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Sample records for south western australia

  1. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whisson, Corey S.; Breure, Abraham S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic. PMID:27199583

  2. Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

    2012-10-01

    The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little

  3. Adult and Community Education: A Snapshot of the Conditions and Circumstances of Being a Community-Based Adult Community Education (ACE) Provider in South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria from September to December 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwencke, Helen

    This report compiles information from a study tour to identify the current status, development, and issues of nonprofit organizations with voluntary boards of management that provide adult and community-based education (ACE) in Australia. An overview of the community-based ACE sector covers organizations in South Australia, Western Australia,…

  4. Climate change impacts on water yields and demands in south-western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, Don; Stone, Roy; Martens, Sasha; Thomas, Jonathan; Silberstein, Richard; Ali, Riasat; Hodgson, Geoff

    2012-12-01

    SummaryA climate shift in the mid 1970s reduced rainfalls in south-western Australia by 10-15% and inflows into reservoirs that supply the city of Perth (population 1.8 m) by more than half. The region has a Mediterranean climate, similar to other areas in the world experiencing reductions in rainfall and rises in temperatures. Rainfall-runoff modelling has indicated that streamflows may reduce by a further quarter by 2030 or by half if a dry future climate is experienced. Groundwater levels on the coastal plain in south-western Australia have fallen since the mid 1970s where unconfined aquifers are covered with perennial vegetation, including under the main water supply aquifer for Perth. Modelled projections are that groundwater levels in most areas will continue to fall through to 2030 under most future climate scenarios. Projected streamflows and groundwater levels indicate reduced water availability but these need to be converted to projected water yields, i.e. the amount of water that can be diverted for consumptive use. This paper reports how projections of future streamflow and groundwater levels were used to estimate 2030 divertible water yields for a 62,500 km2 area in south-western Australia. These yields were then compared with estimates of water demands in 2030 to identify areas of water surplus and deficit under clearly defined assumptions. The methods used to define future yields are based on sets of rules that could be varied by water managers if desired. Surface water yields are estimated to decrease by about 24% (possible range of -4% to -49%) which is similar to the projected reduction in runoff (-25% with a range of -7% to -42%). Groundwater yields are projected to fall by only about 2% (range of +2% to -7%) because of reductions in evapotranspiration and drainage losses as watertables fall where groundwater levels are close to the surface. In addition, recharge remains relatively high under cleared areas used for non-irrigated agriculture. In

  5. Water yield issues in the jarrah forest of south-western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprecht, J. K.; Stoneman, G. L.

    1993-10-01

    The jarrah forest of south-western Australia produces little streamflow from moderate rainfall. Water yield from water supply catchments for Perth, Western Australia, are low, averaging 71 mm (7% of annual rainfall). The low water yields are attributed to the large soil water storage available for continuous use by the forest vegetation. A number of water yield studies in south-western Australia have examined the impact on water yield of land use practices including clearing for agricultural development, forest harvesting and regeneration, forest thinning and bauxite mining. A permanent reduction in forest cover by clearing for agriculture led to permanent increases of water yield of approximately 28% of annual rainfall in a high rainfall catchment. Thinning of a high rainfall catchment led to an increase in water yield of 20% of annual rainfall. However, it is not clear for how long the increased water yield will persist. Forest harvesting and regeneration have led to water yield increases of 16% of annual rainfall. The subsequent recovery of vegetation cover has led to water yields returning to pre-disturbance levels after an estimated 12-15 years. Bauxite mining of a high rainfall catchment led to a water yield increase of 8% of annual rainfall, followed by a return to pre-disturbance water yield after 12 years. The magnitude of specific streamflow generation mechanisms in small catchments subject to forest disturbance vary considerably, typically in a number of distinct stages. The presence of a permanent groundwater discharge area was shown to be instrumental in determining the magnitude of the streamflow response after forest disturbance. The long-term prognosis for water yield from areas subject to forest thinning, harvesting and regeneration, and bauxite mining are uncertain, owing to the complex interrelationship between vegetation cover, tree height and age, and catchment evapotranspiration. Management of the forest for water yield needs to acknowledge

  6. A characterisation of the coastal tufa deposits of south-west Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Matt; Vogwill, Ryan; Onton, Kimberly

    2010-12-01

    Located in the south-west coastal zone of Western Australia are numerous tufa deposits, which are registered as Threatened Ecological Communities (TEC). The tufas occur in near-shore shallow bedrock settings and are associated with local groundwater discharge. Depositional facies, mineralogy, elemental chemistry and water quality were investigated for five key deposits. Two conceptual environmental models are identified. The first, the cascade to barrage pool model is associated with coastal waterfall zones, the second, a perched spring-line and barrage pool model is located predominantly in the supratidal zone. Tufa morphology, texture, mineral composition and elemental chemistry vary within and between sites. Both phytoclast and lithoclast (allochthonous), and phytoherm forms of tufa are identified depending on location within the facies. Calcite, and to a lesser extent, aragonite and Mg-calcite dominate tufa mineralogy, with diagenetic modifications apparent. Tufa water chemistry is generally Na-Cl-HCO 3 dominated; however, Na-Cl concentrations increase at sites situated within the supratidal zone. Currently the most likely potential threat posed to these deposits is increasing nutrient levels in spring waters from agricultural land use within the catchments. This could in the future impact on tufa development.

  7. Mycosphaerella species associated with Eucalyptus in south-western Australia: new species, new records and a key.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Aaron; Dell, Bernie; Neumeister-Kemp, Heike G; St J Hardy, Giles E

    2003-03-01

    Mycosphaerella ambiphylla sp. nov. (anamorph: Phaeophleospora) and Mycosphaerella aurantia sp. nov., are described from diseased Eucalyptus globulus leaves. In addition, a new fungal record in Australia, M. mexicana, and two new records for Western Australia, M. gregaria and M. parva, are discussed. A key is provided to Mycosphaerella species on E. globulus in Western Australia.

  8. Midwives and oral health care during pregnancy: perceptions of pregnant women in south-western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    George, Ajesh; Johnson, Maree; Duff, Margaret; Ajwani, Shilpi; Bhole, Sameer; Blinkhorn, Anthony; Ellis, Sharon

    2012-04-01

    This study sought to explore the perceptions of pregnant women in Australia towards oral health care during pregnancy and their views regarding midwives providing oral health education, assessment and referrals as part of antenatal care. Maintaining oral health during pregnancy is important. Yet, many pregnant women do not access dental services during this time. Antenatal care providers are now recommended to promote maternal oral health, and various countries have adopted this strategy. However, in Australia, a lack of emphasis is placed on maternal oral health especially by antenatal care providers. Currently, a preventive programme is being developed to promote maternal oral health with the help of midwives in Australia. Very little is known about the perceptions of such an approach from pregnant women. Qualitative approach. Data were collected via semi-structured telephone interviews with 10 pregnant women residing in south-western Sydney. Thematic analyses of the data suggest a high prevalence of poor oral health among pregnant women, especially those socioeconomically disadvantaged. The findings also highlight various barriers deterring these women from seeking dental care the most significant being lack of dental awareness, high treatment costs and misconceptions about dental treatment during pregnancy. The absence of affordable dental care remains a major barrier in Australia. The proposed preventive programme was well received by women although issues such as education for midwives and referral pathways were highlighted. The findings suggest that a tailored midwifery-initiated oral health programme has potential in Australia, especially for low-income families as it addresses many existing barriers to dental care. Antenatal care providers in Australia should provide more information about oral health. These health professionals should be adequately educated to promote oral health. Health services should also consider offering pregnant women affordable and

  9. A Q fever cluster among workers at an abattoir in south-western Sydney, Australia, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie; Weerasinghe, Guy; Chandra, Meena; Egana, Nilva; Schembri, Nicole; Conaty, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background In September 2015, the Public Health Unit of the South Western Sydney Local Health District was notified of two possible Q fever cases. Case investigation identified that both cases were employed at an abattoir, and both cases advised that co-workers had experienced similar symptoms. Public Health Unit staff also recalled interviewing in late 2014 at least one other Q fever case who worked at the same abattoir. This prompted an outbreak investigation. Methods The investigation incorporated active case finding, microbiological analysis, field investigation and a risk factor survey. Included cases were laboratory definitive or suspected cases occurring from October 2014 to October 2015, residing or working in south-western Sydney. A suspected case had clinically compatible illness, high-risk exposure and was epidemiologically linked to another confirmed case. A confirmed case included laboratory detection of C. burnetti. Results Eight cases met the case definition with seven confirmed (including a deceased case) and one suspected. The eight cases were all males who had been employed at an abattoir in south-western Sydney during their incubation period; symptom onset dates ranged from November 2014 to September 2015. Field investigation identified multiple potential risk factors at the abattoir, and the majority (75%) of employees were not vaccinated against Q fever despite this high-risk setting. Conclusion This cluster of Q fever in a single abattoir confirms the significance of this zoonotic disease as an occupational hazard among persons working in high-risk environments. Implementation of Q fever vaccination programmes should eliminate Q fever in high-risk occupational settings. PMID:28246578

  10. Lake Carnegie, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral Lake Carnegie, in Western Australia, fills with water only during periods of significant rainfall. In dry years, it is reduced to a muddy marsh. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 19, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch. This image is part of the ongoing Landsat Earth as Art series.

  11. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, W.; Ali, R.; Varma, S.; Emelyanova, I.; Hodgson, G.; McFarlane, D.

    2012-05-01

    The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south west Western Australia, provides approximately 60% of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15%. There is expected to be a continuing reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia. Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A Vertical Flux Manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland), soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth. These recharge estimates were accumulated on a daily basis for both observed and projected climate scenarios and used in a MODFLOW simulation with monthly stress periods. In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In the Dandaragan Plateau to the north-east of Perth there has been groundwater level rise since the 1970s associated with land clearing, and with rainfall projected to reduce the least in this area the groundwater levels are estimated to continue to rise. Along the coastal zone north of Perth there is an interaction between projected rainfall decline and legislated removal to pine forests. This results in areas of increasing

  12. A Probabilistic Tsunami Assessment for Western Australia and the South coast of Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, D. R.; Cummins, P. R.; Thio, H. K.

    2006-12-01

    Prior to July 2006, the only known, large megathrust earthquake known to have occurred (Mw=7.6, on 2 June, 1994) south of Java could be argued to be an anomaly in what is essentially aseismic subduction in this part of the Sunda Arc. The occurrence of a second such event (Mw=7.8) on 17 July, however, has demonstrated that they can occur anywhere along the Sunda Arc. These events produced large tsunamis along the coast of Java that killed hundreds (222 and 663, respectively). On the one hand, these earthquakes are much smaller than the Mw=9+ earthquakes known to occur off Sumatra, and the mortality associated with them is much smaller than the staggering human toll of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT), which killed 167,000 on the Sumatran coast. On the other hand, the density of population along the south Java coast is much higher than that along the Sumatran coast, and we do not know how large or how frequent tsunamigenic earthquakes off Java may be. The possibility exists that tsunami risk, as measured in human lives, may be higher for Java than for Sumatra. Furthermore, future events off Sumatra can be expected off its central and perhaps its southern coast, where most of the teletsunami energy will be directed into the open Indian Ocean. Events off Java, however, will direct much more teletsunami energy towards the northwest coast of Australia. Both the 1994 and the 2006 tsunamis originating off south Java caused significant tsunamis at specific locations along the West Australian coast. Here we present a new probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the offshore wave height expected along the south coast of Java and the West Australian coast from earthquakes along the Sunda Arc subduction zone. This assessment is based on a new estimate of the rate of megathrust earthquake occurrence along the Sunda Arc subduction zone based on the global rate of occurrence of giant subduction zone earthquakes, the length of the subduction zone and its rate of convergence

  13. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  14. The use of garden boreholes in Cape Town, South Africa: lessons learnt from Perth, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saayman, I. C.; Adams, S.

    The similarities in climate and geology offer water resource managers in Cape Town and Perth an opportunity to learn from each other's experiences. While Cape Town relies mostly on surface water for supply, Perth uses 50% groundwater for its domestic and industrial use. It is proposed that certain aspects of Perth's water supply infrastructure could successfully be transposed for the exploitation of Cape Towns' groundwater resources. In Perth private boreholes is used to tap a shallow phreatic aquifer for garden irrigation. The Government of Western Australia encourages this practice. Cape Town has an opportunity to use water from the Cape Flats Aquifer in a similar manner. In this paper the use of the Cape Flats Aquifer for private garden irrigation is evaluated. By encouraging private landowners to develop private wells, large savings could be made in the amount of treated bulk water supply required by Cape Town. The Cape Flats Aquifer has the potential to meet a large part of the city's garden irrigation requirements. Though the impact of pollution on water quality remains uncertain and a concern, the general quality of water in the aquifer is adequate for irrigation requirements. If the use of private garden boreholes is to be successful, education of the public will be vital. It is envisaged that the City of Cape Town and the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry in partnership with private, education and research institutions take the lead in such education and the development of appropriate legislation and guidelines.

  15. A Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak linked to Vietnamese bread rolls in South Western Sydney, Australia, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Heidi; Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie; Alexander, Kate; Egana, Nilva; Conaty, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In September 2015, the South Western Sydney (SWS) Public Health Unit was notified of a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) cases with a common multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) pattern. An investigation was conducted to identify a source and contain the outbreak. Methods The cluster was initially identified through routine geographic information system cluster scanning applied to the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Management System. Additional cases were identified through a complaint to local council about a bakery. The bakery was inspected and 48 environmental and food swabs were collected for analysis. Results A total of 26 suspected cases were identified, of which 14 were interviewed. STm MLVA type 3–16–9-11–523 was identified in 19 of 26 case stool specimens. Most cases (12/14) consumed bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Five cases identified a common bakery exposure. Environmental and food samples from the bakery isolated STm with an identical MLVA pattern. Discussion An STm cluster in SWS was investigated and found to be linked to Vietnamese bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Confirmation of a distinct MLVA pattern among STm isolates from clinical, food and environmental samples provided evidence to establish an epidemiological link between the cases and the implicated premises and informed public health action to contain the outbreak. PMID:28736650

  16. A Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak linked to Vietnamese bread rolls in South Western Sydney, Australia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Meena; Lord, Heidi; Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie; Alexander, Kate; Egana, Nilva; Conaty, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    In September 2015, the South Western Sydney (SWS) Public Health Unit was notified of a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) cases with a common multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) pattern. An investigation was conducted to identify a source and contain the outbreak. The cluster was initially identified through routine geographic information system cluster scanning applied to the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Management System. Additional cases were identified through a complaint to local council about a bakery. The bakery was inspected and 48 environmental and food swabs were collected for analysis. A total of 26 suspected cases were identified, of which 14 were interviewed. STm MLVA type 3-16-9-11-523 was identified in 19 of 26 case stool specimens. Most cases (12/14) consumed bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Five cases identified a common bakery exposure. Environmental and food samples from the bakery isolated STm with an identical MLVA pattern. An STm cluster in SWS was investigated and found to be linked to Vietnamese bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Confirmation of a distinct MLVA pattern among STm isolates from clinical, food and environmental samples provided evidence to establish an epidemiological link between the cases and the implicated premises and informed public health action to contain the outbreak.

  17. Is Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom

    2016-03-31

    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia.Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel.Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery.Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the training

  18. Wind erosion and soil carbon dynamics in south-western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, R. J.; Gilkes, R. J.; Hill, M. J.; Carter, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of wind erosion and its affect on soil organic carbon content was assessed in a dryland farming system near Jerramungup, Western Australia, using remote sensing, ground observations and soil analysis. Relationships were found between the patterns of wind erosion, past geomorphic processes and an array of soil attributes. These associations can be used to identify those soils that are most susceptible to erosion and thus soil carbon loss. Despite strong evidence of relict aeolian activity associated with a previous more arid climate, the incidence of contemporary wind erosion was only partly related to past geomorphological processes. Quartzose dune sands were particularly susceptible to erosion (47% of total area eroded), whereas texture contrast soils formed on clayey, wind-formed lunettes (16%) and deeply weathered regolith were less eroded (34%). Soils formed on stripped regolith and on loamy surfaced lunettes and swales were not eroded. Wind erosion was strongly related to soil particle size distribution and surface horizon depth, only occurring on sandy surfaced soils, with <5% clay and <3% silt and >50 cm deep. The incidence of erosion markedly increased with small decreases in clay and silt contents below these thresholds. Wind erosion resulted in the loss of ˜3% of the total stock of carbon to 1 m depth or 3.6 t C ha -1 for the eroded soils. The consideration of wind erosion induced carbon loss, both from the standpoint of sustaining farmland productivity and also in producing accurate national carbon accounts, at both the project and national scales, requires resolution.

  19. Late Cambrian palaeomagnetic data from the Cupala Creek Formation, western New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vérard, Christian

    2012-08-01

    The Tasmanides of south-eastern Australia comprises the Delamerian Orogen, considered to be stable relative to the craton of Gondwana since the mid Cambrian, despite the presence of the Grasmere Knee Zone, a change of structural trends in the Broken Hill area. A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out on the Late Cambrian red sandstones of the Cupala Creek Formation, a post-Delamerian formation gently folded in the latest Ordovician-Early Silurian and/or Early Devonian. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements show that internal strain is negligible and low Königsberger ratios indicate that lightning effects can be discarded. The magnetisation observed is complex with four components, which are sometimes difficult to isolate clearly. The orientation of the first component corresponds to the present-day field and appears to be associated with weathering effects. The second component (~185°-350°C) is of reverse polarity relative to the third (350°-575°C). These two components are interpreted to represent a chemical remagnetisation, which lasted long enough to record a reversal as the reversal test is positive and classified C. The overprint must be Early Palaeozoic in age. The last component is carried by haematite and/or maghaemite and is believed to be primary, which is supported by the positive `pseudo-unconformity' test with the underlying Early-Middle Cambrian Teltawongee beds, and by the good correspondence of the pole [PLong. 351.3°/PLat.+33.9° (dp=3.6° dm=6.0°) African coordinates] with other poles of the same age for Gondwana. Despite the presence of the Grasmere Knee Zone, these results imply that this area of the Delamerian Orogen did not record any movement or rotation since the Late Cambrian and can be considered as part of the craton of Gondwana.

  20. A new species of Dermoergasilus Ho & Do, 1982 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) from freshwater fishes in the south-west of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Marina; Jones, Brian; Lymbery, Alan J

    2009-10-01

    A new species of Dermoergasilus Ho & Do, 1982 is described from freshwater fish hosts in the south west of Western Australia. D. occidentalis n. sp. differs from previously described species in the genus principally by the armature of the legs. The new species was found on the gills of the freshwater cobbler Tandanus bostocki Whitely and western minnow Galaxias occidentalis Ogilby in two different river systems.

  1. Hydrological challenges to groundwater trading: Lessons from south-west Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skurray, James H.; Roberts, E. J.; Pannell, David J.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryPerth, Western Australia (pop. 1.6 m) derives 60% of its public water supply from the Gnangara groundwater system (GGS). Horticulture, domestic self-supply, and municipal parks are other major consumers of GGS groundwater. The system supports important wetlands and groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Underlying approximately 2200 km 2 of the Swan Coastal Plain, the GGS comprises several aquifer levels with partial interconnectivity. Supplies of GGS groundwater are under unprecedented stress, due to reduced recharge and increases in extraction. Stored reserves in the superficial aquifer fell by 700 GL between 1979 and 2008. Over a similar period, annual extraction for public supply increased by more than 350% from the system overall. Some management areas are over-allocated by as much as 69%. One potential policy response is a trading scheme for groundwater use. There has been only limited trading between GGS irrigators. Design and implementation of a robust groundwater trading scheme faces hydrological and/or hydro-economic challenges, among others. Groundwater trading involves transfers of the right to extract water. The resulting potential for spatial (and temporal) redistribution of the impacts of extraction requires management. Impacts at the respective selling and buying locations may differ in scale and nature. Negative externalities from groundwater trading may be uncertain as well as not monetarily compensable. An ideal groundwater trading scheme would ensure that marginal costs from trades do not exceed marginal benefits, incorporating future effects and impacts on third-parties. If this condition could be met, all transactions would result in constant or improved overall welfare. This paper examines issues that could reduce public welfare if groundwater trading is not subject to well-designed governance arrangements that are appropriate to meeting the above condition. It also outlines some opportunities to address key risks within the design of a

  2. Gestational diabetes in a rural, regional centre in south Western Australia: predictors of risk.

    PubMed

    Kirke, Andrew B; Evans, Sharon F; Walters, Barry N J

    2014-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common antenatal complication in Western Australia. Rural areas may be at greater risk due to poorer socioeconomic status, reduced healthcare access, increased obesity and greater Aboriginal population. This paper reviews the prevalence and risk factors of GDM and outcomes for pregnancies in a regional rural centre, with a view to predicting the risk of GDM in this population, given factors identified early in the pregnancy. Retrospective logistic regression analysis of all deliveries at Bunbury Regional Hospital (BRH) from February 2009 to March 2011 was used to produce a risk score for development of GDM. Of 1645 women delivered at BRH in the study period, nine had pre-existing diabetes and were excluded. A further 73 (4.46%) developed GDM in the current pregnancy. Logistic regression showed GDM to be strongly associated with maternal obesity (adjusted odds ratio 2.48; 95% CI 1.62-3.82), age (2.21; 1.57-3.09) lowest socioeconomic quintile (2.34; 1.23-4.22) and Asian ethnicity (3.47; 1.25-8.26). A cut-off value of 0.4 for the scoring system predicted the absence of GDM in 97.75% of women with a sensitivity of 69.9% and a predicted risk of 20.7% for GDM. Maternal outcomes showed that GDM was associated with an increased caesarean section rate (48.0% vs 30.8%; p=0.0066), lower spontaneous vaginal birth rate (37.7% vs 56.6%; p=0.048), postpartum haemorrhage (28.8% vs 17.7%; p=0.028) and longer median hospital stay (3 vs 2 days; p=0.0001). Neonatal outcomes showed a threefold increase in shoulder dystocia (10.5% vs 3.5%; p=0.025). These results confirm the known association of GDM with age; obesity, lower socioeconomic quintile and Asian ethnicity are also present in the rural population. The absence of association with Aboriginal ethnicity was not expected and is discussed.

  3. Using multiple trait associations to define hydraulic functional types in plant communities of south-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patrick J; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Burgess, Stephen S O

    2008-12-01

    Assessing the hydrological imbalance and associated land degradation issues facing much of southern Australia and other parts of the world requires a better understanding of the defining features of ecosystem water use and the design of sustainable agroecosystems. Thus, by grouping species with similar water-use strategies into 'hydraulic functional types' (HFTs), we investigated the characteristics of water use in species-rich plant communities of south-western Australia. HFTs were determined using multiple-trait associations between morphological and physiological traits relating to water transport, water-use efficiency and response to water deficit. Sixteen traits were assessed from a subset of 21 species from three plant communities located along a topographically determined soil- and water-availability gradient. Multivariate analyses showed that trait variation was least at sites with shallower soils and putatively lower water availability, suggesting a convergence of water-use strategies at sites where plants are exposed to large seasonal water deficits. Stem hydraulic parameters, including stem-specific hydraulic conductivity, conduit diameter and maximum percentage embolism, were positively correlated, indicating the generality that larger conduit diameter permits greater hydraulic efficiency and is associated with greater seasonal reductions in hydraulic conductivity in this ecosystem. Wood density was not correlated with these traits, but closely associated with species' ability to withstand more negative water potentials during summer. Long-term integrated water-use efficiency was lower in shallow-rooted species that exhibited more negative summer water potentials. Specific leaf area and minimum leaf water potential were correlated with a number of separate traits, and appear to represent key axes of trait variation that describe the water-use strategies of different HFTs along the topographic gradient. Five HFTs were classified using a resemblance

  4. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C.; Stewart, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective. PMID:27121212

  5. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C; Stewart, Barbara A

    2016-04-28

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  6. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C.; Stewart, Barbara A.

    2016-04-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  7. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-12-10

    STS035-81-040 (2-10 Dec 1990) --- Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  8. Germination of seven exotic weeds and seven native speciesin south-western Australia under steady and fluctuating water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Fernández, María A.; Lamont, Byron B.; Marwick, Anjanette L.; Lamont, Wesley G.

    2000-12-01

    The germination of seven common weeds and seven species native to south-western Australia was studied at three sites where they co-occur and in the laboratory. Under field conditions, final germination of the exotic species was much higher than that of the native species, and the number of days to reach 50 % final germination was lower. For some of the germination period, soil moisture was lower than expected after 48 h without rain, with one dry period lasting 10 d. Overall, germination rose with increasing wetness of the three sites, especially among the weeds. Most exotic species germinated under laboratory conditions needed less than 10 d to reach 50 % of final germination which was further delayed by 2 d when seeds were removed from their moist substrate and allowed to dry out (air-drying) for 48 h. Most native species took 10-35 d, with a mean delay of 7 d after 48 h of air-drying. Total germination of the weeds was close to 100 % and was little affected by periods of air-drying. Germination of the native species was more variable and greatly reduced by air-drying in two species. We conclude that water availability as it varies through time and space is significant in controlling germination even during the wet season. The quicker and greater responses of weed seeds to moisture may contribute toward the superior ability of weeds to colonise disturbed habitats. Differences in life form, seed size, flatness, presence of appendages, and ability to absorb or retain water only partially explain these results.

  9. Hydrological impact of two intensities of timber harvest and associated silviculture in the jarrah forest in south-western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinal, J.; Stoneman, G. L.

    2011-03-01

    SummaryThe hydrological impact of two different intensities of timber harvest and associated silviculture, one standard and the other more intensive, was investigated using a paired-catchment study in jarrah forest in south-western Australia. This study was undertaken during a period when average annual rainfall was below the long-term average and deep groundwater levels were declining. Following treatment, recharge increased and slowed the decline in deep groundwater levels in proportion to the magnitude of the initial reduction in vegetation density. However, neither treatment was sufficiently intense to reverse the continued decline in groundwater levels over the course of the study. Annual stream salinity did not increase in response to either treatment because saline deep groundwater did not rise following the treatments. Annual streamflow did not increase in either catchment for three reasons. Firstly, there was little additional net precipitation to the intermittent shallow perched groundwater system in the streamzone because the area remained untreated. Secondly, there was minimal additional throughflow to the perched groundwater system in the streamzone from upslope areas because the increased net precipitation in hillslope areas following treatment was used in replenishing the progressively increasing soil moisture deficit. Thirdly, because groundwater levels did not rise and hence there was little prospect for an increased discharge of saline groundwater or of an expanded deep groundwater discharge zone. This study has demonstrated that the measures that were implemented to timber harvest and silvicultural methods to reduce the magnitude of the groundwater response and hence the risk of a transient increase in stream salinity are effective. If annual rainfall remains relatively low and deep groundwater levels remain at current levels or decline further, then the risk of an increase in stream salinity from either the standard or the more intensive harvest

  10. The carbon budget of Pinus radiata plantations in south-western Australia under four climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Simioni, Guillaume; Ritson, Peter; Kirschbaum, Miko U F; McGrath, John; Dumbrell, Ian; Copeland, Beth

    2009-09-01

    We conducted a comprehensive modelling study to estimate future stem wood production and net ecosystem production (NEP) of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in south-western Australia, a region that is predicted to undergo severe rainfall reduction in future decades. The process-based model CenW was applied to four locations where it had previously been tested. Climate change scenarios under four emission scenarios for the period from 2005 to 2066 were considered, in addition to simulations under the current climate. Results showed that stem wood production and NEP were little affected by moderate climate change. However, under the most pessimistic climate change scenario (Special Report on Emission Scenarios A2), stem wood production and NEP decreased strongly. These results could be explained by the trade-off between the positive effect of rising atmospheric CO(2) on plant water use efficiency and the negative effects of decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures. Because changes in heterotrophic respiration (R(H)) lagged behind changes in plant growth, and because R(H) rates were increased by higher temperatures, NEP was more negatively affected than stem wood production. Stem wood production and NEP also strongly interacted with location, with the site currently having the wettest climate being least affected by climatic change. These results suggest that realistic predictions of forest production and carbon sequestration potential in the context of climate change require (1) the use of modelling tools that describe the important feedbacks between environmental variables, plant physiology and soil organic matter decomposition, (2) consideration of a range of climate change scenarios and (3) simulations that account for a gradual climate change to capture transient effects.

  11. Impacts of land use and climate change on baseflow in catchments along the south coast of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smettem, Keith; Underwood, Stacey; Callow, Nik

    2014-05-01

    Baseflow is the sum of deep subsurface flow and delayed shallow subsurface flow. It sustains river flow between precipitation events and represents the groundwater recession component of runoff. Understanding how baseflow is influenced by climate and land use is critical for managing both water resources and in-stream ecohydrological health. This study investigates the influences of climate and land cover change on baseflow across the major south coast rivers in Western Australia using long-term records of runoff, rainfall and land cover. Baseflow was partitioned from daily streamflow data using a baseflow separation algorithm and land cover changes were derived from Landsat satellite imagery using ArcGIS. Statistical techniques were then applied to test for randomness in the baseflow time series (median crossing test and rank difference test) and to detect any step changes (Distribution free CUMSUM test to determine year of step change and Rank Sum test for significant change in medians before and after change). Linear regression was also used to identify significant long term trends. Results show that in forested catchments baseflow has been significantly declining over the entire period of record, despite relatively steady rainfall since the mid-1970s. In many of the catchments significant downward step change points were detected in 1975 and 2000. Conversely, annual baseflow steadily increased in catchments cleared in the middle of the last century but there are now significant reversals in three catchments that have undergone substantial revegetation over the last thirty five years. The statistical methods used in this study can be applied to any catchment in order to aid land and water managers assess the impacts of climate change and land cover manipulation on baseflow response.

  12. Akaganéite (β-FeOOH) precipitation in inland acid sulfate soils of south-western New South Wales (NSW), Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibi, Irshad; Singh, Balwant; Silvester, Ewen

    2011-11-01

    The prevalence of sulphidic sediments in inland wetlands has been only recently recognized in many parts of the world, including Australia. The exposure of sulphidic sediments in these wetlands due to natural and human induced drying events has resulted in the oxidation of iron sulfide minerals, the formation of secondary iron minerals characteristic of acid sulfate soils and the release of highly acidic solutions. The objective of this study was to determine the mineralogy and morphology of sediments collected from the oxidized surface horizon (0-5 cm) of an inland acid sulfate soil located in south-western New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Random powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) techniques were used to characterize the minerals present in these sediments. Akaganéite was identified as the major mineral phase in the sediments; K-jarosite was also determined in small amounts in some sediments. The XRD patterns of sequentially washed (E-pure® water-0.01 M HCl-0.01 M EDTA) sediment samples showed all akaganéite peaks; the Rietveld refinement of these patterns also revealed a predominance of akaganéite. The chemical analyses of the original and washed sediments using STEM-EDS clearly showed the presence of akaganéite as a pure mineral phase with an average Fe/Cl mole ratio of 6.7 and a structural formula of Fe 8O 8(OH) 6.8(Cl) 1.2. These findings show that the extreme saline-acidic solutions (pH ˜ 2, EC = 216 dS/m) at the Bottle Bend lagoon provide ideal conditions for the crystallization of this rarely forming mineral.

  13. Fleximode: Within Western Australia TAFE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Dorothy

    After fleximode was introduced into the Western Australian TAFE system, its cost and effectiveness compared with traditional delivery systems were evaluated. Fleximode, as practiced in Australia, was adapted from a mode of study pioneered in England. It offered students the independence of off-campus study in combination with access to college…

  14. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  15. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  16. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-04-29

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  17. Is Drosera meristocaulis a pygmy sundew? Evidence of a long-distance dispersal between Western Australia and northern South America

    PubMed Central

    Rivadavia, F.; de Miranda, V. F. O.; Hoogenstrijd, G.; Pinheiro, F.; Heubl, G.; Fleischmann, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims South America and Oceania possess numerous floristic similarities, often confirmed by morphological and molecular data. The carnivorous Drosera meristocaulis (Droseraceae), endemic to the Neblina highlands of northern South America, was known to share morphological characters with the pygmy sundews of Drosera sect. Bryastrum, which are endemic to Australia and New Zealand. The inclusion of D. meristocaulis in a molecular phylogenetic analysis may clarify its systematic position and offer an opportunity to investigate character evolution in Droseraceae and phylogeographic patterns between South America and Oceania. Methods Drosera meristocaulis was included in a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Droseraceae, using nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid rbcL and rps16 sequence data. Pollen of D. meristocaulis was studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques, and the karyotype was inferred from root tip meristem. Key Results The phylogenetic inferences (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches) substantiate with high statistical support the inclusion of sect. Meristocaulis and its single species, D. meristocaulis, within the Australian Drosera clade, sister to a group comprising species of sect. Bryastrum. A chromosome number of 2n = approx. 32–36 supports the phylogenetic position within the Australian clade. The undivided styles, conspicuous large setuous stipules, a cryptocotylar (hypogaeous) germination pattern and pollen tetrads with aperture of intermediate type 7–8 are key morphological traits shared between D. meristocaulis and pygmy sundews of sect. Bryastrum from Australia and New Zealand. Conclusions The multidisciplinary approach adopted in this study (using morphological, palynological, cytotaxonomic and molecular phylogenetic data) enabled us to elucidate the relationships of the thus far unplaced taxon D. meristocaulis. Long-distance dispersal between southwestern

  18. Modelling subsurface flow conditions in a salinized catchment in south-western Australia, with a view to improving management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, W. J.; George, R. J.; McFarlane, D. J.

    1999-12-01

    Finite element modelling of the saturated-unsaturated surface-subsurface flow mechanisms operative in a small salinized catchment in south-western Australia was used to help define the flow system and explain the causes of waterlogging and salinization there. Data available at the site from a previous study were used to obtain a first approximation to the flow system. Altering the properties of some of the strata gave a closer calibration. It was found that the modelled saturated hydraulic conductivity of the B horizon in the duplex soil zone needed to be at least an order of magnitude lower than that measured in order to reproduce the perching conditions observed in the field. Also, the model indicated the influence of a doleritic dyke, whose presence was confirmed by field measurement.Our analysis showed that there were two main flow systems operating in the hillslope. The first, and most dominant, was the recharge occurring through the upslope gradational soil zone and percolating down to both the deeply weathered regolith and the basal aquifer. The second flow system is an unsaturated flow system operating in the high permeability A horizon in the downslope duplex soil zone. The first system is primarily responsible for the saline seepage zone in the valley bottom. The second contributes to the waterlogging and perching occurring upslope of the seepage zone.Vertical flow through the higher permeability B horizon in the gradational soil zone in the upper slopes is a major contributor of recharge. Recharge by flow through macropores occurs where, but only where, perched aquifers develop and allow the macropores to be activated. Areas with perched aquifers occurred in downslope locations and near a doleritic dyke located upslope. Thus, the area where macropore recharge occurred was not large.The recharge rate required to maintain the piezometric levels at present values is only about 30 mm/yr (about 5% of the annual rainfall). The piezometric levels under the

  19. Platform margins, reef facies, and microbial carbonates; a comparison of Devonian reef complexes in the Canning Basin, Western Australia, and the Guilin region, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian-Wei; Webb, Gregory E.; Jell, John S.

    2008-05-01

    Devonian reef complexes were well developed in Western Australia and South China, but no detailed direct comparison has been made between reef building in the two regions. The regions differ in several respects, including tectonic, stratigraphic and palaeoceanographic-palaeogeographic settings, and the reef building styles reflect minor differences in reef builders and reef facies. Similarities and differences between the two reef complexes provide insights into the characteristics of platform margins, reef facies and microbial carbonates of both regions. Here we present a comparison of platform margin types from different stratigraphic positions in the Late Devonian reef complex of the Canning Basin, Western Australia and Middle and Late Devonian margin to marginal slope successions in Guilin, South China. Comparisons are integrated into a review of the reefal stratigraphy of both regions. Reef facies, reef complex architecture, temporal reef builder associations, 2nd order stratigraphy and platform cyclicity in the two regions were generally similar where the successions overlap temporally. However, carbonate deposition began earlier in South China. Carbonate complexes were also more widespread in South China and represent a thicker succession overall. Platforms in the Canning Basin grew directly on Precambrian crystalline basement or early Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks, but in South China, carbonate complexes developed conformably on older Devonian siliciclastic strata. Pre-Frasnian reef facies in South China had more abundant skeletal frameworks than in Canning Basin reefs of equivalent age, and Famennian shoaling margins containing various microbial reefs may have been more common and probably more diverse in South China. However, Late Devonian platform margin types have been documented more completely in the Canning Basin. Deep intra-platform troughs (deep depressions containing non-carbonate pelagic sediments — Nandan-type successions) that developed along

  20. The experiences of female spouses of survivors of acute myocardial infarction: a pilot study of Lebanese-born women in south-western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Daly, J; Jackson, D; Davidson, P M; Wade, V; Chin, C; Brimelow, V

    1998-12-01

    Lebanese migrants form a significant proportion of the population in southwestern Sydney (SWS), and in New South Wales, Australia. This pilot study was undertaken in south-western Sydney, a rapidly expanding and socioeconomically disadvantaged region, to explore the experiences of English speaking women of Lebanese origin whose spouses had recently experienced an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven Lebanese-born women at 2- and 4-week intervals, following the discharge of their husbands from hospital. Qualitative analysis of narrative text revealed four distinct themes. These were: struggle to resolve distress; intensive monitoring of the AMI survivor; searching for avenues of support; and reflecting on the future. Study findings are discussed in relation to the literature. Implications for nursing practice and research are drawn from study findings.

  1. A retrospective survey of the safety of trivalent influenza vaccine among adults working in healthcare settings in south metropolitan Perth, Western Australia, in 2010.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Suzanne P

    2012-04-05

    In Australia, annual vaccination with trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) is recommended for healthcare providers. Each year, an influenza vaccination program is run in south metropolitan area hospitals in Perth, Western Australia. In 2010, a survey to examine side effects following vaccination and subsequent significant respiratory illnesses during the influenza season was undertaken. A total of 2245 individuals vaccinated in the area-wide hospital vaccination program responded, representing 50% of consenting recipients. Data linkage was performed to ascertain additional information such as brand details. Side effects within 48 h of receipt of the influenza vaccine were reported by 387 (17.2%). Only 30 respondents (1.3%) had to seek health advice following a side effect temporally related to influenza vaccination and 10 (0.4%) required treatment. Recipients who received Fluvax®(364, 18.0%; CSL Biotherapies) were more likely to report side effects than those who received another brand (23, 10.2%; OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.24-3.03, P=0.004). The difference in the side effect profiles was largely confined to systemic effects. Most respondents (1621, 72.2%) did not require time off work for a respiratory illness during the subsequent influenza season. Overall, the influenza vaccine was demonstrated to be safe among this large sample of predominantly healthcare workers. A higher rate of adverse events, albeit primarily mild, was reported among recipients of Fluvax® in 2010.

  2. Immigrant maternal depression and social networks. A multilevel Bayesian spatial logistic regression in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A; Phung, Hai N; Barnett, Bryanne E W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose is to explore the multilevel spatial distribution of depressive symptoms among migrant mothers in South Western Sydney and to identify any group level associations that could inform subsequent theory building and local public health interventions. Migrant mothers (n=7256) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2-3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) of >9 and >12. Individual level variables included were: financial income, self-reported maternal health, social support network, emotional support, practical support, baby trouble sleeping, baby demanding and baby not content. The group level variable reported here is aggregated social support networks. We used Bayesian hierarchical multilevel spatial modelling with conditional autoregression. Migrant mothers were at higher risk of having depressive symptoms if they lived in a community with predominantly Australian-born mothers and strong social capital as measured by aggregated social networks. These findings suggest that migrant mothers are socially isolated and current home visiting services should be strengthened for migrant mothers living in communities where they may have poor social networks.

  3. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  4. Tropical Cyclone Monty Strikes Western Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-03

    NASA Terra spacecraft acquired these natural color images and cloud top height measurements for Monty before and after the storm made landfall over the remote Pilbara region of Western Australia, on February 29 and March 2, 2004.

  5. Organochlorine pesticides in soil under irrigated cotton farming systems in Vertisols of the Namoi Valley, north-western New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Timothy B; Ghadiri, Hossein; Hulugalle, Nilantha R; Harden, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as DDT and DDE have been detected in the surface 0.2m of Vertisols in the lower Namoi Valley of north western New South Wales, Australia even though they have not been applied to crops since 1982. However, their presence in the deeper soil horizons has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if OCPs were present to a depth of 1.2m in Vertisols under irrigated cotton farming systems in the lower Namoi Valley of New South Wales. Soil was sampled from the 0-1.2m depths in three sites, viz. the Australian Cotton Research Institute, ACRI, near Narrabri (149°36'E, 30°12'S), and two cotton farms near Wee Waa (149°27'E, 30°13'S) and Merah North (149°18'E, 30°12'S) in northern New South Wales, Australia. The OCPs detected and their metabolites were α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate, DDD, DDE, DDT and endrin. The metabolite DDE, a breakdown product of DDT, was the most persistent OCP in all depths analysed. Endosulfan sulphate was the second most persistent followed by endrin>α-endosulfan>β-endosulfan>DDT and DDD. DDT was sprayed extensively in the lower Namoi Valley up to the early 1980s and may explain the persistence of DDE in the majority of soil samples. Dicofol and Dieldrin, two OCPs previously undocumented in Vertisols were also detected. The movement of OCPs into the subsoil of Vertisols may occur when irrigation or rain transports soil colloids and organic matter via preferential flow systems into the deeper layers of a soil profile. Persistence of OCPs was closely correlated to soil organic carbon concentrations. The persistence in soil of OCP's applied to cotton crops grown more than two decades ago suggests that they could enter the food chain. Their presence at depths of 1.2m suggests that they could move into groundwater that may eventually be used for domestic and stock consumption. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of

  7. Floristic patterns and disturbance history in karri ( Eucalyptus diversicolor: Myrtaceae) forest, south-western Australia: 2. Origin, growth form and fire response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell-Johnson, Grant W.; Williams, M. R.; Mellican, A. E.; Annells, A.

    2007-03-01

    We examined the influence of disturbance history on the floristic composition of a single community type in karri forest, south-western Australia. Cover-abundance of 224 plant species and six disturbance and site-based environmental variables were recorded in 91, 20 m × 20 m quadrats. Numerical taxonomic and correlation approaches were used to relate these and 10 plant species-group variables based on origin, growth form and fire response. Ordination revealed no discernable pattern of sites based on floristic composition. However, all 10 species-group variables were significantly correlated with the ordination axes. Species richness within these groups varied with category and with respect to many of the disturbance and site variables. We encountered low diversity of vascular plants at the community level and limited diversity of growth forms. Thus most species were herbs (62.1%) or shrubs (30.3%), and there were no epiphytes and few species of trees or climbers. Although many introduced species were recorded (18.3% of all taxa), virtually all (83%) were herbs that demonstrated little persistence in the community, and there was limited evidence of transformer species. Time-since-fire (and other disturbance) influenced species richness more than the number of recent past fires because of a high proportion of ephemerals associated with the immediate post-fire period. Long-lived shrubs with soil stored seed dominate numerically, and in understorey biomass in comparison with neighboring vegetation types because of their greater flexibility of response following irregular, but intense disturbance events. However, interactions between nutrient status, regeneration mechanisms and community composition may be worthy of further investigation.

  8. Tropical Cyclone Monty Strikes Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired these natural color images and cloud top height measurements for Monty before and after the storm made landfall over the remote Pilbara region of Western Australia, on February 29 and March 2, 2004 (shown as the left and right-hand image sets, respectively). On February 29, Monty was upgraded to category 4 cyclone status. After traveling inland about 300 kilometers to the south, the cyclonic circulation had decayed considerably, although category 3 force winds were reported on the ground. Some parts of the drought-affected Pilbara region received more than 300 millimeters of rainfall, and serious and extensive flooding has occurred.

    The natural color images cover much of the same area, although the right-hand panels are offset slightly to the east. Automated stereoscopic processing of data from multiple MISR cameras was utilized to produce the cloud-top height fields. The distinctive spatial patterns of the clouds provide the necessary contrast to enable automated feature matching between images acquired at different view angles. The height retrievals are at this stage uncorrected for the effects of the high winds associated with cyclone rotation. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 22335 and 22364. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 985 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 105 to 111 within World Reference System-2 paths 115 and 113.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the

  9. Teaching Near and Far - Broome, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Herceg, Christina; Renouf, Tia

    2016-11-09

    Broome is a remote coastal town in Western Australia. As a general practitioner working in Broome, I have been involved in the education of general practice trainee registrars both locally and remotely, as a supervisor with two different training programs.

  10. Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-12-10

    STS035-501-007 (2-10 Dec. 1990) --- The STS-35 crewmembers aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia photographed this view of the Arid Simpson Desert of Australia with a handheld Rolleiflex camera. Lake Eyre is normally dry; however, the STS-35 crew was able to recognize water in the lowest parts of the lake (dark pink area) and possibly in Lake Blanche east of Lake Eyre. Lake Frome lies in the distance separated from Lake Torrens (top right) by dark hills of Flinders Range. The Finke River (bottom left to middle) flows into the Eyre basin from the northwest. Although it is the largest river entering the basin, Finke's floods seldom reach Lake Eyre. The dark brown patch in the foreground is an area of ancient, brown lateritic soils partly covered by dunes.

  11. A climate change context for the decline of a foundation tree species in south-western Australia: insights from phylogeography and species distribution modelling.

    PubMed

    Dalmaris, Eleftheria; Ramalho, Cristina E; Poot, Pieter; Veneklaas, Erik J; Byrne, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    A worldwide increase in tree decline and mortality has been linked to climate change and, where these represent foundation species, this can have important implications for ecosystem functions. This study tests a combined approach of phylogeographic analysis and species distribution modelling to provide a climate change context for an observed decline in crown health and an increase in mortality in Eucalyptus wandoo, an endemic tree of south-western Australia. Phylogeographic analyses were undertaken using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of chloroplast DNA in 26 populations across the species distribution. Parsimony analysis of haplotype relationships was conducted, a haplotype network was prepared, and haplotype and nucleotide diversity were calculated. Species distribution modelling was undertaken using Maxent models based on extant species occurrences and projected to climate models of the last glacial maximum (LGM). A structured pattern of diversity was identified, with the presence of two groups that followed a climatic gradient from mesic to semi-arid regions. Most populations were represented by a single haplotype, but many haplotypes were shared among populations, with some having widespread distributions. A putative refugial area with high haplotype diversity was identified at the centre of the species distribution. Species distribution modelling showed high climatic suitability at the LGM and high climatic stability in the central region where higher genetic diversity was found, and low suitability elsewhere, consistent with a pattern of range contraction. Combination of phylogeography and paleo-distribution modelling can provide an evolutionary context for climate-driven tree decline, as both can be used to cross-validate evidence for refugia and contraction under harsh climatic conditions. This approach identified a central refugial area in the test species E. wandoo, with more recent expansion into peripheral areas from where it had

  12. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Glikson, a probable impact structure, western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, E. M.; Schoemaker, C. S.

    1997-03-01

    The Glikson structural anomaly in western Australia is associated with a complex ring magnetic anomaly about 16 km in diameter. It is composed of many smaller anomalies arranged roughly like beads on a necklace. On the basis of reconnaissance observations, the ring anomaly evidently is more or less coincident with the ring structural depression. It is suggested that the magnetic anomaly is due to the presence of dolerite intruded along the axis of the ring structural depression.

  14. Smoke Blankets New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-01-09

    Australia largest city of Sydney was clouded with smoke when more than 70 wildfires raged across the state of New South Wales when NASA Terra satellite captured this image the morning of December 30, 2001.

  15. STS-56 Earth observation of Perth in Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is probably the best view of Perth in Western Australia. (For orientation purposes, note that the coastline runs north and south). The major feature on the coast is the large estuary of the Swan River. The large port city of Perth is situated on the north bank and the smaller city of Freemantle on the south bank by the sea. Smaller seaside towns trail off north and south of this center of urban life. Inland lies a prominent escarpment, more than 600 feet high, seen running down the middle of the view and dividing the lighter-colored coastal lowlands from the highlands where dark-colored tree savanna and desert scrub dominates the land. The Moore River can be seen entering the sea at the top of the frame. Rottnest Island is visible in the sea and Garden Island near bottom edge of the frame. Perth is the largest economic center in Western Australia. It receives natural gas from an offshore field hundreds of miles

  16. STS-56 Earth observation of Perth in Western Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-04-17

    STS-56 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is probably the best view of Perth in Western Australia. (For orientation purposes, note that the coastline runs north and south). The major feature on the coast is the large estuary of the Swan River. The large port city of Perth is situated on the north bank and the smaller city of Freemantle on the south bank by the sea. Smaller seaside towns trail off north and south of this center of urban life. Inland lies a prominent escarpment, more than 600 feet high, seen running down the middle of the view and dividing the lighter-colored coastal lowlands from the highlands where dark-colored tree savanna and desert scrub dominates the land. The Moore River can be seen entering the sea at the top of the frame. Rottnest Island is visible in the sea and Garden Island near bottom edge of the frame. Perth is the largest economic center in Western Australia. It receives natural gas from an offshore field hundreds of miles to the north. It lies 3,400 kilometers west of Sydney on the opposite side of this island continent.

  17. Progress on smoking control in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Musk, A W; Shean, R; Walker, N; Swanson, M

    1994-02-05

    In 1990, 20 years of campaigning by the Western Australian branch of the Australian Council on Smoking and Health succeeded in getting tobacco advertising banned in Western Australia and a fund set up to replace the sponsorship of sport by tobacco companies. The council coordinated the activities of the mainly professional medical organisations that formed its members, ensuring that messages about the dangers of tobacco were consistently presented from different angles. The campaigners also ensured that medical data were reworked for presentation to decision makers and public, invaded the corporate world, and minimised opposition by enlisting the support of sportspeople opposed to tobacco sponsorship. The council hopes now that elimination of advertising will reduce the prevalence of smoking.

  18. Progress on smoking control in Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A. W.; Shean, R.; Walker, N.; Swanson, M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, 20 years of campaigning by the Western Australian branch of the Australian Council on Smoking and Health succeeded in getting tobacco advertising banned in Western Australia and a fund set up to replace the sponsorship of sport by tobacco companies. The council coordinated the activities of the mainly professional medical organisations that formed its members, ensuring that messages about the dangers of tobacco were consistently presented from different angles. The campaigners also ensured that medical data were reworked for presentation to decision makers and public, invaded the corporate world, and minimised opposition by enlisting the support of sportspeople opposed to tobacco sponsorship. The council hopes now that elimination of advertising will reduce the prevalence of smoking. Images p395-a p396-a p397-a PMID:8124149

  19. Acute melioidosis outbreak in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Inglis, T J; Garrow, S C; Adams, C; Henderson, M; Mayo, M; Currie, B J

    1999-12-01

    A cluster of acute melioidosis cases occurred in a remote, coastal community in tropical Western Australia. Molecular typing of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates from culture-confirmed cases and suspected environmental sources by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of XbaI chromosomal DNA digests showed that a single PFGE type was responsible for five cases of acute infection in a community of around 300 during a 5 week period. This temporal and geographical clustering of acute melioidosis cases provided a unique opportunity to investigate the environmental factors contributing to this disease. B. pseudomallei isolated from a domestic tap at the home of an asymptomatic seroconverter was indistinguishable by PFGE. Possible contributing environmental factors included an unusually acid communal water supply, unrecordable chlorine levels during the probable exposure period, a nearby earth tremor, and gusting winds during the installation of new water and electricity supplies. The possible role of the potable water supply as a source of B. pseudomallei was investigated further.

  20. Multi-decadal scale variability in autumn-winter rainfall in south-western Australia since 1655 AD as reconstructed from tree rings of Callitris columellaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Louise E.; Grierson, Pauline F.

    2009-08-01

    We present the first tree-ring based reconstruction of rainfall for the Lake Tay region of southern Western Australia. We examined the response of Callitris columellaris to rainfall, the southern oscillation index (SOI), the southern annular mode (SAM) and surface sea temperature (SST) anomalies in the southern Indian Ocean. The 350-year chronology was most strongly correlated with rainfall averaged over the autumn-winter period (March-September; r = -0.70, P < 0.05) and SOI values averaged over June-August ( r = 0.25, P < 0.05). The chronology was not correlated with SAM or SSTs. We reconstructed autumn-winter rainfall back to 1655, where current and previous year tree-ring indices explained 54% of variation in rainfall over the 1902-2005 calibration period. Some variability in rainfall was lost during the reconstruction: variability of actual rainfall (expressed as normalized values) over the calibration period was 0.78, while variability of the normalized reconstructed values over the same period was 0.44. Nevertheless, the reconstruction, combined with spectral analysis, revealed that rainfall naturally varies from relatively dry periods lasting to 20-30 years to 15-year long periods of above average rainfall. This variability in rainfall may reflect low-frequency variation in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation rather than the effect of SAM or SSTs.

  1. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  2. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  3. Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services.

  4. Upper Devonian microvertebrates from the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, Brett; Playton, Ted; Barham, Milo; Trinajstic, Kate

    2015-03-01

    A diverse microvertebrate fauna is described from the Virgin Hills and Napier formations, Bugle Gap Limestone Canning Basin, Western Australia. Measured sections at Horse Spring and Casey Falls (Virgin Hills Formation) and South Oscar Range (Napier Formation) comprise proximal to distal slope carbonates ranging in age from the Late Devonian Frasnian to middle Famennian. A total of 18 chondrichthyan taxa are identified based on teeth, including the first record of Thrinacodus tranquillus, Cladoides wildungensis, Protacrodus serra and Lissodus lusavorichi from the Canning Basin. A new species, Diademodus dominicus sp. nov. is also described and provides the first record of this genus outside of Laurussia. In addition, the upper range of Australolepis seddoni has been extended to Late Devonian conodont Zone 11, making it the youngest known occurrence for this species. The Virgin Hills and Napier formations microvertebrate faunas show close affinities to faunas recovered from other areas of Gondwana, including eastern Australia, Iran, Morocco and South China, which is consistent with known conodont and trilobite faunas of the same age.

  5. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  6. Oral health of schoolchildren in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Arrow, P

    2016-09-01

    The West Australian School Dental Service (SDS) provides free, statewide, primary dental care to schoolchildren aged 5-17 years. This study reports on an evaluation of the oral health of children examined during the 2014 calendar year. Children were sampled, based on their date of birth, and SDS clinicians collected the clinical information. Weighted mean values of caries experience were presented. Negative binomial regression modelling was undertaken to test for factors of significance in the rate of caries occurrence. Data from children aged 5-15 years were used (girls = 4616, boys = 4900). Mean dmft (5-10-year-olds), 1.42 SE 0.03; mean DMFT (6-15-year-olds), 0.51 SE 0.01. Negative binomial regression model of permanent tooth caries found higher rates of caries in children who were from non-fluoridated areas (RR 2.1); Aboriginal (RR 2.4); had gingival inflammation (RR 1.5); lower ICSEA level (RR 1.4); and recalled at more than 24-month interval (RR 1.8). The study highlighted poor dental health associated with living in non-fluoridated areas, Aboriginal identity, poor oral hygiene, lower socioeconomic level and having extended intervals between dental checkups. Timely assessments and preventive measures targeted at groups, including extending community water fluoridation, may assist in further improving the oral health of children in Western Australia. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  7. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Greg R.; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  8. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer in southern Australia is the dry season, and in this true-color MODIS image of South Australia and the Spencer Gulf from October 20,2001, the area's vegetation is losing much of the lushness it possessed in the winter rainy season (See image from September 19, 2001). In southern hemisphere summer, the high pressure systems that dominate the continent's weather move south, and block the rain-bearing westerly winds. The resulting changes in seasonal rainfall are extreme. Many of the rivers are impermanent, and flow into dry or impermanent salt lakes, such as Lake Torrens (long, thin lake bed, roughly in the center of the image), and Lake Eyre (pink and white lake bed to the northwest of Torrens). Between the Eyre Peninsula (lower left) and the Yorke Peninsula further east lies the Spencer Gulf, showing the blue-green swirls that indicate a phytoplankton bloom. Australia gets less rainfall than any continent except Antarctica, and the low and seasonal flows contribute to problems with salinity and algal blooms in the continent's surface waters.

  9. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer in southern Australia is the dry season, and in this true-color MODIS image of South Australia and the Spencer Gulf from October 20,2001, the area's vegetation is losing much of the lushness it possessed in the winter rainy season (See image from September 19, 2001). In southern hemisphere summer, the high pressure systems that dominate the continent's weather move south, and block the rain-bearing westerly winds. The resulting changes in seasonal rainfall are extreme. Many of the rivers are impermanent, and flow into dry or impermanent salt lakes, such as Lake Torrens (long, thin lake bed, roughly in the center of the image), and Lake Eyre (pink and white lake bed to the northwest of Torrens). Between the Eyre Peninsula (lower left) and the Yorke Peninsula further east lies the Spencer Gulf, showing the blue-green swirls that indicate a phytoplankton bloom. Australia gets less rainfall than any continent except Antarctica, and the low and seasonal flows contribute to problems with salinity and algal blooms in the continent's surface waters.

  10. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day-visible and day-IR imagery of northwest Queensland show that large scale geological features like the Mitakoodi anticlinorium, which involves rocks of contrasting lithological type, can be delineated. North of Cloncurry, the contrasting lithological units of the Knapdale quartzite and bedded argillaceous limestones within the Proterozoic Corella sequence are clearly delineated in the area of the Dugald River Lode. Major structural features in the Mount Isa area are revealed on the day-visible cover. Which provides similar but less detailed information than the LANDSAT imagery. The day-IR cover provides less additional information for areas of outcropping bedrock than had been expected. Initial studies of the day-IR and night-IR cover for parts of South Australia suggest that they contain additional information on geology compared with day-visible cover.

  11. Radiogenic heat generation in the Darling Range, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Mike F.

    2013-07-01

    New heat generation measurements for radiogenic granites were made for thirteen localities in the Darling Range, Western Australia. These are integrated with published data to estimate temperatures at depth within radiogenic-granite bodies for this region of the south-western Yilgarn Craton. The heat generation in the radiogenic granites is calculated from the concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium measured in the field. A reliable relationship between total counts from a commercial portable spectrometer and Geiger Müller counter was found for the various granites measured. The relationship Ao = 0.34 + 2.16 CU, with a correlation coefficient of 0.98, was found between uranium (CU in ppm) content and heat generation (Ao in units of µW/m3) for those radiogenic granites measured in the Darling Range, and also for two granites in the Pilbara Craton. Measured heat generation in the Darling Range was found to vary between 4 and 10μW/m3, the maximum of which is higher than previously known heat generation in granites for the Yilgarn Craton. Based on these new data, temperatures between depths of 3000 and 4000 m are modelled to fall between 60 and 110°C, depending on the thickness of the granitic bodies. These results are encouraging for potential low-temperature geothermal developments in this region, which is adjacent to the Perth metropolitan area.

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Western Australian Science Education Association Conference (21st, November 29, 1996, Perth, Western Australia, Australia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackling, Mark W., Ed.

