculum. The theme of the new early childhood framework follows three guiding concepts: Belonging, Being and Becoming. In this article, we discuss these three concepts in order to…

  4. Australian Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge of Phonemic Awareness and Phonics in the Process of Learning to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Recent Australian and international government reports refer to the importance of teacher knowledge in the sound structure of language and its relationship to beginning reading. In this study, a group of 162 pre-service teachers responded to a questionnaire including questions related to their attitudes towards using phonics instruction in the…

  5. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper documents the dynamics of Australian thoroughbred jump racing in the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with the aim of informing debate about risks to horses and the future of this activity. We conclude that the safety of Australian jump racing has improved in recent years but that steeplechases are considerably riskier for horses than hurdle races. Abstract Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety. PMID:26506396

  6. A Study on Problem and Pathological Gambling among University Students in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, A. R.; Blanksby, P.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the correlates of problem and pathological gambling among university students in South Australia. Convenience sampling method was used to select participants ("n" = 163; 55.2 per cent women, 44.8 per cent men; age range 17-57 years) from two faculties in a South Australian university. A…

  7. Population and environment: an Australian challenge.

    PubMed

    Short, R V

    1992-07-01

    The latest UN population projections are cause both for hope and for despair. If effective family planning programs could be implemented without delay in those areas of the world where contraceptives are used by only a minority of the population, then the global population might increase by a mere 2.4 billion people by 2050, and thereafter would decline to 6.4 billion by the end of the next century. A more realistic projection is that numbers will increase to 11.2 billion by the year 2100. But if the issue is ignored, then there will be a global population of 17.6 billion by the century's end. The recent immigration debate and the Government Report on Population Issues and Australia's Future published in early 1992 could be taken as a starting point, even though there is no suggestion in the report that Australia should ever aim to stabilize its own population. The committee was strongly of the view that immigration was an ineffective and inappropriate tool to reduce mass population pressures in other parts of the world. Clearly Australia cannot act as a safety valve for the population excesses in the rest of the world. Even without immigration the present population of 17 million will grow by about another 2 million over the next 40 years as a result of natural increase. If the current level of about 111,000 migrants a year is maintained, Australia's population will grow to 25 million by 2031. The solution is to transfer some of the defense budget to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau and provide Asian neighbors, whose family planning programs are starved of support, with the weapons they need to fight the population battle. The Population Issues Committee itself recognized that there was a clear need for Australia to develop an enhanced foreign aid program to support family planning services. By doing so Australia would earn the lasting gratitude of Asian neighbors.

  8. 8. SOUTH END OF DRY DOCK NO. 4, LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH END OF DRY DOCK NO. 4, LOOKING NORTHWEST. NOTE SERVICE BUILDING (BUILDING NO. 620) IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 4, Broad Street south of Government Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Australian geodetic VLBI network (AuScope): present and future.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    The Australian geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) array (AuScope) consisting of three new 12-meter radio telescopes in Australia (Hobart, Katherine and Yarragadee), and a correlation facility in Perth that started operations in 2011. The daily positions of the AuScope array are estimated with a precision of a few mm, whereas their daily estimates vary within a range of 20-30 mm on the annual scale. This VLBI network also provides a substantial contribution to the improvement of the Celestial Reference Frame in the southern hemisphere. The plans for extension of the network in collaboration with the New Zealand and South Africa VLBI stations during 2015-2020 are discussed in this presentation.

  10. Paspalum striate mosaic virus: an Australian mastrevirus from Paspalum dilatatum.

    PubMed

    Geering, Andrew D W; Thomas, John E; Holton, Timothy; Hadfield, James; Varsani, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Three monocot-infecting mastreviruses from Australia, all found primarily in pasture and naturalised grasses, have been characterised at the molecular level. Here, we present the full genome sequence of a fourth, Paspalum striate mosaic virus (PSMV), isolated from Paspalum dilatatum from south-east Queensland. The genome was 2816 nt long and had an organisation typical of other monocot-infecting mastreviruses. Its nearest relative is Bromus cartharticus striate mosaic virus (BCSMV), with which it shares an overall genome identity of 75%. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome and each of the putative viral proteins places PSMV in a group with the other three Australian striate mosaic viruses. PSMV, BCSMV and Digitaria didactyla striate mosaic virus all contain a similar, small recombinant sequence in the small intergenic region.

  11. A Profile of Respite Service Providers in New South Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jeffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    Respite is one of the critical support systems for families and carers who support and care for a person with a life-long disability. This study examined the profile of respite services in the Australian state of New South Wales and explored respite providers' views of the factors influencing respite use, and their expectations of respite…

  12. SU-E-P-03: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, a Bespoke National Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, I; Lye, J; Alves, A; Lehmann, J; Kenny, J; Dunn, L; Kron, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, (ACDS) was a pilot program to enable the Australian Government to determine whether a locally designed audit program was suitable for mitigating dosimetric error risk to radiotherapy patients within Australia. The outcomes from four years of operations will be presented and discussed with a focus why and how the pilot requirements were met. The consequnces of success will be considered, the lessons learnt from the pilot program and how they are impacting the future ACDS design, operation and engagement with stakeholders. Methods: The ACDS was designed over 2010/11 by experts drawn from the three professions in consultation with the national Department of Health. The list of outcomes required over a three year pilot was expressed in a Memorandum of Understanding, (MoU) between Health and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) which hosted the ACDS. Results: The ACDS has achieved all the MoU requirements. This paper describes how the staff within the ACDS engaged with the professional clinical workforce and provided a successful and functioning audit service. It identifies the strengths and weaknesses within the MoU and the ACDS structure and how the ACDS resolved a number of conflicting issues. It identifies the successes within the ACDS and how these were achieved. It provides details to assist and advise those seeking to design or modify national or regional auditing programs. Finally the paper reviews potential futures for the ACDS. Conclusion: The raw number of audits and outcomes indicate that the ACDS has met the MoU auditing requirements. The reasons for the ACDS’ success are highly dependent on: attracting quality staff who can respond with agility to changing situations, a high level of communication with the professional community, a high level of engagement by the community and an interested and engaged Federal Department. The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service is a

  13. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  14. Pyrogenic carbon in Australian soils.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fangjie; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi S; Dong, Zhaomin; Yan, Yubo; Lamb, Dane; Bucheli, Thomas D; Choppala, Girish; Duan, Luchun; Semple, Kirk T

    2017-02-16

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC), the combustion residues of fossil fuel and biomass, is a versatile soil fraction active in biogeochemical processes. In this study, the chemo-thermal oxidation method (CTO-375) was applied to investigate the content and distribution of PyC in 30 Australian agricultural, pastoral, bushland and parkland soil with various soil types. Soils were sampled incrementally to 50cm in 6 locations and at another 7 locations at 0-10cm. Results showed that PyC in Australian soils typically ranged from 0.27-5.62mg/g, with three Dermosol soils ranging within 2.58-5.62mg/g. Soil PyC contributed 2.0-11% (N=29) to the total organic carbon (TOC), with one Ferrosol as high as 26%. PyC was concentrated either in the top (0-10cm) or bottom (30-50cm) soil layers, with the highest PyC:TOC ratio in the bottom (30-50cm) soil horizon in all soils. Principal component analysis - multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) suggested the silt-associated organic C factor accounted for 38.5% of the variation in PyC. Our findings suggest that PyC is an important fraction of the TOC (2.0-11%, N=18) and chemically recalcitrant organic C (ROC) obtained by chemical C fractionation method accounts for a significant proportion of soil TOC (47.3-84.9%, N=18). This is the first study comparing these two methods, and it indicates both CTO-375 and C speciation methods can determine a fraction of recalcitrant organic C. However, estimated chemically recalcitrant organic carbon pool (ROC) was approximately an order of magnitude greater than that of thermally stable organic carbon (PyC).

