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Sample records for south western australia

  1. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whisson, Corey S.; Breure, Abraham S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic. PMID:27199583

  2. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Whisson, Corey S; Breure, Abraham S H

    2016-01-01

    Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic. PMID:27199583

  3. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Whisson, Corey S; Breure, Abraham S H

    2016-01-01

    Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic.

  4. Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

    2012-10-01

    The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little

  5. Adult and Community Education: A Snapshot of the Conditions and Circumstances of Being a Community-Based Adult Community Education (ACE) Provider in South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria from September to December 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwencke, Helen

    This report compiles information from a study tour to identify the current status, development, and issues of nonprofit organizations with voluntary boards of management that provide adult and community-based education (ACE) in Australia. An overview of the community-based ACE sector covers organizations in South Australia, Western Australia,…

  6. Climate change impacts on water yields and demands in south-western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, Don; Stone, Roy; Martens, Sasha; Thomas, Jonathan; Silberstein, Richard; Ali, Riasat; Hodgson, Geoff

    2012-12-01

    SummaryA climate shift in the mid 1970s reduced rainfalls in south-western Australia by 10-15% and inflows into reservoirs that supply the city of Perth (population 1.8 m) by more than half. The region has a Mediterranean climate, similar to other areas in the world experiencing reductions in rainfall and rises in temperatures. Rainfall-runoff modelling has indicated that streamflows may reduce by a further quarter by 2030 or by half if a dry future climate is experienced. Groundwater levels on the coastal plain in south-western Australia have fallen since the mid 1970s where unconfined aquifers are covered with perennial vegetation, including under the main water supply aquifer for Perth. Modelled projections are that groundwater levels in most areas will continue to fall through to 2030 under most future climate scenarios. Projected streamflows and groundwater levels indicate reduced water availability but these need to be converted to projected water yields, i.e. the amount of water that can be diverted for consumptive use. This paper reports how projections of future streamflow and groundwater levels were used to estimate 2030 divertible water yields for a 62,500 km2 area in south-western Australia. These yields were then compared with estimates of water demands in 2030 to identify areas of water surplus and deficit under clearly defined assumptions. The methods used to define future yields are based on sets of rules that could be varied by water managers if desired. Surface water yields are estimated to decrease by about 24% (possible range of -4% to -49%) which is similar to the projected reduction in runoff (-25% with a range of -7% to -42%). Groundwater yields are projected to fall by only about 2% (range of +2% to -7%) because of reductions in evapotranspiration and drainage losses as watertables fall where groundwater levels are close to the surface. In addition, recharge remains relatively high under cleared areas used for non-irrigated agriculture. In

  7. Potential climate change impacts on groundwater resources of south-western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Riasat; McFarlane, Don; Varma, Sunil; Dawes, Warrick; Emelyanova, Irina; Hodgson, Geoff; Charles, Steve

    2012-12-01

    SummaryAbout three - quarters of all water used in the south-western Australia is from groundwater. A decline in rainfall since about 1975 and increased abstraction has resulted in some groundwater levels declining and groundwater dependent ecosystems decreasing in health and extent. Levels are rising under some areas used for dryland (rainfed) agriculture because crops and pastures are shallow rooted. Almost all global climate models (GCMs) project a drier and hotter climate for the region by 2030. In this project, five climate scenarios were applied to groundwater models to estimate groundwater levels in the region in 2030. The climate scenarios were (i) a continuation of the historical climate of 1975-2007; (ii) a continuation of the more recent climate of 1997-2007 until 2030; and (iii-v) three climate scenarios derived by applying the GCM projected climate under three global warming scenarios of 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 °C by 2030. A sixth scenario considered increasing abstraction levels to maximum allowed levels under a median future climate (1.0 °C warming). Groundwater levels were found to be much less affected than surface water resources by a future drier climate as well as for a continuation of the climate experienced since 1975. For a fixed rainfall, recharge was highest where soils were sandy, there was little or no perennial vegetation and the watertable was neither very shallow nor very deep. A feature of the project area is that about half has a watertable within 10 m of the soil surface, and about a quarter within 3 m. Levels were not as affected by a decline in rainfall when reduced groundwater drainage and evapotranspiration losses offset the reduced rainfall amounts. However once a threshold groundwater level is exceeded, the rainfall fails to refill the available seasonal storage and groundwater levels decline. Projected watertables declined in all areas under a drier climate where perennial vegetation was present and able to intercept recharge or

  8. European Origin of Bradyrhizobium Populations Infecting Lupins and Serradella in Soils of Western Australia and South Africa† ‡

    PubMed Central

    Stępkowski, Tomasz; Moulin, Lionel; Krzyżańska, Agnieszka; McInnes, Alison; Law, Ian J.; Howieson, John

    2005-01-01

    We applied a multilocus phylogenetic approach to elucidate the origin of serradella and lupin Bradyrhizobium strains that persist in soils of Western Australia and South Africa. The selected strains belonged to different randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR clusters that were distinct from RAPD clusters of applied inoculant strains. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with nodulation genes (nodA, nodZ, nolL, noeI), housekeeping genes (dnaK, recA, glnII, atpD), and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer sequences. Housekeeping gene phylogenies revealed that all serradella and Lupinus cosentinii isolates from Western Australia and three of five South African narrow-leaf lupin strains were intermingled with the strains of Bradyrhizobium canariense, forming a well supported branch on each of the trees. All nodA gene sequences of the lupin and serradella bradyrhizobia formed a single branch, referred to as clade II, together with the sequences of other lupin and serradella strains. Similar patterns were detected in nodZ and nolL trees. In contrast, nodA sequences of the strains isolated from native Australian legumes formed either a new branch called clade IV or belonged to clade I or III, whereas their nonsymbiotic genes grouped outside the B. canariense branch. These data suggest that the lupin and serradella strains, including the strains from uncultivated L. cosentinii plants, are descendants of strains that most likely were brought from Europe accidentally with lupin and serradella seeds. The observed dominance of B. canariense strains may be related to this species' adaptation to acid soils common in Western Australia and South Africa and, presumably, to their intrinsic ability to compete for nodulation of lupins and serradella. PMID:16269740

  9. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, W.; Ali, R.; Varma, S.; Emelyanova, I.; Hodgson, G.; McFarlane, D.

    2012-05-01

    The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south west Western Australia, provides approximately 60% of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15%. There is expected to be a continuing reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia. Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A Vertical Flux Manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland), soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth. These recharge estimates were accumulated on a daily basis for both observed and projected climate scenarios and used in a MODFLOW simulation with monthly stress periods. In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In the Dandaragan Plateau to the north-east of Perth there has been groundwater level rise since the 1970s associated with land clearing, and with rainfall projected to reduce the least in this area the groundwater levels are estimated to continue to rise. Along the coastal zone north of Perth there is an interaction between projected rainfall decline and legislated removal to pine forests. This results in areas of increasing

  10. Social determinants of maternal self-rated health in South Western Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background From 2000 a routine survey of mothers with newborn infants was commenced in South Western Sydney. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship of maternal self-rated health, as a measure of well-being, to various socio-demographic factors including measures of social capital, country of birth, financial status and employment. Results The sample consisted of 23,534 mothers who delivered in South Western Sydney between 2004 and 2006. The data were collected as part of a routine post-partum assessment at 2–4 weeks postpartum. We examined the relationship of self-rated health with socio-demographic variables using binary logistic regression. Worse self-rated health was reported in 4% of women. Variables which were found to be significantly associated with worse self-rated health were: poor financial situation, public housing accommodation, fathers employment, no car access, unplanned pregnancy, maternal smoking, poor emotional and social support, and motherhood being more difficult than expected. Conclusion We confirmed the importance of social disadvantage and social isolation as independent risk factors for poor self-reported health. The findings reported here provide further justification for public health interventions which increase support for socially excluded mothers and strengthen their connection to their community. PMID:24447371

  11. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  12. A Probabilistic Tsunami Assessment for Western Australia and the South coast of Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, D. R.; Cummins, P. R.; Thio, H. K.

    2006-12-01

    Prior to July 2006, the only known, large megathrust earthquake known to have occurred (Mw=7.6, on 2 June, 1994) south of Java could be argued to be an anomaly in what is essentially aseismic subduction in this part of the Sunda Arc. The occurrence of a second such event (Mw=7.8) on 17 July, however, has demonstrated that they can occur anywhere along the Sunda Arc. These events produced large tsunamis along the coast of Java that killed hundreds (222 and 663, respectively). On the one hand, these earthquakes are much smaller than the Mw=9+ earthquakes known to occur off Sumatra, and the mortality associated with them is much smaller than the staggering human toll of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT), which killed 167,000 on the Sumatran coast. On the other hand, the density of population along the south Java coast is much higher than that along the Sumatran coast, and we do not know how large or how frequent tsunamigenic earthquakes off Java may be. The possibility exists that tsunami risk, as measured in human lives, may be higher for Java than for Sumatra. Furthermore, future events off Sumatra can be expected off its central and perhaps its southern coast, where most of the teletsunami energy will be directed into the open Indian Ocean. Events off Java, however, will direct much more teletsunami energy towards the northwest coast of Australia. Both the 1994 and the 2006 tsunamis originating off south Java caused significant tsunamis at specific locations along the West Australian coast. Here we present a new probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the offshore wave height expected along the south coast of Java and the West Australian coast from earthquakes along the Sunda Arc subduction zone. This assessment is based on a new estimate of the rate of megathrust earthquake occurrence along the Sunda Arc subduction zone based on the global rate of occurrence of giant subduction zone earthquakes, the length of the subduction zone and its rate of convergence

  13. Late Cambrian palaeomagnetic data from the Cupala Creek Formation, western New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vérard, Christian

    2012-08-01

    The Tasmanides of south-eastern Australia comprises the Delamerian Orogen, considered to be stable relative to the craton of Gondwana since the mid Cambrian, despite the presence of the Grasmere Knee Zone, a change of structural trends in the Broken Hill area. A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out on the Late Cambrian red sandstones of the Cupala Creek Formation, a post-Delamerian formation gently folded in the latest Ordovician-Early Silurian and/or Early Devonian. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements show that internal strain is negligible and low Königsberger ratios indicate that lightning effects can be discarded. The magnetisation observed is complex with four components, which are sometimes difficult to isolate clearly. The orientation of the first component corresponds to the present-day field and appears to be associated with weathering effects. The second component (~185°-350°C) is of reverse polarity relative to the third (350°-575°C). These two components are interpreted to represent a chemical remagnetisation, which lasted long enough to record a reversal as the reversal test is positive and classified C. The overprint must be Early Palaeozoic in age. The last component is carried by haematite and/or maghaemite and is believed to be primary, which is supported by the positive `pseudo-unconformity' test with the underlying Early-Middle Cambrian Teltawongee beds, and by the good correspondence of the pole [PLong. 351.3°/PLat.+33.9° (dp=3.6° dm=6.0°) African coordinates] with other poles of the same age for Gondwana. Despite the presence of the Grasmere Knee Zone, these results imply that this area of the Delamerian Orogen did not record any movement or rotation since the Late Cambrian and can be considered as part of the craton of Gondwana.

  14. Hydrological challenges to groundwater trading: Lessons from south-west Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skurray, James H.; Roberts, E. J.; Pannell, David J.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryPerth, Western Australia (pop. 1.6 m) derives 60% of its public water supply from the Gnangara groundwater system (GGS). Horticulture, domestic self-supply, and municipal parks are other major consumers of GGS groundwater. The system supports important wetlands and groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Underlying approximately 2200 km 2 of the Swan Coastal Plain, the GGS comprises several aquifer levels with partial interconnectivity. Supplies of GGS groundwater are under unprecedented stress, due to reduced recharge and increases in extraction. Stored reserves in the superficial aquifer fell by 700 GL between 1979 and 2008. Over a similar period, annual extraction for public supply increased by more than 350% from the system overall. Some management areas are over-allocated by as much as 69%. One potential policy response is a trading scheme for groundwater use. There has been only limited trading between GGS irrigators. Design and implementation of a robust groundwater trading scheme faces hydrological and/or hydro-economic challenges, among others. Groundwater trading involves transfers of the right to extract water. The resulting potential for spatial (and temporal) redistribution of the impacts of extraction requires management. Impacts at the respective selling and buying locations may differ in scale and nature. Negative externalities from groundwater trading may be uncertain as well as not monetarily compensable. An ideal groundwater trading scheme would ensure that marginal costs from trades do not exceed marginal benefits, incorporating future effects and impacts on third-parties. If this condition could be met, all transactions would result in constant or improved overall welfare. This paper examines issues that could reduce public welfare if groundwater trading is not subject to well-designed governance arrangements that are appropriate to meeting the above condition. It also outlines some opportunities to address key risks within the design of a

  15. 26Al/10Be dating of an aeolian dust mantle soil in western New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Adrian; Fink, David; Chappell, John; Melville, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Aeolian dust mantle soils are an important element of many landscapes in south-eastern Australia, though the age of these aeolian deposits has not been radiometrically determined. At Fowlers Gap in western New South Wales, surface cobbles of silcrete and quartz overlie a stone-free, aeolian dust mantle soil, which has a thickness of about 1.6 m. The clay-rich aeolian dust deposit in turn lies upon a buried silcrete and quartz stone layer. Modelling in-situ cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be concentrations measured in both the surface quartz stones and in the buried quartz layer of rocks, reveals that each has experienced a complex exposure-burial history. Due to the absence of quartz stones or sand at intermediate depths, our cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be modelling was not able to determine a definitive mechanism of stone pavement formation and stone burial. Various scenarios of stone formation, transport, burial and exhumation were tested that constrain the age of the deposit to range from 0.9 ± 0.2 Ma to 1.8 ± 0.2 Ma, based largely on different assumptions taken for the time-dependency of the net sedimentation rate. This corresponds with the initiation of the Simpson Desert dune fields and the deflation of lakes in central Australia, which probably responded to the shift to longer-wavelength, larger-amplitude Quaternary glacial cycles at around 1 Ma. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify those parameters which better constrained model outputs. Within model errors, which largely are the result of analytical errors in measured 26Al and 10Be concentrations, all three competing theories of colluvial wash, upward displacement of stones, and cumulic pedogenesis are possible mechanisms for the formation of the surface stone pavement.

  16. Otosclerosis in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Gristwood, R E; Venables, W N

    1984-08-01

    In this paper we report on the prevalence of clinical otosclerosis in South Australia, and discuss some aspects of its distribution and character. Our data comes from an exhaustive search for stapedectomy patients in a relatively closed population within a fixed time span, and hence our figures represent a lower limit for the true prevalence and not an unbiased estimate. Nevertheless, even with no allowance for this downward bias it would seem that South Australia has a high prevalence of otosclerosis by world standards, particularly of obliterative cases. The highest prevalence is about 5 per 1 000 of population for men and 10 per 1 000 of population for women, which occurs in the 50-59 year old age group. In common with many other studies, our data shows a prevalence for females approximately twice that for males, over most age groups. PMID:6333941

  17. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C; Stewart, Barbara A

    2016-04-28

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  18. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C; Stewart, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective. PMID:27121212

  19. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C.; Stewart, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective. PMID:27121212

  20. Germination of seven exotic weeds and seven native speciesin south-western Australia under steady and fluctuating water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Fernández, María A.; Lamont, Byron B.; Marwick, Anjanette L.; Lamont, Wesley G.

    2000-12-01

    The germination of seven common weeds and seven species native to south-western Australia was studied at three sites where they co-occur and in the laboratory. Under field conditions, final germination of the exotic species was much higher than that of the native species, and the number of days to reach 50 % final germination was lower. For some of the germination period, soil moisture was lower than expected after 48 h without rain, with one dry period lasting 10 d. Overall, germination rose with increasing wetness of the three sites, especially among the weeds. Most exotic species germinated under laboratory conditions needed less than 10 d to reach 50 % of final germination which was further delayed by 2 d when seeds were removed from their moist substrate and allowed to dry out (air-drying) for 48 h. Most native species took 10-35 d, with a mean delay of 7 d after 48 h of air-drying. Total germination of the weeds was close to 100 % and was little affected by periods of air-drying. Germination of the native species was more variable and greatly reduced by air-drying in two species. We conclude that water availability as it varies through time and space is significant in controlling germination even during the wet season. The quicker and greater responses of weed seeds to moisture may contribute toward the superior ability of weeds to colonise disturbed habitats. Differences in life form, seed size, flatness, presence of appendages, and ability to absorb or retain water only partially explain these results.

  1. Fleximode: Within Western Australia TAFE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Dorothy

    After fleximode was introduced into the Western Australian TAFE system, its cost and effectiveness compared with traditional delivery systems were evaluated. Fleximode, as practiced in Australia, was adapted from a mode of study pioneered in England. It offered students the independence of off-campus study in combination with access to college…

  2. Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia (27.0S, 136.0E) is normally a dry lakebed for years on end. However on rare occasions small amounts of rainfall are recorded and ponding can be seen in low parts of the lake, as in this image, where an algae bloom in the water is seen as a dark pink area on the lakebed. The Finke Riverbed intersects Lake Eyre but it is normally a dry wash and seldom contributes water to the lake.

  3. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  4. Is Drosera meristocaulis a pygmy sundew? Evidence of a long-distance dispersal between Western Australia and northern South America

    PubMed Central

    Rivadavia, F.; de Miranda, V. F. O.; Hoogenstrijd, G.; Pinheiro, F.; Heubl, G.; Fleischmann, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims South America and Oceania possess numerous floristic similarities, often confirmed by morphological and molecular data. The carnivorous Drosera meristocaulis (Droseraceae), endemic to the Neblina highlands of northern South America, was known to share morphological characters with the pygmy sundews of Drosera sect. Bryastrum, which are endemic to Australia and New Zealand. The inclusion of D. meristocaulis in a molecular phylogenetic analysis may clarify its systematic position and offer an opportunity to investigate character evolution in Droseraceae and phylogeographic patterns between South America and Oceania. Methods Drosera meristocaulis was included in a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Droseraceae, using nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid rbcL and rps16 sequence data. Pollen of D. meristocaulis was studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques, and the karyotype was inferred from root tip meristem. Key Results The phylogenetic inferences (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches) substantiate with high statistical support the inclusion of sect. Meristocaulis and its single species, D. meristocaulis, within the Australian Drosera clade, sister to a group comprising species of sect. Bryastrum. A chromosome number of 2n = approx. 32–36 supports the phylogenetic position within the Australian clade. The undivided styles, conspicuous large setuous stipules, a cryptocotylar (hypogaeous) germination pattern and pollen tetrads with aperture of intermediate type 7–8 are key morphological traits shared between D. meristocaulis and pygmy sundews of sect. Bryastrum from Australia and New Zealand. Conclusions The multidisciplinary approach adopted in this study (using morphological, palynological, cytotaxonomic and molecular phylogenetic data) enabled us to elucidate the relationships of the thus far unplaced taxon D. meristocaulis. Long-distance dispersal between southwestern

  5. Modelling subsurface flow conditions in a salinized catchment in south-western Australia, with a view to improving management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, W. J.; George, R. J.; McFarlane, D. J.

    1999-12-01

    Finite element modelling of the saturated-unsaturated surface-subsurface flow mechanisms operative in a small salinized catchment in south-western Australia was used to help define the flow system and explain the causes of waterlogging and salinization there. Data available at the site from a previous study were used to obtain a first approximation to the flow system. Altering the properties of some of the strata gave a closer calibration. It was found that the modelled saturated hydraulic conductivity of the B horizon in the duplex soil zone needed to be at least an order of magnitude lower than that measured in order to reproduce the perching conditions observed in the field. Also, the model indicated the influence of a doleritic dyke, whose presence was confirmed by field measurement.Our analysis showed that there were two main flow systems operating in the hillslope. The first, and most dominant, was the recharge occurring through the upslope gradational soil zone and percolating down to both the deeply weathered regolith and the basal aquifer. The second flow system is an unsaturated flow system operating in the high permeability A horizon in the downslope duplex soil zone. The first system is primarily responsible for the saline seepage zone in the valley bottom. The second contributes to the waterlogging and perching occurring upslope of the seepage zone.Vertical flow through the higher permeability B horizon in the gradational soil zone in the upper slopes is a major contributor of recharge. Recharge by flow through macropores occurs where, but only where, perched aquifers develop and allow the macropores to be activated. Areas with perched aquifers occurred in downslope locations and near a doleritic dyke located upslope. Thus, the area where macropore recharge occurred was not large.The recharge rate required to maintain the piezometric levels at present values is only about 30 mm/yr (about 5% of the annual rainfall). The piezometric levels under the

  6. Analysis of subsurface mound spring connectivity in shale of the western margin of the Great Artesian Basin, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halihan, Todd; Love, Andrew; Keppel, Mark; Berens, Volmer

    2013-11-01

    Mound springs provide the primary discharge mechanism for waters of the western margin of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia. Though these springs are an important resource in an arid environment, their hydraulics as they discharge from shale are poorly defined. The springs can include extensive spring tails (groundwater-dependent wetlands) and hundreds of springs in a given spring complex. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) was used to evaluate spring subsurface hydraulic-connectivity characteristics at three spring complexes discharging through the Bulldog Shale. The results demonstrate that fresher GAB water appears as resistors in the subsurface at these sites, which are characterized by high-salinity conditions in the shallow subsurface. Using an empirical method developed for this work, the ERI data indicate that the spring complexes have multiple subsurface connections that are not always easily observed at the surface. The connections are focused along structural deformation in the shale allowing fluids to migrate through the confining unit. The ERI data suggest the carbonate deposits that the springs generate are deposited on top of the confining unit, not precipitated in the conduit. The data also suggest that spring-tail ecosystems are not the result of a single discharge point, but include secondary discharge points along the tail.

  7. Immigrant maternal depression and social networks. A multilevel Bayesian spatial logistic regression in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A; Phung, Hai N; Barnett, Bryanne E W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose is to explore the multilevel spatial distribution of depressive symptoms among migrant mothers in South Western Sydney and to identify any group level associations that could inform subsequent theory building and local public health interventions. Migrant mothers (n=7256) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2-3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) of >9 and >12. Individual level variables included were: financial income, self-reported maternal health, social support network, emotional support, practical support, baby trouble sleeping, baby demanding and baby not content. The group level variable reported here is aggregated social support networks. We used Bayesian hierarchical multilevel spatial modelling with conditional autoregression. Migrant mothers were at higher risk of having depressive symptoms if they lived in a community with predominantly Australian-born mothers and strong social capital as measured by aggregated social networks. These findings suggest that migrant mothers are socially isolated and current home visiting services should be strengthened for migrant mothers living in communities where they may have poor social networks.

  8. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  9. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  10. Organochlorine pesticides in soil under irrigated cotton farming systems in Vertisols of the Namoi Valley, north-western New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Timothy B; Ghadiri, Hossein; Hulugalle, Nilantha R; Harden, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as DDT and DDE have been detected in the surface 0.2m of Vertisols in the lower Namoi Valley of north western New South Wales, Australia even though they have not been applied to crops since 1982. However, their presence in the deeper soil horizons has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if OCPs were present to a depth of 1.2m in Vertisols under irrigated cotton farming systems in the lower Namoi Valley of New South Wales. Soil was sampled from the 0-1.2m depths in three sites, viz. the Australian Cotton Research Institute, ACRI, near Narrabri (149°36'E, 30°12'S), and two cotton farms near Wee Waa (149°27'E, 30°13'S) and Merah North (149°18'E, 30°12'S) in northern New South Wales, Australia. The OCPs detected and their metabolites were α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate, DDD, DDE, DDT and endrin. The metabolite DDE, a breakdown product of DDT, was the most persistent OCP in all depths analysed. Endosulfan sulphate was the second most persistent followed by endrin>α-endosulfan>β-endosulfan>DDT and DDD. DDT was sprayed extensively in the lower Namoi Valley up to the early 1980s and may explain the persistence of DDE in the majority of soil samples. Dicofol and Dieldrin, two OCPs previously undocumented in Vertisols were also detected. The movement of OCPs into the subsoil of Vertisols may occur when irrigation or rain transports soil colloids and organic matter via preferential flow systems into the deeper layers of a soil profile. Persistence of OCPs was closely correlated to soil organic carbon concentrations. The persistence in soil of OCP's applied to cotton crops grown more than two decades ago suggests that they could enter the food chain. Their presence at depths of 1.2m suggests that they could move into groundwater that may eventually be used for domestic and stock consumption. PMID:22464189

  11. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of

  12. Flow chutes in Fowlers Creek, arid western New South Wales, Australia: Evidence for diversity in the influence of trees on ephemeral channel form and process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerley, David

    2008-12-01

    This paper identifies a fluvial landform, the flow chute, from Fowlers Creek, an ephemeral stream in western New South Wales, Australia. On this stream there are contrasting configurations of channel-margin and channel-bed vegetation ( channel-associated vegetation). In the most common type of channel reach, large Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees grow on the bed and banks, and contribute to high channel roughness. In some reaches of about 0.5 km length, however, no trees grow below mid-bank height. The bed remains completely unvegetated, and the channel narrows to one third or less of the width of adjoining reaches immediately upstream and downstream. The coarse end of the bedload grain size population is not represented in these narrow reaches, indicating that the coarsest grains are efficiently moved through them, overpassing finer sediments. These reaches evidently experience higher flow speeds than the remainder of the channel, are here termed flow chutes. The bed material within them is often moved as dunes that remain upon flood recession. Each flow chute ends with a reverse bed slope and just downstream of the terminus the channel widens, resulting in the deposition of coarse bed load in the form of gravel and cobble bars. The reverse bed slope detains water in the flow chutes, which remain as major pools or waterholes for months following flood events. The large and apparently old trees lining the flow chutes imply that these channel features are stable over periods of 10 2-10 3 years, in contrast with the behaviour of reaches with vegetated beds, where bank erosion and local lateral channel migration and/or widening are active. Flow chutes thus appear to be stable, equilibrium fluvial landforms.