    This proceedings is comprised of the edited papers presented at the 21st meeting of the Western Australian Science Education Association (WASEA). The 26 papers included here relate to many different topics such as proportional reasoning, the state of primary science in Western Australia, faculty culture, concept formation in elementary science,…

  13. “They just scraped off the calluses”: a mixed methods exploration of foot care access and provision for people with rheumatoid arthritis in south-western Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is little indication that foot health services in Australia are meeting modern day recommendations for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. The overall objective of this study was to explore the current state of foot health services for patients with RA with an emphasis on identifying barriers to the receipt of appropriate foot care in South-West Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Methods A mixed (quantitative and qualitative) approach was adopted. Indications for appropriate access to foot care were determined by comparing the foot health, disease and socio-demographic characteristics of patients with unmet foot care demands, foot care users and patients with no demands for foot care. Perceptions of provision of, and access to, foot care were explored by conducting telephone-based interviews using an interpretative phenomenology approach with thematic analysis. Results Twenty-nine participants took part in the cross-sectional quantitative research study design, and 12 participants took part in the interpretative phenomenological approach (qualitative study). Foot care access appeared to be driven predominantly by the presence of rearfoot deformity, which was significantly worse amongst participants in the foot care user group (p = 0.02). Five main themes emerged from the qualitative data: 1) impact of disease-related foot symptoms, 2) footwear difficulties, 3) medical/rheumatology encounters, 4) foot and podiatry care access and experiences, and 5) financial hardship. Conclusions Foot care provision does not appear to be driven by appropriate foot health characteristics such as foot pain or foot-related disability. There may be significant shortfalls in footwear and foot care access and provision in Greater Western Sydney. Several barriers to adequate foot care access and provision were identified and further efforts are required to improve access to and the quality of foot care for people who have RA. Integration of podiatry services within

  14. Education and Change in South Australia. First Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia, Adelaide.

    This publication contains the first report of the Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia, the major task of which is to examine and make recommendations to the Minister of Education on the educational system of South Australia. The committee emphasized that there was no need for radical changes in the educational system at this…

  15. LCT pegmatites from the Wodgina pegmatite district, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Lisa; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone and Mt. Cassiterite open pits are located within the Wodgina pegmatite district, about 130 km south of Port Hedland, Western Australia. The albite-spodumene and albite-type pegmatites of the Wodgina pegmatite district are currently mined for tin, tantalum and niobium. The pegmatites are hosted within the Archean East-Pilbara Granite-Greenstone Terrane linked to the fertile Numbana monzogranite that forms part of the Yule Granitoid Complex. Granitic melt intruded into metasedimentary rocks (~2.8 Ga) and formed a series of pegmatite sheets, dikes and irregular structures. These pegmatites are characterized by a high melt fractionation that led to the formation of pegmatitic minerals, containing high concentrations of rare elements, such as Ta, Nb, Li, Rb and Cs. The pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone sheet open pit, which were investigated within this study, comprises four internal zones consisting of six mineral assemblages, dominated by quartz, albite and white mica, with K-feldspar and spodumene as major or minor constituents. Distribution patterns of cassiterite and Ta-Nb-Sn-oxide minerals (ixiolite/wodginite, tantalite/columbite and microlite) can be observed within the four different pegmatite zones. The contact zones are enriched in cassiterite, ixiolite and microlite; border zones reveal high concentrations of cassiterite, ixiolite and tantalite; the intermediate units are characterized by a moderate enrichment of the ore minerals; whereby core zones host almost no significant contents of the minerals mentioned above. Distribution of Ta-Nb-Sn-oxides within the zones and Mn/(Mn+Fe) and Ta/(Ta+Nb) ratios are indicators for melt fractionation, and change from the core zones to the outermost contact zones, as well as from north to south. Electron microprobe analyses on white mica show the existence of fractionation trends from more primitive white mica of the core zones (zinnwaldite) to higher

  16. Identification of massive sulphide targets using the galvanic source EM signal from a sub-audio magnetic survey at the Far South project, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Card, Daniel; Wallace, Yvonne; Peters, Bill

    2016-07-01

    The Far South project is located 5 km south along strike from the Deep South mine, where gold mineralisation is commonly associated with semi-massive pyrrhotite and pyrite. Data from a sub-audio magnetic (SAM) survey, set up in galvanic configuration, were acquired over the project principally to map stratigraphy and structure using the on-time magnetometric conductivity (MMC) and total magnetic intensity (TMI) responses. The off-time galvanic source electromagnetic (GSEM) data were subsequently extracted from the raw data and four late-time anomalous responses were identified. Two of these responses are strong late-time anomalies up to 350 m in strike length, clearly visible in the 60 ms time gate, and the remaining two are weaker mid-time, subtler and less diagnostic responses. Modelling of the GSEM responses was attempted using conventional electromagnetic (EM) modelling techniques, where certain assumptions had to be made for the survey geometry and current path. The assumed current path has an effect on the coupling of the inducing current with the target, so in order to validate the assumptions and GSEM modelling results, follow-up moving-loop and fixed-loop electromagnetic (MLEM and FLEM) surveys were required. These surveys confirmed well-defined conductive responses over all four follow-up areas. Modelling of the GSEM data over the two strongest anomalies is in good agreement with modelling of the MLEM/FLEM data. Modelling at a third target showed some similarity to results obtained by modelling the follow-up EM survey data, and one target was not defined clearly enough in the GSEM data to allow modelling and had to be modelled solely on the follow-up FLEM data. The results of these efforts confirm the ability to identify and produce a reasonably useful model of strong conductive targets from SAM GSEM data, indicating that the rapid acquisition SAM system is an effective tool for quick reconnaissance in sulphide exploration. Subsequent drilling identified

  17. Coral-associated bacterial communities on Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Ceh, Janja; Van Keulen, Mike; Bourne, David G

    2011-01-01

    Coral-associated microbial communities from three coral species (Pocillopora damicornis, Acropora tenuis and Favites abdita) were examined every 3 months (January, March, June, October) over a period of 1 year on Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Tissue from corals was collected throughout the year and additional sampling of coral mucus and seawater samples was performed in January. Tissue samples were also obtained in October from P. damicornis coral colonies on Rottnest Island off Perth, 1200 km south of Ningaloo Reef, to provide comparisons between coral-microbial associates in different locations. The community structures of the coral-associated microorganisms were analysed using phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, which demonstrated highly diverse microbial profiles among all the coral species sampled. Principal component analysis revealed that samples grouped according to time and not species, indicating that coral-microbial associations may be a result of environmental drivers such as oceanographic characteristics, benthic community structure and temperature. Tissue samples from P. damicornis at Rottnest Island revealed similarities in bacteria to the samples at Ningaloo Reef. This study highlights that coral-associated microbial communities are highly diverse; however, the complex interactions that determine the stability of these associations are not necessarily dependent on coral host specificity.

  18. The spatial segregation patterns of sharks from Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which sharks segregate by size and sex determines the population structure and the scale at which populations should be managed. We summarized 20 years of fisheries-dependent and independent sampling to define the spatial patterns of size and sexual segregation for sharks in Western Australia. Carcharhinus obscurus and C. plumbeus showed a large-scale (more than 1000 km) latitudinal gradient in size. Large individuals occurred predominantly in the northwest and north whereas smaller individuals occurred predominantly in the southwest and south. Mustelus antarcticus and Furgaleus macki showed strong sexual segregation at very large scales. Females occurred predominantly in the west and southwest whereas the proportion of males in catches substantially increased in the southeast. The populations of other shark species did not show sex and size segregation patterns at very large scales; most species, however, showed varying degrees of segregation when data were analysed at a smaller scale. These findings highlight the importance of matching the scale of observation to the scale of the phenomenon observed. As many shark species are highly mobile, if sampling is opportunistic and constrained both temporally and spatially, the observed segregation patterns may not be representative of those at the population level, leading to inaccurate scientific advice. PMID:27853609

  19. Educators' Beliefs about Inclusive Practices in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 43 principals and 230 teachers in western Australia examined 3 aspects of the policy of inclusion of students with disabilities: (1) severity of teacher stress when asked to include a child with a mild intellectual disability; (2) degree of perceived teacher control over placement decisions; and (3) acceptance of the inclusion…

  20. Teaching Near and Far – Broome, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Herceg, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Broome is a remote coastal town in Western Australia. As a general practitioner working in Broome, I have been involved in the education of general practice trainee registrars both locally and remotely, as a supervisor with two different training programs. PMID:27994988

  1. Learning in Two Languages: A Bilingual Program in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt-Pugh, Caroline; Rohl, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Describes a one-year research project in a Western Australia primary school in a low socioeconomic area, which has a Khmer-English bilingual program to develop and extend children's English and Khmer language and literacy. Discusses findings concerning the children's written progress in both languages, and children's perceptions of their identity…

  2. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  3. Climate reconstruction from Barrow Island, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placzek, C.; Coningham, K.; Turner, L.; Veth, P.; Ditchfield, K.; Wurster, C. M.; Kendrick, P.

    2016-12-01

    Barrow Island ( 20.7°S) is ideally situated to register the first coastal occupations in Australia as well as peoples' responses to major changes in sea level, climate and eventual isolation from critical resources on the mainland. Its location in the arid region between monsoonal and extratropical rainfall belts also imply that Barrow Island may have experienced dramatic changes in precipitation over the period of human occupation. Boodie cave has been the focus of Barrow Island Archeological Project and records a rich record of human occupation. Also present at Boodie cave are significant quantities of water-lain cave carbonates (flowstones, stalactites, and stalagmites). Active (modern) deposition of such carbonates is limited to very small encrustations and consists primarily of stalactites that are less than 5 cm in diameter. This situation indicates that deposition of significant carbonates is indicative of wetter conditions at Barrow Island and dating of these carbonates using the U/Th method provides a record of wet intervals at Barrow Island over the last 120 thousand years. In addition to ages from flowstones, three complete speleothems were collected Ledge Cave for climatic reconstruction using stable isotopes. Ledge cave is large subterranean with high relative humidity (>98%) and abundant, but largely inactive speleothems. The wettest interval in our cave carbonate record predates stratigraphic units with cultural material, but indicates that wet intervals on Barrow Island were broadly coincidental with lake expansions on the Australian mainland. In particular, a very wet interval between 120 and 90 ka is recorded in two of the Ledge Cave speleothems. The Barrow Island speleothem record suggests that displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the strength of the Indo-Australian monsoon may have been the most important influence on water balance at Barrow Island. Continued development of these climate archives will offer insights

  4. Fluctuations of Lake Eyre, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. However, this low-lying lake attracts run-off from one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world. The drainage basin is very responsive to rainfall variations, and changes dramatically with Australia's inter-annual weather fluctuations. When Lake Eyre fills,as it did in 1989, it is temporarily Australia's largest lake, and becomes dense with birds, frogs and colorful plant life. The Lake responds to extended dry periods (often associated with El Nino events) by drying completely.

    These four images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer contrast the lake area at the start of the austral summers of 2000 and 2002. The top two panels portray the region as it appeared on December 9, 2000. Heavy rains in the first part of 2000 caused both the north and south sections of the lake to fill partially and the northern part of the lake still contained significant standing water by the time these data were acquired. The bottom panels were captured on November 29, 2002. Rainfall during 2002 was significantly below average ( http://www.bom.gov.au/ ), although showers occurring in the week before the image was acquired helped alleviate this condition slightly.

    The left-hand panels portray the area as it appeared to MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and are false-color views comprised of data from the near-infrared, green and blue channels. Here, wet and/or moist surfaces appear blue-green, since water selectively absorbs longer wavelengths such as near-infrared. The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree forward, nadir and 60-degree backward-viewing cameras, displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In these multi-angle composites, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and indicate textural properties of the surface related to roughness and/or moisture

  5. Cancer incidence in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    McCredie, M; Coates, M; Churches, T; Taylor, R

    1991-01-01

    In 1972, cancer registration began in New South Wales (NSW), the most populous state in Australia. The operations of the Registry are described. By 1990, approximately 316,000 new cases of cancer had been notified from a population that had increased from 4.6 to 5.8 million. In 1981-1984, the most common sites in men were lung, prostate, colon, melanoma and bladder, and in women, breast, melanoma, colon, lung and unknown primary site. Cancers which, between 1973-1976 and 1981-1984, had increased in reported incidence by more than 25% were pharynx and kidney in both sexes, rectum, testis and melanoma in men, and lung and bladder in women; those decreasing by more than 10% were stomach in both sexes, oesophagus in men and cervix in women. Age-standardised incidence rates for melanoma (27.4 [m] and 23.8 [f] per 100,000 in 1987) and cancer of the renal pelvis in women (1.7 per 100,000 in 1989) are among the highest in the world.

  6. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes, it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake.

  7. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, south Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K. )

    1988-02-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake. A third type of dolomite occurs in some Coorong lakes. A basal dolomite, which is more crystalline than the other two forms of dolomite, appears to have formed some 6000 years ago when the rising Pleistocene water table (driven by a transgressing sea) first caused continental ground waters to outcrop and evaporate at the surface.

  8. Environmental correlates of mental health measures for women in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Fearnley, Emily Jane; Magalhães, Ricardo Jorge Soares; Speldewinde, Peter; Weinstein, Philip; Dobson, Annette

    2014-12-01

    A recent study in Western Australia identified area level associations between soil salinisation and hospital admissions for depression. Our study assessed the quantitative relationship between mental health measures at the individual level and location specific environmental measurements on salinity, as well as two other indicators of environmental degradation and change: land surface temperature and normalised difference vegetation index, a proxy for rainfall. Location-specific environmental measurements were linked to individual mental health scores of women in three age cohorts from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using a geographic information system. Bayesian geostatistical linear regression models were developed to assess associations between environmental exposures and mental health scores of women. In contrast to previous studies using area level measures, our study found no associations between individual level measurements of mental health scores for women in south-west Western Australia and salinity, LST or NDVI.

  9. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  10. The Round House Gaol: Western Australia's first lunatic asylum.

    PubMed

    Hudson-Rodd, N; Farrell, G A

    1998-12-01

    This paper is an account of the social history of the Round House Gaol in Fremantle, Western Australia and of those lunatics that were gathered together into its closed geographical space. The first permanent structure, perched on the most elevated and prominent site in Fremantle, was a gaol; the design for which was based on Jeremy Bentham's Panopticon or Inspection House, created for the purpose of surveillance and control of inmates. Visible in 1997, the Round House still stands as a dominant, physical marker of the landscape, ranking as a premier historical tourist attraction in Western Australia. But its actual use as a place for the containment of lunatics is only cursorily alluded to. This paper addresses the previously ignored period of 1830-1850.

  11. New Leucettidae de Laubenfels, 1936 (Porifera, Calcarea) from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Leocorny, Pedro; Alencar, Aline; Fromont, Jane; Klautau, Michelle

    2016-10-17

    This paper reports four new Leucettidae (Porifera, Calcarea) from Western Australia, with two representatives of Leucetta and two of Pericharax: L. foliata sp. nov., L. purpurea sp. nov., Pericharax crypta sp. nov., and P. vallii sp. nov. This is the first time tripods have been described within Pericharax. In addition, one species (L. foliata sp. nov.) has an external morphology not previously reported for Leucetta, and for the first time tetractines of the inhalant and exhalant canals have been distinguished. Leucettidae now comprises 28 species, eight of them occur in Western Australia, which means this Australian State has the highest species richness for this family in Australia. The WA coastline has been largely unexplored for Calcarea so it is likely that further collecting will yield additional species. Leucetta microraphis is the most widespread species of Leucettidae in Australia, occurring in all States except the Northern Territory and Tasmania. We highlight the importance of a revision of the Leucettidae using molecular and morphological characters to determine which morphological characters have a phylogenetic signal.

  12. Linear Dunes and Playas, Simson Desert, South Australia, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-12-01

    This image of abstract shapes is comprised numerous subparallel, very long, orange colored linear dunes and patchy grey dry lakes (playas). The dunes are aligned north to south in the great central basin of Astralia (27.0S, 138.0E). The regularity of the dunes is created by the winds blowing from the south. As the dunes advance, jaged edges on the south side of each dry lake are formed while the north side is eroded smooth by the wind and water.

  13. Isolation and Education: Educational Aspirations and Achievements in South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, R. McL.; And Others

    Focusing on two isolated rural communities in South Australia which have experienced a sense of isolation for a long time (The South-East and Eyre Peninsula), the paper presents an examination of the pattern of educational needs and interest of residents in isolated rural communities, and their relation to the changing social and educational…

  14. Research Ready Program: A First in Regional South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Joy; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In response to the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) Board's introduction in 2010 of the new Research Project subject, the University of South Australia's Centre for Participation and Community Engagement took the opportunity to engage further with school students by organising the Research Ready Program. The adoption of the program…

  15. Research Ready Program: A First in Regional South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Joy; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In response to the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) Board's introduction in 2010 of the new Research Project subject, the University of South Australia's Centre for Participation and Community Engagement took the opportunity to engage further with school students by organising the Research Ready Program. The adoption of the program…

  16. Tide Gauge Observations of 2004-2007 Indian Ocean Tsunamis from Sri Lanka and Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Sarath Wijeratne, E. M.

    2009-02-01

    Tide gauge data collected from Sri Lanka (three stations) and Western Australia (eleven stations) during the Indian Ocean tsunamis, which occurred in December 2004, March 2005, July 2006, and September 2007, and incorporated five tsunamis, were examined to determine tsunami behaviour during these events. During the December 2004 tsunami, maximum wave heights of 3.87 m and 1.75 m were recorded at Colombo (Sri Lanka) and Bunbury (Western Australia), respectively. The results indicated that although the relative magnitudes of the tsunamis varied, the tsunami behaviour at each station was similar. This was due to the effect of the local and regional topography. At all tide gauges, the spectral energy corresponding to periods between 20 and 85 minutes increased during the tsunami. The sea-level data obtained from the west and south coasts of Sri Lanka (Colombo and Kirinda) indicated the importance of wave reflections from the Maldives Island chain, which produced the maximum wave two to three hours after the arrival of the first wave. In contrast, Trincomalee on the east coast did not show evidence of a reflected wave. Similarly, along the west coast of Australia, the highest waves occurred 15 hours after the arrival of the first wave. Here, based on travel times, we postulated that the waves were reflected from the Mascarene Ridge and/or the Island of Madagascar. Reflected waves were not present in the 2006 tsunami, where the primary waves propagated away from topographic features. One of the main influences of the tsunami was to set up oscillations at the local resonance frequency. Because Sri Lanka and Western Australia have relatively straight coastlines, these oscillations were related to the fundamental period of the shelf oscillation. For Colombo, this corresponded to 75-minute period, whereas in Geraldton and Busselton (Australia), the four-hour period was most prominent; at Jurien Bay and Fremantle, the resonance period was 2.7 hours.

  17. Forensic entomology: application, education and research in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Dadour, I R; Cook, D F; Fissioli, J N; Bailey, W J

    2001-08-15

    Forensic entomology as a science and a tool for investigation has had slow beginnings in Australia. A number of small animal decomposition trials have been recorded in the literature but mostly from an ecological rather than a forensic entomology perspective. In the last 20 years, a number of more forensically orientated field trials on small pigs and some fly developmental trials in the laboratory have been conducted but lack any replication. The following article was presented at an international seminar to detail the current research in forensic entomology, the applications of forensic entomology in scene of crime (SOC) and homicide investigations and the education of police and judiciary in the discipline of forensic entomology in Western Australia over the last 10 years.

  18. Analysis of Arbovirus Isolates from Australia Identifies Novel Bunyaviruses Including a Mapputta Group Virus from Western Australia That Links Gan Gan and Maprik Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Vishal; Diviney, Sinead M.; Certoma, Andrea; Wang, Jianning; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Chowdhary, Rashmi; Mackenzie, John S.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2016-01-01

    The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV. The results confirmed serum neutralization data that had linked SW27571 to TRUV. The fifth virus, K10441 from Willare, was most closely related to Batai orthobunyavirus, presumably representing an Australian variant of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the close relationship of our TRUV and GGV isolates to two other recently described Australian viruses, Murrumbidgee virus and Salt Ash virus, respectively. Our findings indicate that TRUV has a wide circulation throughout the Australian continent, demonstrating for the first time its presence in Western Australia. Similarly, the presence of a virus related to GGV, which had been linked to human disease and previously known only from the Australian southeast, was demonstrated in Western Australia. Finally, a Batai virus isolate was identified in Western Australia. The expanding availability of genomic sequence for novel Australian bunyavirus variants supports the identification of suitably conserved or diverse primer-binding target regions to establish group-wide as well as virus-specific nucleic acid tests in support of specific diagnostic and surveillance efforts throughout Australasia. PMID:27764175

  19. Characteristics of diabetic foot ulcers in Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Haji Zaine, Norafizah; Burns, Joshua; Vicaretti, Mauro; Fletcher, John P; Begg, Lindy; Hitos, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Australia is ranked ninth of 39 countries in the Western Pacific region most affected by diabetes. Patients with diabetes are at high risk of developing foot ulcerations that can develop into non-healing wounds. Recent studies suggest that the lifetime risk of developing a diabetic foot ulcer is as high as 25%. Few studies have reported the prevalence of, risk factors and socioeconomic status associated with, diabetic foot ulcers in Australia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of diabetic foot ulcers in a tertiary referral outpatient hospital setting in Western Sydney, Australia. From January-December 2011, a total of 195 outpatients with diabetes were retrospectively extracted for analysis from the Westmead Hospital's Foot Wound Clinic Registry. Data on demographics, socioeconomic status, co-morbidities, foot ulcer characteristics and treatment were recorded on a standardised form. Demographics and physical characteristics were: 66.2% male, median age 67 years (IQR: 56-76), median body mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m(2) (IQR: 25.2-34.1), 75.4% had peripheral neuropathy and the median postcode score for socioeconomic status was 996 (IQR: 897-1022). Diabetic foot ulcer characteristics were: median cross sectional area of 1.5 cm(2) (IQR: 0.5-7.0), median volume of 0.4 cm(3) (IQR: 0.11-3.0), 45.1% on the plantar aspect of the foot, 16.6% UT Wound Grade of 0C to 3C (with ischaemia) and 11.8% with a Grade 0D to 3D (with infection and ischaemia) and 25.6% with osteomyelitis. Five patients required an amputation: 1 major and 4 minor amputations. In accordance with other international studies, foot ulcers are more likely to present on the plantar surface of the foot and largely affect overweight older males with a long standing history diabetes in our outpatient hospital in Western Sydney.

  20. A communication infrastructure for South Western Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Newbury, J.

    1996-07-01

    In response to deregulation, many UK Regional Electricity Companies (RECs) are currently considering redesigning their communication infrastructure to meet this and other business requirements. This paper presents a proposed communication infrastructure for South Western Electricity plc. The Company services a wide variety of customers in the South West of England. The supporting technology, REC and customer benefits, together with valued added services (VAS) will be addressed.

  1. South Pacific: Australia comes back strong

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Exploration and production action experienced mixed fortunes last year. Exploration improved markedly with increased Australian activity. Liquids output declined, but gas production was up overall. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, development, and production in Australia, the Zone of Cooperation, New Zealand, and Papua New Guinea.

  2. Explaining ecological clusters of maternal depression in South Western Sydney.

    PubMed

    Eastwood ED, John; Kemp, Lynn; Jalaludin, Bin

    2014-01-24

    The aim of the qualitative study reported here was to: 1) explain the observed clustering of postnatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney; and 2) identify group-level mechanisms that would add to our understanding of the social determinants of maternal depression. Critical realism provided the methodological underpinning for the study. The setting was four local government areas in South Western Sydney, Australia. Child and Family practitioners and mothers in naturally occurring mothers groups were interviewed. Using an open coding approach to maximise emergence of patterns and relationships we have identified seven theoretical concepts that might explain the observed spatial clustering of maternal depression. The theoretical concepts identified were: Community-level social networks; Social Capital and Social Cohesion; "Depressed community"; Access to services at the group level; Ethnic segregation and diversity; Supportive social policy; and Big business. We postulate that these regional structural, economic, social and cultural mechanisms partially explain the pattern of maternal depression observed in families and communities within South Western Sydney. We further observe that powerful global economic and political forces are having an impact on the local situation. The challenge for policy and practice is to support mothers and their families within this adverse regional and global-economic context.

  3. Explaining ecological clusters of maternal depression in South Western Sydney

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the qualitative study reported here was to: 1) explain the observed clustering of postnatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney; and 2) identify group-level mechanisms that would add to our understanding of the social determinants of maternal depression. Methods Critical realism provided the methodological underpinning for the study. The setting was four local government areas in South Western Sydney, Australia. Child and Family practitioners and mothers in naturally occurring mothers groups were interviewed. Results Using an open coding approach to maximise emergence of patterns and relationships we have identified seven theoretical concepts that might explain the observed spatial clustering of maternal depression. The theoretical concepts identified were: Community-level social networks; Social Capital and Social Cohesion; "Depressed community"; Access to services at the group level; Ethnic segregation and diversity; Supportive social policy; and Big business. Conclusions We postulate that these regional structural, economic, social and cultural mechanisms partially explain the pattern of maternal depression observed in families and communities within South Western Sydney. We further observe that powerful global economic and political forces are having an impact on the local situation. The challenge for policy and practice is to support mothers and their families within this adverse regional and global-economic context. PMID:24460690

  4. Rural veterinary services in Western Australia: Part B. Rural practice.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, J A L; Costa, N D; Layman, L L; Robertson, I D

    2008-03-01

    To determine the current status of rural veterinary services in Western Australia. A questionnaire was sent to all eligible rural practitioners registered in 2006 and the replies were transferred to Microsoft Excel for analysis. Of the rural practitioners invited to participate in the survey replies were received from 67%. There were equal numbers of females and males. Their mean age was 44 years. Ninety per cent of respondents considered knowledge gained as an undergraduate was sufficient to equip them for practice, but only 60% considered their practical skills adequate. Thirteen per cent of those in rural practices in 2005 had left by 2006. Eighty-nine per cent of respondents were in mixed practice, the balance in specific species practice, such as equine, large animal and production animal consultancy. The majority of rural practitioners relied on servicing companion animals for their viability; 7% earned their income from servicing production animals only. Seventy per cent utilised merchandising and the sale of pet foods to supplement the income received from the traditional veterinary services and 34% found it necessary to earn an independent income. A quarter considered that rural practice did not have a future. The majority of rural practitioners in Western Australia depend on companion animals, not production animals, to remain viable, with very few operating production animal services. Poor remuneration is a major reason why veterinarians leave rural practice, and many find it necessary to supplement their income or develop an independent income.

  5. Gravity Survey of the Mt. Toondina Impact Structure South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J.; Shoemaker, E.; Shoemaker, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents data to support the conclusion that gravity data combined with seismic reflection data and surface stuctural geologic mapping for the Mt. Toondina structure in South Australia reveal that the central uplift is surrounded by a ring structural depression.

  6. Inclusivity and Senior Physical Education: Insights from Queensland and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn; Hay, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the context of uncertainty and ongoing reform of senior secondary education in Australia, this paper addresses inclusivity in the design and implementation of senior physical education (PE) courses. Critical analysis of course developments in two states in Australia; Queensland and Western Australia, demonstrates ways in which course design,…

  7. (Im)moral Education in South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1984-01-01

    Moral relativism, spearheaded by values clarification techniques, has transformed the ethos of South Australian schools. The theory and practice of innovative pedagogy in the realm of moral values is critiqued. Suggestions as to how a secular system of education can avoid moral anarchy without relapsing into ideological indoctrination are made.…

  8. Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Predation on Beaked Whales (Mesoplodon spp.) in the Bremer Sub-Basin, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Wellard, Rebecca; Lightbody, Keith; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle; Riggs, David; Erbe, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Observations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) feeding on the remains of beaked whales have been previously documented; however, to date, there has been no published account of killer whales actively preying upon beaked whales. This article describes the first field observations of killer whales interacting with, hunting and preying upon beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp.) on four separate occasions during 2014, 2015 and 2016 in the Bremer Sub-Basin, off the south coast of Western Australia.

  9. Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Predation on Beaked Whales (Mesoplodon spp.) in the Bremer Sub-Basin, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lightbody, Keith; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle; Riggs, David; Erbe, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Observations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) feeding on the remains of beaked whales have been previously documented; however, to date, there has been no published account of killer whales actively preying upon beaked whales. This article describes the first field observations of killer whales interacting with, hunting and preying upon beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp.) on four separate occasions during 2014, 2015 and 2016 in the Bremer Sub-Basin, off the south coast of Western Australia. PMID:27923044

  10. Microbial mats and modern stromatolites in Shark Bay, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golubic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Distribution, external morphology, texture, and microbial composition of microbial mats in Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia, have been studied and reviewed along a composite representative profile starting from the permanently submerged zone, across the zones of periodic flooding, toward permanently emerged land and coastal dunes. The following nine types of algal mats have been recognized: colloform, gelatinous, smooth, pincushion, tufted, mamillate, film, reticulate, and blister. Solar ponds represent a particular environment. The mat types represent microbial communities that are characterized by one or more dominant microorganisms. The colonization and stabilization of loose sediment is carried out by a microbial assemblage of generalists that prepare the ground for later replacement and succession by specialized microflora. Lithification of microbial mats takes place periodically, mainly during the austral summer. This process is destructive for the microbial community but increases the preservation potential of the stromatolitic structures.

  11. Microbial mats and modern stromatolites in Shark Bay, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golubic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Distribution, external morphology, texture, and microbial composition of microbial mats in Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia, have been studied and reviewed along a composite representative profile starting from the permanently submerged zone, across the zones of periodic flooding, toward permanently emerged land and coastal dunes. The following nine types of algal mats have been recognized: colloform, gelatinous, smooth, pincushion, tufted, mamillate, film, reticulate, and blister. Solar ponds represent a particular environment. The mat types represent microbial communities that are characterized by one or more dominant microorganisms. The colonization and stabilization of loose sediment is carried out by a microbial assemblage of generalists that prepare the ground for later replacement and succession by specialized microflora. Lithification of microbial mats takes place periodically, mainly during the austral summer. This process is destructive for the microbial community but increases the preservation potential of the stromatolitic structures.

  12. Renewable Energy Policy and Practice in Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Chacko; Harries, David

    2007-10-01

    Renewable energy is commonly seen as an essential strategy for sustainability. Many governments, however, have sustainable energy or sustainability strategies that place little emphasis on renewable energy. One reason is that despite acceptance of the concept of sustainable development as a concept, the reality is that economic growth remains the dominant policy objective of most governments and sustainability and sustainable development are such ill-defined concepts that lack of precise definition often confuses the debate. Climate change, however, is one issue for which the meaning over what is sustainable and what is unstainable has become clearer and the need to balance economic growth with reductions in greenhouse gas emissions has become urgent. The question of by when, by what means, by how much and by whom GHG emissions need to be reduced are now the critical questions. The question of the extent to which renewable energy is essential to the goal of reducing emissions therefore has become more pressing. Some governments continue to see renewable energy as an expensive and unnecessary option and that other, lower cost options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector exist. Western Australia makes an interesting case study as the State is experiencing rapid economic growth supported by rapidly increasing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Policies to date have focused on the fact that the state relies heavily on natural gas rather than coal and encourages the efficient use of energy. Western Australia's energy situation and greenhouse gas emissions strategies are reviewed in order to assess the extent to which this greenhouse gas reduction policy that has to date placed a relatively low emphasis on renewable energy is likely to be successful.

  13. Investigation of the southern limits of Murray Valley encephalitis activity in Western Australia during the 2000 wet season.

    PubMed

    Broom, Annette K; Lindsay, Michael D A; Harrington, Susan A; Smith, David W

    2002-01-01

    Western Australia experienced its worst-ever outbreak of the mosquito-borne Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) virus during the 2000 wet season. Highest-on-record rainfall throughout much of the state during the 2000 wet season gave rise to extensive mosquito breeding and increased MVE virus transmission, resulting in nine cases of encephalitis. Activity of MVE virus in Western Australia is monitored by detecting MVE virus-specific antibodies in serum from sentinel chickens, located at towns and communities throughout the north of the state. However, during 2000, all 28 flocks of chickens seroconverted to MVE virus, including a flock located >600 km further south than MVE virus activity had ever previously been recorded. Furthermore, the majority of the nine cases of encephalitis occurred outside the enzootic Kimberley region. We therefore undertook a major serosurvey of domestic chicken flocks both south and east of the previously defined regions of virus activity. The results suggest that MVE virus activity extended as far south as the Midwest and northern Goldfields during 2000. A new southern limit of activity of MVE virus is therefore proposed. The results have implications for managing outbreaks of MVE virus in Western Australia and have enabled us to locate additional sentinel flocks as part of the MVE surveillance program for future years.

  14. Sunglint in South Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-24

    AST-19-1555 (24 July 1975) --- A sunglint in the South Western Pacific Ocean, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. The island is Bougainville of the Solomon Islands group. The horizon of Earth is in the background. The picture was taken at an altitude of 231 kilometers (143 statute miles), with a 70mm Hasselblad camera using medium-speed Ektachrome QX-807 type film.

  15. Bedload parting in western Torres Strait, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James J.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new style of bedload parting from western Torres Strait, northern Australia. Outputs from a hydrodynamic model identified an axis of bedload parting centred on the western Torres Strait islands (~142°15‧E). This bedload parting is similar to others documented from mixed tidal regimes as it is driven dominantly by the O1, K1 and M2 tidal constituents. However, parting is aided by overtides on the eastern, mixed semidiurnal side of the strait. Bedload parting is also strongly impacted by wind-driven currents. Wind-driven currents during the trade wind season lead to the average estimates of bedload transport to be directed west, through the strait, over the 8 year model duration. As a result, east and west directed bedload parting is only active during the monsoon season when the influence of wind-driven circulation is negligible. A simulation of bedload transport using a range of sediment grain sizes indicated that sediments with a grainsize greater than ~2 mm were transported in a direction consistent with tidally driven bedload parting, as opposed to residual wind-driven flow.

  16. The Kauring Airborne Gravity Test Site, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, R. J.; Grujic, M.; Aravanis, T.; Tracey, R.; Dransfield, M.; Howard, D.; Smith, B.

    2009-12-01

    A test site for airborne gravity (AG) systems has been established at Kauring, approximately 100 km east of Perth, Western Australia. The site was chosen using a range of criteria that included being within 200 km of Jandakot Airport in Perth where most of the airborne systems would be based at one time or another when operating in Australia, being free of low level flight restrictions, having minimal human infrastructure in the central 20 by 20 km area, and the presence of gentle to rolling terrain rather than deeply incised topography or an extensive flat plain with very low relief. In anticipation of catering for airborne gravity gradiometer (AGG) systems, the site was required to have a gravity gradient feature with clear response in the wavelength range of 100 m to 2 km in a 5 by 5 km core region. The existence of closely-spaced, high quality ground gravity data would have been a positive factor for selecting a test site, but a search of the national gravity database indicated that there were no such data sets in the search area. Consequently, a ground vertical gravity acquisition program for the chosen site at Kauring was arranged by the Geological Survey of Western Australia (GSWA), Geoscience Australia (GA), and Rio Tinto Exploration. To support AG system tests, a 150 by 150 km area was covered with a maximum station spacing of 2 by 2 km, and the central area of 20 by 20 km was covered with a maximum station spacing of 0.5 by 0.5 km. These data are freely available from GSWA and GA. To support AGG system tests, the core 5 by 5 km area would need to have stations with much closer spacing (e.g., 100 by 100 m). A variety of publicly available digital terrain data sets are available (e.g., SRTM 3-second data (~90 m), ASTER GDEM 1-second data (~30 m), GEODATA 9-second data (~300 m), etc.). Acquisition of a LIDAR-based high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM) for the central 20 by 20 km area is being considered. A DTM of this nature for the core 5 by 5 km area

  17. Paediatric ocular and adnexal injuries requiring hospitalisation in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Hoskin, Annette K; Hanman, Kate; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Lam, Geoffrey C; Mackey, David A

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to investigate the characteristics and outcomes of ocular and adnexal injuries requiring hospitalisation in children in Perth, Western Australia. This is a hospital-based retrospective review of children admitted to Princess Margaret Hospital for Children with diagnoses of ocular and/or adnexal trauma from 2002-2013. Hospital charts were reviewed for demographic information, injury and management details, follow-up and visual outcome. Final visual acuity was categorised into three groups: 6/12 or better, from 6/12 to 6/60, worse than 6/60. Ordinal logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and predicted probabilities for each category of final visual outcome. Over the 12-year time period, 482 children were admitted with ocular or adnexal injuries - an average of 40 admissions per year. The mean age of the cohort was 7.1 years (range 0.09 to 16.47 years) with a male to female ratio of 2.6:1.0. There were 185 closed-globe injuries, 72 open-globe injuries and 293 adnexal injuries. Fourteen per cent of the cohort sustained a combined globe and adnexal injury. Children in the up to five-year age group were most susceptible to injury. Eighty-two per cent of the group had a final visual acuity of 6/12 or better. Factors associated with poor visual outcomes included younger age (p < 0.01), open-globe injury (p < 0.01) and lens injury (p < 0.01). Based on the outcomes of our review, paediatric ocular and adnexal trauma are significant causes for hospital attendance in childhood. Identifying associated risk factors will help develop injury prevention strategies to promote eye safety for children. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  18. Dating brittle deformation in the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thebaud, N.; Zwingmann, H.

    2012-12-01

    ). Blewett, R., and Czarnota, K., 2007, A new integrated tectonic framework of the Eastern Goldfields superterrane, Kalgoorlie '07, Volume Record 2007/14, p. 33-38. Evins, P., Smithies, R., Howard, H., Kirkland, C., Wingate, M., and Bodorkos, S., 2010, Redefining the Giles event within the setting of the 1120-1020 Ma Ngaanyatjarra rift, West Musgrave province, central Australia THE Record 2010/6: Perth, Geological Survey of Western Australia. Spaggiari, C.V., Wartho, J.-A., and Wilde, S.A., 2008, Proterozoic deformation in the northwest of the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia: Precambrian Research, v. 162, p. 354-384. Zwingmann, H., Mancktelow, N., Antognini, M. and Lucchini, R., Dating of shallow faults - new constraints from the AlpTransit tunnel site (Switzerland). Geology, 2010. 38 (6) p. 487-490; doi10.1130/G30785.1

  19. Hosts of the exotic ornate kangaroo tick, Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum Koch, on southern Yorke Peninsula, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Waudby, Helen P; Petit, Sophie; Dixon, Bruce; Andrews, Ross H

    2007-10-01

    Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum is assumed to be endemic to south-western Western Australia (including Barrow Island), Queensland (excluding Cape York Peninsula), and New South Wales, south to Dubbo and Barham. The species has been recorded on a range of mammalian hosts including macropods and domestic animals. In Queensland, A. triguttatum triguttatum is implicated in the epidemiology of Q fever. In 2000, the species was detected on southern Yorke Peninsula in South Australia. We aimed to identify A. triguttatum triguttatum's hosts through trapping, sampling of carcasses, and opportunistic capture of vertebrates on Yorke Peninsula. A. triguttatum triguttatum was removed from black rats (Rattus rattus), wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus), Tammar wallabies (M. eugenii eugenii), domesticated cats and dogs, and humans. Before this study, A. triguttatum triguttatum had not been found on black rats or rabbits in the wild. This research has implications for the management of wildlife, livestock, and visitors on Yorke Peninsula. The potential for A. triguttatum triguttatum to spread to other areas of Yorke Peninsula and South Australia is considerable, as visitors (tourists) to southern Yorke Peninsula report the presence of ticks both on themselves and among camping equipment on arriving home.

  20. Forensically significant scavenging guilds in the southwest of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, R Christopher; Forbes, Shari L; Meyer, Jan; Dadour, Ian

    2010-05-20

    Estimation of time since death is an important factor in forensic investigations and the state of decomposition of a body is a prime basis for such estimations. The rate of decomposition is, however, affected by many environmental factors such as temperature, rainfall, and solar radiation as well as by indoor or outdoor location, covering and the type of surface the body is resting upon. Scavenging has the potential for major impact upon the rate of decomposition of a body, but there is little direct research upon its effect. The information that is available relates almost exclusively to North American and European contexts. The Australian faunal assemblage is unique in that it includes no native large predators or large detrivorous avians. This research investigates the animals that scavenge carcasses in natural outdoor settings in southern Western Australia and the factors which can affect each scavenger's activity. The research was conducted at four locations around Perth, Western Australia with different environmental conditions. Pig carcasses, acting as models for the human body, were positioned in an outdoor environment with no protection from scavengers or other environmental conditions. Twenty-four hour continuous time-lapse video capture was used to observe the pattern of visits of all animals to the carcasses. The time of day, length of feeding, material fed upon, area of feeding, and any movement of the carcass were recorded for each feeding event. Some species were observed to scavenge almost continually throughout the day and night. Insectivores visited the carcasses mostly during bloat and putrefaction; omnivores fed during all stages of decomposition and scavenging by carnivores, rare at any time, was most likely to occur during the early stages of decomposition. Avian species, which were the most prolific visitors to the carcasses in all locations, like reptiles, fed only during daylight hours. Only mammals and amphibians, which were seldom seen

  1. Radioactivity in drinking water supplies in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M; Wallner, G; Jennings, P

    2014-04-01

    Radiochemical analysis was carried out on 52 drinking water samples taken from public outlets in the southwest of Western Australia. All samples were analysed for Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210. Twenty five of the samples were also analysed for Po-210, and 23 were analysed for U-234 and U-238. Ra-228 was found in 45 samples and the activity ranged from <4.000 to 296.1 mBq L(-1). Ra-226 was detected in all 52 samples and the activity ranged from 3.200 to 151.1 mBq L(-1). Po-210 was detected in 24 samples and the activity ranged from 0.000 to 114.2 mBq L(-1). These data were used to compute the annual radiation dose that persons of different age groups and also for pregnant and lactating females would receive from drinking this water. The estimated doses ranged from 0.001 to 2.375 mSv y(-1) with a mean annual dose of 0.167 mSv y(-1). The main contributing radionuclides to the annual dose were Ra-228, Po-210 and Ra-226. Of the 52 drinking water samples tested, 94% complied with the current Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, while 10% complied with the World Health Organization's radiological guidelines which many other countries use. It is likely that these results provide an overestimate of the compliance, due to limitations, in the sampling technique and resource constraints on the analysis. Because of the increasing reliance of the Western Australian community on groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes, it is likely that the radiological content of the drinking water will increase in the future. Therefore there is a need for further monitoring and analysis in order to identify problem areas. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A research and evaluation capacity building model in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Roanna; Crawford, Gemma; Hallett, Jonathan; Laing, Sue; Mak, Donna B; Jancey, Jonine; Rowell, Sally; McCausland, Kahlia; Bastian, Lisa; Sorenson, Anne; Tilley, P J Matt; Yam, Simon; Comfort, Jude; Brennan, Sean; Doherty, Maryanne

    2016-12-27

    Evaluation of public health programs, services and policies is increasingly required to demonstrate effectiveness. Funding constraints necessitate that existing programs, services and policies be evaluated and their findings disseminated. Evidence-informed practice and policy is also desirable to maximise investments in public health. Partnerships between public health researchers, service providers and policymakers can help address evaluation knowledge and skills gaps. The Western Australian Sexual Health and Blood-borne Virus Applied Research and Evaluation Network (SiREN) aims to build research and evaluation capacity in the sexual health and blood-borne virus sector in Western Australia (WA). Partners' perspectives of the SiREN model after 2 years were explored. Qualitative written responses from service providers, policymakers and researchers about the SiREN model were analysed thematically. Service providers reported that participation in SiREN prompted them to consider evaluation earlier in the planning process and increased their appreciation of the value of evaluation. Policymakers noted benefits of the model in generating local evidence and highlighting local issues of importance for consideration at a national level. Researchers identified challenges communicating the services available through SiREN and the time investment needed to develop effective collaborative partnerships. Stronger engagement between public health researchers, service providers and policymakers through collaborative partnerships has the potential to improve evidence generation and evidence translation. These outcomes require long-term funding and commitment from all partners to develop and maintain partnerships. Ongoing monitoring and evaluation can ensure the partnership remains responsive to the needs of key stakeholders. The findings are applicable to many sectors.

  3. Hadean diamonds in zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Menneken, Martina; Nemchin, Alexander A; Geisler, Thorsten; Pidgeon, Robert T; Wilde, Simon A

    2007-08-23

    Detrital zircons more than 4 billion years old from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Yilgarn craton, Western Australia, are the oldest identified fragments of the Earth's crust and are unique in preserving information on the earliest evolution of the Earth. Inclusions of quartz, K-feldspar and monazite in the zircons, in combination with an enrichment of light rare-earth elements and an estimated low zircon crystallization temperature, have previously been used as evidence for early recycling of continental crust, leading to the production of granitic melts in the Hadean era. Here we present the discovery of microdiamond inclusions in Jack Hills zircons with an age range from 3,058 +/- 7 to 4,252 +/- 7 million years. These include the oldest known diamonds found in terrestrial rocks, and introduce a new dimension to the debate on the origin of these zircons and the evolution of the early Earth. The spread of ages indicates that either conditions required for diamond formation were repeated several times during early Earth history or that there was significant recycling of ancient diamond. Mineralogical features of the Jack Hills diamonds-such as their occurrence in zircon, their association with graphite and their Raman spectroscopic characteristics-resemble those of diamonds formed during ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and, unless conditions on the early Earth were unique, imply a relatively thick continental lithosphere and crust-mantle interaction at least 4,250 million years ago.

  4. Subsurface sequence stratigraphy of Devonian carbonates, Canning basin, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Southgate, P.N.; Jackson, J.; Kennard, J.M.; O'Brien, P.E.; Passmore, V.L.; Lindsay, J.F. ); Holmes, A.E.; Christie-Blick, N. )

    1991-03-01

    The Canning basin of Western Australia is best known for its Devonian reef complexes. in 1990 the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) began a sequence stratigraphic study of key parts of the basin. This work integrates industry seismic and well data with two deep-crustal, regional seismic lines acquired by BMR in 1988. Initial work on the Lennard Shelf and adjacent Fitzroy trough has established a new sequence stratigraphy. At the margin of the Fitzroy trough, the most prominent features on seismic sections are alternating wedge-shaped and tabular bodies up to 150 m and 50 m thick, respectively. Internal reflections in the wedge-shaped bodies show downlap toward the basin and onlap toward the platform margin. On strike lines these wedges exhibit complex lensoidal geometries. Drillcore indicates that the wedges comprise basement-derived conglomerates with a sandy calcareous matrix. Seismic and well data suggest five Late Devonian sequences. The wedges and oblique prograding units are thickest and most easily recognized in the upper three sequences (Late Frasnian-Famennian ). The underlying thinner sequences probably correlate with the classic back-stepping Frasnian reefs identified in outcrop by Playford. Recognition of lowstand deposits in the Devonian reef complexes represent a new hydrocarbon exploration play.

  5. Congenital hypothyroidism in Western Australia 1981-1998.

    PubMed

    Kurinczuk, J J; Bower, C; Lewis, B; Byrne, G

    2002-04-01

    Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism began in Western Australia in 1981. We describe the epidemiology, including trends over time. Population-based registers and databases were used to identify cases of congenital hypothyroidism in 1981-1998 (n = 126), a random sample of controls (n = 1260), and descriptive data on cases and controls. The prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism per 10 000 live births was calculated, and a case-control analysis conducted. The prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism was 1.74 per 10 000 in the period 1981-1987, compared with 3.54 per 10 000 between 1988 and 1998. Infants identified with congenital hypothyroidism were significantly more likely to have other birth defects (particularly heart defects), be female, have a birthweight heavier than 4500 g, and be born either preterm or after 41 weeks gestation. No cases had cerebral palsy or intellectual disability. Population-based registers and linked databases can provide very useful information for evaluating screening programmes, and extending our knowledge of the epidemiology of congenital hypothyroidism.

  6. A 6000 year tropical cyclone record from Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    This study provides the first long-term tropical cyclone record from the Indian Ocean region. Multiple shore parallel ridges composed entirely of one species of marine cockle shell ( Fragum eragatum) standing between 3 and 6 m above mean sea level occur at Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia. The ridges record a tropical cyclone history between approximately 500 cal BP and 6000-7000 cal BP. Numerical storm surge and shallow water wave modelling techniques have been applied to determine the intensity (central pressure with uncertainty margins) of the storms responsible for deposition of the ridges, which has occurred approximately every 190-270 years. The ridges also record a 1700 year gap in tropical cyclone activity, between approximately 5400 cal BP and 3700 cal BP, where ridges deposited prior to this time were buried by a substantial deposit of aeolian fine-grained terrestrial sediment. The presence of this sedimentary unit suggests that this 1700 year period was characterised by a very dry climate; possibly the driest phase experienced in this region since the mid-Holocene. The absence of tropical cyclones at this time and the occurrence of this mega-drought may be linked.

  7. Phytophthora multivora sp. nov., a new species recovered from declining Eucalyptus, Banksia, Agonis and other plant species in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Scott, P M; Burgess, T I; Barber, P A; Shearer, B L; Stukely, M J C; Hardy, G E St J; Jung, T

    2009-06-01

    A new Phytophthora species, isolated from rhizosphere soil of declining or dead trees of Eucalyptus gomphocephala, E. marginata, Agonis flexuosa, and another 13 plant species, and from fine roots of E. marginata and collar lesions of Banksia attenuata in Western Australia, is described as Phytophthora multivora sp. nov. It is homothallic and produces semipapillate sporangia, smooth-walled oogonia containing thick-walled oospores, and paragynous antheridia. Although morphologically similar to P. citricola, phylogenetic analyses of the ITS and cox1 gene regions demonstrate that P. multivora is unique. Phytophthora multivora is pathogenic to bark and cambium of E. gomphocephala and E. marginata and is believed to be involved in the decline syndrome of both eucalypt species within the tuart woodland in south-west Western Australia.

  8. Variation in Population Vulnerability to Heat Wave in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianguo; Spicer, Tony; Jian, Le; Yun, Grace Yajuan; Shao, Changying; Nairn, John; Fawcett, Robert J B; Robertson, Andrew; Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Heat waves (HWs) have killed more people in Australia than all other natural hazards combined. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency, duration, and intensity of HWs and leads to a doubling of heat-related deaths over the next 40 years. Despite being a significant public health issue, HWs do not attract the same level of attention from researchers, policy makers, and emergency management agencies compared to other natural hazards. The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors that might lead to population vulnerability to HW in Western Australia (WA). HW vulnerability and resilience among the population of the state of WA were investigated by using time series analysis. The health impacts of HWs were assessed by comparing the associations between hospital emergency department (ED) presentations, hospital admissions and mortality data, and intensities of HW. Risk factors including age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES), remoteness, and geographical locations were examined to determine whether certain population groups were more at risk of adverse health impacts due to extreme heat. We found that hospital admissions due to heat-related conditions and kidney diseases, and overall ED attendances, were sensitive indicators of HW. Children aged 14 years or less and those aged 60 years or over were identified as the most vulnerable populations to HWs as shown in ED attendance data. Females had more ED attendances and hospital admissions due to kidney diseases; while males had more heat-related hospital admissions than females. There were significant dose-response relationships between HW intensity and SES, remoteness, and health service usage. The more disadvantaged and remotely located the population, the higher the health service usage during HWs. Our study also found that some population groups and locations were resilient to extreme heat. We produced a mapping tool, which indicated geographic areas throughout WA with various vulnerability

  9. Variation in Population Vulnerability to Heat Wave in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianguo; Spicer, Tony; Jian, Le; Yun, Grace Yajuan; Shao, Changying; Nairn, John; Fawcett, Robert J. B.; Robertson, Andrew; Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Heat waves (HWs) have killed more people in Australia than all other natural hazards combined. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency, duration, and intensity of HWs and leads to a doubling of heat-related deaths over the next 40 years. Despite being a significant public health issue, HWs do not attract the same level of attention from researchers, policy makers, and emergency management agencies compared to other natural hazards. The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors that might lead to population vulnerability to HW in Western Australia (WA). HW vulnerability and resilience among the population of the state of WA were investigated by using time series analysis. The health impacts of HWs were assessed by comparing the associations between hospital emergency department (ED) presentations, hospital admissions and mortality data, and intensities of HW. Risk factors including age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES), remoteness, and geographical locations were examined to determine whether certain population groups were more at risk of adverse health impacts due to extreme heat. We found that hospital admissions due to heat-related conditions and kidney diseases, and overall ED attendances, were sensitive indicators of HW. Children aged 14 years or less and those aged 60 years or over were identified as the most vulnerable populations to HWs as shown in ED attendance data. Females had more ED attendances and hospital admissions due to kidney diseases; while males had more heat-related hospital admissions than females. There were significant dose–response relationships between HW intensity and SES, remoteness, and health service usage. The more disadvantaged and remotely located the population, the higher the health service usage during HWs. Our study also found that some population groups and locations were resilient to extreme heat. We produced a mapping tool, which indicated geographic areas throughout WA with various

  10. Nippontonia ashmoreiensis sp. nov., (Crustacea: Decapoda; Pontoniinae) from Ashmore Reef, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Bruce, A J

    2014-08-08

    An undescribed species of pontoniine shrimp of the genus Nippontonia Bruce & Bauer, N. ashmoriensis sp. nov., collected from a sponge from Ashmore Reef, Western Australia, is described and illustrated. 

  11. Cetacean Morbillivirus in Coastal Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Duignan, Pádraig J.; Wang, Jianning; Bingham, John; Finn, Hugh; Bejder, Lars; Patterson, Anthony P.; Holyoake, Carly

    2014-01-01

    Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) has caused several epizootics in multiple species of cetaceans globally and is an emerging disease among cetaceans in Australia. We detected CeMV in 2 stranded coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Western Australia. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that this virus variant is divergent from known strains. PMID:24656203

  12. Cetacean morbillivirus in coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nahiid; Duignan, Pádraig J; Wang, Jianning; Bingham, John; Finn, Hugh; Bejder, Lars; Patterson, Anthony P; Holyoake, Carly

    2014-04-01

    Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) has caused several epizootics in multiple species of cetaceans globally and is an emerging disease among cetaceans in Australia. We detected CeMV in 2 stranded coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Western Australia. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that this virus variant is divergent from known strains.

  13. Hepatitis E virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Richie G; Wallace, Sebastian; Sonderup, Mark; Korsman, Stephen; Chivese, Tawanda; Gavine, Bronwyn; Edem, Aniefiok; Govender, Roxy; English, Nathan; Kaiyamo, Christy; Lutchman, Odelia; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Pas, Suzan D; Webb, Glynn W; Palmer, Joanne; Goddard, Elizabeth; Wasserman, Sean; Dalton, Harry R; Spearman, C Wendy

    2016-01-01

    AIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Children’s Hospital and their affiliated teaching hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa, were sampled. Healthy adults attending blood donor clinics were also recruited. Patients with known liver disease were excluded and all major ethnic/race groups were included to broadly represent local demographics. Relevant demographic data was captured at the time of sampling using an interviewer-administered confidential questionnaire. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was self-disclosed. HEV IgG testing was performed using the Wantai® assay. RESULTS HEV is endemic in the region with a seroprevalence of 27.9% (n = 324/1161) 95%CI: 25.3%-30.5% (21.9% when age-adjusted) with no significant differences between ethnic groups or HIV status. Seroprevalence in children is low but rapidly increases in early adulthood. With univariate analysis, age ≥ 30 years old, pork and bacon/ham consumption suggested risk. In the multivariate analysis, the highest risk factor for HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 7.679, 95%CI: 5.38-10.96, P < 0.001) was being 30 years or older followed by pork consumption (OR = 2.052, 95%CI: 1.39-3.03, P < 0.001). A recent clinical case demonstrates that HEV genotype 3 may be currently circulating in the Western Cape. CONCLUSION Hepatitis E seroprevalence was considerably higher than previously thought suggesting that hepatitis E warrants consideration in any patient presenting with an unexplained hepatitis in the Western Cape, irrespective of travel history, age or ethnicity. PMID:27956810

  14. Hepatitis E virus: Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Madden, Richie G; Wallace, Sebastian; Sonderup, Mark; Korsman, Stephen; Chivese, Tawanda; Gavine, Bronwyn; Edem, Aniefiok; Govender, Roxy; English, Nathan; Kaiyamo, Christy; Lutchman, Odelia; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Pas, Suzan D; Webb, Glynn W; Palmer, Joanne; Goddard, Elizabeth; Wasserman, Sean; Dalton, Harry R; Spearman, C Wendy

    2016-11-28

    To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Children's Hospital and their affiliated teaching hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa, were sampled. Healthy adults attending blood donor clinics were also recruited. Patients with known liver disease were excluded and all major ethnic/race groups were included to broadly represent local demographics. Relevant demographic data was captured at the time of sampling using an interviewer-administered confidential questionnaire. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was self-disclosed. HEV IgG testing was performed using the Wantai(®) assay. HEV is endemic in the region with a seroprevalence of 27.9% (n = 324/1161) 95%CI: 25.3%-30.5% (21.9% when age-adjusted) with no significant differences between ethnic groups or HIV status. Seroprevalence in children is low but rapidly increases in early adulthood. With univariate analysis, age ≥ 30 years old, pork and bacon/ham consumption suggested risk. In the multivariate analysis, the highest risk factor for HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 7.679, 95%CI: 5.38-10.96, P < 0.001) was being 30 years or older followed by pork consumption (OR = 2.052, 95%CI: 1.39-3.03, P < 0.001). A recent clinical case demonstrates that HEV genotype 3 may be currently circulating in the Western Cape. Hepatitis E seroprevalence was considerably higher than previously thought suggesting that hepatitis E warrants consideration in any patient presenting with an unexplained hepatitis in the Western Cape, irrespective of travel history, age or ethnicity.

  15. View south, wharf B, showing western docking structure, decking detail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south, wharf B, showing western docking structure, decking detail - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  16. Decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and southeast Australia surface air temperature in austral summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jiaqing; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng; Zhao, Sen; Mao, Jiangyu; Dong, Di; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Juan

    2017-06-01

    Austral summer (December-February) surface air temperature over southeast Australia (SEA) is found to be remotely influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Atlantic at decadal time scales. In austral summer, warm SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic induce concurrent above-normal surface air temperature over SEA. This decadal-scale teleconnection occurs through the eastward propagating South Atlantic-Australia (SAA) wave train triggered by SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic. The excitation of the SAA wave train is verified by forcing experiments based on both linear barotropic and baroclinic models, propagation pathway and spatial scale of the observed SAA wave train are further explained by the Rossby wave ray tracing analysis in non-uniform basic flow. The SAA wave train forced by southwest South Atlantic warming is characterized by an anomalous anticyclone off the eastern coast of the Australia. Temperature diagnostic analyses based on the thermodynamic equation suggest anomalous northerly flows on western flank of this anticyclone can induce low-level warm advection anomaly over SEA, which thus lead to the warming of surface air temperature there. Finally, SST-forced atmospheric general circulation model ensemble experiments also demonstrate that SST forcing in the South Atlantic is associated with the SAA teleconnection wave train in austral summer, this wave train then modulate surface air temperature over SEA on decadal timescales. Hence, observations combined with numerical simulations consistently demonstrate the decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and summertime surface air temperature over SEA.

  17. Induced abortion trends in South Australia, 1970-84.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, G; Macharper, T

    1987-01-01

    Following legislative amendments extending the grounds for abortion in South Australia the abortion rate rose from 6.0/1000 in 1970, to 9.9/1000 in 1971, to 13.2/1000 in 1984. However, rates differ widely by marital status among young women, the age pattern varies markedly for different marital status groups, and trends over time differ for different age/marital status groups. Collection of detailed age and marital status data on every live birth and abortion is recommended in order to provide the most informative analysis of abortion trends. PMID:3799861

  18. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lemloh, Marie-Louise; Fromont, Jane; Brümmer, Franz; Usher, Kayley M

    2009-01-01

    Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA) with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide range of sponges in a wide range

  19. Training rural and remote therapy assistants in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Goodale, B J; Spitz, S; Beattie, N J; Lin, I B

    2007-01-01

    Therapy assistants (TAs) are widely used in the delivery of therapy services in rural Western Australia (WA). Appropriate training for TAs is an essential part of their practice; however, to date most TAs are trained 'on-the-job', thus taxing the scarce resources of rural and remote allied health professionals (AHPs). There has been limited recognized training that is suitable to their role and easily accessed by rural and remote TAs. This project report describes the development and evaluation of training for TAs across country WA to address these issues. Sixteen training modules were developed congruent with the requirements of TA work in rural WA. Modules were designed, developed and delivered via videoconference by rural and remote AHPs. A partnership with a registered training provider has allowed TAs to use this training as credit toward a recognized qualification. A high level of attendance across all country regions of WA confirmed a need for this training. Modules that focussed on a clinical topic, presenters that were well organized, who supplied resources to support the training, and used interactive case scenarios were received most positively. For AHPs this training reduced the work required for training TAs at individual sites. The training resources developed in this project are relevant to other rural and remote health services utilizing a similar model of allied health service delivery. The model of training developed is based on a 'ground-up' approach to ensure training meets the established need. Developing stand-alone training packages that are also adapted for distance learning improves the sustainability and accessibility to training. Therapy assistants are now able to use on-the-job training to achieve a recognized qualification. Despite this it is not believed feasible for health services to insist that rural and remote TAs have a standardized qualification for their work. This article adds to a growing body of work describing the key

  20. Conductivity models for the North Perth Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, T. E.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Jones, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Exploration for geothermal resources in the North Perth basin, Western Australia, led to acquisition of new, high resolution Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-Magnetotelluric (AMT) data, the first of its kind in the area. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques are widely used in geothermal exploration and ground water investigations and they are well suited for application in the Perth basin. Two east-west transects investigating the structure of the onshore basin and its eastern margin, the Darling Fault Zone, are compared with existing geological models and geophysical data. Down-hole temperature data and depth-to-basement models were used to define areas of investigation in the basin, but there are limited geophysical data available. 1D, 2D and 3D modeling of electromagnetic data have been used to produce new conductivity models using existing data to constrain modelling. EM data complement existing gravity and seismic data and support published models in the upper 4-6km. However in deeper parts of the basin, MT data provide additional information allowing for revision of depth-to-basement. In addition to this, we clearly identify a conductivity anomaly associated with the Darling Fault Zone and are able to image this anomaly penetrating into the upper mantle. Fault zone conductors have been imaged on other lithosphere faults around the world, with one explanation being fluids in the enhanced permeability of the damage zone. Evidence to explain the fault zone conductor of the Darling Fault is presented and discussed as it could have significant implications in the identification of new areas, prospective for geothermal resources in the basin.