  15. Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  16. Conservation of the critically endangered eastern Australian population of the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) through cross-jurisdictional management of a network of marine-protected areas.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Tim P; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  17. [South] Yemen.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Yemen has an area of 112,000 square miles, the terrain is mountainous in the interior, and has a flat and sandy coast. The climate is extremely hot with little rainfall. 2.2 million is the population level with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The ethnic background is Arab, the religion is Islam and the language is Arabic. 50 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 142/1000. The labor force is 42% agriculture, fisheries, industry and commerce 31%, and services 27%. A republic formed in 1967, the government has a constitution approved in 1978. They have 1 party, the Yemeni Socialist Party with a executive presidium, a supreme people's council and a federal high court. Natural resources include oil and fish, and agricultural products are cotton, hides, skins, and coffee. In 1962 the Federation of South Arabia was formed and a treaty was signed in 1959 for independence by 1968. There was much turmoil from 1967 until 1986 when Haydar Bakr Al-Attus gained power, and there are still strong internal rivalries. The economy has been concentrated in the city of Aden, and with the loss of tourist trade in 1967, and closing of the British base, it has declined by more than 20% by 1968. Attempts are being made to build roads, fisheries, villages, a power plant, and agriculture and irrigation projects.

  18. Australian radiation therapy – Part two: Reflections of the past, the present, the future

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Susan; Halkett, Georgia; Sale, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Documentation on the history of Australian radiotherapy is limited. This study provides radiation therapists' (RTs) perspectives of the people, workplace, and work practices in Australian radiotherapy centres from 1960 onwards. It provides a follow-up to our previous study: Australian radiation therapy: An overview – Part one, which outlines the history and development of radiotherapy from conception until present day. Methods: Four focus groups were conducted on separate occasions in 2010, one in South Australia and three in Victoria, Australia. Participants who worked in radiotherapy were purposively selected to ensure a range of experience, age, and years of work. Results: From a RT perspective, radiotherapy has evolved from a physically demanding ‘hands-on’ work environment, often with unpleasant sights and smells of disease, to a more technology-driven workplace. Conclusion: Understanding these changes and their subsequent effects on the role of Australian RTs will assist future directions in advanced role development. PMID:26229636

  19. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry

    2015-10-22

    Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these Animals 2015, 5 1073 data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety.

  20. Australian Management Education for International Business Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gniewosz, Gerhard

    2000-01-01

    As Australian corporations have increased overseas activity, there has been a significant increase in international business degrees at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The curriculum is balanced between business-technical knowledge courses and cultural knowledge courses. (SK)

  1. Instrumentation and Technology Development at the Anglo-Australian Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, S. C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Anglo-Australian Observatory (jointly funded by the UK and Australian governments) has an ongoing technology development and instrumentation program that has yielded forefront astronomical instruments used around the world (e.g. OzPoz on the VLT, 2dF on the AAT). An overview of the current instrumentation projects underway will be presented. This will cover the recently commissioned AAOmega spectrograph (a bench mounted, dual beam spectrograph fed by the fibers from the 2dF positioner), Echidna (a new technology fiber positioner for the FMOS instrument on Subaru), and WFMOS (a very wide-field MOS system for Subaru that was recently explored in a Feasibility Study for Gemini). The Instrument Science group at the AAO is actively involved in exploring and exploiting new technologies applicable to astronomical instrumentation. Studies including development of autonomous pickup relays for multi-object instruments (Starbugs), development of OH suppression in fiber optics, and continued evaluation of other ermging fiber optic technologies are presently underway. An overview of those activities will be given.

  2. CareTrack Kids—part 2. Assessing the appropriateness of the healthcare delivered to Australian children: study protocol for a retrospective medical record review

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Tamara D; Hibbert, Peter D; Mealing, Nicole; Wiles, Louise K; Jaffe, Adam; White, Les; Cowell, Christopher T; Runciman, William B; Goldstein, Stan; Hallahan, Andrew R; Wakefield, John G; Murphy, Elisabeth; Lau, Annie; Wheaton, Gavin; Williams, Helena M; Hughes, Clifford; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Australian and international clinical practice guidelines are available for common paediatric conditions. Yet there is evidence that there are substantial variations between the guidelines, recommendations (appropriate care) and the care delivered. This paper describes a study protocol to determine the appropriateness of the healthcare delivered to Australian children for 16 common paediatric conditions in acute and primary healthcare settings. Methods and analysis A random sample of 6000–8000 medical records representing a cross-section of the Australian paediatric population will be reviewed for appropriateness of care against a set of indicators within three Australian states (New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia) using multistage, stratified sampling. Medical records of children aged <16 years who presented with at least one of the study conditions during 2012 and 2013 will be reviewed. Ethics and dissemination Human Research Ethics Committee approvals have been received from the Sydney Children's Hospital Network, Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service and Women's and Children's Hospital Network (South Australia). An application is under review for the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. The authors will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and offer oral presentations to researchers, clinicians and policymakers at national and international conferences. PMID:25854977

  3. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for the nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities (HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promotes training, provides advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities.

  4. The Role of Local Government in the Provision of Training for Volunteer Grassroots Sport Administrators in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jak; Skinner, James; Arthur, Dave; Booker, Ray

    2003-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 32 Australian local government officials and interviews held with 18 administrators responsible for sports and recreation. They recognized the importance of training for volunteer sports administrators and believed local government's role included identifying local needs and facilitating training. (Contains 20…

  5. Ascendancy of agricultural biotechnology in the Australian political mainstream coexists with technology criticism by a vocal-minority.

    PubMed

    Tribe, David

    2014-07-03

    Australia is a federation of States. This political structure necessitates collaborative arrangements between Australian governments to harmonize national regulation of gene technology and food standards. Extensive political negotiation among institutions of federal government has managed regulation of GM crops and food. Well-developed human resources in Australian government provided numerous policy documents facilitating a transparent political process. Workable legislation has been devised in the face of criticisms of gene technology though the political process. Conflicts between potential disruptions to food commodity trade by precautionary proposals for environmental protection were one cause of political tensions, and differences in policy priorities at regional political levels versus national and international forums for negotiation were another. Australian policy outcomes on GM crops reflect (a) strong economic self-interest in innovative and productive farming, (b) reliance on global agricultural market reforms through the Cairns trade group and the WTO, and (c) the importance of Codex Alimentarius and WTO instruments SPS and TBT. Precautionary frameworks for GM food safety assurance that are inconsistent with WTO obligations were avoided in legislation. Since 2008 the 2 major parties, Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the Liberals appear to have reached a workable consensus at the Federal policy level about an important role for agricultural biotechnology in Australia's economic future.