  13. Tropical Cyclone Monty Strikes Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired these natural color images and cloud top height measurements for Monty before and after the storm made landfall over the remote Pilbara region of Western Australia, on February 29 and March 2, 2004 (shown as the left and right-hand image sets, respectively). On February 29, Monty was upgraded to category 4 cyclone status. After traveling inland about 300 kilometers to the south, the cyclonic circulation had decayed considerably, although category 3 force winds were reported on the ground. Some parts of the drought-affected Pilbara region received more than 300 millimeters of rainfall, and serious and extensive flooding has occurred.

    The natural color images cover much of the same area, although the right-hand panels are offset slightly to the east. Automated stereoscopic processing of data from multiple MISR cameras was utilized to produce the cloud-top height fields. The distinctive spatial patterns of the clouds provide the necessary contrast to enable automated feature matching between images acquired at different view angles. The height retrievals are at this stage uncorrected for the effects of the high winds associated with cyclone rotation. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 22335 and 22364. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 985 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 105 to 111 within World Reference System-2 paths 115 and 113.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the

  14. Two new hemiurine species (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from Spratelloides robustus Ogilby (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae) off south-western Australia and records of Parahemiurus merus (Linton, 1910) from Australian and New Caledonian waters.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Cribb, Thomas H

    2005-03-01

    Two new species of hemiurine hemiurid are described from Spratelloides robustus off Woodman Point in southern Western Australia. Hemiurus lignator n. sp. differs from its congeners by a combination of similar-sized suckers, long sinus-sac, tandem testes, relatively elongate shape and unthickened seminal vesicle wall. Parahemiurus xylokopos n. sp. differs from its congeners in a combination of its squat form, its distinctly lobed vitellarium and the proximity of the gonads to the ventral sucker. P. merus (Linton, 1910) is reported from Acanthopagrus australis, Pomatomus saltatrix and Trachinotus coppingeri off northern New South Wales, Caranx sexfasciatus, Scorpis lineolata, Siganus nebulosus, Thunnus tonggol and T. coppingeri off southern Queensland, Cephalopholis boenak and Euthynnus affinis off Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, P. saltatrix off southern Western Australia and Priacanthus hamrur off New Caledonia.

  15. The role of land surface processes in regional climate change: a case study of future land cover change over south western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, A. J.; Narisma, G. T.

    2005-06-01

    Using a high resolution regional climate model we perform multiple January simulations of the impact of land cover change over western Australia. We focus on the potential of reforestation to ameliorate the projected warming over western Australia under two emission scenarios (A2, B2) for 2050 and 2100. Our simulations include the structural and physiological responses of the biosphere to changes in climate and changes in carbon dioxide. We find that reforestation has the potential to reduce the warming caused by the enhanced greenhouse effect by as much as 30% under the A2 and B2 scenarios by 2050 but the cooling effect declines to 10% by 2100 as CO2-induced warming intensifies. The cooling effect of reforestation over western Australia is caused primarily by the increase in leaf area index that leads to a corresponding increase in the latent heat flux. This cooling effect is localized and there were no simulated changes in temperature over regions remote from land cover change. We also show that the more extreme emission scenario (A2) appears to lead to a more intense response in photosynthesis by 2100. Overall, our results are not encouraging in terms of the potential to offset future warming by large scale reforestation. However, at regional scales the impact of land cover change is reasonably large relative to the impact of increasing carbon dioxide (up to 2050) suggesting that future projections of the Australian climate would benefit from the inclusion of projections of future land cover change. We suggest that this would add realism and regional detail to future projections and perhaps aid detection and attribution studies.

  16. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Lynne; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; O'Brien, Frances G.; Pearman, John W.; Christiansen, Keryn; Grubb, Warren B.

    2005-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a notable cause of hospital-acquired infections. A statewide screening and control policy was implemented in Western Australia (WA) after an outbreak of epidemic MRSA in a Perth hospital in 1982. We report on statutory notifications from1998 to 2002 and review the 20-year period from 1983 to 2002. The rate of reporting of community-associated Western Australia MRSA (WAMRSA) escalated from 1998 to 2002 but may have peaked in 2001. Several outbreaks were halted, but they resulted in an increase in reports as a result of screening. A notable increase in ciprofloxacin resistance during the study period was observed as a result of more United Kingdom epidemic MRSA (EMRSA) -15 and -16. WA has seen a persistently low incidence of multidrug-resistant MRSA because of the screening and decolonization program. Non–multidrug-resistant, community-associated WAMRSA strains have not established in WA hospitals. PMID:16318700

  18. Progress on smoking control in Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A. W.; Shean, R.; Walker, N.; Swanson, M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, 20 years of campaigning by the Western Australian branch of the Australian Council on Smoking and Health succeeded in getting tobacco advertising banned in Western Australia and a fund set up to replace the sponsorship of sport by tobacco companies. The council coordinated the activities of the mainly professional medical organisations that formed its members, ensuring that messages about the dangers of tobacco were consistently presented from different angles. The campaigners also ensured that medical data were reworked for presentation to decision makers and public, invaded the corporate world, and minimised opposition by enlisting the support of sportspeople opposed to tobacco sponsorship. The council hopes now that elimination of advertising will reduce the prevalence of smoking. Images p395-a p396-a p397-a PMID:8124149

  19. Legislation for smoking control in Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A W; Shean, R; Woodward, S

    1985-01-01

    This historical analysis of public issues relating to smoking control in Western Australia examines relevant Western Australian state and Australian federal laws, their introduction, and their consequences. Public and political support and opinion led by the health professions resulted in two attempts to legislate against all forms of cigarette advertising in 1982 and 1983. Both attempts failed, and public support for such measures has been seen to be affected by the campaigns mounted in opposition by the tobacco and advertising industries. Other smoking control measures which have been successfully introduced in 1983 and 1984 are higher tobacco taxes and a comprehensive coordinated public education and information programme. The activities associated with the legislative initiatives resulted in a greatly increased level of community awareness of the dangers of smoking and acceptance of the need for some action on this major health problem. PMID:3924165

  20. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  1. Continental Shelf Currents off Perth, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresswell, G. R.

    2007-05-01

    An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, ADCP, was moored a few meters above the bottom at the 70 m isobath out from the Perth, Western Australia for a little over a year in 2000/2001. It recorded currents in 4 m depth bins every hour as well as the temperature at the instrument. The ADCP was put at the 70 m isobath so that it would come under the influence of both the wind-driven Capes Current in summer and perhaps incursions by the Leeuwin Current in all seasons. The record shows both these currents and is rich with the effects of other phenomena including upwelling, downwelling, sea/land breezes, summer and winter storms, and the passing of submesoscale eddies on the continental shelf. We discuss the ADCP data and complement them with satellite images, wind and sea level data.

  2. Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services. PMID:23821904

  3. Upper Devonian microvertebrates from the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, Brett; Playton, Ted; Barham, Milo; Trinajstic, Kate

    2015-03-01

    A diverse microvertebrate fauna is described from the Virgin Hills and Napier formations, Bugle Gap Limestone Canning Basin, Western Australia. Measured sections at Horse Spring and Casey Falls (Virgin Hills Formation) and South Oscar Range (Napier Formation) comprise proximal to distal slope carbonates ranging in age from the Late Devonian Frasnian to middle Famennian. A total of 18 chondrichthyan taxa are identified based on teeth, including the first record of Thrinacodus tranquillus, Cladoides wildungensis, Protacrodus serra and Lissodus lusavorichi from the Canning Basin. A new species, Diademodus dominicus sp. nov. is also described and provides the first record of this genus outside of Laurussia. In addition, the upper range of Australolepis seddoni has been extended to Late Devonian conodont Zone 11, making it the youngest known occurrence for this species. The Virgin Hills and Napier formations microvertebrate faunas show close affinities to faunas recovered from other areas of Gondwana, including eastern Australia, Iran, Morocco and South China, which is consistent with known conodont and trilobite faunas of the same age.

  4. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  5. Australia's role in promoting and supporting tuberculosis control in the Western Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kerrie A

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-one percent of the world's tuberculosis cases are found in the Western Pacific Region. The region has demonstrated a lower rate of decline in incidence than the regions of Africa, the Americas and Europe. Issues around drug resistance, human immunodeficiency virus and diabetes impact on the burden of tuberculosis disease in the Western Pacific Region. Australia has exhibited a low and relatively stable tuberculosis incidence rate but has not progressed toward the desired international goal for tuberculosis elimination (<1 case per million population). The pathogenesis and transmission of tuberculosis make it difficult to achieve elimination within a geographically defined area. These aspects of disease control are amplified by globalisation and Australia's increasing economic and strategic engagement within the Western Pacific Region and South-East Asia. Promoting and supporting tuberculosis control within the Western Pacific Region provides an opportunity for Australia to maintain its low tuberculosis incidence rate and progress toward elimination. PMID:23849030

  6. Australia's role in promoting and supporting tuberculosis control in the Western Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kerrie A

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-one percent of the world's tuberculosis cases are found in the Western Pacific Region. The region has demonstrated a lower rate of decline in incidence than the regions of Africa, the Americas and Europe. Issues around drug resistance, human immunodeficiency virus and diabetes impact on the burden of tuberculosis disease in the Western Pacific Region. Australia has exhibited a low and relatively stable tuberculosis incidence rate but has not progressed toward the desired international goal for tuberculosis elimination (<1 case per million population). The pathogenesis and transmission of tuberculosis make it difficult to achieve elimination within a geographically defined area. These aspects of disease control are amplified by globalisation and Australia's increasing economic and strategic engagement within the Western Pacific Region and South-East Asia. Promoting and supporting tuberculosis control within the Western Pacific Region provides an opportunity for Australia to maintain its low tuberculosis incidence rate and progress toward elimination.

  7. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Greg R.; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  8. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Greg R; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  9. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Greg R; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  10. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer in southern Australia is the dry season, and in this true-color MODIS image of South Australia and the Spencer Gulf from October 20,2001, the area's vegetation is losing much of the lushness it possessed in the winter rainy season (See image from September 19, 2001). In southern hemisphere summer, the high pressure systems that dominate the continent's weather move south, and block the rain-bearing westerly winds. The resulting changes in seasonal rainfall are extreme. Many of the rivers are impermanent, and flow into dry or impermanent salt lakes, such as Lake Torrens (long, thin lake bed, roughly in the center of the image), and Lake Eyre (pink and white lake bed to the northwest of Torrens). Between the Eyre Peninsula (lower left) and the Yorke Peninsula further east lies the Spencer Gulf, showing the blue-green swirls that indicate a phytoplankton bloom. Australia gets less rainfall than any continent except Antarctica, and the low and seasonal flows contribute to problems with salinity and algal blooms in the continent's surface waters.

  11. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day-visible and day-IR imagery of northwest Queensland show that large scale geological features like the Mitakoodi anticlinorium, which involves rocks of contrasting lithological type, can be delineated. North of Cloncurry, the contrasting lithological units of the Knapdale quartzite and bedded argillaceous limestones within the Proterozoic Corella sequence are clearly delineated in the area of the Dugald River Lode. Major structural features in the Mount Isa area are revealed on the day-visible cover. Which provides similar but less detailed information than the LANDSAT imagery. The day-IR cover provides less additional information for areas of outcropping bedrock than had been expected. Initial studies of the day-IR and night-IR cover for parts of South Australia suggest that they contain additional information on geology compared with day-visible cover.

  12. “They just scraped off the calluses”: a mixed methods exploration of foot care access and provision for people with rheumatoid arthritis in south-western Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is little indication that foot health services in Australia are meeting modern day recommendations for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. The overall objective of this study was to explore the current state of foot health services for patients with RA with an emphasis on identifying barriers to the receipt of appropriate foot care in South-West Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Methods A mixed (quantitative and qualitative) approach was adopted. Indications for appropriate access to foot care were determined by comparing the foot health, disease and socio-demographic characteristics of patients with unmet foot care demands, foot care users and patients with no demands for foot care. Perceptions of provision of, and access to, foot care were explored by conducting telephone-based interviews using an interpretative phenomenology approach with thematic analysis. Results Twenty-nine participants took part in the cross-sectional quantitative research study design, and 12 participants took part in the interpretative phenomenological approach (qualitative study). Foot care access appeared to be driven predominantly by the presence of rearfoot deformity, which was significantly worse amongst participants in the foot care user group (p = 0.02). Five main themes emerged from the qualitative data: 1) impact of disease-related foot symptoms, 2) footwear difficulties, 3) medical/rheumatology encounters, 4) foot and podiatry care access and experiences, and 5) financial hardship. Conclusions Foot care provision does not appear to be driven by appropriate foot health characteristics such as foot pain or foot-related disability. There may be significant shortfalls in footwear and foot care access and provision in Greater Western Sydney. Several barriers to adequate foot care access and provision were identified and further efforts are required to improve access to and the quality of foot care for people who have RA. Integration of podiatry services within

  13. Analysis of environmental isotopes in groundwater to understand the response of a vulnerable coastal aquifer to pumping: Western Port Basin, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currell, Matthew; Cendón, Dioni I.; Cheng, Xiang

    2013-11-01

    The response of a multi-layered coastal aquifer in southeast Australia to decades of groundwater pumping, and the groundwater age, flow paths and salinization processes were examined using isotopic tracers. Groundwater radiocarbon and tritium contents decline with distance and depth away from basin margins; however, in the main zone of pumping, radiocarbon activities are generally homogeneous within a given depth horizon. A lack of tritium and low radiocarbon activities (<25 pMC) in groundwater in and around the pumping areas indicate that seasonal recovery of water levels is related to capture of old water with low radioisotope activities, rather than arrival of recently recharged water. Mechanisms facilitating seasonal recovery include release of water from low-permeability layers and horizontal transfer of water from undeveloped parts of the basin. Overall stability in seasonally recovered water levels and salinities for the past three decades indicate that the system has reached a dynamic equilibrium with respect to water balance and salinity, following a major change in flow paths and solute distributions after initial development. Groundwater δ18O, δ2H and chloride contents indicate mixing between fresh meteoric-derived groundwater and marine water at the coast, with the most saline groundwater approximating an 80:20 mixture of fresh to oceanic water.

  14. Smoke Blankets New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Australia's largest city of Sydney was clouded with smoke when more than 70 wildfires raged across the state of New South Wales. These images were captured on the morning of December 30, 2001, by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The left-hand image is from the instrument's 26-degree forward-viewing camera, and the right-hand image is from the 60-degree forward-viewing camera. The vast extent of smoke from numerous fires is visible, particularly in the more oblique view. Sydney is located just above image center.

    Dubbed the 'black Christmas' fires, the blazes destroyed more than 150 homes and blackened over 5000 square kilometers (about 1.24 million acres) of farmland and wilderness between December 23, 2001 and January 3, 2002. Many of the fires are believed to have been caused by arsonists, with only one fire linked to natural causes. The fires were aggravated by gusty winds and hot dry weather conditions. Approximately 20,000 people have worked to contain the blazes. No people have lost their lives or been seriously injured. Nevertheless, the fires are considered to be the most prolonged and destructive of any in Australia since the Ash Wednesday conflagration of 1983 that claimed 72 lives.

    The images represent an area 322 kilometers x 374 kilometers and were captured during Terra orbit 10829.

  15. LCT pegmatites from the Wodgina pegmatite district, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Lisa; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone and Mt. Cassiterite open pits are located within the Wodgina pegmatite district, about 130 km south of Port Hedland, Western Australia. The albite-spodumene and albite-type pegmatites of the Wodgina pegmatite district are currently mined for tin, tantalum and niobium. The pegmatites are hosted within the Archean East-Pilbara Granite-Greenstone Terrane linked to the fertile Numbana monzogranite that forms part of the Yule Granitoid Complex. Granitic melt intruded into metasedimentary rocks (~2.8 Ga) and formed a series of pegmatite sheets, dikes and irregular structures. These pegmatites are characterized by a high melt fractionation that led to the formation of pegmatitic minerals, containing high concentrations of rare elements, such as Ta, Nb, Li, Rb and Cs. The pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone sheet open pit, which were investigated within this study, comprises four internal zones consisting of six mineral assemblages, dominated by quartz, albite and white mica, with K-feldspar and spodumene as major or minor constituents. Distribution patterns of cassiterite and Ta-Nb-Sn-oxide minerals (ixiolite/wodginite, tantalite/columbite and microlite) can be observed within the four different pegmatite zones. The contact zones are enriched in cassiterite, ixiolite and microlite; border zones reveal high concentrations of cassiterite, ixiolite and tantalite; the intermediate units are characterized by a moderate enrichment of the ore minerals; whereby core zones host almost no significant contents of the minerals mentioned above. Distribution of Ta-Nb-Sn-oxides within the zones and Mn/(Mn+Fe) and Ta/(Ta+Nb) ratios are indicators for melt fractionation, and change from the core zones to the outermost contact zones, as well as from north to south. Electron microprobe analyses on white mica show the existence of fractionation trends from more primitive white mica of the core zones (zinnwaldite) to higher

  16. Identification of massive sulphide targets using the galvanic source EM signal from a sub-audio magnetic survey at the Far South project, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Card, Daniel; Wallace, Yvonne; Peters, Bill

    2016-07-01

    The Far South project is located 5 km south along strike from the Deep South mine, where gold mineralisation is commonly associated with semi-massive pyrrhotite and pyrite. Data from a sub-audio magnetic (SAM) survey, set up in galvanic configuration, were acquired over the project principally to map stratigraphy and structure using the on-time magnetometric conductivity (MMC) and total magnetic intensity (TMI) responses. The off-time galvanic source electromagnetic (GSEM) data were subsequently extracted from the raw data and four late-time anomalous responses were identified. Two of these responses are strong late-time anomalies up to 350 m in strike length, clearly visible in the 60 ms time gate, and the remaining two are weaker mid-time, subtler and less diagnostic responses. Modelling of the GSEM responses was attempted using conventional electromagnetic (EM) modelling techniques, where certain assumptions had to be made for the survey geometry and current path. The assumed current path has an effect on the coupling of the inducing current with the target, so in order to validate the assumptions and GSEM modelling results, follow-up moving-loop and fixed-loop electromagnetic (MLEM and FLEM) surveys were required. These surveys confirmed well-defined conductive responses over all four follow-up areas. Modelling of the GSEM data over the two strongest anomalies is in good agreement with modelling of the MLEM/FLEM data. Modelling at a third target showed some similarity to results obtained by modelling the follow-up EM survey data, and one target was not defined clearly enough in the GSEM data to allow modelling and had to be modelled solely on the follow-up FLEM data. The results of these efforts confirm the ability to identify and produce a reasonably useful model of strong conductive targets from SAM GSEM data, indicating that the rapid acquisition SAM system is an effective tool for quick reconnaissance in sulphide exploration. Subsequent drilling identified

  17. Agricultural Societies in Colonial Western Australia in 1831-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the knowledge-diffusion activities of colonial agricultural societies in western Australia from their foundation in 1831-1870. States that from 1829 to 1850 British settlers belonged to a society of free citizens, while from 1851-1867 the settlement changed to a convict colony. (CMK)

  18. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  19. 69 FR 11040 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa AGENCY... terminating its antidumping investigations on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland... dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa (investigations Nos. 731-TA-1048 and...

  20. Australian Vocational Education & Training. South Australia: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    A study examined the publicly-funded vocational education and training (VET) system in South Australia (SA) in 1997. Background information indicated SA is a geographically large state with a relatively small population that is older compared to the rest of Australia, with 14 percent aged over 65 compared with 12 percent nationally. Findings were…

  1. Fluctuations of Lake Eyre, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. However, this low-lying lake attracts run-off from one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world. The drainage basin is very responsive to rainfall variations, and changes dramatically with Australia's inter-annual weather fluctuations. When Lake Eyre fills,as it did in 1989, it is temporarily Australia's largest lake, and becomes dense with birds, frogs and colorful plant life. The Lake responds to extended dry periods (often associated with El Nino events) by drying completely.

    These four images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer contrast the lake area at the start of the austral summers of 2000 and 2002. The top two panels portray the region as it appeared on December 9, 2000. Heavy rains in the first part of 2000 caused both the north and south sections of the lake to fill partially and the northern part of the lake still contained significant standing water by the time these data were acquired. The bottom panels were captured on November 29, 2002. Rainfall during 2002 was significantly below average ( http://www.bom.gov.au/ ), although showers occurring in the week before the image was acquired helped alleviate this condition slightly.

    The left-hand panels portray the area as it appeared to MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and are false-color views comprised of data from the near-infrared, green and blue channels. Here, wet and/or moist surfaces appear blue-green, since water selectively absorbs longer wavelengths such as near-infrared. The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree forward, nadir and 60-degree backward-viewing cameras, displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In these multi-angle composites, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and indicate textural properties of the surface related to roughness and/or moisture

  2. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes, it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake.

  3. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, south Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K. )

    1988-02-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake. A third type of dolomite occurs in some Coorong lakes. A basal dolomite, which is more crystalline than the other two forms of dolomite, appears to have formed some 6000 years ago when the rising Pleistocene water table (driven by a transgressing sea) first caused continental ground waters to outcrop and evaporate at the surface.

  4. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Potter, Abbey S; Banazis, Michael J; Yang, Rongchang; Reid, Simon A; Fenwick, Stan G

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the role of the western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) in the maintenance and transmission of Coxiella burnetii in Western Australia. Sera from 1,017 kangaroos were tested using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of C. burnetii antibodies. The overall antibody prevalence across 12 locations throughout mid- to southwestern Western Australia was 24.1% (95% CI: 21.6-26.8). Feces from 990 of the same animals were tested using PCR to identify active shedding of C. burnetii in excreta. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 4.1% (95% CI: 3.1-5.6) of samples. Our results suggest that kangaroos are reservoirs for C. burnetii in Western Australia and may contribute to transmission of the organism to domestic livestock and humans.

  5. FPA of Western Australia project 'Network.'.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, R; Allan, R; Mills, M

    1980-01-01

    Australia's volunteer project, Network, operates under the following assumptions: many young people are sexually active as is indicated by the unwanted pregnancies in these age groups; adolescents are in need of information relevant to both their sexual activity and their sexuality and the opportunity to share their views on the reasons for their sexual activity, their needs, fears and conflicts arising form this in an open manner; young people with minimal training can be more effective in talking about sexuality with their own peers in contrast to other formal and conventional methods of sex education; and young adolescents need a more nondemanding atmosphere so that they could decide their level of participation. Toward this end, Network's objectives were aimed at providing a group of trained young volunteers who were prepared to work with groups of young people and an opportunity for these young people to have free access to information concerning contraception and a place and people with whom they could discuss openly matters relevant to them as developing individuals. A group of 10 volunteers was selected in November 1976. They were primarily tertiary eduation students from the field of medicine, social workers, and a YWCA trainee counselor. The 1st stage was to train the group to acquire knowledge in contraceptive technology, their own sexuality and to become comfortable in discussing sexuality and relationships, and group dynamics and group manangement. The Association's staff were to provide the information and to train the volunteers in contraceptive technology. The areas concerned with group work and understanding of one's own sexuality were primarily conducted by 1 of the social workers. In January 1977 the Network began to function on the Family planning Association's (FPA) premises. For the November 1976 to November 1977 period, support from the FPA Council was minimal but the staff was very helpful and assisted in a variety of ways. In June 1978

  6. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  7. Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. associated with Fusarium head blight of wheat in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Diana C; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Chakraborty, Sukumar; Obanor, Friday; Jayasena, Kithsiri; Barbetti, Martin J

    2012-05-01

    An isolated occurrence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat was detected in the south-west region of Western Australia during the 2003 harvest season. The molecular identity of 23 isolates of Fusarium spp. collected from this region during the FHB outbreak confirmed the associated pathogens to be F. graminearum, F. acuminatum or F. tricinctum. Moreover, the toxicity of their crude extracts from Czapek-Dox liquid broth and millet seed cultures to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was associated with high mortality levels. The main mycotoxins detected were type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), enniatins, chlamydosporol and zearalenone. This study is the first report on the mycotoxin profiles of Fusarium spp. associated with FHB of wheat in Western Australia. This study highlights the need for monitoring not just for the presence of the specific Fusarium spp. present in any affected grain but also for their potential mycotoxin and other toxic secondary metabolites. PMID:23606046

  8. Cool-water carbonates in an Eocene palaeoestuary, Norseman Formation, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Jonathan D. A.; Bone, Yvonne; James, Noel P.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous palaeovalleys formed extensive drowned estuaries during Eocene transgressions along the southwestern part of the southern margin of Australia. The Tertiary sediments of the Cowan palaeovalley have been extensively drilled, revealing deposition of the Norseman Formation during the Middle Eocene Tortachilla transgression. Initial deposition occurred during transgression of the valley to form a drowned estuary. Sediments consisted of coarse-grained muddy, lithic, iron and glauconite-rich sands and gravels of mixed carbonate and quartz. Pure carbonates accumulated during the highstand, produced by a typical shallow temperate water assemblage of bryozoans, coralline algae, echinoids and molluscs and were swept into shoals by strong tidal currents. Minor "tropical" components in the form of large benthic foraminifers and dasycladacean algae are present. Coarse bryozoan and trough cross-bedded carbonate sands accumulated in the margins of the estuary and fine bryozoan sands in the deeper parts. Rhodoliths accumulated to form shoals in sheltered localities. The Spencer Gulf and Gulf St. Vincent of South Australia provide close modern analogues to the Cowan palaeovalley and the Norseman Formation. Modern carbonate sediments off Esperance on the south coast of Western Australia contain "tropical" faunal elements within an otherwise temperate skeletal assemblage and also provide a modern analogue. The Norseman Formation thus provides an excellent example of cool-water carbonate deposition in near-shore, tide-dominated environments. This study complements and contrasts existing cool-water shelf facies models based on Tertiary carbonates deposited on deep shelves elsewhere in southern Australia.