  1. Population-based screening for Lynch syndrome in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Lyn; Grieu, Fabienne; Amanuel, Benhur; Carrello, Amerigo; Spagnolo, Dominic; Kiraly, Cathy; Pachter, Nicholas; Goldblatt, Jack; Platell, Cameron; Levitt, Michael; Stewart, Colin; Salama, Paul; Ee, Hooi; Raftopoulous, Spiro; Katris, Paul; Threlfall, Tim; Edkins, Edward; Wallace, Marina; Iacopetta, Barry

    2014-09-01

    We showed earlier that routine screening for microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) led to the identification of previously unrecognized cases of Lynch syndrome (LS). We report here the results of screening for LS in Western Australia (WA) during 1994-2012. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for loss of MMR protein expression was performed in routine pathology laboratories, while MSI was detected in a reference molecular pathology laboratory. Information on germline mutations in MMR genes was obtained from the state's single familial cancer registry. Prior to the introduction of routine laboratory-based screening, an average of 2-3 cases of LS were diagnosed each year amongst WA CRC patients. Following the implementation of IHC and/or MSI screening for all younger (<60 years) CRC patients, this has increased to an average of 8 LS cases diagnosed annually. Based on our experience in WA, we propose three key elements for successful population-based screening of LS. First, for all younger CRC patients, reflex IHC testing should be carried out in accredited pathology services with ongoing quality control. Second, a state- or region-wide reference laboratory for MSI testing should be established to confirm abnormal or suspicious IHC test results and to exclude sporadic cases by carrying out BRAF mutation or MLH1 methylation testing. Finally, a state or regional LS coordinator is essential to ensure that all appropriate cases identified by laboratory testing are referred to and attend a Familial Cancer Clinic for follow-up and germline testing. © 2014 UICC.

  2. 2. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  3. 1. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  4. Working Together, Staying Vital. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Western Australian District High Schools Administrators' Association and the National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (20th, Fremantle, Western Australia, June 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin, Ed.; Hemmings, Brian, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The 20th National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and Western Australia District High School Administrators' Association (WADHSAA) joint conference proceedings, based on the theme "Working Together, Staying Vital," was held in Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia, in June 2004. The proceedings contain 13…

  5. Sustained outbreak of measles in New South Wales, 2012: risks for measles elimination in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Kirsty; Clark, Penelope; Nguyen, Oanh; Rosewell, Alexander; Conaty, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective On 7 April 2012, a recently returned traveller from Thailand to Australia was confirmed to have measles. An outbreak of measles subsequently occurred in the state of New South Wales, prompting a sustained and coordinated response by public health authorities. The last confirmed case presented on 29 November 2012. This report describes the outbreak and its characteristics. Methods Cases were investigated following Australian protocols, including case interviews and assessment of contacts for post-exposure prophylaxis. Results Of the 168 cases identified, most occurred in south-western and western Sydney (92.9%, n = 156). Notable features of this outbreak were the disproportionately high number of cases in the 10–19-year-old age group (29.2%, n = 49), the overrepresentation among people of Pacific Islander descent (21.4%, n = 36) and acquisition in health-care facilities (21.4%, n = 36). There were no reported cases of encephalitis and no deaths. Discussion: This was the largest outbreak of measles in Australia since 1997. Its occurrence highlights the need to maintain vigilant surveillance systems for early detection and containment of measles cases and to maintain high population immunity to measles through routine childhood immunization. Vaccination campaigns targeting susceptible groups may also be necessary to sustain Australia’s measles elimination status. PMID:25635228

  6. Gravity survey of the Mt. Toondina impact structure, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The Mt. Toondina impact structure is located in northern South Australia, about 45 km south of the town of Oodnadatta. Only the central uplift is exposed. The outcrops at Mt. Toondina reveal a remarkable structural anomaly surrounded by a broad expanse of nearly flat-lying beds of the Bulldog Shale of Early Cretaceous age. A gravity survey was undertaken in 1989 to determine the diameter of the impact structure, define the form of the central uplift, and understand the local crustal structure. Data were collected along two orthogonal lines across the structure. In addition to the profiles, a significant number of measurements were made on and around the central uplift. The 1989 gravity data combined with 1963 gravity data and the seismic reflection data provide an excellent data base to interpret the subsurface structure of the Mt. Toondina feature.

  7. New Insights from Seismic Imaging over the Youanmi Terrane, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Omid; Juhlin, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The Youanmi terrane is located in the central parts of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia, an Archean granite-greenstone unit containing numerous mineral deposits such as gold, base metals, nickel, uranium and gemstones. The terrane is surrounded by the Kalgoorlie and Narryer terranes to the east and west, respectively. To the southwest it is bounded by the South West terrane. In order to study the transitions between the Youanmi terrane and the surrounding terranes, as well as identifying potential mineral rich areas, the Geological Survey of Western Australia acquired three deep crustal 2D seismic profiles with a total length of about 700 km in 2010. Correlated record lengths of 20 seconds allow the deep structure of the crust to be investigated with the data, down to Moho depths and greater. Initial processing using a conventional 2D flow show a highly reflective crust with several interesting features. We have now reprocessed the data following mainly the previous processing flow, but with a focus on the shallower crust, less than 10 seconds (about 27 km). Due to the complex geology in the region, 3D aspects of the structures need to be considered in the data processing. Therefore, we investigated the effect of cross-dip corrections to the data. The cross-dip correction has two advantages; (i) reflections are more coherent and enhanced after the correction and (ii) the orientation and dip angle of the geological structures of the corresponding reflections can be identified in the cross-line direction. Where the profiles intersect each other sparse 3D processing can be performed. First arrival travel-time tomography was also tested on parts of the dataset. Travel-time inversion may provide better velocity models at shallow depths than standard reflection seismic processing provides. Preliminary results show that the travel-time tomography has a depth of investigation of about 1 km, a depth that is of interest for mining purposes. Therefore, the tomography

  8. The Acraman impact and its widespread ejecta, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostin, V. A.; Keays, R. R.; Wallace, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    Discovery of a widespread horizon of shock-deformed volcaniclastic ejecta preserved in Late Proterozoic (approx. 600 Ma) shales in South Australia and its probable link to the Acraman impact structure in the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range. Volcanics provide a rare opportunity to study the effects of a major terrestrial impact, including the sedimentology and distribution of an ejecta blanket and its precious-metal signature. The ejecta horizon occurs in the Bunyeroo Formation at many localities within the Adelaide Geosyncline, including the Wearing Hills, which are approx. 350 km northeast of the Acraman impact site. Following a search at the same stratigraphic level in other basins in South Australia, the ejecta has been located within the Lower Rodda beds of the Officer Basin, extending the limits of the ejecta to approx. 470 km northwest of the Acraman impact structure. The ejecta is therefore widely dispersed, and provides an important chronostratigraphic marker enabling precise correlation of Late Proterozoic sequences in southern Australia. In summary, the Bunyeroo ejecta is unique as the only known example of a widely dispersed, coarse-grained ejecta blanket that is, moreover, strongly linked to a known major impact structure. The marked Ir-PGE anomalies in the ejecta horizon provide support for the hypothesis that meteorite impact events can produce Ir anomalies interrestrial sediments. The findings also indicate that Ir can be mobilized and concentrated in sediments by low-temperature diagenetic processes. The identification of ejecta horizons in sedimentary rocks therefore should be based on the coincidence of shock-metamorphic features in the detritus and clear Ir anomalies.

  9. Bayesian Source Attribution of Salmonellosis in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Glass, K; Fearnley, E; Hocking, H; Raupach, J; Veitch, M; Ford, L; Kirk, M D

    2016-03-01

    Salmonellosis is a significant cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia, and rates of illness have increased over recent years. We adopt a Bayesian source attribution model to estimate the contribution of different animal reservoirs to illness due to Salmonella spp. in South Australia between 2000 and 2010, together with 95% credible intervals (CrI). We excluded known travel associated cases and those of rare subtypes (fewer than 20 human cases or fewer than 10 isolates from included sources over the 11-year period), and the remaining 76% of cases were classified as sporadic or outbreak associated. Source-related parameters were included to allow for different handling and consumption practices. We attributed 35% (95% CrI: 20-49) of sporadic cases to chicken meat and 37% (95% CrI: 23-53) of sporadic cases to eggs. Of outbreak-related cases, 33% (95% CrI: 20-62) were attributed to chicken meat and 59% (95% CrI: 29-75) to eggs. A comparison of alternative model assumptions indicated that biases due to possible clustering of samples from sources had relatively minor effects on these estimates. Analysis of source-related parameters showed higher risk of illness from contaminated eggs than from contaminated chicken meat, suggesting that consumption and handling practices potentially play a bigger role in illness due to eggs, considering low Salmonella prevalence on eggs. Our results strengthen the evidence that eggs and chicken meat are important vehicles for salmonellosis in South Australia. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Summer spawning of Porites lutea from north-western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddart, C. W.; Stoddart, J. A.; Blakeway, D. R.

    2012-09-01

    Most coral species off Australia's west coast spawn in the austral autumn (March-April), with a few species also spawning in the southern spring or early summer (November-December). This is the reverse timing to spawning recorded off Australia's east coast. Porites lutea, a gonochoric broadcast spawner that is common on Australia's west coast, is shown here to spawn in the months of November or December, as it does on Australia's east coast. Spawning occurred between 2 and 5 nights after full moon, with the majority of spawning activity on night 3. Gametes developed over three to four months with rapid development in the last two weeks before spawning. Zooxanthellae were typically observed in mature oocytes, only a week before spawning so their presence may provide a useful indicator of imminent spawning.

  11. The geology of Darwin Crater, western Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Kieren T.; Haines, Peter W.

    2007-08-01

    Darwin glass is a siliceous impact glass found in a 400 km 2 strewn field near Mt Darwin, western Tasmania, Australia. It has been dated by Ar-Ar methods at 816 ± 7 ka. A 1.2 km diameter circular depression, named Darwin Crater (42°18.39'S, 145°39.41'E), is the assumed source crater for the glass. Darwin Crater is situated in a remote rain forested valley developed within Siluro-Devonian quartzite and slate (Eldon Group). Earlier geophysical investigations demonstrated that the structure is an almost circular bowl-shaped sediment-filled basin. This paper provides the first detailed description of the geology of Darwin Crater. The centre of the crater has been penetrated by two drill cores, the deeper to a maximum depth of ˜ 230 m. The drill cores intersected fine-grained lacustrine sediments (˜ 60 m thick) overlying poorly sorted coarser crater-fill deposits. The pre-lacustrine crater-fill stratigraphy comprises an uppermost polymict breccia (˜ 40 m thick) of angular quartz and country rock, which contains very rare (≪ 1%) fresh glass fragments (Crater-fill Facies A). Beneath the polymict breccia facies, the drill core intersected monomict sandy breccias of angular quartz (Crater-fill Facies B), and a complicated package of deformed slate clasts (Crater-fill Facies C). Quartz grains in the crater-fill samples contain abundant irregular fractures. In some of the most deformed quartz grains, sub-planar fractures define zones of alternating extinction that superficially resemble twinning. Kinked micas are also present. While the deformation observed in clasts of the crater-fill facies is far greater than in rocks cropping out around the crater, no diagnostic shock indicators, such as planar deformation features (PDF's) in quartz, were observed. If the crater is of impact origin, as seems likely due to the close association with Darwin glass, this is another example of a simple crater where diagnostic shock indicators appear to be absent, preventing

  12. Major Seagrass Carbon Sinks Worldwide, Shark Bay, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-Ortiz, A.; Serrano, O.; Masque, P.; Lavery, P.; Duarte, C. M.; Kendrick, G. A.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrasses are marine foundation species that provide valuable ecosystem services including the stabilization of sediment, carbon dioxide sequestration, and habitat for diverse fauna and flora. Shark Bay, Western Australia, registered as a World Heritage Property, has the largest reported assemblage of seagrass meadows worldwide, thus has an important role in producing, sequestering and storing organic carbon (Corg). We surveyed 30 seagrass meadows in Shark Bay accounting for species composition, seagrass contribution to the sedimentary Corg pool, and habitat variability. The sediment accumulation rates (SAR) and Corg accumulation over short and long terms were determined by means of 210Pb and 14C dating. Sediment grain size was used to characterize sedimentary environments and δ13C analyses to determine the sources of sedimentary Corg stocks in each meadow. Corg stocks accumulated in the last century varied from 0.4 to 4.5 kg Corg m-2, with an average burial rate of 24 ± 11 g Corg m-2 y-1 (10 - 20 cm-thick deposits). Stocks in the top meter ranged from 4 to 30 kg Corg m-2, which is equivalent to a long-term carbon burial rate averaging 8 ± 5 g Corg m-2 y-1 (over the last millennia). With an area of 4,000 km2, seagrass meadows in Shark Bay store the vast amount of 45 ± 23 Tg Corg in the top meter, which would represent about 1% of the Corg stored in seagrass meadows worldwide. Spatial and temporal variability in Corg storage results from various factors, including biological (e.g. net primary production), chemical (e.g. recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and geological (e.g. hydrodynamic energy and sediment accumulation rates). Higher SAR and smaller sediment size appeared to contribute to a higher accumulation and preservation of Corg. Moreover, sediments with highest Corg stocks were characterized by high δ13C, suggesting that the plant itself plays a key role in Corg storage. These findings combined with sediment chronologies help us to understand the formation

  13. Characterising groundwater dynamics in Western Victoria, Australia using Menyanthes software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldeyohannes, Yohannes; Webb, John

    2010-05-01

    Water table across much of the western Victoria, Australia have been declining for at least the last 10-15 years, and this is attributed to the consistently low rainfall for these years, but over the same period of time there has been substantial change in land use, with grazing land replaced by cropping and tree plantations appearing in some areas. Hence, it is important to determine the relative effect the climate and land use factors on the water table changes. Monitoring changes in groundwater levels to climate variables and/or land use change is helpful in indicating the degree of threat faced to agricultural and public assets. The dynamics of the groundwater system in the western Victoria, mainly on the basalt plain, have been modelled to determine the climatic influence in water table fluctuations. In this study, a standardized computer package Menyanthes was used for quantifying the influence of climatic variables on the groundwater level, statistically estimating trends in groundwater levels and identify the properties that determine the dynamics of groundwater system. This method is optimized for use on hydrological problems and is based on the use of continuous time transfer function noise model, which estimates the Impulse response function of the system from the temporal correlation between time series of groundwater level and precipitation surplus. In this approach, the spatial differences in the groundwater system are determined by the system properties, while temporal variation is driven by the dynamics of the input into the system. 80 time series models are analysed and the model output parameter values characterized by their moments. The zero-order moment Mo of a distribution function is its area and M1 is related to the mean of the impulse response function. The relation is M1/Mo. It is a measure of the system's memory. It takes approximately 3 times the mean time (M1/Mo) for the effect of a shower to disappear completely from the system. Overall

  14. Using Web2.0 Applications to Close the Digital Divide in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Sue; Broadley, Tania

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this paper documents the use of Web2.0 applications with six Western Australian schools that are considered to be regional and/or remote. With a population of two million people within an area of 2,525,500 square kilometres Western Australia has a number of towns that are classified as regional and remote. Each of the…

  15. Using Web2.0 Applications to Close the Digital Divide in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Sue; Broadley, Tania

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this paper documents the use of Web2.0 applications with six Western Australian schools that are considered to be regional and/or remote. With a population of two million people within an area of 2,525,500 square kilometres Western Australia has a number of towns that are classified as regional and remote. Each of the…

  16. Education for the Performing Arts: A Review of Post Secondary Needs in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Australia Post Secondary Education Commission, Nedlands.

    An inquiry concerning education for the performing arts in Western Australia that was undertaken by the Western Australian Post Secondary Education Commission is considered, as are the resulting recommendations. Attention is directed to differences between the performing arts and other education, existing educational provisions in Western…

  17. Multi-proxy monitoring approaches at Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Bronwyn; Drysdale, Russell; Tyler, Jonathan; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Interpretations of geochemical signals preserved in young speleothems are greatly enhanced by comprehensive cave-site monitoring. In the light of this, a cave monitoring project is being conducted concurrently with the development of a new palaeoclimate record from Kelly Hill Cave (Kangaroo Island, South Australia). The site is strategically located because it is situated between longer-lived monitoring sites in southeastern and southwestern Australia, as well as being climatically 'upstream' from major population and agricultural centres. This study aims to understand possible controls on speleothem δ18O in Kelly Hill Cave through i. identification of local and regional δ18O drivers in precipitation; and ii. preservation and modification of climatic signals within the epikarst as indicated by dripwater δ18O. These aims are achieved through analysis of a five-year daily rainfall (amount and δ18O) dataset in conjunction with in-cave drip monitoring. Drivers of precipitation δ18O were identified through linear regression between δ18O values and local meteorological variables, air-parcel back trajectories, and synoptic-typing. Synoptically driven moisture sources were identified through the use of NCEP/NCAR climate reanalysis sea-level pressure, precipitable moisture, and outgoing longwave radiation data in order to trace moisture sources and travel mechanisms from surrounding ocean basins. Local controls on δ18O at Kelly Hill Cave are consistent with published interpretations of southern Australia sites, with oxygen isotopes primarily controlled by rainfall amount on both daily and monthly time scales. Back-trajectory analysis also supports previous observations that the Southern Ocean is the major source for moisture-bearing cold-front systems. However, synoptic typing of daily rainfall δ18O and amount extremes reveals a previously unreported tropical connection and moisture source. This tropical connection appears to be strongest in summer and autumn, but

  18. An arid-adapted middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from south-central Australia.

    PubMed

    Prideaux, Gavin J; Long, John A; Ayliffe, Linda K; Hellstrom, John C; Pillans, Brad; Boles, Walter E; Hutchinson, Mark N; Roberts, Richard G; Cupper, Matthew L; Arnold, Lee J; Devine, Paul D; Warburton, Natalie M

    2007-01-25

    How well the ecology, zoogeography and evolution of modern biotas is understood depends substantially on knowledge of the Pleistocene. Australia has one of the most distinctive, but least understood, Pleistocene faunas. Records from the western half of the continent are especially rare. Here we report on a diverse and exceptionally well preserved middle Pleistocene vertebrate assemblage from caves beneath the arid, treeless Nullarbor plain of south-central Australia. Many taxa are represented by whole skeletons, which together serve as a template for identifying fragmentary, hitherto indeterminate, remains collected previously from Pleistocene sites across southern Australia. A remarkable eight of the 23 Nullarbor kangaroos are new, including two tree-kangaroos. The diverse herbivore assemblage implies substantially greater floristic diversity than that of the modern shrub steppe, but all other faunal and stable-isotope data indicate that the climate was very similar to today. Because the 21 Nullarbor species that did not survive the Pleistocene were well adapted to dry conditions, climate change (specifically, increased aridity) is unlikely to have been significant in their extinction.

  19. Mid-Cryogenian Stromatolite Reefs of Central and South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdel, C.; Campbell, M.

    2016-12-01

    Neoproterozoic strata are largely correlative between the Adelaide Rift Complex (ARC) of South Australia and the Amadeus Basin of central Australia. In both regions, basal- and terminal-Cryogenian glacigenic rocks are separated by intervening shallow-marine and carbonate-rich strata. In the northern part of the ARC, these stratigraphic records of the Cryogenian "non-glacial interlude" include a stromatolite reef complex in the Balcanoona Fm. that is disconformably overlain by the Amberoona and Yankaninna Fms. The stratigraphic equivalent of the Balcanoona Fm. in the Amadeus Basin is within the Ringwood Mbr. of the Aralka Fm., which also contains abundant stromatolites. Based largely on stromatolite occurrence, we informally divide the Ringwood Mbr. into four sub-members (from oldest to youngest, sub-members A through D), and we present new carbon isotope data from carbonate (δ13Ccarb) illustrating a negative excursion in sub-member C, which is bracketed above and below by stromatolitic intervals. Comparison with previous δ13Ccarb results from the northern ARC suggests that the excursion is omitted there along the unconformity at the top of the Balcanoona Fm. This unconformity is widespread in the ARC and, in fact, is the boundary between the "Sturtian" and "Marinoan" stratigraphic series. We suggest that the same unconformity separates the Ringwood Mbr. from the overlying Limbla Mbr. in the Amadeus Basin. These observations and correlations suggest widespread stromatolite reef development in both central Australia and the ARC during a portion of the Cryogenian non-glacial interlude. This phase of stromatolite reef expansion includes a negative δ13Ccarb excursion that may be correlative with Cryogenian stratigraphic successions in other parts of the world, and it seems to have been terminated, in both regions, by a fall in sea-level.

  20. Implications of high species turnover on the south-western Australian sandplains

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Neil; Prober, Suzanne; Meissner, Rachel; van Leeuwen, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Species turnover and its components related to replacement and nestedness form a significant element of diversity that is historically poorly accounted for in conservation planning. To inform biodiversity conservation and contribute to a broader understanding of patterns in species turnover, we undertook a floristic survey of 160 plots along an 870 km transect across oligotrophic sandplains, extending from the mesic south coast to the arid interior of south-western Australia. A nested survey design was employed to sample distances along the transect as evenly as possible. Species turnover was correlated with geographic distance at both regional and local scales, consistent with dispersal limitation being a significant driver of species turnover. When controlled for species richness, species replacement was found to be the dominant component of species turnover and was uniformly high across the transect, uncorrelated with either climatic or edaphic factors. This high replacement rate, well documented in the mega-diverse south-west, appears to also be a consistent feature of arid zone vegetation systems despite a decrease in overall species richness. Species turnover increased rapidly with increasing extent along the transect reaching an asymptote at ca. 50 km. These findings are consistent with earlier work in sandplain and mallee vegetation in the south-west and suggests reserve based conservation strategies are unlikely to be practicable in the south-western Australia sandplains when communities are defined by species incidence rather than dominance. PMID:28245232

  1. Managing health impacts of heat in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Schuch, Gemma; Serrao-Neumann, Silvia; Choy, Darryl Low

    2014-01-01

    Heatwaves kill more people than any other natural hazard in Australia. Current literature on managing health risks of heatwaves highlights the importance of implementing urban planning measures, and engaging with vulnerable groups on a local level to better understand perceptions of risk and tailor health protection measures. This paper reviews arrangements to reduce heatwave health risks in South East Queensland in response to these themes. A literature search and document analysis, stakeholder interviews, and multi-stakeholder cross-sectoral workshops revealed that although heatwave management is not always considered by local government and disaster management stakeholders, many urban planning measures to minimize urban heat have been pursued. However, greater information from vulnerable groups is still needed to better inform heatwave management measures. PMID:28229002

  2. Managing health impacts of heat in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Gemma; Serrao-Neumann, Silvia; Choy, Darryl Low

    2014-01-01

    Heatwaves kill more people than any other natural hazard in Australia. Current literature on managing health risks of heatwaves highlights the importance of implementing urban planning measures, and engaging with vulnerable groups on a local level to better understand perceptions of risk and tailor health protection measures. This paper reviews arrangements to reduce heatwave health risks in South East Queensland in response to these themes. A literature search and document analysis, stakeholder interviews, and multi-stakeholder cross-sectoral workshops revealed that although heatwave management is not always considered by local government and disaster management stakeholders, many urban planning measures to minimize urban heat have been pursued. However, greater information from vulnerable groups is still needed to better inform heatwave management measures.

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Australian Science Education Association (23rd, Perth, Western Australia, November 13, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Leonie, Ed.

    These proceedings contain reviewed and edited papers from the 23rd annual meeting of the Western Australian Science Education Association (WASEA). Papers include: (1) Using Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Validate a Questionnaire to Describe Science Teacher Behavior in Taiwan and Australia (Darrell Fisher, David Henderson, and…

  4. Nutrient transport to the Swan - Canning Estuary, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.; Donohue, R.

    2001-01-01

    Catchment nutrient availability in Western Australia is primarily controlled by the disposal of animal waste and the type and rate of fertilizer application, particularly on the relatively narrow (~25 km wide), sandy coastal plain. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) concentrations and fluxes during the wet season of 15 tributaries, including four urban drains to the Swan-Canning Estuary, were evaluated from 1986 to 1992 and additionally concentrations only were evaluated throughout the year from 1993 to 1996. Concentrations of filtered reactive P (FRP) and total P (TP) were generally low, with the volume-weighted means for all sites being 0.06 mg 1-1 and 0.12 mg 1-1 respectively. The urban drains had higher TP concentrations (volume-weighted mean of 0.21 mg 1-1) than the streams (0.12 mg 1-1), with the high concentrations associated with particulate matter. Total inorganic N (TIN, NH4N plus NO3N) and total N (TN), which is of interest to eutrophic status of the N-limited estuary, were likewise low, compared with other developed areas having a similar climate. Both TIN and TN were higher in the urban drains (0.76 mg 1-1 and 1.5 mg 1-1 respectively) than the streams (0.31 mg 1-1 and 1.2 mg 1-1 respectively). The Avon River, which drains 98.5% of the 121 000 km2 catchment area, contributes most of the N (0.03 kg ha-1 year-1 or 65%) and a high percentage of the P (<0.01 kg ha-1 year-1 or 32%) to the estuaries. The Avon River nutrient fluxes are much less than other tributaries closer to the estuary. The coastal plain receives significantly higher rainfall (1,200 mm year-1) and has more intense horticulture and animal production than inland areas (<300 mm year-1). Annual rainfall is seasonal, occuring primarily from May through December. The surficial aquifers on the coastal plain generally are sandy with a low nutrient retention capacity, and rapidly transmit soluble and colloidal material in subsurface flow. Ellen Brook, on the coastal plain, drains pastures treated

  5. Spatial and temporal variability of past rainfall in western Australia inferred from tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Alison; Cook, Edward; Turney, Chris; Palmer, Jonathan; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Grierson, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    For much of the Southern Hemisphere, the ability to identify spatial and temporal patterns of past climatic variability is constrained by the short length of instrumental records and the sparse spatial distribution of proxy records. This is particularly true for continental Australia, where instrumental records are generally <100 years long and where there are also few proxy records. We have developed two high-resolution chronologies using growth rings of cypress pines (Callitris columellaris) from northwest and southwest Australia. These chronologies are currently the only multi-century tree-ring records for mainland Australia. Both chronologies are strongly correlated with hydroclimate and allow robust reconstructions of past hydroclimatic variability over spatially broad areas (i.e., > 3° x 3°) of inland western Australia. These reconstructions represent significant extensions of the instrumental rainfall records and reveal inter-annual to multidecadal-scale variation in past hydroclimate over the last two centuries for northwest Australia and four centuries for southwest Australia. In both the northwest and southwest regions, periods of prolonged drought (typically extending between one and three decades) have been interspersed with shorter periods of above-average rainfall (typically less than a decade). Of particular note our northwest record reveals that the last two decades (1995-2012) have been unusually wet in inland northwest Australia compared to the previous two centuries. This period of unusually high rainfall coincided with both an anomalously high frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones in northwest Australia and the dominance of the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode, both of which are major mechanisms of rainfall delivery to inland northwest Australia. Our tree-ring records also reveal the occurrence of several prolonged drought periods as well as extreme wet events in the last two centuries that were synchronous between northwest

  6. Evaluation of the Integrated Services Pilot Program from Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Peter; Cooper, Trudi; Bahn, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Independent evaluation of refugee-focused programs in developed nations is increasingly a mandatory requirement of funding bodies and government agencies. This paper presents an evaluation of the Integrated Services Centre (ISC) Pilot Project that was conducted in Australia in 2007 and early 2008. The purpose of the ISC program was to provide…

  7. Implementation of a Syllabus Innovation in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Colin J.; Hill, Peter W.

    1984-01-01

    This study investigated the implementation of a geography syllabus in Australia between 1976 and 1980. Influences on level of implementation included the state education system, an external examination system, and a very active geography teachers' association. The problems and achievements perceived by teachers in implementing the syllabus are…

  8. Evaluation of the Integrated Services Pilot Program from Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Peter; Cooper, Trudi; Bahn, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Independent evaluation of refugee-focused programs in developed nations is increasingly a mandatory requirement of funding bodies and government agencies. This paper presents an evaluation of the Integrated Services Centre (ISC) Pilot Project that was conducted in Australia in 2007 and early 2008. The purpose of the ISC program was to provide…

  9. Remote Music: How It Happens in Western Australia's Pilbara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younghusband, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Karratha is a town in Australia's remote north-west, 1600 km north of a capital city, Perth. It was a long way from "musical civilization" and a totally different teaching situation for a music teacher used to English classrooms. The first challenge was the dominance of sport at the school, but Peter Younghusband tells how he worked to…

  10. Remote Music: How It Happens in Western Australia's Pilbara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younghusband, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Karratha is a town in Australia's remote north-west, 1600 km north of a capital city, Perth. It was a long way from "musical civilization" and a totally different teaching situation for a music teacher used to English classrooms. The first challenge was the dominance of sport at the school, but Peter Younghusband tells how he worked to…

  11. A comparison of autism prevalence trends in Denmark and Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Parner, Erik T; Thorsen, Poul; Dixon, Glenys; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen; Nassar, Natasha; Bourke, Jenny; Bower, Carol; Glasson, Emma J

    2011-12-01

    Prevalence statistics for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) vary widely across geographical boundaries. Some variation can be explained by diagnostic methods, case ascertainment and age at diagnosis. This study compared prevalence statistics for two distinct geographical regions, Denmark and Western Australia, both of which have had population-based registers and consistent classification systems operating over the past decade. Overall ASD prevalence rates were higher in Denmark (68.5 per 10,000 children) compared with Western Australia (51.0 per 10,000 children), while the diagnosis of childhood autism was more prevalent in Western Australia (39.3 per 10,000 children) compared with Denmark (21.8 per 10,000 children). These differences are probably caused by local phenomena affecting case ascertainment but influence from biological or geographical factors may exist.

  12. Bioengineering in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Stachowiak, G W

    1991-01-01

    Although bioengineering is not formally taught in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Australia, undergraduate and postgraduate projects in this area are very popular among the students. Meetings of the research staff and students working in this area and in tribology in general are organized once a week where the research progress is reported and problems encountered are discussed. Very good collaboration has been established with the Royal Perth Hospital and the Departments of Anatomy and Pathology, University of Western Australia. The Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Australia, has been most helpful over the years in meeting financial needs. The Department has also received over the years some support from the West Australian Arthritic Research Foundation.

  13. A Bayesian Belief Network for Murray Valley encephalitis virus risk assessment in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Soon Hoe; Speldewinde, Peter; Cook, Angus

    2016-01-28

    Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a clinically important virus in Australia responsible for a number of epidemics over the past century. Since there is no vaccine for MVEV, other preventive health measures to curtail its spread must be considered, including the development of predictive risk models and maps to help direct public health interventions. This article aims to support these approaches by presenting a model for assessing MVEV risk in Western Australia (WA). A Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for assessing MVEV risk was developed and used to quantify and map disease risks in WA. The model combined various abiotic, biotic, and anthropogenic factors that might affect the risk of MVEV into a predictive framework, based on the ecology of the major mosquito vector and waterbird hosts of MVEV. It was further refined and tested using retrospective climate data from 4 years (2000, 2003, 2009, and 2011). Implementing the model across WA demonstrated that it could predict locations of human MVEV infection and sentinel animal seroconversion in the 4 years tested with some degree of accuracy. In general, risks are highest in the State's north and lower in the south. The model predicted that short-term climate change, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's A1B emissions scenario, would decrease MVEV risks in summer and autumn, largely due to higher temperatures decreasing vector survival. To our knowledge, this is the first model to use a BBN to quantify MVEV risks in WA. The models and maps developed here may assist public health agencies in preparing for and managing Murray Valley encephalitis in the future. In its current form, the model is knowledge-driven and based on the analysis of potential risk factors that affect the dynamics of MVEV using retrospective data. Further work and additional testing should be carried out to test its validity in future years.

  14. Drainage discharge impacts on hydrology and water quality of receiving streams in the wheatbelt of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Riasat; Silberstein, Richard; Byrne, John; Hodgson, Geoff

    2013-11-01

    The use of surface and subsurface drainage to manage waterlogging and salinity in dryland (rainfed) and irrigated agricultural systems is common throughout the world. The drainage systems often discharge into natural streams. The same is true for the wheatbelt drainage systems in south-western Australia, where 11,000 km (ABS 2003) of artificial drains have been constructed within the last two decades. Prior to this study, the likely impacts of this discharge on the streambed chemistry and water quality of receiving streams were largely unknown. The study evaluated these impacts in creeks receiving the drainage discharge from engineering options in four river systems in south-western Australia. This study clearly showed elevated levels of metals ions, EC and pH in the stream water at treated sites relative to their levels at untreated sites. At most sites, impacts of drainage discharge were observed on the streambed electrical conductivity (EC) and pH (both in 1:5 extract) in the receiving streams; however, there was little evidence of impact on metal ion content in the streambed soil. The study found no clear differences in the dynamics of the watertable adjacent to streams whether they received drainage discharge or not, irrespective of the size of the artificial drainage systems.

  15. Paleoproterozoic gold deposits in the Bald Hill and Coyote areas, Western Tanami, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagas, Leon; Huston, David L.; Anderson, James; Mernagh, Terrence P.

    2007-01-01

    Significant gold deposits in the western Tanami region of Western Australia include deposits in the Bald Hill and Coyote areas. The ca. 1,864 Ma Bald Hill sequence of turbiditic and mafic volcanic rocks hosts the Kookaburra and Sandpiper deposits and a number of smaller prospects. The ca. 1,835 Ma turbiditic Killi Killi Formation hosts the Coyote deposit and several nearby prospects. The Kookaburra deposit forms as a saddle reef within a syncline, and the Sandpiper deposit is localized within graphitic metasedimentary rocks along a limb of an anticline. Gold in these deposits is hosted by anastomosing quartz-(-pyrite-arsenopyrite) veins within quartz-sericite schist with disseminated arsenopyrite, pyrite, and marcasite (after pyrrhotite). Based on relative timing relationships with structural elements, the auriferous veins are interpreted to have been emplaced before or during the ca. 1,835-1,825 Ma Tanami Orogeny (regional D1). Gold deposition is thought to have been caused by pressure drops associated with saddle reef formation (Kookaburra) and chemical reactions with graphitic rocks (Sandpiper). The Coyote deposit, the largest in the western Tanami region, consists of a number of ore lenses localized along the limbs of the Coyote Anticline, which formed during the Tanami Orogeny. The largest lenses are associated with the Gonzalez Fault, which is located along the steeply dipping southern limb of this fold. Gold was introduced at ca. 1,790 Ma into dilatant zones that formed in local perturbations along this fault during later reactivation (regional D5) towards the end of a period of granite emplacement. Gold is associated with quartz-chlorite-pyrite-(arsenopyrite-galena-sphalerite) veins with narrow (< 5 mm) chloritic selvages. A quartz-muscovite-biotite-K-feldspar-(tourmaline-actinolite-arsenopyrite) assemblage, which is interpreted to relate to granite emplacement, overprints the regional greenschist facies metamorphic assemblage. The mineralogical similarity

  16. Aboriginal pregnancies and births in South Australia, 1981-1982.

    PubMed

    Hart, G; MacHarper, T; Moore, D; Roder, D

    1985-10-28

    Information on 555 Aboriginal births which occurred during 1981 and 1982 was forwarded by midwives to the South Australian perinatal statistics unit. Corresponding information was also supplied for all other births in the state. This information showed that Aboriginal women appear to have a higher fertility rate than do other women, particularly in the teenage years. Aboriginal mothers are very young and have a high parity. They appear to receive little antenatal care and there is a greater tendency for their pregnancies to be complicated by medical conditions, such as anaemia, urinary tract infections, cardiac disorders and diabetes. Post-partum haemorrhages and retained placentas are relatively common, as are genital tract infections after delivery. Aboriginal babies are characterized by low birthweights, low Apgar scores, and prematurity. There is an indication that Aboriginal babies may have a high perinatal mortality rate in the country areas of South Australia. It is intended that this information be used as a baseline for evaluating trends in the health status of Aborigines.

  17. An O-17 record of Neoproterozoic snowball Earth in Kimberley, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, H.; Chen, Z.; Zhou, C.

    2011-12-01

    Non-mass-dependently 17O-depleted signatures have recently been found in sulfate associated with the aftermath of Marinoan glacial meltdown at ca. 635 million years ago. The anomaly was proposed to be inherited from atmospheric O2 via oxidative weathering of sulfides. An extremely high pCO2 atmosphere could produce such an anomaly. The finding has become one of the strongest lines of evidence supporting a "hard" snowball Earth hypothesis. Further studies linking the Δ17O of barite to sedimentological-geological context in Marinoan South China confirm that the 17O-depleted sulfate was derived from oxidative weathering and the anomalous 17O signal was detectable at sites close to paleo-continental runoffs while diluted and often undetectable in the open oceans. On the other hand, host minerals or rocks for the Marinoan 17O anomalies have been limited to barite (South China and West Africa) and carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) in limestone lenses within the diamictite (Svalbard). If the 17O depletion is indeed closely related to an extraordinary atmospheric condition associated with the great Marinoan meltdown, the signal should be global in its distribution. Kimberley region of Western Australia was close to a continent in late Neoproterozoic, according to Rodinia reconstruction and regional geology. A confirmation of this anomalous signal in Australia is a critical test to our hypothesis. We report here that the Δ17O of carbonate-associated sulfate reaches as low as -0.68% in the dolostones draping the Neoproterozoic Moonlight-Valley (MLV) diamictite, Texas/Mabel Downs, Kimberley, Western Australia. The magnitude of the 17O depletion gradually decreases (i.e. approaching normal) when going up towards the overlying Ranford sandstone. A positive correlation between the δ34S and the Δ17O exists, as does the case in South China and Svalbard. The CAS in the MLV cap dolostones in the Palm Spring section, however, does not bear distinct 17O depletion. Neither does

  18. Too little, too late: mental health nursing education in Western Australia, 1958-1994.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Anthony R; Martyr, Philippa

    2013-06-01

    Mental health nursing education in Australia has undergone a significant transition in the last 50 years, influenced by national inquiries, national decisions, and international trends in nursing education. But mental health nursing education had also accumulated decades of history in each state, including sometimes unequal relations with general nursing. Complex inter- and intra-professional relationships at state level influenced this educational transition in each state, and Western Australia provides an example of this influence. Using a range of published and unpublished sources, including oral histories, this paper describes the revision of the mental health nursing curriculum in Western Australia from 1958, responses to the call for transition to the tertiary sector between 1976 and 1984, and the final transition of mental health nursing education to university level in Western Australia in 1994. Mental health nursing's educational standards improved only gradually in Western Australia from 1958 onwards, compared with professional advances in general nursing in the same period. Factors which may have held back these improvements include mental health nursing's professional conservatism, which was outpaced by general nursing's growing radicalization at the national level. A lack of professional confidence and cohesion left mental health nursing unable to respond effectively to rapid external changes in the 1960s and 1970s, and vulnerable to absorption and dominance by general nursing education programs.

  19. Aboriginal astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia. Part 1: Nyeeruna and 'The Orion Story'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE recorded the daily lives, lore and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as 'The Orion Story', stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of 'The Orion Story', including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

  20. Bilharziasis survey in south-western Asia*

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Azim, M.; Gismann, Anne

    1956-01-01

    This paper describes a limited survey of bilharziasis and its vectors carried out during 1950 and 1951 in some countries of south-western Asia. Lack of time and of full facilities prevented the survey from being as comprehensive and systematic as would have been wished, but enough data were obtained to provide a general estimate of the situation. Information already available from the literature was supplemented by collecting unpublished records, questioning the inhabitants, examining random samples of stools and urine, and investigating rivers, wells, and springs. Bilharziasis haematobia is already heavily endemic in the irrigated areas of Iraq and is also present, in comparatively smaller foci, in northern Syria, Israel, and Sa'udi Arabia. In the opinion of the senior author (M. A. A.), the envisaged extension of irrigation is likely to create a serious health problem in Mesopotamia and to introduce the disease into the Jordan region unless the spread of the molluscan vector, Bulinus sp., is checked. Intensification of infection and further spread are possible in Israel and in the Syrian Jezire, while the remainder of Syria and Lebanon are not considered to be endangered. Bilharziasis mansoni is widespread in the fertile areas of Sa'udi Arabia and also occurs in one minor focus in Israel. The industrialization of Sa'udi Arabia which is planned to exploit its oil resources, with its inevitable concentration of population, equally presents a danger in the intensification of bilharziasis. It is considered that, unless prompt measures are undertaken to break the link between the agricultural and industrial expansion and the spread of the disease, the debilitation of large groups of the population and the economic loss which may well result over most of the inhabited parts of the area discussed will be significant. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:13342925

  1. Mud cracks and dedolomitization in the Wittenoom Dolomite, Hamersley Group, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kargel, J.S.; Schreiber, J.F.; Sonett, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    Several impure dolomitic limestone beds in an outcrop of the latest Archean Wittenoom Dolomite (Hamersley Group, Western Australia) are polygonally cracked. The cracks appear to be sub-aerial desiccation features, suggesting that the known area of shallow water and locally emergent conditions extended from the far eastern part of the basin (the Carawine Dolomite) over 270 km farther west. This finding places shallow- water or emergent conditions either (1) near the middle of what Trendall (1983) defined as the probable original limits of the Hamersley Basin (Trendall's 'Pilbara Egg') or (2) near the southern edge of what Morris (1993) thought to be a broad carbonate platform which fed a deeper water sequence to the south. In any case, the Hamersley Basin in the area of Bee Gorge and eastward to the Carawine Dolomite may have been a carbonate mudflat in part with restricted circulation of sea water. The Carawine Dolomite and the Wittenoom Dolomite near Bee Gorge may have been affected by carbonate buildups along a shelf edge. Regardless of whether shallow water was widespread or local in the Hamersley basin, shallow water verging on emergence is supported by evidence of diagenetic dedolomitization under conditions of low atmospheric and hydrospheric P(O2) and precipitation of strontianite in the mud-cracked sample. Evidence of shallow water at Bee Gorge is consistent with Trendall's broad evaporite-basin model and with Morris' barred-platform model for the origin of Hamersley carbonates and banded iron-formations.

  2. Influence of microscale turbulence on the phytoplankton of a temperate coastal embayment, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Daniel A.; Marti, Clelia L.; Imberger, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the influence of microscale turbulence on the large phytoplankton of a coastal embayment in south-western Australia. Microstructure, physical and fluorometric depth-profiling field measurements and water sampling for nutrient, chlorophyll-a analyses and counting of the large size fraction of phytoplankton (microphytoplankton) were conducted in late-winter and late-spring of 2012. In both seasons we observed dominance of diatoms, low numbers of dinoflagellates, low nutrient concentrations, nitrogen limitation, clear waters and high turbulence intensities. In late-winter, total nitrogen, chlorophyll-a and diatom cell concentrations were higher than in late-spring, but dinoflagellates abundance did not change substantially. This indicated that the chain-forming diatom life-forms that dominated (Leptocylindrus, Chaetoceros and Skeletonema) were able to utilize the increased pulses of nitrogen in late-winter. The prevailing turbulence intensities observed, associated with the wind speed, were such that the Batchelor scale was smaller than the length of the diatom chains (100-300 μm), implying that these diatoms could experience microscale nutrient gradients. By contrast, the Kolmogorov velocity scales overwhelmed the motility abilities of the dinoflagellates observed, which in turn gain only little benefit from self propulsion at high turbulence. It is suggested that, nutrient storage allows diatoms surviving calm periods of low nutrient availability and formation of siliceous cell chains provide diatoms an advantage in accessing nutrients in turbulent coastal ecosystems.

  3. Evidence for structural stacking and repetition in the greenstones of the Kalgoorlie district, western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martyn, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Most previous stratigraphic interpretations of the southern part of the Norseman-Wiluna Greenstone Belt have proposed polycyclic sequences. These invoked two and sometimes three successive suites of mafic and/or ultimafic volcanics and intrusives separated by felsic volcanics and immature clastic sediments, however no distinctive lithological differences were reported between successive mafic-ultramaic sequences. When interpretations of the area further to the north are integrated, a total of four separate major mafic-ultramafic uites emerges for a large part of the Norseman-Wiluna Belt. Although the author does not intent to imply that all polycyclic stratigraphies are wrong in principle such a situation seems suspiciously over-complex and stimulates the need to look critically at the individual areas where the stratigraphies have seen erected. For the Kalgoorlie area in the south, some of the schemes have already provoked scepticism and a simpler model consisting of one cycle subject to structural repetition has been evolved by workers in the Geological Survey of Western Australia for part of this area. The latter drew attention to the carbon copy similarity between the elements of some polycyclic stratigraphies. Much more regionally extensive integrated structural and stratigraphic data is still required to evaluate the relationship between structure and stratigraphy more fully, an objective substantially limited by poor outcrop and deep weathering, but with due effort, far from unattainable.

  4. The Giles Complex, South Australia: mantle plume or SCLM source?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. F.; Wade, B.

    2009-12-01

    The Giles Complex of the Musgrave Block, Central Australia comprise a number of discrete layered ultramafic-mafic intrusions of Neoproterozoic age. These intrusives are considered to represent the remnants of a far more extensive Large Igneous Province (LIP), the ~1.08Ga Warakurna Province, which once covered much of central and western Australia[1]. Here we present 187Re-187Os isotopic data for transects across two of the larger cumulate bodies within the province, the Kalka and Gosse Pile intrusions. These bodies are dominantly comprised of pyroxenites and gabbros, with local picrites, websterites and anorthosites. Initial γOs values are typically close to chondritic, but do range to significantly subchondritic (γOs(i) = -13) with the most evolved being a websterite with (γOs(i) = +8.5). These data contrast with the relatively evolved lithophile isotope signatures recoded in the intrusions (ɛNd(i) ~ -1 to ~-5), which suggests that either the plume source contained a depleted component which was contaminated by continental crust,. Such a component could incorporate a significant SCLM contribution, however mixing models present non-unique solutions for primary vs SCLM Os. Alternatively, Nd and Os isotopes may be decoupled; or a third, highly speculative option, is that the Giles Complex is much younger than previously considered, resulting in higher γOs(i) values, which would suggest a greater crustal input, more in line with Nd isotope constraints. [1] Wingate, MTD, Pirajno, F and Morris, PA. 2004 Geology 32(2) 105-10

  5. 5. INTERIOR, STORAGE AREA AT WESTERN END, FROM SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR, STORAGE AREA AT WESTERN END, FROM SOUTH OF LOADING DOCK WELL, LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Coffee Roasting Plant, East of Fourth Street, between J & K, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. Western end of viaduct, looking south at crossing of amtrak ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Western end of viaduct, looking south at crossing of amtrak tracks. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  7. VIEW OF WESTERN PARTITION OF FRONT BAY ROOM, FACING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WESTERN PARTITION OF FRONT BAY ROOM, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. Sexual Difficulties for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redelman, Margaret Juliet

    2009-01-01

    This 1992 study was conducted to ascertain the incidence of sexual difficulties in individuals diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) living in New South Wales, Australia. New South Wales is a state lying roughly 29-36 [degrees] south of the equator. This is currently the largest study conducted. The anonymous questionnaire completed by 283…

  9. Sexual Difficulties for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redelman, Margaret Juliet

    2009-01-01

    This 1992 study was conducted to ascertain the incidence of sexual difficulties in individuals diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) living in New South Wales, Australia. New South Wales is a state lying roughly 29-36 [degrees] south of the equator. This is currently the largest study conducted. The anonymous questionnaire completed by 283…

  10. Impact of land cover change on the climate of southwest Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, A. J.; Narisma, G. T.; Pielke, R. A.; Holbrook, N. J.

    2004-09-01

    A sudden reduction in rainfall occurred in the southwest of Western Australia in the mid-20th century. This reduced inflows to the Perth water supply by about 120 GL (42%) and led to an acceleration of projects to develop new water sources at a cost of about $300 million. The reduction in rainfall was coincident with warmer temperatures. A major analysis of these changes indicated that the changes in temperature were likely caused by the enhanced greenhouse effect and that the changes in rainfall were likely caused by a large-scale reorganization of the atmospheric circulation. We explore an alternative hypothesis that large-scale land cover change explains the observed changes in rainfall and temperature. We use three high-resolution mesoscale model configurations forced at the boundaries to simulate (for each model) five July climates for each of natural and current land cover. We find that land cover change explains up to 50% of the observed warming. Following land cover change, we also find, in every simulation, a reduction in rainfall over southwest Western Australia and an increase in rainfall inland that matches the observations well. We show that the reduced surface roughness following land cover change largely explains the simulated changes in rainfall by increasing moisture divergence over southwest Western Australia and increasing moisture convergence inland. Increased horizontal wind magnitudes and suppressed vertical velocities over southwest Western Australia reduce the likelihood of precipitation. Inland, moisture convergence and increased vertical velocities lead to an increase in rainfall. Our results indicate that rainfall over southwest Western Australia may be returned to the long-term average through large-scale reforestation, a policy option within the control of local government. Such a program would also provide a century-scale carbon sink to ameliorate Australia's very high per capita greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Modern dolomite deposition in continental, saline lakes, western Victoria, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    De Deckker, P.; Last, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Microcrystalline dolomite forms a major constituent of Holocene sediments of numerous continental, saline playa lakes in southeastern Australia. The lake waters are highly supersaturated with respect to dolomite as well as other Mg carbonates, but undersaturated or near saturation with respect to calcite and aragonite. The dolomite shows no replacement textures and most likely formed by direct precipitation. Conditions in these lakes that appear conducive to the precipitation of dolomite are (1) high salinity, (2) high Mg/Ca ratios, and (3) high alkalinity. The moderate sulfate levels of the brines do not seem to be inhibiting carbonate precipitation.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus 'Down Under': contemporary epidemiology of S. aureus in Australia, New Zealand, and the South West Pacific.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D A; Coombs, G W; Nimmo, G R

    2014-07-01

    The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus disease has changed considerably over the past two decades, particularly with the emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) clones. Indeed, some of the first global descriptions of CA-MRSA were from remote indigenous communities in Western Australia, and from Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The epidemiology of S. aureus infections in the South West Pacific has several unique features, largely because of the relative geographical isolation and unique indigenous communities residing in this region. In particular, a number of distinct CA-MRSA clones circulate in Australia and New Zealand, such as sequence type (ST) 93 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (Queensland clone) and clonal complex 75 S. aureus (Staphylococcus argenteus) in Australia, and ST30 MRSA (Southwest Pacific clone) in New Zealand. In addition, there is a disproportionate burden of S. aureus disease in indigenous paediatric populations, particularly in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, and in Pacific Peoples and Maori in New Zealand. In this review, we provide a contemporary overview of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus disease in the South West Pacific region, with a particular focus on features distinct to this region.

  13. Chirostylidae of Australia's western continental margin (Crustacea : Decapoda: Anomura), with the description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Mccallum, Anna W; Poore, Gary C B

    2013-01-01

    Five new species from the squat lobster family Chirostylidae are described from the continental margin of western Australia: Uroptychus albus sp. nov., Uroptychus bardi sp. nov., Uroptychus jawi sp. nov., Uroptychus taylorae sp. nov., and Uroptychus worrorra sp. nov. New records of Indo-West Pacific species for Australia are: Gastroptychus brachyterus Baba, 2005, Gastroptychus investigatoris Alcock, 1899, Uroptychodes grandirostris (Yokoya, 1933), Uroptychodes inortenseni (Van Dam, 1939), Uroptychus scandens Benedict, 1902, Uroptychus ciliatus (Van Dam, 1933) and Uroptychus vandamae Baba, 1988. New distributional records are given for species previously recorded from Australia: Uroptychus flindersi Ahyong & Poore, 2004, Uroptychus hesperius Ahyong & Poore, 2004, Uroptychusjoloensis Van Dam, 1939, Uroptychus nigricapillis Alcock, 1901, and Uroptychus spinirostris (Ahyong & Poore, 2004). These new records expand the number of chirostylid species in Australia from 34 to 46. Keys to Australian species of the genera Gastroptychus, Uroptychodes and Uroptychus are provided.

  14. Geography in Western Australia--A Time of Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    The Western Australian schooling system is in the final phase of the move towards Outcomes Based Education with the Post Compulsory Geography Course of Study commencing in 2007. This move has been somewhat controversial amongst politicians, teachers and parent groups, partly because of the negative press Outcomes Based Education has received in…

  15. Enacting the Independent Public Schools Program in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobby, Brad

    2013-01-01

    The Independent Public Schools (IPS) program began to be implemented in some Western Australian schools in 2010. The IPS program devolves a number of responsibilities to principals and is part of the political objective of removing the constraints of the education bureaucracy by fostering school level decision-making, problem-solving and…

  16. Native shrub seed industries in the western United States and Australia: Status and outlook

    Treesearch

    N. L. Shaw; C. M. Waters

    2003-01-01

    Attempts to improve habitat for wildlife and increase forage for livestock contributed to development of native shrub seed industries in the western United States and in Australia. Shrub seedings and plantings in both countries are concentrated in areas with low and unpredictable precipitation and high probability for planting failures. In addition, both countries have...

  17. Indigenous Mothers' Aspirations for Their Children in Perth, Western Australia: The Value of Education and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lette, Helen; D'Espaignet, Edouard Tursan; Slack-Smith, Linda; Hunt, Kerry; Nannup, Janine

    2009-01-01

    This project involved the collection of stories about the aspirations, goals and strategies from a sample of mothers of Indigenous children living in Perth, Western Australia. Analysis of the semi-structured interviews indicated that the education of their children was important for many of the mothers. Whilst some of the mothers preferred their…

  18. Closing the Digital Divide: Education Telecommunications Systems and Possibilities in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in this paper considers the current telecommunications network for the three education systems of state, independent and catholic schools in Western Australia as well as drawing on the personal experiences of teachers in these systems as the government attempts to close the digital divide with its Networking the Nation…

  19. Status of management and silviculture research on sandalwood in Western Australia and Indonesia

    Treesearch

    F. H. McKinnell

    1990-01-01

    The current status of the conservation and management of Santalum spicatum in Western Australia and S. album in East Indonesia is outlined. Natural and artificial regeneration techniques for both species in selected areas are discussed. The present Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research program on S. album in...

  20. A Snapshot of the Use of ICT in Primary Mathematics Classrooms in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Lorraine Day reports on some of the findings of the Teaching Teachers for the Future Project. The Australian Curriculum constantly makes reference to digital technologies so we believe our readers will be interested to see how teachers are making use of technology in classrooms across Western Australia. The results may be used to…

  1. Literacy and Numeracy Needs and Priorities: A Case Study of Regional TAFE Courses in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Anne; Pyvis, David

    Rural Technical and Further Education (TAFE) students making the transition from rural and remote areas of Australia to urban university environments are likely to face educational challenges. Different understandings of literacy and numeracy held by the TAFE and tertiary sectors intensify these challenges. Case studies of four Western Australia…

  2. Understanding Parent Perceptions of a 1:1 Laptop Program in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bate, Frank; MacNish, Jean; Males, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides some initial findings from a current longitudinal study that examines the implementation of a student-owned 1:1 laptop program in a school for boys in Perth, Western Australia. This research tracks 196 students, their families and associated teachers for a 3-year period (2010-2012). Underpinning this research is a mixed methods…

  3. The Development of Telematics in a Rural District in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, J.

    A case study investigated the use of telematics technology in the delivery of learning programs from a rural high school in Western Australia to four receiver schools. Telematics is an audiographic computer system that simultaneously links a teacher to classrooms in one to five other schools. The program was introduced in 1991 to widen curriculum…

  4. Closing the Digital Divide: Education Telecommunications Systems and Possibilities in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in this paper considers the current telecommunications network for the three education systems of state, independent and catholic schools in Western Australia as well as drawing on the personal experiences of teachers in these systems as the government attempts to close the digital divide with its Networking the Nation…

  5. Educational Provision in Sparsely Populated Areas of Western Australia. Studies in Rural Education No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra; Williams, Michael

    This study of educational provisions in Western Australia, an area of 2.5 million square kilometers with a mere 1.2 million inhabitants, provides a broad picture of the complex, difficult, and expensive undertaking of providing education to a small, widely-spread population which differs in demographic, economic, and cultural characteristics. The…

  6. Economic analysis of prescribed burning for wildfire management in Western Australia

    Treesearch

    Veronique Florec; David Pannell; Michael Burton; Joel Kelso; Drew Mellor; George Milne

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires can cause significant damage to ecosystems, life and property, and wildfire events that do not involve people and property are becoming rare. With the expansion of the rural– urban interface in Western Australia and elsewhere, objectives of life and property protection become more difficult to achieve. We applied the cost plus net value change (C+NVC) model...

  7. A Comparison of Autism Prevalence Trends in Denmark and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parner, Erik T.; Thorsen, Poul; Dixon, Glenys; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen; Nassar, Natasha; Bourke, Jenny; Bower, Carol; Glasson, Emma J.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence statistics for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) vary widely across geographical boundaries. Some variation can be explained by diagnostic methods, case ascertainment and age at diagnosis. This study compared prevalence statistics for two distinct geographical regions, Denmark and Western Australia, both of which have had population-based…

  8. Understanding Parent Perceptions of a 1:1 Laptop Program in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bate, Frank; MacNish, Jean; Males, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides some initial findings from a current longitudinal study that examines the implementation of a student-owned 1:1 laptop program in a school for boys in Perth, Western Australia. This research tracks 196 students, their families and associated teachers for a 3-year period (2010-2012). Underpinning this research is a mixed methods…

  9. Hematology and Serum Biochemistry for Free-ranging Freshwater Crocodiles ( Crocodylus johnstoni ) in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Scheelings, T Franciscus; Williamson, Sean A; Reina, Richard D

    2016-10-01

    We determined reference ranges for hematology and serum biochemistry in 39 free-ranging freshwater crocodiles ( Crocodylus johnstoni ). Animals were captured from Windjana Gorge in Western Australia and physically restrained for blood sampling from the supravertebral vein. No significant sex differences were found. Four animals were infected with a haemogregarine-like intraerythrocytic parasite.

  10. Evaluation of the Mandatory Construction Induction Training Program in Western Australia: Unanticipated Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Susanne; Barratt-Pugh, Llandis

    2012-01-01

    Since January 1, 2007, Government legislation in Western Australia required all workers in construction to complete mandatory safety awareness training before they began work on site. During the implementation of this new legislation there was considerable resistance from the construction sector due to the mandatory nature of the training. The…

  11. Indigenous Mothers' Aspirations for Their Children in Perth, Western Australia: The Value of Education and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lette, Helen; D'Espaignet, Edouard Tursan; Slack-Smith, Linda; Hunt, Kerry; Nannup, Janine

    2009-01-01

    This project involved the collection of stories about the aspirations, goals and strategies from a sample of mothers of Indigenous children living in Perth, Western Australia. Analysis of the semi-structured interviews indicated that the education of their children was important for many of the mothers. Whilst some of the mothers preferred their…

  12. Rheotaxis in the Ediacaran epibenthic organism Parvancorina from South Australia.

    PubMed

    Paterson, John R; Gehling, James G; Droser, Mary L; Bicknell, Russell D C

    2017-03-30

    Diverse interpretations of Ediacaran organisms arise not only from their enigmatic body plans, but also from confusion surrounding the sedimentary environments they inhabited and the processes responsible for their preservation. Excavation of Ediacaran bedding surfaces of the Rawnsley Quartzite in South Australia has provided the opportunity to study the community structure of the Ediacara biota, as well as the autecology of individual organisms. Analysis of two bedding surfaces preserving large numbers of Parvancorina illustrates that individuals display a preferred, unidirectional orientation aligned with current, as indicated by the identified current proxies: tool marks, overfolded edges of Dickinsonia, felled fronds and drag structures generated by uprooted frond holdfasts. Taphonomic and morphological evidence suggests that the preferred orientations of Parvancorina individuals are not the result of passive current alignment, but represent a rheotactic response at some stage during their life cycle. These results illustrate a previously unrecognized life mode for an Ediacaran organism and arguably the oldest known example of rheotaxis in the fossil record. The morphology and previously suggested phylogenetic affinities of Parvancorina are also re-evaluated. Apart from possessing a bilaterally symmetrical body, there are no unequivocal morphological characters to support placement of Parvancorina within the Euarthropoda or even the Bilateria.

  13. Gravity Survey of the Mt. Toondina Impact Structure South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity and seismic reflection data, together with geologic mapping, indicate that the Mt. Toondina feature in South Australia is best interpreted as an eroded 4-km-diameter impact structure consisting of a ring structural depression surrounding a pronounced central uplift. Beds at the center of the structure within the central uplift have been raised as much as 200 m from depth and deformed by convergent flow. Seismic reflection data indicate that deformation extends to depths of only about 800 m; at greater depths the reflectors are nearly flat lying indicating little or no deformation. Gravity data show residual anomalies of +1.0 mGal coincident with the central uplift and a -0.5 mGal low associated with the ring structural depression. Modeling of the gravity data indicates that relatively high-density material occurs within the central uplift, whereas the ring depression is filled with low-density material. The deformation at Mt. Toondina is typical of a complex impact crater; the 4-km diameter is consistent with the expected threshold size for complex craters formed in weak to moderate strength sedimentary rocks.