  6. Ascendancy of agricultural biotechnology in the Australian political mainstream coexists with technology criticism by a vocal-minority

    PubMed Central

    Tribe, David

    2014-01-01

    Australia is a federation of States. This political structure necessitates collaborative arrangements between Australian governments to harmonize national regulation of gene technology and food standards. Extensive political negotiation among institutions of federal government has managed regulation of GM crops and food. Well-developed human resources in Australian government provided numerous policy documents facilitating a transparent political process. Workable legislation has been devised in the face of criticisms of gene technology though the political process. Conflicts between potential disruptions to food commodity trade by precautionary proposals for environmental protection were one cause of political tensions, and differences in policy priorities at regional political levels versus national and international forums for negotiation were another. Australian policy outcomes on GM crops reflect (a) strong economic self-interest in innovative and productive farming, (b) reliance on global agricultural market reforms through the Cairns trade group and the WTO, and (c) the importance of Codex Alimentarius and WTO instruments SPS and TBT. Precautionary frameworks for GM food safety assurance that are inconsistent with WTO obligations were avoided in legislation. Since 2008 the 2 major parties, Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the Liberals appear to have reached a workable consensus at the Federal policy level about an important role for agricultural biotechnology in Australia's economic future. PMID:25437242

  7. The structure of anxiety and depression in a normative sample of younger and older Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tully, Phillip J; Zajac, Ian T; Venning, Anthony J

    2009-07-01

    It has been reported that depression and anxiety have overlapping symptoms and are conceptually interrelated. One of the most prominent theoretical developments that explain this association is Clark and Watson's tripartite model (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100:316-336, 1991) that posits these two disorders and negative emotions share a latent component of negative affect (NA). The current study had two aims, (a) to compare a tripartite factor structure against competing models by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) (Lovibond and Lovibond 1995), and (b) explore the psychometric properties of the DASS-21. The DASS-21 was completed by a representative sample of 4039 young Australians, aged 12-18 years, as part of the South Australian Youth Mental Health Survey (SAYMHS), South Australia, Australia. The best fitting model for the data consisted of anhedonic depression, physiological hyperarousal, and general NA. The psychometric properties of the DASS-21 were excellent with a stable and interpretable factor structure and good internal consistency. The results of the current study suggest that the theoretical tripartite structure of depression and anxiety is robust and applicable among Australian youth. The diagnostic, clinical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Urban population vulnerability to climate extremes: mitigating urban heat through technology and water-sensitive urban design in Australian cities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapper, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Australia recently endured what was arguably its worst drought in 200 years. The 'Millennium Drought' lasted from 1999 until 2009, producing acute water shortages for several major Australian cities. Towards the end of the drought an extreme heat wave with temperatures approaching 50 C claimed the lives of several hundred people in Melbourne and Adelaide. One outcome of the extreme conditions was that the spectre of climate change and its impacts became very real for most Australians and contributed to the 2007 signing of the Kyoto Protocol by the Australian Government. Issues of extreme heat and water security also led to increased interest in adapting Australian cities to climate change. These concerns ultimately led to the establishment of the Australian Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) for Water Sensitive Cities, a $110 million research initiative to utilise storm water in Australian cities to create cooler and more liveable environments with increased levels of water security. This paper provides an overview of the work being undertaken within the urban climate program of the CRC to identify heat-health vulnerability in our cities and to evaluate the efficacy of irrigated green infrastructure to produce more liveable environments. This papers discusses some of the early research outputs that involve measurement, modelling and remote sensing at a range of scales in Australian cities.

  9. Why Do Chinese-Australian Students Outperform Their Australian Peers in Mathematics: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dacheng; Singh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    International comparative studies and cross-cultural studies of mathematics achievement indicate that Chinese students (whether living in or outside China) consistently outperform their Western counterparts. This study shows that the gap between Chinese-Australian and other Australian students is best explained by differences in motivation to…

  10. Australian Thesaurus of Education Descriptors. A Word-Stock for Indexing and Retrieving Australian Educational Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, G. B.; Findlay, Margaret A.

    This core thesaurus of terms suitable for indexing Australian educational literature was developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research by means of a systematic and thorough revision of the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors." Based on the actual terminology of education in Australia, this thesaurus includes: key words and…

  11. Issues and Directions from a Review of the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, S.

    This paper synthesizes issues and directions that a review of Australian apprenticeship and traineeship literature suggested. An overview discusses the paper's basis, which was a survey of 125 Australian references from 1985-99. Chapter 2 categorizes issues into seven groups, discusses them, and draws out salient themes. (The groups concerned…

  12. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap. This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5–2 and 3.5–5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education. LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. PMID:25011454

  13. Process contributions of Australian ecosystems to interannual variations in the carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverd, Vanessa; Smith, Benjamin; Trudinger, Cathy

    2016-05-01

    New evidence is emerging that semi-arid ecosystems dominate interannual variability (IAV) of the global carbon cycle, largely via fluctuating water availability associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Recent evidence from global terrestrial biosphere modelling and satellite-based inversion of atmospheric CO2 point to a large role of Australian ecosystems in global carbon cycle variability, including a large contribution from Australia to the record land sink of 2011. However the specific mechanisms governing this variability, and their bioclimatic distribution within Australia, have not been identified. Here we provide a regional assessment, based on best available observational data, of IAV in the Australian terrestrial carbon cycle and the role of Australia in the record land sink anomaly of 2011. We find that IAV in Australian net carbon uptake is dominated by semi-arid ecosystems in the east of the continent, whereas the 2011 anomaly was more uniformly spread across most of the continent. Further, and in contrast to global modelling results suggesting that IAV in Australian net carbon uptake is amplified by lags between production and decomposition, we find that, at continental scale, annual variations in production are dampened by annual variations in decomposition, with both fluxes responding positively to precipitation anomalies.

  14. Observations on Australian Humpback Dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) in Waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Isabel; Jedensjö, Maria; Wijaya, Gede Mahendra; Anamiato, Jim; Kahn, Benjamin; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The Australian humpback dolphin, Sousa sahulensis, has recently been described to occur in northern Australian coastal waters. However, its distribution in adjacent waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea remains largely unknown. Although there have been few studies conducted on inshore dolphins in these regions, the available information records humpback dolphins primarily from the Kikori Delta in Papua New Guinea, and Bird's Head Seascape in West Papua. Research in southern Papua New Guinea indicates that humpback dolphins are indeed S. sahulensis, based on cranial and external morphometrics, external colouration and the preliminary genetic analysis presented here. A similar situation exists for the Australian snubfin dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni, where it is assumed that the species also occurs along the Sahul Shelf coastal waters of northern Australia and New Guinea. There are anecdotal reports of direct catch of Australian humpback dolphins for use as shark bait, coastal development is increasing, and anthropogenic impacts will continue to escalate as human populations expand into previously uninhabited regions. Future research and management priorities for the Governments of the Pacific Islands and Indonesia will need to focus on inshore dolphins in known regional hotspots, as current bycatch levels appear unsustainable.

  15. "Vicious, Aggressive Bird Stalks Cyclist": The Australian Magpie (Cracticus tibicen) in the News.

    PubMed

    van Vuuren, Kitty; O'Keeffe, Scott; Jones, Darryl N

    2016-04-26

    The Australian Magpie ( Cracticus tibicen ) is a common bird found in urban Australian environments where its nest defense behavior during spring brings it into conflict with humans. This article explores the role of print media in covering this conflict. Leximancer software was used to analyze newspaper reports about the Australian Magpie from a sample of 634 news stories, letters-to-the editor and opinion pieces, published in newspapers from around Australia between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. The results confirm that stories about these birds are primarily published in the daily regional and weekly suburban press, and that the dominant story frame concerns the risk of "swooping" behavior to cyclists and pedestrians from birds protecting their nests during the spring breeding season. The most prominent sources used by journalists are local and state government representatives, as well as members of the public. The results show that the "swooping season" has become a normal part of the annual news cycle for these publications, with the implication that discourse surrounding the Australian Magpie predominantly concerns the risk these birds pose to humans, and ignores their decline in non-urban environments.