  9. Tide Gauge Observations of 2004-2007 Indian Ocean Tsunamis from Sri Lanka and Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Sarath Wijeratne, E. M.

    2009-02-01

    Tide gauge data collected from Sri Lanka (three stations) and Western Australia (eleven stations) during the Indian Ocean tsunamis, which occurred in December 2004, March 2005, July 2006, and September 2007, and incorporated five tsunamis, were examined to determine tsunami behaviour during these events. During the December 2004 tsunami, maximum wave heights of 3.87 m and 1.75 m were recorded at Colombo (Sri Lanka) and Bunbury (Western Australia), respectively. The results indicated that although the relative magnitudes of the tsunamis varied, the tsunami behaviour at each station was similar. This was due to the effect of the local and regional topography. At all tide gauges, the spectral energy corresponding to periods between 20 and 85 minutes increased during the tsunami. The sea-level data obtained from the west and south coasts of Sri Lanka (Colombo and Kirinda) indicated the importance of wave reflections from the Maldives Island chain, which produced the maximum wave two to three hours after the arrival of the first wave. In contrast, Trincomalee on the east coast did not show evidence of a reflected wave. Similarly, along the west coast of Australia, the highest waves occurred 15 hours after the arrival of the first wave. Here, based on travel times, we postulated that the waves were reflected from the Mascarene Ridge and/or the Island of Madagascar. Reflected waves were not present in the 2006 tsunami, where the primary waves propagated away from topographic features. One of the main influences of the tsunami was to set up oscillations at the local resonance frequency. Because Sri Lanka and Western Australia have relatively straight coastlines, these oscillations were related to the fundamental period of the shelf oscillation. For Colombo, this corresponded to 75-minute period, whereas in Geraldton and Busselton (Australia), the four-hour period was most prominent; at Jurien Bay and Fremantle, the resonance period was 2.7 hours.

  10. Forensic entomology: application, education and research in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Dadour, I R; Cook, D F; Fissioli, J N; Bailey, W J

    2001-08-15

    Forensic entomology as a science and a tool for investigation has had slow beginnings in Australia. A number of small animal decomposition trials have been recorded in the literature but mostly from an ecological rather than a forensic entomology perspective. In the last 20 years, a number of more forensically orientated field trials on small pigs and some fly developmental trials in the laboratory have been conducted but lack any replication. The following article was presented at an international seminar to detail the current research in forensic entomology, the applications of forensic entomology in scene of crime (SOC) and homicide investigations and the education of police and judiciary in the discipline of forensic entomology in Western Australia over the last 10 years.

  11. Analysis of Arbovirus Isolates from Australia Identifies Novel Bunyaviruses Including a Mapputta Group Virus from Western Australia That Links Gan Gan and Maprik Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Vishal; Diviney, Sinead M.; Certoma, Andrea; Wang, Jianning; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Chowdhary, Rashmi; Mackenzie, John S.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2016-01-01

    The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV. The results confirmed serum neutralization data that had linked SW27571 to TRUV. The fifth virus, K10441 from Willare, was most closely related to Batai orthobunyavirus, presumably representing an Australian variant of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the close relationship of our TRUV and GGV isolates to two other recently described Australian viruses, Murrumbidgee virus and Salt Ash virus, respectively. Our findings indicate that TRUV has a wide circulation throughout the Australian continent, demonstrating for the first time its presence in Western Australia. Similarly, the presence of a virus related to GGV, which had been linked to human disease and previously known only from the Australian southeast, was demonstrated in Western Australia. Finally, a Batai virus isolate was identified in Western Australia. The expanding availability of genomic sequence for novel Australian bunyavirus variants supports the identification of suitably conserved or diverse primer-binding target regions to establish group-wide as well as virus-specific nucleic acid tests in support of specific diagnostic and surveillance efforts throughout Australasia. PMID:27764175

  12. MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-17

    article title:  MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia     ... October 24, 2013 - MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia project:  MISR ...

  13. Explaining ecological clusters of maternal depression in South Western Sydney

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the qualitative study reported here was to: 1) explain the observed clustering of postnatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney; and 2) identify group-level mechanisms that would add to our understanding of the social determinants of maternal depression. Methods Critical realism provided the methodological underpinning for the study. The setting was four local government areas in South Western Sydney, Australia. Child and Family practitioners and mothers in naturally occurring mothers groups were interviewed. Results Using an open coding approach to maximise emergence of patterns and relationships we have identified seven theoretical concepts that might explain the observed spatial clustering of maternal depression. The theoretical concepts identified were: Community-level social networks; Social Capital and Social Cohesion; "Depressed community"; Access to services at the group level; Ethnic segregation and diversity; Supportive social policy; and Big business. Conclusions We postulate that these regional structural, economic, social and cultural mechanisms partially explain the pattern of maternal depression observed in families and communities within South Western Sydney. We further observe that powerful global economic and political forces are having an impact on the local situation. The challenge for policy and practice is to support mothers and their families within this adverse regional and global-economic context. PMID:24460690

  14. Dryland salinity in Western Australia: managing a changing water cycle.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R J; Hoxley, G

    2003-01-01

    Clearing of agricultural land has resulted in significant changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology. Currently about 10% of agricultural land in Western Australia is affected by dryland salinity and between a quarter and a third of the area is predicted to be lost to salinity before a new hydrological equilibrium is reached. This paper develops a general statement describing the changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology of the wheatbelt of Western Australia between preclearing, the year 2000 and into the future. For typical catchments in the wheatbelt it is estimated that average groundwater recharge and surface runoff have increased about tenfold when comparing the current hydrology to that preclearing. Saline groundwater discharge and flood volumes have also increased significantly. Saline groundwater discharge and associated salt load will probably double in the future in line with the predicted increase in the area of dryland salinity. In addition, future increases in the area of dryland salinity/permanent waterlogging will probably double the volumes in flood events and further increase surface runoff in average years. The outcomes of surface and groundwater management trials have been briefly described to estimate how the hydrology would be modified if the trials were implemented at a catchment scale. These results have been used to formulate possible integrated revegetation and drainage management strategies. The future hydrology and impacts with and without integrated management strategies have been compared. PMID:12793681

  15. Dryland salinity in Western Australia: managing a changing water cycle.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R J; Hoxley, G

    2003-01-01

    Clearing of agricultural land has resulted in significant changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology. Currently about 10% of agricultural land in Western Australia is affected by dryland salinity and between a quarter and a third of the area is predicted to be lost to salinity before a new hydrological equilibrium is reached. This paper develops a general statement describing the changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology of the wheatbelt of Western Australia between preclearing, the year 2000 and into the future. For typical catchments in the wheatbelt it is estimated that average groundwater recharge and surface runoff have increased about tenfold when comparing the current hydrology to that preclearing. Saline groundwater discharge and flood volumes have also increased significantly. Saline groundwater discharge and associated salt load will probably double in the future in line with the predicted increase in the area of dryland salinity. In addition, future increases in the area of dryland salinity/permanent waterlogging will probably double the volumes in flood events and further increase surface runoff in average years. The outcomes of surface and groundwater management trials have been briefly described to estimate how the hydrology would be modified if the trials were implemented at a catchment scale. These results have been used to formulate possible integrated revegetation and drainage management strategies. The future hydrology and impacts with and without integrated management strategies have been compared.

  16. Inclusivity and Senior Physical Education: Insights from Queensland and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn; Hay, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the context of uncertainty and ongoing reform of senior secondary education in Australia, this paper addresses inclusivity in the design and implementation of senior physical education (PE) courses. Critical analysis of course developments in two states in Australia; Queensland and Western Australia, demonstrates ways in which course design,…

  17. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  18. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  19. Evaluation of the Integrated Services Pilot Program from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Peter; Cooper, Trudi; Bahn, Susanne

    2009-08-01

    Independent evaluation of refugee-focused programs in developed nations is increasingly a mandatory requirement of funding bodies and government agencies. This paper presents an evaluation of the Integrated Services Centre (ISC) Pilot Project that was conducted in Australia in 2007 and early 2008. The purpose of the ISC program was to provide integrated support to humanitarian refugees in settlement, physical health, mental health and employment. The Pilot Project was based in two primary schools in Perth, Western Australia. The evaluation utilized a flexible qualitative 'engaged' methodology and included interviews, focus groups and telephone interviews with the key stakeholders, project staff and a small number of refugee families. The strength of the qualitative methodology (including data that is narrative rich) is that it highlights issues as perceived by each stakeholder and provides insights into the daily work by ISC staff that helped to uncover unintended outcomes. Despite the fact that the ISC evaluation was supposed to be a 'before and after' design, the researchers acknowledge a common weakness in many evaluations (including the ISC) that when baseline data is required, evaluators are recruited after the project has begun. This issue is discussed in the paper. It is critical that independent evaluators are able to begin collecting baseline data as soon as programs are launched, if not before. PMID:19167072

  20. Microbial mats and modern stromatolites in Shark Bay, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golubic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Distribution, external morphology, texture, and microbial composition of microbial mats in Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia, have been studied and reviewed along a composite representative profile starting from the permanently submerged zone, across the zones of periodic flooding, toward permanently emerged land and coastal dunes. The following nine types of algal mats have been recognized: colloform, gelatinous, smooth, pincushion, tufted, mamillate, film, reticulate, and blister. Solar ponds represent a particular environment. The mat types represent microbial communities that are characterized by one or more dominant microorganisms. The colonization and stabilization of loose sediment is carried out by a microbial assemblage of generalists that prepare the ground for later replacement and succession by specialized microflora. Lithification of microbial mats takes place periodically, mainly during the austral summer. This process is destructive for the microbial community but increases the preservation potential of the stromatolitic structures.

  1. Renewable Energy Policy and Practice in Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Chacko; Harries, David

    2007-10-01

    Renewable energy is commonly seen as an essential strategy for sustainability. Many governments, however, have sustainable energy or sustainability strategies that place little emphasis on renewable energy. One reason is that despite acceptance of the concept of sustainable development as a concept, the reality is that economic growth remains the dominant policy objective of most governments and sustainability and sustainable development are such ill-defined concepts that lack of precise definition often confuses the debate. Climate change, however, is one issue for which the meaning over what is sustainable and what is unstainable has become clearer and the need to balance economic growth with reductions in greenhouse gas emissions has become urgent. The question of by when, by what means, by how much and by whom GHG emissions need to be reduced are now the critical questions. The question of the extent to which renewable energy is essential to the goal of reducing emissions therefore has become more pressing. Some governments continue to see renewable energy as an expensive and unnecessary option and that other, lower cost options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector exist. Western Australia makes an interesting case study as the State is experiencing rapid economic growth supported by rapidly increasing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Policies to date have focused on the fact that the state relies heavily on natural gas rather than coal and encourages the efficient use of energy. Western Australia's energy situation and greenhouse gas emissions strategies are reviewed in order to assess the extent to which this greenhouse gas reduction policy that has to date placed a relatively low emphasis on renewable energy is likely to be successful.

  2. Routine detection of Clostridium difficile in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Collins, Deirdre A; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Despite increasing infection rates, Clostridium difficile is not currently routinely tested for in all diarrhoeal faecal specimens in Australia. In July 2014, all diarrhoeal specimens submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in Western Australia were surveyed to determine the true prevalence of C. difficile. In total, 1010 diarrhoeal non-duplicate faecal specimens were received during the month. Testing for C. difficile was requested, or the criteria for a C. difficile investigation were met, for 678 specimens which were investigated by PCR for the tcdB gene using the BD MAX platform, followed by toxigenic culture on PCR-positive samples. The remaining 332 specimens, with either no C. difficile test request or the criteria for a C. difficile investigation were not met, were examined by toxigenic culture. All isolates were PCR ribotyped. C. difficile was the most commonly detected diarrhoeal pathogen among all specimens. The overall prevalence of C. difficile in all 1010 specimens was 6.4%; 7.2% in the routinely tested group, and 4.8% in the non-requested group. The proportion of non-requested positive detections among all cases was 24.6%. Community-onset infection was present in 50.8% of all cases. The median age of all CDI cases was 60.0 years and the age range in CDI patients in the routine group was 0.6-96.6 years (median 72.7 years), compared to 0.2-2.3 years (median 0.8 years) in the non-requested group. The most common ribotype (RT) found was RT 014/020 (34.1% in the routine group, 43.8% in the non-requested group), followed by RTs 002, 056, 005 and 018. While the routine testing group and the non-requested group differed markedly in age and patient classification, C. difficile was the most common cause of diarrhoea in hospitals and the community in Western Australia. The significance of finding C. difficile in the community paediatric population requires further study.

  3. Bedload parting in western Torres Strait, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James J.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new style of bedload parting from western Torres Strait, northern Australia. Outputs from a hydrodynamic model identified an axis of bedload parting centred on the western Torres Strait islands (~142°15‧E). This bedload parting is similar to others documented from mixed tidal regimes as it is driven dominantly by the O1, K1 and M2 tidal constituents. However, parting is aided by overtides on the eastern, mixed semidiurnal side of the strait. Bedload parting is also strongly impacted by wind-driven currents. Wind-driven currents during the trade wind season lead to the average estimates of bedload transport to be directed west, through the strait, over the 8 year model duration. As a result, east and west directed bedload parting is only active during the monsoon season when the influence of wind-driven circulation is negligible. A simulation of bedload transport using a range of sediment grain sizes indicated that sediments with a grainsize greater than ~2 mm were transported in a direction consistent with tidally driven bedload parting, as opposed to residual wind-driven flow.

  4. Identification of novel Cryptosporidium genotypes in kangaroos from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Fenwick, Stanley; Potter, Abbey; Ng, Josephine; Ryan, Una

    2011-06-30

    A total of 763 faecal samples were collected from western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium by PCR at the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) locus. Samples that were positive at the 18S locus were also amplified at the actin locus. The overall prevalence was 9.3% (71/763). At the 18S rRNA locus, sequences were obtained for 28 of the 71 positives. Sequence analysis identified four species; Cryptosporidium fayeri in seven isolates, Cryptosporidium marcopodum in four isolates, Cryptosporidium xiaoi in six isolates and a novel genotype (kangaroo genotype I) in eleven isolates. Analysis at the actin locus confirmed the genetic distinctness of the novel genotype. The results of the present study indicate that in addition to C. fayeri and C. marcopodum, kangaroos may be capable of being infected with a wider range of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes including livestock species such as C. xiaoi. The novel genotype identified in the kangaroos most likely represents a cryptic species that requires further analyses to confirm its species status.

  5. Hosts of the exotic ornate kangaroo tick, Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum Koch, on southern Yorke Peninsula, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Waudby, Helen P; Petit, Sophie; Dixon, Bruce; Andrews, Ross H

    2007-10-01

    Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum is assumed to be endemic to south-western Western Australia (including Barrow Island), Queensland (excluding Cape York Peninsula), and New South Wales, south to Dubbo and Barham. The species has been recorded on a range of mammalian hosts including macropods and domestic animals. In Queensland, A. triguttatum triguttatum is implicated in the epidemiology of Q fever. In 2000, the species was detected on southern Yorke Peninsula in South Australia. We aimed to identify A. triguttatum triguttatum's hosts through trapping, sampling of carcasses, and opportunistic capture of vertebrates on Yorke Peninsula. A. triguttatum triguttatum was removed from black rats (Rattus rattus), wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus), Tammar wallabies (M. eugenii eugenii), domesticated cats and dogs, and humans. Before this study, A. triguttatum triguttatum had not been found on black rats or rabbits in the wild. This research has implications for the management of wildlife, livestock, and visitors on Yorke Peninsula. The potential for A. triguttatum triguttatum to spread to other areas of Yorke Peninsula and South Australia is considerable, as visitors (tourists) to southern Yorke Peninsula report the presence of ticks both on themselves and among camping equipment on arriving home.

  6. The Kauring Airborne Gravity Test Site, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, R. J.; Grujic, M.; Aravanis, T.; Tracey, R.; Dransfield, M.; Howard, D.; Smith, B.

    2009-12-01

    A test site for airborne gravity (AG) systems has been established at Kauring, approximately 100 km east of Perth, Western Australia. The site was chosen using a range of criteria that included being within 200 km of Jandakot Airport in Perth where most of the airborne systems would be based at one time or another when operating in Australia, being free of low level flight restrictions, having minimal human infrastructure in the central 20 by 20 km area, and the presence of gentle to rolling terrain rather than deeply incised topography or an extensive flat plain with very low relief. In anticipation of catering for airborne gravity gradiometer (AGG) systems, the site was required to have a gravity gradient feature with clear response in the wavelength range of 100 m to 2 km in a 5 by 5 km core region. The existence of closely-spaced, high quality ground gravity data would have been a positive factor for selecting a test site, but a search of the national gravity database indicated that there were no such data sets in the search area. Consequently, a ground vertical gravity acquisition program for the chosen site at Kauring was arranged by the Geological Survey of Western Australia (GSWA), Geoscience Australia (GA), and Rio Tinto Exploration. To support AG system tests, a 150 by 150 km area was covered with a maximum station spacing of 2 by 2 km, and the central area of 20 by 20 km was covered with a maximum station spacing of 0.5 by 0.5 km. These data are freely available from GSWA and GA. To support AGG system tests, the core 5 by 5 km area would need to have stations with much closer spacing (e.g., 100 by 100 m). A variety of publicly available digital terrain data sets are available (e.g., SRTM 3-second data (~90 m), ASTER GDEM 1-second data (~30 m), GEODATA 9-second data (~300 m), etc.). Acquisition of a LIDAR-based high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM) for the central 20 by 20 km area is being considered. A DTM of this nature for the core 5 by 5 km area

  7. Cancer incidence in Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Grulich, A. E.; McCredie, M.; Coates, M.

    1995-01-01

    Cancer incidence during 1972-90 in Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia, is described. Overall cancer incidence was lower than in the Australia born in most migrant groups, and this reached significance in migrants born in China/Taiwan, the Philippines, Vietnam and India/Sri Lanka, and in male migrants born in Indonesia. For the majority of cancers, rates were more similar to those in the Australia born than to those in the countries of birth. For cancers of the breast, colorectum and prostate, rates were relatively low in the countries of birth, but migrants generally exhibited rates nearer those of the Australia born. For cancers of the liver and cervix and, in India/Sri Lanka-born migrants, of the oral cavity, incidence was relatively high in the countries of birth but tended to be lower, nearer Australia-born rates, in the migrants. For these cancers, environmental factors related to the migrant's adopted country, and migrant selection, appeared to have a major effect on the risk of cancer. For certain other cancers, incidence was more similar to that in the countries of birth. Nasopharyngeal cancer, and lung cancer in females, had high rates in both the countries of birth and in migrants to Australia. Nasopharyngeal cancer rates were highest in China/Taiwan and Hong Kong-born migrants, and were also significantly high in migrants from Malaysia/Singapore, Vietnam and the Philippines. Rates of lung cancer were significantly high in women born in China/Taiwan, and the excess was greater for adenocarcinoma than for squamous cell carcinoma. Melanoma had low rates in both the migrants and in the countries of birth. For these cancers, it was probable that genetic factors, or environmental factors acting prior to migration, were important in causation. PMID:7841061

  8. Defining the Prebiotic-biotic Boundary, evidence from Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, J.; Brasier, M.; Green, O.; McLoughlin, N.

    The environmental setting in which life first emerged on earth appears to have been dominated by hydrothermal processes (Brasier et al., 2002) that, because of their unusual chemistry, had the potential to emulate and perhaps synthesize life itself. These hydrothermal systems potentially overwhelm any biospheric geochemical signal and may therefore be the most difficult environments in which to draw the prebiotic-biotic boundary (Lindsay et al., 2003). One approach to solving this dilemma is to search for chemical signals produced by microbes (e.g. Archaea) in less complex environments that lie beyond the zone of hydrothermal influence. An example of this approach is provided by diagenetic concretions we have studied in the c.3.1 Ga Paddy Market Formation of the Gorge Creek Group on the Pilbara of Western Australia. The formation consists of fine-grained, thinly bedded, silty sandstones and siltstones which were deposited in a turbidite setting. Graded bedding is common, as are simple sole markings. Synaeresis cracks are present locally. Analysis of nodules from the Paddy Market Formation shows that most are clasts of well rounded chert or igneous rocks derived form an adjacent fluvial setting, or soft sediment rip-up clasts eroded by turbidity currents from the substrate, while still others are simply conchoidal fractures in fine sediments that emulate concretions. However, a small number of chert nodules are concretionary. Septarian cracks filled with later chert veins transect the nodules. Remnant carbonate rhombic euhedra (70-160μm), now largely replaced by Fe oxides, suggest the chert has replaced a sideritic carbonate that was deposited displacively during diagenesis. Small pseudomorphs (<10μm) of Fe oxides after pyrite occur scattered throughout the chert matrix whilst clusters of larger (30-50μm) well developed complex octagonal pseudmorphs of Fe-oxides after pyrite are present in the core of the concretion. The sedimentary interval and the nodules are

  9. Forensically significant scavenging guilds in the southwest of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, R Christopher; Forbes, Shari L; Meyer, Jan; Dadour, Ian

    2010-05-20

    Estimation of time since death is an important factor in forensic investigations and the state of decomposition of a body is a prime basis for such estimations. The rate of decomposition is, however, affected by many environmental factors such as temperature, rainfall, and solar radiation as well as by indoor or outdoor location, covering and the type of surface the body is resting upon. Scavenging has the potential for major impact upon the rate of decomposition of a body, but there is little direct research upon its effect. The information that is available relates almost exclusively to North American and European contexts. The Australian faunal assemblage is unique in that it includes no native large predators or large detrivorous avians. This research investigates the animals that scavenge carcasses in natural outdoor settings in southern Western Australia and the factors which can affect each scavenger's activity. The research was conducted at four locations around Perth, Western Australia with different environmental conditions. Pig carcasses, acting as models for the human body, were positioned in an outdoor environment with no protection from scavengers or other environmental conditions. Twenty-four hour continuous time-lapse video capture was used to observe the pattern of visits of all animals to the carcasses. The time of day, length of feeding, material fed upon, area of feeding, and any movement of the carcass were recorded for each feeding event. Some species were observed to scavenge almost continually throughout the day and night. Insectivores visited the carcasses mostly during bloat and putrefaction; omnivores fed during all stages of decomposition and scavenging by carnivores, rare at any time, was most likely to occur during the early stages of decomposition. Avian species, which were the most prolific visitors to the carcasses in all locations, like reptiles, fed only during daylight hours. Only mammals and amphibians, which were seldom seen

  10. Forensically significant scavenging guilds in the southwest of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, R Christopher; Forbes, Shari L; Meyer, Jan; Dadour, Ian

    2010-05-20

    Estimation of time since death is an important factor in forensic investigations and the state of decomposition of a body is a prime basis for such estimations. The rate of decomposition is, however, affected by many environmental factors such as temperature, rainfall, and solar radiation as well as by indoor or outdoor location, covering and the type of surface the body is resting upon. Scavenging has the potential for major impact upon the rate of decomposition of a body, but there is little direct research upon its effect. The information that is available relates almost exclusively to North American and European contexts. The Australian faunal assemblage is unique in that it includes no native large predators or large detrivorous avians. This research investigates the animals that scavenge carcasses in natural outdoor settings in southern Western Australia and the factors which can affect each scavenger's activity. The research was conducted at four locations around Perth, Western Australia with different environmental conditions. Pig carcasses, acting as models for the human body, were positioned in an outdoor environment with no protection from scavengers or other environmental conditions. Twenty-four hour continuous time-lapse video capture was used to observe the pattern of visits of all animals to the carcasses. The time of day, length of feeding, material fed upon, area of feeding, and any movement of the carcass were recorded for each feeding event. Some species were observed to scavenge almost continually throughout the day and night. Insectivores visited the carcasses mostly during bloat and putrefaction; omnivores fed during all stages of decomposition and scavenging by carnivores, rare at any time, was most likely to occur during the early stages of decomposition. Avian species, which were the most prolific visitors to the carcasses in all locations, like reptiles, fed only during daylight hours. Only mammals and amphibians, which were seldom seen

  11. Barriers to Participation in Physical Activity Among South Sudanese Children in South Australia: Parents' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mude, William; Mwanri, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the determinants of childhood obesity. Although its facilitators are well documented for the general community, limited evidence exists informing newly arrived and emerging migrant communities in Australia. To explore parents' perspectives of barriers to participation in physical activity among South Sudanese children in South Australia. Qualitative, face-to-face interviews were conducted with parents. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically using NVivo software. Multiple and complex barriers to physical activity participation were described. Enabling and supportive programs are needed to improve physical activity participation and health outcomes of new migrants. PMID:27536934

  12. Radioactivity in drinking water supplies in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M; Wallner, G; Jennings, P

    2014-04-01

    Radiochemical analysis was carried out on 52 drinking water samples taken from public outlets in the southwest of Western Australia. All samples were analysed for Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210. Twenty five of the samples were also analysed for Po-210, and 23 were analysed for U-234 and U-238. Ra-228 was found in 45 samples and the activity ranged from <4.000 to 296.1 mBq L(-1). Ra-226 was detected in all 52 samples and the activity ranged from 3.200 to 151.1 mBq L(-1). Po-210 was detected in 24 samples and the activity ranged from 0.000 to 114.2 mBq L(-1). These data were used to compute the annual radiation dose that persons of different age groups and also for pregnant and lactating females would receive from drinking this water. The estimated doses ranged from 0.001 to 2.375 mSv y(-1) with a mean annual dose of 0.167 mSv y(-1). The main contributing radionuclides to the annual dose were Ra-228, Po-210 and Ra-226. Of the 52 drinking water samples tested, 94% complied with the current Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, while 10% complied with the World Health Organization's radiological guidelines which many other countries use. It is likely that these results provide an overestimate of the compliance, due to limitations, in the sampling technique and resource constraints on the analysis. Because of the increasing reliance of the Western Australian community on groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes, it is likely that the radiological content of the drinking water will increase in the future. Therefore there is a need for further monitoring and analysis in order to identify problem areas.