  14. Gravity survey of the Mount Toondina impact structure, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity and seismic reflection data, together with geologic mapping, indicate that the Mount Toondina feature in South Australia is best interpreted as an eroded 4-km-diameter impact structure consisting of a ring structural depression surrounding a pronounced central uplift. Beds at the center of the structure within the central uplift have been raised as much as 200 m from depth and deformed by convergent flow. Seismic reflection data indicate that deformation extends to depths of only approximately = 800 m; at greater depths the reflectors are nearly flat lying, indicating little or no deformation. Gravity data show residual anomalies of +1.0 mGal coincident with the central uplift and a -0.5 Mgal low associated with the ring structural depression. Modeling of the gravity data indicates that relatively high-density material occurs within the central uplift, whereas the ring depression is filled with low-density material. The deformation at Mount Toondina is typical of a complex impact crater; the 4-km diameter is consistent with the expected threshold size for complex craters formed in weak to moderate strength sedimentary rocks.

  15. Gravity survey of the Mount Toondina impact structure, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity and seismic reflection data, together with geologic mapping, indicate that the Mount Toondina feature in South Australia is best interpreted as an eroded 4-km-diameter impact structure consisting of a ring structural depression surrounding a pronounced central uplift. Beds at the center of the structure within the central uplift have been raised as much as 200 m from depth and deformed by convergent flow. Seismic reflection data indicate that deformation extends to depths of only approximately = 800 m; at greater depths the reflectors are nearly flat lying, indicating little or no deformation. Gravity data show residual anomalies of +1.0 mGal coincident with the central uplift and a -0.5 Mgal low associated with the ring structural depression. Modeling of the gravity data indicates that relatively high-density material occurs within the central uplift, whereas the ring depression is filled with low-density material. The deformation at Mount Toondina is typical of a complex impact crater; the 4-km diameter is consistent with the expected threshold size for complex craters formed in weak to moderate strength sedimentary rocks.

  16. Gravity Survey of the Mt. Toondina Impact Structure South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity and seismic reflection data, together with geologic mapping, indicate that the Mt. Toondina feature in South Australia is best interpreted as an eroded 4-km-diameter impact structure consisting of a ring structural depression surrounding a pronounced central uplift. Beds at the center of the structure within the central uplift have been raised as much as 200 m from depth and deformed by convergent flow. Seismic reflection data indicate that deformation extends to depths of only about 800 m; at greater depths the reflectors are nearly flat lying indicating little or no deformation. Gravity data show residual anomalies of +1.0 mGal coincident with the central uplift and a -0.5 mGal low associated with the ring structural depression. Modeling of the gravity data indicates that relatively high-density material occurs within the central uplift, whereas the ring depression is filled with low-density material. The deformation at Mt. Toondina is typical of a complex impact crater; the 4-km diameter is consistent with the expected threshold size for complex craters formed in weak to moderate strength sedimentary rocks.

  17. Survey of land degradation in New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Owen P.

    1992-03-01

    A survey of land degradation was undertaken in New South Wales, Australia during 1987 1988. The aims of the survey were to assess the location, extent, and severity of ten forms of degradation and to present the data in map and statistical form. Sample points were located on a regular grid. The method was designed so that data could be acquired from aerial photographs, expert local knowledge, and limited field checking. Individual statewide maps were prepared for each form of degradation. Map data were shown in pixel form. Sheet and rill erosion and soil structure decline were confined mostly to lands used for cropping. Gully erosion was commonly found across the state, while mass movement was confined to steeper lands. There were three severe areas of dryland salinity; irrigation salinity was mapped in parts of the southern irrigation lands. Induced soil acidity was severe in some cropping and pasture lands. Absence of tree regrowth was a noticeable feature of lands used for cropping. The survey enabled community awareness of the problems of land degradation to be increased, in addition to assisting regional land managers in resource allocation. The survey also provided the basis for the future location of sites that could be used to monitor the trends in the status of land degradation.

  18. Vertical integration of medical education: Riverland experience, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, D R; Worley, P S; Mugford, B; Stagg, P

    2004-01-01

    Vertical integration of medical education is currently a prominent international topic, resulting from recent strategic initiatives to improve medical education and service delivery in areas of poorly met medical need. In this article, vertical integration of medical education is defined as 'a grouping of curricular content and delivery mechanisms, traversing the traditional boundaries of undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education, with the intent of enhancing the transfer of knowledge and skills between those involved in the learning-teaching process'. Educators closely involved with vertically integrated teaching in the Riverland of South Australia present an analytical description of the educational dynamics of this system. From this analysis, five elements are identified which underpin the process of successful vertical integration: (1) raised educational stakes; (2) local ownership; (3) broad university role; (4) longer attachments; and (5) shared workforce vision. Given the benefits to the Riverland medical education programs described in this paper, it is not surprising that vertical integration of medical education is a popular goal in many rural regions throughout the world. Although different contexts will result in different functional arrangements, it could be argued that the five principles outlined in this article can be applied in any region.

  19. Changing patterns in rainfall extremes in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammad; Beecham, Simon; Metcalfe, Andrew V.

    2017-02-01

    Daily rainfall records from seven stations in South Australia, with record lengths from 50 to 137 years and a common period of 36 years, are investigated for evidence of changes in the statistical distribution of annual total and annual average of monthly daily maxima. In addition, the monthly time series of monthly totals and monthly daily maxima are analysed for three stations for which records exceed 100 years. The monthly series show seasonality and provide evidence of a reduction in rainfall when the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is negative, which is modulated by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). However, the monthly series do not provide any evidence of a consistent trend or of any changes in the seasonal pattern. Multivariate analyses, typically used in statistical quality control (SQC), are applied to time series of yearly totals and of averages of the 12 monthly daily maxima, during the common 36-year period. Although there are some outlying points in the charts, there is no evidence of any trend or step changes. However, some supplementary permutation tests do provide weak evidence of an increase of variability of rainfall measures. Furthermore, a factor analysis does provide some evidence of a change in the spatial structure of extremes. The variability of a factor which represents the difference between extremes in the Adelaide Hills and the plains increases in the second 18 years relative to the first 18 years. There is also some evidence that the mean of this factor has increased in absolute magnitude.

  20. Rheotaxis in the Ediacaran epibenthic organism Parvancorina from South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, John R.; Gehling, James G.; Droser, Mary L.; Bicknell, Russell D. C.

    2017-01-01

    Diverse interpretations of Ediacaran organisms arise not only from their enigmatic body plans, but also from confusion surrounding the sedimentary environments they inhabited and the processes responsible for their preservation. Excavation of Ediacaran bedding surfaces of the Rawnsley Quartzite in South Australia has provided the opportunity to study the community structure of the Ediacara biota, as well as the autecology of individual organisms. Analysis of two bedding surfaces preserving large numbers of Parvancorina illustrates that individuals display a preferred, unidirectional orientation aligned with current, as indicated by the identified current proxies: tool marks, overfolded edges of Dickinsonia, felled fronds and drag structures generated by uprooted frond holdfasts. Taphonomic and morphological evidence suggests that the preferred orientations of Parvancorina individuals are not the result of passive current alignment, but represent a rheotactic response at some stage during their life cycle. These results illustrate a previously unrecognized life mode for an Ediacaran organism and arguably the oldest known example of rheotaxis in the fossil record. The morphology and previously suggested phylogenetic affinities of Parvancorina are also re-evaluated. Apart from possessing a bilaterally symmetrical body, there are no unequivocal morphological characters to support placement of Parvancorina within the Euarthropoda or even the Bilateria. PMID:28358056

  1. Rheotaxis in the Ediacaran epibenthic organism Parvancorina from South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, John R.; Gehling, James G.; Droser, Mary L.; Bicknell, Russell D. C.

    2017-03-01

    Diverse interpretations of Ediacaran organisms arise not only from their enigmatic body plans, but also from confusion surrounding the sedimentary environments they inhabited and the processes responsible for their preservation. Excavation of Ediacaran bedding surfaces of the Rawnsley Quartzite in South Australia has provided the opportunity to study the community structure of the Ediacara biota, as well as the autecology of individual organisms. Analysis of two bedding surfaces preserving large numbers of Parvancorina illustrates that individuals display a preferred, unidirectional orientation aligned with current, as indicated by the identified current proxies: tool marks, overfolded edges of Dickinsonia, felled fronds and drag structures generated by uprooted frond holdfasts. Taphonomic and morphological evidence suggests that the preferred orientations of Parvancorina individuals are not the result of passive current alignment, but represent a rheotactic response at some stage during their life cycle. These results illustrate a previously unrecognized life mode for an Ediacaran organism and arguably the oldest known example of rheotaxis in the fossil record. The morphology and previously suggested phylogenetic affinities of Parvancorina are also re-evaluated. Apart from possessing a bilaterally symmetrical body, there are no unequivocal morphological characters to support placement of Parvancorina within the Euarthropoda or even the Bilateria.

  2. An aerial radiological survey of Maralinga and EMU, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, W J; Berry, H A; Fritzsche, A E

    1988-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former British nuclear test ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia from May through July 1987. The survey covered an area of approximately 1,550 square kilometers which included the nine major trial sites, where a nuclear yield occurred, and all the minor trial sites, where physics experiments were conducted. Flight lines were flown at an altitude of 30 meters with line spacings of 50, 100, and 200 meters depending on the area and whether man-made contamination was present. Results of the aerial survey were processed for americium-241 (used to determine plutonium contamination), cesium-137, cobalt-60, and uranium-238. The aerial survey also detected the presence of europium-152, a soil activation product, in the immediate vicinity of the major trial ground zeros. Ground measurements were also made at approximately 120 locations using a high-resolution germanium detector to provide supplemental data for the aerial survey. This survey was conducted as part of a series of studies being conducted over a two to three-year timeframe to obtain information from which options and associated costs can be formulated about the decontamination and possible rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites.

  3. Conjunctivitis associated with Chlamydia pecorum in three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Funnell, Oliver; Johnson, Lynley; Woolford, Lucy; Boardman, Wayne; Polkinghorne, Adam; McLelland, David

    2013-10-01

    Chlamydiosis is a significant factor contributing to the decline of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in Australia but has not previously been reported in South Australia. We describe conjunctivitis in three wild koalas from South Australia, with Chlamydia pecorum identified by quantitative PCR.

  4. Western Australia facing critical losses in its midwifery workforce: a survey of midwives' intentions.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Judith D; Twigg, Diane E; Martin, Tracy L; Rai, Tapan

    2013-05-01

    the ongoing attrition of the midwifery workforce frustrates future workforce planning and the provision of maternity services in Western Australia. This project determined factors contributing to the intention of the midwives to move jobs and/or leave the profession. a cross-sectional survey approach was taken for this descriptive research utilising a self-administered questionnaire developed by the Nursing and Midwifery Office, Department of Health, Western Australia. public and private health sectors in Western Australia, April-May 2010. 1,600 midwives employed in the public and private health sectors throughout Western Australia were invited to participate: 712 responded (44.5%), one-fifth of the state's registered midwives. most midwives worked part-time in a clinical role in public hospitals. Almost half intended moving jobs within 5 years and/or leaving midwifery. Excluding midwives of retirement age, the most common reasons for intending to move jobs were family commitments, working conditions and role dissatisfaction. Those intending to leave midwifery cited work-life balance, career change and family commitments. Midwives thought addressing the following issues would improve midwifery retention: flexible work arrangements, remuneration, staffing and caseload, workplace culture, professional development and models of care. retaining the midwifery workforce requires attention to workforce practices particularly flexible work arrangements and workloads; models of care to strengthen midwives' relationships with clients and colleagues; and accessible professional development. a review of workplace practices at unit and institution levels is urgently required in Western Australia so that midwives can achieve work-life balance and practice to the full extent of their professional role. These changes are necessary to forestall premature retirement of skilled and experienced midwives from the profession and workforce churn. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by

  5. The Ilgarijiri Project: A collaboration between Aboriginal communities and radio astronomers in the Murchison Region of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, John

    2014-07-01

    The international radio astronomy initiative known as the Square Kilometre Array is a cutting-edge science project, aimed atdramatically expanding our vision and understanding of the Universe. The $2billion+ international project is being shared between Southern Africa and Australia. The Australian component, centred in the Murchison region of Western Australia, is based upon collaboration with Aboriginal communities. A collaborative project called "Ilgarijiri- Things Belonging to the Sky" shared scientific and Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky. Through a series of collaborative meetings and knowledge sharing, the Ilgarijiri project developed and showcased Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky, via an international touring Aboriginal art exhibition, in Australia, South Africa, the USA and Europe. The Aboriginal art exhibition presents Aboriginal stories relating to the night sky, which prominently feature the 'Seven Sisters' and the 'Emu', as well as the collaborative experience with radio astronomers. The success of the Ilgarijiri collaborative project is based upon several principles, which can help to inform and guide future cultural collaborative projects.

  6. Cost comparison of selected coal mines from Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Special pub

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The report presents production and delivered costs for coal exports from the five major Western coal-exporting countries: Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Cost data were compiled from visits to 43 mines by U.S. Bureau of Mines engineers between 1985 and 1990. All report costs are in January 1989 U.S. dollars per short ton. In the report, the Bureau updates and combines information from four earlier reports. These studies provide basic insights into the competitiveness of the U.S. coal industry with those of major coal-exporting countries.

  7. Rediscovering nursing: a study of overseas nurses working in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christine D A; Fisher, Colleen; Mercer, Annette

    2011-09-01

    The shortage of nurses worldwide has taken its toll on the Australian healthcare system and, as a result, there is an increased migration of overseas-qualified nurses, some of them with a non-English-speaking background. Despite Australia's regulations that assess the eligibility for nursing registration, many migrant nurses who have been successful in gaining their nursing license feel only partially prepared to work. This article presents the findings of a study, based on Husserlian phenomenology, that describes the work experience of 13 female nurses who were working in Western Australia, Australia. The participants, who could recognize the core components of nursing, were taken aback by the way that nursing is practised in Western Australia. The major differences that they encountered were related to clinical skills, holistic care, the work dynamic with doctors and patients, and the overall societal status of the nursing profession. As a result, they had to adjust their practice to conform to the new work environment. In this study, the participants elaborated on some positive and some not-so-positive aspects of their experiences in their endeavor to integrate into the Western Australian metropolitan hospital setting. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. South-western African climate depends on Antarctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuut, J.-B. W.; Crosta, X.; van der Borg, K.; Schneider, R. R.

    2003-04-01

    The typical Fynbos vegetation of the Cape region of South-western Africa is brought about by the local Mediterranean (winter rainfall) climate and its associated sharp seasonal contrasts, especially in precipitation. This biome is bordered by hyper-arid deserts which may rapidly expand in response to future global warming, such as during the last warm period 125.000 years ago. It is therefore essential to understand the mechanisms that drive the winter rainfall in such a restricted area. We relate variations in South-western African humidity to changes in Antarctic sea-ice extent. New records of Antarctic sea-ice extent compared to existing palaeoclimate records of South-western Africa reveal a coherent signal during the last 50 kyr BP, with enhanced continental humidity and trade-wind intensity during periods of increased sea-ice presence. We propose that greater glacial Antarctic sea-ice extent causes a Northward shift of oceanic and atmospheric frontal zones, thereby increasing latitudinal temperature and pressure gradients, leading to enhanced trade-wind intensities. In addition, the equatorward shift and increased intensity of the Southern Westerlies causes an expansion of the winter-rain region and increased precipitation in South-western Africa. This relationship implies enhanced desertification in South-western Africa in response to retreating sea-ice edge in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean if global warming continues.

  9. Microbial contamination on beef and sheep carcases in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Sumner, John; Petrenas, Elena; Dean, Peter; Dowsett, Paul; West, Geoff; Wiering, Rinie; Raven, Geoff

    2003-03-25

    A total of 523 chilled beef and lamb carcases were sampled from four abattoirs and 13 very small plants (VSPs) in South Australia during March 2002 in order to develop a microbiological profile of meat produced for domestic consumption within the State. Aerobic viable counts (AVCs) and Escherichia coli counts were obtained from samples taken by sponge-sampling the muscle-adipose tissue at sites designated for each species in the Microbiological Guidelines to the Australian Standard for Hygienic Production of Meat for Human Consumption (identical with those of the USA Pathogen Reduction: hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems: final rule). On beef carcases (n=159) mean log AVC/cm(2) was 1.82 and E. coli was detected on 18.8% of carcases (area sampled 200 cm(2)) for which the mean log of the positives was -0.34; for lamb carcases, on which 75 cm(2) was sampled (n=364), corresponding values were 2.59, 36.2% and log(10) 0.27, respectively. There was little difference in mean log AVC/cm(2) of carcases produced at abattoirs and VSPs, 1.72 versus 1.81, respectively, for beef, and 2.80 versus 2.44, respectively, for sheep. Prevalence of E. coli was lower at VSPs, however, with abattoirs having 28.4% for beef and 61.5% for sheep, compared with corresponding values of 4.7% and 18.5% at VSPs. In VSPs, the range of mean log AVC/cm(2) was 0.47-3.16 for beef and 1.63-3.65 for sheep carcases, data which will allow the Controlling Authority to assist plants to improve performance of slaughter and dressing techniques. The present survey is part of an assessment by the State meat authority of the effectiveness of co-regulation of meat hygiene between government and industry.

  10. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  11. Applying Health in All Policies to obesity in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lareen; Ludford, Isobel; Williams, Carmel; Herriot, Michele

    2016-03-01

    Public policy strategies impact on population health by acting on the effectiveness, availability and distribution of the social determinants of health. Reducing obesity and promoting healthy weight is a key focus of governments, health promoters and researchers, and can benefit from a systems approach with 'upstream' policy action beyond the health sector. Although the literature identifies many areas for hypothetical non-health policy action, and in particular relating to food and activity environments, few have identified practical, politically viable and relatively cost-free processes by which non-health sectors would want to commit to such action. This article details how the Government of South Australia used the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach in the SA HiAP Healthy Weight Project. It mapped the core business and policy directions of 44 state departments against research on 'what works' to address obesity. Negotiations then developed high-level policy commitments to address factors promoting healthy weight which predominantly changed ways of working rather than requiring new expenditure and also assisted departments in meeting their own goals; departmental chief executives endorsed the commitments. By starting from departmental documents, and not restricting the project to departments with more 'obvious' obesity prevention potential, we gained commitment to a broader range of policy actions than identified elsewhere; for example, for prisons, environment and botanic gardens, housing and vocational education. The SA HiAP Healthy Weight Project provides one example of a workable, evidence-based systems approach to increase commitment to practical and politically viable opportunities across government to address the non-health environments supporting healthy weight.

  12. Volcanic margin formation and Mesozoic rift propagators in the Cuvier Abyssal Plain off Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihut, Dona; Müller, R. Dietmar

    1998-11-01

    The western margin of Australia is characterized by synrift and postrift magmatism which is not well understood. A joint interpretation of magnetic anomaly, satellite gravity anomaly and seismic data from the Cuvier Abyssal Plain and margin shows that the breakup between India and Australia started circa 136 Ma (M14) and was followed by two rift propagation events which transferred portions of the Indian Plate to the Australian Plate. Post breakup magmatism continued with the emplacement of the Wallaby and Zenith plateaus (˜17-18 km thick at their centers) along a transform margin. Two narrow magmatic edifices adjacent to the Wallaby Plateau (Sonne and Sonja ridges) represent an extinct ridge and a pseudofault, respectively. They formed by excess volcanism, probably by lateral migration of buoyant melt along upside-down crustal drainage channels from the melt source underneath the Wallaby Plateau. In a mantle plume scenario a small plume (˜400 km diameter) located underneath the rift could have locally uplifted the Bernier Platform and Exmouth Sub-basin in the Early Cretaceous and left a track consistent with the azimuth of the Wallaby and Zenith plateaus. In this case, ridge-plume interaction would have caused two consecutive ridge propagation events towards the plume while the ridge moved away from the hotspot. The abrupt end of the hotspot track west of the Zenith Plateau would be a consequence of the accelerating south-eastward motion of the spreading ridge relative to the mantle after 120 Ma, leaving the mantle plume underneath the Indian Plate. An alternative nonmantle-plume scenario is based on the observation that between breakup and chron M0 (˜120 Ma) the ocean crust in the southern Cuvier Abyssal Plain was formed while the spreading ridge abutted Indian continental crust. Small-scale convection may have been initiated during rifting in the Early Cretaceous and maintained until the Wallaby-Zenith ridge-transform intersection passed by the eastern edge

  13. Breastfeeding Duration and Residential Isolation amid Aboriginal Children in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cromie, Elizabeth A. S.; Shepherd, Carrington C. J.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine factors that impact on breastfeeding duration among Western Australian Aboriginal children. We hypothesised that Aboriginal children living in remote locations in Western Australia were breastfed for longer than those living in metropolitan locations. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2000 to 2002 in urban, rural and remote settings across Western Australia. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, using survey weights to produce unbiased estimates for the population of Aboriginal children. Data on demographic, maternal and infant characteristics were collected from 3932 Aboriginal birth mothers about their children aged 0–17 years (representing 22,100 Aboriginal children in Western Australia). Results: 71% of Aboriginal children were breastfed for three months or more. Accounting for other factors, there was a strong gradient for breastfeeding duration by remoteness, with Aboriginal children living in areas of moderate isolation being 3.2 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or more (p < 0.001) compared to children in metropolitan Perth. Those in areas of extreme isolation were 8.6 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or longer (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Greater residential isolation a protective factor linked to longer breastfeeding duration for Aboriginal children in our West Australian cohort. PMID:23363997

  14. A Study on Problem and Pathological Gambling among University Students in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, A. R.; Blanksby, P.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the correlates of problem and pathological gambling among university students in South Australia. Convenience sampling method was used to select participants ("n" = 163; 55.2 per cent women, 44.8 per cent men; age range 17-57 years) from two faculties in a South Australian university. A…

  15. A Study on Problem and Pathological Gambling among University Students in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, A. R.; Blanksby, P.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the correlates of problem and pathological gambling among university students in South Australia. Convenience sampling method was used to select participants ("n" = 163; 55.2 per cent women, 44.8 per cent men; age range 17-57 years) from two faculties in a South Australian university. A…

  16. The Capricorn Orogen Passive source Array (COPA) in Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, K.; Yuan, H.; Murdie, R.; Dentith, M. C.; Johnson, S.; Brett, J.

    2015-12-01

    COPA is the passive source component of a multi-method geophysical program aimed at assessing the mineral deposits potential of the Proterozoic Capricorn Orogen. Previous results from the active source surveys, receiver functions and magnetotelluric studies show reworked orogenic crust in the orogen that contrasts with more simple crust in the neighbouring Archean cratons, suggesting progressive and punctuated collisional processes during the final amalgamation of the Western Australian craton. Previous seismic studies are all based on line deployment or single station analyses; therefore it is essential to develop 3D seismic images to test whether these observations are representative for the whole orogen. With a careful design that takes advantage of previous passive source surveys, the current long-term and short-term deployments span an area of approximately 500 x 500 km. The 36-month total deployment can guarantee enough data recording for 3D structure imaging using body wave tomography, ambient noise surface wave tomography and P- and S-wave receiver function Common Conversion Point (CCP) stacking techniques. A successive instrument loan from the ANSIR national instrument pool, provided 34 broadband seismometers that have been deployed in the western half of the orogen since March 2014. We expect approximately 40-km lateral resolution near the surface for the techniques we propose, which due to low frequency nature of earthquake waves will degrade to about 100 km near the base of the cratonic lithosphere, which is expected at depths between 200 to 250 km. Preliminary results from the first half of the COPA deployment will be presented in the light of the hypotheses that 1) distinct crustal blocks can be detected continuously throughout the orogen (using ambient noise/body wave tomography); 2) distinct lithologies are present in the crust and upper mantle across the orogen (using receiver function CCP images); and 3) crustal and lithosphere deformation along

  17. Group Structure and Female Cooperative Networks in Australia's Western Desert.

    PubMed

    Scelza, Brooke; Bliege Bird, Rebecca

    2008-09-01

    The division of labor has typically been portrayed as a complementary strategy in which men and women work on separate tasks to achieve a common goal of provisioning the family. In this paper, we propose that task specialization between female kin might also play an important role in women's social and economic strategies. We use historic group composition data from a population of Western Desert Martu Aborigines to show how women maintained access to same-sex kin over the lifespan. Our results show that adult women had more same-sex kin and more closely related kin present than adult men, and they retained these links after marriage. Maternal co-residence was more prevalent for married women than for married men, and there is evidence that mothers may be strategizing to live with daughters at critical intervals-early in their reproductive careers and when they do not have other close female kin in the group. The maintenance of female kin networks across the lifespan allows for the possibility of cooperative breeding as well as an all-female division of labor.

  18. Spatial and temporal variation in type 1 diabetes incidence in Western Australia from 1991 to 2010: increased risk at higher latitudes and over time.

    PubMed

    Ball, Stephen J; Haynes, Aveni; Jacoby, Peter; Pereira, Gavin; Miller, Laura J; Bower, Carol; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    This study analysed spatial and temporal variation in childhood incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) among Western Australia׳s 36 Health Districts from 1991 to 2010. There was a strong latitudinal gradient of 3.5% (95% CI, 0.2-7.2) increased risk of T1DM per degree south of the Equator, as averaged across the range 15-35° south. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis of vitamin D deficiency at higher latitudes. In addition there was a 2.4% (95% CI, 1.3-3.6) average increase in T1DM incidence per year. These effects could not be explained by population density, socioeconomic status, remoteness or ethnicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Megaraptor-like theropod (Dinosauria: Tetanurae) in Australia: support for faunal exchange across eastern and western Gondwana in the Mid-Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nathan D; Makovicky, Peter J; Agnolin, Federico L; Ezcurra, Martín D; Pais, Diego F; Salisbury, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    The fossil record of Australian dinosaurs in general, and theropods in particular, is extremely sparse. Here we describe an ulna from the Early Cretaceous Eumeralla Formation of Australia that shares unique autapomorphies with the South American theropod Megaraptor. We also present evidence for the spinosauroid affinities of Megaraptor. This ulna represents the first Australian non-avian theropod with unquestionable affinities to taxa from other Gondwanan landmasses, suggesting faunal interchange between eastern and western Gondwana during the Mid-Cretaceous. This evidence counters claims of Laurasian affinities for Early Cretaceous Australian dinosaur faunas, and for the existence of a geographical or climatic barrier isolating Australia from the other Gondwanan continents during this time. The temporal and geographical distribution of Megaraptor and the Eumeralla ulna is also inconsistent with traditional palaeogeographic models for the fragmentation of Gondwana, but compatible with several alternative models positing connections between South America and Antarctica in the Mid-Cretaceous. PMID:18544511

  20. Service Use and Perceived Need among an Aboriginal Population in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Arrow, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Limited information is available about dental service use, perceived need and perceived oral health status among Aboriginal populations in Western Australia. This study collected information from a convenience sample of people attending the opening ceremony of the 2014 National Aborigines and Islanders Day Observance Committee celebrations in Perth, Western Australia. People who visited the Dental Health Services display stall at the event completed a questionnaire on dental service use, perceived need and self-rated oral health domains. Participants provided 145 usable questionnaires; 75% of the sample identified themselves as Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander of whom 45% had a dental visit less than 12 months ago; 33% had a check-up visit and 25% rated their oral health as fair or poor. More Aboriginal respondents reported lower frequency of service use and asymptomatic visiting compared with non-Aboriginal respondents.

  1. Service Use and Perceived Need among an Aboriginal Population in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Arrow, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available about dental service use, perceived need and perceived oral health status among Aboriginal populations in Western Australia. This study collected information from a convenience sample of people attending the opening ceremony of the 2014 National Aborigines and Islanders Day Observance Committee celebrations in Perth, Western Australia. People who visited the Dental Health Services display stall at the event completed a questionnaire on dental service use, perceived need and self-rated oral health domains. Participants provided 145 usable questionnaires; 75% of the sample identified themselves as Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander of whom 45% had a dental visit less than 12 months ago; 33% had a check-up visit and 25% rated their oral health as fair or poor. More Aboriginal respondents reported lower frequency of service use and asymptomatic visiting compared with non-Aboriginal respondents.

  2. Compositional changes of Australia-grown Western Schley pecans [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] during maturation.

    PubMed

    Singanusong, Riantong; Mason, Richard L; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Nottingham, Stephen M

    2003-01-15

    Changes in composition during the maturation of Western Schley pecans [Carya illinoinensis(Wangenh.) K. Koch] grown in Australia were investigated. Pecans of different maturity levels were collected at monthly intervals between March and June in 1999 and 2000 and analyzed for the concentrations of moisture, total lipid, sucrose, raffinose, protein, and the minerals aluminum, boron, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc. Moisture, total lipid, and calcium contents changed significantly (p < 0.05) with harvest time and maturity, whereas the other components did not. Western Schley pecans grown in Australia should be harvested after the shuck has opened and it is either green or brown in color to maximize total lipid content and quality. This occurred after May 11 in 1999 and after May 17 in 2000.

  3. A Review of On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems in Western Australia from 1997 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gunady, Maria; Shishkina, Natalia; Tan, Henry; Rodriguez, Clemencia

    2015-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are widely used in Western Australia (WA) to treat and dispose of household wastewater in areas where centralized sewerage systems are unavailable. Septic tanks, aerobic treatment units (ATUs), and composting toilets with greywater systems are among the most well established and commonly used OWTS. However, there are concerns that some OWTS installed in WA are either performing below expected standards or failing. Poorly performing OWTS are often attributed to inadequate installation, inadequate maintenance, poor public awareness, insufficient local authority resources, ongoing wastewater management issues, or inadequate adoption of standards, procedures, and guidelines. This paper is to review the installations and failures of OWTS in WA. Recommendations to the Department of Health Western Australia (DOHWA) and Local Government (LG) in regard to management strategies and institutional arrangements of OWTS are also highlighted. PMID:25960745

  4. Gastrocopta (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pupillidae) in the Pilbara region of Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whisson, Corey S.; Köhler, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Six species of Gastrocopta have been identified from the Pilbara region, Western Australia, by means of comparative analyses of shell and mtDNA variation. Three of these species, Gastrocopta hedleyi, Gastrocopta larapinta and Gastrocopta servilis, have been recorded in the Pilbara for the first time. Gastrocopta sp. CW1 is probably new to science and might be endemic to the region. By contrast, Gastrocopta hedleyi, Gastrocopta larapinta and Gastrocopta mussoni are shown to be widespread. PMID:23653507

  5. Treatment of Western Australia's mentally ill during the early colonial period, 1826-1865.

    PubMed

    Maude, Phil

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the early settlement of Western Australia and colonial strategies implemented to manage the mentally ill. Western Australian Colonial treatment of the mentally ill began in 1829 with the first mentally ill patient, Dr Nicholas Were Langley. Building commenced to house the mentally ill with the use of a prison, 'The Round House', and later the temporary shelter 'Scott's Warehouse'. Both convicts and the mentally ill were initially housed together, but evidence exists of attempts to provide therapeutic diversions at Scott's Warehouse.

  6. Diatexite Deformation and Magma Extraction on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasalova, Pavlina; Weinberg, Roberto; Ward, Lindsay; Fanning, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Migmatite terranes are structurally complex because of strong rheological contrast between layers with different melt contents and because of magma migration leading to volume changes. Migmatite deformation is intimately linked with magma extraction and the origin of granitoids. We investigate here the relationships between an evolving deformation and magma extraction in migmatites formed during the ca. 500Ma Delamerian orogeny, exposed on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Here, several phases of deformation occurred in the presence of melt. During an early upright, non-cylindrical folding event, magma was channeled towards the hinge zones of antiforms. Funnel-shaped networks of leucosomes form a root zone that link up towards a central axial planar channel, forming the main magma extraction paths during folding. Extraction was associated with fold limb collapse, and antiformal hinge disruption by magma accumulation and transfer. During a later deformation phase, melt-rich diatexites were deformed, and schollen were disaggregated into smaller blocks and schlieren, and deformed into asymmetric, sigmoidal shapes indicative of dextral shearing flow. During flow, magma accumulated preferentially along shear planes, indicating a dilatational component during shearing (transtension) and in strain shadows of schollen. As deformation waned, magma extraction from these diatexites gave rise to N-trending, steeply dipping, funnel-shaped channels not associated to any deformational feature. The funnel-shape of these structures indicates the direction of magma flow. Structures developed during this phase are comparable with those formed during dewatering of soft sediments. Despite a high degree of complexity, magma migration and extraction features record distinct responses to the evolving deformation which can be used to understand deformation, and nature and direction of melt extraction. The oldest and youngest magmatic rocks from migmatites were dated (U-Pb monazite, SHRIMP

  7. Primary oral health service provision in Aboriginal Medical Services-based dental clinics in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Estie; Perera, Irosha; Tennant, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Australians living in rural and remote areas have poorer access to dental care. This situation is attributed to workforce shortages, limited facilities and large distances to care centres. Against this backdrop, rural and remote Indigenous (Aboriginal) communities in Western Australia seem to be more disadvantaged because evidence suggests they have poorer oral health than non-Indigenous people. Hence, provision of dental care for Aboriginal populations in culturally appropriate settings in rural and remote Western Australia is an important public health issue. The aim of this research was to compare services between the Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS)-based clinics and a typical rural community clinic. A retrospective analysis of patient demographics and clinical treatment data was undertaken among patients who attended the dental clinics over a period of 6 years from 1999 to 2004. The majority of patients who received dental care at AMS dental clinics were Aboriginal (95.3%), compared with 8% at the non-AMS clinic. The rate of emergency at the non-AMS clinic was 33.5%, compared with 79.2% at the AMS clinics. The present study confirmed that more Indigenous patients were treated in AMS dental clinics and the mix of dental care provided was dominated by emergency care and oral surgery. This indicated a higher burden of oral disease and late utilisation of dental care services (more focus on tooth extraction) among rural and remote Indigenous people in Western Australia.

  8. Investigating articulated heavy-vehicle crashes in Western Australia using a spatial approach.

    PubMed

    Gudes, Ori; Varhol, Richard; Sun, Qian Chayn; Meuleners, Lynn

    2017-09-01

    Recent developments in Western Australia's economy including widespread traffic congestion as well as road safety issues are increasingly becoming prominent. Previous studies relied on traditional statistical methods to investigate patterns and characteristics of motor vehicle crashes. Although useful, statistical analysis alone is incapable of providing a spatial context and is therefore unable to associate existing crash characteristics with a spatial distribution. To identify concentrations or "hotspots" of articulated heavy vehicle crashes in WA between the years 2001-2013, by using a spatial analysis approach. Spatial modelling and spatio-temporal analytical methods such as Emerging Hotspots were used to identify emerging hotspots on specific roads in Western Australia using the Integrated Road Information System (IRIS). The results suggest that the majority of articulated heavy vehicles crashes occurred in the vicinity or within the Perth metropolitan area. Based on spatial-temporal trend analyses, our findings highlight some regions that are emerging as areas of interest. This study was one of the first attempts to adopt a spatial analysis approach in studying heavy-vehicle crashes in Western Australia. Applying spatial methodologies to road safety data has the potential of obtaining previously undiscovered insights, which can be extended further, and provide future avenues to research in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Time series analysis of RSV and bronchiolitis seasonality in temperate and tropical Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Alexandra B; Anderssen, Robert S; Davis, Stephanie; Moore, Hannah C; Lim, Faye J; Fathima, Parveen; Glass, Kathryn

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory illness in young children and is most commonly associated with bronchiolitis. RSV typically occurs as annual or biennial winter epidemics in temperate regions, with less pronounced seasonality in the tropics. We sought to characterise and compare the seasonality of RSV and bronchiolitis in temperate and tropical Western Australia. We examined over 13 years of RSV laboratory identifications and bronchiolitis hospitalisations in children, using an extensive linked dataset from Western Australia. We applied mathematical time series analyses to identify the dominant seasonal cycle, and changes in epidemic size and timing over this period. Both the RSV and bronchiolitis data showed clear winter epidemic peaks in July or August in the southern Western Australia regions, but less identifiable seasonality in the northern regions. Use of complex demodulation proved very effective at comparing disease epidemics. The timing of RSV and bronchiolitis epidemics coincided well, but the size of the epidemics differed, with more consistent peak sizes for bronchiolitis than for RSV. Our results show that bronchiolitis hospitalisations are a reasonable proxy for the timing of RSV detections, but may not fully capture the magnitude of RSV epidemics.

  10. Paleoproterozoic (2050-1680 Ma) Divergent and Convergent Sedimentary Basins of the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapez, B.

    2009-05-01

    The Capricorn Orogen is a 300-400 km-wide belt of Palaeoproterozoic basin formation, plutonic magmatism and deformation in Western Australia that, in part, records Late Palaeoproterozoic collision between the Archaean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons. Sequence-stratigraphic analyses indicate that supracrustal sequences of the Ashburton Province on the Pilbara Carton (to the north) and of the Nabberu Province on the Yilgarn Craton (to the south) evolved on separate continents until united during collision. The traditional perspective of the Capricorn Orogen is that it records north-south orthogonal collision between the cratons, but basin studies that indicate that the Pilbara-Yilgarn suture, and the fold belts of the Capricorn Orogen, was an ESE-trending transcurrent megashear, such that the Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons were involved in east-west transcurrent collision. The age of collision is poorly constrained, but estimated to have been at about 1770 Ma. The Ashburton Province comprises an older (2050-1865 Ma) divergent margin megasequence corresponding to the opening of an ocean basin to the northwest, and not to the south as most previous reconstructions maintain. The younger (1865-1680 Ma) megasequence records ocean closure and transcurrent convergence. The basal rift sequence of the divergent margin times the end of the Carbon-Isotope excursion, at 2035 Ma, whereas both megasequences contain oxide-facies banded iron formations that were deposited during the time in Earth history when oxidation of the atmosphere appears to contraindicate their deposition.

  11. Geology, prospects in Orange basin offshore western South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Muntingh, A. Ltd., Parow )

    1993-01-25

    With the fast changing political situation in South Africa it has become possible for Soekor (Pty.) Ltd. To invite international companies to participate in oil and gas exploration in the South African part of the Orange basin. This paper reports on the Orange basin, which comprises a 130,000 sq km area off western South Africa that extends northwards into Namibia, represents a large frontier basin with known hydrocarbon accumulations and the potential for giant fields. Comprehensive seismic coverage and a recent deep-water seismic survey in the Orange basin indicate exciting opportunities in the form of shallow and deep-water plays.

  12. The Co-ordination of Teacher Education Policy in Western Australia 1965-1981: The Anatomy of Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Athol; Smart, Don

    1982-01-01

    A pattern of uncontrolled expansion in teacher education in Western Australia is chronicled through Commonwealth policy and the reports and recommendations of several commissions of inquiry. Specific planning problems and changes felt to be irrational are noted. (MSE)

  13. Cloud formation over Western Atlantic Ocean north of South America

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-10-03

    S62-06606 (3 Oct. 1962) --- Cloud formation over Western Atlantic Ocean north of South America taken during the fourth orbit pass of the Mercury-Atlas 8 (MA-8) mission by astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr. with a hand-held camera. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Micro-continents offshore Western Australia: implications for East Gondwana reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Joanne; Williams, Simon; Halpin, Jacqueline; Daczko, Nathan; Gardner, Robyn

    2014-05-01

    The southern part of the Western Australian margin formed at the nexus of rifting and breakup between the East Gondwanan continents India, Australia and Antarctica in the Early Cretaceous. However, understanding the basin evolution along this margin has been hampered by a lack of data from the offshore Perth Abyssal Plain, and from the conjugate Greater Indian margin, which was highly deformed during collision with Eurasia. The Batavia Knoll and Gulden Draak Knoll are two prominent, previously unsampled, bathymetric features located >1600 km offshore Australia that have typically been assumed to be igneous features. In late 2011, successful dredges on the western flanks of both knolls recovered continental basement rocks, revealing that both knolls are micro-continents. Felsic orthogneiss and granite from Gulden Draak and Batavia knolls yield 2.8 Ga, 1.3-1.2 Ga and 540-510 Ma U-Pb zircon ages. The affinity of these geological samples, coupled with existing geological sampling and geophysical data, allow us to test alternative reconstructions for East Gondwana breakup. A number of alternative models have been proposed for the pre-rift configuration of Australia and Antarctica. Competing models make very different predictions for the kinematics of Mesozoic rifting that produced the basins along the Southern Australian margin; the magnitude of extension during rifting; and how mapped Paleozoic and Proterozoic geological terranes and fault zones can be correlated between Australia and Antarctica. We will present reconstructions that reconcile our new samples from Indian Ocean micro-continents with observations from India, Antarctica, Australia, and the evolution of the Indian Ocean.

  15. Promoting the uptake of preventative Aboriginal child health policy in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Sue; Hellwig, Leonie; Peate, Diann; Wilson, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Australian Aboriginal children are over-represented on all negative health indicators compared with non-Aboriginal children.Contributing factors to the disparity include the impact of historical events, racism and social determinants of health. Despite the benefits of child health checks, offered through the Medicare Benefit Schedule and community health services, uptake of these is low. In 2012, Western Australia Health implemented the Enhanced Aboriginal Child Health Schedule (EACHS) policy to address specific health needs of Aboriginal children. The Aboriginal Child Heath Project (the Project), was a five-year initiative funded through the Council of Australian Governments. Project staff promoted the profile of preventative child health and the uptake of the EACHS policy across the state by agencies operating in the sector. Western Australia. Reach of the implementation workshop was measured by the number of staff attending policy implementation and the total number for agencies represented. One measure of impact was the number of agencies requesting the EACHS policy who adapted or adopted it to deliver evidence based comprehensive child health programs. The Project offered policy implementation workshops to health staff delivering services to young Aboriginal children. In addition to the evidence-based policy, a suite of resources were made available to support service delivery. The EACHS is a framework used by agencies to deliver consistent care and support governance when providing child health services to Aboriginal families across Western Australia. Providing a policy that was consistent with identified service strengths allowed agencies to individually build their capacity to deliver child health checks, using existing resources, at their own pace. © 2015 Commonwealth of Australia. Australian Journal of Rural Health © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  16. Dentex carpenteri, a new species of deepwater seabream from Western Australia (Pisces: Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Yukio; Newman, Stephen J; Russell, Barry C

    2015-05-13

    A new species of sparid fish, Dentex carpenteri, is described from nine type specimens collected off Ningaloo Reef near Exmouth, Western Australia. Four valid species of Dentex are currently known in the western Pacific, Dentex abei and D. hypselosomus in the Northern Hemisphere, and D. fourmanoiri and D. spariformis in the Southern Hemisphere. These four species comprise the "Dentex hypselosomus complex". Dentex carpenteri n. sp. is most similar to D. spariformis in overall body form, but differs from D. spariformis in having the posterior margin of the upper jaw not reaching or reaching slightly beyond a vertical at the anterior margin of eye; often with the greater part from the snout to the second infraorbital yellowish; deeper suborbital (9.7-10.9% SL); and a considerably deeper body (vs. posterior margin of upper jaw reaching clearly beyond anterior margin of eye; slight yellow region on snout; suborbital depth shallow (7.6-9.6% SL); and a less deep body in D. spariformis). The mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rRNA, 545 bp) of the above five species were analyzed using the Atlantic congener, Dentex macrophthalmus as an out-group, the results clearly indicating that D. carpenteri n. sp. is a valid and distinct species. A key to the "Dentex hypselosomus complex" is provided. The distributional information available for the five species from the western Pacific, including western Australia and the nearby eastern Indian Ocean, are discussed, with the species considered to be allopatric.

  17. Groundwater recharge to a sedimentary aquifer in the topographically closed Uley South Basin, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordens, Carlos M.; Werner, Adrian D.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Hutson, John L.; Simmons, Craig T.; Irvine, Benjamin M.

    2012-02-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) and water-table fluctuation (WTF) analysis methods were used to estimate recharge rates in the Uley South Basin, South Australia. Groundwater hydrochemistry and isotope data were used to infer the nature of recharge pathways and evapotranspiration processes. These data indicate that some combination of two plausible processes is occurring: (1) complete evaporation of rainfall occurs, and the precipitated salts are washed down and redissolved when recharge occurs, and (2) transpiration dominates over evaporation. It is surmised that sinkholes predominantly serve to by-pass the shallow soil zone and redistribute infiltration into the deeper unsaturated zone, rather than transferring rainfall directly to the water table. Chlorofluorocarbon measurements were used in approximating recharge origins to account for coastal proximity effects in the CMB method and pumping seasonality was accounted for in the WTF-based recharge estimates. Best estimates of spatially and temporally averaged recharge rates for the basin are 52-63 and 47-129 mm/year from the CMB and WTF analyses, respectively. Adaptations of both the CMB and WTF analyses to account for nuances of the system were necessary, demonstrating the need for careful application of these methods.

  18. Apatite at Olympic Dam, South Australia: A petrogenetic tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krneta, Sasha; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Ehrig, Kathy; Kontonikas-Charos, Alkis

    2016-10-01

    The > 10,000 million tonne Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U-Ag deposit, (eastern Gawler Craton, South Australia) is one of the largest orebodies in the World. The deposit is hosted within the Olympic Dam Breccia Complex, placed at the centre of, and resulting from multiple brecciation and Fe-metasomatism of the Roxby Downs Granite (RDG). The latter is part of a larger batholith emplaced at 1.6 Ga. Apatite petrography and chemistry were studied in non-mineralised RDG and coeval granitoids and dolerites, as well as in mineralised RDG from deep (> 2 km) and distal (2.7 km to NE) locations. In both latter cases, although the mineralisation corresponds to the same, early chalcopyrite-pyrite-magnetite ± hematite stage identified in the outer and deeper zones of the deposit itself, the character of granite alteration differs: sericite-chlorite alteration with all feldspar replaced in the deep location; and red-stained K-feldspar on top of prevailing albitization in the distal location. Close-to end-member fluorapatite is a key accessory mineral in all igneous rocks and a common product of early hydrothermal alteration within mineralised granite. Variations in habit, morphology and textures correlate with chemical trends expressed as evolving Cl/F ratios, and concentrations of REE + Y (hereafter REY), Sr, Mn, S, Si and Na. Magmatic apatite is unzoned in the dolerite but features core to REY-enriched rim zonation in the granitoids. Increases in Cl- and Sr-contents correlate with rock basicity. Calculation of Cl in the vapour phase relative to melt at the apatite saturation temperature for zoned apatite in the RDG shows higher values for grains with inclusion-rich cores associated with mafic enclaves, concordant with assimilation of exotic material during magma crystallisation. Hydrothermal alteration of magmatic apatite is most varied in the dolerite where interaction with fluids is expressed as subtle changes in Cl- versus F- and REY-enrichment, and most importantly, S-enrichment in

  19. The climate of the Last Glacial Maximum in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulmeister, J.; Cohen, T.; Kiernan, K.; Woodward, C.; Barrows, T.; Fitzsimmons, K.; Kemp, J.; Haworth, R.; Clark, D. H.; Gontz, A. M.; Chang, J.; Mueller, D.; Slee, A.; Ellerton, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Last Glaciation Maximum (c. 25-18 kyr) in south-eastern Australia has traditionally been regarded as both significantly colder than the present and much more arid. This was based on a variety of evidence including the dramatic reduction in tree pollen and dune activity in currently humid areas such as the Blue Mountains of NSW. Maintaining arid conditions under significantly lower temperatures is quite challenging and not all lines of evidence supported strong aridity. Over the last four years an ARC project has worked to develop new lines of evidence to test these inferences. Outcomes from the project indicate that winter temperatures were significantly colder than at present (an 8-11 C decrease) while summer temperatures were cooler but not as extreme (4-6.5 C). Moisture balances appear to have been more positive than present along the eastern highlands, while areas to the west were comparatively drier. The humid zone along the divide maintained at least seasonally stronger flows in the major rivers, meaning that water was more available in western districts than under modern climates. I will summarise the evidence for this new pattern and highlight the climatological patterns that would be consistent with the reconstruction. I will conclude by speculating on the implications for both human landscape use and what happened to the vegetation.

  20. An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

  1. An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

  2. Towards an Accurate and Precise Chronology for the Colonization of Australia: The Example of Riwi, Kimberley, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Balme, Jane; O’Connor, Sue; Whitau, Rose

    2016-01-01

    An extensive series of 44 radiocarbon (14C) and 37 optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages have been obtained from the site of Riwi, south central Kimberley (NW Australia). As one of the earliest known Pleistocene sites in Australia, with archaeologically sterile sediment beneath deposits containing occupation, the chronology of the site is important in renewed debates surrounding the colonization of Sahul. Charcoal is preserved throughout the sequence and within multiple discrete hearth features. Prior to 14C dating, charcoal has been pretreated with both acid-base-acid (ABA) and acid base oxidation-stepped combustion (ABOx-SC) methods at multiple laboratories. Ages are consistent between laboratories and also between the two pretreatment methods, suggesting that contamination is easily removed from charcoal at Riwi and the Pleistocene ages are likely to be accurate. Whilst some charcoal samples recovered from outside hearth features are identified as outliers within a Bayesian model, all ages on charcoal within hearth features are consistent with stratigraphy. OSL dating has been undertaken using single quartz grains from the sandy matrix. The majority of samples show De distributions that are well-bleached but that also include evidence for mixing as a result of post-depositional bioturbation of the sediment. The results of the two techniques are compared and evaluated within a Bayesian model. Consistency between the two methods is good, and we demonstrate human occupation at this site from 46.4–44.6 cal kBP (95.4% probability range). Importantly, the lowest archaeological horizon at Riwi is underlain by sterile sediments which have been dated by OSL making it possible to demonstrate the absence of human occupation for between 0.9–5.2 ka (68.2% probability range) prior to occupation. PMID:27655174

  3. Detection of reproducing populations of Coccinella novemnotata within coccinellid assemblages (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in western South Dakota and western Nebraska

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adults of three native species of lady beetles [Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Adalia bipunctata (L.); Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] of conservation interest were detected during recent surveys at several locations in western South Dakota and western ...

  4. University of Western Australia v Gray: an academic duty to commercialise research?

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim; Faunce, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    In an era of tightening university budgets and pressure to commercialise academic knowledge, many higher education institutions see the exploitation of new inventions and discoveries, through the use of patents, as an additional revenue stream. To that end, many such organisations have in place policies and by-laws which regulate "ownership" and disclosure of inventions created by employees. This can be seen as a continuation of an ongoing process of shifting universities from institutes of "pure research" to commercial operations, seeking to maximise financial gains from the efforts of their researchers. However, new opportunities present new risks. One of the last Federal Court decisions by the High Court of Australia's new Chief Justice, Justice French, in University of Western Australia v Gray [2008] FCA 498 explores some of the challenges which Australian university administrators and policy developers will need to overcome if an appropriate balance between private interests and public good is to be maintained in this context.

  5. A new species of death adder (Acanthophis: Serpentes: Elapidae) from north-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Maddock, Simon T; Ellis, Ryan J; Doughty, Paul; Smith, Lawrence A; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2015-08-28

    Australian death adders (genus Acanthophis) are highly venomous snakes with conservative morphology and sit-and-wait predatory habits, with only moderate taxonomic diversity that nevertheless remains incompletely understood. Analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences and morphological characteristics of death adders in northern Australia reveal the existence of a new species from the Kimberley region of Western Australia and the Northern Territory, which we describe as Acanthophis cryptamydros sp. nov. Although populations from the Kimberley were previously considered conspecific with Northern Territory death adders of the A. rugosus complex, our mtDNA analysis indicates that its closest relatives are desert death adders, A. pyrrhus. We found that A. cryptamydros sp. nov. is distinct in both mtDNA and nDNA analysis, and possesses multiple morphological characteristics that allow it to be distinguished from all other Acanthophis species. This study further supports the Kimberley region as an area with high endemic biodiversity.

  6. Four new Mouse Spider species (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Actinopodidae, Missulena) from Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Miglio, Laura Tavares; Harms, Danilo; Framenau, Volker Wilhelm; Harvey, Mark Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of the Mouse Spider genus Missulena Walckenaer, 1805 (family Actinopodidae) are described from Western Australia based on morphological features of adult males. Missulena leniae sp. n.(from the Carnarvon and Yalgoo biogeographic regions), Missulena mainae sp. n. (Carnarvon), Missulena melissae sp. n. (Pilbara) and Missulena pinguipes sp. n. (Mallee) represent a broad spectrum of morphological diversity found in this genus and differ from other congeners by details of the male copulatory bulb, colour patterns, eye sizes, leg morphology and leg spination. Two of the species, M. pinguipes sp. n. and M. mainae sp. n., are characterised by swollen metatarsi of the fourth legs in males, a feature not previously recorded in the family. A key to males of all named Missulena species from Australia is presented and allows their identification based on external morphology. PMID:24899853

  7. Short note on a Pteranodontoid pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea) from western Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Rodrigues, Taissa; Costa, Fabiana R

    2011-03-01

    Flying reptiles from Australia are very rare, represented mostly by isolated bones coming from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) Toolebuc Formation, which crops out in western Queensland. Among the first pterosaur specimens discovered from this deposit is a mandibular symphysis that some authors thought to have a particular affinity to species found in the Cambridge Greensand (Cenomanian) of England. It was further referred as a member of or closely related to one of the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodectes or Anhanguera. Here we redescribe this specimen, showing that it cannot be referred to the aforementioned genera, but represents a new species of Pteranodontoid (sensu Kellner 2003), here named Aussiedraco molnari gen. et sp. nov. It is the second named pterosaur from Australia and confirms that the Toolebuc deposits are so far the most important for our understanding of the flying reptile fauna of this country.

  8. 137Cs in the western South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2007-09-01

    The 137Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea (two stations) Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean by gamma spectrometry using a low background Ge detector. The 137Cs activities ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 Bq m(-3) over the depth interval 0-250 m and decreased exponentially from the subsurface to 1000 m depth. The distribution profiles of 137Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. There was a remarkable difference for the vertical profiles of 137Cs activity between the East Caroline Basin station in this study and the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) station at the same latitude in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean; the 137Cs inventory over the depth interval 100-1000 m increased from 400+/-30 Bq m(-2) to 560+/-30 Bq m(-2) during the period from 1973 to 1992. The total 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850+/-70 Bq m(-2) in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270+/-90 Bq m(-2) in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137Cs inventories were 1.9-4.5 times (2.9+/-0.7 on average) and 1.7-4.3 times (3.1+/-0.7 on average) higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude and that of the estimated 137Cs deposition density in 10 degrees latitude by 10 degrees longitude grid data obtained by Aoyama et al. [Aoyama M, Hirose K, Igarashi Y. Re-construction and updating our understanding on the global weapons tests 137Cs fallout. J Environ Monit 2006;8:431-438], respectively. The possible processes for higher 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout may be attributable to the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137Cs from

  9. Accessibility to general practitioners in rural South Australia. A case study using geographic information system technology.

    PubMed

    Bamford, E J; Dunne, L; Taylor, D S; Symon, B G; Hugo, G J; Wilkinson, D

    To demonstrate the potential of GIS (geographic information system) technology and ARIA (Accessibility/Remoteness Index for Australia) as tools for medical workforce and health service planning in Australia. ARIA is an index of remoteness derived by measuring road distance between populated localities and service centres. A continuous variable of remoteness from 0 to 12 is generated for any location in Australia. We created a GIS, with data on location of general practitioner services in non-metropolitan South Australia derived from the database of RUMPS (Rural Undergraduate Medical Placement System), and estimated, for the 1170 populated localities in South Australia, the accessibility/inaccessibility of the 109 identified GP services. Distance from populated locality to GP services. Distance from populated locality to GP service ranged from 0 to 677 km (mean, 58 km). In all, 513 localities (43%) had a GP service within 20 km (for the majority this meant located within the town). However, for 173 populated localities (15%), the nearest GP service was more than 80 km away. There was a strong correlation between distance to GP service and ARIA value for each locality (0.69; P < 0.05). GP services are relatively inaccessible to many rural South Australian communities. There is potential for GIS and for ARIA to contribute to rational medical workforce and health service planning. Adding measures of health need and more detailed data on types and extent of GP services provided will allow more sophisticated planning.

  10. Evapotranspiration from agricultural plant communities in the high rainfall zone of the southwest of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, P. R.; Sudmeyer, R. A.

    1993-06-01

    The clearing of native vegetation and its replacement with shallow rooted, annual crops and pastures has resulted in rising groundwater levels and concentration of salts in the surface soils of resulting groundwater discharge areas in the southwest of Western Australia. The potential to manipulate the recharge rates to groundwaters by using agronomic techniques to change catchment evapotranspiration ( Et), has been the subject of much discussion. From 1986 to 1989, annual Et was estimated from daytime measurements of Et from annual pasture (existing pasture, subterranean clover, Medicago murex), crops (lupins, oats, rape, barley and wheat) and two perennial pastures (lucerne and phalaris) at a site near Collie in the southwest of Western Australia. The ventilated chamber technique was used to measure Et rates, together with ancillary measurements of above ground biomass and rooting depth. Seasonal values of Et are presented and combined to allow a boundary analysis of annual Et for each species. Et was found to be influenced by the amount and timing of biomass production, and by the rooting depth. The median annual evapotranspiration of annual pasture was shown to be the least (339 mm), and lupins the most (471 mm). The site environment combined high rainfall and low evaporative demand in winter, and low moisture-holding capacity of duplex soils with preferred pathways through subsoil clays. In this context, the potential of deeper rooted, perennial species to use more water, was apparent. It is argued that the smaller the difference in annual evapotranspiration between alternative and current agricultural practice (annual pasture), the larger the proportion of a catchment likely to be required for treatment to affect groundwater levels. Recharge manipulation alone, using the species tested, may not be sufficient for catchment salinity control. A wide range of other strategies exist; a combination of these, to suit the practical and economic constraints of the

  11. Leptospira Species in Feral Cats and Black Rats from Western Australia and Christmas Island.

    PubMed

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, David; Adams, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp. on Christmas Island and to compare this with two different climatic regions of Western Australia (one island and one mainland). Kidney samples were collected from black rats (n = 68) and feral cats (n = 59) from Christmas Island, as well as feral cats from Dirk Hartog Island (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (n = 59). Molecular (PCR) screening detected pathogenic leptospires in 42.4% (95% confidence interval 29.6-55.9) of cats and 2.9% (0.4-10.2) of rats from Christmas Island. Sequencing of cat- and rat-positive samples from Christmas Island showed 100% similarity for Leptospira interrogans. Pathogenic leptospires were not detected in cats from Dirk Hartog Island or southwest Western Australia. These findings were consistent with previous reports of higher Leptospira spp. prevalence in tropical regions compared with arid and temperate regions. Despite the abundance of black rats on Christmas Island, feral cats appear to be the more important reservoir species for the persistence of pathogenic L. interrogans on the island. This research highlights the importance of disease surveillance and feral animal management to effectively control potential disease transmission.

  12. A Comparison of Science Laboratory Classrooms in Asia, Australia, South Pacific and USA: An International Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giddings, Geoffrey; Waldrip, Bruce G.

    This study attempted to compare the science laboratory learning environments of secondary schools across both developed and developing countries (Australia, Brunei, Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, United States, Vanuatu, and Western Samoa). The study used a version of the Science Laboratory Learning…

  13. A gunflint-type microbiota from the Duck Creek dolomite, western Australia.

    PubMed

    Knoll, A H; Barghoorn, E S

    1976-12-01

    Two billion year old black chert lenses from the Duck Creek formation, northwestern Western Australia, contain abundant organically preserved microorganisms which are morphologically similar to fossils of approximately the same age from the Gunflint formation, Ontario. Entities include: a relatively small (5-15mum) coccoid taxon morphologically comparable to Huroniospora Barghoorn, a larger coccoid form comparable to an apparently planktonic alga from the Gunflint, Gunflintia Baghoorn, and Eoastrion Barghoorn (Metallogenium Perfil'ev). Gunflint-type assemblages had a wide geographic distribution in middle Precambrian times, and these assemblages may eventually prove useful as biostratigraphic indices.

  14. A Gunflint-type microbiota from the Duck Creek dolomite, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Barghoorn, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    Two-billion-year-old black chert lenses from the Duck Creek formation, northwestern Western Australia, contain abundant organically preserved microorganisms which are morphologically similar to fossils of approximately the same age from the Gunflint formation, Ontario. Entities include a relatively small (5-15 micron) coccoid taxon morphologically comparable to Huroniospora Barghoorn, a larger coccoid form comparable to an apparently planktonic alga from the Gunflint, Gunflintia Barghoorn, and Eoastrion Barghoorn (Metallogenium Perfil'ev). Gunflint-type assemblages had a wide geographic distribution in middle Precambrian times, and these assemblages may eventually prove useful as biostratigraphic indices.

  15. A Gunflint-type microbiota from the Duck Creek dolomite, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Barghoorn, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    Two-billion-year-old black chert lenses from the Duck Creek formation, northwestern Western Australia, contain abundant organically preserved microorganisms which are morphologically similar to fossils of approximately the same age from the Gunflint formation, Ontario. Entities include a relatively small (5-15 micron) coccoid taxon morphologically comparable to Huroniospora Barghoorn, a larger coccoid form comparable to an apparently planktonic alga from the Gunflint, Gunflintia Barghoorn, and Eoastrion Barghoorn (Metallogenium Perfil'ev). Gunflint-type assemblages had a wide geographic distribution in middle Precambrian times, and these assemblages may eventually prove useful as biostratigraphic indices.