  16. Biotechnology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cloete, Thomas E; Nel, Louis H; Theron, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    Since adopting the National Biotechnology Strategy in 2001, the South African government has established several regional innovation centres and has put in place initiatives to encourage international partnerships that can spur internal development of life science ventures. This strategy seeks to capitalize on the high quality of research carried out in public research institutions and universities but is hampered, somewhat, by the lack of entrepreneurial culture among South African researchers due to, among other reasons, the expenses involved in registering foreign patents. Although private sector development is still relatively embryonic, start-ups are spinning out of universities and pre-existing companies. These represent a vital source of innovations for commercialization in the future, provided that the challenges facing the emerging South African biotechnology industry can be overcome.

  17. Clonality and α-a Recombination in the Australian Cryptococcus gattii VGII Population - An Emerging Outbreak in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Carriconde, Fabian; Gilgado, Félix; Arthur, Ian; Ellis, David; Malik, Richard; van de Wiele, Nathalie; Robert, Vincent; Currie, Bart J.; Meyer, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Background Cryptococcus gattii is a basidiomycetous yeast that causes life-threatening disease in humans and animals. Within C. gattii, four molecular types are recognized (VGI to VGIV). The Australian VGII population has been in the spotlight since 2005, when it was suggested as the possible origin for the ongoing outbreak at Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada), with same-sex mating being suggested as the driving force behind the emergence of this outbreak, and is nowadays hypothesized as a widespread phenomenon in C. gattii. However, an in-depth characterization of the Australian VGII population is still lacking. The present work aimed to define the genetic variability within the Australian VGII population and determine processes shaping its population structure. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 54 clinical, veterinary and environmental VGII isolates from different parts of the Australian continent were studied. To place the Australian population in a global context, 17 isolates from North America, Europe, Asia and South America were included. Genetic variability was assessed using the newly adopted international consensus multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme, including seven genetic loci: CAP59, GPD1, LAC1, PLB1, SOD1, URA5 and IGS1. Despite the overall clonality observed, the presence of MATa VGII isolates in Australia was demonstrated for the first time in association with recombination in MATα-MATa populations. Our results also support the hypothesis of a “smouldering” outbreak throughout the Australian continent, involving a limited number of VGII genotypes, which is possibly caused by a founder effect followed by a clonal expansion. Conclusions/Significance The detection of sexual recombination in MATα-MATa population in Australia is in accordance with the natural life cycle of C. gattii involving opposite mating types and presents an alternative to the same-sex mating strategy suggested elsewhere. The potential for an Australian

  18. Phylogeographic patterns in New Zealand and temperate Australian cantharidines (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trochidae: Cantharidinae): Trans-Tasman divergences are ancient.

    PubMed

    Donald, Kirsten M; Spencer, Hamish G

    2016-07-01

    Current taxonomic treatments of New Zealand and temperate Australian members of the gastropod subfamily Cantharidinae imply that species on either side of the Tasman Sea are closely related and, in some cases, congeneric. Such a close relationship, however, entails a relatively recent divergence of Australian and New Zealand lineages, which seems inconsistent with what is known about cantharidine larval development in general. In order to address these issues, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences were used to ascertain how cantharidine genera became established over the wide geographical range of temperate Australia and New Zealand, including their subantarctic islands. Our robust and dated phylogenies (based on 16S, COI, 12S and 28S sequences) revealed that Australian and New Zealand species fall into endemic clades that have been separated for, at most, 35million years. This divergence date postdates a vicariant split by around 50million years and we suggest that, once again, long-distance trans-Tasman dispersal has played a pivotal role in molluscan evolution in this part of the world. Our results also show that the current classification requires revision. We recognize three genera (Cantharidus [comprising 2 subgenera: Cantharidus s.str. and Pseudomargarella n. subgen.], Micrelenchus [comprising 2 subgenera: Micrelenchus s.str. and Mawhero] and Roseaplagis n. gen.) for New Zealand cantharidine species. In our dated BEAST tree, these genera form a clade with the endemic Australian Prothalotia and South African Oxystele. Other temperate Australian cantharidines in our study fall into previously recognized genera (Phasianotrochus, Thalotia, Calthalotia), which are all quite distinct from Cantharidus in spite of some authors considering various of them to be possible synonyms. Finally, we remove the Australian genus Cantharidella from the Cantharidinae to the subfamily Trochinae and erect a new genus, Cratidentium n. gen., also in the Trochinae, to accommodate

  19. Australian Indigenous Knowledge and Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Martin, Ed.; Langton, Marcia, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In response to significant changes in the Indigenous information landscape, the State Library of New South Wales and Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, University of Technology, Sydney, hosted a Colloquium, "Libraries and Indigenous Knowledge," in December 2004. The two-day Colloquium brought together professionals, practitioners and…

  20. Contextualising the social capital of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Lise; Treloar, Carla; Chambers, Georgina M; Butler, Tony; Guthrie, Jill

    2016-10-01

    Social capital is a valuable resource that has received little attention in the prison context. Differences in the construct and accessibility of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital exist for Aboriginal Australians in mainstream society, but were previously unexplored in prison. This study seeks to understand contextual differences of social capital for Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison. Thirty male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three New South Wales (NSW) correctional centres. Interviews were completed between November 2014 and March 2015. Experiences of bonding and linking social capital varied among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Opportunities for bridging social capital were limited for all participants. There is greater scope for building bonding social capital among male inmates than either bridging or linking social capital. Bonding social capital, particularly among Aboriginal men in prison, should be utilised to promote health and other programs to inmates.

  1. Marine Biodiversity in the Australian Region

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas. PMID:20689847

  2. What Are Our Boundaries and where Can We Play? Perspectives from Eight- to Ten-Year-Old Australian Metropolitan and Rural Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDougall, Colin; Schiller, Wendy; Darbyshire, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This study took place in an inner metropolitan Adelaide school and a rural school on Kangaroo Island off the South Australian coast. We compare 33 eight- to 10-year-old children's accounts of what the area is like for them. What are the rules and boundaries and who sets them? Metropolitan children were found to have tighter boundaries and required…

  3. The Advantages of Teaching American Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botsch, Robert E.; Botsch, Carol S.

    2015-01-01

    Many arguments support mandating American National Government for undergraduates. South Carolina is one of the few states with such a legal mandate, but the law is badly flawed. We briefly review the history of a failed 1994 effort by the SC Political Science Association to improve the law and encourage implementation. We examine the impact of an…

  4. Scenario analysis for biodiversity conservation: a social-ecological system approach in the Australian Alps.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael; Lockwood, Michael; Moore, Susan A; Clement, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Current policy interventions are having limited success in addressing the ongoing decline in global biodiversity. In part, this is attributable to insufficient attention being paid to the social and governance processes that drive decisions and can undermine their implementation. Scenario planning that draws on social-ecological systems (SES) analysis provides a useful means to systematically explore and anticipate future uncertainties regarding the interaction between humans and biodiversity outcomes. However, the effective application of SES models has been limited by the insufficient attention given to governance influences. Understanding the influence governance attributes have on the future trajectory of SES is likely to assist choice of effective interventions, as well as needs and opportunities for governance reform. In a case study in the Australian Alps, we explore the potential of joint SES and scenario analyses to identify how governance influences landscape-scale biodiversity outcomes. Novel aspects of our application of these methods were the specification of the focal system's governance attributes according to requirements for adaptive capacity, and constraining scenarios according to the current governance settings while varying key social and biophysical drivers. This approach allowed us to identify how current governance arrangements influence landscape-scale biodiversity outcomes, and establishes a baseline from which the potential benefits of governance reform can be assessed.