  13. Pratylenchus quasitereoides n. sp. from cereals in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hodda, Mike; Collins, Sarah J; Vanstone, Vivien A; Hartley, Diana; Wanjura, Wolfgang; Kehoe, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Pratylenchus quasitereoides n. sp. is described from Western Australia. It is characterized by 2 external incisures in the head cuticle, 4 lateral incisures at mid body, stylet length 17 µm to 19 µm, V greater than 75%, PUS less than 2 body diameters long and crenate tail terminus. Molecular data confirm the separation of the new species from morphologically similar and sympatric congeners. The host range also differs from P. teres as well as the sympatric P. neglectus, P. thornei and P. penetrans. Reproduction rates on oat and lupin differed between the new species and P. neglectus. The species was originally described as P. teres, but the species concept of P. teres now encompasses a considerable range of different attributes spread over two described subspecies and three variant populations. The new species differs from all these subspecies and populations in at least two characters. It differs from all populations of P. teres teres most notably in having four rather than 6 lateral lines and a more posterior vulva. It differs from P. teres vandebergae in having a longer stylet and longer overlap of the intestine by the oesophageal glands. Characters which can be used under low magnification to separate the new species from the closest sympatric congeners (P. thornei and P. crenatus) are discussed. PMID:25283659

  14. A 6000 year tropical cyclone record from Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    This study provides the first long-term tropical cyclone record from the Indian Ocean region. Multiple shore parallel ridges composed entirely of one species of marine cockle shell ( Fragum eragatum) standing between 3 and 6 m above mean sea level occur at Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia. The ridges record a tropical cyclone history between approximately 500 cal BP and 6000-7000 cal BP. Numerical storm surge and shallow water wave modelling techniques have been applied to determine the intensity (central pressure with uncertainty margins) of the storms responsible for deposition of the ridges, which has occurred approximately every 190-270 years. The ridges also record a 1700 year gap in tropical cyclone activity, between approximately 5400 cal BP and 3700 cal BP, where ridges deposited prior to this time were buried by a substantial deposit of aeolian fine-grained terrestrial sediment. The presence of this sedimentary unit suggests that this 1700 year period was characterised by a very dry climate; possibly the driest phase experienced in this region since the mid-Holocene. The absence of tropical cyclones at this time and the occurrence of this mega-drought may be linked.

  15. Hadean diamonds in zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Menneken, Martina; Nemchin, Alexander A; Geisler, Thorsten; Pidgeon, Robert T; Wilde, Simon A

    2007-08-23

    Detrital zircons more than 4 billion years old from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Yilgarn craton, Western Australia, are the oldest identified fragments of the Earth's crust and are unique in preserving information on the earliest evolution of the Earth. Inclusions of quartz, K-feldspar and monazite in the zircons, in combination with an enrichment of light rare-earth elements and an estimated low zircon crystallization temperature, have previously been used as evidence for early recycling of continental crust, leading to the production of granitic melts in the Hadean era. Here we present the discovery of microdiamond inclusions in Jack Hills zircons with an age range from 3,058 +/- 7 to 4,252 +/- 7 million years. These include the oldest known diamonds found in terrestrial rocks, and introduce a new dimension to the debate on the origin of these zircons and the evolution of the early Earth. The spread of ages indicates that either conditions required for diamond formation were repeated several times during early Earth history or that there was significant recycling of ancient diamond. Mineralogical features of the Jack Hills diamonds-such as their occurrence in zircon, their association with graphite and their Raman spectroscopic characteristics-resemble those of diamonds formed during ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and, unless conditions on the early Earth were unique, imply a relatively thick continental lithosphere and crust-mantle interaction at least 4,250 million years ago. PMID:17713532

  16. Subsurface sequence stratigraphy of Devonian carbonates, Canning basin, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Southgate, P.N.; Jackson, J.; Kennard, J.M.; O'Brien, P.E.; Passmore, V.L.; Lindsay, J.F. ); Holmes, A.E.; Christie-Blick, N. )

    1991-03-01

    The Canning basin of Western Australia is best known for its Devonian reef complexes. in 1990 the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) began a sequence stratigraphic study of key parts of the basin. This work integrates industry seismic and well data with two deep-crustal, regional seismic lines acquired by BMR in 1988. Initial work on the Lennard Shelf and adjacent Fitzroy trough has established a new sequence stratigraphy. At the margin of the Fitzroy trough, the most prominent features on seismic sections are alternating wedge-shaped and tabular bodies up to 150 m and 50 m thick, respectively. Internal reflections in the wedge-shaped bodies show downlap toward the basin and onlap toward the platform margin. On strike lines these wedges exhibit complex lensoidal geometries. Drillcore indicates that the wedges comprise basement-derived conglomerates with a sandy calcareous matrix. Seismic and well data suggest five Late Devonian sequences. The wedges and oblique prograding units are thickest and most easily recognized in the upper three sequences (Late Frasnian-Famennian ). The underlying thinner sequences probably correlate with the classic back-stepping Frasnian reefs identified in outcrop by Playford. Recognition of lowstand deposits in the Devonian reef complexes represent a new hydrocarbon exploration play.

  17. Cetacean morbillivirus in coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nahiid; Duignan, Pádraig J; Wang, Jianning; Bingham, John; Finn, Hugh; Bejder, Lars; Patterson, Anthony P; Holyoake, Carly

    2014-04-01

    Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) has caused several epizootics in multiple species of cetaceans globally and is an emerging disease among cetaceans in Australia. We detected CeMV in 2 stranded coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Western Australia. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that this virus variant is divergent from known strains.

  18. Working Together, Staying Vital. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Western Australian District High Schools Administrators' Association and the National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (20th, Fremantle, Western Australia, June 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin, Ed.; Hemmings, Brian, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The 20th National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and Western Australia District High School Administrators' Association (WADHSAA) joint conference proceedings, based on the theme "Working Together, Staying Vital," was held in Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia, in June 2004. The proceedings contain 13 keynote…

  19. Novel reef fabrics from the Devonian Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Rachel

    1998-11-01

    Large cement-filled cavities (0.2 to 1.5 m wide) are well developed in slope-margin sediments of the spectacular Upper Devonian (Frasnian) reefs of the Canning Basin, Western Australia, where they account for up to 50% of the primary porosity. These are here interpreted as primary reef framework cavities that formed beneath a variety of domal, tabular or laminar stromatoporoid sponges. Of particular note are those created by unusual, very thin (2 to 8 mm), laminar stromatoporoids (mainly Stachyodes australe), that formed arching, hollow domes up to 0.3 m in height and 1.5 m in diameter over the sediment surface to enclose flat-based cavities. The free undersurface of these stromatoporoids often supported a hitherto unrecognised cryptic community, dominated by pendent growth of the putative calcified cyanobacterium Renalcis, with rare intergrown lithistid sponges and spiny atrypid brachiopods. The uneven growth surface of the cryptos imparts an irregular, stromatactis-like texture to the upper surface of the remaining cavity, which is filled by early marine, finely banded, fibrous cements (mainly radiaxial calcite) interbedded with often multiple generations of geopetal sediment containing peloids and ostracod debris. This ecology yields the tabular stromatoporoid- Renalcis fabric described ubiquitously from the Canning Basin reef complex. Such unusual reef fabrics are a consequence of the ecology of shallow marine mid-Palaeozoic reefs which were quite unlike that of modern coral reefs. The frequent preservation of relatively delicate, in situ communities was due to (1) rapid and pervasive early cementation, (2) growth under non-energetic conditions, and (3) the relative insignificance of bioeroders associated with reefs at this time.

  20. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lemloh, Marie-Louise; Fromont, Jane; Brümmer, Franz; Usher, Kayley M

    2009-01-01

    Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA) with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide range of sponges in a wide range

  1. Gravity survey of the Mt. Toondina impact structure, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The Mt. Toondina impact structure is located in northern South Australia, about 45 km south of the town of Oodnadatta. Only the central uplift is exposed. The outcrops at Mt. Toondina reveal a remarkable structural anomaly surrounded by a broad expanse of nearly flat-lying beds of the Bulldog Shale of Early Cretaceous age. A gravity survey was undertaken in 1989 to determine the diameter of the impact structure, define the form of the central uplift, and understand the local crustal structure. Data were collected along two orthogonal lines across the structure. In addition to the profiles, a significant number of measurements were made on and around the central uplift. The 1989 gravity data combined with 1963 gravity data and the seismic reflection data provide an excellent data base to interpret the subsurface structure of the Mt. Toondina feature.

  2. View south, wharf B, showing western docking structure, decking detail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south, wharf B, showing western docking structure, decking detail - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  3. 1. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  4. 2. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  5. Injury patterns and features of cycling fatalities in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Olds, Kelly; Byard, Roger W; Langlois, Neil E I

    2015-08-01

    There has been an increase in cycling in Australia. This means that more cyclists are at risk of injuries, which account for a proportion of transport-related fatalities. In this study, all cyclist fatalities from 2002 to 2013 in South Australia where post-mortem examinations were performed were investigated. There were 42 deaths representing 3% of the total road fatalities over the same time. Of this total number of cases, 13 deaths (31%) involved collapse (mostly natural causes from an underlying medical condition) and 29 (69%) resulted from trauma. There were no cases of hyperthermia. Of the decedents 95% were male, and the mean age at death was 47 years. Fatal incidents were more likely to occur during April and November, and on a Monday. However, statistical analysis was not possible due to the small number of cases. Fatalities (traumatic and collapse) predominantly occurred whilst the cyclist was riding (86%). The majority of riding fatalities were as a result of collision with vehicles (81%). Drugs (including alcohol) were detected in two (15%) of the 13 cases of the collapses, and in seven (26%) of the 27 trauma cases tested. In trauma cases, death was most often due to multiple injuries. The most frequent area for injury was the head (found in 90% of traumatic deaths). Despite the increasing numbers of cyclists on South Australian roads over the last decade, death rates have trended downwards suggesting that road safety campaigns and the provision of more dedicated bicycle lanes have had a positive outcome. PMID:26165666

  6. Epidemiology of Down syndrome in South Australia, 1960-89.

    PubMed Central

    Staples, A J; Sutherland, G R; Haan, E A; Clisby, S

    1991-01-01

    During 1960-89 687 Down syndrome live births and 46 Down syndrome pregnancy terminations were identified in South Australia. Ascertainment was estimated to be virtually complete. The sex distribution of Down syndrome live births was found to be statistically different from the non-Down syndrome live-birth sex distribution (P less than .01). Smoothed maternal age-specific incidence was derived using both maternal age calculated to the nearest month and a discontinuous-slope regression model. The incidence of Down syndrome at birth for the study period was estimated to be 1.186 Down syndrome births/1,000 live births. Annual population incidence was shown to be correlated with trends in the maternal age distribution of confinements. If current trends in the maternal age distribution of confinements continue, the population incidence of Down syndrome in South Australia is predicted to exceed 1.5 Down syndrome births/1,000 live births during the 1990-94 quinquennium. PMID:1833972

  7. The Acraman impact and its widespread ejecta, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostin, V. A.; Keays, R. R.; Wallace, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    Discovery of a widespread horizon of shock-deformed volcaniclastic ejecta preserved in Late Proterozoic (approx. 600 Ma) shales in South Australia and its probable link to the Acraman impact structure in the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range. Volcanics provide a rare opportunity to study the effects of a major terrestrial impact, including the sedimentology and distribution of an ejecta blanket and its precious-metal signature. The ejecta horizon occurs in the Bunyeroo Formation at many localities within the Adelaide Geosyncline, including the Wearing Hills, which are approx. 350 km northeast of the Acraman impact site. Following a search at the same stratigraphic level in other basins in South Australia, the ejecta has been located within the Lower Rodda beds of the Officer Basin, extending the limits of the ejecta to approx. 470 km northwest of the Acraman impact structure. The ejecta is therefore widely dispersed, and provides an important chronostratigraphic marker enabling precise correlation of Late Proterozoic sequences in southern Australia. In summary, the Bunyeroo ejecta is unique as the only known example of a widely dispersed, coarse-grained ejecta blanket that is, moreover, strongly linked to a known major impact structure. The marked Ir-PGE anomalies in the ejecta horizon provide support for the hypothesis that meteorite impact events can produce Ir anomalies interrestrial sediments. The findings also indicate that Ir can be mobilized and concentrated in sediments by low-temperature diagenetic processes. The identification of ejecta horizons in sedimentary rocks therefore should be based on the coincidence of shock-metamorphic features in the detritus and clear Ir anomalies.

  8. New Insights from Seismic Imaging over the Youanmi Terrane, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Omid; Juhlin, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The Youanmi terrane is located in the central parts of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia, an Archean granite-greenstone unit containing numerous mineral deposits such as gold, base metals, nickel, uranium and gemstones. The terrane is surrounded by the Kalgoorlie and Narryer terranes to the east and west, respectively. To the southwest it is bounded by the South West terrane. In order to study the transitions between the Youanmi terrane and the surrounding terranes, as well as identifying potential mineral rich areas, the Geological Survey of Western Australia acquired three deep crustal 2D seismic profiles with a total length of about 700 km in 2010. Correlated record lengths of 20 seconds allow the deep structure of the crust to be investigated with the data, down to Moho depths and greater. Initial processing using a conventional 2D flow show a highly reflective crust with several interesting features. We have now reprocessed the data following mainly the previous processing flow, but with a focus on the shallower crust, less than 10 seconds (about 27 km). Due to the complex geology in the region, 3D aspects of the structures need to be considered in the data processing. Therefore, we investigated the effect of cross-dip corrections to the data. The cross-dip correction has two advantages; (i) reflections are more coherent and enhanced after the correction and (ii) the orientation and dip angle of the geological structures of the corresponding reflections can be identified in the cross-line direction. Where the profiles intersect each other sparse 3D processing can be performed. First arrival travel-time tomography was also tested on parts of the dataset. Travel-time inversion may provide better velocity models at shallow depths than standard reflection seismic processing provides. Preliminary results show that the travel-time tomography has a depth of investigation of about 1 km, a depth that is of interest for mining purposes. Therefore, the tomography

  9. 1992 WAMET/EUROMET Joint Expedition to Search for Meteorites in the Nullarbor Region, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, A.

    1992-07-01

    The Nullarbor Region is a limestone desert in the south of Australia. It forms part of the larger Eucla Basin, which straddles the border between South Australia and Western Australia. The portion of the Eucla Basin lying in Westem Australia covers an area of about 104,000 km^2 (Bevan and Binns, 1989) and meteorites have been recovered from this region since 1971, new material being deposited at the Western Australia Museum. Between 21/3/92 and 6/4/92 a joint expedition between the Western Australia Museum and EUROMET recovered approximately 440 specimens of meteorites (total mass 13206 g) and 297 tektites. The expedition, whose members were Claude Perron (Paris), Christian Koeberl (Vienna), Georg Delisle (BGR Hannover), Gian- Paolo Sighinolfi (Modena), and Andrew Morse (OU) for Euromet, together with Wayne Smith (Australian Army) and Tom Smith (Perth Astronomical Observatory), was led by Dr Alex Bevan of the Western Australia Museum. Searching was carried out on foot with the participants spread out in a line with a 10-m spacing, walking along a compass bearing for approximately 10 km and back each day. Eight collecting regions were used, with a stop of about 2 days at each camp. Half of the searching was done near known strewn fields in order that the team become practised. Thus the expedition collected material at the following known sites. Camel Donga, Eucrite: The initial recovery was made in 1984 (Cleverly et al., 1986). The strewn field is about 8 km by 2-3 km at coordinates 30 degrees 19'S, 126 degrees 37'E. This expedition recovered 65 stones weighing a total of 2456 g, plus one stone of 4.8 g that was clearly chondritic in hand specimen. Mulga (north), H6: The initial recovery was made in 1964 (McCall, 1968). The strewn field is 8 km by 2 km at coordinates 30 degrees 11'S, 126 degrees 22'E and on this expedition 5 stones were recovered with a weight of 548 g. Also 110 stones (total mass 1535 g) that are certainly not H6 were found within a 100-m radius of

  10. The geology of Darwin Crater, western Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Kieren T.; Haines, Peter W.

    2007-08-01

    Darwin glass is a siliceous impact glass found in a 400 km 2 strewn field near Mt Darwin, western Tasmania, Australia. It has been dated by Ar-Ar methods at 816 ± 7 ka. A 1.2 km diameter circular depression, named Darwin Crater (42°18.39'S, 145°39.41'E), is the assumed source crater for the glass. Darwin Crater is situated in a remote rain forested valley developed within Siluro-Devonian quartzite and slate (Eldon Group). Earlier geophysical investigations demonstrated that the structure is an almost circular bowl-shaped sediment-filled basin. This paper provides the first detailed description of the geology of Darwin Crater. The centre of the crater has been penetrated by two drill cores, the deeper to a maximum depth of ˜ 230 m. The drill cores intersected fine-grained lacustrine sediments (˜ 60 m thick) overlying poorly sorted coarser crater-fill deposits. The pre-lacustrine crater-fill stratigraphy comprises an uppermost polymict breccia (˜ 40 m thick) of angular quartz and country rock, which contains very rare (≪ 1%) fresh glass fragments (Crater-fill Facies A). Beneath the polymict breccia facies, the drill core intersected monomict sandy breccias of angular quartz (Crater-fill Facies B), and a complicated package of deformed slate clasts (Crater-fill Facies C). Quartz grains in the crater-fill samples contain abundant irregular fractures. In some of the most deformed quartz grains, sub-planar fractures define zones of alternating extinction that superficially resemble twinning. Kinked micas are also present. While the deformation observed in clasts of the crater-fill facies is far greater than in rocks cropping out around the crater, no diagnostic shock indicators, such as planar deformation features (PDF's) in quartz, were observed. If the crater is of impact origin, as seems likely due to the close association with Darwin glass, this is another example of a simple crater where diagnostic shock indicators appear to be absent, preventing

  11. Using Web2.0 Applications to Close the Digital Divide in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Sue; Broadley, Tania

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this paper documents the use of Web2.0 applications with six Western Australian schools that are considered to be regional and/or remote. With a population of two million people within an area of 2,525,500 square kilometres Western Australia has a number of towns that are classified as regional and remote. Each of the…

  12. Multi-decadal climate variability, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Franks, S W

    2004-01-01

    Traditional hydrological risk estimation has treated the observations of hydro-climatological extremes as being independent and identically distributed, implying a static climate risk. However, recent research has highlighted the persistence of multi-decadal epochs of distinct climate states across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Climatological studies have also revealed multi-decadal variability in the magnitude and frequency of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impacts. In this paper, examples of multi-decadal variability are presented with regard to flood and drought risk. The causal mechanisms for the observed variability are then explored. Finally, it is argued that the insights into climate variability provide (a) useful lead time for forecasting seasonal hydrological risk, (b) a strong rationale for a new framework for hydrological design and (c) a strong example of natural climate variability for use in the testing of General Circulation Models of climate change.

  13. Multi-decadal climate variability, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Franks, S W

    2004-01-01

    Traditional hydrological risk estimation has treated the observations of hydro-climatological extremes as being independent and identically distributed, implying a static climate risk. However, recent research has highlighted the persistence of multi-decadal epochs of distinct climate states across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Climatological studies have also revealed multi-decadal variability in the magnitude and frequency of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impacts. In this paper, examples of multi-decadal variability are presented with regard to flood and drought risk. The causal mechanisms for the observed variability are then explored. Finally, it is argued that the insights into climate variability provide (a) useful lead time for forecasting seasonal hydrological risk, (b) a strong rationale for a new framework for hydrological design and (c) a strong example of natural climate variability for use in the testing of General Circulation Models of climate change. PMID:15195429

  14. High prevalence of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Austen, Jill M; O'Dea, Mark; Jackson, Bethany; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-15

    The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The PCR prevalence of T. vegrandis in bats was 81.8% (18/22). The high prevalence of T. vegrandis in the present study suggests that bats may play an important role in the epidemiology of T. vegrandis in Australia. T. vegrandis appears to be geographically dispersed, has a wide distribution in Australia and low levels of host specificity.

  15. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Australian Science Education Association (23rd, Perth, Western Australia, November 13, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Leonie, Ed.