  16. Non-song vocalizations of pygmy blue whales in Geographe Bay, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Recalde-Salas, A; Salgado Kent, C P; Parsons, M J G; Marley, S A; McCauley, R D

    2014-05-01

    Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with song, and thus were identified as non-song vocalizations. Five of these were not previously described for this population. Their acoustic characteristics and context are presented. Given that 56% of groups vocalized, 86% of which produced non-song vocalizations and 14% song units, the inclusion of non-song vocalizations in passive-acoustic monitoring is proposed.

  17. Detection and identification of a novel spotted fever group rickettsia in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Owen, Helen; Unsworth, Nathan; Stenos, John; Robertson, Ian; Clark, Phillip; Fenwick, Stan

    2006-10-01

    The extent to which rickettsiae are present in Western Australia (WA) is largely unknown. Recently there has been anecdotal evidence of a disease of unknown but possibly rickettsial origin occurring on Barrow Island, WA. Ticks were collected from people and screened using PCR. The rickettsial species was then cultured and its novelty and phylogenetic position examined. The infecting rickettsial species is divergent enough to be classified as a novel species. Sequence data suggest that the evolutionary route for Australian rickettsiae did not progress through a recent common ancestor. The pathogenic potential of the novel species is as yet unknown.

  18. The Trajectory of Language Policy: The First Language Maintenance and Development Program in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.; Curnow, Timothy Jowan; Scarino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the development of the First Language Maintenance and Development (FLMD) program in South Australia. This program is the main language policy activity that specifically focuses on language maintenance in government primary schools and has existed since 1986. During this time, the program has evolved largely as the result of ad…

  19. Water-Recycling in South-East Queensland, Australia: What Do Men and Women Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007, South-East Queensland became the first region in Australia to formally decide to introduce recycled water into the drinking supplies. Internationally, although water recycling occurs in the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and Belgium, surprisingly little is known about public perceptions. This article explores gender…

  20. Water-Recycling in South-East Queensland, Australia: What Do Men and Women Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007, South-East Queensland became the first region in Australia to formally decide to introduce recycled water into the drinking supplies. Internationally, although water recycling occurs in the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and Belgium, surprisingly little is known about public perceptions. This article explores gender…

  1. Mortality among a Cohort of Persons with an Intellectual Disability in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florio, Tony; Trollor, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the study was to compare mortality for people with an intellectual disability (ID) to the general population in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A second objective was to provide mortality data for people with an intellectual disability from NSW in a standardized format, which allows for international comparisons…

  2. Rickettsia Detected in the Reptile Tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri from the Lizard Tiliqua rugosa in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Custance, Georgie; Graves, Stephen; Stenos, John; Taylor, Michael; Ross, Kirstin; Gardner, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsiosis is a potentially fatal tick borne disease. It is caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, which is transferred to humans through salivary excretions of ticks during the biting process. Globally, the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing; as such, there is a need for a greater understanding of tick–host interactions to create more informed risk management strategies. Flinders Island spotted fever rickettsioses has been identified throughout Australia (Tasmania, South Australia, Queensland and Torres Strait Islands) with possible identifications in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Italy. Flinders Island spotted fever is thought to be spread through tick bites and the reptile tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri has been implicated as a vector in this transmission. This study used qPCR to assay Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts on mainland South Australia near where spotted fever cases have been identified. We report that, although we discovered Rickettsia in all tick samples, it was not Rickettsia honei. This study is the first to use PCR to positively identify Rickettsia from South Australian Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts. These findings suggest that B. hydrosauri may be a vector of multiple Rickettsia spp. Also as all 41 tested B. hydrosauri ticks were positive for Rickettsia this indicates an extremely high prevalence within the studied area in South Australia. PMID:27338482

  3. The Gendered Shaping of University Leadership in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kate; Bagilhole, Barbara; Riordan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses career trajectories into university management in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK), skills required to operate effectively and the power of vice-chancellors (VCs) and their impact on the gendered shaping of university leadership. It is based on qualitative research with 56 male and female senior managers.…

  4. Engagement with Empires: Irish Catholic Female Religious Teachers in Colonial South Australia 1868-1901

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the roles of Irish Catholic female religious institutes for teachers in the context of the recent debates about education and empire. Nineteenth century colonial South Australia provides an opportunity to examine such institutes, for example the Irish Dominicans from Cabra Dublin, the Irish Mercy Institute from Baggot Street,…

  5. Is Isolation a Problem? Issues Faced by Rural Libraries and Rural Library Staff in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Rebecca; Calvert, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate current issues faced by public library staff in rural South Australia and to examine some of the reasons why people choose to work in rural libraries. The study took a mixed methods approach, combining interviews and questionnaires to gain a fuller understanding of the issues and experiences of rural…

  6. Tertiary Educators' Voices in Australia and South Africa: Experiencing and Engaging in African Music and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Music tertiary educators can foster positive experiences that promote diversity, enhance intercultural and cross-cultural understanding through our teaching. Through findings of interview data of tertiary music educators' understandings of multicultural music practice at two South African universities and at an Australia university, I used…

  7. The South Australia Health Chronic Disease Self-Management Internet Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorig, Kate; Ritter, Philip L.; Plant, Kathryn; Laurent, Diana D.; Kelly, Pauline; Rowe, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an online chronic disease self-management program for South Australia residents. Method: Data were collected online at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The intervention was an asynchronous 6-week chronic disease self-management program offered online. The authors measured eight health status measures,…

  8. Tertiary Educators' Voices in Australia and South Africa: Experiencing and Engaging in African Music and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Music tertiary educators can foster positive experiences that promote diversity, enhance intercultural and cross-cultural understanding through our teaching. Through findings of interview data of tertiary music educators' understandings of multicultural music practice at two South African universities and at an Australia university, I used…

  9. Mortality among a Cohort of Persons with an Intellectual Disability in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florio, Tony; Trollor, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the study was to compare mortality for people with an intellectual disability (ID) to the general population in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A second objective was to provide mortality data for people with an intellectual disability from NSW in a standardized format, which allows for international comparisons…

  10. Counter-Geographies: The Campaign against Rationalisation of Agricultural Research Stations in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chris; Dufty, Rae; Phillips, Samantha; Smith, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses an example of community action mounted in a rural region of New South Wales, Australia, in response to proposals by the State Government to rationalise agricultural research stations operated by the Department of Primary Industries. Informed by a Foucaultian understanding of power and the concept of governmentality,…

  11. Counter-Geographies: The Campaign against Rationalisation of Agricultural Research Stations in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chris; Dufty, Rae; Phillips, Samantha; Smith, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses an example of community action mounted in a rural region of New South Wales, Australia, in response to proposals by the State Government to rationalise agricultural research stations operated by the Department of Primary Industries. Informed by a Foucaultian understanding of power and the concept of governmentality,…

  12. The South Australia Health Chronic Disease Self-Management Internet Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorig, Kate; Ritter, Philip L.; Plant, Kathryn; Laurent, Diana D.; Kelly, Pauline; Rowe, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an online chronic disease self-management program for South Australia residents. Method: Data were collected online at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The intervention was an asynchronous 6-week chronic disease self-management program offered online. The authors measured eight health status measures,…

  13. The Gendered Shaping of University Leadership in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kate; Bagilhole, Barbara; Riordan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses career trajectories into university management in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK), skills required to operate effectively and the power of vice-chancellors (VCs) and their impact on the gendered shaping of university leadership. It is based on qualitative research with 56 male and female senior managers.…

  14. Sunny Prospects: The Non-School-Leaver Segment in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clermont, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of demand-driven funding following the Bradley Review has seen the progressive removal of constraints on the number of undergraduate places that universities can offer, therefore allowing universities to set their own growth levels. In South Australia, there is little unmet demand for university places. Traditionally, universities…

  15. A review of Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia with a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Rhys A; Hoffmann, Ary A; Raadik, Tarmo A

    2015-09-25

    The dwarf galaxias, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack), is a small, threatened freshwater fish from coastal south-eastern Australia. Recent genetic studies, using multiple nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, found substantial differences between populations in western Victoria and south Australia ('west region') compared to eastern Victoria, Flinders Island, and Tasmania ('east region') that suggest the presence of a cryptic species. Morphological measurements and meristic counts from multiple populations within each region were undertaken to investigate potential differences between regions. Several characters, found to discriminate between individuals in the regions and to be diagnostic for two taxa, were used to describe a new species, Galaxiella toourtkoourt, for the west region. This is only the second species in the Galaxiidae to exhibit sexual dimorphism. The original description of Galaxiella pusilla, based on five specimens, is revised following examination of a large number of individuals. Both species are considered nationally threatened and are categorised as 'endangered'; the revised distribution of G. pusilla s.s. is reduced by approximately 60%. A number of inconsistencies in the most recent revision of the genus Galaxiella are also corrected.

  16. Crustal magnetization and temperature at depth beneath the Yilgarn block, Western Australia inferred from Magsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhew, M. A.; Wasilewski, Peter J.; Johnson, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    Variations in crustal magnetization along a seismic section across the Archean Yilgarn block of Western Australia inferred from Magsat data are interpreted as a subtle thermal effect arising from variations in depth to the Curie isotherm. The isotherm lies deep within the mantle of the eastern part of the province, but transects the crust-mantle transition and rises well into the crust on the western side. The model is consistent with heat flow variations along the section line. The mean crustal magnetization implied by the model is approximately 2 A/m. The temperature variation implied by the model is consistent with the hypothesis that the crust-mantle transition seen seismically corresponds to the mafic granulite-eclogite phase transition within a zone of igneous crustal underplating.

  17. Dr. William Theodore Hodge: pioneer surgeon-apothecary in early-twentieth-century Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Kamien, Max

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 I chanced upon the lonely grave of Dr. William Theodore Hodge, buried in 1934, in the Derby Pioneer and Aboriginal Cemetery. He turned out to be the founding doctor of the practice in which I have worked for the past thirty years. Dr. Hodge migrated from England in 1896. He was the first western trained doctor to work in the Perth suburb of Claremont and in the wheat-belt town of Kellerberrin. He was an innovative and inventive modern doctor who became a legend in the Kimberley where he died tragically, on the day prior to his retirement, at the age of seventy-five. His story is illustrative of the life and medical practice of a pioneering doctor in metropolitan, rural, and remote practice in Western Australia at the end of the nineteenth and the early years of the twentieth centuries.

  18. Exploring midwives' perception of confidence around facilitating water birth in Western Australia: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Sarah; Hauck, Yvonne L; Bayes, Sarah; Butt, Janice

    2016-02-01

    the option of labouring and/or birthing immersed in warm water has become widely available throughout hospitals in the United Kingdom and Europe over the last two decades. The practice, which also occurs in New Zealand and interstate in Australia, has until recently only been available in Western Australia for women birthing at home with a small publically funded Community Midwifery Program. Despite its popularity and acceptance elsewhere, birth in water has only recently become an option for women attending some public health services in Western Australia. The Clinical Guidelines developed for the local context that support water birth require that the midwives be confident and competent to care for these women. The issue of competency can be addressed with relative ease by maternity care providers; however confidence is rather more difficult to teach, foster and attain. Clinical confidence is an integral element of clinical judgement and promotes patient safety and comfort. For this reason confident midwives are an essential requirement to support the option of water birth in Western Australia. The aim of this study was to capture midwives' perceptions of becoming and being confident in conducting water birth in addition to factors perceived to inhibit and facilitate the development of that confidence. a modified grounded theory methodology with thematic analysis. four public maternity services offering the option of water birth in the Perth metropolitan area. registered midwives employed at one of the four publicly funded maternity services that offered the option of water birth between June 2011 and June 2013. Sixteen midwives were interviewed on a one to one basis. An additional 10 midwives participated in a focus group interview. three main categories emerged from the data analysis: what came before the journey, becoming confident - the journey and staying confident. Each contained between three and five subcategories. Together they depicted how midwives

  19. A mid-Holocene candidate tsunami deposit from the NW Cape (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Simon Matthias; Falvard, Simon; Norpoth, Maike; Pint, Anna; Brill, Dominik; Engel, Max; Scheffers, Anja; Dierick, Manuel; Paris, Raphaël; Squire, Peter; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-03-01

    Although extreme-wave events are frequent along the northwestern coast of Western Australia and tsunamis in 1994 and 2006 induced considerable coastal flooding locally, robust stratigraphical evidence of prehistoric tropical cyclones and tsunamis from this area is lacking. Based on the analyses of X-ray computed microtomography (μCT) of oriented sediment cores, multi-proxy sediment and microfaunal analyses, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C-AMS dating, this study presents detailed investigations on an allochthonous sand layer of marine origin found in a back-barrier depression on the NW Cape Range peninsula. The event layer consists of material from the adjacent beach and dune, fines and thins inland, and was traced up to ~ 400 m onshore. Although a cyclone-induced origin cannot entirely be ruled out, the particular architecture and fabric of the sediment, rip-up clasts and three subunits point to deposition by a tsunami. As such, it represents the first stratigraphical evidence of a prehistoric, mid-Holocene tsunami in NW Western Australia. It was OSL-dated to 5400-4300 years ago, thus postdating the regional mid-Holocene sea-level highstand.

  20. A review of schistosomiasis in immigrants in Western Australia, demonstrating the unusual longevity of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Harris, A R; Russell, R J; Charters, A D

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen patients with imported schistosomiasis in Western Australia, a non-endemic area, are recorded. Ten with Schistosoma mansoni had lived there for over 20 years, three for over 31 years and two for more than 32 years. No record of a life span of 31 years for S. mansoni can be found in the literature. The principal symptomatology in three patients with S. mansoni was hypersplenism. Four patients with S. mansoni were asymptomatic. Ten had eosinophil counts greater than 0.3 X 10(9)/1 and one who showed no peripheral eosinophilia had numerous eosinophil myelocytes in his bone marrow. A diagnosis of schistosomiasis was initially suspected in five cases by respective discovery of eosinophil myelocytes in the bone marrow, radiological evidence of calcification of the bladder wall and beading of both ureters, cytoscopic findings of sandy patches in the bladder, discovery of ova in the wall of a fallopian tube at ectopic gestation and the presence of ova and an adult worm in a uterine leiomyoma. The risk of infection of the Ord River Dam is greater for S. japonicum than for the African species. An epidemiological feature of this series is that refugees from Poland contracted schistosomiasis (S. mansoni) in refugee camps in East Africa and then migrated to Western Australia between 1950 and 1953.

  1. High prevalence of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in public space lawns in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moono, Peter; Lim, Su Chen; Riley, Thomas V.

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a well-established hospital pathogen. Recently, it has been detected increasingly in patients without hospital contact. Given this rise in community associated infections with C. difficile, we hypothesized that the environment could play an important role in transmission of spores outside the hospital. Lawn samples (311) collected in public spaces in the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia, from February to June 2016 were cultured for C. difficile. C. difficile was isolated from the samples by direct and enrichment culture, and characterized by standard molecular methods using toxin gene PCR and ribotyping. The overall prevalence of C. difficile was 59%, new lawn (≤4 months old) was twice as likely as old lawn (>4 months old) to test positive (OR = 2.3; 95%CI 1.16–4.57, p = 0.015) and 35 C. difficile ribotypes were identified with toxigenic ribotype 014/020 (39%) predominating. The highest viable count from lawn soil samples was 1200 CFU/g. These results show that lawns in Perth, Western Australia, harbor toxigenic C. difficile, an important finding. The source of lawn contamination is likely related to modern practice of producing “roll-out” lawn. Further work should focus on identifying specific management practices that lead to C. difficile contamination of lawn to inform prevention and control measures. PMID:28145453

  2. Destruction of corals and other reef animals by coral spawn slicks on Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, C. J.; Cary, J. L.; Masini, R. J.

    1993-11-01

    In March 1989, most of the corals near Coral Bay, off the north-western coastline of Australia, spawned several nights earlier than usual. Flood, rather than ebb, tides at the time of spawning combined with light north-west winds and low swell conditions to restrict the dispersal of coral propagules and, as a result, large amounts of coral spawn were trapped in the bay, forming extensive slicks. Fish and other animals began to die almost immediately, and over the next few days, over 1 million fish, representing at least 80 species, were washed ashore. A survey of the benthic communities revealed extensive mortality of corals and other reef animals over an area of about 3 km2. Live coral cover in this area decreased from 42.9% to 9.4% and several large coral colonies up to 10 m in diameter were killed. The observed mortality was presumably the result of hypoxia (oxygen depletion) created initially by the respiratory demand of the coral spawn and maintained by the biological oxygen demand of the decomposing spawn slicks and dead animals. Anecdotal reports of corals and other reef animals dying in the vicinity of coral spawn slicks on other reefs in Western Australia suggest that this phenomenon may be a relatively common event on shallow coral reefs where coral mass spawning occurs. These records and observations document, for the first time, a new source of natural disturbance that has a significant influence on the community structure of some coral reefs.

  3. The Wild West: Associations between mining and violence in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, William; Liang, Wenbin; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the association between mining activity and police-reported assault offences across Western Australia. A cross-sectional multivariable negative binomial regression analysis at the local government area level. Local government areas in Western Australia. Victims of reported assault offences occurring in 2008-2009. Eight reported assault measures by gender of victim and type of assault. The analysis controlled for a range of potentially confounding variables, including numbers of licensed outlets and alcohol sales. Compared with females in other areas, females in mining regions had a 64% increased risk of assault, a 59% increased risk of non-domestic assault and a 136% increased risk of sexual assault. Risk of domestic assault was 64% higher for males in mining regions. Regions where mining is a major employer of people usually or temporarily residing in the area (i.e. usual residents or temporary fly-in fly-out residents) are associated with higher risk of assaults among females and domestic assaults among males, and these associations appear to be independent of licensed outlet numbers and alcohol sales. Mining communities appear to present a special case for the management and reduction of violence; public health and safety intervention needs to identify and address risk factors independent of alcohol use. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  4. Patterns of pesticide usage by cereal crop farmers in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Spickett, J T; Dolin, P J; Phillips, M R; Priestley, C J

    1989-01-01

    In Western Australia there has been an increase in the use of herbicides in recent years due to a change in farming practices. This change, together with more general public concern over exposure to chemicals, has resulted in farmers expressing concern over the possible long term health effects from exposure to herbicides. As part of a long term study of the possible health effects from such exposure, a survey was carried out to establish the extent of pesticide use within the cereal farming community of Western Australia. Of the 9,408 properties surveyed, 2,921 responses were received which represents a 32.2% response rate. The results indicate that a wide range of chemicals are used as insecticides, fumigants, seed dressings, seed pickles, herbicides, and rodent poisons. At the time of the survey in 1985, products containing prespruf and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) were the most popular insecticide, and products containing diquat, diclofop-methyl, chlorsulfuron and glyphosate as active ingredients represented the four most popular herbicides.

  5. Siderophore production by actinomycetes isolates from two soil sites in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joanna; Postmaster, Armin; Soon, Hooi Peng; Keast, David; Carson, Kerry C

    2012-04-01

    The actinomycetes are metabolically flexible soil micro-organisms capable of producing a range of compounds of interest, including siderophores. Siderophore production by actinomycetes sampled from two distinct and separate geographical sites in Western Australia were investigated and found to be generally similar in the total percentage of siderophore producers found. The only notable difference was the proportion of isolates producing catechol siderophores with only 3% found in site 1 (from the north-west of Western Australia and reportedly containing 40% magnetite) and 17% in site 2 (a commercial stone fruit orchard in the hills east of Perth with a soil base ranging from sandy loam to laterite). Further detailed characterization of isolates of interest identified a Streptomyces that produced extracellularly excreted enterobactin, the characteristic Enterobacteriaceae siderophore, and also revealed some of the conditions required for enterobactin production. Carriage of the entF gene, which codes for the synthetase responsible for the final assembly of the tri-cyclic structure of enterobactin, was confirmed by PCR in this isolate. Another separate Streptomyces produced a compound that matched the UV/VIS spectra of heterobactin, a siderophore previously only described in Rhodococcus and Nocardia.

  6. Integrated catchment management in Western Australia: Transition from concept to implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Bruce; Hollick, Malcolm

    1993-11-01

    Integrated catchment management (ICM) was introduced as state policy in 1988 to overcome land and water degradation in Western Australia (WA). Key elements of ICM are cooperation among state and local governments and landholders; involvement of landholders and local communities in identification of issues and solutions; and, agreement on common objectives. This study identifies the issues that led to the adoption of integrated catchment management in Western Australia, outlines its main characteristics, and reviews the progress and problems encountered during its initial implementation. ICM has generally been accepted and endorsed in WA. However, differences of opinion have emerged regarding exactly what it means and how it should be applied. Designing ideal organizational structures for ICM is not sufficient for it to be effective. Ultimately, people have to make ICM function, and therefore it is essential that priority be given to cultivating the good will and trust necessary for ICM to work well. ICM also requires a long-term perspective and appreciation that it requires many people and agencies to move out of current “comfort zones.” As a result, initial implementation of ICM usually will encounter turbulence and debate.

  7. Burns education for non-burn specialist clinicians in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Tania; Hendricks, Joyce; Twigg, Di; Wood, Fiona

    2015-03-01

    Burn patients often receive their initial care by non-burn specialist clinicians, with increasingly collaborative burn models of care. The provision of relevant and accessible education for these clinicians is therefore vital for optimal patient care. A two phase design was used. A state-wide survey of multidisciplinary non-burn specialist clinicians throughout Western Australia identified learning needs related to paediatric burn care. A targeted education programme was developed and delivered live via videoconference. Pre-post-test analysis evaluated changes in knowledge as a result of attendance at each education session. Non-burn specialist clinicians identified numerous areas of burn care relevant to their practice. Statistically significant differences between perceived relevance of care and confidence in care provision were reported for aspects of acute burn care. Following attendance at the education sessions, statistically significant increases in knowledge were noted for most areas of acute burn care. Identification of learning needs facilitated the development of a targeted education programme for non-burn specialist clinicians. Increased non-burn specialist clinician knowledge following attendance at most education sessions supports the use of videoconferencing as an acceptable and effective method of delivering burns education in Western Australia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Indoor environmental quality in a 'low allergen' school and three standard primary schools in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Spickett, J; Rumchev, K; Lee, A H; Stick, S

    2006-02-01

    To investigate indoor environmental quality in classrooms, assessments were undertaken in a 'low allergen' school and three standard primary schools in Western Australia. Dust allergens, air pollutants and physical parameters were monitored in the four schools at four times (summer school term, autumn holiday, winter school term and winter holiday) in 2002. The levels of particulate matter (PM(10)) and volatile organic compounds were similar between the four primary schools. Although slightly decreased levels of dust-mite and cat allergens were observed in the 'low allergen' school, the reductions were not statistically significant and the allergen levels in all schools were much lower than the recommended sensitizing thresholds. However, significantly lower levels of relative humidity and formaldehyde level during summer-term were recorded in the 'low allergen' school. In conclusion, the evidence here suggests that the 'low allergen' school did not significantly improve the indoor environmental quality in classrooms. Practical Implications School is an important environment for children in terms of exposure to pollutants and allergens. By assessing the levels of key pollutants and allergens in a low allergen school and three standard primary schools in Western Australia, this study provides useful information for implementation of healthy building design that can improve the indoor environment in schools.

  9. Evidence for thermal erosion of basalt and hybridization of komatiite at Kambalda, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Lesher, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Archean komatiite-associated Ni-sulfide ores in Western Australia are hosted by cumulate metakomatiites and are localized in footwall embayments. Structural, stratigraphical, and volcanological studies of the type-examples of these deposits at Kambalda, Western Australia suggest i) that the host units represent linear lava conduits and ii) that the embayments are volcanic features, modified by deformation. The sulfide ore are interpreted to have formed by assimilation of sulfidic, cherty sediments beneath the thermally-active lava conduits. Transgressive magmatic contacts between massive sulfide and pillowed metabasalt provide unequivocal evidence for erosion of basalt by highly thermally conductive massive sulfides. Evidence for thermal erosion of basalt by komatiite is more equivocal as contacts between the two lithologies are normally recrystallized and marked by chloritic metasomatic reaction zones. Thermal erosion channels produced experimentally by Huppert et al. (1984) are morphologically similar to the embayments at Kambalda, but it is unlikely that the embayments in these deposits have been generated by thermal erosion, for several reason: 1) Some embayments contain uneroded metasediments and predate emplacement of the ores and host units. 2) Some embayments appear to be broadly stratigraphically conformable within the footwall metabasalt sequence. 3) Some embayments are elliptical in outline and could not have formed by thermal erosion beneath a lava conduit. The embayments probably represent volcanic-topographic irregularities in the surface of the footwall basalt that have been variably modified by thermal erosion.

  10. Malaria in south-western and north-western Nigerian communities

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, H. Munro

    1956-01-01

    An attempt is made to describe the comparative epidemiology of malaria in representative communities of south-western and north-western Nigeria. The climates of the two areas are contrasted and their influence on the seasonal densities and infectivities of the local vectors, Anopheles gambiae and A. funestus, is shown. Malaria occurs in holoendemic proportions in both areas and its effect on local mortality and morbidity is examined, with special reference to children in the pre-school age-groups. PMID:13404444

  11. Desert varnish and environmental change near Broken Hill, Western New South Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragovich, D.

    1988-12-01

    Desert varnish is widespread in arid Australia, and occurs as a thin often discontinuous manganese-enriched surface coating near Broken Hill, western New South Wales. Radiocarbon dating of calcium carbonate associated with this varnish indicated that major varnishing took place before about 10,000 years B.P., with varnish-forming conditions continuing during the Holocene. Small patches of varnish on secondary carbonate, on non-varnished rock and sometimes on existing varnish suggest that current environmental conditions allow for some varnish formation. Loss of varnish has resulted from within-channel abrasion, weathering by lichens, minor breakdown of varnish substrates, and localized weathering, possibly related to a previously higher soil surface.

  12. Cryptococcosis in domestic animals in Western Australia: a retrospective study from 1995-2006.

    PubMed

    McGill, S; Malik, R; Saul, N; Beetson, S; Secombe, C; Robertson, I; Irwin, P

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study of cryptococcosis in domestic animals residing in Western Australia was conducted over an 11-year-period (from 1995 to 2006) by searching the data base of Murdoch University Veterinary Teaching hospital and the largest private clinical pathology laboratory in Perth. Cryptococcosis was identified in 155 animals: 72 cats, 57 dogs, 20 horses, three alpacas, two ferrets and a sheep. There was no seasonal trend apparent from the dates of diagnosis. Taking into account the commonness of accessions to Murdoch University, cats were five to six times more likely to develop this disease than dogs, and three times more likely than horses, while horses were almost twice as likely as dogs to become infected. Amongst the feline cohort, Ragdoll and Birman breeds were over-represented, while in dogs several pedigree breeds were similarly overrepresented. Dogs and horses tended to develop disease at an early age (one to five years), while cats were presented over a much wider range of ages. In cats and dogs the upper respiratory tract was the most common primary site of infection, while horses and alpacas tended to have lower respiratory involvement. The most striking finding of the study was the high frequency with which C. gattii was identified, with infections attributable to this species comprising 5/9 cats, 11/22 dogs, 9/9 horses and 1/1 alpaca, where appropriate testing was conducted. Preliminary molecular genotyping suggested that most of the C. gattii infections in domestic animals (9/9 cases) were of the VGII genotype. This contrasts the situation on the eastern seaboard of Australia, where disease attributable to C. gattii is less common and mainly due to the VGI genotype. C. gattii therefore appears to be an important cause of cryptococcosis in Western Australia.

  13. The Influence of a Western Boundary Current on Continental Shelf Processes Along Southeastern Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughan, M.

    2016-02-01

    The East Australian Current (EAC) flows as a jet over the narrow shelf of southeastern Australia, dominating shelf circulation, and shedding vast eddies at the highly variable separation point. These characteristics alone make it a dynamically challenging region to measure, model and predict. In recent years a significant effort has been placed on understanding continental shelf processes along the coast of SE Australia, adjacent to the EAC, our major Western Boundary Current. We have used a multi-pronged approach by combining state of the art in situ observations and data assimilation modelling. Observations are obtained from a network of moorings, HF Radar and ocean gliders deployed in shelf waters along SE Australia, made possible through Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). In addition, we have developed a high resolution reanalysis of the East Australian Current using ROMS and 4DVar data Assimilation. In addition to the traditional data streams (SST, SSH and ARGO) we assimilate the newly available IMOS observations in the region. These include velocity and hydrographic observations from the EAC transport array, 1km HF radar measurements of surface currents, CTD casts from ocean gliders, and temperature, salinity and velocity measurements from a network of shelf mooring arrays. We use these vast data sets and numerical modelling tools combined with satellite remote sensed data to understand spatio-temporal variability of shelf processes and water mass distributions on synoptic, seasonal and inter-annual timescales. We have quantified the cross shelf transport variability inshore of the EAC, the driving mechanisms, the seasonal cycles in shelf waters and to some extent variability in the biological (phytoplankton) response. I will present a review of some of the key results from a number of recent studies.

  14. Identification of Quaternary Faults in Southwest Western Australia Using DEM-based Hill Shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D.; Collins, C. D.

    2004-12-01

    In Australia, the extreme infrequency of large earthquake events means that the historic record of seismicity is poorly suited to the task of assessing seismic hazard. Paleoseismological investigations provide the only viable avenue to obtain constraints on the recurrence intervals of large and damaging earthquakes. However, the prehistoric record is compromised by difficulties related to finding direct evidence for large earthquakes (e.g. fault scarps), which may be subtle or relatively short-lived in the landscape. In recent times, high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) have emerged as an important tool for defining and mapping of areas of probable elevated earthquake hazard. An examination of selected Shuttle Radar Tomography Mission (SRTM) 3 second DEM tiles and a 10 m resolution Department of Land Administration DEM has resulted in the identification of seven previously unrecognised fault scarps of probably Quaternary age in the southwest of Western Australia (SWWA). This doubles the number of Quaternary scarps known from SWWA, and is an important advance in defining areas prone to large earthquakes. The new features range in length from ~15 km to over 45 km, and from ~1.5 m to 7.5 m in height. As might be expected given the prevailing E-W regional compressive stress direction, the scarps are dominantly north-trending. However, most scarps are also arranged within a broad ESE-trending belt. This belt aligns with oceanic transform faults to the west of Australia relating to the break up with India. Of the fourteen scarps only two have been the subject of detailed palaeoseismic investigation to determine recurrence for large events. Ongoing research seeks to characterise seismicity on these scarps and further explore their large-scale relationship to each other, and to the architecture of the Australian plate. This work has the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of the drivers behind seismicity in intraplate Australia, and hence improve

  15. Submerged oceanic shoals of north Western Australia are a major reservoir of marine biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Cordelia; Cappo, Mike; Radford, Ben; Heyward, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    This paper provides a first assessment of fish communities associated with the submerged oceanic banks and shoals in north-west Australia. Until recently, little was known about these deeper and more inaccessible reefs. The mesophotic coral-reef habitats (20-80 m) were a major reservoir of marine biodiversity, with unique and exceptionally high fish diversity and abundance. Species richness in the study region was 1.4 times, and abundance almost twice, that recorded for similar mesophotic habitats on the Great Barrier Reef in north-east Australia. A review of the published literature revealed that Australia's NW oceanic shoals support the highest fish species richness reported for mesophotic reefs to date. We made regional comparisons of fish community structure (species composition, richness and abundance) and assessed the influence of depth, substrate and location. The presence of consolidated calcareous reef, depth and aspect (a surrogate for exposure) had the greatest influence on species richness. In contrast, aspect and the presence of benthic biota had the greatest influence on fish abundance. Sites most exposed to the prevailing currents (facing north-east) had lowest fish abundance, while highest abundances were recorded on moderately exposed sites (along the north-west and south-east edges). The most abundant species were small ( Pomacentrus coelestis) and large ( Naso hexacanthus) planktivorous fish. Currently, 29.3% of NE Australia mesophotic reefs are within no-take management zones of the Great Barrier Reef. In contrast, just 1.3% of the NW oceanic shoals are designated as no-take areas. The location and extent of mesophotic reefs remain poorly quantified globally. Because these habitats support significant biodiversity and have the potential to act as important refugia, understanding their extent is critical to maintaining coral-reef biodiversity and resilience and supporting sustainable management.

  16. Forum: Geography and Geographical Education in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Susan

    2006-01-01

    In New South Wales Geography is frequently perceived in an outdated and inaccurate fashion. Geographers' perceptions of their discipline usually contrasts with those of fellow educators, parents, employers, politicians and even their own students. It is suggested that for the public and students to better understand what is required to become a…

  17. Yardea Dacite -large-volume, high-temperature felsic volcanism from the Middle Proterozoic of South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Creaser, R.A.; White, A.J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The Yardea Dacite is a large-volume felsic volcanic unit from the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range Volcanics of South Australia; it has been previously described as an ignimbrite. However, some samples contain no petrographic evidence for a pyroclastic origin, but have characteristics compatible with final crystallization from a nonfragmented magma. These samples may have erupted as lavas, but others are likely to be extremely densely welded ignimbrites, suggesting a compound nature for the unit. Geothermometry and phase equilibria indicate that the Yardea Dacite originated from a high-temperature ({approximately}1,000{degree}C) felsic magma with a low water content ({le}2%). The Yardea Dacite is not associated with a known caldera of the Valles type, and shares many characteristics of recently described Cenozoic felsic volcanic rocks from the western United States, interpreted as rheoignimbrites or as unusually extensive lavas.

  18. NatureLinks: Protected areas, wilderness, and landscape connectivity in South Australia, Australia

    Treesearch

    Adrian Stokes; Greg Leaman

    2007-01-01

    The South Australian Government has recognized that, despite an extensive protected area system (26 percent of the State), Statewide ecological goals will not be achieved on protected areas alone. The NatureLinks model promotes protected areas acting as “ecological cores” in landscapes managed with conservation objectives. To implement this model, partnerships with...

  19. The acraman impact structure: source of ejecta in late precambrian shales, South australia.

    PubMed

    Williams, G E

    1986-07-11

    A major probable impact structure occurs in middle Proterozoic dacitic volcanics in the Gawler Ranges, central South Australia. The structure has an inner depressed area about 30 kilometers in diameter that contains the Lake Acraman salina, an intermediate depression or ring about 90 kilometers in diameter, and a possible outer ring approximately 160 kilometers in diameter. Outcrops of dacite in Lake Acraman are intensely shattered and contain shatter cones and multiple sets of shock lamellac in quartz grains. The Acraman structure is the largest probable impact structure known in Australia and is the likely source of dacitic ejecta found in late Precambrian marine shales some 300 kilometers to the east.

  20. Rural rotations for interns: a demonstration programme in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Mugford, B; Martin, A

    2001-12-01

    The Commonwealth Government of Australia, through policy initiatives and increased funding, has placed significant emphasis on increasing undergraduate rural experiences for medical students. However, in the immediate postgraduate years, rural community based rotations are uncommon, with the vast majority of intern experiences remaining hospital based. Since 1997, Flinders Medical Centre, Flinders University and the rural communities of Cleve and Jamestown have run a preregistration rural intern-training position based in rural general practice. The present article describes the programme, its evolution and the problems that have been overcome. The term provides a blend of hospital and community based experiences appropriate for junior doctors not yet familiar with ambulatory care. At the same time, the junior doctors have consistently reported a high-quality learning experience, with ready access to patients and procedural work. We describe the qualitative and quantitative methods we have recently introduced for evaluation of the programme.

  1. Seismic hazard analysis of the Adelaide region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Bambang

    2017-07-01

    Seismic activity in Australia is categorised as low to moderate. However, the rate of the deformation of the Australian continent is faster than other stable intraplate regions, such as Eastern North America and Africa. Adelaide region is the most seismically active zone in the Australian continent. Therefore, seismic hazard analysis of the Adelaide region is needed to improve the accuracy of seismic hazard predictions. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) incorporating Monte Carlo simulation is selected in the present paper. This method has several advantages i.e. simple, fast, flexible, and robust. Results of the analysis suggest comparable results with previous studies. Furthermore, two main threats are identified in the de-aggregation for the Adelaide city. Due to the limitation of strong magnitude event and the scarcity of the seismic event, further work is suggested for improving the estimates by extending the seismic catalogue i.e. incorporating neo-tectonic and paleo-seismic studies.

  2. Assessment of factors limiting algal growth in acidic pit lakes--a case study from Western Australia, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Naresh; McCullough, Clint D; Lund, Mark A; Larranaga, Santiago A

    2016-03-01

    Open-cut mining operations can form pit lakes on mine closure. These new water bodies typically have low nutrient concentrations and may have acidic and metal-contaminated waters from acid mine drainage (AMD) causing low algal biomass and algal biodiversity. A preliminary study was carried out on an acidic coal pit lake, Lake Kepwari, in Western Australia to determine which factors limited algal biomass. Water quality was monitored to obtain baseline data. pH ranged between 3.7 and 4.1, and solute concentrations were slightly elevated to levels of brackish water. Concentrations of N were highly relative to natural lakes, although concentrations of FRP (<0.01 mg/L) and C (total C 0.7-3.7 and DOC 0.7-3.5 mg/L) were very low, and as a result, algal growth was also extremely low. Microcosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that nutrient enrichment will be able to stimulate algal growth regardless of water quality. Microcosms of Lake Kepwari water were amended with N, P and C nutrients with and without sediment. Nutrient amendments under microcosm conditions could not show any significant phytoplankton growth but was able to promote benthic algal growth. P amendments without sediment showed a statistically higher mean algal biomass concentration than controls or microcosms amended with phosphorus but with sediment did. Results indicated that algal biomass in acidic pit lake (Lake Kepwari) may be limited primarily by low nutrient concentrations (especially phosphorus) and not by low pH or elevated metal concentrations. Furthermore, sediment processes may also reduce the nutrient availability.

  3. Geochemical indicators and characterization of soil water repellence in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordan, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Soil water repellency (SWR) has critical implications for restoration of vegetation in degraded areas as it is responsible of poor plant establishment and a high incidence of erosion processes. Different organic substances are capable of inducing SWR but polar molecules such as certain fatty acids, and waxes i.e. esters and salts of fatty acids, appear to be the main constituents of hydrophobic coatings on soil mineral particles (Doerr et al., 2005). Plant species most commonly associated with SWR are evergreen trees with a considerable amount of resins, waxes or aromatic oils such as eucalypts and pines. Most of these substances are abundant in ecosystems and are released to soil by plants as root exudates or decaying organic debris, and by soil fauna, fungi and other microorganisms, but a thorough knowledge of substances capable of inducing hydrophobicity in soils is still not complete (Jordan et al., 2013). Although SWR has been reported in most continents of the world for different soil types, climate conditions and land uses, there are still many research gaps in this area, particularly in semi-arid areas largely affected by this phenomenon. Materials and methods This research was conducted in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia (WA), e.g. semi-arid grassland in the Pilbara region (North WA), Banksia woodland, and a coastal dune (both located in South WA). These environments have different climate characteristics and soil types but similar vegetation communities. Soil samples were collected under the canopy of a broad range of plant species that compose the dominant vegetation communities of these ecosystems, and SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C). Soil microbial activity was measured with the 1-day CO2 test, a cost-effective and rapid method to determine soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Soil p

  4. Social inclusion and the City of Swan public libraries in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lockyer-Benzie, Maureena

    2004-09-01

    The focus of this paper is on an understanding of social exclusion/inclusion: the concept and how a specific public library service, namely the City of Swan Public Library service, has responded to this social issue. The terms social inclusion/exclusion are explored and clarified from an international, Western Australian State Government, and public library perspective. This is followed by a brief overview of Western Australia as an Australian state, and how public libraries operate based on a partnership with the State Library of Western Australia and Local Government. The City of Swan Public Libraries are described in some depth and also portrayed in their local setting namely the City of Swan, a city of extensive growth that offers a unique environment of both rural and urban areas. The concept of social inclusion is then applied to the City of Swan Public Library service and how the library service addresses social inclusion within its physical environment, policies, operations, future planning, programmes and services. This includes the results of a Library Non-user Survey that was conducted in 2001. The aims of this survey were to: ascertain why non-users within the City of Swan do not make use of the library facilities; explore why past members were not using the library services; examine the effectiveness of library promotions; and investigate the access to and usage of the Internet. The paper concludes with a list of the potential social conditions of which public libraries need to be aware in their strategic planning activities so that community members are not excluded from participating and accessing the public library service.

  5. Identifying high risk groups for sexually transmitted infections and blood borne viruses upon admission to prison in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Rochelle E; Mak, Donna B; Connelly, Crystal

    2011-01-01

    Prisoners frequently engage in high risk behaviours for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and blood borne viruses (BBVs) and effective interventions are required to control the transmission of STIs and BBVs among prisoners. The variation in engagement in high risk behaviours among prisoner sociodemographic sub-groups in Western Australia, including differences between prisoners admitted to metropolitan and regional prisons, has not been systematically described. The objective of this article was to describe self-reported engagement in unprotected sex and sharing injecting equipment among prisoners on admission to prison in Western Australia, using routinely collected data. A retrospective medical record audit was conducted for a total of 946 individuals admitted to prisons in Western Australia. Quota sampling was used to ensure adequate sampling of females, juveniles, and individuals from regional prisons. Initial health assessment records completed on admission to prison in Western Australia were audited to evaluate self-reported engagement in unprotected sex and the sharing of injecting equipment among prison entrants. Unprotected sex in the previous 12 months was reported by 48% of prisoners, and ever sharing injecting equipment was reported by 16% of prisoners. Adults were more likely to report both unprotected sex (52%) and sharing injecting equipment (18%) than juveniles (40% and 11%, respectively). Adults admitted to a metropolitan prison were significantly more likely to report sharing injecting equipment (23%) than adults admitted to a regional prison (10%). Associations between risk behaviours, sex and Aboriginality differed among prisoners admitted to metropolitan and regional prisons. There is distinct sociodemographic patterning of high risk behaviours among prisoners in Western Australia by age, sex, Aboriginality and prison location. The effectiveness of interventions to prevent STI and BBV transmission in prisoners may be enhanced by addressing

  6. Over-the-counter analgesic use by urban Aboriginal people in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Lynette; de Crespigny, Charlotte; Wilson, Coral

    2013-07-01

    Despite recent health gains for Australian Aboriginal people their significantly poorer health status compared with that of non-Aboriginal Australians remains significant. Within the context of high levels of mortality and morbidity, research highlights significant barriers to timely health-care, access and safe use of prescribed and over-the-counter medicines. The risks to Aboriginal people's health due to unsafe medication use are preventable. The purpose of this article is to present the findings from qualitative research focused on Aboriginal people's knowledge, use and experience of over-the-counter analgesics. The study was conducted in the north-western metropolitan area of Adelaide, which has the largest urban Aboriginal population in South Australia. The employment of an Aboriginal Elder as Cultural Advisor enabled engagement with Aboriginal participants. Purposive 'snow ball' sampling was used to recruit participants for four focus groups [n = 30] and one participant opting for a personal semi-structured interview. Participants worked with the researchers to develop the findings and formulate recommendations. The 25 women and 6 men, aged 20-80 years reported various chronic medical conditions. Focus groups/interview elicited accounts of critical issues concerning safe selection and use of over-the-counter analgesics. Serious health risks were evident due to limited knowledge about safe analgesic use and over-reliance on information from family, friends and advertising. Extremely poor access was reported by participants to culturally and linguistically appropriate information, education and advice from a range of doctors and other health professionals including Aboriginal health workers. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  8. The problem of the Culex pipiens complex in the South Pacific (including Australia)*

    PubMed Central

    Dobrotworsky, N. V.

    1967-01-01

    There are three representatives of the Culex pipiens complex in the South Pacific. C. p. fatigans is the most common and most widely distributed subspecies; it is closely associated with man. The males can be readily distinguished by the structure of the phallosome of the terminalia. C. p. molestus is spread over the southern part of Australia and in Tasmania; it also is a domestic mosquito. Throughout its extensive range in Australia, it exhibits all the biological traits that distinguish it from C. p. pipiens. C. p. australicus is widely distributed over the mainland of Australia and in Tasmania. It is superficially similar to C. p. fatigans but can be distinguished from C. p. pallens by the structure of the phallosome. It is primarily a rural non-man-biting mosquito. C. p. australicus is probably a relatively ancient member of the Australian fauna that may have evolved in the southern temperate zone. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 2 PMID:5300062

  9. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide and trends in the western South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, A. F.; Velo, A.; Hoppema, M.; Pérez, F. F.

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CANT) was calculated using four independent approaches in the western South Atlantic basin. The methods considered are the CFC-based Transit Time Distribution method and the φCT°, TrOCA and ΔC* carbon-system-based back-calculation methods. All four methods have produced CANT distribution patterns that are generally in good agreement. The main difference between the methods was found in the relative CANT maximum associated with the lower limb of the North Atlantic Deep Water. In agreement with other intercomparison studies of CANT, the specific inventories are significantly higher (~45%) than those reported using data and methods of the GLODAP database. This suggests that the South Atlantic stores more CANT than initially expected, particularly towards the Southern Ocean. The temporal evolution of the integrated CANT was calculated using the CLODAP and CARINA databases at different water masses levels, showing different annual rates of the CANT increase.

  10. Novel psychoactive substance and other drug use by young adults in Western australia.

    PubMed

    Goggin, Leigh S; Gately, Natalie; Bridle, Russell I

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in Western Australia. The aim of this study was to pilot-test an online survey to obtain data on the prevalence of NPS and other drug use by young Western Australians aged between 18 and 35 years. The Young Adult Drug and Alcohol Survey (YADAS) was a questionnaire deployed online for a period of six months. Participants were recruited via a combined targeted sampling and snowball methodology. There were 472 valid responses. Overall lifetime use of NPS was relatively high (17.6%), while use in the last year was lower (6.6%). These proportions were comparable to that of cocaine use. The most popular NPS were the synthetic cannabinoids. The proportions of respondents drinking alcohol at risky levels, mixing alcohol with energy drinks, and using pharmaceuticals such as ADHD medications for non-medical reasons were high. The YADAS is the first survey to ascertain the prevalence of use of numerous types of NPS in a large sample of young Western Australian adults. The utilization of an online survey methodology yielded valid results as compared to more intensive surveys, and enables researchers greater flexibility in being able to capture current trends.

  11. Mapping the psychosocial and practical support needs of cancer patients in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    White, K; D'Abrew, N; Katris, P; O'Connor, M; Emery, L

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the unmet needs of cancer patients is important for developing and refining services to address the identified gaps in cancer care. In order to describe the psychological and practical support needs of Western Australians with cancer, the Western Australian Cancer Registry was used to identify a sample of individuals with cancer. These individuals were then invited to complete the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-LF59) and a demographic questionnaire. Data from participants who completed and returned both questionnaires were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and one-way anova. Of the 1770 participants identified and contacted, a total of 829 individuals (47% response) completed the SCNS-LF59 alone, and 786 (94.8%) completed both questionnaires. Overall, a substantial minority of Western Australian cancer patients reported unmet needs, primarily in the psychological and physical and daily living domains. Disease-specific needs were also identified for the five most common cancer groups in Australia; for example, prostate cancer patients had unmet needs relating to sexuality, and melanoma patients had unmet informational needs. Cancer services need to look at how best to tailor resources and interventions to meet these needs of specific cancer subpopulations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Dental wear and age grading at Roonka, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Judith

    2017-07-01

    In many hunter-gatherer populations, the teeth are used as a third hand or a tool. Much attention has been paid to wear and its relationship to gendered division of labor, but age is also a significant organizing factor in many societies. In this article, I analyze whether the pattern of wear at Roonka, Australia, reflects the age-graded acquisition of tasks. The remains analyzed come from Roonka and date from c6000 BP to 150 BP. In total 126 adults and juveniles were analyzed. Wear gradients were calculated for each tooth relative to wear on the first molar. Data were compared using nonparametric statistics and cluster analysis to assess the degree of patterning within the sample. Dental wear proceeded rapidly. There is no evidence of sex differences in the pattern of wear. Age differences do occur. While disproportionate anterior wear occurs among juveniles and young adults, by middle adulthood the pattern is less variable and involves the premolars. Old adults have a much flatter pattern of wear. The pattern of wear is consistent with ethnographic observations, which suggest a degree of latitude in the activities of juveniles and young adults. By middle age variability between individuals declines reflecting shared tasks and more intensive use of the teeth. The pattern of wear amongst old adults, however, is much flatter presumably due to changes in occlusion. While dental wear is informative about the organization of labor there is a need to take into account both patterns of activity and occlusion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Geochemical and microstructural characterisation of two species of cool-water bivalves (Fulvia tenuicostata and Soletellina biradiata) from Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Liza M.; George, Annette D.; Shaw, Jeremy; Hart, Robert D.; Roberts, Malcolm; Becker, Thomas; McDonald, Bradley J.; Evans, Noreen J.

    2017-03-01

    The shells of two marine bivalve species (Fulvia tenuicostata and Soletellina biradiata) endemic to south Western Australia have been characterised using a combined crystallographic, spectroscopic and geochemical approach. Both species have been described previously as purely aragonitic; however, this study identified the presence of three phases, namely aragonite, calcite and Mg-calcite, using XRD analysis. Data obtained via confocal Raman spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) show correlations between Mg / S and Mg / P in F. tenuicostata and between Sr / S and S / Ba in S. biradiata. The composition of the organic macromolecules that constitute the shell organic matrix (i.e. the soluble phosphorus-dominated and/or insoluble sulfur-dominated fraction) influences the incorporation of Mg, Sr and Ba into the crystal lattice. Ionic substitution, particularly Ca2+ by Mg2+ in calcite in F. tenuicostata, appears to have been promoted by the combination of both S- and P-dominated organic macromolecules. The elemental composition of these two marine bivalve shells is species specific and influenced by many factors, such as crystallographic structure, organic macromolecule composition and environmental setting. In order to reliably use bivalve shells as proxies for paleoenvironmental reconstructions, both the organic and inorganic crystalline material need to be characterised to account for all influencing factors and accurately describe the vital effect.

  14. Autochthonous strongyloidiasis, Bordeaux area, South-Western France.

    PubMed

    Glize, Bertrand; Malvy, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a ubiquitous parasitic infection mostly endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, although sporadic autochthonous cases or sparse pockets have been reported in some areas of temperate regions. We report here the first, to our knowledge, autochthonous case diagnosed in the Arcachon basin in the coastal Aquitaine region of South-Western France. We failed to identify any recognized risk factor for transmission in this case of autochthonous infection occurring in a wealthy major tourist destination. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Spatial and temporal patterns of nature-based tourism interactions with whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Douglas J.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Norman, Brad M.; Bejder, Lars; Tyne, Julian A.; Loneragan, Neil R.

    2014-07-01

    As with other nature-based tourism ventures, whale shark tourism is expanding rapidly worldwide, which highlights the need to understand more about the nature of these activities. Records of interactions between tour operators and whale sharks at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia (22.5°S, 113.5°E) were obtained from the Western Australian Department of Parks and Wildlife from 2006 to 2010 and evaluated to determine the scale of the tourism operations and the spatial and temporal distribution of interactions. The number of whale shark tours at Ningaloo increased by approx. 70% (520-886 tours per year) and the number of interactions with whale sharks by 370% between 2006 (694) and 2010 (3254). The locations of whale shark interactions recorded in logbooks (2006-2009) and electronic monitoring systems (2009 and 2010) were used to plot the smoothed densities of tour operator interactions with whale sharks. Generalised linear models were used to investigate how the presence/absence and number of whale shark interactions at North and South Ningaloo were influenced by the distance to the reef crest, the distance to passages and their interaction terms for the aggregated five-year data set. Over the five years, distance to the reef crest was the best predictor of the presence/absence of whale shark interactions at both North (interactions concentrated within 3 km of the reef crest) and South Ningaloo (interactions within 6 km of the reef crest) followed by distance to passages. The reef passages are very significant areas for tourism interactions with whale sharks at Ningaloo. The distribution of interactions at North and South Ningaloo varied from year to year, particularly in the strong La Niña year of 2010, when average sea surface temperatures remained above 24 °C and whale sharks were observed much later in the year than previously (late August). This study demonstrates the value of the data collected by the tour operators at Ningaloo Reef and managed by a

  16. Breakup of pangaea and isolation of relict mammals in australia, South america, and madagascar.

    PubMed

    Fooden, J

    1972-02-25

    The composition of aboriginal land mammal faunas in Australia and New Guinea (prototherians and metatherians), South America (metatherians and eutherians) and Madagascar (eutherians only) is reconsidered in light of continental drift reconstructions of Mesozoic-Tertiary world paleogeography It is proposed that these three faunas represent successively detached samples of the evolving world mammal fauna as it existed when each of these land masses became faunally isolated from the rest of the world as a result of the progressive fragmentation of Pangaea. Isolation of aboriginal prototherians and metatherians in Australia and New Guinea may date from the Upper JurassicLower Cretaceous; isolation of aboriginal metatherians and eutherians in South America may date from the Middle Cretaceous-Upper Cretaceous; isolation of aboriginal eutherians in Madagascar may date from the Paleocene-Eocene.

  17. Calibration of Valiantzas' reference evapotranspiration equations for the Pilbara region, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahooghalandari, Matin; Khiadani, Mehdi; Jahromi, Mina Esmi

    2016-02-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is a critical component of water resources management and planning. Different methods have been developed to estimate ET0 with various required data. In this study, Hargreaves, Turc, Oudin, Copais, Abtew methods and three forms of Valiantzas' formulas, developed in recent years, were used to estimate ET0 for the Pilbara region of Western Australia. The estimated ET0 values from these methods were compared with those from the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (PM) method. The results showed that the Copais methods and two of Valiantzas' equations, in their original forms, are suitable for estimating ET0 for the study area. A modification of Honey-Bee Mating Optimization (MHBMO) algorithm was further implemented, and three Valiantzas' equations for a region located in the southern hemisphere were calibrated.

  18. Genetic characterization of K13965, a strain of Oak Vale virus from Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Phenix-Lan; Williams, David T.; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Jain, Komal; Petrosov, Alexandra; Diviney, Sinead M.; Tashmukhamedova, Alla; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Tesh, Robert B.; Mackenzie, John S.; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    K13965, an uncharacterized virus, was isolated in 1993 from Anopheles annulipes mosquitoes collected in the Kimberley region of northern Western Australia. Here, we report its genomic sequence, identify it as a rhabdovirus, and characterize its phylogenetic relationships. The genome comprises a P′ (C) and SH protein similar to the recently characterized Tupaia and Durham viruses, and shows overlap between G and L genes. Comparison of K13965 genome sequence to other rhabdoviruses identified K13965 as a strain of the unclassified Australian Oak Vale rhabdovirus, whose complete genome sequence we also determined. Phylogenetic analysis of N and L sequences indicated genetic relationship to a recently proposed Sandjima virus clade, although the Oak Vale virus sequences form a branch separate from the African members of that group. PMID:21740935

  19. Calibration of Valiantzas' reference evapotranspiration equations for the Pilbara region, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahooghalandari, Matin; Khiadani, Mehdi; Jahromi, Mina Esmi

    2017-05-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is a critical component of water resources management and planning. Different methods have been developed to estimate ET0 with various required data. In this study, Hargreaves, Turc, Oudin, Copais, Abtew methods and three forms of Valiantzas' formulas, developed in recent years, were used to estimate ET0 for the Pilbara region of Western Australia. The estimated ET0 values from these methods were compared with those from the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (PM) method. The results showed that the Copais methods and two of Valiantzas' equations, in their original forms, are suitable for estimating ET0 for the study area. A modification of Honey-Bee Mating Optimization (MHBMO) algorithm was further implemented, and three Valiantzas' equations for a region located in the southern hemisphere were calibrated.

  20. Abiotic Earth - Establishing a Baseline for Earliest Life, Data from the Archean of Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, J. F.; Brasier, M. D.; McLoughlin, N.; Green, O. R.; Fogel, M.; McNamara, K. M.; Steele, A.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    Stromatolitic structures preserved at two stratigraphic levels within the 3.47-3.43 Ga Warrawoona Group of Western Australia have been interpreted as some of "the least controversial evidence of early life on earth" and "the oldest firmly established biogenic deposits now known from the geologic record". The structures were said to have formed in a shallow sub-tidal to intertidal setting as part of an evaporite succession. In an extensive field program we have re-evaluated exposures of the Strelley Pool Chert from which stromatolites have been described and carried out detailed mapping and sampling of the Strelley Pool West site 13.7 km west of the type locality. Data from our ongoing program cast considerable doubt on the biogenic origins of the stromatolitic structures and on the nature of their depositional setting.

  1. Patterns of marine debris distribution on the beaches of Rottnest Island, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen D A; Gillies, Chris L; Shortland-Jones, Helen

    2014-11-15

    Rottnest Island, Western Australia, receives >500,000 visitors y(-1), who are mainly attracted by the Island's natural values. Marine debris is a threat to both these natural values and to Island wildlife, and is consequently an important issue for managers. Engaging with volunteers, we quantified marine debris at 16 beach sites around the Island. The highest loads occurred on the SW coast and primarily comprised items originating from fishing activities. Sites on the NE coast, where >95% of the Island's accommodation is located, supported the highest abundance of items deposited in situ (e.g. bottles and cigarette butts). We conclude that marine debris management may require a range of strategies to address the different primary sources. Raising awareness through education and intervention may be highly effective at popular beaches on the NE coast, but broader liaison with commercial and recreational fishers will be necessary to address the issue at the Island scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New Analyses of Diverse Hadean Zircon Inclusions from Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trail, D.; Catlos, E. J.; Harrison, T. M.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The geological record is the only direct source of information regarding physical/chemical processes that may have ultimately been responsible for the origin of life. Known terrestrial rocks have ages that span from present day to approx. 4.0 Ga. This leaves a time gap of more than 500 Myr between lunar formation, and preservation of the oldest terrestrial crust. What were planetary conditions like wherein the prebiotic chemistry leading to life took place? The recent discovery of up to 4.37 Ga detrital zircons from Western Australia represents the only tangible record of the time period termed the Hadean Eon (4.5-4.0 Ga). Knowledge of the paragenesis of the oldest zircons potentially contributes information regarding the origin of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, continental lithosphere and the potential for life on the Hadean Earth.

  3. New Analyses of Diverse Hadean Zircon Inclusions from Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trail, D.; Catlos, E. J.; Harrison, T. M.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The geological record is the only direct source of information regarding physical/chemical processes that may have ultimately been responsible for the origin of life. Known terrestrial rocks have ages that span from present day to approx. 4.0 Ga. This leaves a time gap of more than 500 Myr between lunar formation, and preservation of the oldest terrestrial crust. What were planetary conditions like wherein the prebiotic chemistry leading to life took place? The recent discovery of up to 4.37 Ga detrital zircons from Western Australia represents the only tangible record of the time period termed the Hadean Eon (4.5-4.0 Ga). Knowledge of the paragenesis of the oldest zircons potentially contributes information regarding the origin of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, continental lithosphere and the potential for life on the Hadean Earth.

  4. Phylogenetic Analysis of Enterovirus 71 Strains Isolated during Linked Epidemics in Malaysia, Singapore, and Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    McMinn, Peter; Lindsay, Katie; Perera, David; Chan, Hung Ming; Chan, Kwai Peng; Cardosa, Mary Jane

    2001-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a frequent cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics associated with severe neurological sequelae in a small proportion of cases. There has been a significant increase in EV71 epidemic activity throughout the Asia-Pacific region since 1997. Recent HFMD epidemics in this region have been associated with a severe form of brainstem encephalitis associated with pulmonary edema and high case fatality rates. In this study, we show that four genetic lineages of EV71 have been prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region since 1997, including two previously undescribed genogroups (B3 and B4). Furthermore, we show that viruses belonging to genogroups B3 and B4 have circulated endemically in Southeast Asia during this period and have been the primary cause of several large HFMD or encephalitis epidemics in Malaysia, Singapore, and Western Australia. PMID:11462047

  5. Salt lakes of Western Australia - Natural abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, T.; Studenroth, S.; Mulder, I.; Tubbesing, C.; Kotte, K.; Ofner, J.; Junkermann, W.; Schöler, H. F.

    2012-04-01

    Western Australia is a semi-/arid region that is heavily influenced by global climate change and agricultural land use. The area is known for its many ephemeral saline and hypersaline lakes with a wide range of hydrogeochemical parameters that have gradually changed over the last fifty years. Historically, the region was covered by eucalyptus trees and shrubs, but was cleared mainly within 10 years after WWII to make room for wheat and live stock. After the clearance of the deep rooted native plants the groundwater started to rise, bringing increased amounts of dissolved salts and minerals to the surface and discharging them into streams and lakes. Thus most of Western Australia is influenced by secondary salinisation (soil salting) [1]. Another problem is that the discharged minerals affect the pH of ground and surface water, which ranges from acidic to slightly basic. During the 2011 campaign surface water was measured with a pH between 2.5 and 7.1. Another phenomenon in Western Australia is the decrease of rainfall over the last decades assumed to be linked to the secondary salinisation. The rising saline and mineral rich groundwater increases the biotical and abiotical activity of the salt lakes. Halogenated and non-halogenated volatile organic compounds emitted from those lakes undergo fast oxidation and chemical reactions to form small particles modifying cloud microphysics and thus suppressing rain events [2]. Our objective is to gain a better understanding of this extreme environment with its hypersaline acidic lakes with regard to the potential abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds and its impact on the local climate. In spring 2011 fifty-three sediment samples from ten salt lakes in the Lake King region where taken, freeze-dried and ground. In order to simulate the abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds the soil samples were resuspended with water in gas-tight headspace vials. The headspace was measured using a purge and trap GC

  6. A geochemical reconstruction of oil generation in the Barrow Sub-basin of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkman, John K.; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert Ian; Noble, Rohinton A.; Woodhouse, Carry Wayne

    1983-12-01

    A suite of crude oils and petroleum source rock extracts from the Barrow Sub-basin of Western Australia have been analysed for biological marker compounds by capillary GC-MS, and for volatile hydrocarbons by whole oil capillary GC. These analyses were used to calculate values for twenty-three biomarker parameters in order to assess aspects of source type, maturity, migration and biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. The crude oils had a source in the Upper Jurassic Dingo Claystone formation. These hydrocarbons accumulated in the reservoir sands and in some cases were biodegraded. Several accumulation and biodegradation episodes have been recognised while the basin continued to subside, which resulted in a suite of oils showing marked differences in composition.