  5. Learning from both sides: Experiences and opportunities in the investigation of Australian aboriginal medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Bradley S; Claudie, David J; Smith, Nicholas M; McKinnon, Ross A; Semple, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    With one of the oldest surviving cultures in the world, Australian Aboriginal people have developed immense knowledge about the diverse Australian flora. Western scientific investigation of some Australian Aboriginal medicinal plants has demonstrated interesting pharmacological activities and chemistry, however the majority of these species have not yet been extensively examined. We argue that research that is locally initiated and driven by Indigenous traditional owners in collaboration with Western scientists has significant potential to develop new plant-based products. Locally driven medicinal plants research in which traditional owners work as researchers in collaboration with University-based colleagues in the investigation of medicines rather than "stakeholders" or "informants" is one model that may be used in characterising plants with the potential to be developed into sustainable plant-based medicinal products with commercial value. Our team has taken this approach in research located both on traditional homelands and in the laboratory. Research being conducted by the University of South Australia and Chuulangun Aboriginal Corporation has led to patent filing for protection of intellectual property associated with novel compounds and extracts with the potential for development through cosmetic, complementary medicine and pharmaceutical routes. Ongoing research is examining the commercial developmental pathways and requirements for product development in these spaces. This review will address the opportunities that might exist for working in partnership with Australian Indigenous communities, some of the scientific knowledge which has been generated so far from our work together and the lessons learnt since the inception of the collaboration between the Chuulangun Aboriginal Corporation and scientists from the University of South Australia.

  6. Stratospheric Smoke Down Under: Injection From Australian Fires/Convection in January 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, M.; Tupper, A.; Poole, L.; Servranckx, R.; Bevilacqua, R.; Rosenfeld, D.

    2003-12-01

    In January 2003, the Australian Capital Territory suffered prolonged, extreme, and devastating bush and forest fires. On at least three distinct occasions, some of these fires erupted into convectively driven/aided firestorms producing plumes that traveled several thousand km. One in particular, a January 18 blowup, resulted in an aerosol plume tracked by TOMS aerosol index across South America, into the South Atlantic (fully one half way around the Earth) in one week. Soon after these blowups, SAGE III aerosol extinction profiles (at approximately 35 deg. S) recorded layers of enhanced aerosol at potential temperatures as high as 400 K, well into the lower stratosphere. POAM III also recorded stratospheric aerosol layers in mid-February at its measurement latitude near 70 deg. S. We explore the Australian blowups with meteorological data and an assemblage of satellite views, including the above mentioned, MODIS, SeaWiFS, MISR, and AVHRR, and GMS. We find that the setup conditions, forcing, and extreme pyro-cumulonimbus (pyro-Cb) eruption leading to stratospheric intrusion are quite similar to boreal forest fire blowups described by Fromm et al. [ GRL, 2000] and Fromm and Servranckx [GRL, 2003]. Our report will include a cloud analysis, comparing an Australian pyro-Cb to a volcanic convective plume. Our monitoring of the summer 2003 Australian fires and smoke also revealed a high-altitude plume of aerosol (highlighted by TOMS aerosol index) ejected/detrained from a convective tower in northern Queensland (18 deg. S) on February 4, perhaps a direct observation of UTLS-level aerosol transport through a specific convective cell at low latitude.

  7. First Introduction of Two Australian Temnocephalan Species into Africa with an Alien Host: Double Trouble.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Sareh; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Smit, Willem J; Baker, Chantélle; Hoffman, Andre; Halajian, Ali

    2016-12-01

    The redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda: Parastacidae), is native to Australia but has been introduced to South Africa as a warm-water aquaculture species. In a South African natural waterbody, examined crayfish had high-intensity infections of 3 temnocephalan species on their body surfaces and within the branchial chambers. Temnocephalans were characterized using light and scanning electron microscopy and identified as Craspedella pedum, Diceratocephala boschmai, and Didymorchis sp. This is the first report of the introduction of Australian temnocephalans, C. pedum and Didymorchis sp., to Africa and expands the known distribution of these species beyond their presumptive native range. The present study also documents a naturalized population of C. quadricarinatus from a natural water body in South Africa, comprising a new geographical locality record.

  8. A data delivery system for IMOS, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, R.; Roberts, K.; Ward, B. J.

    2010-09-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS, www.imos.org.au), an AUD 150 m 7-year project (2007-2013), is a distributed set of equipment and data-information services which, among many applications, collectively contribute to meeting the needs of marine climate research in Australia. The observing system provides data in the open oceans around Australia out to a few thousand kilometres as well as the coastal oceans through 11 facilities which effectively observe and measure the 4-dimensional ocean variability, and the physical and biological response of coastal and shelf seas around Australia. Through a national science rationale IMOS is organized as five regional nodes (Western Australia - WAIMOS, South Australian - SAIMOS, Tasmania - TASIMOS, New SouthWales - NSWIMOS and Queensland - QIMOS) surrounded by an oceanic node (Blue Water and Climate). Operationally IMOS is organized as 11 facilities (Argo Australia, Ships of Opportunity, Southern Ocean Automated Time Series Observations, Australian National Facility for Ocean Gliders, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Facility, Australian National Mooring Network, Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network, Australian Acoustic Tagging and Monitoring System, Facility for Automated Intelligent Monitoring of Marine Systems, eMarine Information Infrastructure and Satellite Remote Sensing) delivering data. IMOS data is freely available to the public. The data, a combination of near real-time and delayed mode, are made available to researchers through the electronic Marine Information Infrastructure (eMII). eMII utilises the Australian Academic Research Network (AARNET) to support a distributed database on OPeNDAP/THREDDS servers hosted by regional computing centres. IMOS instruments are described through the OGC Specification SensorML and where-ever possible data is in CF compliant netCDF format. Metadata, conforming to standard ISO 19115, is automatically harvested from the netCDF files

  9. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: challenges for Australian health and medicine policies.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas A; Townsend, Ruth

    2011-01-17

    Four formal rounds of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations took place in 2010. They involved over 200 officials from Australia, the United States, New Zealand, Chile, Singapore, Brunei, Peru, Vietnam and Malaysia. Future negotiations officially are set to include three issues with public health and medicines policy implications for Australia and our region: ways to approach regulatory coherence and transparency; how to benefit multinational and small-medium enterprises; and multilateral investor-state dispute settlement. US-based multinational pharmaceutical companies are lobbying for TPPA provisions like those in the Australia-US Free Trade Agreement, which reduce government cost-effectiveness regulatory control of pharmaceuticals, threatening equitable access to medicines. They also advocate increased TPPA intellectual monopoly privilege protection, which will further limit the development of Australian generic medicine enterprises and restrict patient access to cheap, bioequivalent prescription drugs. Of particular concern is that proposed TPPA multilateral investor-state dispute settlement procedures would allow US corporations (as well as those of other TPPA nations) to obtain damages against Australian governments through international arbitral proceedings if their investments are impeded by Australian public health and environment protection legislation.

  10. Hot air ablowin! 'Media-speak', social conflict, and the Australian 'decoupled' wind farm controversy.

    PubMed

    Hindmarsh, Richard

    2014-04-01

    In work in science, technology, and society social conflict around wind farms has a growing profile, not least because it draws our attention to two key interrelated themes: 'science, technology and governance' and 'socio-technological systems'. In this article on Australian wind farm development and siting, these themes are highlighted in contexts of sustainability, legitimacy, and competency for policy effectiveness. There is enduring social conflict around wind farms at the local community level, but little government understanding of this conflict or willingness to respond adequately to resolve it. This article examines the conflict through the lens of print media analysis. A key finding of the five identified is that people seeing wind farms as spoiling a sense of place is a primary cause of enduring social conflict at the local community level around wind farms, alongside significant environmental issues and inadequate community engagement; this finding also indicates a central reason for the highly problematic state of Australian wind energy transitions. In turn, by identifying this problematic situation as one of a significantly 'decoupled' and 'dysfunctional' condition of the Australian socio-technological wind farm development and siting system, I suggest remedies including those of a deliberative nature that also respond to the Habermas-Mouffe debate. These inform a socio-technical siting approach or pathway to better respect and navigate contested landscapes for enhanced renewable energy transitions at the local level.