    These proceedings contain reviewed and edited papers from the 23rd annual meeting of the Western Australian Science Education Association (WASEA). Papers include: (1) Using Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Validate a Questionnaire to Describe Science Teacher Behavior in Taiwan and Australia (Darrell Fisher, David Henderson, and…

  16. Nutrient transport to the Swan - Canning Estuary, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.; Donohue, R.

    2001-01-01

    Catchment nutrient availability in Western Australia is primarily controlled by the disposal of animal waste and the type and rate of fertilizer application, particularly on the relatively narrow (~25 km wide), sandy coastal plain. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) concentrations and fluxes during the wet season of 15 tributaries, including four urban drains to the Swan-Canning Estuary, were evaluated from 1986 to 1992 and additionally concentrations only were evaluated throughout the year from 1993 to 1996. Concentrations of filtered reactive P (FRP) and total P (TP) were generally low, with the volume-weighted means for all sites being 0.06 mg 1-1 and 0.12 mg 1-1 respectively. The urban drains had higher TP concentrations (volume-weighted mean of 0.21 mg 1-1) than the streams (0.12 mg 1-1), with the high concentrations associated with particulate matter. Total inorganic N (TIN, NH4N plus NO3N) and total N (TN), which is of interest to eutrophic status of the N-limited estuary, were likewise low, compared with other developed areas having a similar climate. Both TIN and TN were higher in the urban drains (0.76 mg 1-1 and 1.5 mg 1-1 respectively) than the streams (0.31 mg 1-1 and 1.2 mg 1-1 respectively). The Avon River, which drains 98.5% of the 121 000 km2 catchment area, contributes most of the N (0.03 kg ha-1 year-1 or 65%) and a high percentage of the P (<0.01 kg ha-1 year-1 or 32%) to the estuaries. The Avon River nutrient fluxes are much less than other tributaries closer to the estuary. The coastal plain receives significantly higher rainfall (1,200 mm year-1) and has more intense horticulture and animal production than inland areas (<300 mm year-1). Annual rainfall is seasonal, occuring primarily from May through December. The surficial aquifers on the coastal plain generally are sandy with a low nutrient retention capacity, and rapidly transmit soluble and colloidal material in subsurface flow. Ellen Brook, on the coastal plain, drains pastures treated

  17. Nutrient transport to the Swan-Canning Estuary, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Norman E.; Donohue, Robert

    2001-09-01

    Catchment nutrient availability in Western Australia is primarily controlled by the disposal of animal waste and the type and rate of fertilizer application, particularly on the relatively narrow (25 km wide), sandy coastal plain. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and fluxes during the wet season of 15 tributaries, including four urban drains to the Swan-Canning Estuary, were evaluated from 1986 to 1992 and additionally concentrations only were evaluated throughout the year from 1993 to 1996. Concentrations of filtered reactive P (FRP) and total P (TP) were generally low, with the volume-weighted means for all sites being 0·06 mg l-1 and 0·12 mg l-1 respectively. The urban drains had higher TP concentrations (volume-weighted mean of 0·21 mg l-1) than the streams (0·12 mg l-1), with the high concentrations associated with particulate matter. Total inorganic N (TIN, NH4N plus NO3N) and total N (TN), which is of interest to eutrophic status of the N-limited estuary, were likewise low, compared with other developed areas having a similar climate. Both TIN and TN were higher in the urban drains (0·76 mg l-1 and 1·5 mg l-1 respectively) than the streams (0·31 mg l-1 and 1·2 mg l-1 respectively). The Avon River, which drains 98·5% of the 121 000 km2 catchment area, contributes most of the N (0·03 kg ha-1 year-1 or 65%) and a high percentage of the P (<0·01 kg ha-1

  18. Remote Music: How It Happens in Western Australia's Pilbara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younghusband, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Karratha is a town in Australia's remote north-west, 1600 km north of a capital city, Perth. It was a long way from "musical civilization" and a totally different teaching situation for a music teacher used to English classrooms. The first challenge was the dominance of sport at the school, but Peter Younghusband tells how he worked to make music…

  19. Evaluation of the Integrated Services Pilot Program from Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Peter; Cooper, Trudi; Bahn, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Independent evaluation of refugee-focused programs in developed nations is increasingly a mandatory requirement of funding bodies and government agencies. This paper presents an evaluation of the Integrated Services Centre (ISC) Pilot Project that was conducted in Australia in 2007 and early 2008. The purpose of the ISC program was to provide…

  20. A comparison of autism prevalence trends in Denmark and Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Parner, Erik T; Thorsen, Poul; Dixon, Glenys; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen; Nassar, Natasha; Bourke, Jenny; Bower, Carol; Glasson, Emma J

    2011-12-01

    Prevalence statistics for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) vary widely across geographical boundaries. Some variation can be explained by diagnostic methods, case ascertainment and age at diagnosis. This study compared prevalence statistics for two distinct geographical regions, Denmark and Western Australia, both of which have had population-based registers and consistent classification systems operating over the past decade. Overall ASD prevalence rates were higher in Denmark (68.5 per 10,000 children) compared with Western Australia (51.0 per 10,000 children), while the diagnosis of childhood autism was more prevalent in Western Australia (39.3 per 10,000 children) compared with Denmark (21.8 per 10,000 children). These differences are probably caused by local phenomena affecting case ascertainment but influence from biological or geographical factors may exist.

  1. Drainage discharge impacts on hydrology and water quality of receiving streams in the wheatbelt of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Riasat; Silberstein, Richard; Byrne, John; Hodgson, Geoff

    2013-11-01

    The use of surface and subsurface drainage to manage waterlogging and salinity in dryland (rainfed) and irrigated agricultural systems is common throughout the world. The drainage systems often discharge into natural streams. The same is true for the wheatbelt drainage systems in south-western Australia, where 11,000 km (ABS 2003) of artificial drains have been constructed within the last two decades. Prior to this study, the likely impacts of this discharge on the streambed chemistry and water quality of receiving streams were largely unknown. The study evaluated these impacts in creeks receiving the drainage discharge from engineering options in four river systems in south-western Australia. This study clearly showed elevated levels of metals ions, EC and pH in the stream water at treated sites relative to their levels at untreated sites. At most sites, impacts of drainage discharge were observed on the streambed electrical conductivity (EC) and pH (both in 1:5 extract) in the receiving streams; however, there was little evidence of impact on metal ion content in the streambed soil. The study found no clear differences in the dynamics of the watertable adjacent to streams whether they received drainage discharge or not, irrespective of the size of the artificial drainage systems.

  2. Aboriginal astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia. Part 1: Nyeeruna and 'The Orion Story'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE recorded the daily lives, lore and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as 'The Orion Story', stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of 'The Orion Story', including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

  3. Paleoproterozoic gold deposits in the Bald Hill and Coyote areas, Western Tanami, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagas, Leon; Huston, David L.; Anderson, James; Mernagh, Terrence P.

    2007-01-01

    Significant gold deposits in the western Tanami region of Western Australia include deposits in the Bald Hill and Coyote areas. The ca. 1,864 Ma Bald Hill sequence of turbiditic and mafic volcanic rocks hosts the Kookaburra and Sandpiper deposits and a number of smaller prospects. The ca. 1,835 Ma turbiditic Killi Killi Formation hosts the Coyote deposit and several nearby prospects. The Kookaburra deposit forms as a saddle reef within a syncline, and the Sandpiper deposit is localized within graphitic metasedimentary rocks along a limb of an anticline. Gold in these deposits is hosted by anastomosing quartz-(-pyrite-arsenopyrite) veins within quartz-sericite schist with disseminated arsenopyrite, pyrite, and marcasite (after pyrrhotite). Based on relative timing relationships with structural elements, the auriferous veins are interpreted to have been emplaced before or during the ca. 1,835-1,825 Ma Tanami Orogeny (regional D1). Gold deposition is thought to have been caused by pressure drops associated with saddle reef formation (Kookaburra) and chemical reactions with graphitic rocks (Sandpiper). The Coyote deposit, the largest in the western Tanami region, consists of a number of ore lenses localized along the limbs of the Coyote Anticline, which formed during the Tanami Orogeny. The largest lenses are associated with the Gonzalez Fault, which is located along the steeply dipping southern limb of this fold. Gold was introduced at ca. 1,790 Ma into dilatant zones that formed in local perturbations along this fault during later reactivation (regional D5) towards the end of a period of granite emplacement. Gold is associated with quartz-chlorite-pyrite-(arsenopyrite-galena-sphalerite) veins with narrow (< 5 mm) chloritic selvages. A quartz-muscovite-biotite-K-feldspar-(tourmaline-actinolite-arsenopyrite) assemblage, which is interpreted to relate to granite emplacement, overprints the regional greenschist facies metamorphic assemblage. The mineralogical similarity

  4. Sexual Difficulties for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redelman, Margaret Juliet

    2009-01-01

    This 1992 study was conducted to ascertain the incidence of sexual difficulties in individuals diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) living in New South Wales, Australia. New South Wales is a state lying roughly 29-36 [degrees] south of the equator. This is currently the largest study conducted. The anonymous questionnaire completed by 283…

  5. Mud cracks and dedolomitization in the Wittenoom Dolomite, Hamersley Group, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kargel, J.S.; Schreiber, J.F.; Sonett, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    Several impure dolomitic limestone beds in an outcrop of the latest Archean Wittenoom Dolomite (Hamersley Group, Western Australia) are polygonally cracked. The cracks appear to be sub-aerial desiccation features, suggesting that the known area of shallow water and locally emergent conditions extended from the far eastern part of the basin (the Carawine Dolomite) over 270 km farther west. This finding places shallow- water or emergent conditions either (1) near the middle of what Trendall (1983) defined as the probable original limits of the Hamersley Basin (Trendall's 'Pilbara Egg') or (2) near the southern edge of what Morris (1993) thought to be a broad carbonate platform which fed a deeper water sequence to the south. In any case, the Hamersley Basin in the area of Bee Gorge and eastward to the Carawine Dolomite may have been a carbonate mudflat in part with restricted circulation of sea water. The Carawine Dolomite and the Wittenoom Dolomite near Bee Gorge may have been affected by carbonate buildups along a shelf edge. Regardless of whether shallow water was widespread or local in the Hamersley basin, shallow water verging on emergence is supported by evidence of diagenetic dedolomitization under conditions of low atmospheric and hydrospheric P(O2) and precipitation of strontianite in the mud-cracked sample. Evidence of shallow water at Bee Gorge is consistent with Trendall's broad evaporite-basin model and with Morris' barred-platform model for the origin of Hamersley carbonates and banded iron-formations.

  6. Evidence for structural stacking and repetition in the greenstones of the Kalgoorlie district, western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martyn, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Most previous stratigraphic interpretations of the southern part of the Norseman-Wiluna Greenstone Belt have proposed polycyclic sequences. These invoked two and sometimes three successive suites of mafic and/or ultimafic volcanics and intrusives separated by felsic volcanics and immature clastic sediments, however no distinctive lithological differences were reported between successive mafic-ultramaic sequences. When interpretations of the area further to the north are integrated, a total of four separate major mafic-ultramafic uites emerges for a large part of the Norseman-Wiluna Belt. Although the author does not intent to imply that all polycyclic stratigraphies are wrong in principle such a situation seems suspiciously over-complex and stimulates the need to look critically at the individual areas where the stratigraphies have seen erected. For the Kalgoorlie area in the south, some of the schemes have already provoked scepticism and a simpler model consisting of one cycle subject to structural repetition has been evolved by workers in the Geological Survey of Western Australia for part of this area. The latter drew attention to the carbon copy similarity between the elements of some polycyclic stratigraphies. Much more regionally extensive integrated structural and stratigraphic data is still required to evaluate the relationship between structure and stratigraphy more fully, an objective substantially limited by poor outcrop and deep weathering, but with due effort, far from unattainable.

  7. Impact of land cover change on the climate of southwest Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, A. J.; Narisma, G. T.; Pielke, R. A.; Holbrook, N. J.

    2004-09-01

    A sudden reduction in rainfall occurred in the southwest of Western Australia in the mid-20th century. This reduced inflows to the Perth water supply by about 120 GL (42%) and led to an acceleration of projects to develop new water sources at a cost of about $300 million. The reduction in rainfall was coincident with warmer temperatures. A major analysis of these changes indicated that the changes in temperature were likely caused by the enhanced greenhouse effect and that the changes in rainfall were likely caused by a large-scale reorganization of the atmospheric circulation. We explore an alternative hypothesis that large-scale land cover change explains the observed changes in rainfall and temperature. We use three high-resolution mesoscale model configurations forced at the boundaries to simulate (for each model) five July climates for each of natural and current land cover. We find that land cover change explains up to 50% of the observed warming. Following land cover change, we also find, in every simulation, a reduction in rainfall over southwest Western Australia and an increase in rainfall inland that matches the observations well. We show that the reduced surface roughness following land cover change largely explains the simulated changes in rainfall by increasing moisture divergence over southwest Western Australia and increasing moisture convergence inland. Increased horizontal wind magnitudes and suppressed vertical velocities over southwest Western Australia reduce the likelihood of precipitation. Inland, moisture convergence and increased vertical velocities lead to an increase in rainfall. Our results indicate that rainfall over southwest Western Australia may be returned to the long-term average through large-scale reforestation, a policy option within the control of local government. Such a program would also provide a century-scale carbon sink to ameliorate Australia's very high per capita greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Private Practice Disability Therapy Workforce in Rural New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Gisselle; Chedid, Rebecca; Dew, Angela; Bulkeley, Kim; Lincoln, Michelle; Bundy, Anita; Brentnall, Jennie; Veitch, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing demand for therapy services, there is a shortage of therapists in rural areas. We describe the existing private therapy workforce in rural western New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A cross-sectional design study, using an online survey, was conducted with occupational and physiotherapists, speech pathologists, and psychologists working in private practice in western NSW. Forty-one private therapists completed the survey. The average years of qualification was 19; 51% worked part-time. Two-thirds (68%) indicated they had adequate access to professional development opportunities. Sixty-four percent reported intending to stay in their job for 12 months. Most (95%) reported high levels of job satisfaction. Respondents had worked in western NSW for a median of 17 yrs. Sixty-eight percent described opportunities for social interaction as very good. Sixty-six percent grew up in rural areas. All respondents agreed that they loved the rural lifestyle. The results portray an experienced, stable, flexible, and highly satisfied professional group. With the current changes in policies within the disability sector, it is important to maximise these features of private therapy in order to contribute to the rural workforce and increase access to the range of supports available for people with disability. PMID:27585620

  9. Bilharziasis survey in south-western Asia*

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Azim, M.; Gismann, Anne

    1956-01-01

    This paper describes a limited survey of bilharziasis and its vectors carried out during 1950 and 1951 in some countries of south-western Asia. Lack of time and of full facilities prevented the survey from being as comprehensive and systematic as would have been wished, but enough data were obtained to provide a general estimate of the situation. Information already available from the literature was supplemented by collecting unpublished records, questioning the inhabitants, examining random samples of stools and urine, and investigating rivers, wells, and springs. Bilharziasis haematobia is already heavily endemic in the irrigated areas of Iraq and is also present, in comparatively smaller foci, in northern Syria, Israel, and Sa'udi Arabia. In the opinion of the senior author (M. A. A.), the envisaged extension of irrigation is likely to create a serious health problem in Mesopotamia and to introduce the disease into the Jordan region unless the spread of the molluscan vector, Bulinus sp., is checked. Intensification of infection and further spread are possible in Israel and in the Syrian Jezire, while the remainder of Syria and Lebanon are not considered to be endangered. Bilharziasis mansoni is widespread in the fertile areas of Sa'udi Arabia and also occurs in one minor focus in Israel. The industrialization of Sa'udi Arabia which is planned to exploit its oil resources, with its inevitable concentration of population, equally presents a danger in the intensification of bilharziasis. It is considered that, unless prompt measures are undertaken to break the link between the agricultural and industrial expansion and the spread of the disease, the debilitation of large groups of the population and the economic loss which may well result over most of the inhabited parts of the area discussed will be significant. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:13342925

  10. Country Roads: Pathways to Better Education and Training for Rural and Remote Western Australia, 2000-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Australia Dept. of Education Services, Perth.

    The Rural and Remote Education Advisory Council of Western Australia developed a 4-year plan to improve educational access, participation, and achievement by rural people of Western Australia. The plan outlines seven priorities: (1) ensuring that rural students are able to participate in quality education and training; (2) ensuring a broad…

  11. Staphylococcus aureus 'Down Under': contemporary epidemiology of S. aureus in Australia, New Zealand, and the South West Pacific.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D A; Coombs, G W; Nimmo, G R

    2014-07-01

    The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus disease has changed considerably over the past two decades, particularly with the emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) clones. Indeed, some of the first global descriptions of CA-MRSA were from remote indigenous communities in Western Australia, and from Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The epidemiology of S. aureus infections in the South West Pacific has several unique features, largely because of the relative geographical isolation and unique indigenous communities residing in this region. In particular, a number of distinct CA-MRSA clones circulate in Australia and New Zealand, such as sequence type (ST) 93 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (Queensland clone) and clonal complex 75 S. aureus (Staphylococcus argenteus) in Australia, and ST30 MRSA (Southwest Pacific clone) in New Zealand. In addition, there is a disproportionate burden of S. aureus disease in indigenous paediatric populations, particularly in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, and in Pacific Peoples and Maori in New Zealand. In this review, we provide a contemporary overview of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus disease in the South West Pacific region, with a particular focus on features distinct to this region.

  12. Linking south China to northern Australia and India on the margin of Gondwana: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopes in Cambrian strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yajun; Cawood, Peter A.; Du, Yuansheng; Hu, Lisha; Yu, Wenchao; Zhu, Yanhui; Li, Wenchao

    2013-12-01

    sedimentary rocks in the southern part of the South China Craton were derived from a source that lay to the south or southeast, beyond the current limits of the craton and which is no longer preserved nearby. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data on detrital zircons from the Cambrian sequence define two distinctive age peaks at 1120 Ma and 960 Ma, with ɛHf(t) values for each group identical to the coeval detrital zircons from Western Australia and the Tethyan Himalaya zone, respectively. The circa 1120 Ma detrital zircons were most likely derived from the Wilkes-Albany-Fraser belt between southwest Australia and Antarctica, whereas the circa 960 Ma detrital zircons could have been sourced from the Rayner-Eastern Ghats belt between India and Antarctica. Derivation of detritus from these sources suggests that south China was located at the nexus between India, Antarctica, and Australia, along the northern margin of East Gondwana during the Cambrian.

  13. 68 FR 47607 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-08-11

    ..., except to the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan,...

  14. 68 FR 55062 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-09-22

    ..., Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of August 11, 2003 (68 FR 47607). The... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa... States is materially injured by reason of imports from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and...

  15. Western end of viaduct, looking south at crossing of amtrak ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Western end of viaduct, looking south at crossing of amtrak tracks. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  16. Lava and Life: New investigations into the Carson Volcanics, lower Kimberley Basin, north Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Karin; Phillips, Chris; Hollis, Julie

    2014-05-01

    The Carson Volcanics are the only volcanic unit in the Paleoproterozoic Kimberley Basin and are part of a poorly studied Large Igneous Province (LIP) that was active at 1790 Ma. New work focussing on this LIP in 2012 and 2013 involved helicopter-supported traverses and sampling of the Carson Volcanics in remote areas near Kalumburu in far north Western Australia's Kimberley region. The succession is widespread and flat lying to gently dipping. It consists of three to six basalt units with intercalated sandstone and siltstone. The basalts are 20-40 m thick, but can be traced up to 60 km along strike. The basalt can be massive or amygdaloidal and commonly display polygonal to subhorizontal and rare vertical columnar jointing. Features of the basalt include ropy lava tops and basal pipe vesicles consistent with pahoehoe lavas. The intercalated cross-bedded quartzofeldspathic sandstone and siltstone vary in thickness up to 40 m and can be traced up to 40 km along strike. Peperite is common and indicates interaction between wet, unconsolidated sediment and hot lava. Stromatolitic chert at the top of the formation represents the oldest life found within the Kimberley region. Mud cracks evident in the sedimentary rocks, and stromatolites suggest an emergent broad tidal flat environment. The volcanics were extruded onto a wide marginal margin setting subject to frequent flooding events. Thickening of the volcanic succession south and the palaeocurrents in the underlying King Leopold Sandstone and the overlying Warton Sandstone suggest that this shelf sloped to the south. The type of basalt and the basalt morphology indicate a low slope gradient of about 1°.

  17. Chirostylidae of Australia's western continental margin (Crustacea : Decapoda: Anomura), with the description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Mccallum, Anna W; Poore, Gary C B

    2013-01-01

    Five new species from the squat lobster family Chirostylidae are described from the continental margin of western Australia: Uroptychus albus sp. nov., Uroptychus bardi sp. nov., Uroptychus jawi sp. nov., Uroptychus taylorae sp. nov., and Uroptychus worrorra sp. nov. New records of Indo-West Pacific species for Australia are: Gastroptychus brachyterus Baba, 2005, Gastroptychus investigatoris Alcock, 1899, Uroptychodes grandirostris (Yokoya, 1933), Uroptychodes inortenseni (Van Dam, 1939), Uroptychus scandens Benedict, 1902, Uroptychus ciliatus (Van Dam, 1933) and Uroptychus vandamae Baba, 1988. New distributional records are given for species previously recorded from Australia: Uroptychus flindersi Ahyong & Poore, 2004, Uroptychus hesperius Ahyong & Poore, 2004, Uroptychusjoloensis Van Dam, 1939, Uroptychus nigricapillis Alcock, 1901, and Uroptychus spinirostris (Ahyong & Poore, 2004). These new records expand the number of chirostylid species in Australia from 34 to 46. Keys to Australian species of the genera Gastroptychus, Uroptychodes and Uroptychus are provided. PMID:26266295

  18. Chirostylidae of Australia's western continental margin (Crustacea : Decapoda: Anomura), with the description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Mccallum, Anna W; Poore, Gary C B

    2013-01-01

    Five new species from the squat lobster family Chirostylidae are described from the continental margin of western Australia: Uroptychus albus sp. nov., Uroptychus bardi sp. nov., Uroptychus jawi sp. nov., Uroptychus taylorae sp. nov., and Uroptychus worrorra sp. nov. New records of Indo-West Pacific species for Australia are: Gastroptychus brachyterus Baba, 2005, Gastroptychus investigatoris Alcock, 1899, Uroptychodes grandirostris (Yokoya, 1933), Uroptychodes inortenseni (Van Dam, 1939), Uroptychus scandens Benedict, 1902, Uroptychus ciliatus (Van Dam, 1933) and Uroptychus vandamae Baba, 1988. New distributional records are given for species previously recorded from Australia: Uroptychus flindersi Ahyong & Poore, 2004, Uroptychus hesperius Ahyong & Poore, 2004, Uroptychusjoloensis Van Dam, 1939, Uroptychus nigricapillis Alcock, 1901, and Uroptychus spinirostris (Ahyong & Poore, 2004). These new records expand the number of chirostylid species in Australia from 34 to 46. Keys to Australian species of the genera Gastroptychus, Uroptychodes and Uroptychus are provided.

  19. An aerial radiological survey of Maralinga and EMU, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, W J; Berry, H A; Fritzsche, A E

    1988-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former British nuclear test ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia from May through July 1987. The survey covered an area of approximately 1,550 square kilometers which included the nine major trial sites, where a nuclear yield occurred, and all the minor trial sites, where physics experiments were conducted. Flight lines were flown at an altitude of 30 meters with line spacings of 50, 100, and 200 meters depending on the area and whether man-made contamination was present. Results of the aerial survey were processed for americium-241 (used to determine plutonium contamination), cesium-137, cobalt-60, and uranium-238. The aerial survey also detected the presence of europium-152, a soil activation product, in the immediate vicinity of the major trial ground zeros. Ground measurements were also made at approximately 120 locations using a high-resolution germanium detector to provide supplemental data for the aerial survey. This survey was conducted as part of a series of studies being conducted over a two to three-year timeframe to obtain information from which options and associated costs can be formulated about the decontamination and possible rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites.

  20. A Snapshot of the Use of ICT in Primary Mathematics Classrooms in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Lorraine Day reports on some of the findings of the Teaching Teachers for the Future Project. The Australian Curriculum constantly makes reference to digital technologies so we believe our readers will be interested to see how teachers are making use of technology in classrooms across Western Australia. The results may be used to…

  1. A Comparison of Autism Prevalence Trends in Denmark and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parner, Erik T.; Thorsen, Poul; Dixon, Glenys; de Klerk, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen; Nassar, Natasha; Bourke, Jenny; Bower, Carol; Glasson, Emma J.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence statistics for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) vary widely across geographical boundaries. Some variation can be explained by diagnostic methods, case ascertainment and age at diagnosis. This study compared prevalence statistics for two distinct geographical regions, Denmark and Western Australia, both of which have had population-based…

  2. Indigenous Mothers' Aspirations for Their Children in Perth, Western Australia: The Value of Education and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lette, Helen; D'Espaignet, Edouard Tursan; Slack-Smith, Linda; Hunt, Kerry; Nannup, Janine

    2009-01-01

    This project involved the collection of stories about the aspirations, goals and strategies from a sample of mothers of Indigenous children living in Perth, Western Australia. Analysis of the semi-structured interviews indicated that the education of their children was important for many of the mothers. Whilst some of the mothers preferred their…

  3. Closing the Digital Divide: Education Telecommunications Systems and Possibilities in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in this paper considers the current telecommunications network for the three education systems of state, independent and catholic schools in Western Australia as well as drawing on the personal experiences of teachers in these systems as the government attempts to close the digital divide with its Networking the Nation…

  4. Annual Science Education Conference (9th, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, September 23, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Australia Science Education Association.

    This proceedings contains the texts of 14 science education research studies which were presented at the 1983 Western Australia Science Education Conference. They include: "Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium: A Report of Research in Progress" (Patrick J. Garnett, Mark W. Hackling); "Measuring the Learning Environment in Elementary and…

  5. Understanding Parent Perceptions of a 1:1 Laptop Program in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bate, Frank; MacNish, Jean; Males, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides some initial findings from a current longitudinal study that examines the implementation of a student-owned 1:1 laptop program in a school for boys in Perth, Western Australia. This research tracks 196 students, their families and associated teachers for a 3-year period (2010-2012). Underpinning this research is a mixed methods…

  6. Evaluation of the Mandatory Construction Induction Training Program in Western Australia: Unanticipated Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Susanne; Barratt-Pugh, Llandis

    2012-01-01

    Since January 1, 2007, Government legislation in Western Australia required all workers in construction to complete mandatory safety awareness training before they began work on site. During the implementation of this new legislation there was considerable resistance from the construction sector due to the mandatory nature of the training. The…

  7. The Resources Boom : Cash Cow or Crisis for Preservice Teacher Education in Western Australia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    This is a research paper describing the impact of globalisation on the provision of preservice teacher education in Western Australia. The author utilises a range of research methodologies to gather and analyse current data, finally a range of possible futuristic scenarios are presented. The paper has significance for those concerned with future…

  8. The Study of Education at The University of Western Australia 1916-1985

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Di

    2004-01-01

    This study analyses how "Education" as an area of study was constructed at The University of Western Australia [UWA] during the period 1916-85. While there is little commentary available regarding the construction of "Education" in a curriculum sense, what evidence there is suggests that there was hostility towards the…

  9. Video in the Outback: An Evaluation of the Loan Video Programme in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosie, Peter

    This study was conducted to examine the reactions of children, parents, and teachers to the Loan Video Programme in Western Australia, which supplies videocassette recordings of the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Commission) school broadcasts to primary Distance Education Centre and School of the Air students in remote locations. Findings reported…

  10. Propeller and jet-ski injuries during Christmas and New Year in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Garg, Hemant; Twerenbold, Reto; Zellweger, Rene

    2011-12-19

    This is the first published case series of patients with injuries from watercraft propellers and jet skis. Five patients presented to the level-one trauma centre of Western Australia with such injuries over 10 days during the 2010-2011 Christmas holidays; all required surgery, and all but one sustained multiple, severe injuries.