  7. Novel Eimeria sp. isolated from a King's skink (Egernia kingii) in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Bennett, Mark D; Eliott, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2013-02-01

    A novel Eimeria sp. was identified in faeces collected from a King's skink (Egernia kingii) housed at the Kanyana Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre in Western Australia. Oocysts measure 17.0×15.0 μm with a length/width ratio (L/W) of 1.13. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences indicated that the novel Eimeria sp. shared the highest genetic similarity to Eimeria antrozoi and Eimeria rioarribaensis from vespertilionid bats from North America (≥98.9%). At the COI locus, bat-derived sequences were not available and phylogenetic analysis placed the novel Eimeria sp. in a clade by itself and shared 98.8% similarity with the rodent-derived species E. falciformis and E. vermiformis. This suggests that the isolate from the King's skink's faeces was probably derived from a mammal, possibly a rodent or a bat.

  8. [Italians in Western Australia: an isolated community in a period of aging].

    PubMed

    Gentilli, J

    1993-03-01

    Characteristics of the Italian-born population of Western Australia are examined in light of the state's large size and relative isolation. "After a brief review of the gold rush of the 1890s and the agricultural settlement that followed, the paper examines the evolution in the age composition of the population, the extraordinary rapid turnover of migrants, the predominance of young males among them. Brief comparisons are made with other migrant groups in 1986. The importance of education for the attainment of a good income is examined....[The author finds that] mixed marriages (some inevitable because of the much greater number of males among the Italian-born) enrich both sides culturally but speed up the assimilation process." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  9. Thirteen new species of the spider genus Karaops (Araneae: Selenopidae) from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Crews, Sarah C

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen new species of the recently-described genus Karaops Crews and Harvey, 2011 are described from Western Australia, bringing the total number of species of this genus to 37. The new species are K. umiida sp. nov. (female, male), K. nyiyaparli sp. nov. (female), K. kariyarra sp. nov. (female), K. yurlburr sp. nov. (female, male), K. feedtime sp. nov. (female), K. forteyi sp. nov. (female, male), K. yindjibarndi sp. nov. (male), K. jaburrara sp. nov. (male), K. ngarluma sp. nov. (male), K. nyangunarta sp. nov. (female, male), K. nyamal sp. nov. (female), K. banyjima sp. nov. (female) and K. yumbu sp. nov. (male). The male of K. inartamarta Crews and Harvey, 2011 is described for the first time, and new distribution records are given for this species and for K. burbidgei Crews and Harvey, 2011. Finally, a new key' to all of the described species of Karaops is provided.

  10. Abiotic Earth - Establishing a Baseline for Earliest Life, Data from the Archean of Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, J. F.; Brasier, M. D.; McLoughlin, N.; Green, O. R.; Fogel, M.; McNamara, K. M.; Steele, A.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    Stromatolitic structures preserved at two stratigraphic levels within the 3.47-3.43 Ga Warrawoona Group of Western Australia have been interpreted as some of "the least controversial evidence of early life on earth" and "the oldest firmly established biogenic deposits now known from the geologic record". The structures were said to have formed in a shallow sub-tidal to intertidal setting as part of an evaporite succession. In an extensive field program we have re-evaluated exposures of the Strelley Pool Chert from which stromatolites have been described and carried out detailed mapping and sampling of the Strelley Pool West site 13.7 km west of the type locality. Data from our ongoing program cast considerable doubt on the biogenic origins of the stromatolitic structures and on the nature of their depositional setting.

  11. Evaluation of an alternative transport initiative in Perth, Western Australia, 2000-04.

    PubMed

    McManus, Alexandra; Smith, Jenny; McManus, Jennifer; MacDonald, Emma; Williams, Megan

    2005-12-01

    Perth, Western Australia, has the highest proportion of per capita car ownership in Australia. Despite the various health, environmental and traffic-related benefits, the uptake of alternative forms of transportation such as walking, cycling and public transport are low. In response to a growing reliance on motorised transport, the Department for Planning and Infrastructure's (DPI's) Cycling Unit conducts an annual Bike to Work Breakfast to promote cycling as a viable form of transport to work. During this event a short, cross-sectional survey is distributed to assess the usual cycling behaviours of attendees. Topical issues relating to cycling are also investigated. Results from the 2004 survey indicated that the majority of respondents cycled at least 2-3 times per week (85%) to improve fitness (88%), for enjoyment (70%) and because it was a cost-effective means of transport (45%). Most of the respondents (92%) supported the need for more cycle-friendly infrastructure such as advanced stop lines at intersections and safety measures such as wearing cycle helmets (85%). These findings were consistent with results from similar surveys conducted between 2000 and 2003. The DPI's Bike to Work Breakfast is a popular event within the cycling calendar that provides the opportunity to gain a snapshot of cycling behaviours and attitudes of cyclists. Prior consultation with the evaluators in the development of the survey instrument has the potential to investigate barriers and enablers to cycling on a regular basis. Age and gender differences could also be explored.

  12. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Analysis of the Microbial Communities of Mars Analog Lakes in Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormile, Melanie R.; Hong, Bo-Young; Benison, Kathleen C.

    2009-12-01

    Unique, shallow interdune lakes and groundwaters with extremely low pH and high salinity exist in Australia, along with nearby lakes that possess higher pH values. These acidic hypersaline environments are possibly the best modern terrestrial analogues for past martian environments. However, no previous microbiological analyses of these lakes have been conducted. During the Australian winter of 2005, water samples were taken from several hypersaline lakes located in southern Western Australia that possessed acidic to slightly alkaline pH. These samples were subjected to molecular analysis to identify bacterial communities. DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16S rRNA gene sequences, by using universal bacterial primers, were also performed on the samples. Extracted DNA was amplified with 1070 forward and 1392 GC-clamped reverse primers and analyzed by using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In addition, libraries were developed from DNA retrieved from four lakes, including a marginal marine neutral lake, an inland neutral lake, and two inland acid lakes, and selected clones with distinct operational taxonomic units were sequenced. The DGGE profiles and clone sequence data indicate that there are distinct, abundant, and diverse microbial populations in these Australian hypersaline environments, especially the acidic ones. These results are significant for two reasons: (1) they provide the first microbiological survey of natural acid saline lakes and (2) they hint at the possibility that there could have been a diverse microbial population in acidic hypersaline environments on Mars.

  14. Stimulant prescribing for the treatment of ADHD in Western Australia: socioeconomic and remoteness differences.

    PubMed

    Calver, Janine; Preen, David; Bulsara, Max; Sanfilippo, Frank

    2007-02-05

    To identify whether the rate and average daily dose of stimulant prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Western Australia differed according to the geographical remoteness and socioeconomic status of the patient. Secondary analysis of population-based administrative pharmacy data from 2004, stratified by the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA+) categories and the Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSD) quintiles for WA (2001 Census). Rate ratios of stimulant prescription and mean average daily dose (in dex-equivalents) stratified by age (2-17, 18+ years), sex, ARIA+ category and IRSD quintile. The rate of stimulant prescription was 2.3 to 5.3 times greater in major cities in WA compared with remote and very remote parts of the state. The association between socioeconomic disadvantage and the rate of stimulant prescription was highly variable. Adults with the least socioeconomic disadvantage were significantly more likely to receive stimulants compared with their most disadvantaged counterparts; however, the reverse association was seen with children. The average daily dose of stimulant prescribed did not vary greatly across remoteness or socioeconomic categories. Remoteness and socioeconomic disadvantage are significantly associated with rate of stimulant prescription for ADHD in WA, but not associated with average daily dose of stimulant prescribed. Further research is needed to understand why considerable variation exists in the use of prescribed stimulants for ADHD.

  15. Carbonate sediment dynamics and compartmentalisation of a highly modified coast: Geraldton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecchiato, Sira; Collins, Lindsay; Stevens, Alexandra; Soldati, Michela; Pevzner, Roman

    2016-02-01

    The coastal zone off Geraldton in temperate Midwestern Australia was investigated to identify sediment dynamics and sediment budget components of two main embayments. An integrated analysis of hydrodynamics, geomorphology, sediments and habitat data was required to overcome a lack of previous examinations of sediment dynamics in the region. The seaward extent of the nearshore transport system was assessed. An improved understanding of coastal sediment dynamics and its relationship to coastal stability and assets was also achieved. The system is complex, with biogenic sediment input, as well as carbonate dune and river-derived sediments. Coastal erosion at Geraldton is mitigated by nourishment activities which require sand bypassing. Natural and artificial sediment sinks were identified, and are mainly located in the northern embayment where beach erosion is more significant. A dredged shipping channel needed to provide access to port facilities modifies the local sediment dynamics. This study provides new information for managing the Geraldton coast, which may be applicable to similar regions of Western Australia and carbonate coasts elsewhere.

  16. Household responses to pandemic (H1N1) 2009-related school closures, Perth, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Effler, Paul V; Carcione, Dale; Giele, Carolien; Dowse, Gary K; Goggin, Leigh; Mak, Donna B

    2010-02-01

    School closure is often purported to reduce influenza transmission, but little is known about its effect on families. We surveyed families affected by pandemic (H1N1) 2009-related school closures in Perth, Western Australia, Australia. Surveys were returned for 233 (58%) of 402 students. School closure was deemed appropriate by 110 parents (47%); however, 91 (45%) parents of 202 asymptomatic students reported taking >or=1 day off work to care for their child, and 71 (35%) had to make childcare arrangements because of the class closures. During the week, 172 (74%) students participated in activities outside the home on >or=1 occasion, resulting in an average of 3.7 out-of-home activities for each student. In our survey, activities outside the home were commonly reported by students affected by school closure, the effect on families was substantial, and parental opinion regarding school closures as a means to mitigate the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was divided.

  17. Anthropogenic aerosol emissions and rainfall decline in South-West Australia: coincidence or causality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzeller, Dominikus; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    It is commonly understood that the observed decline in precipitation in South-West Australia during the 20th century is caused by anthropogenic factors. Candidates therefore are changes to large-scale atmospheric circulations due to global warming, extensive deforestation and anthropogenic aerosol emissions - all of which are effective on different spatial and temporal scales. This presentation focusses on the role of rapidly rising aerosol emissions from anthropogenic sources in South-West Australia around 1970. An analysis of historical longterm rainfall data of the Bureau of Meteorology shows that South-West Australia as a whole experienced a gradual decline in precipitation over the 20th century. However, on smaller scales and for the particular example of the Perth catchment area, a sudden drop in precipitation around 1970 is apparent. Modelling experiments at a convection-resolving resolution of 3.3km using the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.6.1 with the aerosol-aware Thompson-Eidhammer microphysics scheme are conducted for the period 1970-1974. A comparison of four runs with different prescribed aerosol emissions and without aerosol effects demonstrates that tripling the pre-1960s atmospheric CCN and IN concentrations can suppress precipitation by 2-9%, depending on the area and the season. This suggests that a combination of all three processes is required to account for the gradual decline in rainfall seen for greater South-West Australia and for the sudden drop observed in areas along the West Coast in the 1970s: changing atmospheric circulations, deforestation and anthropogenic aerosol emissions.

  18. Downscaling an Eddy-Resolving Global Model for the Continental Shelf off South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughan, M.; Baird, M.; MacDonald, H.; Oke, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Australian Bluelink collaboration between CSIRO, the Bureau of Meteorology and the Royal Australian Navy has made available to the research community the output of BODAS (Bluelink ocean data assimilation system), an ensemble optimal interpolation reanalysis system with ~10 km resolution around Australia. Within the Bluelink project, BODAS fields are assimilated into a dynamic ocean model of the same resolution to produce BRAN (BlueLink ReANalysis, a hindcast of water properties around Australia from 1992 to 2004). In this study, BODAS hydrographic fields are assimilated into a ~ 3 km resolution Princeton Ocean Model (POM) configuration of the coastal ocean off SE Australia. Experiments were undertaken to establish the optimal strength and duration of the assimilation of BODAS fields into the 3 km resolution POM configuration for the purpose of producing hindcasts of ocean state. It is shown that the resultant downscaling of Bluelink products is better able to reproduce coastal features, particularly velocities and hydrography over the continental shelf off south eastern Australia. The BODAS-POM modelling system is used to provide a high-resolution simulation of the East Australian Current over the period 1992 to 2004. One of the applications that we will present is an investigation of the seasonal and inter-annual variability in the dispersion of passive particles in the East Australian Current. The practical outcome is an estimate of the connectivity of estuaries along the coast of southeast Australia, which is relevant for the dispersion of marine pests.

  19. Holocene climate variability and oceanographic changes off western South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xueqin; Dupont, Lydie; E Meadows, Michael; Schefuß, Enno; Bouimetarhan, Ilham; Wefer, Gerold

    2017-04-01

    South Africa is located at a critical transition zone between subtropical and warm-temperate climate zones influenced by the Indian and Atlantic oceans. Presently, the seasonal changes of atmospheric and oceanic systems induce a pronounced rainfall seasonality comprised of two different rainfall zones over South Africa. How did this seasonality develop during the Holocene? To obtain a better understanding of how South African climates have evolved during the Holocene, we conduct a comprehensive spatial-temporal approach including pollen and dinoflagellate cyst records from marine sediment samples retrieved from the Namaqualand mudbelt, a Holocene terrigenous mud deposit on the shelf of western South Africa. The representation of different vegetation communities in western South Africa is assessed through pollen analysis of surface sediments. This approach allows for climate reconstructions of the summer rainfall zone (SRZ) using Group 1 (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Phragmites-type and Typha) and winter rainfall zone (WRZ) using Group 2 (Restionaceae, Ericaceae, Anthospermum, Stoebe/Elytropappus-type, Cliffortia, Passerina, Artemisia-type and Pentzia-type) from a single marine archive. The fossil pollen data from gravity core GeoB8331-4 indicate contrasting climate patterns in the SRZ and WRZ especially during the early and middle Holocene. The rainfall amount in the SRZ is dominated by insolation forcing, while in the WRZ it is mainly attributed to the latitudinal position of the southern westerlies. Dinoflagellate cyst data show significantly different oceanographic conditions associated with climate changes on land. High percentages of autotrophic taxa like Operculodinium centrocarpum and Spiniferites spp. indicate warm and stratified conditions during the early Holocene, suggesting reduced upwelling. In contrast, the middle Holocene is characterized by a strong increase in heterotrophic taxa in particular Lejeunecysta paratenella and Echinidinium spp., indicating cool

  20. Changes in risk factors for preterm birth in Western Australia 1984-2006.

    PubMed

    Hammond, G; Langridge, A; Leonard, H; Hagan, R; Jacoby, P; DeKlerk, N; Pennell, C; Stanley, F

    2013-08-01

    To characterise changing risk factors of preterm birth in Western Australia between 1984 and 2006. Population-based study. Western Australia. All non-Aboriginal women giving birth to live singleton infants between 1984 and 2006. Multinomial, multivariable regression models were used to assess antecedent profiles by preterm status and labour onset types (spontaneous, medically indicated, prelabour rupture of membranes [PROM]). Population attributable fraction (PAF) estimates characterized the contribution of individual antecedents as well as the overall contribution of two antecedent groups: pre-existing medical conditions (including previous obstetric history) and pregnancy complications. Antecedent relationships with preterm birth, stratified by labour onset type. Marked increases in maternal age and primiparous births were observed. A four-fold increase in the rates of pre-existing medical complications over time was observed. Rates of pregnancy complications remained stable. Multinomial regression showed differences in antecedent profiles across labour onset types. PAF estimates indicated that 50% of medically indicated preterm deliveries could be eliminated after removing six antecedents from the population; estimates for PROM and spontaneous preterm reduction were between 10 and 20%. Variables pertaining to previous and current obstetric complications (previous preterm birth, previous caesarean section, pre-eclampsia and antepartum haemorrhage) were the most influential predictors of preterm birth and adverse labour onset (PROM and medically indicated). Preterm antecedent profiles have changed markedly over the 23 years studied. Some changes may be attributable to true change, others to advances in surveillance and detection. Still others may signify change in clinical practice. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  1. Trends in seasonal influenza vaccine uptake during pregnancy in Western Australia: Implications for midwives.

    PubMed

    Regan, Annette K; Mak, Donna B; Hauck, Yvonne L; Gibbs, Robyn; Tracey, Lauren; Effler, Paul V

    2016-10-01

    Antenatal influenza vaccination is an important public health intervention for preventing serious illness in mothers and newborns, yet uptake remains low. To evaluate trends in seasonal influenza vaccine coverage and identify determinants for vaccination among pregnant women in Western Australia. We conducted an annual telephone survey in a random sample of post-partum women who delivered a baby in Western Australia between 2012 and 2014. Women were asked whether influenza vaccination was recommended and/or received during their most recent pregnancy; women were also asked why or why they were not immunised. Between 2012 and 2014, influenza vaccine coverage increased from 22.9% to 41.4%. Women who reported receiving the majority of their antenatal care from a private obstetrician were significantly more likely to have influenza vaccination recommended to them than those receiving the majority of their care from a public antenatal hospital or general practitioner (p<0.001). In 2014, the most common reason women reported for accepting influenza vaccination was to protect the baby (92.8%) and the most common reason for being unimmunised was lack of a healthcare provider recommendation (48.5%). Antenatal influenza vaccination uptake is increasing, but coverage remains below 50%. A recommendation from the principal care provider is an important predictor of maternal influenza vaccination. Antenatal care providers, including midwives, have a key role in providing appropriate information and evidence-based recommendations to pregnant women to ensure they are making informed decisions. Consistent recommendations from antenatal care providers are critical to improving influenza vaccine coverage in pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from waste stabilisation ponds in Western Australia and Quebec (Canada).

    PubMed

    Glaz, Patricia; Bartosiewicz, Maciej; Laurion, Isabelle; Reichwaldt, Elke S; Maranger, Roxane; Ghadouani, Anas

    2016-09-15

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs) are highly enriched environments that may emit large quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG), including CO2, CH4 and N2O. However, few studies provide detailed reports on these emissions. In the present study, we investigated GHG emissions from WSPs in Western Australia and Quebec, Canada, and compared emissions to WSPs from other climatic regions and to other types of aquatic ecosystems. Surface water GHG concentrations were related to phytoplankton biomass and nutrients. The CO2 was either emitted or absorbed by WSPs, largely as a function of phytoplankton dynamics and strong stratification in these shallow systems, whereas efflux of CH4 and N2O to the atmosphere was always observed albeit with highly variable emission rates, dependent on treatment phase and time of the day. The total global warming potential index (GWP index, calculated as CO2 equivalent) of emitted GHG from WSPs in Western Australia averaged 12.8 mmol m(-2) d(-1) (median), with CO2, CH4 and N2O respectively contributing 0%, 96.7% and 3.3% of the total emissions, while in Quebec WSPs this index was 194 mmol m(-2) d(-1), with a relative contribution of 93.8, 3.0 and 3.2% respectively. The CO2 fluxes from WSPs were of the same order of magnitude as those reported in hydroelectric reservoirs and constructed wetlands in tropical climates, whereas CH4 fluxes were considerably higher compared to other aquatic ecosystems. N2O fluxes were in the same range of values reported for WSPs in subtropical climate.

  3. Needle and syringe distribution trends in Western Australia, 1990 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Lilley, Georgiana; Mak, Donna B; Fredericks, Trinity

    2013-05-01

    To describe needle and syringe distribution trends of needle and syringe programs (NSP) between 1990 and 2009 in Western Australia, and explore contributing factors within the national and state strategic and legislative environment. The number of needles and syringes distributed by each of the four NSP types [needle and syringe exchange program (NSEP); health service; pharmacy; vending machine] between 1990 and 2009 were stratified by time period and geographic location using Microsoft Excel. Total needle and syringe distribution over the 20-year period increased by eight-fold. Regional areas experienced the highest growth: 20-fold increase compared with seven-fold increase in metropolitan areas. The proportion of needles and syringes distributed through NSEPs increased from 33% to 62% between 1990 and 2009, and through health services increased from 3% to 8% between 1994 and 2009. The proportion distributed through pharmacies decreased from 67% to 28% between 1990 and 2009, and through vending machines from 7% to 1.3% between 1992 and 2009. National and state HIV and hepatitis C strategies guided NSP provision at an early stage, and expedited legislative amendments to allow for the operation of approved NSPs. The majority of growth occurred through the NSEPs and health service NSPs, which are publicly funded NSPs and provide injecting equipment either on 'exchange' or free-of-charge respectively. The Health Department of Western Australia recognises the increasing reliance on publicly funded NSPs and the need to continue this cost-effective public health program. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Molecular systematics and biodiversity of oniscidean isopods in the groundwater calcretes of central Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Javidkar, Mohammad; Cooper, Steven J B; King, Rachael A; Humphreys, William F; Bertozzi, Terry; Stevens, Mark I; Austin, Andrew D

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater calcrete aquifers of central Western Australia have been shown to contain a high diversity of stygobiont (subterranean aquatic) invertebrates, with each species confined to an individual calcrete and the entire system resembling a 'subterranean archipelago' containing hundreds of isolated calcretes. Here, we utilised alternative sampling techniques above the water table and uncovered a significant fauna of subterranean terrestrial oniscidean isopods from the calcretes. We explored the diversity and evolution of this fauna using molecular analyses based on one mitochondrial gene, Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI), two Ribosomal RNA genes (28S and 18S), and one protein coding nuclear gene, Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase (LysRS). The results from 12 calcretes showed the existence of 36 divergent DNA lineages belonging to four oniscidean families (Paraplatyarthridae, Armadillidae, Stenoniscidae and Philosciidae). Using a combination of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods, we hypothesized the occurrence of at least 27 putative new species of subterranean oniscideans, of which 24 taxa appeared to be restricted to an individual calcrete, lending further support to the "subterranean island hypothesis". Three paraplatyarthrid species were present on adjacent calcretes and these exceptions possessed more ommatidia and body pigments compared with the calcrete-restricted taxa, and are likely to represent troglophiles. The occurrence of stenoniscid isopods in the calcretes of central Western Australia, a group previously only known from the marine littoral zone, suggests a link to the marine inundation of the Eucla basin during the Late Eocene. The current oniscidean subterranean fauna consists of groups known to be subtropical, littoral and benthic, reflecting different historical events that have shaped the evolution of the fauna in the calcretes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated geodetic monitoring of subsidence due to groundwater abstraction in the Perth Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A. L.; Filmer, M. S.; Featherstone, W. E.; Pigois, J. P.; Lyon, T.

    2016-12-01

    Small-magnitude subsidence due to groundwater abstraction was first observed in Perth, Western Australia, in the 2000s. Ongoing monitoring of ground deformation is required to avoid infrastructure damage, increased risk of seawater inundation and compromised integrity of geodetic benchmarks (e.g. tide-gauges). Subsidence measurements will also be used to provide constraints on aquifer storage properties, which is of significance to groundwater-resource management and proposed managed aquifer recharge. To these ends, a geodetic monitoring system in the Perth Basin has been established incorporating repeat levelling, continuous GPS and >20 years of InSAR data, including four years of TerraSAR-X (2012 to 2016), plus the first Sentinel-1A interferograms over Western Australia. The magnitude of subsidence ( 2-5 mm/yr) is at the limit detectable with InSAR, but through integration with high-precision repeat levelling, groundwater level records and geological information, we are able to constrain and interpret the spatial and temporal characteristics of the deformation field. InSAR datasets reveal a narrow subsiding coastal strip proximal to abstraction bores that came online since the early 2000s. Subsidence is also identified at the eastern margin of the Perth Basin, where seasonal variations of 10 mm measured with repeat-levelling are attributed to expansion and contraction of shallow clays. Elsewhere in the basin, high-resolution time-series from TerraSAR-X record non-linear, often seasonal vertical land motion, which correlates with changes in water levels at artesian monitoring bores. SAR coverage of the Perth Basin is ongoing and is now complemented by corner reflectors co-located with continuous GPS to tie measurements to a consistent reference frame. The ongoing collection of these and other geodetic data ensures that we are well placed to measure and monitor vertical land motion across the Perth Basin, including any effects of proposed managed aquifer recharge.

  6. Evaluation of the mandatory construction induction training program in Western Australia: unanticipated consequences.

    PubMed

    Bahn, Susanne; Barratt-Pugh, Llandis

    2012-08-01

    Since January 1, 2007, Government legislation in Western Australia required all workers in construction to complete mandatory safety awareness training before they began work on site. During the implementation of this new legislation there was considerable resistance from the construction sector due to the mandatory nature of the training. The construction industry viewed this as an unnecessary impost as they considered that there was already sufficient safety training delivered through individual company and site inductions. In 2010, we evaluated the new Construction Induction Training (CIT) in the commercial construction sector in Western Australia to find that since 2007 there has been an unanticipated change in support for the mandatory training. The 2010 study shows a shift in the values of the safety culture for the commercial sector of the construction industry. In 2010, the industry not only supports the mandatory CIT, but is very vocal in its request to re-institute the refresher courses that were withdrawn in 2009. Indeed, 79% of respondents claimed there were measurable benefits to their business having their employees complete the CIT, while 96% claimed the CIT assisted in reducing accidents/incidents on their worksites. This 2010 study indicates that in this case, mandatory training has had a positive effect on safety culture change and gradually reduced work-related injury in the industry since 2007 to the present. The paper uses data from two studies conducted in 2006 and 2010 to highlight the unanticipated change in perception of the value of mandatory safety training in the WA construction industry to one which is positive and supportive. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vascular trauma in Western Australia: a comparison of two study periods over 15 years.

    PubMed

    Friend, Jikol; Rao, Sudhakar; Sieunarine, Kishore; Woodroof, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Royal Perth Hospital (RPH) has become Western Australia's only designated adult major trauma facility since a previous study of vascular trauma was conducted in 2001 at the same facility. The aim of this study is to identify changes in vascular trauma patterns over the two study periods and compare these changes with international literature. All individuals presenting to RPH between January 2000 and December 2010 with vascular injury were identified from a prospective trauma database for this descriptive study. Injuries were classified using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). The incidence of vascular trauma as a percentage of total trauma increased over the two study periods. The current 10-year study included 45 164 patients on the trauma database, of which 1205 patients (2.6%) sustained 1335 vascular injuries, an increase from 1% in the previous 5-year study at the same facility. Males aged 20-29 years were more frequently injured. Blunt trauma occurred more frequently than penetrating. The extremities, particularly the upper limbs were most commonly injured. The most common causes of injury for each region were as follows; motorbike crash (MBC), motor vehicle crash (MVC) and stabbing (neck, thorax and abdomen), MBC and MVC (lower limb) and piercing injuries (upper limb). Injury Severity Score (ISS) and mortality 43% (32 of 75) were highest for thoracic injuries, particularly thoracic aorta injury. Mortality rate has decreased. Vascular injuries in Western Australia are increasing. MVC are the most common cause of life threatening injury. Road safety interventions targeting young males are likely to reduce trauma. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  8. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cats (Felis catus) in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Ying, Joyce Lau Jie; Monis, Paul; Ryan, Una

    2015-08-01

    Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic cats in Western Australia and their potential role as zoonotic reservoirs for human infection. In the present study, a total of 345 faecal samples from four different sources were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by PCR and genotyped by sequence analysis. Oocyst numbers and cyst numbers for Cryptosporidium and Giardia respectively were also determined using quantitative PCR assays. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 9.9% (95% CI 6.7-13.0) and 10.1% (95% CI 7.0-13.3) of cats in Western Australia respectively. Sequence analysis at the 18S rRNA locus identified five Cryptosporidium species/genotypes; C. felis (n = 8), C. muris (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 1), Cryptosporidium rat genotype III (n = 5) and a novel genotype most closely related to Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in one isolate. This is the first report of C. ryanae and Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in cats. For Giardia, assemblage F the most commonly identified species, while only 1 assemblage sequence was detected. Since most human cases of cryptosporidiosis are caused by C. parvum and C. hominis and human cases of giardiasis are caused by G. duodenalis assemblage A and B, the domestic cats in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic risk to pet owners in Perth. Risk analyses identified that elderly cats (more than 6 years) were more prone to Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections than kittens (less than 6 months) (P = 0.009). Clinical symptoms were not associated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in cats.

  9. Bartonella Species Identified in Rodent and Feline Hosts from Island and Mainland Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, Dave; Adams, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria of the genus Bartonella have been described in multiple mammalian hosts with many species capable of causing disease in humans. Cats and various species of rats have been reported to play a role as vertebrate hosts to a number of Bartonella spp. This study aimed to identify Bartonella spp. in Western Australia, Dirk Hartog Island (DHI), and Christmas Island (CI) and to investigate the presence of potential arthropod vectors. Feral cats were collected from CI (n = 35), DHI (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (swWA; n = 58), and black rats were collected from CI (n = 48). Individuals were necropsied, ectoparasites were collected by external examination of carcasses, and splenic tissue was collected for polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect Bartonella DNA. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected from two cats and Bartonella koehlerae DNA from one cat in southwest WA, but Bartonella DNA was not identified in cats on DHI or CI. Bartonella phoceensis (28/48 = 58.3%) and a novel Bartonella genotype (8/48 = 16.7%) based on the internal transcribed space region were detected in the spleens of black rats on CI. Detection of Bartonella spp. in each location corresponded to the presence of ectoparasites. Cats from southwest WA harbored four species of fleas, including Ctenocephalides felis, and black rats on CI were infested with multiple species of ectoparasites, including mites, fleas, and lice. Conversely, cats on Dirk Hartog and CI were free of ectoparasites. This study has identified the DNA of Bartonella species from island and mainland swWA with some (B. henselae and B. koehlerae) of known zoonotic importance. This study further extends the geographical range for the pathogenic B. koehlerae. The association of Bartonella with ectoparasites is unsurprising, but little is known about the specific vector competence of the ectoparasites identified in this study.

  10. Aragonite crusts and pisolites beneath dolomitic tepees, Lake MacLeod evaporate basin, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Handford, C.R.; Kendall, A.C.; Dunham, J.B.; Logan, B.W.

    1983-03-01

    Research currently being conducted by the Sedimentology and Marine Geology Group, under Brian W. Logan at the University of Western Australia, has recently concentrated on Lake MacLeod, a 2000 km/sup 2/ (770 mi/sup 2/) coastal salina on the western coast of Australia. This work has shown that this evaporite basin, which is 3 to 4 m (10 to 13 ft) below sea level, is separated from the Indian Ocean by a topographic barrier, but seawater under hydrostatic head, seeps freely through the barrier and discharges from several vents and springs in a carbonate mud flat at the north end of the basin. From there, seawater flows slowly across the basin, evaporating and depositing carbonate, gypsum, and ephemeral halite. About 10 to 12 m (33 to 39 ft) of evaporites have been deposited in the past 5300 years. In July 1982, the authors visited the carbonate mud flats and discovered abundant aragonite pisolites and botryoidal-mammillary crusts of fibrous aragonite cement beneath lily-pad tepee slabs of cemented protodolomite. Thick aragonite crusts cover both the undersides of lily-pad slabs and the lithified floors of tepees. Crusts covering the floors are more botryoidal and consist of both aragonite nubs and mounds (0.2 to 2.5 cm, 0.08 to 1 in., in diameter), and a few scattered, loose pisolites, several millimeters in diameter. The manner in which crusts, pisolites, and tepees occur at Lake MacLeod raises the possibility that they and their ancient counterparts from the Permian basin share a common origin. Perhaps Permian pisolites and aragonite crusts formed beneath cemented slabs of peritidal sediments in tepees bathed by marine water which seeped across exposed portions of the shelf crest.

  11. Smoking and mental illness: a population study in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Jacqueline A; Miller, Caroline L; Hiller, Janet E

    2011-04-01

    To examine smoking prevalence and smoking behaviour among South Australians with a mental illness and compare findings to those with no mental illness. Data were collected in three cross-sectional representative population surveys of South Australians aged ≥15 years from 2005 to 2007. Merged data yielded a total sample size of 8417. The main outcome measures were: smoking prevalence, measures of tobacco dependence, awareness of the health effects of active and passive smoking, smoke-free homes and cars, awareness of health warnings, and use of cessation aids by two measures of mental illness status. Overall 26.4% of the population with a general mental illness and 51.2% of the population with a severe mental illness smoked, compared to 18.7% of the population without a mental illness. People with a mental illness, particularly severe mental illness displayed higher measures of tobacco dependence. Smokers with a severe mental illness were less likely to have smoke-free homes (OR = 0.29, 95%CI 0.16-0.55). Television was an effective medium to present the health effects of smoking to all groups. Those with a general mental illness were more likely than those with no mental illness to have asked a general practitioner for advice to help them quit in the past year (OR = 2.02, 95%CI 1.07-3.84). Whilst smokers with a mental illness are more dependent on their smoking; they are interested in quitting. There are a number of mainstream tobacco control strategies that could be further utilized (e.g. mass media and health professional referrals to the Quitline) to increase cessation among this disadvantaged group.

  12. Management of death, dying and euthanasia: attitudes and practices of medical practitioners in South Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, C A; Hassan, R

    1994-01-01

    This article presents the first results of a study of the decisions made by health professionals in South Australia concerning the management of death, dying, and euthanasia, and focuses on the findings concerning the attitudes and practices of medical practitioners. Mail-back, self-administered questionnaires were posted in August 1991 to a ten per cent sample of 494 medical practitioners in South Australia randomly selected from the list published by the Medical Board of South Australia. A total response rate of 68 per cent was obtained, 60 per cent of which (298) were usable returns. It was found that forty-seven per cent had received requests from patients to hasten their deaths. Nineteen per cent had taken active steps which had brought about the death of a patient. Sixty-eight per cent thought that guidelines for withholding and withdrawal of treatment should be established. Forty-five per cent were in favour of legalisation of active euthanasia under certain circumstances. PMID:8035439

  13. Management of death, dying and euthanasia: attitudes and practices of medical practitioners in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Stevens, C A; Hassan, R

    1994-03-01

    This article presents the first results of a study of the decisions made by health professionals in South Australia concerning the management of death, dying, and euthanasia, and focuses on the findings concerning the attitudes and practices of medical practitioners. Mail-back, self-administered questionnaires were posted in August 1991 to a ten per cent sample of 494 medical practitioners in South Australia randomly selected from the list published by the Medical Board of South Australia. A total response rate of 68 per cent was obtained, 60 per cent of which (298) were usable returns. It was found that forty-seven per cent had received requests from patients to hasten their deaths. Nineteen per cent had taken active steps which had brought about the death of a patient. Sixty-eight per cent thought that guidelines for withholding and withdrawal of treatment should be established. Forty-five per cent were in favour of legalisation of active euthanasia under certain circumstances.

  14. The Cannabis Infringement Notice scheme in Western Australia: a review of policy, police and judicial perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Adam; Hawks, David

    2005-07-01

    Western Australia (WA) became the fourth Australian jurisdiction to adopt a 'prohibition with civil penalties scheme' for minor cannabis offences when its Cannabis Infringement Notice (CIN) scheme became law on 22 March 2004. This study examined the attitudes and practices of policy makers, members of the law enforcement and magistracy and other judicial sectors involved in enforcing the new scheme, and their views as to its likely impact on the drug market. As part of the pre--post evaluation of the legislative reforms a sample of 30 police, other criminal justice personnel and policy makers have been qualitatively interviewed. Data were collected both at the pre-implementation stage (March and June 2003) and shortly after the Act became operational (mid-June 2004). The Western Australia Police Service's implementation of the CIN scheme has been extremely professional. However, these early results suggest that while the CIN scheme has been designed to take into account problems with similar schemes elsewhere in Australia, possible problems include: some operational police being unsure about the operation of the scheme; expected savings in police resources will probably be reduced by procedures which require offenders to be taken back to the station rather than issue notices on the spot as intended by the scheme's architects; probable net widening; problems with exercise of police discretion to issue a CIN; and public misunderstanding of the scheme. In the early months of the scheme understanding of the new laws among both police and members of the public was far from perfect. For the system to achieve the outcomes intended by legislators, it is essential that levels of understanding improve. Media and other campaigns to inform the public that cannabis cultivation and use remain illegal, and to warn about risks associated with cannabis use, should be extended. As it will be at least 18 months before the scheme is operationally settled in, the media and others

  15. Is there really carbon in the detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menneken, Martina; Geisler, Thorsten; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Pollok, Kilian; Whitehouse, Martin; Pidgeon, Robert; Wilde, Simon

    2014-05-01

    We have previously reported the discovery of graphite and diamond inclusions in detrital zircon grains from the Jack Hills in Western Australia, with the oldest inclusion-bearing zircon being 4,252 Myrs (Menneken et al. 2007). When the diamond inclusions were first identified by Raman spectroscopy, several characteristics were taken as evidence against possible contamination from diamond polishing powder used to prepare the samples. Some diamond inclusions appeared larger than the grain-size of the diamond polishing powder, while most of them were associated with graphite. Raman spectra of the diamond inclusions were clearly different to those from diamond particles in the polishing powder. Also, the extremely large spread of carbon isotope compositions of the diamond-graphite composite inclusions with δ13C values extending from -58 to -5 per mil argued against contamination, as both synthetic and natural diamonds have a narrow range of carbon isotope composition (Nemchin et al. 2008). In this study, we have applied transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy on focussed ion beam sections cut from a fully embedded diamond inclusion and a fully embedded carbon inclusion in two zircon grains from Jack Hills. Results show that the graphitic material is not a solid inclusion, but covers the walls of a void as a 10-20 nm thick layer. Since we identified numerous CO2 inclusions in the same host zircon by Raman spectroscopy, it is likely that this inclusion was once filled with CO2 On the other hand, similar to a study by Dobrzhinetskaya et al. (2014), performed on surface diamond-graphite inclusions from one of our samples, we found that the embedded diamond inclusion consists of several hundred nano-meter large angular diamond fragments mixed with some gold particles. This is strong evidence that the embedded diamond particles originated from the diamond polishing powder. The diamond particles could enter the cavity through an opening 2 - 3 μm wide

  16. Factors influencing the speed of cancer diagnosis in rural Western Australia: a General Practice perspective.

    PubMed

    Jiwa, Moyez; Halkett, Georgia; Aoun, Samar; Arnet, Hayley; Smith, Marthe; Pilkington, Megan; McMullen, Cheryl

    2007-05-04

    The speed of diagnosis impacts on prognosis and survival in all types of cancer. In most cases survival and prognosis are significantly worse in rural and remote Australian populations who have less access to diagnostic and therapeutic services than metropolitan communities in this country. Research suggests that in general delays in diagnosis were a factor of misdiagnosis, the confounding effect of existing conditions and delayed or misleading investigation of symptoms. The aim of this study is to further explore the factors that impact on the speed of diagnosis in rural Western Australia with direct reference to General Practitioners (GPs) working in this setting. The methodology consisted of a structured discussion of specific cases. GPs based in two rural locations in Western Australia were asked to identify up to eight clinical cases for discussion. A diversity of cases was requested encompassing those with timely and delayed diagnosis of cancer. Focus groups were held with the practitioners to identify which factors under six headings delayed or facilitated the diagnosis in each case. A structured summary of the discussion was relayed to a wider group of GPs to seek additional views or comments on specific factors that impact on the speed of cancer diagnosis in rural and remote locations in Australia. A number of factors affecting the speed of diagnosis were identified: the demographic shift towards a frailer and older population, presenting with multiple and complex diseases, increases the challenge to identify early cancer symptoms; seasonal and demanding work patterns leading to procrastination in presenting for medical care; unhelpful scheduling of specialist appointments; and the varying impact of informal networks and social relationships. Within the limitations of this study we have generated a number of hypotheses that require formal evaluation: (1) GPs working within informal professional and social networks are better informed about their patients

  17. Organisational Communication and Its Relationships with Job Satisfaction and Organisational Commitment of Primary School Staff in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Nobile, John

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between aspects of organisational communication and dimensions of job satisfaction and general organisational commitment. Participants were 358 staff members from 35 government primary schools in the state of Western Australia, who completed a survey comprising the Organisational…

  18. Connecting for Innovation: Four Universities Collaboratively Preparing Pre-Service Teachers to Teach in Rural and Remote Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Sue; Sharplin, Elaine; Ledger, Sue; Broadley, Tania

    2014-01-01

    In 2010 a group of teacher educators from four universities, experienced in rural and remote education, formed the Tertiary Educators Rural, Regional and Remote Network (TERRR Network). The collaborative goal was to improve the quality of graduates taking appointments beyond the metropolitan areas of Western Australia. The TERRR Network developed…

  19. Outcomes Approaches to Assessment: Comparing Non-Government and Government Case-Study Schools in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Joanne; Vidovich, Lesley; Chapman, Anne

    2008-01-01

    A key feature of recent curriculum reform in post-industrialised liberal economies has been the ascendancy of outcomes-based education policies. A 1995 review conducted in Western Australia (WA) recommended an outcomes-based approach, and in response, the Curriculum Framework (CF) was released in 1998. The same year, the WA State government…

  20. An Investigation of the Use of Telecommunications To Increase Equity and Access to Education in Rural Schools in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, R.; Reeves, T.

    The provision of diverse and specialized educational programs to students in rural schools is hindered by many factors associated with the demography and sociology of the schools. This paper reports on a project in Western Australia called the PCAP (Priority Country Access Program) Project, that used audiographic systems to enhance the equity and…

  1. Situation Report--Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Somoa. Information is provided under three topics, statistical information, general background information,…

  2. Attitudes of Employers to School Leavers in Western Australia. Co-operative Research Series Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J.; Priest, T. A.

    This study looked at attitudes toward "school leavers," young people aged 15 to 19 who left school after August, 1975, to enter the workforce and who have never studied full time for an extended period at a postsecondary institution. Data were collected through interviews with employers in Western Australia. As well as uncovering a…

  3. A Long-Term Population-Based Clinical and Morbidity Review of Prader-Willi Syndrome in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, A. K.; Glasson, E. J.; Bittles, A. H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: An investigation of the clinical morbidity and genetic profiles of individuals with Prader?Willi syndrome (PWS) in Western Australia (WA) was undertaken as part of a wider study into the effects of intellectual disability (ID) on the life course of individuals. Methods: All persons with a diagnosis of PWS were identified from the…

  4. A Search for Home: The Role of Art Therapy in Understanding the Experiences of Bosnian Refugees in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Fiona

    2002-01-01

    Studies the potential value of using art therapy as an intervention with refugees. The refugee experiences of two Bosnian women in Perth, Western Australia, were explored. Results of the study indicate that art therapy provides an effective tool for refugees to begin exploring some of the experiences associated with war, oppression, exile, and…

  5. Enabling Voice: Aboriginal Parents, Experiences and Perceptions of Sending a Child to Boarding School in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the experience of having a child educated away from home at boarding school for Aboriginal parents living in regional and remote communities in Western Australia (WA). In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants and thematic analysis found the following major themes emerged from the data: (1) Access, Standards and…

  6. A Long-Term Population-Based Clinical and Morbidity Review of Prader-Willi Syndrome in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, A. K.; Glasson, E. J.; Bittles, A. H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: An investigation of the clinical morbidity and genetic profiles of individuals with Prader?Willi syndrome (PWS) in Western Australia (WA) was undertaken as part of a wider study into the effects of intellectual disability (ID) on the life course of individuals. Methods: All persons with a diagnosis of PWS were identified from the…

  7. Educating for the Internet in an Academic Library: The Scholars' Centre at the University of Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Toby

    1995-01-01

    Describes services offered by the University of Western Australia's Scholars' Centre to academic staff and postgraduate students in the arts and social sciences. Highlights include study facilities; collection development; interlibrary loan and document delivery services; access to electronic resources, including CD-ROMs and the Internet; Internet…

  8. Fragility and crash over-representation among older drivers in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Meuleners, Lynn B; Harding, Anna; Lee, Andy H; Legge, Matthew

    2006-09-01

    This study assessed age-related and gender differences in the relative contribution of fragility and crash over-representation to serious injuries per crash-involved driver in Western Australia. Police-reported crashes for the period 1998-2003 were extracted from the Western Australian Road Injury Database. For each passenger vehicle driver age and gender group, serious injuries per crash-involved driver and driver involvements in crashes per 100 million vehicle-kilometre travelled (VKT) were calculated as the respective measure of fragility and crash over-representation. Results from the decomposition method of analysis showed that older drivers over the age of 70 sustained serious injury rates more than twice as high as those of the 30-59-year-old drivers. Fragility increased with age, contributing between 47% and 95% for drivers above 65 years, but crash over-representation was the dominant factor for male drivers above 80 years. In contrast, fragility contributed little to the excess injury risk of younger drivers under the age of 30. The importance of fragility as a contributing factor to the inflated serious injury risk per vehicle-kilometre travelled for older drivers suggested that road safety initiatives should be directed towards the protection of vehicle occupants as well as screening for their driving ability.

  9. Ten years of hospitalisation for oral health-related conditions in Western Australia: an unjust dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was: (1) to examine the demographics of in-patient oral health care by Aboriginal status; (2) to identify the mix of oral conditions by Aboriginal status; and (3) to describe trends over a 10-year period, comparing Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups. Hospitalisation data were obtained from the Western Australian Morbidity Data System (HMDS). The principal diagnosis, as classified by the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10AM), was obtained for every episode for adult patients who were discharged from all hospitals in Western Australia (WA) for the financial years 1999-2000 to 2008-09. Results indicated that more than 130000 persons were admitted to hospitals in WA over 10 years, for oral health-related conditions, at a direct cost of more than $400million. Most of those admitted were younger than 30 years, and 2.8% of all those admitted were Aboriginal people. Aboriginal people were admitted at significantly higher rates, for a very different mix of conditions, they were mostly from younger age groups, were mostly from very remote and the most disadvantaged areas and were almost all uninsured, compared with non-Aboriginal people. Hospital admissions for oral health-related conditions, as well as the mix of conditions that drive these hospitalisations, are strongly divided across social, racial and geographic variables, and remain a burden to the health-care system.

  10. A tale of CIN--the Cannabis infringement notice scheme in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Simon; Allsop, Steve

    2010-05-01

    To describe the development and enactment of the Western Australian (WA) Cannabis Infringement Notice scheme and reflect on the lessons for researchers and policy-makers interested in the translation of policy research to policy practice. An insiders' description of the background research, knowledge transfer strategies and political and legislative processes leading to the enactment and implementation of the WA Cannabis Control Act 2003. Lenton and Allsop were involved centrally in the process as policy-researcher and policy-bureaucrat. In March 2004, Western Australia became the fourth Australian jurisdiction to adopt a 'prohibition with civil penalties' scheme for possession and cultivation of small amounts of cannabis. We reflect upon: the role of research evidence in the policy process; windows for policy change; disseminating findings when apparently no one is listening; the risks and benefits of the researcher as advocate; the differences between working on the inside and outside of government; and the importance of relationships, trust and track record. There was a window of opportunity and change was influenced by research that was communicated by a reliable and trusted source. Those who want to conduct research that informs policy need to understand the policy process more clearly, look for and help create emerging windows that occur in the problem and political spheres, and make partnerships with key stakeholders in the policy arena. The flipside of the process is that, when governments change, policy born in windows of opportunity can be a casualty.

  11. Acidophilic Halophilic Microorganisms in Fluid Inclusions in Halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Amber J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as 1–3 μm, bright cocci that fluoresce green with UV-vis illumination. Dimpled, 5–7 μm yellow spherules that fluoresce blue with UV-vis illumination are interpreted as Dunaliella algae. Yellow-orange beta-carotene crystals, globules, and coatings are characterized by orange-red fluorescence and three distinct Raman peaks. Because acid saline lakes are good Mars analogues, the documentation of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organic compounds preserved in the halite here has implications for the search for life on Mars. Missions to Mars should incorporate such in situ optical and chemical examination of martian evaporites for possible microorganisms and/or organic compounds in fluid inclusions. Key Words: Acid—Extremophiles—Western Australia—Fluid inclusions—Lake Magic—Dunaliella. Astrobiology 13, 850–860. PMID:23971647

  12. Patterns of Attendance of Children Under 12 Years at School Dental Service in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lam, SPL; Baros, H; O’Grady, MJ; Kendall, GE; Messer, LB; Slack-Smith, LM

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of attendance at School Dental Service (SDS) and reasons for attendance (treatment or prevention) for children in the Perth Metropolitan Area, in particular investigating the first year of SDS attendance and attendance until the year the child turned 12. The first 150 SDS records located for children from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were used for this study. Patterns of attendance of children at SDS were described, as were associated factors (enrolment, age and nature of first visit, general nature of visits and number of visits) until the end of the year that the child turned 12. The age of the child at the first SDS visit ranged from 4 years 3 months to 14 years 11 months, with a median of 5 years 1 month. First visits were primarily for an examination (98%). Children had a median of 13 visits until 12 years of age, with 10% having less than five visits and 4% having more than 25 visits. These data provide useful information regarding attendance at the SDS in Western Australia which could provide a basis for oral health promotion programs. PMID:22623948

  13. An ecological analysis of factors associated with food insecurity in South Australia, 2002-7.

    PubMed

    Foley, Wendy; Ward, Paul; Carter, Patricia; Coveney, John; Tsourtos, George; Taylor, Anne

    2010-02-01

    To estimate the extent of food insecurity in South Australia and its relationship with a variety of socio-economic variables. Data collected routinely from 2002 to 2007 by SA Health were analysed to explore food security in the State's population. An ecological analysis of data collected by the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS) that collects data on key health indicators. Questions on food security are asked periodically from July 2002 to December 2007. South Australia. Over 37,000 interviewees took part in SAMSS surveys. Questions about food security were asked of 19,037 subjects. The sample was weighted by area, age and gender so that the results were representative of the South Australian population. Seven per cent (1342/19,037) of subjects reported running out of food during the previous year and not having enough money to buy food (food insecurity). Logistic regression analysis found food insecurity to be highest in households with low levels of education, limited capacity to save money, Aboriginal households, and households with three or more children. The study confirms that food insecurity is strongly linked to economic disadvantage. Increasing cost of food is likely to exacerbate food insecurity. This is of concern given that food insecurity is associated with poor health, especially obesity and chronic disease. Comprehensive action at all levels is required to address root causes of food insecurity. Regular surveillance is required to continue to monitor levels of food security, but more in-depth understandings, via qualitative research, would be useful.

  14. Applications of Mobile GIS in Forestry South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battad, D. T.; Mackenzie, P.

    2012-07-01

    South Australian Forestry Corporation (ForestrySA) had been actively investigating the applications of mobile GIS in forestry for the past few years. The main objective is to develop an integrated mobile GIS capability that allows staff to collect new spatial information, verify existing data, and remotely access and post data from the field. Two (2) prototype mobile GIS applications have been developed already using the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ARCGISR technology as the main spatial component. These prototype systems are the Forest Health Surveillance System and the Mobile GIS for Wetlands System. The Forest Health Surveillance System prototype is used primarily for aerial forest health surveillance. It was developed using a tablet PC with ArcMapR GIS. A customised toolbar was developed using ArcObjectsR in the Visual Basic 6 Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The resulting dynamic linked library provides a suite of custom tools which enables the following: - quickly create spatial features and attribute the data - full utilisation of global positioning system (GPS) technology - excellent screen display navigation tools, i.e. pan, rotate map, capture of flight path - seamless integration of data into GIS as geodatabase (GDB) feature classes - screen entry of text and conversion to annotation feature classes The Mobile GIS for Wetlands System prototype was developed for verifying existing wetland areas within ForestrySA's plantation estate, collect new wetland data, and record wetland conditions. Mapping of actual wetlands within ForestrySA's plantation estate is very critical because of the need to establish protection buffers around these features during the implementation of plantation operations. System development has been focussed on a mobile phone platform (HTC HD2R ) with WindowsR Mobile 6, ESRI's ArcGISR Mobile software development kit (SDK) employing ArcObjectsR written on C#.NET IDE, and ArcGIS ServerR technology. The system

  15. Parechovirus Genotype 3 Outbreak among Infants, New South Wales, Australia, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Ameneh; McMullan, Brendan J.; Musto, Jennie; Leung, Kit; Nguyen, Oanh; Ferson, Mark J.; Papadakis, Georgina; Sheppeard, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    From October 2013 through February 2014, human parechovirus genotype 3 infection was identified in 183 infants in New South Wales, Australia. Of those infants, 57% were male and 95% required hospitalization. Common signs and symptoms were fever >38°C (86%), irritability (80%), tachycardia (68%), and rash (62%). Compared with affected infants in the Northern Hemisphere, infants in New South Wales were slightly older, both sexes were affected more equally, and rash occurred with considerably higher frequency. The New South Wales syndromic surveillance system, which uses near real-time emergency department and ambulance data, was useful for monitoring the outbreak. An alert distributed to clinicians reduced unnecessary hospitalization for patients with suspected sepsis. PMID:26082289

  16. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: rising rates with obesity and aboriginality in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, A R; Ling, J; Gomes, B; Antoniou, G; Sutherland, L M; Cundy, P J

    2011-10-01

    We analysed the incidence of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) in South Australia, investigating possible associations between an increased incidence of SCFE, the local indigenous population and the Australian obesity epidemic during the last 20 years. Data including race, age and gender were collected to obtain a profile of the South Australian SCFE patient, and were then compared with epidemiological data for South Australian adolescents. We concluded that the incidence of both obesity and SCFE is increasing. We also noted that the median weight of SCFE patients has increased and the mean age at diagnosis has decreased. Despite weight profiles comparable with those of the general population, we noted that an indigenous child was three times more likely to develop SCFE than a non-indigenous child. As far as we know there is no published literature on the predisposition of Aboriginal Australians to SCFE.

  17. Terminations of pregnancy for exposure to oral retinoids in South Australia, 1985-1993.

    PubMed

    Chan, A; Keane, R J; Hanna, M; Abbott, M

    1995-11-01

    The oral retinoids, isotretinoin and etretinate, are highly teratogenic drugs which have been available in Australia since 1985 because of their unique effectiveness in severe cystic acne, psoriasis and other keratinization disorders. Only dermatologists can prescribe them, but in spite of strict guidelines by the manufacturers and the College of Dermatologists, exposed pregnancies have occurred. We attempted to determine the circumstances of exposure to these drugs for the 18 pregnancies terminated in South Australia in 1985-1993, using questionnaires to medical practitioners who notified the terminations under legislation. The main reason for their occurrence was the lack of compliance with the use of effective contraception by the women. In South Australia, some prescriptions of oral retinoids by unauthorized doctors have been dispensed during this period. Using statistics on prescriptions dispensed, an estimate was made of 1 termination of pregnancy for 319 courses of treatment for women with isotretinoin. Extension of guidelines for prescription and more detailed counselling in relation to the use of contraception are recommended. It is also suggested that doctors intending to recommend terminations obtain consent to discuss exposure with the dermatologists concerned, who may not be aware of the exposed pregnancy.

  18. Burn injury, gender and cancer risk: population-based cohort study using data from Scotland and Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Duke, Janine M; Bauer, Jacqui; Fear, Mark W; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona M; Boyd, James

    2014-01-17

    To investigate the risk of cancer and potential gender effects in persons hospitalised with burn injury. Population-based retrospective cohort study using record-linkage systems in Scotland and Western Australia. Records of 37 890 and 23 450 persons admitted with a burn injury in Scotland and Western Australia, respectively, from 1983 to 2008. Deidentified extraction of all linked hospital morbidity records, mortality and cancer records were provided by the Information Service Division Scotland and the Western Australian Data Linkage Service. Total and gender-specific number of observed and expected cases of total ('all sites') and site-specific cancers and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). From 1983 to 2008, for female burn survivors, there was a greater number of observed versus expected notifications of total cancer with 1011 (SIR, 95% CI 1.3, 1.2 to 1.4) and 244 (SIR, 95% CI 1.12, 1.05 to 1.30), respectively, for Scotland and Western Australia. No statistically significant difference in total cancer risk was found for males. Significant excesses in observed cancers among burn survivors (combined gender) in Scotland and Western Australian were found for buccal cavity, liver, larynx and respiratory tract and for cancers of the female genital tract. Results from the Scotland data confirmed the increased risk of total ('all sites') cancer previously observed among female burn survivors in Western Australia. The gender dimorphism observed in this study may be related to the role of gender in the immune response to burn injury. More research is required to understand the underlying mechanism(s) that may link burn injury with an increased risk of some cancers.

  19. Investing in professional advocacy: a case study of a successful fluoridation campaign in rural New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Sivaneswaran, S; Chong, G T F

    2011-09-01

    In New South Wales (NSW), Australia, the responsibility to implement water fluoridation rests with local government Councils, partly accounting for the hindrance in its statewide implementation. Since 2003, the NSW Health Department has been actively promoting water fluoridation to the remaining unfluoridated rural communities. To describe the community education and consultation strategies which led to the implementation of fluoridation in two rural NSW towns. In February 2005, the Mid-Western Regional Council and the NSW Health Department undertook a comprehensive community education process followed by a consultation process. The education process included the organization of public forums; distribution of fluoridation information packs; building rapport with the local media; and the use of local disease and treatment data to demonstrate oral health disparities with neighbouring fluoridated towns. The consultation process to determine support for fluoridation included seeking written submissions from the community and conducting interviews on a random sample of households by an independent research organization. A total of 502 (N = 1,012) interviews to determine support for fluoridation were completed, achieving a response rate of 49.6%. 54% of respondents wanted their water supplies fluoridated, 25% did not and the remaining 21% were unsure. In June 2005, the Mid-Western Regional Council resolved to implement water fluoridation and fluoride was added to the towns' water supplies in November 2007. This case study demonstrates that it is possible to garner community support for water fluoridation with the use of a multifaceted approach in educating and consulting communities and stakeholders.

  20. Our experience in using telehealth for paediatric plastic surgery in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Rimal, Debesh; Huang Fu, Ju Hui; Gillett, David

    2017-04-01

    Western Australia accounts for one-third of Australia's total land mass. Princess Margaret Hospital is the only dedicated plastic surgery tertiary referral centre providing services to over 500 000 children across the state. The aim of this study is to share our experience using telehealth for service provision and delivery of care in a geographically challenging setting. A retrospective review was conducted, and data were extracted from patients' notes. The time period was from January 2014 to 31 December 2015 and included all patients registered for plastic surgery telehealth service. There were a total of 194 rural patients (66 males and 128 females), 26 of whom were elective cases. A total of 358 telehealth follow-up consultations were conducted for the 194 patients during the study period. A total of 10 patients were managed via telehealth alone without a clinical review in Perth; 24 patients had their first clinical review in Perth and further follow-up via telehealth, and 99 patients were post-operative cases. Case load ranged from skin lacerations to complex soft tissue and bony injuries as well as elective hand and craniofacial post-operative follow-up cases. Telehealth service was utilized mainly for post-operative follow-up. It is our experience that telehealth provides access to Specialist Plastic Surgery service across the state. We utilize telehealth for a wide scope of functions. Patients in rural areas are managed in their home environments, reducing financial and psychosocial burden with the option of transfer to Princess Margaret Hospital should an intervention be required. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  1. A monsoon-like Southwest Australian circulation and its relation with rainfall in Southwest Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Juan; Li, Jianping; Li, Yun

    2010-05-01

    Using the NCEP/NCAR, ERA-40 reanalysis, and precipitation data from CMAP and Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the variability and circulation features influencing the southwest Western Australia (SWWA) winter rainfall are investigated. It is found that the climate of southwest Australia bears a strong seasonality in the annual cycle and exhibits a monsoon-like atmospheric circulation, which is termed as the southwest Australian circulation (SWAC) for its several distinct features characterizing a monsoonal circulation: the seasonal reversal of winds, alternate wet and dry seasons, and an evident land-sea thermal contrast. The seasonal march of the SWAC in extended winter (May to October) is demonstrated by pentad data. An index based on the dynamics normalized seasonality was introduced to describe the behavior and variation of the winter SWAC. It is found that the winter rainfall over SWWA has a significant positive correlation with the SWAC index in both early (May to July) and late (August to October) winter. In weaker winter SWAC years there is an anti-cyclonic anomaly over southern Indian Ocean resulting in weaker westerlies and northerlies which are not favorable for more rainfall over SWWA, and the opposite combination is true in the stronger winter SWAC years. The SWAC explains not only a large portion of the interannual variability of SWWA rainfall in both early and late winter, but also the long term drying trend over SWWA in early winter. The well-coupled SWAC-SWWA rainfall relationship seems to be largely independent of the well-known effects of large-scale atmospheric circulations such as the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM), El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and ENSO Modoki (EM). The result offers qualified support for the argument that the monsoon-like circulation may contribute to the rainfall decline in early winter over SWWA.