  11. Measuring hearing aid outcomes using the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL) questionnaire: Australian data.

    PubMed

    Uriarte, Margaret; Denzin, Lauren; Dunstan, Amy; Sellars, Jillian; Hickson, Louise

    2005-06-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate hearing aid satisfaction for a group of older Australians fitted with government-funded hearing aids using the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL) questionnaire; to compare the Australian data gathered with the provisional normative data reported by Cox and Alexander (1999); and to investigate the relationship between SADL satisfaction and several participant variables, hearing aid variables, and other outcome measures. The SADL questionnaire and a Client Satisfaction Survey (CSS) were distributed by mail to 1284 adults fitted with government-funded hearing aids three to six months previously. 1014 surveys were returned. The mean age of participants was 75.32 years; 54.4% of participants were male, and 54.8% were fitted binaurally. Participants were fitted primarily with digitally programmable hearing aids of various styles (22.5% BTEs, 34.8% ITEs, 41.8% ITCs, 0.9% nonstandard [NS] devices). Overall, participants reported a considerable level of satisfaction with their devices. SADL Global and subscale scores were significantly higher for the Australian sample than the U.S. norms described by Cox and Alexander (1999).

  12. Modelling Choice: Factors Influencing Modes of Delivery in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Ling, Peter; Hill, Doug

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study of Multiple Modes of Delivery in Australian universities that was commissioned by Australian Universities Teaching Committee over the period 2001-2004. The project examined and described the various means of educational delivery deployed by Australian universities. It identified the pedagogical,…

  13. Building Innovation: Learning with Technologies. Australian Education Review Number 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyle, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 56 explores national and international policy priorities for building students' innovation capabilities through information and communication technologies (ICT) in Australian schools. Section 1 sets out the Australian policy context for digital education and highlights some of the emerging challenges. It provides…

  14. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  15. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  16. Public Library Development in New South Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Today every citizen in New South Wales has access to public library services through a sophisticated network, a partnership between local and State Government. In fact, free public libraries in New South Wales only began to operate in any numbers after the end of World War II--not even sixty years ago. Why did it take so long here, bearing in mind…

  17. Australian solar eclipse expeditions: the voyage to Cape York in 1871

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomb, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Techniques such as photography and spectroscopy only became available to study solar eclipses in the 1860s. The first subsequent total eclipse of the Sun to be visible from Australia was one in December 1871 that was visible from far north Queensland. Initiated by the Royal Society of Victoria, astronomers in Melbourne and Sydney cooperated to organise the Australian Eclipse Expedition aboard the steamship Governor Blackall to a suitable observing location. Though on the day of the eclipse clouds prevented viewing, this was an important expedition that was complex to organise and involved dealings with colonial Governments and with relatively large sums of money that Australian scientists had not previously experienced. With a newspaper reporter as part of the expedition along with two photographers the expedition was well recorded and provides a clear insight into the activities of late nineteenth century astronomers and other scientists.

  18. A dataset for examining trends in publication of new Australian insects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Australian Faunal Directory data were used to create a new, publicly available dataset, nai50, which lists 18318 species and subspecies names for Australian insects described in the period 1961–2010, together with associated publishing data. The number of taxonomic publications introducing the new names varied little around a long-term average of 70 per year, with ca 420 new names published per year during the 30-year period 1981–2010. Within this stable pattern there were steady increases in multi-authored and 'Smith in Jones and Smith' names, and a decline in publication of names in entomology journals and books. For taxonomic works published in Australia, a publications peak around 1990 reflected increases in museum, scientific society and government agency publishing, but a subsequent decline is largely explained by a steep drop in the number of papers on insect taxonomy published by Australia's national science agency, CSIRO. PMID:25057256

  19. Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean marsupials.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-01-01

    Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and

  20. Present but Not Counted: The Tenuous Position of Academic Board Chairs within Contemporary University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on multiple case study research of Australian academic governance to examine the role and place of chairpersons of university academic boards (also known as academic senates or faculty senates) within university executive leadership committees. A Bourdieusian analysis of the data suggests that while within the broader university…

  1. Turning Collegial Governance on Its Head: Symbolic Violence, Hegemony and the Academic Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on Bourdieu's theorisation of domination and Gramsci's notions of hegemony within the context of a larger empirical study of Australian university academic governance, and of academic boards (also known as academic senates or faculty senates) in particular. Reporting data that suggest a continued but radically altered form of…

  2. Paradox, Promise and Public Pedagogy: Implications of the Federal Government's Digital Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The use of digital technology in the classroom is a significant issue for teachers as they are under increasing pressure to teach in technologically mediated ways. This "digital turn" in education has culminated in the Australian federal government's Digital Education Revolution, which represents a multi-billion dollar commitment to…

  3. Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  4. Gambling harms and gambling help-seeking amongst indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the harms arising from gambling and gambling-related help-seeking behaviour within a large sample of Indigenous Australians. A self-selected sample of 1,259 Indigenous Australian adults completed a gambling survey at three Indigenous sports and cultural events, in several communities and online. Based on responses to the problem gambling severity index (PGSI), the proportions of the sample in the moderate risk and problem gambler groups were higher than those for the population of New South Wales. Many in our sample appeared to face higher risks with their gambling and experience severe gambling harms. From PGSI responses, notable harms include financial difficulties and feelings of guilt and regret about gambling. Further harms, including personal, relationship, family, community, legal and housing impacts, were shown to be significantly higher for problem gamblers than for the other PGSI groups. Most problem gamblers relied on family, extended family and friends for financial help or went without due to gambling losses. Nearly half the sample did not think they had a problem with gambling but the results show that the majority (57.7 %) faced some risk with their gambling. Of those who sought gambling help, family, extended family, friends and respected community members were consulted, demonstrating the reciprocal obligations underpinning traditional Aboriginal culture. The strength of this finding is that these people are potentially the greatest source of gambling help, but need knowledge and resources to provide that help effectively. Local Aboriginal services were preferred as the main sources of professional help for gambling-related problems.

  5. Geophysical Characteristics of the Australian-Antarctic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. S.; Lin, J.; Park, S. H.; Choi, H.; Lee, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2011 and 2013, the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) conducted three consecutive geologic surveys at the little explored eastern ends of the Australian-Antarctic Ridge (AAR) to characterize the tectonics, geochemistry, and hydrothermal activity of this intermediate spreading system. Using the Korean icebreaker R/V Araon, the multi-disciplinary research team collected bathymetry, gravity, magnetics, and rock and water column samples. In addition, Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorders (MAPRs) were deployed at wax-core rock sampling sites to detect the presence of active hydrothermal vents. Here we present a detailed analysis of a 300-km-long supersegment of the AAR to quantify the spatial variations in ridge morphology and robust axial and off-axis volcanisms. The ridge axis morphology alternates between rift valleys and axial highs within relatively short ridge segments. To obtain a geological proxy for regional variations in magma supply, we calculated residual mantle Bouguer gravity anomalies (RMBA), gravity-derived crustal thickness, and residual topography for seven sub-segments. The results of the analyses revealed that the southern flank of the AAR is associated with shallower seafloor, more negative RMBA, thicker crust, and/or less dense mantle than the conjugate northern flank. Furthermore, this north-south asymmetry becomes more prominent toward the KR1 supersegment of the AAR. The axial topography of the KR1 supersegment exhibits a sharp transition from axial highs at the western end to rift valleys at the eastern end, with regions of axial highs being associated with more magma supply as indicated by more negative RMBA. We also compare and contrast the characteristics of the AAR supersegment with that of other ridges of intermediate spreading rates, including the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Galápagos Spreading Center, and Southeast Indian Ridge west of the Australian-Antarctic Discordance, to investigate the influence of ridge-hotspot interaction on

  6. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch.