  11. Conjunctivitis associated with Chlamydia pecorum in three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Funnell, Oliver; Johnson, Lynley; Woolford, Lucy; Boardman, Wayne; Polkinghorne, Adam; McLelland, David

    2013-10-01

    Chlamydiosis is a significant factor contributing to the decline of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in Australia but has not previously been reported in South Australia. We describe conjunctivitis in three wild koalas from South Australia, with Chlamydia pecorum identified by quantitative PCR.

  12. Enacting the Independent Public Schools Program in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobby, Brad

    2013-01-01

    The Independent Public Schools (IPS) program began to be implemented in some Western Australian schools in 2010. The IPS program devolves a number of responsibilities to principals and is part of the political objective of removing the constraints of the education bureaucracy by fostering school level decision-making, problem-solving and…

  13. The Ilgarijiri Project: A collaboration between Aboriginal communities and radio astronomers in the Murchison Region of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, John

    2014-07-01

    The international radio astronomy initiative known as the Square Kilometre Array is a cutting-edge science project, aimed atdramatically expanding our vision and understanding of the Universe. The $2billion+ international project is being shared between Southern Africa and Australia. The Australian component, centred in the Murchison region of Western Australia, is based upon collaboration with Aboriginal communities. A collaborative project called "Ilgarijiri- Things Belonging to the Sky" shared scientific and Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky. Through a series of collaborative meetings and knowledge sharing, the Ilgarijiri project developed and showcased Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky, via an international touring Aboriginal art exhibition, in Australia, South Africa, the USA and Europe. The Aboriginal art exhibition presents Aboriginal stories relating to the night sky, which prominently feature the 'Seven Sisters' and the 'Emu', as well as the collaborative experience with radio astronomers. The success of the Ilgarijiri collaborative project is based upon several principles, which can help to inform and guide future cultural collaborative projects.

  14. Geographic variation of failure-to-rescue in public acute hospitals in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Hassan; Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Hillman, Kenneth; Flabouris, Arthas; Hollis, Stephanie J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide acceptance of Failure-to-Rescue (FTR) as a patient safety indicator (defined as the deaths among surgical patients with treatable complications), no study has explored the geographic variation of FTR in a large health jurisdiction. Our study aimed to explore the spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. We conducted a population-based study using all admitted surgical patients in public acute hospitals during 2002-2009 in NSW, Australia. We developed a spatiotemporal Poisson model using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) methods in a Bayesian framework to obtain area-specific adjusted relative risk. Local Government Area (LGA) was chosen as the areal unit. LGA-aggregated covariates included age, gender, socio-economic and remoteness index scores, distance between patient residential postcode and the treating hospital, and a quadratic time trend. We studied 4,285,494 elective surgical admissions in 82 acute public hospitals over eight years in NSW. Around 14% of patients who developed at least one of the six FTR-related complications (58,590) died during hospitalization. Of 153 LGAs, patients who lived in 31 LGAs, accommodating 48% of NSW patients at risk, were exposed to an excessive adjusted FTR risk (10% to 50%) compared to the state-average. They were mostly located in state's centre and western Sydney. Thirty LGAs with a lower adjusted FTR risk (10% to 30%), accommodating 8% of patients at risk, were mostly found in the southern parts of NSW and Sydney east and south. There were significant spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across NSW over an eight-year span. Areas identified with significantly high and low FTR risks provide potential opportunities for policy-makers, clinicians and researchers to learn from the success or failure of adopting the best care for surgical patients and build a self-learning organisation and health system. PMID:25310260

  15. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  16. A Study on Problem and Pathological Gambling among University Students in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, A. R.; Blanksby, P.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the correlates of problem and pathological gambling among university students in South Australia. Convenience sampling method was used to select participants ("n" = 163; 55.2 per cent women, 44.8 per cent men; age range 17-57 years) from two faculties in a South Australian university. A…

  17. The Discovery and History of the Dalgaranga Meteorite Crater, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; O'Neill, Craig

    2013-08-01

    The Dalgaranga meteorite crater, 100 km northeast of Yalgoo, Western Australia, was one of the first impact structures identified in Australia, the smallest isolated crater found in Australia, and the only confirmed crater in the world associated with a mesosiderite projectile. 17 years passed before the Dalgaranga meteorites were described in the scientific literature and nearly 40 years passed before a survey of the structure was published. The reasons for the time-gap were never explained and a number of factual errors about the discovery and early history remain uncorrected in the scientific literature. Using historical and archival documents, and discussions with people involved in Dalgaranga research, the reasons for this time gap are explained by a series of minor misidentifications and coincidences. The age of the crater has yet to be determined, but using published data, we estimate the projectile mass to be 500-1000 kg.

  18. The Capricorn Orogen Passive source Array (COPA) in Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, K.; Yuan, H.; Murdie, R.; Dentith, M. C.; Johnson, S.; Brett, J.

    2015-12-01

    COPA is the passive source component of a multi-method geophysical program aimed at assessing the mineral deposits potential of the Proterozoic Capricorn Orogen. Previous results from the active source surveys, receiver functions and magnetotelluric studies show reworked orogenic crust in the orogen that contrasts with more simple crust in the neighbouring Archean cratons, suggesting progressive and punctuated collisional processes during the final amalgamation of the Western Australian craton. Previous seismic studies are all based on line deployment or single station analyses; therefore it is essential to develop 3D seismic images to test whether these observations are representative for the whole orogen. With a careful design that takes advantage of previous passive source surveys, the current long-term and short-term deployments span an area of approximately 500 x 500 km. The 36-month total deployment can guarantee enough data recording for 3D structure imaging using body wave tomography, ambient noise surface wave tomography and P- and S-wave receiver function Common Conversion Point (CCP) stacking techniques. A successive instrument loan from the ANSIR national instrument pool, provided 34 broadband seismometers that have been deployed in the western half of the orogen since March 2014. We expect approximately 40-km lateral resolution near the surface for the techniques we propose, which due to low frequency nature of earthquake waves will degrade to about 100 km near the base of the cratonic lithosphere, which is expected at depths between 200 to 250 km. Preliminary results from the first half of the COPA deployment will be presented in the light of the hypotheses that 1) distinct crustal blocks can be detected continuously throughout the orogen (using ambient noise/body wave tomography); 2) distinct lithologies are present in the crust and upper mantle across the orogen (using receiver function CCP images); and 3) crustal and lithosphere deformation along

  19. A Megaraptor-like theropod (Dinosauria: Tetanurae) in Australia: support for faunal exchange across eastern and western Gondwana in the Mid-Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nathan D; Makovicky, Peter J; Agnolin, Federico L; Ezcurra, Martín D; Pais, Diego F; Salisbury, Steven W

    2008-09-22

    The fossil record of Australian dinosaurs in general, and theropods in particular, is extremely sparse. Here we describe an ulna from the Early Cretaceous Eumeralla Formation of Australia that shares unique autapomorphies with the South American theropod Megaraptor. We also present evidence for the spinosauroid affinities of Megaraptor. This ulna represents the first Australian non-avian theropod with unquestionable affinities to taxa from other Gondwanan landmasses, suggesting faunal interchange between eastern and western Gondwana during the Mid-Cretaceous. This evidence counters claims of Laurasian affinities for Early Cretaceous Australian dinosaur faunas, and for the existence of a geographical or climatic barrier isolating Australia from the other Gondwanan continents during this time. The temporal and geographical distribution of Megaraptor and the Eumeralla ulna is also inconsistent with traditional palaeogeographic models for the fragmentation of Gondwana, but compatible with several alternative models positing connections between South America and Antarctica in the Mid-Cretaceous.

  20. Spatial and temporal variation in type 1 diabetes incidence in Western Australia from 1991 to 2010: increased risk at higher latitudes and over time.

    PubMed

    Ball, Stephen J; Haynes, Aveni; Jacoby, Peter; Pereira, Gavin; Miller, Laura J; Bower, Carol; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    This study analysed spatial and temporal variation in childhood incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) among Western Australia׳s 36 Health Districts from 1991 to 2010. There was a strong latitudinal gradient of 3.5% (95% CI, 0.2-7.2) increased risk of T1DM per degree south of the Equator, as averaged across the range 15-35° south. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis of vitamin D deficiency at higher latitudes. In addition there was a 2.4% (95% CI, 1.3-3.6) average increase in T1DM incidence per year. These effects could not be explained by population density, socioeconomic status, remoteness or ethnicity.

  1. A Megaraptor-like theropod (Dinosauria: Tetanurae) in Australia: support for faunal exchange across eastern and western Gondwana in the Mid-Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nathan D; Makovicky, Peter J; Agnolin, Federico L; Ezcurra, Martín D; Pais, Diego F; Salisbury, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    The fossil record of Australian dinosaurs in general, and theropods in particular, is extremely sparse. Here we describe an ulna from the Early Cretaceous Eumeralla Formation of Australia that shares unique autapomorphies with the South American theropod Megaraptor. We also present evidence for the spinosauroid affinities of Megaraptor. This ulna represents the first Australian non-avian theropod with unquestionable affinities to taxa from other Gondwanan landmasses, suggesting faunal interchange between eastern and western Gondwana during the Mid-Cretaceous. This evidence counters claims of Laurasian affinities for Early Cretaceous Australian dinosaur faunas, and for the existence of a geographical or climatic barrier isolating Australia from the other Gondwanan continents during this time. The temporal and geographical distribution of Megaraptor and the Eumeralla ulna is also inconsistent with traditional palaeogeographic models for the fragmentation of Gondwana, but compatible with several alternative models positing connections between South America and Antarctica in the Mid-Cretaceous. PMID:18544511

  2. Evidence of debris flow occurrence after wildfire in upland catchments of south-east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary J.; Smith, Hugh G.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

    2011-02-01

    Numerous reports of "flash floods", "mud torrents" and "landslides" in burnt landscapes of south-east Australia were only recently linked to debris flows and recognised as a significant process that warrant more detailed investigation. This paper provides a systematic documentation of high-magnitude erosion events after wildfire in south-east Australia, focusing on small (< 5 km 2), upland catchments in eastern Victoria that were burnt by wildfire between 2003 and 2009. The aims of the study were to i) collect and show evidence of debris flow occurrence after wildfire; ii) quantify erosion rates from debris flows and; iii) identify rainfall thresholds and key hydrological properties. The result showed that 13 out of the 16 recorded high-magnitude erosion events were runoff generated debris flows. These occurred in dry eucalypt forests burnt at high or very high severity in steep headwater catchments throughout the eastern uplands of Victoria. The debris flows were triggered by intense, short duration rainfall events ( I30 35-59 mm h -1) with annual exceedance probability in the order of 20%. This is the first paper to document the occurrence of post-fire runoff generated debris flows in Australia, so the discussion draws on literature from the western USA, where a large body of research has been dedicated to evaluating the risk posed by post-fire debris flows and their role in landscape processes. Typical features common to both systems include low infiltration capacity of burnt catchments; widespread sheet erosion and levee lined rills on steep upper hillslopes; and severe channel erosion initiated in response to convergent flow in previously un-scoured drainage lines. The depth of sheet erosion on surveyed slopes in the upper catchments (4.6 ± 0.96 mm to 18.4 ± 2.7 mm) indicates that hillslope material provides an important source of sediment. The average channel entrainment rate of three debris flows ranged from 0.6 to 1.4 m 3 m -1. Runoff generated debris

  3. A review of on-site wastewater treatment systems in Western Australia from 1997 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Gunady, Maria; Shishkina, Natalia; Tan, Henry; Rodriguez, Clemencia

    2015-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are widely used in Western Australia (WA) to treat and dispose of household wastewater in areas where centralized sewerage systems are unavailable. Septic tanks, aerobic treatment units (ATUs), and composting toilets with greywater systems are among the most well established and commonly used OWTS. However, there are concerns that some OWTS installed in WA are either performing below expected standards or failing. Poorly performing OWTS are often attributed to inadequate installation, inadequate maintenance, poor public awareness, insufficient local authority resources, ongoing wastewater management issues, or inadequate adoption of standards, procedures, and guidelines. This paper is to review the installations and failures of OWTS in WA. Recommendations to the Department of Health Western Australia (DOHWA) and Local Government (LG) in regard to management strategies and institutional arrangements of OWTS are also highlighted. PMID:25960745

  4. A Review of On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems in Western Australia from 1997 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gunady, Maria; Shishkina, Natalia; Tan, Henry; Rodriguez, Clemencia

    2015-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are widely used in Western Australia (WA) to treat and dispose of household wastewater in areas where centralized sewerage systems are unavailable. Septic tanks, aerobic treatment units (ATUs), and composting toilets with greywater systems are among the most well established and commonly used OWTS. However, there are concerns that some OWTS installed in WA are either performing below expected standards or failing. Poorly performing OWTS are often attributed to inadequate installation, inadequate maintenance, poor public awareness, insufficient local authority resources, ongoing wastewater management issues, or inadequate adoption of standards, procedures, and guidelines. This paper is to review the installations and failures of OWTS in WA. Recommendations to the Department of Health Western Australia (DOHWA) and Local Government (LG) in regard to management strategies and institutional arrangements of OWTS are also highlighted. PMID:25960745

  5. Diatexite Deformation and Magma Extraction on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasalova, Pavlina; Weinberg, Roberto; Ward, Lindsay; Fanning, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Migmatite terranes are structurally complex because of strong rheological contrast between layers with different melt contents and because of magma migration leading to volume changes. Migmatite deformation is intimately linked with magma extraction and the origin of granitoids. We investigate here the relationships between an evolving deformation and magma extraction in migmatites formed during the ca. 500Ma Delamerian orogeny, exposed on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Here, several phases of deformation occurred in the presence of melt. During an early upright, non-cylindrical folding event, magma was channeled towards the hinge zones of antiforms. Funnel-shaped networks of leucosomes form a root zone that link up towards a central axial planar channel, forming the main magma extraction paths during folding. Extraction was associated with fold limb collapse, and antiformal hinge disruption by magma accumulation and transfer. During a later deformation phase, melt-rich diatexites were deformed, and schollen were disaggregated into smaller blocks and schlieren, and deformed into asymmetric, sigmoidal shapes indicative of dextral shearing flow. During flow, magma accumulated preferentially along shear planes, indicating a dilatational component during shearing (transtension) and in strain shadows of schollen. As deformation waned, magma extraction from these diatexites gave rise to N-trending, steeply dipping, funnel-shaped channels not associated to any deformational feature. The funnel-shape of these structures indicates the direction of magma flow. Structures developed during this phase are comparable with those formed during dewatering of soft sediments. Despite a high degree of complexity, magma migration and extraction features record distinct responses to the evolving deformation which can be used to understand deformation, and nature and direction of melt extraction. The oldest and youngest magmatic rocks from migmatites were dated (U-Pb monazite, SHRIMP

  6. Gastrocopta (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pupillidae) in the Pilbara region of Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whisson, Corey S.; Köhler, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Six species of Gastrocopta have been identified from the Pilbara region, Western Australia, by means of comparative analyses of shell and mtDNA variation. Three of these species, Gastrocopta hedleyi, Gastrocopta larapinta and Gastrocopta servilis, have been recorded in the Pilbara for the first time. Gastrocopta sp. CW1 is probably new to science and might be endemic to the region. By contrast, Gastrocopta hedleyi, Gastrocopta larapinta and Gastrocopta mussoni are shown to be widespread. PMID:23653507

  7. Time series analysis of RSV and bronchiolitis seasonality in temperate and tropical Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Alexandra B; Anderssen, Robert S; Davis, Stephanie; Moore, Hannah C; Lim, Faye J; Fathima, Parveen; Glass, Kathryn

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory illness in young children and is most commonly associated with bronchiolitis. RSV typically occurs as annual or biennial winter epidemics in temperate regions, with less pronounced seasonality in the tropics. We sought to characterise and compare the seasonality of RSV and bronchiolitis in temperate and tropical Western Australia. We examined over 13 years of RSV laboratory identifications and bronchiolitis hospitalisations in children, using an extensive linked dataset from Western Australia. We applied mathematical time series analyses to identify the dominant seasonal cycle, and changes in epidemic size and timing over this period. Both the RSV and bronchiolitis data showed clear winter epidemic peaks in July or August in the southern Western Australia regions, but less identifiable seasonality in the northern regions. Use of complex demodulation proved very effective at comparing disease epidemics. The timing of RSV and bronchiolitis epidemics coincided well, but the size of the epidemics differed, with more consistent peak sizes for bronchiolitis than for RSV. Our results show that bronchiolitis hospitalisations are a reasonable proxy for the timing of RSV detections, but may not fully capture the magnitude of RSV epidemics. PMID:27294794

  8. Primary oral health service provision in Aboriginal Medical Services-based dental clinics in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Estie; Perera, Irosha; Tennant, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Australians living in rural and remote areas have poorer access to dental care. This situation is attributed to workforce shortages, limited facilities and large distances to care centres. Against this backdrop, rural and remote Indigenous (Aboriginal) communities in Western Australia seem to be more disadvantaged because evidence suggests they have poorer oral health than non-Indigenous people. Hence, provision of dental care for Aboriginal populations in culturally appropriate settings in rural and remote Western Australia is an important public health issue. The aim of this research was to compare services between the Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS)-based clinics and a typical rural community clinic. A retrospective analysis of patient demographics and clinical treatment data was undertaken among patients who attended the dental clinics over a period of 6 years from 1999 to 2004. The majority of patients who received dental care at AMS dental clinics were Aboriginal (95.3%), compared with 8% at the non-AMS clinic. The rate of emergency at the non-AMS clinic was 33.5%, compared with 79.2% at the AMS clinics. The present study confirmed that more Indigenous patients were treated in AMS dental clinics and the mix of dental care provided was dominated by emergency care and oral surgery. This indicated a higher burden of oral disease and late utilisation of dental care services (more focus on tooth extraction) among rural and remote Indigenous people in Western Australia.

  9. The seroprevalence and factors associated with Ross river virus infection in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Potter, Abbey; Johansen, Cheryl A; Fenwick, Stan; Reid, Simon A; Lindsay, Michael D A

    2014-10-01

    A serosurvey was undertaken in 15 locations in the midwest to southwest of Western Australia (WA) to investigate the seroprevalence of Ross River virus (RRV) neutralizing antibodies and factors associated with infection in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). The estimated seroprevalence in 2632 kangaroo samples, using a serum neutralization test, was 43.9% (95% CI 42.0, 45.8). Location was significantly associated with seroprevalence (p<0.001). There was a strong positive correlation between seroprevalence and the average log-transformed neutralizing antibody titer (r=0.98, p<0.001). The seroprevalence among adult kangaroos was significantly higher than in subadult kangaroos (p<0.05). No significant association was observed between seroprevalence and the sex of kangaroos (p>0.05). The results of this study indicate that kangaroos in WA are regularly infected with RRV and may be involved in the maintenance and transmission of RRV.

  10. Geology, prospects in Orange basin offshore western South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Muntingh, A. Ltd., Parow )

    1993-01-25

    With the fast changing political situation in South Africa it has become possible for Soekor (Pty.) Ltd. To invite international companies to participate in oil and gas exploration in the South African part of the Orange basin. This paper reports on the Orange basin, which comprises a 130,000 sq km area off western South Africa that extends northwards into Namibia, represents a large frontier basin with known hydrocarbon accumulations and the potential for giant fields. Comprehensive seismic coverage and a recent deep-water seismic survey in the Orange basin indicate exciting opportunities in the form of shallow and deep-water plays.

  11. Groundwater recharge to a sedimentary aquifer in the topographically closed Uley South Basin, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordens, Carlos M.; Werner, Adrian D.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Hutson, John L.; Simmons, Craig T.; Irvine, Benjamin M.

    2012-02-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) and water-table fluctuation (WTF) analysis methods were used to estimate recharge rates in the Uley South Basin, South Australia. Groundwater hydrochemistry and isotope data were used to infer the nature of recharge pathways and evapotranspiration processes. These data indicate that some combination of two plausible processes is occurring: (1) complete evaporation of rainfall occurs, and the precipitated salts are washed down and redissolved when recharge occurs, and (2) transpiration dominates over evaporation. It is surmised that sinkholes predominantly serve to by-pass the shallow soil zone and redistribute infiltration into the deeper unsaturated zone, rather than transferring rainfall directly to the water table. Chlorofluorocarbon measurements were used in approximating recharge origins to account for coastal proximity effects in the CMB method and pumping seasonality was accounted for in the WTF-based recharge estimates. Best estimates of spatially and temporally averaged recharge rates for the basin are 52-63 and 47-129 mm/year from the CMB and WTF analyses, respectively. Adaptations of both the CMB and WTF analyses to account for nuances of the system were necessary, demonstrating the need for careful application of these methods.

  12. Dentex carpenteri, a new species of deepwater seabream from Western Australia (Pisces: Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Yukio; Newman, Stephen J; Russell, Barry C

    2015-01-01

    A new species of sparid fish, Dentex carpenteri, is described from nine type specimens collected off Ningaloo Reef near Exmouth, Western Australia. Four valid species of Dentex are currently known in the western Pacific, Dentex abei and D. hypselosomus in the Northern Hemisphere, and D. fourmanoiri and D. spariformis in the Southern Hemisphere. These four species comprise the "Dentex hypselosomus complex". Dentex carpenteri n. sp. is most similar to D. spariformis in overall body form, but differs from D. spariformis in having the posterior margin of the upper jaw not reaching or reaching slightly beyond a vertical at the anterior margin of eye; often with the greater part from the snout to the second infraorbital yellowish; deeper suborbital (9.7-10.9% SL); and a considerably deeper body (vs. posterior margin of upper jaw reaching clearly beyond anterior margin of eye; slight yellow region on snout; suborbital depth shallow (7.6-9.6% SL); and a less deep body in D. spariformis). The mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rRNA, 545 bp) of the above five species were analyzed using the Atlantic congener, Dentex macrophthalmus as an out-group, the results clearly indicating that D. carpenteri n. sp. is a valid and distinct species. A key to the "Dentex hypselosomus complex" is provided. The distributional information available for the five species from the western Pacific, including western Australia and the nearby eastern Indian Ocean, are discussed, with the species considered to be allopatric. PMID:26249058

  13. The development of an 'Indigenous team' in a mainstream mental health service in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Fielke, Ken; Cord-Udy, Nigel; Buckskin, John; Lattanzio, Adriana

    2009-08-01

    The Social Justice Report 2005 recommended that the governments of Australia commit to achieving equal health status for all Australians "within a generation". Improving the accessibility of mainstream health services for Aboriginal people is highlighted as a central requirement. This paper describes the establishment, roles and functions of the 'Indigenous team' embedded within the South Australian Rural and Remote Mental Health Service (RRMHS) as one strategy to improve access and responsiveness of mental health services to Aboriginal patients in South Australia. We report on our progress to date and possible future directions for the team. PMID:19579113

  14. Apatite at Olympic Dam, South Australia: A petrogenetic tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krneta, Sasha; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Ehrig, Kathy; Kontonikas-Charos, Alkis

    2016-10-01

    The > 10,000 million tonne Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U-Ag deposit, (eastern Gawler Craton, South Australia) is one of the largest orebodies in the World. The deposit is hosted within the Olympic Dam Breccia Complex, placed at the centre of, and resulting from multiple brecciation and Fe-metasomatism of the Roxby Downs Granite (RDG). The latter is part of a larger batholith emplaced at ~ 1.6 Ga. Apatite petrography and chemistry were studied in non-mineralised RDG and coeval granitoids and dolerites, as well as in mineralised RDG from deep (> 2 km) and distal (2.7 km to NE) locations. In both latter cases, although the mineralisation corresponds to the same, early chalcopyrite-pyrite-magnetite ± hematite stage identified in the outer and deeper zones of the deposit itself, the character of granite alteration differs: sericite-chlorite alteration with all feldspar replaced in the deep location; and red-stained K-feldspar on top of prevailing albitization in the distal location. Close-to end-member fluorapatite is a key accessory mineral in all igneous rocks and a common product of early hydrothermal alteration within mineralised granite. Variations in habit, morphology and textures correlate with chemical trends expressed as evolving Cl/F ratios, and concentrations of REE + Y (hereafter REY), Sr, Mn, S, Si and Na. Magmatic apatite is unzoned in the dolerite but features core to REY-enriched rim zonation in the granitoids. Increases in Cl- and Sr-contents correlate with rock basicity. Calculation of Cl in the vapour phase relative to melt at the apatite saturation temperature for zoned apatite in the RDG shows higher values for grains with inclusion-rich cores associated with mafic enclaves, concordant with assimilation of exotic material during magma crystallisation. Hydrothermal alteration of magmatic apatite is most varied in the dolerite where interaction with fluids is expressed as subtle changes in Cl- versus F- and REY-enrichment, and most importantly, S-enrichment in

  15. The climate of the Last Glacial Maximum in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulmeister, J.; Cohen, T.; Kiernan, K.; Woodward, C.; Barrows, T.; Fitzsimmons, K.; Kemp, J.; Haworth, R.; Clark, D. H.; Gontz, A. M.; Chang, J.; Mueller, D.; Slee, A.; Ellerton, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Last Glaciation Maximum (c. 25-18 kyr) in south-eastern Australia has traditionally been regarded as both significantly colder than the present and much more arid. This was based on a variety of evidence including the dramatic reduction in tree pollen and dune activity in currently humid areas such as the Blue Mountains of NSW. Maintaining arid conditions under significantly lower temperatures is quite challenging and not all lines of evidence supported strong aridity. Over the last four years an ARC project has worked to develop new lines of evidence to test these inferences. Outcomes from the project indicate that winter temperatures were significantly colder than at present (an 8-11 C decrease) while summer temperatures were cooler but not as extreme (4-6.5 C). Moisture balances appear to have been more positive than present along the eastern highlands, while areas to the west were comparatively drier. The humid zone along the divide maintained at least seasonally stronger flows in the major rivers, meaning that water was more available in western districts than under modern climates. I will summarise the evidence for this new pattern and highlight the climatological patterns that would be consistent with the reconstruction. I will conclude by speculating on the implications for both human landscape use and what happened to the vegetation.