  2. The impact of monetary incentives on general fertility rates in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Langridge, Amanda T; Nassar, Natasha; Li, Jianghong; Jacoby, Peter; Stanley, Fiona J

    2012-04-01

    There has been widespread international concern about declining fertility rates and the long-term negative consequences particularly for industrialised countries with ageing populations. In an attempt to boost fertility rates, the Australian Government introduced a maternity payment known as the Baby Bonus. However, major concerns have been raised that such monetary incentives would attract teenagers and socially disadvantaged groups. Population-level data and generalised linear models were used to examine general fertility rates between 1995 and 2006 by socioeconomic group, maternal age group, Aboriginality and location in Western Australia prior to and following the introduction of the Baby Bonus in July 2004. After a steady decline in general fertility rates between 1995 and 2004, rates increased significantly from 52.2 births per 1000 women, aged between 15 and 49 years, in 2004 to 58.6 births per 1000 women in 2006. While there was an overall increase in general fertility rates after adjusting for maternal socio-demographic characteristics, there were no significant differences among maternal age groups (p=0.98), between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women(p=0.80), maternal residential locations (p=0.98) or socioeconomic groups (p=0.68). The greatest increase in births were among women residing in the highest socioeconomic areas who had the lowest general fertility rate in 2004 (21.5 births per 1000 women) but the highest in 2006 (38.1 births per 1000 women). Findings suggest that for countries with similar social, economic and political climates to Australia, a monetary incentive may provide a satisfactory solution to declining general fertility rates.

  3. Awareness and impact of the 'Bubblewrap' advertising campaign among Aboriginal smokers in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Terry; Shepherd, Carrington C J; Pearson, Glenn; Monteiro, Heather; McAullay, Daniel; Economo, Kristina; Stewart, Susan

    2010-02-01

    Antismoking mass media campaigns have been shown to reduce smoking prevalence in the mainstream community, however there is little published research on their effect on Aboriginal Australian smokers. To evaluate the awareness and impact of a mainstream mass media advertising campaign (the 'Bubblewrap' campaign) on Aboriginal smokers in the state of Western Australia. A personal intercept survey was conducted in July 2008 across three sites (the Perth metropolitan area and the non-metropolitan towns of Kalgoorlie and Broome). An opportunity or convenience sampling strategy was used to recruit Aboriginal participants, and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 198 Aboriginal smokers to ascertain awareness of the campaign advertisements, whether they were seen as believable and relevant, and the impact the advertisements had on smoking behaviour. The majority of the participants interviewed had seen and/or heard the 'Bubblewrap' campaign advertisements, although there was considerably greater awareness of the television advertisement than the radio advertisements. Both forms of advertising were considered to be believable and relevant by the majority of Aboriginal smokers. Most of the smokers interviewed thought about cutting down and/or quitting after seeing or hearing the advertisements. Our findings suggest that mainstream antismoking mass media campaigns can positively influence the thoughts and behaviours that Aboriginal smokers have, and exhibit, towards quitting smoking. Notwithstanding this, advertisers should continue to look for better ways to incorporate Aboriginal themes in campaign messages. Future mainstream antismoking campaigns should source sufficient funds to ensure that advertising messages reach the large Aboriginal populations in regional and remote Australia.

  4. Selection of primary hip and knee arthroplasties for public hospitals in Western Australia: a clinical evidence approach.

    PubMed

    Kop, Alan M; Swarts, Eric

    2006-12-01

    The Australian Joint Registry records that there are approximately 84 hip stem designs, 71 acetabular designs and 45 knee systems in common use in Australia, giving the surgeon an extensive and often bewildering choices. Since the 1990s, there have been several attempts to rationalize the supply of the products of primary hip and knee arthroplasties to the public hospitals in Western Australia. To continue and improve the rationalization process, the recently awarded 'whole of health' tender was based on a thorough clinical and laboratory evaluation process. The method included commercial analysis by Health Supply Western Australia, clinical evaluation by a committee comprised of senior surgeons and technical assessment by biomedical engineers and scientists. The evaluation process was subdivided into qualitative criteria; being the commercial aspects of the tender (50%) and a fitness for purpose assessment comprising clinically based evidence (40%) and laboratory assessment of product quality (10%). The tendering process concluded with the recommendation of 12 hip and 5 knee systems. A comprehensive method primarily based on clinical evidence was used to assess arthroplasty products tendered to Western Australia public hospitals. Generally, there was good compliance with the commercial aspects of the tender. In contrast, however, clinically based evidence assessment of many arthroplasty devices was difficult because of a distinct lack of quality published work. Inadequate quality control of several devices is also of concern. Evaluation of key performance indicators, including cost savings, acceptance by surgeons, tender compliance and revision rates, will determine the success of the tender.

  5. Phenotypic diversity in Terminalia catappa from South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Bola; Ogunkanmi, Bayo; Olasan, Lekan

    2008-01-01

    The diversity amongst Teminalia catappa population in two different locations in the Lagos area of South Western Nigeria was investigated. Forty trees were sampled for twenty eight quantitative and twelve qualitative characters. Variability was observed in qualitative characters such as leaf shape and ripe fruit colour. Quantitative characters analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis showed high intraspecific variability for most of the characters determined. Cluster analysis using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method revealed four main clusters which were not based on location of collection but on morphological characters. The trees were grouped into the main clusters based mainly on plant architecture. The result from the trees studied showed that selections based on traits such as fruit size, fruit colour and leaf sizes can be undertaken for future improvement or development of this tree crop in Nigeria.

  6. Building a Nation: Religion and Values in the Public Schools of the USA, Australia, and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, Jacqueline Joy; de Waal, Elda

    2008-01-01

    Although the systems of public schools differ among Australia, South Africa and the USA, all three countries recognize that religion plays a significant role in determining values. All three countries have written constitutions but only South Africa and the USA have a Bill of Rights that protects persons' exercise of religious beliefs. In…

  7. Building a Nation: Religion and Values in the Public Schools of the USA, Australia, and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, Jacqueline Joy; de Waal, Elda

    2008-01-01

    Although the systems of public schools differ among Australia, South Africa and the USA, all three countries recognize that religion plays a significant role in determining values. All three countries have written constitutions but only South Africa and the USA have a Bill of Rights that protects persons' exercise of religious beliefs. In…

  8. Quality of asthma care: Western Cape province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mash, Bob; Rhode, Hilary; Pather, Michael; Ainslie, Gillian; Irusen, Elvis; Bheekie, Angeni; Mayers, Pat

    2009-12-07

    Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in adults and adolescents in the Western Cape. One strategy was an audit tool to assist with assessing and improving the quality of care. The audit of asthma care targeted all primary care facilities that managed adult patients with chronic asthma within all six districts of the Western Cape province. The usual steps in the quality improvement cycle were followed. Data were obtained from 957 patients from 46 primary care facilities. Only 80% of patients had a consistent diagnosis of asthma, 11.5% of visits assessed control and 23.2% recorded a peak expiratory flow (PEF), 14% of patients had their inhaler technique assessed and 11.2% were given a self-management plan; 81% of medication was in stock, and the controller/reliever dispensing ratio was 0.6. Only 31.5% of patients were well controlled, 16.3% of all visits were for exacerbations, and 17.6% of all patients had been hospitalised in the previous year. The availability of medication and prescription of inhaled steroids is reasonable, yet control is poor. Health workers do not adequately distinguish asthma from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, do not assess control by questions or PEF, do not adequately demonstrate or assess the inhaler technique, and have no systematic approach to or resources for patient education. Ten recommendations are made to improve asthma care.

  9. The influence of gaming expenditure on crime rates in South Australia: a local area empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Round, David K; Sarre, Rick; O'Neil, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Although there has been much speculation about the possible links between gambling and crime rates, relevant quantitative evidence has been practically non-existent in Australia to date. This paper reports the results of research that utilised a model designed to investigate the potential relationship between electronic gaming machine expenditures and property (income-generating) crime rates reported to police in local areas in South Australia in 2002-2003. The research found that the higher the expenditures on gaming machines in a particular local area per adult, the higher the income-generating crime rate in that area. No such relationship was found between gaming machine expenditure and non-income-generating crime rates. However, further research is required before any policy-relevant conclusions can be drawn.

  10. The geochemical environment of the Wilcherry Hill base metal mineralisation, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeson, R.

    1990-07-01

    High grade lead-zinc-silver mineralisation occurs in metamorphosed carbonate and calc-silicate sequences at Wilcherry Hill, South Australia. Whole rock lithogeochemistry indicates that the host sequence of the mineralisation can be defined and contrasted from others at both prospect and exploration licence scales. Geochemical haloes are identified on the basis of Pb, Zn and Mn variations. A saline and possibly evaporitic environment of deposition distal from basin margins is proposed for the host sequence on the basis of alkali element compositions, iron formation facies, carbonate compositions, and comparisons with geochemically similar, less metamorphosed sequences with base metal mineralisation in the Middle Proterozoic of northern Australia. The combination of geochemical haloes and definition of the depositional environment provide additional criteria for the exploration geologist, even in metamorphosed and deformed terrains.

  11. The effect of a smoke-free law on restaurant business in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Melanie; Siahpush, Mohammad; Scollo, Michelle; Lal, Anita; Hyland, Andrew; McCaul, Kieran; Miller, Caroline

    2002-08-01

    Despite evidence to the contrary from overseas research, the introduction of smoke-free legislation in South Australia (SA), which required all restaurants to go smoke-free in January 1999, sparked concerns among the hospitality industry about loss of restaurant business. This study aimed to determine whether the law had a detrimental impact on restaurant business in SA. Using time series analysis, we compared the ratio of monthly restaurant turnover from restaurants and cafés in SA to (a) total retail tumover in SA (minus restaurants) for the years 1991 to 2001 and (b) Australian restaurant tumover (minus SA, Westem Australia and the Australian Capital Territory) for the years 1991-2000. There was no decline in the ratio of (a) SA restaurant turnover to SA retail turnover or (b) SA restaurant tumover to Australian restaurant turnover. The introduction of a smoke-free law applying to restaurants in SA did not adversely affect restaurant business in SA.

  12. Classification scheme for acid rock drainage detection - the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; McLean, Laura

    2017-04-01

    In arid environment where precipitation and surface water are very limited, groundwater is the most important freshwater resource. For this reasons it is intensively exploited and needs to be managed wisely and protected from pollutants. Acid rock drainage often constitutes a serious risk to groundwater quality, particularly in catchments that are subject to mining, large scale groundwater injection or abstraction. However, assessment of the potential acid rock drainage risk can be challenging, especially in carbonate rich environment, where the decreasing pH that usually accompanies pyrite oxidation, can be masked by the high pH-neutralisation capacity of carbonate minerals. In this study, we analysed 73 surface and groundwater samples from different water bodies and aquifers located in the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia. Although the majority of samples had a neutral pH, there was a large spatial variability in the dissolved sulphate concentrations that ranged from 1 mg/L to 15,000 mg/L. Waters with high dissolved sulphate concentration were found in areas with a high percentage of sulphide minerals (e.g. pyrite) located within the aquifer matrix and were characterised by low δ34SSO4 values (+1.2‰ to +4.6) consistent with signatures of aquifer matrix pyritic rock samples (+1.9‰ to +4.4). It was also found that the SO4 concentrations and acidity levels were not only dependent on δ34SSO4 values and existence of pyrite but also on the presence of carbonate minerals in the aquifer matrix. Based on the results from this study, a classification scheme has been developed for identification of waters impacted by acid rock drainage that also encompasses numerous concomitant geochemical processes that often occur in aqueous systems. The classification uses five proxies: SO4, SO4/Cl, SI of calcite, δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 to improve assessment of the contribution that oxidation of sulphide minerals has to overall sulphate ion concentrations, regardless of acidity

  13. Climate variability and Ross River virus infections in Riverland, South Australia, 1992-2004.

    PubMed

    Bi, P; Hiller, J E; Cameron, A S; Zhang, Y; Givney, R

    2009-10-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) infection is the most common notifiable vector-borne disease in Australia, with around 6000 cases annually. This study aimed to examine the relationship between climate variability and notified RRV infections in the Riverland region of South Australia in order to set up an early warning system for the disease in temperate-climate regions. Notified data of RRV infections were collected by the South Australian Department of Health. Climatic variables and monthly river flow were provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and South Australian Department of Water, Land and Biodiversity Conservation over the period 1992-2004. Spearman correlation and time-series-adjusted Poisson regression analysis were performed. The results indicate that increases in monthly mean minimum and maximum temperatures, monthly total rainfall, monthly mean Southern Oscillation Index and monthly flow in the Murray River increase the likelihood, but an increase in monthly mean relative humidity decreases the likelihood, of disease transmission in the region, with different time-lag effects. This study demonstrates that a useful early warning system can be developed for local regions based on the statistical analysis of readily available climate data. These early warning systems can be utilized by local public health authorities to develop disease prevention and control activities.

  14. Farmers' perceptions of health in the Riverland region of South Australia: 'If it's broke, fix it'.

    PubMed

    Rawolle, Tessa A; Sadauskas, David; van Kessel, Gisela; Dollman, James

    2016-10-01

    To explore perceptions of health among South Australian farmers. Descriptive qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews. Two rural towns in the Riverland region of South Australia. Fifteen adults involved in farming within the Riverland region of South Australia, from a variety of farming industries; age range 23-70 years old; 53% male, 47% female. Perceptions and definitions of health. Participants described an ecological understanding of health across individual, farm, and community domains. Participants perceived health as being able to function and complete farm work. Participants reported that farm work helped to maintain fitness, but the multiple stress and hazards associated with farming had a significant influence on health. Participants described how health was influenced by community activities and social support from friends and families. Women were reported to take a lead role in health. Health providers can frame interventions to resonate with the perceptions of health held by people, shaped and formed by the context of farming. Further research is needed to explore farmers' perceptions of health in different locations, from different industries and from a range of age groups. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  15. Extreme heat arrangements in South Australia: an assessment of trigger temperatures.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan; Nitschke, Monika; Tucker, Graeme; Bi, Peng

    2011-12-01

    The high mortality and morbidity associated with the 2009 heat wave across South Eastern Australia highlighted the need for effective heat-related health promotion and preventive strategies. The adverse health effects of extreme heat are largely preventable, and heat-related health promotion can advise the public about the dangers of hot weather and how to reduce health risks. The South Australian State Emergency Service has outlined a co-ordinated response system in their Extreme Heat Arrangements for South Australia. This paper evaluates the health impacts at the temperature trigger levels incorporated in this plan. Heat events in Adelaide between 1994 and 2009 were compared in terms of heat duration, heat intensity and their impact on mortality and ambulance call-outs.The health impacts for events meeting specific temperature triggers were estimated. Individual heat events varied in terms of estimated excess mortality and ambulance call-outs. Increased mortality was associated with heat events of 3 or more consecutive days with maximum temperature (T(max)) > or = 43 degrees C or average daily temperature (ADT) > or = 34 degrees C, while ambulance call-outs increased significantly at lower T(max) levels.The two events reaching the temperature triggers for an extreme heat warning were associated with a 44% (95% CI 26-63%) increase in mortality. The results support the temperature trigger for an extreme heat warning within the Extreme Heat Arrangements for Adelaide, and indicate a limited health impact at lower temperature triggers.

  16. A habitat overlap analysis derived from Maxent for Tamarisk and the South-western Willow Flycatcher

    Treesearch

    Patricia York; Paul Evangelista; Sunil Kumar; James Graham; Curtis Flather; Thomas Stohlgren

    2011-01-01

    Biologic control of the introduced and invasive, woody plant tamarisk (Tamarix spp, saltcedar) in south-western states is controversial because it affects habitat of the federally endangered South-western Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). These songbirds sometimes nest in tamarisk where floodplain-level invasion replaces native habitats. Biologic control...

  17. Impact of cyclones and aquatic macrophytes on recruitment and landings of tiger prawns Penaeus esculentus in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loneragan, N. R.; Kangas, M.; Haywood, M. D. E.; Kenyon, R. A.; Caputi, N.; Sporer, E.

    2013-07-01

    The cover of seagrasses and macroalgae, landings and fishery-independent measures of spawning stock and recruitment for brown tiger prawns, were monitored immediately following a major cyclone in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia in March 1999. Anecdotal evidence on the extent of seagrass from 1990 to 1998 suggests that the cyclone caused a major, immediate disruption and loss of the seagrass/macroalgal beds (to ≤2% cover), the critical prawn nursery habitat, and mangroves in the shallow inshore waters of the system. Prawn landings and recruitment to the fishery were not affected in the year of the cyclone, but were markedly lower in the two years immediately afterwards and then increased as the cover of macrophytes increased to over 40% in 2003. Tiger prawn landings and catch rates were not affected in Shark Bay, a system 500 km south of Exmouth Gulf that did not experience cyclonic disturbance. Seagrasses in Exmouth Gulf showed a succession of species from small colonising species (Halophila ovalis and Halodule uninervis) to larger, broad-leaved species (Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium) only two years after the cyclone. The recruitment and landings of tiger prawns were correlated significantly with the total cover of macroalgae and seagrass. The large loss of seagrass and macroalgae reduced the settling habitat for postlarvae and the nursery habitat for juvenile tiger prawns, probably leading to the lower recruitment to the fishery. These findings suggest that the extent of seagrass and macroalgae are some of the factors defining the productivity of the tiger prawn fishery in Exmouth Gulf.

  18. Vocalisations of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) in the Bremer Canyon, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wellard, Rebecca; Erbe, Christine; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    To date, there has been no dedicated study in Australian waters on the acoustics of killer whales. Hence no information has been published on the sounds produced by killer whales from this region. Here we present the first acoustical analysis of recordings collected off the Western Australian coast. Underwater sounds produced by Australian killer whales were recorded during the months of February and March 2014 and 2015 in the Bremer Canyon in Western Australia. Vocalisations recorded included echolocation clicks, burst-pulse sounds and whistles. A total of 28 hours and 29 minutes were recorded and analysed, with 2376 killer whale calls (whistles and burst-pulse sounds) detected. Recordings of poor quality or signal-to-noise ratio were excluded from analysis, resulting in 142 whistles and burst-pulse vocalisations suitable for analysis and categorisation. These were grouped based on their spectrographic features into nine Bremer Canyon (BC) “call types”. The frequency of the fundamental contours of all call types ranged from 600 Hz to 29 kHz. Calls ranged from 0.05 to 11.3 seconds in duration. Biosonar clicks were also recorded, but not studied further. Surface behaviours noted during acoustic recordings were categorised as either travelling or social behaviour. A detailed description of the acoustic characteristics is necessary for species acoustic identification and for the development of passive acoustic tools for population monitoring, including assessments of population status, habitat usage, migration patterns, behaviour and acoustic ecology. This study provides the first quantitative assessment and report on the acoustic features of killer whales vocalisations in Australian waters, and presents an opportunity to further investigate this little-known population. PMID:26352429

  19. Pliocene-Pleistocene coastal events and history along the western margin of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendrick, G.W.; Wyrwoll, K.-H.; Szabo, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    Coastal deposits along the western coastal margin of Australia, a region of relative tectonic stability, record Plio-Pleistocene events and processes affecting the inner shelf and adjacent hinterland. Tectonic deformation of these deposits is more apparent in the Carnarvon Basin, and rather less so in the Perth Basin. The most complete record comes from the Perth Basin, where units of Pliocene and Pleistocene ages are well represented. In the Perth Basin, the predominantly siliciclastic Yoganup Formation, Ascot Formation and Bassendean Sand represent a complex of shoreline, inner shelf and regressive-dune facies equivalents, the deposition of which began at an undetermined stage of the Pliocene, through to the Early Pleistocene. The deposition of this sequence closed with a major regression and significant faunal extinction. Bioclastic carbonates characterize the Middle and Late Pleistocene of the Perth and Carnarvon basins. Fossil assemblages include a distinct subtropical element, unknown from the Ascot Formation and suggesting a strengthening of the Leeuwin Current. The estuarine arcoid bivalve Anadara trapezia characterizes assemblages of Oxygen Isotope Stages 5 and 7 in the Perth and Carnarvon basins, where it is now extinct. Deposits of Substage 5e (Perth Basin) also record a southerly expansion of warm-water corals and other fauna consistent with shelf temperatures warmer than present. New uranium-series ages on corals from marine sequences of the Tantabiddi Member, of the Bundera Calcarenite of the western Cape Range are consistent with the 'double peak' hypothesis for levels of Substage 5e but the evidence remains less than conclusive. Initial uranium-series dates from the Bibra and Dampier formations of Shark Bay indicate that both derive from the Late Pleistocene. These numerical ages contradict previous interpretations of relative ages obtained from field studies. The age relationship of the units requires further investigation. ?? 1991.

  20. Management Of Saline Groundwater Discharge By Long-term Windmill Pumping In The Wheatbelt, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, R. B.; Otto, C. J.; Bartle, G. A.; Watson, G. D.

    1994-01-01

    Land and stream salinization in the Western Australian wheatbelt developed as a result of clearing of native vegetation. This caused a shift in the hydrological balance and a 10- to 30-fold increase in recharge. Rising water levels rejuvenated groundwater flow through paleao channels and increased baseflow to drainage lines. An increase in saline groundwater ascension (TDS 5000-30 000 mgl-1) to the near-surface, induced by rising pressure heads in the deeper semi-confined aquifer system, advanced land and stream salinization. Areas in a catchment where groundwater flow is channelled upwards by subsurface geological strctures are especially susceptible to salinization and water logging. Enhanced discharge by windmill pumping is an engineering method to reduce excess pressure heads of deep semi-confined aquifers in discharge areas and, consequently, lower water levels at shallower depths. It is an interim solution to halt and prevent salinization in the wheatbelt of Western Australia. Long-term field experiments in three catchments and modelling have shown that windmill pumping (15-30 m3d-1) in the wheatbelt can reduce water levels by 1 to 2 m at radial distance of more than 1 km after several years of pumping. The pumped groundwater can be reused for irrigation (TDS < 3000 mgl-1) or stock water (TDS < 10 000 mgl-1). In some instances, highly saline effluent can be discharged into saline streams or salt lakes. Often saline water disposal requires on-farm evaporation ponds or sacrificial basins. The enhanced discharge method should be part of an integrated catchment management program for the restoration of saline land and streams. the technology is applicable to other irrigated and non-irrigated salt-contaminated regions.

  1. Vocalisations of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) in the Bremer Canyon, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Wellard, Rebecca; Erbe, Christine; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    To date, there has been no dedicated study in Australian waters on the acoustics of killer whales. Hence no information has been published on the sounds produced by killer whales from this region. Here we present the first acoustical analysis of recordings collected off the Western Australian coast. Underwater sounds produced by Australian killer whales were recorded during the months of February and March 2014 and 2015 in the Bremer Canyon in Western Australia. Vocalisations recorded included echolocation clicks, burst-pulse sounds and whistles. A total of 28 hours and 29 minutes were recorded and analysed, with 2376 killer whale calls (whistles and burst-pulse sounds) detected. Recordings of poor quality or signal-to-noise ratio were excluded from analysis, resulting in 142 whistles and burst-pulse vocalisations suitable for analysis and categorisation. These were grouped based on their spectrographic features into nine Bremer Canyon (BC) "call types". The frequency of the fundamental contours of all call types ranged from 600 Hz to 29 kHz. Calls ranged from 0.05 to 11.3 seconds in duration. Biosonar clicks were also recorded, but not studied further. Surface behaviours noted during acoustic recordings were categorised as either travelling or social behaviour. A detailed description of the acoustic characteristics is necessary for species acoustic identification and for the development of passive acoustic tools for population monitoring, including assessments of population status, habitat usage, migration patterns, behaviour and acoustic ecology. This study provides the first quantitative assessment and report on the acoustic features of killer whales vocalisations in Australian waters, and presents an opportunity to further investigate this little-known population.

  2. Culture care of Iranian immigrants in New South Wales, Australia: sharing transcultural nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Omeri, A

    1997-01-01

    Discovery and analysis of care meanings, expressions, and practices of Iranian Immigrants in New South Wales, Australia was the focus of this ethnonursing qualitative research. The purpose of the study was to systematically discover, describe and analyse the values, beliefs, and practices of Iranian immigrants in New South Wales, Australia. The aim of the investigation was to discover transcultural nursing knowledge to guide nurses and health professionals to provide culturally congruent nursing and health care to Iranians. Leininger's theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality (Leininger, 1991) was used as the conceptual framework for the study. It was predicted that care meanings and expressions of Iranian immigrants would be influenced by their worldview, social structure features, language, and cultural values rooted in their long ethnohistorical past and reflected in their lifeways in Australia. Using the ethnonursing qualitative research method, key and general informants were purposefully selected among Iranian immigrants residing in New South Wales. Three care themes supported by a number of universal and some diverse patterns were identified for Iranian immigrants. The three themes were: (1) Care meant family and kinship ties (hambastegie) as expressed in daily lifeways and interactions with family, friends, and community; (2) Care as expressed in carrying out traditional urban gender roles (role-zan-o-mard) (Azadie zan) as well as in fulfilling emerging new role responsibilities related to equality for female Iranian immigrants; and (3) Care as preservation of Iranian identity (inhamoni, hamonandi) as expressed in traditional cultural events and health care practices. Leininger's (1991) three modes of actions and decisions were used to develop appropriate and culturally meaningful nursing care actions and decisions which were in harmony with the cultural beliefs of Iranian immigrants.

  3. Evidence-based rural general practice: barriers and solutions in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Wilkinson, D; Blue, I A; Dollard, J T

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on research to ascertain the views of general practitioners (GPs) practising in rural and remote areas of South Australia, on evidence-based medicine (EBM). It follows our previous paper that identified, through a literature search, the key issues in moving towards EBM in general practice in these areas1. The objective of the paper was to identify perceived barriers and potential solutions to evidence-based general practice in rural and remote South Australia. An interview survey was conducted in the year 2000 at 89 of 104 GPs' (86%) surgeries in three rural Divisions of General Practice in South Australia. EBM was viewed positively by 85%, and 94% reported practising EBM. However, barriers to EBM were identified by 84% and four key themes were identified. GP-related barriers identified by 60% included difficulty finding, appraising and applying evidence and lack of time to read, reflect and update practice. Patient related barriers (23%) included an apparent conflict between some patients' expectations and evidence. Environmental barriers (43%) related to remoteness included high workload, limited information and poor resources for continued medical education. Resource related barriers included a lack of computer hardware and software and slow, unreliable and expensive Internet access (14%). Potential solutions were suggested by 82%. The most frequent was improved hardware, software and Internet access (41%). Only 19% suggested formal training for GPs, while 26% suggested improved clinical practice guidelines and 23% suggested non-Internet based dissemination of information including a service to provide evidence-based answers to clinical problems. EBM was viewed positively by the surveyed GPs and many believed they already practised it. Most identified barriers to full and effective use of EBM but also suggested solutions.

  4. Canopy Profiling for Vegetation Mapping in South-Western Australian Forested Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schut, A. G. T.; Wardell-Johnson, G. W.; Baran, I.

    2012-09-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is already impacting native vegetation world-wide. Thus accurate mapping of current vegetation condition is necessary for benchmarking and conservation planning. We examine the potential for the mapping of native vegetation of forested ecosystems in south-western Australia using LiDAR data. Airborne LiDAR (distance between data points 1.2 m) and RGB imagery was acquired with a discrete 4-return Leica ALS 50-II system in April 2011 and vertical canopy profiles determined in Boyagin Nature Reserve. Elevation, slope and geomorphological descriptions of the terrain in combination with vertical canopy profiles based on presence/absence of returns within voxels were derived from the LiDAR data and processed at a spatial resolution of 4.0 meters. Based on these profiles, crown height and depth, ground cover, mean intensity of crown returns, presence of understory and number of vegetation layers were determined for each grid cell. Unsupervised classification revealed distinctive canopy profiles. Vegetation is strongly linked to geomorphology in this old landscape. Thus Kwongan shrubland occurs on the plateaus, Allocasuarina heugeliana woodland on the fringes of rock outcrops, Eucalyptus astringens and E. accedens woodland on breakaways and E. wandoo and Corymbia calophylla woodland in more fertile valley systems. The vegetation types present within distinctive spatial clusters were determined in two field visits. Vegetation types were mapped with an object-based image analysis approach at geomorphological, vegetation and tree scales using the geomorphology of the terrain and structural, textural and reflective characteristics of the canopy. All vertical profiles identified were present on each geomorphological unit. Tree species with a distinctive vertical profile such as Eucalyptus astringens and Allocasuarina heugeliana were defined and distinguished in combination with object-based geomorphological and spatial characteristics. Vegetation

  5. Molecular and morphological assessment of Varanus pilbarensis (Squamata: Varanidae), with a description of a new species from the southern Pilbara, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Maryan, Brad; Oliver, Paul M; Fitch, Alison J; O'Connell, Morgan

    2014-02-25

    Varanus pilbarensis Storr, 1980 is a specialised saxicolous varanid endemic to the Pilbara region of Western Australia. We present genetic and morphological evidence confirming the existence of a divergent southern lineage, here described as V. hamersleyensis sp. nov.. The new species differs noticeably in having a darker colouration and a reduced pattern of small whitish ocelli on the dorsal surface of the limbs only with a largely unbanded tail. By contrast, V. pilbarensis which is redescribed and restricted to the northern lineage, is paler and more boldly patterned with large greyish ocelli on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the body and a strongly banded tail. The two species have discrete distributions centred on the Chichester and Hamersley Ranges to the north and south of the Fortescue River Basin. This pattern of intraregional genetic structuring is similar to that found in a number of other saxicolous lizard lineages from the Pilbara.

  6. The Influence of Climate Science on Water Management in Western Australia: Lessons for Climate Scientists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Scott; Sadler, Brian; Nicholls, Neville

    2005-06-01

    Water flow into dams that supply Perth in Western Australia (WA) has fallen by 50% since the mid-1970s, and this has severely tested water managers. Climate change scenarios available since the 1980s have suggested that global warming will reduce rainfall over southern Australia, including Perth. Water managers recognize the uncertainties associated with the projections, including the significant differences that exist between the timing and magnitude of the observed changes and modeled projections. The information has, nevertheless, influenced their decision making.To understand why, we need to consider the broader environment in which the water managers operate. One key factor is that the imposition of severe water restrictions can lead to significant economic loss and increased unemployment. Prolonged restrictions can therefore create strong debate in the wider community. In recognition of this, state government policy requires that water managers ensure that the chance of having severe restrictions is kept low. Severe restrictions have not been imposed since 1979, but moderate restrictions are more common, and were imposed as recently as 2002. Scrutiny of water management can become intense even after moderate restrictions are imposed, and at these times it is unacceptable to many people if a known risk—even if very uncertain—is perceived to have been ignored in earlier planning. Climate science has established regional drying driven by global warming as a risk, and so global warming has to be addressed in planning. Water managers also need climate science to reassure the public that the restrictions imposed were necessary because of unprecedented changes in rainfall, not because of poor management.In recent years much of the influence that climate science has had on water managers can be attributed to the Indian Ocean Climate Initiative (IOCI). IOCI is a research partnership between the Western Australia Water Corporation, other state government agencies

  7. Inter-annual rainfall variations and suicide in New South Wales, Australia, 1964-2001.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Neville; Butler, Colin D; Hanigan, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The suicide rate in New South Wales is shown to be related to annual precipitation, supporting a widespread and long-held assumption that drought in Australia increases the likelihood of suicide. The relationship, although statistically significant, is not especially strong and is confounded by strong, long-term variations in the suicide rate not related to precipitation variations. A decrease in precipitation of about 300 mm would lead to an increase in the suicide rate of approximately 8% of the long-term mean suicide rate.

  8. Trematodes of marine fishes from South Australia. I. Paraneocreadium australiense gen. et sp. n. (Lepocreadiidae).

    PubMed

    Kruse, G O

    1978-06-01

    Paraneocreadium australiense gen. et sp. n. (Lepocreadiidae) is described from Psilocranium nigricans (Richardson) from the Aldinga Reef of South Australia. Paraneocreadium is most similar to Neocreadium Howell 1966 from Geniagnus in New Zealand and Neolepocreadium Thomas 1960 from Trachinotus in Ghana. It differs from both genera in being ovoid rather than elongate, in having a coiled rather than saccate internal seminal vesicle, and having no viteline follicles between the gonads. It differs further from Neocreadium in lacking lymphatic vessels and in the position of the genital pore.

  9. Inter-annual rainfall variations and suicide in New South Wales, Australia, 1964-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Neville; Butler, Colin D.; Hanigan, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The suicide rate in New South Wales is shown to be related to annual precipitation, supporting a widespread and long-held assumption that drought in Australia increases the likelihood of suicide. The relationship, although statistically significant, is not especially strong and is confounded by strong, long-term variations in the suicide rate not related to precipitation variations. A decrease in precipitation of about 300 mm would lead to an increase in the suicide rate of approximately 8% of the long-term mean suicide rate.

  10. Immigration and slow-growth economies: the experience of South Australia and Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Beer, A

    1998-01-01

    "This paper examines national immigration processes and demographic change in South Australia and Tasmania over the last four decades. Particular attention is paid to the inter-censal period 1986-1991.... The paper investigates the impact of the historic make-up of immigrant flows on settlement patterns, and examines the impact on policies intended to increase immigrant settlement in these states. It argues that the policies being pursued by state and federal governments are unlikely to add to the numbers settling in these states, because they pay too little attention to migration processes, and especially the attraction of others from the source country." excerpt

  11. Impact ejecta horizon within late precambrian shales, adelaide geosyncline, South australia.

    PubMed

    Gostin, V A; Haines, P W; Jenkins, R J; Compston, W; Williams, I S

    1986-07-11

    A solitary layer of shattered crustal rock fragments has been traced over a distance of 260 kilometers within folded 600-million-year-old Precambrian marine shales of the Adelaide Geosyncline, South Australia. The fragments consist entirely of acid to intermediate volcanics (approximately 1575 million years old) displaying shattered mineral grains, shock lamellae in quartz, and small shatter cones. Fragments reach 30 centimeters in diameter and show evidence of vertical fall emplacement. Available evidence points to derivation of the rock fragments from a distant hypervelocity impact into the Gawler Range Volcanics at Lake Acraman, approximately 300 kilometers west of the Adelaide Geosyncline.

  12. Distribution and diagenesis of microfossils from the lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Strother, P. K.; Rossi, S.

    1988-01-01

    Two distinct generations of microfossils occur in silicified carbonates from a previously undescribed locality of the Lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia. The earlier generation occurs in discrete organic-rich clasts and clots characterized by microquartz anhedra; it contains a variety of filamentous and coccoidal fossils in varying states of preservation. Second generation microfossils consist almost exclusively of well-preserved Gunflintia minuta filaments that drape clasts or appear to float in clear chalcedony. These filaments appear to represent an ecologically distinct assemblage that colonized a substrate containing the partially degraded remains of the first generation community. The two assemblages differ significantly in taxonomic frequency distribution from previously described Duck Creek florules. Taken together, Duck Creek microfossils exhibit a range of assemblage variability comparable to that found in other Lower Proterozoic iron formations and ferruginous carbonates. With increasing severity of post-mortem alteration, Duck Creek microfossils appear to converge morphologically on assemblages of simple microstructures described from early Archean cherts. Two new species are described: Oscillatoriopsis majuscula and O. cuboides; the former is among the largest septate filamentous fossils described from any Proterozoic formation.

  13. Late Devonian carbonate-conglomerate association in the Canning basin, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, A.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Siliciclastic conglomerates of Late Devonian to Carboniferous age crop out discontinuously along the northern margin of the Canning basin in Western Australia, where they are associated with a classic example of reefal carbonate rocks. An understanding of these deposits is relevant to the timing of extension in the basin, uplift of the adjacent Kimberley block, and to the interpretation of the sequence stratigraphy of the carbonates. The conglomerates indicate that the Kimberley block was high-standing, even though most normal faulting appears to have ceased by Late Devonian time, and provided a continuous source of siliclastic material. The carbonate-conglomerate relationships were studied in detail at two localities, with brief visits to several other sections to provide a regional context. A sequence boundary of late Frasnian age is exposed at several localities. Incised valleys with 10 m relief (e.g. Van Emmerick and Mt. Elma) and onlapping relationships (e.g. Stony Creek, Van Emmerick) provide strong evidence for a type 1 boundary that likely formed during a eustatic base-level drop (cf., Devonian carbonates of Canada). The recognition of several intervals of siliciclastic conglomerate influx in the Canning basin is important because it suggests the presence of distal lowstand sandstone reservoirs that may represent potential petroleum targets.

  14. Relationship between antibiotic resistance genes and metals in residential soil samples from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Charles W; Callan, Anna C; Aitken, Beatrice; Shearn, Rylan; Koenders, Annette; Hinwood, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Increasing drug-resistant infections have drawn research interest towards examining environmental bacteria and the discovery that many factors, including elevated metal conditions, contribute to proliferation of antibiotic resistance (AR). This study examined 90 garden soils from Western Australia to evaluate predictions of antibiotic resistance genes from total metal conditions by comparing the concentrations of 12 metals and 13 genes related to tetracycline, beta-lactam and sulphonamide resistance. Relationships existed between metals and genes, but trends varied. All metals, except Se and Co, were related to at least one AR gene in terms of absolute gene numbers, but only Al, Mn and Pb were associated with a higher percentage of soil bacteria exhibiting resistance, which is a possible indicator of population selection. Correlations improved when multiple factors were considered simultaneously in a multiple linear regression model, suggesting the possibility of additive effects occurring. Soil-metal concentrations must be considered when determining risks of AR in the environment and the proliferation of resistance.

  15. Groundwater cooling of a supercomputer in Perth, Western Australia: hydrogeological simulations and thermal sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Heather A.; Schaubs, Peter M.; Rachakonda, Praveen K.; Trefry, Michael G.; Reid, Lynn B.; Lester, Daniel R.; Metcalfe, Guy; Poulet, Thomas; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater cooling (GWC) is a sustainable alternative to conventional cooling technologies for supercomputers. A GWC system has been implemented for the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre in Perth, Western Australia. Groundwater is extracted from the Mullaloo Aquifer at 20.8 °C and passes through a heat exchanger before returning to the same aquifer. Hydrogeological simulations of the GWC system were used to assess its performance and sustainability. Simulations were run with cooling capacities of 0.5 or 2.5 Mega Watts thermal (MWth), with scenarios representing various combinations of pumping rate, injection temperature and hydrogeological parameter values. The simulated system generates a thermal plume in the Mullaloo Aquifer and overlying Superficial Aquifer. Thermal breakthrough (transfer of heat from injection to production wells) occurred in 2.7-4.3 years for a 2.5 MWth system. Shielding (reinjection of cool groundwater between the injection and production wells) resulted in earlier thermal breakthrough but reduced the rate of temperature increase after breakthrough, such that shielding was beneficial after approximately 5 years pumping. Increasing injection temperature was preferable to increasing flow rate for maintaining cooling capacity after thermal breakthrough. Thermal impacts on existing wells were small, with up to 10 wells experiencing a temperature increase ≥ 0.1 °C (largest increase 6 °C).

  16. Subterranean archipelago in the Australian arid zone: mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of amphipods from central Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Steven J B; Bradbury, John H; Saint, Kathleen M; Leys, Remko; Austin, Andrew D; Humphreys, William F

    2007-04-01

    In 1998, a unique subterranean ecosystem was discovered in numerous isolated calcrete (carbonate) aquifers in the arid Yilgarn region of Western Australia. Previous morphological and genetic analyses of a subterranean water beetle fauna suggest that calcrete aquifers are equivalent to closed island habitats that have been isolated for millions of years. We tested this hypothesis further by phylogeographic analyses of subterranean amphipods (Crangonyctoidea: Paramelitidae and Hyalidae) using mitochondrial DNA sequence data derived from the cytochrome oxidase I gene. Phylogenetic analyses and population genetic analyses (samova) provided strong evidence for the existence of at least 16 crangonyctoid and six hyalid divergent mitochondrial lineages, each restricted in their distribution to a single calcrete aquifer, in support of the 'subterranean island (archipelago) hypothesis' and extending its scope to include entirely water respiring invertebrates. Sequence divergence estimates between proximate calcrete populations suggest that calcretes have been isolated at least since the Pliocene, coinciding with a major aridity phase that led to the intermittent drying of surface water. The distribution of calcretes along palaeodrainage channels and on either side of drainage divides, have had less influence on the overall phylogeographic structure of populations, with evidence that ancestral crangonyctoid and hyalid species moved between catchments multiple times prior to their isolation within calcretes. At least two potential modes of evolution may account for the diversity of subterranean amphipod populations: dispersal/vicariance of stygobitic species or colonization of calcretes by surface species and independent evolution of stygobitic characteristics.

  17. Ocean Transport Pathways to a World Heritage Fringing Coral Reef: Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiangtao; Lowe, Ryan J; Ivey, Gregory N; Jones, Nicole L; Zhang, Zhenlin

    2016-01-01

    A Lagrangian particle tracking model driven by a regional ocean circulation model was used to investigate the seasonally varying connectivity patterns within the shelf circulation surrounding the 300 km long Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia (WA) during 2009-2010. Forward-in-time simulations revealed that surface water was transported equatorward and offshore in summer due to the upwelling-favorable winds. In winter, however, water was transported polewards down the WA coast due to the seasonally strong Leeuwin Current. Using backward-in-time simulations, the subsurface transport pathways revealed two main source regions of shelf water reaching Ningaloo Reef: (1) a year-round source to the northeast in the upper 100 m of water column; and (2) during the summer, an additional source offshore and to the west of Ningaloo in depths between ~30 and ~150 m. Transient wind-driven coastal upwelling, onshore geostrophic transport and stirring by offshore eddies were identified as the important mechanisms influencing the source water origins. The identification of these highly time-dependent transport pathways and source water locations is an essential step towards quantifying how key material (e.g., nutrients, larvae, contaminants, etc.) is exchanged between Ningaloo Reef and the surrounding shelf ocean, and how this is mechanistically coupled to the complex ocean dynamics in this region.

  18. A new specimen of the Mount Dooling iron meteorite from Mount Manning, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laeter, J. R.

    1980-06-01

    The discovery of an iron meteorite near the Mount Manning Range in Western Australia which has been identified with the Mount Dooling meteorite is reported. The 701-kg iron meteorite was found embedded in the ground at a site 3 km east of the Mount Manning Range and approximately 6 km from the probable discovery site of Mount Dooling. The meteorite has a fan-shaped or delta wing configuration, with one side smooth and slightly concave with a well defined fusion crust and the other side rough, convex and possessing numerous regmaglypts; it is suggested that the meteorite performed a delta-wing-like flight at high angle of attack through much of the atmosphere. A comparison of the chemical composition, surface features, microstructure and location of the present meteorite with those of the Mount Dooling siderite confirms that the find represents a larger specimen of Mount Dooling. In light of the present discovery and that of another Mount Dooling fragment, Gosnells, it is predicted that other specimens may be discovered in the future.

  19. The Geohydrology of MVT-Ore Genesis in the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garven, G.; Wallace, M. M.

    2009-05-01

    In the Lennard Shelf, Western Australia, epigenetic MVT-type Pb-Zn mineralization occurs in Middle Devonian evaporitic dolomites which were part of a barrier reef system (Hurley & Lohmann, 1989). Ore mineralization exhibits a strong structural control at the basin scale and normal faults probably controlled pathways for brine and petroleum migration that affected ore deposition (Wallace et al., 1999). For the Canning basin, finite element simulations show that compaction was the most important process for creating overpressures and driving basinal fluids in this thick extensional basin. Basinal fluids are shown to have been driven across the Fitzroy Trough through permeable and deeply buried Silurian-Ordovician aquifer units. The fluids then migrated upwards at rates of m/yr up during periods of episodic extension (Braun, 1992) where fluid flow was channeled by major normal fault zones like the Cadjebut and Pinnacles Faults. Reactive flow simulations test a petroleum-reservoir model for mineralization whereby metal-bearing brines mix with accumulated hydrocarbons (Anderson & Garven, 1987). The results show that compaction-driven flow, as proposed by Beales & Jackson (1966) and Jackson & Beales (1967), works rather well in this ore district--other mechanisms such as sealevel tidal pumping (Cathles, 1988) or topographic drive (Solomon & Groves, 1994) are more tenuous and really unnecessary from a mass transport or geohydrologic basis.

  20. Impact of liquid waste disposal on potable groundwater resources near Perth, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    1996-09-01

    Drilling of 15 boreholes at a disused liquid waste disposal site near Perth, Western Australia, has indicated that a contamination plume extends about 1000 m in a southerly direction from the site in the direction of groundwater flow. The plume is up to 600 m wide and 5-40 m thick. Chemical and microbiological analyses have indicated that contaminated groundwater contains high concentrations of ammonia, iron, and bacteria at levels that commonly exceed national drinking water guidelines. It is likely that a proposed water supply production well in the path of the contamination plume will have to be abandoned, and additional wells may have to be abandoned if the plume continues to extend in the direction of groundwater flow. There is currently insufficient information to indicate whether the plume is continuing to expand, but studies on similar plumes in the Perth metropolitan area have indicated that contaminated groundwater can move at rates up to 100 m yr-1. Several other liquid waste disposal sites are now located in residential areas of Perth where wells are used for garden irrigation. Further work is required to ensure that there is no potential impact of groundwater contamination on public health in these areas.

  1. Varicella-Zoster Virus in Perth, Western Australia: Seasonality and Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Korostil, Igor A.; Regan, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of the factors affecting reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) largely remains an open question. Exposure to solar ultra violet (UV) radiation is speculated to facilitate reactivation. Should the role of UV in reactivation be significant, VZV reactivation patterns would generally be expected to be synchronous with seasonal UV profiles in temperate climates. Methods We analysed age and gender specific VZV notification time series data from Perth, Western Australia (WA). This city has more daily sunshine hours than any other major Australian city. Using the cosinor and generalized linear models, we tested these data for seasonality and correlation with UV and temperature. Results We established significant seasonality of varicella notifications and showed that while herpes-zoster (HZ) was not seasonal it had a more stable seasonal component in males over 60 than in any other subpopulation tested. We also detected significant association between HZ notifications and UV for the entire Perth population as well as for females and males separately. In most cases, temperature proved to be a significant factor as well. Conclusions Our findings suggest that UV radiation may be important for VZV reactivation, under the assumption that notification data represent an acceptably accurate qualitative measure of true VZV incidence. PMID:26963841

  2. Active hematite concretion formation in modern acid saline lake sediments, Lake Brown, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Brenda Beitler; Benison, K. C.; Oboh-Ikuenobe, F. E.; Story, S.; Mormile, M. R.

    2008-04-01

    Concretions can provide valuable records of diagenesis and fluid-sediment interactions, however, reconstruction of ancient concretion-forming conditions can be difficult. Observation of modern hematite concretion growth in a natural sedimentary setting provides a rare glimpse of conditions at the time of formation. Spheroidal hematite-cemented concretions are actively precipitating in shallow subsurface sediments at Lake Brown in Western Australia. Lake Brown is a hypersaline (total dissolved solids up to 23%) and acidic (pH ˜ 4) ephemeral lake. The concretion host sediments were deposited between ˜ 1 and 3 ka, based on dating of stratigraphically higher and lower beds. These age constraints indicate that the diagenetic concretions formed < 3 ka, and field observations suggest that some are currently forming. These modern concretions from Lake Brown provide an example of very early diagenetic formation in acid and saline conditions that may be analogous to past conditions on Mars. Previously, the hematite concretions in the Burns formation on Mars have been interpreted as late stage diagenetic products, requiring long geologic time scales and multiple fluid flow events to form. In contrast, the Lake Brown concretions support the possibility of similar syndepositional to very early diagenetic concretion precipitation on Mars.

  3. Haplosporidium sp. (Alveolata: Haplosporidia) associated with mortalities among rock oysters Saccostrea cuccullata in north Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hine, P M; Thorne, Tina

    2002-08-29

    Haplosporidium sp. is described from rock oysters Saccostrea cuccullata Born, 1778 experiencing epizootics on the northwestern coast of Western Australia. All stages were observed as focal infections in the connective tissue of the gills, or as disseminated infections in the mantle and around digestive diverticulae. Haplosporidium sp. occurred between epithelial cells of the gut, in focal lesions in the gills, but not in the epithelium of the digestive diverticulae, and sporulation was confined to the connective tissue. Plasmodia developed into sporonts and sporocysts in a loose syncytium that gave rise to binucleate and uninucleate sporoblasts from which spores developed. Spores were flask-shaped, 5.6-6.7 x 3.3-4.0 microm, with a characteristic operculum, a few filamentous wrappings and rod-like structures in the posterior sporoplasm. Mature spores had a wall comprising inner (90 nm wide), middle (30 nm wide) and outer (130 nm wide) layers, and a surface coat of microtubules giving them a furry appearance. Oysters with empty gonad follicles were most heavily infected, and oyster condition and mortality appeared to be related to degree of infection.

  4. New multi-scale perspectives on the stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suosaari, E. P.; Reid, R. P.; Playford, P. E.; Foster, J. S.; Stolz, J. F.; Casaburi, G.; Hagan, P. D.; Chirayath, V.; MacIntyre, I. G.; Planavsky, N. J.; Eberli, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    A recent field-intensive program in Shark Bay, Western Australia provides new multi-scale perspectives on the world’s most extensive modern stromatolite system. Mapping revealed a unique geographic distribution of morphologically distinct stromatolite structures, many of them previously undocumented. These distinctive structures combined with characteristic shelf physiography define eight ‘Stromatolite Provinces’. Morphological and molecular studies of microbial mat composition resulted in a revised growth model where coccoid cyanobacteria predominate in mat communities forming lithified discrete stromatolite buildups. This contradicts traditional views that stromatolites with the best lamination in Hamelin Pool are formed by filamentous cyanobacterial mats. Finally, analysis of internal fabrics of stromatolites revealed pervasive precipitation of microcrystalline carbonate (i.e. micrite) in microbial mats forming framework and cement that may be analogous to the micritic microstructures typical of Precambrian stromatolites. These discoveries represent fundamental advances in our knowledge of the Shark Bay microbial system, laying a foundation for detailed studies of stromatolite morphogenesis that will advance our understanding of benthic ecosystems on the early Earth.

  5. Dental anomalies in children with cleft lip and palate in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper was to describe the prevalence and type of dental anomalies in the primary and permanent dentition in children with a cleft condition at Princess Margaret Hospital in Perth, Western Australia. Materials and Methods: The details of 162 current dental patients extracted from the main dental database through their year of birth for the period 1998–2001 were selected consecutively. Dental records and X-rays were examined by one examiner (WN) and verified by a second examiner (RB) to determine dental development. The mean age of the subjects was 10.8 years with equal numbers of males and females. Subjects were further divided into cleft type; unilateral cleft lip (UCL) and palate, bilateral cleft lip (BCL) and palate, UCL, BCL, and cleft palate. Results: One hundred sixty-two subjects were grouped into 21 categories of anomaly or abnormality. Prevalence rates for the categories were calculated for the overall group and for gender and cleft type. Conclusion: Overall, 94% of patients were found to have at least one dental anomaly, with fifty-six (34%) patients having more than one anomaly or abnormality. PMID:27095907

  6. Implanted 3He, 4He, and Xe in further studies of diamonds from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    McConville, P; Reynolds, J H; Epstein, S; Roedder, E

    1991-01-01

    In measurements of the noble gases in additional samples of diamonds from the Argyle and Ellendale lamproites in Western Australia we have failed to encounter any neon-rich stones such as showed solar-like isotopic compositions in earlier work. No neon was detected above the relatively high blank levels in our glass apparatus. White and brown diamonds showed no differences in noble gas content, nor did samples segregated by the color of long-wave UF fluorescence. The rare gas patterns in the 1.2 Ga Argyle pipe are largely consistent with implanted 3He, 4He, and fissiogenic Xe from U/Th in the matrix rock in which the diamonds have been stored for so long. These implanted species are absent in diamonds from the much younger (approximately 20 Ma) Ellendale pipe. We give implantation formulae for several models of inhomogeneously distributed U/Th. Differences in 3He content between pipe and alluvial Argyle samples are consistent with expected cosmogenic production in the latter. An expanded data base for helium and carbon isotopic data on the same samples supports a negative [4He]-delta 13C correlation seen earlier in work from our group, but if the Argyle samples, which contain light carbon, are corrected for implanted 4He, the correlation is considerably weakened. We no longer see an earlier 3He/4He-delta 13C correlation.

  7. Unusual Rebuilding Method of Historic St Mary's Cathedral in the Capital of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysokowski, Adam

    2016-06-01

    St Mary's Cathedral is the Archbishop church of the Archdiocese in Perth in Western Australia. The presented sacral building was built in neo-Gothic style during the years 1863-1865. Cathedral was officially dedicated and opened for the service on 29th January, 1865. In 1973 was proclaimed the Marian Sanctuary and now represents one of the largest religious facilities in Perth. In 2005, the city authorities, together with the Archdiocese took a collective decision on the necessity of a comprehensive renovation of this sacred object. The renovation was due to the technical condition and the lack of usability of the object. The author of the paper had the opportunity to experience these problems by visiting this place several times, first time in 1989 and next years. Thus, the renovation of the present Cathedral was in its assumption not only to perform maintenance of the building and its specific architectural elements but also to increase its functional features - usable for the faithful and tourists. Reconstruction of St Mary's Cathedral in Perth can be a good example increasing the wider functionality of such facilities while keeping their antique and historical qualities. In this paper the above-mentioned issues will be more widely developed by the author.

  8. Murray Valley encephalitis in Western Australia in 2000, with evidence of southerly spread.

    PubMed

    Cordova, S P; Smith, D W; Broom, A K; Lindsay, M D; Dowse, G K; Beers, M Y

    2000-12-01

    We describe the epidemiological and clinical features of human Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) and Kunjin (KUN) virus infections in Western Australia (WA) during March to July 2000. A case series was performed. For laboratory-confirmed cases, travel histories and clinical details were collected from patients, family members, friends or treating physicians. Surveillance data from the sentinel chicken program and climatic conditions were reviewed. Nine encephalitic cases of MVE were recorded. Eight were non-Aboriginal adults (age range, 25 to 79 years; 5 male, 3 female) and 1 was an Aboriginal boy. Four cases acquired infection in the Murchison and Midwest regions of WA from which no human cases of MVE have been reported previously. One of the 9 cases was fatal and 3 had severe neurological sequelae. Five non-encephalitic infections were also recorded, 3 MVE and 2 KUN. Encephalitis caused by MVE virus remains a serious problem with no improvement in clinical outcomes in the last 25 years. Excessive rainfall with widespread flooding in the northern two-thirds of WA provided ideal conditions for mosquito breeding and favoured southerly spread of the virus into new and more heavily populated areas. Surveillance in WA with sentinel chickens and mosquito trapping needs expansion to define the boundaries of MVE virus activity. To enable timely warnings to the public, and to institute mosquito control where feasible, continued surveillance in all Australian areas at risk is indicated.

  9. Distribution and diagenesis of microfossils from the lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Strother, P. K.; Rossi, S.

    1988-01-01

    Two distinct generations of microfossils occur in silicified carbonates from a previously undescribed locality of the Lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia. The earlier generation occurs in discrete organic-rich clasts and clots characterized by microquartz anhedra; it contains a variety of filamentous and coccoidal fossils in varying states of preservation. Second generation microfossils consist almost exclusively of well-preserved Gunflintia minuta filaments that drape clasts or appear to float in clear chalcedony. These filaments appear to represent an ecologically distinct assemblage that colonized a substrate containing the partially degraded remains of the first generation community. The two assemblages differ significantly in taxonomic frequency distribution from previously described Duck Creek florules. Taken together, Duck Creek microfossils exhibit a range of assemblage variability comparable to that found in other Lower Proterozoic iron formations and ferruginous carbonates. With increasing severity of post-mortem alteration, Duck Creek microfossils appear to converge morphologically on assemblages of simple microstructures described from early Archean cherts. Two new species are described: Oscillatoriopsis majuscula and O. cuboides; the former is among the largest septate filamentous fossils described from any Proterozoic formation.

  10. Ocean Transport Pathways to a World Heritage Fringing Coral Reef: Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiangtao; Lowe, Ryan J.; Ivey, Gregory N.; Jones, Nicole L.; Zhang, Zhenlin

    2016-01-01

    A Lagrangian particle tracking model driven by a regional ocean circulation model was used to investigate the seasonally varying connectivity patterns within the shelf circulation surrounding the 300 km long Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia (WA) during 2009–2010. Forward-in-time simulations revealed that surface water was transported equatorward and offshore in summer due to the upwelling-favorable winds. In winter, however, water was transported polewards down the WA coast due to the seasonally strong Leeuwin Current. Using backward-in-time simulations, the subsurface transport pathways revealed two main source regions of shelf water reaching Ningaloo Reef: (1) a year-round source to the northeast in the upper 100 m of water column; and (2) during the summer, an additional source offshore and to the west of Ningaloo in depths between ~30 and ~150 m. Transient wind-driven coastal upwelling, onshore geostrophic transport and stirring by offshore eddies were identified as the important mechanisms influencing the source water origins. The identification of these highly time-dependent transport pathways and source water locations is an essential step towards quantifying how key material (e.g., nutrients, larvae, contaminants, etc.) is exchanged between Ningaloo Reef and the surrounding shelf ocean, and how this is mechanistically coupled to the complex ocean dynamics in this region. PMID:26790154

  11. Nutrient concentrations and fluxes in tributaries to the Swan-Canning estuary, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.; Donohue, R.

    1999-01-01

    In Western Australia, catchment nutrient availability on an areal basis is primarily controlled by the disposal of animal waste and the type and rate of fertilizer application, particularly in coastal areas. The coastal areas receive notably higher rainfall and have more intense horticulture and animal production than inland areas, and are undergoing rapid urbanization, particularly adjacent to the estuary. Also, the surficial aquifers on the coastal plain are generally sandy having a low nutrient retention capacity and rapidly transmit soluble and colloidal material through the subsurface. In the Swan-Canning basin, high air and soil temperatures and seasonally arid conditions cause rapid mineralization of nitrogen and phosphorus. The nutrients are subsequently available for transport during the onset of seasonal wet weather, which typically begins during the period from late April to June. In addition to the rapid mobility of nutrients in streamwater from agricultural areas during the wet season, drains in urban areas, which typically have high nutrient concentrations, also are an important source of nutrients as the drains flow directly to the estuary throughout the year.

  12. Acidophilic halophilic microorganisms in fluid inclusions in halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Conner, Amber J; Benison, Kathleen C

    2013-09-01

    Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as 1-3 μm, bright cocci that fluoresce green with UV-vis illumination. Dimpled, 5-7 μm yellow spherules that fluoresce blue with UV-vis illumination are interpreted as Dunaliella algae. Yellow-orange beta-carotene crystals, globules, and coatings are characterized by orange-red fluorescence and three distinct Raman peaks. Because acid saline lakes are good Mars analogues, the documentation of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organic compounds preserved in the halite here has implications for the search for life on Mars. Missions to Mars should incorporate such in situ optical and chemical examination of martian evaporites for possible microorganisms and/or organic compounds in fluid inclusions.

  13. Public support for tobacco control policy extensions in Western Australia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Michael; Wood, Lisa; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Policy makers seeking to introduce new tobacco control measures need to anticipate community support to assist them in planning appropriate implementation strategies. This study assessed community support for plain packaging and smoking bans in outdoor locations in Australia. Design Analytical cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants 2005 Western Australian adults participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview. Random household telephone numbers were used to obtain a representative sample. Outcome measures Support for plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking bans at outdoor venues by demographic characteristics. Results Around half of the survey respondents supported plain packaging and almost a further quarter reported being neutral on the issue. Only one in three smokers disagreed with the introduction of a plain packaging policy. A majority of respondents supported smoking bans at five of the six nominated venues, with support being strongest among those with children under the age of 15 years. The venues with the highest levels of support were those where smoke-free policies had already been voluntarily introduced by the venue managers, where children were most likely to be in attendance, and that were more limited in size. Conclusions The study results demonstrate community support for new tobacco control policies. This evidence can be used by public policy makers in their deliberations relating to the introduction of more extensive tobacco control regulations. PMID:22382124

  14. Haematite pigmentation events and palaeomagnetic recording: implications from the Pilbara Print Stone, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajevitch, Alexandra; Pillans, Brad J.; Roberts, Andrew P.