  7. Shaping public opinion on the issue of childbirth; a critical analysis of articles published in an Australian newspaper

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Australian government has announced a major program of reform with the move to primary maternity care, a program of change that appears to be at odds with current general public perceptions regarding how maternity care is delivered. Methods A critical discourse analysis of articles published in 'The Age', a newspaper with national distribution, subsequent to the release of the discussion paper by the Australian Government in 2008 was undertaken. The purpose was to identify how Australian maternity services are portrayed and what purpose is served by this representation to the general public. Results Findings from this critical discourse analysis revealed that Australian maternity services are being portrayed to the general public as an inflexible outdated service struggling to meets the needs of pregnant women and in desperate need of reform. The style of reporting employed in this newspaper involved presenting to the reader the range of expert opinion relevant to each topic, frequently involving polarised positions of the experts on the issue. Conclusions The general public are presented with a conflict, caught between the need for changes that come with the primary maternity model of care and fear that these change will undermine safe standards. The discourse; 'Australia is one of the safest countries in which to give birth or be born, what is must be best', represents the situation where despite major deficiencies in the system the general public may be too fearful of the consequences to consider a move away from reliance on traditional medical-led maternity care. PMID:21708041

  8. The AUSGeoid09 model of the Australian Height Datum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Featherstone, W. E.; Kirby, J. F.; Hirt, C.; Filmer, M. S.; Claessens, S. J.; Brown, N. J.; Hu, G.; Johnston, G. M.

    2011-03-01

    AUSGeoid09 is the new Australia-wide gravimetric quasigeoid model that has been a posteriori fitted to the Australian Height Datum (AHD) so as to provide a product that is practically useful for the more direct determination of AHD heights from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). This approach is necessary because the AHD is predominantly a third-order vertical datum that contains a ~1 m north-south tilt and ~0.5 m regional distortions with respect to the quasigeoid, meaning that GNSS-gravimetric-quasigeoid and AHD heights are inconsistent. Because the AHD remains the official vertical datum in Australia, it is necessary to provide GNSS users with effective means of recovering AHD heights. The gravimetric component of the quasigeoid model was computed using a hybrid of the remove-compute-restore technique with a degree-40 deterministically modified kernel over a one-degree spherical cap, which is superior to the remove-compute-restore technique alone in Australia (with or without a cap). This is because the modified kernel and cap combine to filter long-wavelength errors from the terrestrial gravity anomalies. The zero-tide EGM2008 global gravitational model to degree 2,190 was used as the reference field. Other input data are ~1.4 million land gravity anomalies from Geoscience Australia, 1' × 1' DNSC2008GRA altimeter-derived gravity anomalies offshore, the 9'' × 9'' GEODATA-DEM9S Australian digital elevation model, and a readjustment of Australian National Levelling Network (ANLN) constrained to the CARS2006 mean dynamic ocean topography model. To determine the numerical integration parameters for the modified kernel, the gravimetric component of AUSGeoid09 was compared with 911 GNSS-observed ellipsoidal heights at benchmarks. The standard deviation of fit to the GNSS-AHD heights is ±222 mm, which dropped to ±134 mm for the readjusted GNSS-ANLN heights showing that careful consideration now needs to be given to the quality of the levelling data used to

  9. Successes, challenges and developments in Australian rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Morand, Eric F; Leech, Michelle T

    2015-07-01

    Australia is a geographically vast but sparsely populated country with many unique factors affecting the practice of rheumatology. With a population comprising minority Indigenous peoples, a historically European-origin majority population, and recent large-scale migration from Asia, the effect of ethnic diversity on the phenotype of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a constant of Australian rheumatology practice. Australia has a strong system of universal healthcare and subsidized access to medications, and clinical and research rheumatology are well developed, but inequitable access to specialist care in urban and regional centres, and the complex disconnected structure of the Australian healthcare system, can hinder the management of chronic diseases.

  10. Phenylphenalenones from the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel Anthony; Goble, David James; Silva, Claudio Andres; Urban, Sylvia

    2009-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex resulted in the isolation of three new phenylphenalenones, haemodorone (10), haemodorol (11), and haemodorose (12), together with the previously reported compounds 5, dilatrin (6), and xiphidone (8). The first complete 2D NMR characterization for all of the compounds isolated, including several chemical shift reassignments for dilatrin (6), is reported. In addition this is one of the few reports to discuss the isolation of new phenylphenalenones from an Australian medicinal plant. The crude extract of both the bulbaceous and aerial components of the plant exhibited varying degrees of antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity, and only the bulbs displayed potent cytotoxic activity.

  11. Loss and Reconstitution of Sioux Tribal Lands in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Richard H.

    Inconsistent government policies towards American Indian landholdings have created jurisdictional chaos on South Dakota's Sioux reservations. Although the Sioux had occupied the area of South Dakota since the seventeenth century, white settlers began to move into the territory in the 1840's. Despite treaties, the federal government began…

  12. [Governance for health].

    PubMed

    Holčík, Jan

    2012-01-01

    New approaches to governance are driven by the changing nature of the challenges faced by 21st century societies. People, their health and capabilities are the key resources of a knowledge society. In the article the meaning of "governance for health" is explained and some methods of governance are presented. Governance for health will be implemented in the new European health policy - Health 2020.

  13. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea,...

  14. The invisibilization of health promotion in Australian public health initiatives.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret

    2016-07-19

    The field of health promotion has arguably shifted over the past thirty years from being socially proactive to biomedically defensive. In many countries this has been accompanied by a gradual decline, or in some cases the almost complete removal of health promotion designated positions within Government health departments. The language or discourse used to describe the practice and discipline of health promotion is reflective of such changes. In this study, critical discourse analysis was used to determine the representation of health promotion as a practice and a discipline within 10 Australian Government weight-related public health initiatives. The analysis revealed the invisibilization of critical health promotion in favour of an agenda described as 'preventive health'. This was achieved primarily through the textual practices of overlexicalization and lexical suppression. Excluding document titles, there were 437 uses of the terms health promotion, illness prevention, disease prevention, preventive health, preventative health in the documents analysed. The term 'health promotion' was used sparingly (16% of total terms), and in many instances was coupled with the term 'illness prevention'. Conversely, the terms 'preventive health' and 'preventative health' were used extensively, and primarily used alone. The progressive invisibilization of critical health promotion has implications for the perceptions and practice of those identifying as health promotion professionals and for people with whom we work to address the social and structural determinants of health and wellbeing. Language matters, and the language and intent of critical health promotion will struggle to survive if its speakers are professionally unidentifiable or invisible.