  16. Adult Retraining and Reskilling in Australia and South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Katrina; Lee, Young-Hyun; Phan, Oanh; Ra, Young-Sun

    A study explored the mechanisms used by adults in Australia and Korea to keep their skills current or to enhance their range of skills. Data were gathered through recent research reports and unpublished unemployment and training data. The study identified areas of the vocational education and training systems in the two countries that are…

  17. An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

  18. Intestinal spirochaetes colonizing aborigines from communities in the remote north of Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. I.; Hampson, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Intestinal spirochaetal bacteria were isolated from 59 of 181 (32.6%) faecal samples obtained from Aboriginal children and a few adults living in communities in the Kimberley region in the north of Western Australia. Colonization was more common in young Aborigines between 2 and 18 years of age than it was in adults, or in babies and children less than 2 years of age. Three of 22 Aboriginal children who were sampled on two consecutive years were colonized on both occasions. None of four other children were found to be consistently colonized with the bacteria when sampled on three sequential years, but three were positive on two consecutive visits and the other child was positive on the first and third sampling. Most Aboriginal children had abnormal or watery stools, and both abnormal and watery stool samples were significantly more likely to contain spirochaetes than were normal samples. However, it was not possible to prove that the spirochaetes were the cause of the diarrhoea. In contrast, spirochaetes were only recovered from 8 of 695 (1.2%) faecal samples that were obtained from other mainly non-Aboriginal children and adults in Western Australia or the Northern Territory of Australia, even though most of these individuals were suffering from gastrointestinal disturbances. PMID:1499667

  19. A Last Glacial Maximum through middle Holocene stalagmite record of coastal Western Australia climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denniston, Rhawn F.; Asmerom, Yemane; Lachniet, Matthew; Polyak, Victor J.; Hope, Pandora; An, Ni; Rodzinyak, Kristyn; Humphreys, William F.

    2013-10-01

    Stable isotope profiles of 230Th-dated stalagmites from cave C126, Cape Range Peninsula, Western Australia, provide the first high-resolution, continental paleoclimate record spanning the Last Glacial Maximum, deglaciation, and early to middle Holocene from the Indian Ocean sector of Australia. Today, rainfall at Cape Range is sparse, highly variable, and is divided more or less equally between winter and summer rains, with winter precipitation linked to northwest cloud bands and cold fronts derived from the southern mid- to high-latitudes, and summer precipitation due primarily to tropical cyclone activity. Influences of the Indo-Australian summer monsoon at Cape Range are minimal as this region lies south of the modern monsoon margin. The interaction of these atmospheric systems helps shape the environment at Cape Range, and thus C126 stalagmite-based paleoclimatic reconstructions should reflect variability in moisture source driven by changing ocean and atmospheric conditions. The C126 record reveals slow stalagmite growth and isotopically heavy oxygen isotope values during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by increased growth rates and decreased oxygen isotopic ratios at 19 ka, reaching a δ18O minimum from 17.5 to 16.0 ka, coincident with Heinrich Stadial 1. The origin of this oxygen isotopic shift may reflect enhanced moisture and lower oxygen isotopic ratios due to amount effect-driven changes in rainfall δ18O values from an increase in rainfall derived from tropical cyclones or changes in northwest cloud band activity, although the controls on both systems are poorly constrained for this time period. Alternatively, lower C126 stalagmite δ18O values may have been driven by more frequent or more intense frontal systems associated with southerly-derived moisture sources, possibly in relation to meridional shifts in positioning of the southern westerlies which have been linked to southern Australia megalake highstands at this time. Finally, we also consider

  20. Towards an Accurate and Precise Chronology for the Colonization of Australia: The Example of Riwi, Kimberley, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Balme, Jane; O’Connor, Sue; Whitau, Rose

    2016-01-01

    An extensive series of 44 radiocarbon (14C) and 37 optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages have been obtained from the site of Riwi, south central Kimberley (NW Australia). As one of the earliest known Pleistocene sites in Australia, with archaeologically sterile sediment beneath deposits containing occupation, the chronology of the site is important in renewed debates surrounding the colonization of Sahul. Charcoal is preserved throughout the sequence and within multiple discrete hearth features. Prior to 14C dating, charcoal has been pretreated with both acid-base-acid (ABA) and acid base oxidation-stepped combustion (ABOx-SC) methods at multiple laboratories. Ages are consistent between laboratories and also between the two pretreatment methods, suggesting that contamination is easily removed from charcoal at Riwi and the Pleistocene ages are likely to be accurate. Whilst some charcoal samples recovered from outside hearth features are identified as outliers within a Bayesian model, all ages on charcoal within hearth features are consistent with stratigraphy. OSL dating has been undertaken using single quartz grains from the sandy matrix. The majority of samples show De distributions that are well-bleached but that also include evidence for mixing as a result of post-depositional bioturbation of the sediment. The results of the two techniques are compared and evaluated within a Bayesian model. Consistency between the two methods is good, and we demonstrate human occupation at this site from 46.4–44.6 cal kBP (95.4% probability range). Importantly, the lowest archaeological horizon at Riwi is underlain by sterile sediments which have been dated by OSL making it possible to demonstrate the absence of human occupation for between 0.9–5.2 ka (68.2% probability range) prior to occupation. PMID:27655174

  1. Four new Mouse Spider species (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Actinopodidae, Missulena) from Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Miglio, Laura Tavares; Harms, Danilo; Framenau, Volker Wilhelm; Harvey, Mark Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of the Mouse Spider genus Missulena Walckenaer, 1805 (family Actinopodidae) are described from Western Australia based on morphological features of adult males. Missulena leniae sp. n.(from the Carnarvon and Yalgoo biogeographic regions), Missulena mainae sp. n. (Carnarvon), Missulena melissae sp. n. (Pilbara) and Missulena pinguipes sp. n. (Mallee) represent a broad spectrum of morphological diversity found in this genus and differ from other congeners by details of the male copulatory bulb, colour patterns, eye sizes, leg morphology and leg spination. Two of the species, M. pinguipes sp. n. and M. mainae sp. n., are characterised by swollen metatarsi of the fourth legs in males, a feature not previously recorded in the family. A key to males of all named Missulena species from Australia is presented and allows their identification based on external morphology. PMID:24899853

  2. University of Western Australia v Gray: an academic duty to commercialise research?

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim; Faunce, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    In an era of tightening university budgets and pressure to commercialise academic knowledge, many higher education institutions see the exploitation of new inventions and discoveries, through the use of patents, as an additional revenue stream. To that end, many such organisations have in place policies and by-laws which regulate "ownership" and disclosure of inventions created by employees. This can be seen as a continuation of an ongoing process of shifting universities from institutes of "pure research" to commercial operations, seeking to maximise financial gains from the efforts of their researchers. However, new opportunities present new risks. One of the last Federal Court decisions by the High Court of Australia's new Chief Justice, Justice French, in University of Western Australia v Gray [2008] FCA 498 explores some of the challenges which Australian university administrators and policy developers will need to overcome if an appropriate balance between private interests and public good is to be maintained in this context. PMID:19205305

  3. Short note on a Pteranodontoid pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea) from western Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Rodrigues, Taissa; Costa, Fabiana R

    2011-03-01

    Flying reptiles from Australia are very rare, represented mostly by isolated bones coming from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) Toolebuc Formation, which crops out in western Queensland. Among the first pterosaur specimens discovered from this deposit is a mandibular symphysis that some authors thought to have a particular affinity to species found in the Cambridge Greensand (Cenomanian) of England. It was further referred as a member of or closely related to one of the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodectes or Anhanguera. Here we redescribe this specimen, showing that it cannot be referred to the aforementioned genera, but represents a new species of Pteranodontoid (sensu Kellner 2003), here named Aussiedraco molnari gen. et sp. nov. It is the second named pterosaur from Australia and confirms that the Toolebuc deposits are so far the most important for our understanding of the flying reptile fauna of this country.

  4. A new species of death adder (Acanthophis: Serpentes: Elapidae) from north-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Maddock, Simon T; Ellis, Ryan J; Doughty, Paul; Smith, Lawrence A; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Australian death adders (genus Acanthophis) are highly venomous snakes with conservative morphology and sit-and-wait predatory habits, with only moderate taxonomic diversity that nevertheless remains incompletely understood. Analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences and morphological characteristics of death adders in northern Australia reveal the existence of a new species from the Kimberley region of Western Australia and the Northern Territory, which we describe as Acanthophis cryptamydros sp. nov. Although populations from the Kimberley were previously considered conspecific with Northern Territory death adders of the A. rugosus complex, our mtDNA analysis indicates that its closest relatives are desert death adders, A. pyrrhus. We found that A. cryptamydros sp. nov. is distinct in both mtDNA and nDNA analysis, and possesses multiple morphological characteristics that allow it to be distinguished from all other Acanthophis species. This study further supports the Kimberley region as an area with high endemic biodiversity.

  5. University of Western Australia v Gray: an academic duty to commercialise research?

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim; Faunce, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    In an era of tightening university budgets and pressure to commercialise academic knowledge, many higher education institutions see the exploitation of new inventions and discoveries, through the use of patents, as an additional revenue stream. To that end, many such organisations have in place policies and by-laws which regulate "ownership" and disclosure of inventions created by employees. This can be seen as a continuation of an ongoing process of shifting universities from institutes of "pure research" to commercial operations, seeking to maximise financial gains from the efforts of their researchers. However, new opportunities present new risks. One of the last Federal Court decisions by the High Court of Australia's new Chief Justice, Justice French, in University of Western Australia v Gray [2008] FCA 498 explores some of the challenges which Australian university administrators and policy developers will need to overcome if an appropriate balance between private interests and public good is to be maintained in this context.

  6. Metasomatic alteration associated with regional metamorphism: an example from the Willyama Supergroup, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, A. J. R.; Ashley, P. M.; Fanning, C. M.

    2000-10-01

    The Olary Domain, part of the Curnamona Province, a major Proterozoic terrane located within eastern South Australia and western New South Wales, Australia, is an excellent example of geological region that has been significantly altered by metasomatic mass-transfer processes associated with regional metamorphism. Examples of metasomatically altered rocks in the Olary Domain are ubiquitous and include garnet-epidote-rich alteration zones, clinopyroxene- and actinolite-matrix breccias, replacement ironstones and albite-rich alteration zones in quartzofeldspathic metasediments and intrusive rocks. Metasomatism is typically associated with formation of calcic, sodic and/or iron-rich alteration zones and development of oxidised mineral assemblages containing one or more of the following: quartz, albite, actinolite-hornblende, andradite-rich garnet, epidote, magnetite, hematite and aegerine-bearing clinopyroxene. Detailed study of one widespread style of metasomatic alteration, garnet-epidote-rich alteration zones in calc-silicate host rocks, provides detailed information on the timing of metasomatism, the conditions under which alteration occurred, and the nature and origin of the metasomatic fluids. Garnet-epidote-bearing zones exhibit features such as breccias, veins, fracture-controlled alteration, open space fillings and massive replacement of pre-existing calc-silicate rock consistent with formation at locally high fluid pressures and fluid/rock ratios. Metasomatism of the host calc-silicate rocks occurred at temperatures between ˜400°C and 650°C, and involved loss of Na, Mg, Rb and Fe 2+, gain of Ca, Mn, Cu and Fe 3+ and mild enrichment of Pb, Zn and U. The hydrothermal fluids responsible for the formation of garnet-epidote-rich assemblages, as well as those involved in the formation of other examples of metasomatic alteration in the Olary Domain, were hypersaline, oxidised, and chemically complex, containing Na, Ca, Fe 3+, Cl, and SO 42-. Sm-Nd geochronology

  7. Bovine theileriosis--an emerging problem in south-eastern Australia?

    PubMed

    Islam, M Khyrul; Jabbar, Abdul; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is an arthropod-borne disease caused by one or more haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Theileria. Traditionally, Theileria infection in cattle in Australia was largely asymptomatic and recognized to be associated with Theileria buffeli, now assigned to the Theileria orientalis-group. There have been some recent outbreaks of theileriosis in dairy and beef cattle, mainly in subtropical climatic zone (New South Wales) of Australia. Here, we provide the first published evidence of an outbreak of bovine theileriosis in the south-eastern Australia (state of Victoria) linked to the ikeda and chitose genotypes of T. orientalis. Future investigations should focus sharply on the elucidating the epidemiology and ecology of Theileria in this region to subvert the possible impact on the cattle industry.

  8. The South Australia Health Chronic Disease Self-Management Internet Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorig, Kate; Ritter, Philip L.; Plant, Kathryn; Laurent, Diana D.; Kelly, Pauline; Rowe, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an online chronic disease self-management program for South Australia residents. Method: Data were collected online at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The intervention was an asynchronous 6-week chronic disease self-management program offered online. The authors measured eight health status measures,…

  9. Tertiary Educators' Voices in Australia and South Africa: Experiencing and Engaging in African Music and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Music tertiary educators can foster positive experiences that promote diversity, enhance intercultural and cross-cultural understanding through our teaching. Through findings of interview data of tertiary music educators' understandings of multicultural music practice at two South African universities and at an Australia university, I used…

  10. Engagement with Empires: Irish Catholic Female Religious Teachers in Colonial South Australia 1868-1901

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the roles of Irish Catholic female religious institutes for teachers in the context of the recent debates about education and empire. Nineteenth century colonial South Australia provides an opportunity to examine such institutes, for example the Irish Dominicans from Cabra Dublin, the Irish Mercy Institute from Baggot Street,…

  11. Sunny Prospects: The Non-School-Leaver Segment in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clermont, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of demand-driven funding following the Bradley Review has seen the progressive removal of constraints on the number of undergraduate places that universities can offer, therefore allowing universities to set their own growth levels. In South Australia, there is little unmet demand for university places. Traditionally, universities…

  12. Democratic Citizenship Education in the Information Age: A Comparative Study of South Korea and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roh, Young-Ran

    2004-01-01

    Democratic citizenship education in the information age must concern itself with the goal of nurturing future generations with the capacity to make appropriate use of the changes driven by the advances of ICTs so as to activate political and social democracy. Using Australia and South Korea as case studies, this paper discusses the role that…

  13. Mortality among a Cohort of Persons with an Intellectual Disability in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florio, Tony; Trollor, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the study was to compare mortality for people with an intellectual disability (ID) to the general population in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A second objective was to provide mortality data for people with an intellectual disability from NSW in a standardized format, which allows for international comparisons…

  14. Native Tongue, Captive Voice: The Representation of the Aboriginal "Voice" in Colonial South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robert; Muhlhausler, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Examines the way in which the Aboriginal "voice" was represented in colonial South Australia, particularly in the form of pidgin English. The first part of the article focuses on the first decade of settlement; the second part examines the period between 1860 and the turn of the century. Findings indicate that the Aboriginal voice in South…

  15. Water-Recycling in South-East Queensland, Australia: What Do Men and Women Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007, South-East Queensland became the first region in Australia to formally decide to introduce recycled water into the drinking supplies. Internationally, although water recycling occurs in the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and Belgium, surprisingly little is known about public perceptions. This article explores gender…

  16. The Gendered Shaping of University Leadership in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kate; Bagilhole, Barbara; Riordan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses career trajectories into university management in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK), skills required to operate effectively and the power of vice-chancellors (VCs) and their impact on the gendered shaping of university leadership. It is based on qualitative research with 56 male and female senior managers.…

  17. Is Isolation a Problem? Issues Faced by Rural Libraries and Rural Library Staff in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Rebecca; Calvert, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate current issues faced by public library staff in rural South Australia and to examine some of the reasons why people choose to work in rural libraries. The study took a mixed methods approach, combining interviews and questionnaires to gain a fuller understanding of the issues and experiences of rural…

  18. Rickettsia Detected in the Reptile Tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri from the Lizard Tiliqua rugosa in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Custance, Georgie; Graves, Stephen; Stenos, John; Taylor, Michael; Ross, Kirstin; Gardner, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsiosis is a potentially fatal tick borne disease. It is caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, which is transferred to humans through salivary excretions of ticks during the biting process. Globally, the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing; as such, there is a need for a greater understanding of tick–host interactions to create more informed risk management strategies. Flinders Island spotted fever rickettsioses has been identified throughout Australia (Tasmania, South Australia, Queensland and Torres Strait Islands) with possible identifications in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Italy. Flinders Island spotted fever is thought to be spread through tick bites and the reptile tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri has been implicated as a vector in this transmission. This study used qPCR to assay Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts on mainland South Australia near where spotted fever cases have been identified. We report that, although we discovered Rickettsia in all tick samples, it was not Rickettsia honei. This study is the first to use PCR to positively identify Rickettsia from South Australian Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts. These findings suggest that B. hydrosauri may be a vector of multiple Rickettsia spp. Also as all 41 tested B. hydrosauri ticks were positive for Rickettsia this indicates an extremely high prevalence within the studied area in South Australia. PMID:27338482

  19. Counter-Geographies: The Campaign against Rationalisation of Agricultural Research Stations in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chris; Dufty, Rae; Phillips, Samantha; Smith, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses an example of community action mounted in a rural region of New South Wales, Australia, in response to proposals by the State Government to rationalise agricultural research stations operated by the Department of Primary Industries. Informed by a Foucaultian understanding of power and the concept of governmentality,…

  20. Detection of reproducing populations of Coccinella novemnotata within coccinellid assemblages (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in western South Dakota and western Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adults of three native species of lady beetles [Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Adalia bipunctata (L.); Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] of conservation interest were detected during recent surveys at several locations in western South Dakota and western ...

  1. 137Cs in the western South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2007-09-01

    The 137Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea (two stations) Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean by gamma spectrometry using a low background Ge detector. The 137Cs activities ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 Bq m(-3) over the depth interval 0-250 m and decreased exponentially from the subsurface to 1000 m depth. The distribution profiles of 137Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. There was a remarkable difference for the vertical profiles of 137Cs activity between the East Caroline Basin station in this study and the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) station at the same latitude in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean; the 137Cs inventory over the depth interval 100-1000 m increased from 400+/-30 Bq m(-2) to 560+/-30 Bq m(-2) during the period from 1973 to 1992. The total 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850+/-70 Bq m(-2) in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270+/-90 Bq m(-2) in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137Cs inventories were 1.9-4.5 times (2.9+/-0.7 on average) and 1.7-4.3 times (3.1+/-0.7 on average) higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude and that of the estimated 137Cs deposition density in 10 degrees latitude by 10 degrees longitude grid data obtained by Aoyama et al. [Aoyama M, Hirose K, Igarashi Y. Re-construction and updating our understanding on the global weapons tests 137Cs fallout. J Environ Monit 2006;8:431-438], respectively. The possible processes for higher 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout may be attributable to the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137Cs from

  2. 137Cs in the western South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2007-09-01

    The 137Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea (two stations) Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean by gamma spectrometry using a low background Ge detector. The 137Cs activities ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 Bq m(-3) over the depth interval 0-250 m and decreased exponentially from the subsurface to 1000 m depth. The distribution profiles of 137Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. There was a remarkable difference for the vertical profiles of 137Cs activity between the East Caroline Basin station in this study and the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) station at the same latitude in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean; the 137Cs inventory over the depth interval 100-1000 m increased from 400+/-30 Bq m(-2) to 560+/-30 Bq m(-2) during the period from 1973 to 1992. The total 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850+/-70 Bq m(-2) in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270+/-90 Bq m(-2) in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137Cs inventories were 1.9-4.5 times (2.9+/-0.7 on average) and 1.7-4.3 times (3.1+/-0.7 on average) higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude and that of the estimated 137Cs deposition density in 10 degrees latitude by 10 degrees longitude grid data obtained by Aoyama et al. [Aoyama M, Hirose K, Igarashi Y. Re-construction and updating our understanding on the global weapons tests 137Cs fallout. J Environ Monit 2006;8:431-438], respectively. The possible processes for higher 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout may be attributable to the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137Cs from

  3. Impacts of seawater desalination on the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Dupavillon, Jacqueline L; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2009-01-01

    With seawater desalination expanding rapidly, it is important that ecological studies are undertaken to determine the effects of brine discharge on the marine species in the area. The abundance of giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama, Gray 1849) eggs and environmental data were recorded at nine sites near Point Lowly, Spencer Gulf, South Australia, an area where the largest desalination plant in the Southern hemisphere is proposed. In addition, the effects of different concentrations of desalination brine on the growth, survival and condition of cuttlefish embryos were investigated. The primary egg-laying sites for the cuttlefish were in the vicinity of Stony Point (sites 4 and 3) and the area with the least egg abundance was on the eastern and western areas around Point Lowly (sites 9 and 7) where no eggs were found. The survival of embryos decreased with an increase in salinity, with no embryos surviving to full term in salinities greater than 50 per thousand. Mean weight and mantle length also decreased with increasing salinity. Besides elevated salinity, the brine also had increased concentrations of Ba, Ca, K, Sr and Mg relative to water near Point Lowly. Brine discharge from seawater desalination poses a potential threat to the unique spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish, in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia.

  4. A Gunflint-type microbiota from the Duck Creek dolomite, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Barghoorn, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    Two-billion-year-old black chert lenses from the Duck Creek formation, northwestern Western Australia, contain abundant organically preserved microorganisms which are morphologically similar to fossils of approximately the same age from the Gunflint formation, Ontario. Entities include a relatively small (5-15 micron) coccoid taxon morphologically comparable to Huroniospora Barghoorn, a larger coccoid form comparable to an apparently planktonic alga from the Gunflint, Gunflintia Barghoorn, and Eoastrion Barghoorn (Metallogenium Perfil'ev). Gunflint-type assemblages had a wide geographic distribution in middle Precambrian times, and these assemblages may eventually prove useful as biostratigraphic indices.

  5. Non-song vocalizations of pygmy blue whales in Geographe Bay, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Recalde-Salas, A; Salgado Kent, C P; Parsons, M J G; Marley, S A; McCauley, R D

    2014-05-01

    Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with song, and thus were identified as non-song vocalizations. Five of these were not previously described for this population. Their acoustic characteristics and context are presented. Given that 56% of groups vocalized, 86% of which produced non-song vocalizations and 14% song units, the inclusion of non-song vocalizations in passive-acoustic monitoring is proposed.