    2014-11-01

    Haematite pigment is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, but its contribution to the natural remanent magnetization of rocks is poorly understood. Here, we describe magnetic properties of two distinct pigment types that produce a characteristic decorative `print stone' found in the ˜2.5 Ga Mount McRae Shale Formation, Hamersley Province, Western Australia. Distinct magnetic remanence directions observed in the Print Stone can be correlated to each pigment type. By comparison with the Australian apparent polar wander path, the remanence carried by uniformly distributed pigment can be dated to ˜15-25 Ma, while two age options, the Mesoproterozoic (˜1.5 Ga) or the middle Carboniferous (˜320-310 Ma), are permissible for the remanence carried by the pigment responsible for the distinctive `newsprint' pattern. Magnetic properties and demagnetization characteristics of the different pigment types overlap significantly, and thus are not predictive of the dominant remanence carrier. Magnetic characteristics of the uniformly distributed pigment vary significantly on short spatial scales. Strong local control on pigment formation raises the possibility that a primary remanent magnetization may survive locally in pockets within sedimentary red bed formations.

  15. Prevalence and on-farm risk factors for diarrhoea in meat lamb flocks in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Joshua P A; Ryan, U M; Robertson, I D; Jacobson, C

    2012-06-01

    Diarrhoea is a widespread problem for sheep enterprises worldwide. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted using a questionnaire to determine the prevalence of diarrhoea and associated risk factors where there was evidence of recent diarrhoea (active diarrhoea or fresh faecal soiling of breech fleece) for meat lambs on farms in southern Western Australia during 2010. The response rate was 41.4% (139/336). Evidence of recent diarrhoea was reported on 64.8% of farms, with a mean of 6.9% lambs affected per farm. Location of a farm and a higher annual rainfall were associated with an increased diarrhoea prevalence. Binary logistic regression analysis suggested that the drinking water source was associated with the incidence of diarrhoea, since lamb flocks supplied with dam water were 117 times (95% CI: 18.2, 754.8) more likely to have observed diarrhoea or fresh breech fleece faecal soiling than lamb flocks supplied with other sources of water. Faecal worm egg counts were used by 65% of respondents to determine whether an anthelmintic treatment was warranted and 74% of respondents administered a treatment to their meat lambs. In response to a range of diarrhoea scenarios presented to respondents (5%, 25% and 50% of the flock with evidence of recent diarrhoea), 15.1% would have elected to administer an anthelmintic treatment regardless of differences in prevalence.

  16. Extremophile microbiomes in acidic and hypersaline river sediments of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shipeng; Peiffer, Stefan; Lazar, Cassandre Sara; Oldham, Carolyn; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Näb, Olga; Lillicrap, Adam; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Küsel, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the microbial community compositions in two sediment samples from the acidic (pH ∼3) and hypersaline (>4.5% NaCl) surface waters, which are widespread in Western Australia. In West Dalyup River, large amounts of NaCl, Fe(II) and sulfate are brought by the groundwater into the surface run-off. The presence of K-jarosite and schwertmannite minerals in the river sediments suggested the occurrence of microbial Fe(II) oxidation because chemical oxidation is greatly reduced at low pH. 16S rRNA gene diversity analyses revealed that sequences affiliated with an uncultured archaeal lineage named Aplasma, which has the genomic potential for Fe(II) oxidation, were dominant in both sediment samples. The acidophilic heterotrophs Acidiphilium and Acidocella were identified as the dominant bacterial groups. Acidiphilium strain AusYE3-1 obtained from the river sediment tolerated up to 6% NaCl at pH 3 under oxic conditions and cells of strain AusYE3-1 reduced the effects of high salt content by forming filamentous structure clumping as aggregates. Neither growth nor Fe(III) reduction by strain AusYE3-1 was observed in anoxic salt-containing medium. The detection of Aplasma group as potential Fe(II) oxidizers and the inhibited Fe(III)-reducing capacity of Acidiphilium contributes to our understanding of the microbial ecology of acidic hypersaline environments.

  17. Hydrothermal models of the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia: implications for geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Oliver; Sheldon, Heather A.; Reid, Lynn B.; Corbel, Soazig

    2013-05-01

    Hydrothermal simulations are used to provide insight into the subsurface thermal regime of the Perth metropolitan area (PMA) in Western Australia. High average permeabilities and estimated fluid flow rates in shallow aquifers of the PMA suggest that advection and convection may occur in these aquifers. These processes are simulated, using a new geological model of the PMA to constrain the geometry of aquifers, aquitards and faults. The results show that advection has a strong influence on subsurface temperature, especially in the north of the PMA, where aquifer recharge creates an area of anomalously low temperature. Convection may be important, depending on the permeability of the Yarragadee Aquifer. If convection occurs, it creates thermal highs and lows with a spacing of approximately 5 km. Some of these thermal anomalies migrate over geological time due to coupling between advection and convection, but they are stationary on human timescales. Fault permeability influences the pattern of convection. Advection and convection cause variations in the geothermal gradient which cannot be predicted by conductive models; therefore, these processes should be considered in any model that is used for assessment of geothermal resources in the PMA.

  18. Field and synthetic experiments for virtual source crosswell tomography in vertical wells: Perth Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almalki, Majed; Harris, Brett; Dupuis, J. Christian

    2013-11-01

    It is common for at least one monitoring well to be located proximally to a production well. This presents the possibility of applying crosswell technologies to resolve a range of earth properties between the wells. We present both field and synthetic examples of dual well walk-away vertical seismic profiling in vertical wells and show how the direct arrivals from a virtual source may be used to create velocity images between the wells. The synthetic experiments highlight the potential of virtual source crosswell tomography where large numbers of closely spaced receivers can be deployed in multiple wells. The field experiment is completed in two monitoring wells at an aquifer storage and recovery site near Perth, Western Australia. For this site, the crosswell velocity distribution recovered from inversion of travel times between in-hole virtual sources and receivers is highly consistent with what is expected from sonic logging and detailed zero-offset vertical seismic profiling. When compared to conventional walkaway vertical seismic profiling, the only additional effort required to complete dual-well walkaway vertical seismic profiling is the deployment of seismic sensors in the second well. The significant advantage of virtual source crosswell tomography is realised where strong near surface heterogeneity results in large travel time statics.

  19. Ovine cysticercosis in the Albany region of Western Australia. 1. Survey of tapeworms of rural dogs.

    PubMed

    Chaneet, G; White, J B

    1976-02-01

    A survey of the cestode infections of 304 dogs from 134 properties in the Albany area of Western Australia was performed. Purgation was induced by oral administration of arecoline and the purge examined for cestodes. The cestodes found and their infection rates were: Dipylidium caninum 16.4%; Taenia spp 36.5%; T. ovis 8.9%; T. hydatigena 15.1%; T. pisiformis 15.1%; T. serialis 2.3%; Echinococcus granulosus 0.7%; Questionnaires completed on 133 of the 134 properties at the time the dogs were purged showed that:--73.6% of farmers were feeding raw sheep-meat and 24.8% were feeding raw offal to their dogs; dogs were treated on a regular basis with a cestocide on 23.3% of properties; dogs were allowed to roam on 21.8% of the properties and stray dogs were considered prevalent on 23.3% of properties. Suggestions for control of Cysticercus ovis are made based on an interpretation of the significance of these findings.

  20. Late Devonian magnetostratigraphy from a condensed limestone, Canning Basin, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, N.F.; Van Der Voo, R.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed thermal demagnetization experiments have been carried out on 31 samples (93 specimens) of fore-reef limestones from the northern Canning basin, Western Australia. Samples are from a condensed sequence composed of deep-water (over 100 m) stromatolites in the marginal-slope facies of the Virgin Hills Formation. These stromatolites are made up of shrublike cyanobacterial filaments of Frutexites, an organism that probably precipitated iron hydroxide from seawater. Under the oxidizing conditions created by extremely slow sedimentation rates, it is likely that iron hydroxides were converted to hematite at or near the sediment-water interface. When plotted within the microstratigraphic framework for the study area, the observed characteristic directions from the sampled interval (14.5 cm thick) lie in five discrete normal and reversed polarity zones. The measured northeast-southwest declinations and shallow inclinations in these polarity zones probably record Late Devonian magnetostratigraphy on a centimeter scale. Using sedimentation rates from detailed conodont studies, a 56,000-year periodicity is calculated for Late Devonian polarity reversals. This value assumes no breaks in sedimentation, and is comparable to minimum lengths of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic polarity reversals. However, this study shows that iridium is present over the span of five magnetic reversals. Evidence therefore favors a biologic, rather than extraterrestrial, origin for anomalous iridium concentrations.

  1. Public say food regulatory policies to improve health in Western Australia are important: population survey results.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Christina M; Daly, Alison; Moore, Michael; Binns, Colin W

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the level of support among Western Australian adults for food control policies to improve diet, reduce obesity and protect the environment. Attitudes towards government food control policies on food labelling, food advertising, and the supply of environmentally friendly food data were pooled from two Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone surveys of 2,147 adults aged 18-64 years collected in 2009 and 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using survey module of STATA 12. The majority of adults believe it is important that government regulates food policy options under consideration: nutrition information on food labels (97% versus 2% who think it is not important); health rating on food labels (95% versus 3%); food advertising (83% versus 11%); and the supply of environmentally friendly food (86% versus 9%). Community perception is that government control or regulation of food labelling, food advertising and the supply of environmentally friendly food is important. Curbing excess weight gain and related disease burden is a public health priority. Australian governments are considering food regulatory interventions to assist the public to improve their dietary intake. These findings should provide reassurance to government officials considering these regulatory measures. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Dynamics of hourly sea level at Hillarys Boat Harbour, Western Australia: a chaos theory perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatibi, Rahman; Ghorbani, Mohammad Ali; Aalami, Mohammad Taghi; Kocak, Kasim; Makarynskyy, Oleg; Makarynska, Dina; Aalinezhad, Mahdi

    2011-11-01

    Water level forecasting using recorded time series can provide a local modelling capability to facilitate local proactive management practices. To this end, hourly sea water level time series are investigated. The records collected at the Hillarys Boat Harbour, Western Australia, are investigated over the period of 2000 and 2002. Two modelling techniques are employed: low-dimensional dynamic model, known as the deterministic chaos theory, and genetic programming, GP. The phase space, which describes the evolution of the behaviour of a nonlinear system in time, was reconstructed using the delay-embedding theorem suggested by Takens. The presence of chaotic signals in the data was identified by the phase space reconstruction and correlation dimension methods, and also the predictability into the future was calculated by the largest Lyapunov exponent to be 437 h or 18 days into the future. The intercomparison of results of the local prediction and GP models shows that for this site-specific dataset, the local prediction model has a slight edge over GP. However, rather than recommending one technique over another, the paper promotes a pluralistic modelling culture, whereby different techniques should be tested to gain a specific insight from each of the models. This would enable a consensus to be drawn from a set of results rather than ignoring the individual insights provided by each model.

  3. New multi-scale perspectives on the stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Suosaari, E. P.; Reid, R. P.; Playford, P. E.; Foster, J. S.; Stolz, J. F.; Casaburi, G.; Hagan, P. D.; Chirayath, V.; Macintyre, I. G.; Planavsky, N. J.; Eberli, G. P.

    2016-01-01

    A recent field-intensive program in Shark Bay, Western Australia provides new multi-scale perspectives on the world’s most extensive modern stromatolite system. Mapping revealed a unique geographic distribution of morphologically distinct stromatolite structures, many of them previously undocumented. These distinctive structures combined with characteristic shelf physiography define eight ‘Stromatolite Provinces’. Morphological and molecular studies of microbial mat composition resulted in a revised growth model where coccoid cyanobacteria predominate in mat communities forming lithified discrete stromatolite buildups. This contradicts traditional views that stromatolites with the best lamination in Hamelin Pool are formed by filamentous cyanobacterial mats. Finally, analysis of internal fabrics of stromatolites revealed pervasive precipitation of microcrystalline carbonate (i.e. micrite) in microbial mats forming framework and cement that may be analogous to the micritic microstructures typical of Precambrian stromatolites. These discoveries represent fundamental advances in our knowledge of the Shark Bay microbial system, laying a foundation for detailed studies of stromatolite morphogenesis that will advance our understanding of benthic ecosystems on the early Earth. PMID:26838605

  4. Changes in beliefs about cancer in Western Australia, 1964-2001.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Robert J; Carter, Owen B J; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Jones, Sandra C

    2004-07-05

    To assess changes in people's knowledge and beliefs about cancer between 1964 and 2001. Questions in a 1964 survey of beliefs about cancer (randomly selected households) were replicated in a 2001 telephone survey (random-digit dialing). Perth, Western Australia. 984 and 491 participants aged 20 years or older in the 1964 and 2001 surveys, respectively (response rates, 86.8% and 47.0%). Changes in knowledge and beliefs about cancer. Between 1964 and 2001, there were major improvements in knowledge about the causes of cancer, with several myths dispelled. In 1964, the proportion of Perth residents surveyed who believed that cancer is contagious was 20% (95% CI, 18%-22%), compared with 3% (95% CI, 2%-4%) in 2001. Similarly, the proportion who believed cancer is caused by "a knock" was 25% (95% CI, 22%-28%) in 1964, compared with 1% (95% CI, 0-2%) in 2001. Cancer screening participation rates also greatly improved, from 18% (95% CI, 16%-20%) in 1964 to 77% (95% CI, 73%-81%) in 2001. Changes in participants' sources of knowledge about cancer were also evident, with family members and television increasing markedly as sources of information. Improved education of the public in health matters over the past four decades appears to have had a major and positive impact on knowledge about cancer.

  5. Benefits of swimming pools in two remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia: intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Deborah; Tennant, Mary T; Silva, Desiree T; McAullay, Daniel; Lannigan, Francis; Coates, Harvey; Stanley, Fiona J

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the health impact of swimming pools built with the aim of improving quality of life and reducing high rates of pyoderma and otitis media. Design Intervention study assessing prevalence of ear disease and skin infections before and at six monthly intervals after opening of swimming pools. Setting Two remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia. Participants 84 boys and 78 girls aged < 17 years. Main outcome measures Changes in prevalence and severity of pyoderma and perforation of tympanic membranes with or without otorrhoea over 18 months after opening of pools. Results In community A, 61 children were seen before the pool was opened, and 41, 46, and 33 children were seen at the second, third, and fourth surveys. Equivalent figures for community B were 60, 35, 39, and 45. Prevalence of pyoderma declined significantly from 62% to 18% in community A and from 70% to 20% in community B during the 18 months after the pools opened. Over the same period, prevalence of severe pyoderma fell from 30% to 15% in community A and from 48% to 0% in community B. Prevalence of perforations of the tympanic membrane fell from 32% in both communities to 13% in community A and 18% in community B. School attendance improved in community A. Conclusion Swimming pools in remote communities were associated with reduction in prevalence of pyoderma and tympanic membrane perforations, which could result in long term benefits through reduction in chronic disease burden and improved educational and social outcomes. PMID:12933727

  6. Hydrochemistry on the yilgarn block, western Australia: Ferrolysis and mineralisation in acidic brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArthur, J. M.; Turner, J. V.; Lyons, W. B.; Osborn, A. O.; Thirlwall, M. F.

    1991-05-01

    In the southeastern part of Western Australia internal drainage and a semi-arid climate have resulted in extensive development of playas. The brines beneath the playas wedge outwards and force local infiltration to crop out at playa margins as discharge zones. The discharging water contains dissolved Fe 2+, oxidation and hydrolysis (ferrolysis) of which generates very acidic water (pH ≥ 2.8). At least some of the alkalinity generated by the original reduction of Fe 3+ has been sequestered as subsurface calcrete within local soils. The acidity causes the dissolution of kaolinite, which is abundant in playa sediments and as a thick capping on weathered bedrock, giving water with a low pH and high concentrations of dissolved Al and Si. Evaporation, and mixing with playa brines containing high concentrations of K and SO 4, causes alunite to precipitate as pH rises from a minimum of 2.8, at chlorinities of 1 to 2 M, to > 6 at chlorinities of 4.8 M. The alunite deposits formed by this process are many orders of magnitude larger than occurrences elsewhere in the world. The large-scale mobilisation of Si during this process may be one mechanism for the formation of silica-cemented rocks (silcrete) that are widespread in the Australian regolith.

  7. Impact of Sauropod Dinosaurs on Lagoonal Substrates in the Broome Sandstone (Lower Cretaceous), Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Thulborn, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Existing knowledge of the tracks left by sauropod dinosaurs (loosely ‘brontosaurs’) is essentially two-dimensional, derived mainly from footprints exposed on bedding planes, but examples in the Broome Sandstone (Early Cretaceous) of Western Australia provide a complementary three-dimensional picture showing the extent to which walking sauropods could deform the ground beneath their feet. The patterns of deformation created by sauropods traversing thinly-stratified lagoonal deposits of the Broome Sandstone are unprecedented in their extent and structural complexity. The stacks of transmitted reliefs (underprints or ghost prints) beneath individual footfalls are nested into a hierarchy of deeper and more inclusive basins and troughs which eventually attain the size of minor tectonic features. Ultimately the sauropod track-makers deformed the substrate to such an extent that they remodelled the topography of the landscape they inhabited. Such patterns of substrate deformation are revealed by investigating fragmentary and eroded footprints, not by the conventional search for pristine footprints on intact bedding planes. For that reason it is not known whether similar patterns of substrate deformation might occur at sauropod track-sites elsewhere in the world. PMID:22662116

  8. Nurses' attitudes to palliative care in nursing homes in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lynne; O'Connor, Moira; Blackmore, Amanda Marie

    2002-02-01

    Nursing homes are one of the care settings in Western Australia where older people may spend their final years. Residents should be able to receive palliative care where appropriate, but this type of care is not always available at some nursing homes in the state. This study investigated nurses' attitudes to palliative care in nursing homes by examining their cognitive, affective and behavioural information. A sample of 228 nurses working in nursing homes completed a questionnaire, using a free response methodology. Results showed that participants had either a positive or negative attitude to palliative care. Cognitive and affective information significantly and independently predicted the attitudes of nurse, whereas knowledge of palliative care did not contribute significantly to these attitudes. Nurses currently working in palliative care were more positively disposed towards such care, but this disappeared when they ceased working in the area. There is an emphasis on education in the literature which does not take into account the beliefs and emotions of the nurse. Therefore, there is a need to consider these in undergraduate and postgraduate training for nurses. Current experience is also important in palliative care education. The results obtained from nurses in this study should be incorporated into policy for introducing palliative care into nursing homes and used to provide support and assistance to nurses working in this field.

  9. Tube structures of probable microbial origin in the Neoarchean Carawine Dolomite, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M A; Sumner, D Y

    2008-01-01

    The approximately 2.63 Ga Carawine Dolomite, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia, preserves tube structures of probable microbial origin that formed in a low energy environment. The tubes are 0.4-1.8 cm in diameter and at least 10-16 cm long in outcrop. The tubes are defined by dark, 45-microm-thick dolomicritic walls, whereas the tube fill and host rock are composed of 30 microm, cloudy dolomite crystals and rare 170- to 425-microm-wide, dark well-sorted clasts. Closely spaced, rarely discontinuous laminae coat the insides of tubes; less closely spaced, peaked, discontinuous laminae coat the outsides of tubes. The laminae on the outsides of tubes are often intercalated with mammilate structures. The presence of probable microbial coatings on both the insides and the outsides of the tube walls requires that the tubes formed above the sediment-water interface. These tube structures probably formed during gas-charged fluid escape, similar to tubes observed in ancient and modern hydrocarbon seeps and cylindrical water transfer structures in sandstones. The laminae that coat the tubes have very similar geometries to modern biofilms that form in both turbulent and laminar flow, and their geometries probably reflect flow conditions during the fluid escape. The identification of these structures suggests that the preserved interaction between fluid escape and microbial growth in carbonates may be more common than previously thought.

  10. Off-Label Use of Ondansetron in Pregnancy in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Lyn; Gill, Andrew W.; Slack-Smith, Linda; Stanley, Fiona J.; Bower, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is the most common medical condition in pregnancy. There is an increasing trend to prescribe ondansetron although its safety for use in pregnancy has not been established. Methods. Exposed pregnancies were all births in Western Australia, 2002–2005, where the mother was dispensed ondansetron under the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, compared with all other births during the same period. Outcomes investigated include maternal and child characteristics, birth defects, pregnancy, and delivery characteristics. Results. There were 96,968 births from 2002 to 2005. Ondansetron was dispensed to 251 pregnant women during this period. The women dispensed ondansetron were more likely to be privately insured (OR: 5.8; 95% CI: 4.3–7.9), to be Caucasian (3.3; 1.9–5.7), not to smoke during their pregnancy (2.9; 1.8–4.7), to have a multiple birth (2.7; 1.5–5.0), and to have used fertility treatment (1.8; 1.0–3.4). There was a small but not significantly increased risk of a major birth defect with first trimester exposure (1.2; 0.6–2.2). Conclusions. Our study did not detect any adverse outcomes from the use of ondansetron in pregnancy but could not conclude that ondansetron is safe to use in pregnancy. PMID:24396830

  11. A conceptual model for recruitment and retention: allied health workforce enhancement in Western Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Schoo, Adrian M; Stagnitti, Karen E; Mercer, Catherine; Dunbar, James

    2005-01-01

    Attracting and retaining allied health professionals in rural areas is a recognised problem in both Australia and overseas. Predicted increases in health needs will require strategic actions to enhance the rural workforce and its ability to deliver the required services. A range of factors in different domains has been associated with recruitment and retention in the allied health workforce. For example, factors can be related to the nature of the work, the personal needs, or the way an organisation is led. Some factors cannot be changed (eg geographical location of extended family) whereas others can be influenced (eg education, support, management styles). Recruitment and retention of allied health professionals is a challenging problem that deserves attention in all domains and preparedness to actively change established work practices, both individually as well as collectively, in order to cater for current and predicted health needs. Changes to enhance workforce outcomes can be implemented and evaluated using a cyclic model. The Allied Health Workforce Enhancement Project of the Greater Green Triangle University Department of Rural Health (GGT UDRH) is working towards increasing the number of allied health professionals in the south west of Victoria. Based on themes identified in the literature, an interactive model is being developed that addresses recruitment and retention factors in three domains: (1) personal or individual; (2) organisation; and (3) community.

  12. Cretaceous rift related magmatism in central-western South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viramonte, J. G.; Kay, S. M.; Becchio, R.; Escayola, M.; Novitski, I.

    1999-03-01

    The Cretaceous-Paleocene Andean basin system of central-western South America, comprises northwestern Argentina and southwestern Bolivia. It is situated between 62°-68°W and 18°-27°S, but extends westward to northern Chile and northward to Bolivia and Peru. These basins have been interpreted as an aborted foreland rift. In a general sense, it may be possible to relate this rift to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, however it was directly associated, in a backarc position, with the subduction of the Nazca Plate below the South American Plate. Three main magmatic episodes were recognized: the pre-rift stage (130-120 Ma) which is characterized by an early phase of anorogenic plutonism, with subalkaline and alkaline granitic intrusives; the syn-rift volcanic episode which started with a mainly alkaline volcanic activity (110-100) in which alkaline rocks prevail; a second more voluminous volcanic episode (80-75 Ma) which is characterized by an alkaline suite represented by basanites and tephriphonolites; and the last volcanic episode (65-60 Ma) which consists of lamproitic sills and basic K rich lava flows. Petrography, chemistry and chronology of the Cretaceous plutonic bodies indicate anorogenic pre-rift related A-type granite complexes closely related to the further evolution of the Cretaceous rift basin. The petrology and geochemistry of the Cretaceous volcanic rocks show strong alkaline affinities and suggest a similar rift-related origin. The geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the alkaline basalts suggest that they originated through low degrees of partial melting of a depleted mantle subcontinental lithosphere which was previously enriched by processes such as the introduction of veins rich in amphibole, high Ti phlogopite, and apatite. Cretaceous plutonic and volcanic rocks from central-southwestern South America are related to an intracontinental rift environment and although their ages are correlative with those of the Paraná volcanic

  13. Biogeography and speciation of terrestrial fauna in the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Rix, Michael G; Edwards, Danielle L; Byrne, Margaret; Harvey, Mark S; Joseph, Leo; Roberts, J Dale

    2015-08-01

    The south-western land division of Western Australia (SWWA), bordering the temperate Southern and Indian Oceans, is the only global biodiversity hotspot recognised in Australia. Renowned for its extraordinary diversity of endemic plants, and for some of the largest and most botanically significant temperate heathlands and woodlands on Earth, SWWA has long fascinated biogeographers. Its flat, highly weathered topography and the apparent absence of major geographic factors usually implicated in biotic diversification have challenged attempts to explain patterns of biogeography and mechanisms of speciation in the region. Botanical studies have always been central to understanding the biodiversity values of SWWA, although surprisingly few quantitative botanical analyses have allowed for an understanding of historical biogeographic processes in both space and time. Faunistic studies, by contrast, have played little or no role in defining hotspot concepts, despite several decades of accumulating quantitative research on the phylogeny and phylogeography of multiple lineages. In this review we critically analyse datasets with explicit supporting phylogenetic data and estimates of the time since divergence for all available elements of the terrestrial fauna, and compare these datasets to those available for plants. In situ speciation has played more of a role in shaping the south-western Australian fauna than has long been supposed, and has occurred in numerous endemic lineages of freshwater fish, frogs, reptiles, snails and less-vagile arthropods. By contrast, relatively low levels of endemism are found in birds, mammals and highly dispersive insects, and in situ speciation has played a negligible role in generating local endemism in birds and mammals. Quantitative studies provide evidence for at least four mechanisms driving patterns of endemism in south-western Australian animals, including: (i) relictualism of ancient Gondwanan or Pangaean taxa in the High Rainfall

  14. Unequal staffing: A snapshot of nurse staffing in critical care units in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Harding, Thomas; Wright, Michael

    2014-02-03

    Abstract A growing body of research provides evidence of the link between nurse-to-patient ratios and skill mix with adverse patient outcomes. This paper reports an investigation into nurse staffing patterns, skill mix and patient movement in critical care units in New South Wales, Australia. A 'snapshot' of staffing patterns and patient movement over one week in October 2012 was obtained by use of a cross-sectional design using retrospective survey and administrative data. A wide variation was found in nurse-to-patient ratios, skill mix and the number of nursing staff vacancies in coronary care and high dependency units. These variations suggest that the quality of patient care may vary between facilities in New South Wales.

  15. Causes of death of British emigrants on voyages to South Australia, 1848-1885.

    PubMed

    Haines, Robin; Shlomowitz, Ralph

    2003-08-01

    During recent decades, great advances have been made in measuring death rates on a number of transoceanic routes over several centuries. This article builds on measurements of mortality on voyages to Australia in the nineteenth century. These have shown that it was on Australia-bound convict and government-assisted vessels, which operated under the auspices of government agencies, that the maritime adult death rate was first brought into line with that on land. The novelty of this article lies in its analysis of a new body of evidence on causes of death on 323 vessels arriving in South Australia between 1848 and 1885. Surgeon-superintendents, working under strict regulations, recorded the cause, age, sex, and date of death of every patient whom they had attended for days or weeks. This is, perhaps, an extraordinary situation that mimics, as it were, the records of a medical practice in a working-class area, over a thirty-seven year period. Surgeons faced intensive scrutiny upon arrival, and were fined if their records, or supervision of the voyage, were considered to be faulty. Hence, severe penalties for inaccurate reportage ensured a high degree of accuracy. Their records allow an assessment of the impact of seasonality on the outcome of the voyage and raise questions about why and how the pattern of deaths over the voyage leaves us with a hump-shaped curve when one might have expected the opposite.

  16. Limited opportunities for management-induced soil carbon storage in New South Wales, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brian; Lonergan, Vanessa

    2013-04-01

    Soil management has been promoted internationally and in Australia as a means of storing additional soil carbon to offset greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) elsewhere. Despite considerable investment in research in Australia, difficulties with reliable detection and estimation of soil carbon change remain as significant barriers to soil carbon accounting and trading. Here we present examples from an extensive dataset across the diverse production landscapes of New South Wales, Australia generated from both the NSW Statewide Soil Monitoring Program and the National Soil Carbon Research Program. Issues relating to climate, spatial variability, historical and contemporary land-management are highlighted to illustrate the challenges of detecting and estimating management-induced soil carbon change. We further demonstrate that, where it is possible to detect soil carbon change resulting from agricultural management, the quantities stored are unlikely to make a significant contribution to reductions in net greenhouse gas emissions. Historical factors and non-agricultural land-use options are likely to provide more significant potential for long-term soil carbon storage in this environment.

  17. Geoarchaeological studies of the Yalibirri Mindi rock shelter, Weld Range, Wajarri Yamaji Country, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leopold, Matthias; Brown, Viviene; Carson, Anneliese; D'Ovidio, Belinda; Yusiharni, Emielda; Winton, Vicky

    2017-04-01

    Understanding of past environmental conditions can be used to answer archaeologically based questions. Geoarchives such as soils and sediments inside rockshelters store information about chemical and physical processes from their time of formation thus allowing the reconstruction of the past. This study seeks to understand the sediment and soil formation factors at the 'Yalibirri Mindi' rock shelter, located in the Weld Range in the country of the Wajarri Yamaji Aboriginal people of Mid West Western Australia. The project is part of the 'federally funded Weld Range Web of Knowledge Project' . The aim of the work is to evaluate the origin of dated carbon material and associated sediments. Rockshelter sediments as well as two soil profiles outside the shelter were characterized using a series of different laboratory techniques such as pH and EC, nested particle sieving, ICP-OES, XRD, XRF, CN and radiocarbon analysis as well as magnetic susceptibility. An additional heating experiment was performed to simulate the influence of frequent fire on the magnetic properties of the sediments to evaluate potential anthropogenic origin of fire remains (charcoal). Pleistocene age estimates were obtained for some of the charcoal found in association with Aboriginal flaked stone artefacts. The lowest layer containing Aboriginal artefacts was dated to 29,089 ± 132 years uncal. BP providing the first evidence for Pre-Last Glacial Maximum occupation of the inland Mid West in Australia. Sediment analyses indicate that the rockshelter sediments are the result of in-situ weathering with contemporaneous human occupation rather than transport from outside. Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), which is not part of the natural environment in the surrounding area was identified in the rockshelter sediments and might be indicative of heating and evaporation during wood fire burning. Human induced fires had also altered the magnetic susceptibility of the sediments. Sedimentological analyses strongly support

  18. Cohort study of Western Australia computed tomography utilisation patterns and their policy implications.

    PubMed

    Gibson, David A J; Moorin, Rachael E; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2014-11-05

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning is a relatively high radiation dose diagnostic imaging modality with increasing concerns about radiation exposure burden at the population level in scientific literature. This study examined the epidemiology of adult CT utilisation in Western Australia (WA) in both the public hospital and private practice settings, and the policy implications. Retrospective cohort design using aggregate adult CT data from WA public hospitals and Medical Benefits Schedule (MBS) (mid-2006 to mid-2012). CT scanning trends by sex, age, provider setting and anatomical areas were explored using crude CT scanning rates, age-standardised CT scanning rates and Poisson regression modelling. From mid-2006 to mid-2012 the WA adult CT scanning rate was 129 scans per 1,000 person-years (PY). Females were consistently scanned at a higher rate than males. Patients over 65 years presented the highest scanning rates (over 300 scans per 1,000 PY). Private practice accounted for 73% of adult CT scans, comprising the majority in every anatomical area. In the private setting females predominately held higher age-standardised CT scanning rates than males. This trend reversed in the public hospital setting. Patients over 85 years in the public hospital setting were the most likely age group CT scanned in nine of ten anatomical areas. Patients in the private practice setting aged 85+ years were relatively less prominent across every anatomical area, and the least likely age group scanned in facial bones and multiple areas CT scans. In comparison to the public hospital setting, the MBS subsidised private sector tended to service females and relatively younger patients with a more diverse range of anatomical areas, constituting the majority of CT scans performed in WA. Patient risk and subsequent burden is greater for females, lower ages and some anatomical areas. In the context of a national health system, Australia has various avenues to monitor radiation exposure levels

  19. Supratidal beach deposits in Giralia Bay (Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia) - a record for past tropical cyclones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Simon Matthias; Gelhausen, Henrik; Brill, Dominik; Callow, Nik; Engel, Max; Scheffers, Anja; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Leopold, Matthias; Opitz, Stephan; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Past coastal flooding events related to tropical cyclones (TCs) and tsunamis may be inferred from geomorphic and sedimentary archives, i.e. in the form of particular landforms (beach ridges, washover fans), deposits (washover sediments in lagoons) or erosional features. In Giralia Bay, southern Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia), sandy ridge sequences in supratidal elevations form the landward margin of extensive mudflats. The formation of these ridges, as in other mudflats of NW Australia, is assumed to be mainly driven by TCs, although their relation to depositional processes and inundation levels during spring tide conditions, exceptional precipitation and discharge events, and storm surges needs to be clarified. Based on a simple process monitoring setup using a time-lapse camera and pressure gauges, geomorphological mapping by means of unmanned aerial vehicle survey and structure-from-motion techniques, as well as sedimentological and geochronological investigations, this study aims at (i) establishing the chronostratigraphy and reconstructing the formation of the supratidal beach deposits; (ii) identifying the most important driving processes involved in their formation; and (iii) understanding their significance for recording past TC activity. Sediment trenches cross the youngest, most seaward part of the ridge sequence. At the base of the sedimentary succession, sandy units are interbedded with mud layers, reflecting depositional conditions similar to the present distal mudflat. In the upper part of the ridges, mud intercalations recede, and sand layers of varying grain size distribution and mineralogical content dominate. Younger sediment layers clearly attach to older ones documenting the stepwise accretion of the ridges onto the mudflat. Muddy intercalations in the upper part of the succession are interpreted to represent deposition in locally restricted swales. Monitoring covered the time period between August 2013 and 2015 and capture an exceptional

  20. Psychosocial characteristics and predictors of health-care use in families of young children with cystic fibrosis in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Tonia; Green, Jennifer; Park, Judy; Turkovic, Lidija; Massie, John; Shields, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood psychosocial experiences determine future health and health-care use. Identifying psychosocial predictors in cystic fibrosis may inform intervention strategies that can reduce health-care utilization. The study was designed as a prospective cohort study. The study was set in the only cystic fibrosis clinic in Western Australia. The patients were children up to 6 years diagnosed with cystic fibrosis in Western Australia between 2005 and 2011. Psychosocial data collected for each year of life were compared with Australian population data and analysed as predictors of annual hospital, emergency and outpatient visits. Compared with the Australian population, cystic fibrosis families demonstrated lower socio-economic status and labour supply (P < 0.001), increased residential mobility (P < 0.001) and trends towards increased rates of parental separation (P = 0.066). Marital discord and maternal and child psychological stress significantly predicted increased hospital admissions, emergency and outpatient visits. Social gradients may exist for families of young children with cystic fibrosis in Western Australia with potential implications for child health. Family psychological and relationship stress predicted increased child cystic fibrosis-related health-care use. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Sustaining oral health services in remote and indigenous communities: a review of 10 years experience in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Estie; Jacobs, Alissa; Tennant, Marc

    2010-04-01

    In line with findings throughout Australia, rural, remote and Indigenous Western Australians suffer from a higher burden of oral disease and have less access to dental practitioners and care than their urban and non-Indigenous counterparts. With workforce projections indicating an increase in the shortage of dental practitioners, especially in rural and remote areas, the Centre for Rural and Remote Oral Health (CRROH) in Western Australia set out to establish a sustainable programme to service such increasingly disadvantaged populations. Via the vertical integration of education, service and research CRROH pioneered a sustainable model to deliver much needed oral health services to some of Western Australia's most remote areas, while primarily focused on addressing the oral health needs of Indigenous Australians. One of the key lessons from the programme has been the development of a strong clinical governance framework and a support network to sustain services in remote locations. This study offers one way to provide and sustain dental care for those most in need, yet largely left out.

  2. Coastal Talitridae (Amphipoda: Talitroidea) from north-western Australia to Darwin with a revision of the genus Cochinorchestia Lowry & Peart, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Springthorpe, R T

    2015-07-10

    Three species of coastal talitrids are reported from north-western Western Australia: Australorchestia tantabiddyensis sp. nov., from Tantabiddy Rockholes Cave, Cape Range National Park; Talorchestia dampieri sp. nov. from Roebuck Bay, Broome and Cygnet Bay, King Sound; and Tropicorchestia derbyensis gen. et sp. nov. from Derby, King Sound. Five species are reported from west of Darwin, Northern Territory: Cochinorchestia lindsayae sp. nov.; Cochinorchestia metcalfeae sp. nov.; Floresorchestia limicola (Haswell, 1880); Microrchestia ntensis sp. nov.; and Tropicorchestia glasbyi sp. nov. The genus Cochinorchestia Lowry & Peart, 2010 is revised: Orchestia notabilis of Griffiths, 1973 is assigned to the new species Cochinorchestia morrumbene sp. nov. from Mozambique; Orchestia sp. of Ledoyer, 1979 is assigned to the new species Cochinorchestia poka sp. nov. from Ambon, eastern Indonesia; and Orchestia notabilis of Ledoyer 1986 is assigned to the new species Cochinorchestia tulear sp. nov. from south-western Madagascar. Microrchestia sp. of Bussarawich 1985 appears to be an undescribed species of Cochinorchestia from Thailand. We introduce the term virgula dentata to describe the highly modified tip of antenna 2 in talitrid amphipods and propose a theory for the age and current distribution of the family.

  3. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall would significantly benefit land, water resources and agriculture management, as this assists with planning and management decisions. Forecasting spatiotemporal monthly rainfall is difficult, especially in Australia where there is a complex interaction between topography and the effect of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study describes a method for spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting in south-eastern and eastern part of Australia using climatic and non-climatic variables. Rainfall data were obtained from Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high quality weather stations from the south-eastern and eastern part of Australia with monthly rainfall records from 1879 to 2012. To reduce spatial complexity of the area and improve model accuracy, spatial classification (regionalization) was considered as first step. Significant predictors for each sub-region among lagged climatic input variables were selected using Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA). Climate classification: 1) discovered homogenous sub-regions with a similar rainfall patterns and investigated spatiotemporal rainfall variations in the area, 2) allowed selection of significant predictors with a fine resolution for each area, 3) improved the prediction model and increased model accuracy. PCA was used to reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to remove the rainfall time series correlation. K-means clustering was used on the loadings of PCs describing 93% of long-term monthly rainfall variations. The analysis was repeated for different numbers of sub-regions (3 - 8) to identify the best number of clusters to improve the forecast model performance. Subsequently, a Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. After these two stages of pre-processing, a Neural Network model was developed and optimized for each of the sub-regions as well as for the entire area. It is concluded

  4. Have purpose-built vaccine refrigerators reduced the cost of vaccine losses in South Australia?

    PubMed

    D'Onise, Katina; Almond, Sara; MacDonald, Breda; Watson, Maureen; Scrimgeour, Sophie

    2012-12-01

    There is limited epidemiological data on the performance of different refrigerator types for vaccine storage in the real world. This study aims to measure if the introduction of purpose-built vaccine refrigerators has reduced the cost of vaccine losses in South Australia. Data were taken from a register for all recorded vaccine storage cold chain events in South Australia from 2008 to 2009 and a survey of vaccine providers conducted in 2009. There were 531 respondents to the survey (51% response rate). A greater proportion of cold chain breaches in purpose-built vaccine refrigerators did not lead to a loss of vaccine (10.3%) compared with the other refrigerator types. Purpose-built vaccine refrigerators had a relative risk of 3.31 (95% CI, 2.15-5.11) of a heat event (as opposed to cold event) and were more likely to have a cold chain breach from electrical failure (relative risk ratio 15.05, 95% CI 4.04-56.05) than bar refrigerators. The average cost of loss of vaccine for purpose-built vaccine refrigerators was $2,321.20, which was greater than the cost of vaccine loss from a bar refrigerator of $1,339.06 (95% CI $61.47-1,902.82). Although purpose-built vaccine refrigerators were less likely to lead to vaccine loss per cold chain breach, they had a greater average cost of vaccine loss per cold chain event because they held a greater volume of vaccine. There is a need for development of Standards to guide purpose-built vaccine refrigerators manufacturing and a review of the National Vaccine Storage Guidelines to place a greater emphasis on the need for back up plans in the event of electrical failure. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Rural Empowerment through the Arts: The Role of the Arts in Civic and Social Participation in the Mid West Region of Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Julia Anwar

    2011-01-01

    To combat social and economic inequity in rural Australia, governments, communities, and policy makers are seeking ways to empower local residents to find local solutions to local problems. Through an exploratory review of the literature and semi-structured interviews conducted in the Mid West of Western Australia, this research examined the role…

  6. Broadening Units to Broadened Horizons: The Impact of "New Courses 2012" on Enrolments in Italian at the University of Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Marinella; Brown, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    "New Courses 2012" refers to a new course structure adopted by the University of Western Australia, which has established a three-year general Bachelor degree followed by professional degrees. Since its introduction, enrolments in languages have increased, in a context in which languages across Australia have found themselves "under…

  7. Rural Empowerment through the Arts: The Role of the Arts in Civic and Social Participation in the Mid West Region of Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Julia Anwar

    2011-01-01

    To combat social and economic inequity in rural Australia, governments, communities, and policy makers are seeking ways to empower local residents to find local solutions to local problems. Through an exploratory review of the literature and semi-structured interviews conducted in the Mid West of Western Australia, this research examined the role…

  8. Childhood ovarian neoplasms in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Mustapha Akanji; Aramide, Kolawole Olanrewaju; Ajani, Tinuade Adesola; Salami, Ayodeji A; Okolo, Clement Abu

    2016-01-01

    Childhood ovarian neoplasms are very rare. Little information is available on the relative pattern and frequency of these tumors in Nigerian children. Earlier study done in Ibadan involved ovarian neoplasms in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to review cases of ovarian neoplasms in children <15 years over a 22½ years period. This was a retrospective study. Twenty-four cases of childhood ovarian neoplasms were seen in patients <15 years of age. These cases were classified using the current World Health Organization histological classification of ovarian tumors. Childhood ovarian neoplasms accounted for 2.8% of all cases of ovarian tumors seen in this period. Fourteen (58.3%) cases of childhood ovarian neoplasms were benign, and 10 (41.7%) were malignant. Mature cystic teratoma occurring in 13 (54.2%) was the most common childhood ovarian neoplasm and was most prevalent between 10 and 14 years of age. Burkitt lymphoma was the most common 4 (40%) malignant childhood ovarian tumor and prevalent between 5 and 14 years of age. Mature cystic teratoma remains the single most common childhood ovarian neoplasms, and Burkitt's lymphoma is the most malignant childhood ovarian tumor in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria.

  9. Inferring episodic atmospheric iron fluxes in the Western South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelista, Heitor; Maldonado, Juan; dos Santos, Elaine A.; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.; Garcia, Carlos A. E.; Garcia, Virginia M. T.; Jonhson, Erling; Dias da Cunha, Kenya; Leite, Carlos Barros; Van Grieken, René; Van Meel, Katleen; Makarovska, Yaroslava; Gaiero, Diego M.

    2010-02-01

    Iron (Fe) and other trace elements such as Zn, Mn, Ni and Cu are known as key-factors in marine biogeochemical cycles. It is believed that ocean primary productivity blooms in iron deficient regions can be triggered by iron in aeolian dust. Up to now, scarce aerosol elemental composition, based on measurements over sea at the Western South Atlantic (WSA), exist. An association between the Patagonian semi-desert dust/Fe and chlorophyll-a variability at the Argentinean continental shelf is essentially inferred from models. We present here experimental data of Fe enriched aerosols over the WSA between latitudes 22°S-62°S, during 4 oceanographic campaigns between 2002 and 2005. These data allowed inferring the atmospheric Fe flux onto different latitudinal bands which varied from 30.4 to 1688 nmolFe m -2 day -1 (October 29th-November 15th, 2003); 5.83-1586 nmolFe m -2 day -1 (February 15th-March 6th, 2004) and 4.73-586 nmolFe m -2 day -1(October 21st-November 5th, 2005).

  10. Modelling Infragravity Waves and Currents across a Fringing Reef: Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dongeren, A. R.; Duong Minh, T.; Lowe, R.; Roelvink, J.; Ranasinghe, R.; Symonds, G.

    2010-12-01

    The majority of the world’s coastlines contain submerged reef structures of various types, i.e. tropical coral reefs, relic temperate limestone platforms, and other submerged rock formations. Relatively little research has been conducted to study nearshore hydrodynamic processes that occur in reef environments. A good understanding of these processes is important because waves and wave-induced currents drive sediment transport, nutrient dynamics, and dispersal of larval coral and fish. Through the development of improved hydrodynamic models, the impact of environmental changes and human impacts on reefs may be accurately assessed. However, predictive models have historically been developed and tested using sandy coast environments. There are some important differences with reefs: wave breaking over the reef results in onshore flows with a higher bed friction coefficient, as well as set-up. Recent field studies (e.g., Lowe et al. JPO, 2009a) have shown the transformation of swell energy on reefs, and numerical model studies (Symonds and Black, JCR 2001, Ranasinghe et al., Coastal Eng. 2006, Lowe et al. J. Geoph. Res. 2009b) have shown that the spatial pattern of mean wave heights and mean currents can be qualitatively reproduced. However, the bulk of the measured variability is often in the infragravity frequency band (Pequignet et al. Geoph. Res. Lett., 2009 and Lowe et al., in prep.). The recently developed open-source model XBeach (Roelvink et al, Coastal Eng. 2009) is specifically designed to model these wave motions and associated sediment transport and has been successfully applied to sandy coasts (McCall et al., Coastal Eng. 2010). The objective of this paper is to apply XBeach to simulate infragravity forcing at Ningaloo Reef, a large fringing coral reef located along the northwest coastline of Western Australia. A field experiment at Ningaloo Reef (Western Australia) conducted in June 2009 by Lowe et al (in prep.) specifically aimed at measuring

  11. Scleroderma in South Australia: further epidemiological observations supporting a stochastic explanation.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Thomson, P J; Walker, J G; Lu, T Y-T; Esterman, A; Hakendorf, P; Smith, M D; Ahern, M J

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, prevalence, survival and selective demographic characteristics of scleroderma occurring in South Australia over the 10-year period 1993-2002. Analysis of the database of the South Australian Scleroderma Register: a population-based register established in 1993. Patients with scleroderma resident in South Australia (n = 353 at 2002) were ascertained from multiple sources and clinical and demographic data were obtained from mailed questionnaire and from review of computerized hospital databases, case notes or referring letters. Time-space cluster analysis was carried out according to the Knox method. Control data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics census. The mean prevalence was 21.4 per 10(5) (95% confidence interval 20.2-22.6) and the mean cumulative incidence of 1.5 per 10(5) (95% confidence interval 1.32-1.73) with no significant change in incidence over the study period (P = 0.13). Cumulative survival improved over the study period, with patients with diffuse disease having significantly reduced survival (as compared with limited disease, P < 0.001). The proportion with diffuse disease ( approximately 22%) remained steady. There was a small but significant predisposition in patients with a continental European birthplace (P < 0.001). A family history of scleroderma was noted in 1.6% with lambda1 (familial risk) of 14.3 (95% confidence interval 5.9-34.5). However, a family history of systemic autoimmunity (especially rheumatoid arthritis) was more common (6%). No socioeconomic stratification, temporal clustering nor spatio-temporal clustering was observed either at time of initial symptom or at 10 years before disease onset. Scleroderma occurs relatively infrequently in South Australia with no significant change in incidence observed over the 10-year study period. However, cumulative survival has improved. Identified risk factors include family history of scleroderma (risk approximately 14

  12. Hf Isotope Systematics of Archean Anorthosites: Manfred Complex, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souders, K.; Sylvester, P.

    2016-12-01

    Archean anorthosite complexes represent a minor, yet distinct rock type found within many Archean terranes. These mantle-derived melts are commonly found in layers withassociated leucogabbro, gabbro, and ultramafic units of similar origin. Most Archean anorthosites are intensely deformed and metamorphosed yet preserved igneous minerals have been identified within several complexes. It has become obvious that Archean anorthosites contain zircon crystals, which can be used to establish robust crystallization ages for anorthosite complexes. These minerals are also ideal targets for in situ Lu-Hf isotopic analysis to further characterize the source of Archean anorthosites and provide insight into the formation and evolution of the continental crust during the Archean. The ca. 3.7 Ga Manfred Complex is exposed northeast of Mount Narryer within the Narryer Gneiss Terrane, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. The layered anorthosite gabbro-ultramafic intrusion outcrops in pods and lenses, engulfed by granitic gneisses [1, 2, 3]. We have sampled anorthosites, leucogabbros and gabbros from the Manfred Complex and determined their age by LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon geochronology. Zircons separated from these rocks give ages of 3.63 Ga to 3.73 Ga. LA-MC-ICPMS Lu-Hf isotope analyses were performed by focusing the laser spot directly on top of the U-Pb analysis location for each zircon grain. Initial Hf isotope compositions of zircon grains from the Manfred complex range from ca. ɛHf +2 to -3. This range suggests contributions from both depleted mantle and more ancient crustal sources to the parent magma of the Manfred Complex. [1] Kinny et al. (1988) Prec. Res. 38, 325-341. [2] Myers (1988) Prec. Res. 38, 309-323. [3] Williams & Myers (1987) WA Geol. Surv. Rpt. 22, 32 pp.

  13. Determining the Biogenicity of Microfossils in the Apex Chert, Western Australia, Using Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeGregorio, B. T.; Sharp, T. G.

    2003-01-01

    For over a decade, the oldest evidence for life on this planet has been microfossils in the 3.5 Ga Apex Chert in Western Australia. Recently, the biogenicity of these carbon-rich structures has been called into question through reanalysis of the local geology and reinterpretation of the original thin sections. Although initially described as a stratiform, bedded chert of siliceous clasts, the unit is now thought to be a brecciated hydrothermal vein chert. The high temperatures of a hydrothermal environment would probably have detrimental effects to early non-hyperthermophilic life, compared to that of a shallow sea. Conversely, a hydrothermal origin would suggest that if the microfossils were valid, they might have been hyperthermophilic. Apex Chert controversy. The Apex Chert microfossils were originally described as septate filaments composed of kerogen similar in morphology to Proterozoic and modern cyanobacteria. However new thin section analysis shows that these carbonaceous structures are not simple filaments. Many of the original microfossils are branched and have variable thickness when the plane of focus is changed. Hydrothermal alteration of organic remains has also been suggested for the creation of these strange morphologies. Another point of contention lies with the nature of the carbon material in these proposed microfossils. Kerogen is structurally amorphous, but transforms into well-ordered graphite under high pressures and temperatures. Raman spectrometry of the carbonaceous material in the proposed microfossils has been interpreted both as partially graphitized kerogen and amorphous graphite. However, these results are inconclusive, since Raman spectrometry cannot adequately discriminate between kerogen and disordered graphite. There are also opposing views for the origin of the carbon in the Apex Chert. The carbon would be biogenic if the proposed microfossils are indeed the remains of former living organisms. However, an inorganic Fischer

  14. Population-Based Prevalence of Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Smith, Timothy; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Western Australia (WA). A cohort of children born from 1983 to 2010 in WA with an ID and/or ASD were identified using the population-based IDEA (Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers) database, which ascertains cases through the Disability Services Commission (DSC) as well as education sources. Information on race, gender, mother's residence at birth and deaths was obtained through linkage to the Midwives Notification System and the Mortality Register. Diagnostic information on the cause of ID was obtained through review of medical records where available and children were classified as biomedical cause, ASD, or unknown cause. An overall prevalence of ID of 17.0/1000 livebirths (95% CI: 16.7, 17.4) showed an increase from the 10-year previous prevalence of 14.3/1000. The prevalence for mild or moderate ID was 15.0 (95% CI: 14.6, 15.3), severe ID was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.3), and unknown level of ID was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)/1000 livebirths. The prevalence for Aboriginal children was 39.0/1000 compared with 15.7/1000 for non-Aboriginal children, giving a prevalence ratio of 2.5 (95% CI: 2.4, 2.6). Prevalence of all ASD was 5.1/1000 of which 3.8/1000 had ASD and ID. The prevalence of ID has risen in WA over the last 10 years with most of this increase due to mild or moderate ID. Whilst the prevalence of ASD has also increased over this time this does not fully explain the observed increase. Aboriginal children are at a 2.5-fold risk of ID but are less likely to be accessing disability services. PMID:27227936

  15. Predicting Cereal Root Disease in Western Australia Using Soil DNA and Environmental Parameters.

    PubMed

    Poole, Grant J; Harries, Martin; Hüberli, D; Miyan, S; MacLeod, W J; Lawes, Roger; McKay, A

    2015-08-01

    Root diseases have long been prevalent in Australian grain-growing regions, and most management decisions to reduce the risk of yield loss need to be implemented before the crop is sown. The levels of pathogens that cause the major root diseases can be measured using DNA-based services such as PreDicta B. Although these pathogens are often studied individually, in the field they often occur as mixed populations and their combined effect on crop production is likely to vary across diverse cropping environments. A 3-year survey was conducted covering most cropping regions in Western Australia, utilizing PreDicta B to determine soilborne pathogen levels and visual assessments to score root health and incidence of individual crop root diseases caused by the major root pathogens, including Rhizoctonia solani (anastomosis group [AG]-8), Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (take-all), Fusarium pseudograminearum, and Pratylenchus spp. (root-lesion nematodes) on wheat roots for 115, 50, and 94 fields during 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. A predictive model was developed for root health utilizing autumn and summer rainfall and soil temperature parameters. The model showed that pathogen DNA explained 16, 5, and 2% of the variation in root health whereas environmental parameters explained 22, 11, and 1% of the variation in 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. Results showed that R. solani AG-8 soil pathogen DNA, environmental soil temperature, and rainfall parameters explained most of the variation in the root health. This research shows that interactions between environment and pathogen levels before seeding can be utilized in predictive models to improve assessment of risk from root diseases to assist growers to plan more profitable cropping programs.

  16. Determining the Biogenicity of Microfossils in the Apex Chert, Western Australia, Using Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeGregorio, B. T.; Sharp, T. G.

    2003-01-01

    For over a decade, the oldest evidence for life on this planet has been microfossils in the 3.5 Ga Apex Chert in Western Australia. Recently, the biogenicity of these carbon-rich structures has been called into question through reanalysis of the local geology and reinterpretation of the original thin sections. Although initially described as a stratiform, bedded chert of siliceous clasts, the unit is now thought to be a brecciated hydrothermal vein chert. The high temperatures of a hydrothermal environment would probably have detrimental effects to early non-hyperthermophilic life, compared to that of a shallow sea. Conversely, a hydrothermal origin would suggest that if the microfossils were valid, they might have been hyperthermophilic. Apex Chert controversy. The Apex Chert microfossils were originally described as septate filaments composed of kerogen similar in morphology to Proterozoic and modern cyanobacteria. However new thin section analysis shows that these carbonaceous structures are not simple filaments. Many of the original microfossils are branched and have variable thickness when the plane of focus is changed. Hydrothermal alteration of organic remains has also been suggested for the creation of these strange morphologies. Another point of contention lies with the nature of the carbon material in these proposed microfossils. Kerogen is structurally amorphous, but transforms into well-ordered graphite under high pressures and temperatures. Raman spectrometry of the carbonaceous material in the proposed microfossils has been interpreted both as partially graphitized kerogen and amorphous graphite. However, these results are inconclusive, since Raman spectrometry cannot adequately discriminate between kerogen and disordered graphite. There are also opposing views for the origin of the carbon in the Apex Chert. The carbon would be biogenic if the proposed microfossils are indeed the remains of former living organisms. However, an inorganic Fischer

  17. A survey of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids in physiotherapists in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    von Guttenberg, Yvonne; Spickett, Jeff

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to investigate the occurrence of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids in registered physiotherapists in Western Australia. Surveys were sent to physiotherapists with questions regarding personal background, exposure characteristics, and contributing factors included. Descriptive statistical methods were used to identify the area of practice posing the highest risk of exposure to physiotherapists. The authors found that 56.1% of surveyed physiotherapists recorded one or more exposures within the past 5 years. Work in hospitals was found to carry the highest rate of exposure for the physiotherapy profession. Other areas of practice, including community work, private practice, nursing homes/hostels, and work at sporting events carry comparable but lower risks of exposure. In private practice, 50% of exposures were associated with acupuncture. In nursing homes, 60% of exposures were brought on by exposure to contaminated materials, whereas in the community setting most exposures (64%) were attributed to unpredictable/uncontrollable situations. At sporting events, 90% of all exposures were associated with already existing sources of blood and body fluids (wounds). Within the hospital setting, the 3 dominant immediate causes reported were unpredictable situations (33.3%), existing sources (28.4%), and procedural causes (22.2%). The use of personal protective equipment for prevention of exposure is investigated and discussed. Data collected for this survey were not enough to draw conclusive assumptions regarding hazard management. A repeat of this study on a larger scale may provide physiotherapists with the tools and knowledge to minimize the likelihood of exposure and harm arising from exposure.

  18. Prioritising weed management activities in a data deficient environment: the Pilbara islands, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl; Passeretto, Kellie; Lohr, Michael; Keighery, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Along the Pilbara coast of Western Australia (WA) there are approximately 598 islands with a total area of around 500 km(2). Budget limitations and logistical complexities mean the management of these islands tends to be opportunistic. Until now there has been no review of the establishment and impacts of weeds on Pilbara islands or any attempt to prioritise island weed management. In many instances only weed occurrence has been documented, creating a data deficient environment for management decision making. The purpose of this research was to develop a database of weed occurrences on WA islands and to create a prioritisation process that will generate a ranked list of island-weed combinations using currently available data. Here, we describe a model using the pairwise comparison formulae in the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), four metrics describing the logistical difficulty of working on each island (island size, ruggedness, travel time, and tenure), and two well established measures of conservation value of an island (maximum representation and effective maximum rarity of eight features). We present the sensitivity of the island-weed rankings to changes in weights applied to each decision criteria using Kendall's tau statistics. We also present the top 20 ranked island-weed combinations for four modelling scenarios. Many conservation prioritisation tools exist. However, many of these tools require extrapolation to fill data gaps and require specific management objectives and dedicated budgets. To our knowledge, this study is one of a few attempts to prioritise conservation actions using data that are currently available in an environment where management may be opportunistic and spasmodic due to budgetary restrictions.

  19. Radiocarbon dating and wood density chronologies of mangrove trees in arid Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Santini, Nadia S; Hua, Quan; Schmitz, Nele; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove trees tend to be larger and mangrove communities more diverse in tropical latitudes, particularly where there is high rainfall. Variation in the structure, growth and productivity of mangrove forests over climatic gradients suggests they are sensitive to variations in climate, but evidence of changes in the structure and growth of mangrove trees in response to climatic variation is scarce. Bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating provides accurate dates of recent wood formation and tree age of tropical and subtropical tree species. Here, we used radiocarbon techniques combined with X-ray densitometry to develop a wood density chronology for the mangrove Avicennia marina in the Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia (WA). We tested whether wood density chronologies of A. marina were sensitive to variation in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index, which reflects temperature fluctuations in the Pacific Ocean and is linked to the instrumental rainfall record in north WA. We also determined growth rates in mangrove trees from the Exmouth Gulf, WA. We found that seaward fringing A. marina trees (~10 cm diameter) were 48 ± 1 to 89 ± 23 years old (mean ± 1 σ) and that their growth rates ranged from 4.08 ± 2.36 to 5.30 ± 3.33 mm/yr (mean ± 1 σ). The wood density of our studied mangrove trees decreased with increases in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index. Future predicted drying of the region will likely lead to further reductions in wood density and their associated growth rates in mangrove forests in the region.

  20. Impact of a prescribed fire on soil water repellency in a Banksia woodland (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Ben; Tangney, Ryan; Miller, Russell; González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION The Swan Coastal plain of Western Australia is dominated by fire-prone banksia woodland (Burrows and McCaw, 1990). In these areas, prescription burning is often used to reduce the risk of wildfires, by reducing available fuels (Boer et al., 2009). Little research has been conducted on the effects of prescription burning on Banksia woodlands, and, in particular, information on the impacts on soil properties and soil water repellency (SWR) is scarce. Here, we have studied the impact of fire on SWR in a Banksia woodland and monitored its evolution in the medium-term. It is expected that results are useful for management and restoration of fire-affected Banksia woodlands. METHODS An experimental fire was conducted on May 7th 2015 in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. The fire affected an area of 6 ha of mixed Banksia/Allocasuarina woodland under moderate fire intensity. At the time of ignition, the wind speed below the canopy was 1.2 km/h. During the prescribed burning, air temperatures were on average 20 ± 1 °C and relative humidity ranged between 45 and 55% (measured using a Kestrel portable weather station). Fuel moisture averaged 11.8% (measured using Wiltronics moisture meter) and soil moisture at 1 cm deep ranged from 0.1% to 8.6% (measured with a PR2 soil profile probe attached to a HH2 data logger). Temperatures greater than 120 °C were measured 1 cm below the soil surface using iButton temperature sensors. SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C) with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test. Soil microbial activity was determined with the 1-day CO2 test that is based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). PRELIMINARY RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SWR was severe in the control (mean WDPT = 2608 s) and pre-burned areas (2722 s). One week after the prescribed fire, persistence of soil water repellency remained stable in the burned area (2402 s). In