  15. Australian species of Ommatius Wiedemann (Diptera: Asilidae) with an anepimeral bristle.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Greg

    2017-02-13

    The presence of an anepimeral bristle in Australian Ommatius Wiedemann species is newly recorded and descriptions of seven new species possessing this character are presented: O. aquilonaris sp. nov., O. burwelli sp. nov., O. imaginis sp. nov., O. limbatus sp. nov., O. melasmus sp. nov., O. musselbrookensis sp. nov. and O. radamnis sp. nov. All species occur in Queensland but O. melasmus sp. nov. also occurs in New South Wales and O. musselbrookensis sp. nov. also occurs in the Northern Territory. A key to separate the species is presented.

  16. A new species, new immature stages, and new synonymy in Australian Dasybasis flies (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K

    2015-04-09

    Australian beach sand is a productive habitat for lower brachyceran fly larvae but often overlooked by collectors. We collected two species of tabanid larvae from coastal beach sand in southern New South Wales in August 2013. Both species belong to the Dasybasis macrophthalma species-group of Mackerras (1959), one a new species, and the other D. exulans (Erichson, 1842). We describe both new immature stages and the new species adult as Dasybasis rieki sp. nov. (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini). Trojan (1994b) elevated the D. macrophthalma species group to the genus Sznablius. We review the evidence for the generic status of Sznablius, and synonymize it with Dasybasis.

  17. Seismology at the Australian National University; an interview with Anton L. Hales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1980-01-01

    Dr. Anton L. Hales is a leading seismologist who has just retired as Director of the Research School of Earth Sciences at the Australian National University (ANU), Canberra. Prior to that, he headed the Geosciences Division at the University of Texas at Dallas, and, before that, he was Director of the Bernard Price Institute of Geophysical Research at the University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg, South Africa. he is about to step down as President of the International Geodynamics Commission. Dr. Hales' research has involved marine geophysics, the travel times of seismic waves, and the structure of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. 

  18. Far from Ideal: Everyday Experiences of Mothers and Early Childhood Professionals Negotiating an Inclusive Early Childhood Experience in the Australian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Rebekah; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Wedgwood, Nikki; Fenech, Marianne; McConnell, David

    2008-01-01

    Using narrative interviews underpinned by an ecocultural framework, this Australian study investigated the experiences of 39 mothers of children with disabilities and 27 staff members from the early childhood services which these children attended. The data highlight serious limitations of current government policy and provisions in Australia to…

  19. The Production of Australian Professional Development Policy Texts as a Site of Contest: The Case of the Federal Quality Teacher Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper reveals how the provision of teacher professional development is conceptualised within the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme (AGQTP) policy text and its predecessors, and uses these texts to infer the nature of the production practices associated with the development of these policies. The paper argues that multiple…

  20. Universities, Technology and Academic Work: A Reconsideration of the Murray Committee on Australian Universities (1957) in the light of Dawkins (1987-1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, John

    1990-01-01

    The paper looks at changes in Australian higher education initiated by the government minister J.S. Dawkins, in the light of a 1957 committee which is generally credited with accelerating the postwar expansion of higher education in Australia. The issue of the primary functions of universities is discussed. (DB)

  1. Australian Association of Early Childhood Educators: Papers of the National Conference (1st, Ursula College, Canberra, May 17-18, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Association of Early Childhood Educators, Canberra.

    Papers included are: (1) Presidential Address, (2) Challenges to Early Childhood Educators, (3) The Home Start Program in the U.S.A., (4) Early Childhood Training Programs, (5) Initiatives being Taken in Early Childhood Education Field by the Australian Government, (6) Audiovisual Materials for Parents' Discussion Groups, (7) The Role of the Adult…

  2. Mercury concentrations in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus from SE Australian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bacher, G.J.

    1985-10-01

    Marine carnivores such as seals and sea lions occupy an important position in the upper trophic level of the marine food web and this, together with their longevity, makes these marine mammals useful indicators of mercury accumulation in the marine environment. Little information exists on mercury concentrations in marine mammals from the southern hemisphere. This paper reports total mercury concentrations in the tissues of the Australian Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus from southeastern Australian waters.

  3. Representations and coverage of non-English-speaking immigrants and multicultural issues in three major Australian health care publications

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background No recent Australian studies or literature, provide evidence of the extent of coverage of multicultural health issues in Australian healthcare research. A series of systematic literature reviews in three major Australian healthcare journals were undertaken to discover the level, content, coverage and overall quality of research on multicultural health. Australian healthcare journals selected for the study were The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA), The Australian Health Review (AHR), and The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health (ANZPH). Reviews were undertaken of the last twelve (12) years (1996-August 2008) of journal articles using six standard search terms: 'non-English-speaking', 'ethnic', 'migrant', 'immigrant', 'refugee' and 'multicultural'. Results In total there were 4,146 articles published in these journals over the 12-year period. A total of 90 or 2.2% of the total articles were articles primarily based on multicultural issues. A further 62 articles contained a major or a moderate level of consideration of multicultural issues, and 107 had a minor mention. Conclusions The quantum and range of multicultural health research and evidence required for equity in policy, services, interventions and implementation is limited and uneven. Most of the original multicultural health research articles focused on newly arrived refugees, asylum seekers, Vietnamese or South East Asian communities. While there is some seminal research in respect of these represented groups, there are other communities and health issues that are essentially invisible or unrepresented in research. The limited coverage and representation of multicultural populations in research studies has implications for evidence-based health and human services policy. PMID:20044938

  4. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  5. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…

  6. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  7. Western Australian School Students' Understanding of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…

  8. Revitalising Languages in Australian Universities: What Chance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Institutions of higher education teach fewer languages, in less secure ways, for less time per week, for shorter periods, by an increasingly casually employed staff, in often underfunded, underappreciated and under stress modes, but participants in the Australian Academy of the Humanities' "Beyond the Crisis: Revitalising Languages in…

  9. Australian National University Science Extension Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The first Australian National University (ANU) Science Extension Day was held on September 8, 2015. The ANU Science Extension Day is a project that was initiated by Theodore Primary School (ACT) and developed by Theodore Primary, Calwell High School, Science Educators Association of the ACT (SEA*ACT), and the ANU. The project was developed with a…

  10. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  11. Intergenerational Challenges in Australian Jewish School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the intergenerational changes that have occurred in Australian Jewish day schools and the challenges these pose for religious and Jewish education. Using a grounded theory approach according to the constant comparative method (Strauss 1987), data from three sources (interviews [296], observations [27],…

  12. Brain drain threat to Australian science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.

  13. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  14. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  15. Australian University Libraries: Collections Overlap Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Roxanne; Walls, Robert

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), Higher Education Information Infrastructure Advisory Committee commissioned the National Library of Australia to analyse the uniqueness and overlap of Australian university library collections, comparing library collections in each state, using the National Bibliographic Database…

  16. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  17. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with…

  18. Education for Sustainability and the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Serow, Pep

    2011-01-01

    A national curriculum is presently being developed in Australia with implementation due during 2014. Associated standards for the accreditation of teachers and for teacher education providers have been prepared with the standards describing skills and attributes that teachers are expected to attain. The developing Australian Curriculum, along with…

  19. Open Learning: The Unique Australian Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin; Pritchard, Tony

    1994-01-01

    Describes Open Learning Australia (OLA), a national program that was developed to widen and facilitate access to undergraduate education by providing open admission. Highlights include other Australian distance education programs; services provided by OLA and those provided by participating universities; electronic support services; fees; and…

  20. Homelessness: An Annotated Bibliography of Australian Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Jenny, Comp.; Davis, Mari, Comp.

    This bibliography, compiled for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless, lists Australian works published since 1974 about homelessness. It includes definitions of homelessness from the literature and an introductory article looking at different perspectives on homelessness. The entries, mainly taken from FAMILY database, are each…