  6. Dr. William Theodore Hodge: pioneer surgeon-apothecary in early-twentieth-century Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Kamien, Max

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 I chanced upon the lonely grave of Dr. William Theodore Hodge, buried in 1934, in the Derby Pioneer and Aboriginal Cemetery. He turned out to be the founding doctor of the practice in which I have worked for the past thirty years. Dr. Hodge migrated from England in 1896. He was the first western trained doctor to work in the Perth suburb of Claremont and in the wheat-belt town of Kellerberrin. He was an innovative and inventive modern doctor who became a legend in the Kimberley where he died tragically, on the day prior to his retirement, at the age of seventy-five. His story is illustrative of the life and medical practice of a pioneering doctor in metropolitan, rural, and remote practice in Western Australia at the end of the nineteenth and the early years of the twentieth centuries. PMID:20973339

  7. A mid-Holocene candidate tsunami deposit from the NW Cape (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Simon Matthias; Falvard, Simon; Norpoth, Maike; Pint, Anna; Brill, Dominik; Engel, Max; Scheffers, Anja; Dierick, Manuel; Paris, Raphaël; Squire, Peter; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-03-01

    Although extreme-wave events are frequent along the northwestern coast of Western Australia and tsunamis in 1994 and 2006 induced considerable coastal flooding locally, robust stratigraphical evidence of prehistoric tropical cyclones and tsunamis from this area is lacking. Based on the analyses of X-ray computed microtomography (μCT) of oriented sediment cores, multi-proxy sediment and microfaunal analyses, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C-AMS dating, this study presents detailed investigations on an allochthonous sand layer of marine origin found in a back-barrier depression on the NW Cape Range peninsula. The event layer consists of material from the adjacent beach and dune, fines and thins inland, and was traced up to ~ 400 m onshore. Although a cyclone-induced origin cannot entirely be ruled out, the particular architecture and fabric of the sediment, rip-up clasts and three subunits point to deposition by a tsunami. As such, it represents the first stratigraphical evidence of a prehistoric, mid-Holocene tsunami in NW Western Australia. It was OSL-dated to 5400-4300 years ago, thus postdating the regional mid-Holocene sea-level highstand.

  8. Estimating 21st century changes in extreme sea levels around Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, I. D.; Pattiaratchi, C.

    2010-08-01

    Extreme sea levels are likely to increase in the future with an expected accelerated rise in mean sea level and through possible changes in storminess. Society is becoming more vulnerable to extreme sea levels due to considerable growth in human populations and economy at the coastal zone and this is particularly true for Western Australia, the fastest growing Australian state or region. This paper describes a novel approach used to estimate future changes in extreme sea level around the southwest coastline of Western Australia. Probabilities of extreme sea level for the present climate have been estimated using a 60 year hindcast of sea levels. The impact of climate change has been explored by adding a range of mean sea level rise projections to these probabilities. Estimates of possible future changes in recurrence intervals every decade over the 21st century are presented, showing that climate change has the potential to significantly reduce current average recurrence intervals and that the amount of reduction varies significantly around the coastline.

  9. Evidence for thermal erosion of basalt and hybridization of komatiite at Kambalda, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Lesher, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Archean komatiite-associated Ni-sulfide ores in Western Australia are hosted by cumulate metakomatiites and are localized in footwall embayments. Structural, stratigraphical, and volcanological studies of the type-examples of these deposits at Kambalda, Western Australia suggest i) that the host units represent linear lava conduits and ii) that the embayments are volcanic features, modified by deformation. The sulfide ore are interpreted to have formed by assimilation of sulfidic, cherty sediments beneath the thermally-active lava conduits. Transgressive magmatic contacts between massive sulfide and pillowed metabasalt provide unequivocal evidence for erosion of basalt by highly thermally conductive massive sulfides. Evidence for thermal erosion of basalt by komatiite is more equivocal as contacts between the two lithologies are normally recrystallized and marked by chloritic metasomatic reaction zones. Thermal erosion channels produced experimentally by Huppert et al. (1984) are morphologically similar to the embayments at Kambalda, but it is unlikely that the embayments in these deposits have been generated by thermal erosion, for several reason: 1) Some embayments contain uneroded metasediments and predate emplacement of the ores and host units. 2) Some embayments appear to be broadly stratigraphically conformable within the footwall metabasalt sequence. 3) Some embayments are elliptical in outline and could not have formed by thermal erosion beneath a lava conduit. The embayments probably represent volcanic-topographic irregularities in the surface of the footwall basalt that have been variably modified by thermal erosion.

  10. Siderophore production by actinomycetes isolates from two soil sites in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joanna; Postmaster, Armin; Soon, Hooi Peng; Keast, David; Carson, Kerry C

    2012-04-01

    The actinomycetes are metabolically flexible soil micro-organisms capable of producing a range of compounds of interest, including siderophores. Siderophore production by actinomycetes sampled from two distinct and separate geographical sites in Western Australia were investigated and found to be generally similar in the total percentage of siderophore producers found. The only notable difference was the proportion of isolates producing catechol siderophores with only 3% found in site 1 (from the north-west of Western Australia and reportedly containing 40% magnetite) and 17% in site 2 (a commercial stone fruit orchard in the hills east of Perth with a soil base ranging from sandy loam to laterite). Further detailed characterization of isolates of interest identified a Streptomyces that produced extracellularly excreted enterobactin, the characteristic Enterobacteriaceae siderophore, and also revealed some of the conditions required for enterobactin production. Carriage of the entF gene, which codes for the synthetase responsible for the final assembly of the tri-cyclic structure of enterobactin, was confirmed by PCR in this isolate. Another separate Streptomyces produced a compound that matched the UV/VIS spectra of heterobactin, a siderophore previously only described in Rhodococcus and Nocardia. PMID:22038645

  11. A Flatworm from the Genus Waminoa (Acoela: Convolutidae) Associated with Bleached Corals in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystal; Clode, Peta L; Thomson, Damian P; Stat, Michael

    2015-10-01

    A flatworm isolated from bleached colonies of the coral Coscinaraea marshae at Rottnest Island, Western Australia, is described using a combination of morphological and molecular systematics. This flatworm shares morphological features characteristic of the genus Waminoa (Acoelomorpha: Acoela), including the presence of two algal symbionts, but appears to have genital regions different from those of other described species of Waminoa. The design of new oligonucleotide primers enabled the amplification of partial 18S rDNA of the Rottnest Island acoel specimens, and phylogenetic analysis positioned them within Waminoa, confirming their placement in the genus. Furthermore, Waminoa specimens from Rottnest Island grouped into a sister clade to Waminoa brickneri, indicating that the morphological and genetic differences observed are most likely intraspecific and due to geographic variation. As such, we name these Rottnest Island specimens W. cf. brickneri, but highlight that key differences warrant further exploration before assignment to this species can be confirmed. This is the first acoel flatworm described from Western Australia and contributes to our understanding of the diversity and evolutionary relationship of the Acoela.

  12. Molecular characterization of anisakid nematode larvae from 13 species of fish from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul; Fong, Rachel W J; Kok, Kia X; Lopata, Andreas L; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2013-02-15

    This study characterized anisakid nematodes in estuarine and near-shore species of fish in southern Western Australia. A total of 108 fish representing 13 species were examined for anisakid larvae. For the molecular characterization of anisakid larvae (n=218), we used PCR-coupled mutation scanning-sequencing-phylogenetic analyses of sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA. With the exception of Sillaginoides punctatus and Sillago schomburgkii, all the fish species examined (Aldrichetta forsteri, Arripis georgianus, Hyporhamphus regularis, Mugil cephalus, Platycephalus speculator, Pomatomus saltatrix, Pseudocaranx dentex, Pseudocaranx wrighti, Thysanophrys cirronatus, Trachurus novaezeelandiae and Upeneichthys lineatus) harboured at least one species of anisakid. Mutation scanning analysis identified 11 different genotypes of anisakid larvae. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data, employing reference sequence data for a wide range of anisakids (31 species) from public databases, revealed the presence of Anisakis pegreffii (n=3), Contracaecum multipapillatum (49), Contracaecum ogmorhini (1), Hysterothylacium larval type IV (82), Hysterothylacium larval type Vb (14), Hysterothylacium larval type VIII (3), Hysterothylacium larval type X (65), and Terranova type I (1) in the fish examined. The present study provides valuable information on the diversity of anisakids in southern Western Australia and also a basis for future investigations to assess the public health significance of these parasites. PMID:23353682

  13. Siderophore production by actinomycetes isolates from two soil sites in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joanna; Postmaster, Armin; Soon, Hooi Peng; Keast, David; Carson, Kerry C

    2012-04-01

    The actinomycetes are metabolically flexible soil micro-organisms capable of producing a range of compounds of interest, including siderophores. Siderophore production by actinomycetes sampled from two distinct and separate geographical sites in Western Australia were investigated and found to be generally similar in the total percentage of siderophore producers found. The only notable difference was the proportion of isolates producing catechol siderophores with only 3% found in site 1 (from the north-west of Western Australia and reportedly containing 40% magnetite) and 17% in site 2 (a commercial stone fruit orchard in the hills east of Perth with a soil base ranging from sandy loam to laterite). Further detailed characterization of isolates of interest identified a Streptomyces that produced extracellularly excreted enterobactin, the characteristic Enterobacteriaceae siderophore, and also revealed some of the conditions required for enterobactin production. Carriage of the entF gene, which codes for the synthetase responsible for the final assembly of the tri-cyclic structure of enterobactin, was confirmed by PCR in this isolate. Another separate Streptomyces produced a compound that matched the UV/VIS spectra of heterobactin, a siderophore previously only described in Rhodococcus and Nocardia.

  14. The acraman impact structure: source of ejecta in late precambrian shales, South australia.

    PubMed

    Williams, G E

    1986-07-11

    A major probable impact structure occurs in middle Proterozoic dacitic volcanics in the Gawler Ranges, central South Australia. The structure has an inner depressed area about 30 kilometers in diameter that contains the Lake Acraman salina, an intermediate depression or ring about 90 kilometers in diameter, and a possible outer ring approximately 160 kilometers in diameter. Outcrops of dacite in Lake Acraman are intensely shattered and contain shatter cones and multiple sets of shock lamellac in quartz grains. The Acraman structure is the largest probable impact structure known in Australia and is the likely source of dacitic ejecta found in late Precambrian marine shales some 300 kilometers to the east.

  15. Yardea Dacite -large-volume, high-temperature felsic volcanism from the Middle Proterozoic of South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Creaser, R.A.; White, A.J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The Yardea Dacite is a large-volume felsic volcanic unit from the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range Volcanics of South Australia; it has been previously described as an ignimbrite. However, some samples contain no petrographic evidence for a pyroclastic origin, but have characteristics compatible with final crystallization from a nonfragmented magma. These samples may have erupted as lavas, but others are likely to be extremely densely welded ignimbrites, suggesting a compound nature for the unit. Geothermometry and phase equilibria indicate that the Yardea Dacite originated from a high-temperature ({approximately}1,000{degree}C) felsic magma with a low water content ({le}2%). The Yardea Dacite is not associated with a known caldera of the Valles type, and shares many characteristics of recently described Cenozoic felsic volcanic rocks from the western United States, interpreted as rheoignimbrites or as unusually extensive lavas.

  16. Desert varnish and environmental change near Broken Hill, Western New South Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragovich, D.

    1988-12-01

    Desert varnish is widespread in arid Australia, and occurs as a thin often discontinuous manganese-enriched surface coating near Broken Hill, western New South Wales. Radiocarbon dating of calcium carbonate associated with this varnish indicated that major varnishing took place before about 10,000 years B.P., with varnish-forming conditions continuing during the Holocene. Small patches of varnish on secondary carbonate, on non-varnished rock and sometimes on existing varnish suggest that current environmental conditions allow for some varnish formation. Loss of varnish has resulted from within-channel abrasion, weathering by lichens, minor breakdown of varnish substrates, and localized weathering, possibly related to a previously higher soil surface.

  17. Assessment of factors limiting algal growth in acidic pit lakes--a case study from Western Australia, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Naresh; McCullough, Clint D; Lund, Mark A; Larranaga, Santiago A

    2016-03-01

    Open-cut mining operations can form pit lakes on mine closure. These new water bodies typically have low nutrient concentrations and may have acidic and metal-contaminated waters from acid mine drainage (AMD) causing low algal biomass and algal biodiversity. A preliminary study was carried out on an acidic coal pit lake, Lake Kepwari, in Western Australia to determine which factors limited algal biomass. Water quality was monitored to obtain baseline data. pH ranged between 3.7 and 4.1, and solute concentrations were slightly elevated to levels of brackish water. Concentrations of N were highly relative to natural lakes, although concentrations of FRP (<0.01 mg/L) and C (total C 0.7-3.7 and DOC 0.7-3.5 mg/L) were very low, and as a result, algal growth was also extremely low. Microcosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that nutrient enrichment will be able to stimulate algal growth regardless of water quality. Microcosms of Lake Kepwari water were amended with N, P and C nutrients with and without sediment. Nutrient amendments under microcosm conditions could not show any significant phytoplankton growth but was able to promote benthic algal growth. P amendments without sediment showed a statistically higher mean algal biomass concentration than controls or microcosms amended with phosphorus but with sediment did. Results indicated that algal biomass in acidic pit lake (Lake Kepwari) may be limited primarily by low nutrient concentrations (especially phosphorus) and not by low pH or elevated metal concentrations. Furthermore, sediment processes may also reduce the nutrient availability. PMID:26593729

  18. Assessment of factors limiting algal growth in acidic pit lakes--a case study from Western Australia, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Naresh; McCullough, Clint D; Lund, Mark A; Larranaga, Santiago A

    2016-03-01

    Open-cut mining operations can form pit lakes on mine closure. These new water bodies typically have low nutrient concentrations and may have acidic and metal-contaminated waters from acid mine drainage (AMD) causing low algal biomass and algal biodiversity. A preliminary study was carried out on an acidic coal pit lake, Lake Kepwari, in Western Australia to determine which factors limited algal biomass. Water quality was monitored to obtain baseline data. pH ranged between 3.7 and 4.1, and solute concentrations were slightly elevated to levels of brackish water. Concentrations of N were highly relative to natural lakes, although concentrations of FRP (<0.01 mg/L) and C (total C 0.7-3.7 and DOC 0.7-3.5 mg/L) were very low, and as a result, algal growth was also extremely low. Microcosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that nutrient enrichment will be able to stimulate algal growth regardless of water quality. Microcosms of Lake Kepwari water were amended with N, P and C nutrients with and without sediment. Nutrient amendments under microcosm conditions could not show any significant phytoplankton growth but was able to promote benthic algal growth. P amendments without sediment showed a statistically higher mean algal biomass concentration than controls or microcosms amended with phosphorus but with sediment did. Results indicated that algal biomass in acidic pit lake (Lake Kepwari) may be limited primarily by low nutrient concentrations (especially phosphorus) and not by low pH or elevated metal concentrations. Furthermore, sediment processes may also reduce the nutrient availability.

  19. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia. PMID:12177993

  20. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  1. Geochemical indicators and characterization of soil water repellence in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordan, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Soil water repellency (SWR) has critical implications for restoration of vegetation in degraded areas as it is responsible of poor plant establishment and a high incidence of erosion processes. Different organic substances are capable of inducing SWR but polar molecules such as certain fatty acids, and waxes i.e. esters and salts of fatty acids, appear to be the main constituents of hydrophobic coatings on soil mineral particles (Doerr et al., 2005). Plant species most commonly associated with SWR are evergreen trees with a considerable amount of resins, waxes or aromatic oils such as eucalypts and pines. Most of these substances are abundant in ecosystems and are released to soil by plants as root exudates or decaying organic debris, and by soil fauna, fungi and other microorganisms, but a thorough knowledge of substances capable of inducing hydrophobicity in soils is still not complete (Jordan et al., 2013). Although SWR has been reported in most continents of the world for different soil types, climate conditions and land uses, there are still many research gaps in this area, particularly in semi-arid areas largely affected by this phenomenon. Materials and methods This research was conducted in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia (WA), e.g. semi-arid grassland in the Pilbara region (North WA), Banksia woodland, and a coastal dune (both located in South WA). These environments have different climate characteristics and soil types but similar vegetation communities. Soil samples were collected under the canopy of a broad range of plant species that compose the dominant vegetation communities of these ecosystems, and SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C). Soil microbial activity was measured with the 1-day CO2 test, a cost-effective and rapid method to determine soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Soil p

  2. Social inclusion and the City of Swan public libraries in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lockyer-Benzie, Maureena

    2004-09-01

    The focus of this paper is on an understanding of social exclusion/inclusion: the concept and how a specific public library service, namely the City of Swan Public Library service, has responded to this social issue. The terms social inclusion/exclusion are explored and clarified from an international, Western Australian State Government, and public library perspective. This is followed by a brief overview of Western Australia as an Australian state, and how public libraries operate based on a partnership with the State Library of Western Australia and Local Government. The City of Swan Public Libraries are described in some depth and also portrayed in their local setting namely the City of Swan, a city of extensive growth that offers a unique environment of both rural and urban areas. The concept of social inclusion is then applied to the City of Swan Public Library service and how the library service addresses social inclusion within its physical environment, policies, operations, future planning, programmes and services. This includes the results of a Library Non-user Survey that was conducted in 2001. The aims of this survey were to: ascertain why non-users within the City of Swan do not make use of the library facilities; explore why past members were not using the library services; examine the effectiveness of library promotions; and investigate the access to and usage of the Internet. The paper concludes with a list of the potential social conditions of which public libraries need to be aware in their strategic planning activities so that community members are not excluded from participating and accessing the public library service.

  3. Thermotectonic Evolution of the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia: Insights into Gondwana Amalgmation and Breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S.; Phillips, D.; Kohn, B. P.; Gleadow, A. J. W.; Matchan, E.; Li, G.

    2015-12-01

    Australia during Gondwana break-up or a response to the termination of the large scale Permo-Carboniferous glaciation of Western Australia.

  4. Breakup of pangaea and isolation of relict mammals in australia, South america, and madagascar.

    PubMed

    Fooden, J

    1972-02-25

    The composition of aboriginal land mammal faunas in Australia and New Guinea (prototherians and metatherians), South America (metatherians and eutherians) and Madagascar (eutherians only) is reconsidered in light of continental drift reconstructions of Mesozoic-Tertiary world paleogeography It is proposed that these three faunas represent successively detached samples of the evolving world mammal fauna as it existed when each of these land masses became faunally isolated from the rest of the world as a result of the progressive fragmentation of Pangaea. Isolation of aboriginal prototherians and metatherians in Australia and New Guinea may date from the Upper JurassicLower Cretaceous; isolation of aboriginal metatherians and eutherians in South America may date from the Middle Cretaceous-Upper Cretaceous; isolation of aboriginal eutherians in Madagascar may date from the Paleocene-Eocene.

  5. The Influence of Economic Factors on Practice in Further Education. Submission to Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ian L.; Parkinson, Kevin J.

    The unprecedented economic growth sustained in the period following World War II to the early 1970s in the world, in Australia, and in particular, in South Australia fostered the growth of liberal education and emphasis on self-development and excellence of the individual. However, the growth in inflation from the modest levels of the early 1970s…

  6. Novel psychoactive substance and other drug use by young adults in Western australia.

    PubMed

    Goggin, Leigh S; Gately, Natalie; Bridle, Russell I

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in Western Australia. The aim of this study was to pilot-test an online survey to obtain data on the prevalence of NPS and other drug use by young Western Australians aged between 18 and 35 years. The Young Adult Drug and Alcohol Survey (YADAS) was a questionnaire deployed online for a period of six months. Participants were recruited via a combined targeted sampling and snowball methodology. There were 472 valid responses. Overall lifetime use of NPS was relatively high (17.6%), while use in the last year was lower (6.6%). These proportions were comparable to that of cocaine use. The most popular NPS were the synthetic cannabinoids. The proportions of respondents drinking alcohol at risky levels, mixing alcohol with energy drinks, and using pharmaceuticals such as ADHD medications for non-medical reasons were high. The YADAS is the first survey to ascertain the prevalence of use of numerous types of NPS in a large sample of young Western Australian adults. The utilization of an online survey methodology yielded valid results as compared to more intensive surveys, and enables researchers greater flexibility in being able to capture current trends. PMID:25950594

  7. Seasonal variability in sediment distribution along an exposure gradient in a seagrass meadow in Shoalwater Bay, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keulen, Mike van; Borowitzka, Michael A.

    2003-07-01

    Seagrasses, by blocking water flow as it passes through the leafy canopy, are believed to have a significant impact on sediment dynamics, and the formation of sand and mud banks in some areas. The role of seagrasses in sedimentation processes is poorly understood in high-energy environments, such as those found in south-Western Australia. Studies of sediment size fraction distribution were conducted over a 14-month period within a Posidonia sinuosa meadow, at an exposed and a sheltered site, to investigate the role of seagrass canopies on sediment dynamics. Sediment size analyses, obtained by sieving sediment samples, showed a difference between exposed and sheltered sites, as well as seasonal influences on the data. A three-way ANOVA run on the data indicates a summer and winter pattern superimposed over the sheltered and exposed pattern. This suggests that during the calmer conditions experienced in summer there was an increased proportion of finer grain sizes at the sheltered site, while in winter the grain sizes tended to become coarser, more closely matching the pattern observed at the exposed site. These results suggest that reduced water motion at the sheltered site during summer permitted finer sediment grain sizes to settle out, while increased water motion during winter increased the proportion of coarse grain sizes. At the exposed site this seasonal difference was not observed. It therefore appears that the P. sinuosa canopy reduces flow through a dense meadow, but this effect appears to be modified by overall wave energy, observed to operate seasonally.

  8. 40Ar/39Ar cooling history of the Albany Mobile Belt, Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scibiorski, Elisabeth; Tohver, Eric; Jourdan, Fred

    2013-04-01

    The Albany-Fraser Orogen of southwestern Australia is a Grenville-age orogenic belt that marks the suturing of the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia to the Mawson Craton of South Australia and Antarctica. The Albany Mobile Belt is situated in the west of the orogen and consists of three geological domains: the Nornalup Zone, the Biranup Zone and the Northern Foreland. The crustal genesis and nature of boundaries between these domains is unknown. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of biotite and muscovite grains from a 250 km transect across all three domains in the Albany Mobile Belt is used to study the exhumation and cooling history of the amphibolite to granulite facies orogenic root. Previously published geochronological data dates peak amphibolite or granulite facies metamorphism in the Nornalup Zone, Biranup Zone and Northern Foreland at ca. 1170 Ma, ca. 1180 Ma and ca. 1210 - 1180 Ma respectively. All samples reported in this study yielded well defined plateau ages consistent with Stage II of the Albany-Fraser Orogeny (1215 - 1140 Ma). Four biotites from the Nornalup Zone give cooling ages ranging from 1144 ± 5 Ma to 1168 ± 5 Ma, one biotite from the Biranup Zone gives a cooling age of 1159 ± 5 Ma, and four muscovites from the Northern Foreland give statistically indistinguishable cooling ages ranging from 1157 ± 6 Ma to 1164 ± 5 Ma, with a weighted mean age of 1159 ± 6 Ma (P = 0.10). The new cooling ages imply that the three domains had been brought to a similar structural level (12 - 17 km depth) by ca. 1158 Ma, and have shared a common geological history since that time. This suggests that Stage II tectonic activity may have ended at ca. 1158 Ma in the Albany Mobile Belt, 20 Myr earlier than previously assumed. A cooling rate of 25°C/Myr for the Biranup Zone was calculated based on the 20 Myr interval between peak granulite-facies metamorphism and the cooling of the domain through the estimated biotite closure temperature (ca. 300°C) by ca. 1159 Ma

  9. Spatial and temporal patterns of nature-based tourism interactions with whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Douglas J.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Norman, Brad M.; Bejder, Lars; Tyne, Julian A.; Loneragan, Neil R.

    2014-07-01

    As with other nature-based tourism ventures, whale shark tourism is expanding rapidly worldwide, which highlights the need to understand more about the nature of these activities. Records of interactions between tour operators and whale sharks at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia (22.5°S, 113.5°E) were obtained from the Western Australian Department of Parks and Wildlife from 2006 to 2010 and evaluated to determine the scale of the tourism operations and the spatial and temporal distribution of interactions. The number of whale shark tours at Ningaloo increased by approx. 70% (520-886 tours per year) and the number of interactions with whale sharks by 370% between 2006 (694) and 2010 (3254). The locations of whale shark interactions recorded in logbooks (2006-2009) and electronic monitoring systems (2009 and 2010) were used to plot the smoothed densities of tour operator interactions with whale sharks. Generalised linear models were used to investigate how the presence/absence and number of whale shark interactions at North and South Ningaloo were influenced by the distance to the reef crest, the distance to passages and their interaction terms for the aggregated five-year data set. Over the five years, distance to the reef crest was the best predictor of the presence/absence of whale shark interactions at both North (interactions concentrated within 3 km of the reef crest) and South Ningaloo (interactions within 6 km of the reef crest) followed by distance to passages. The reef passages are very significant areas for tourism interactions with whale sharks at Ningaloo. The distribution of interactions at North and South Ningaloo varied from year to year, particularly in the strong La Niña year of 2010, when average sea surface temperatures remained above 24 °C and whale sharks were observed much later in the year than previously (late August). This study demonstrates the value of the data collected by the tour operators at Ningaloo Reef and managed by a

  10. Unexpected occurrence of Haemonchus placei in cattle in southern Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul; Cotter, Jenny; Lyon, Jill; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Besier, Brown

    2014-01-01

    Haemonchus placei is an abomasal parasite of cattle, primarily in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. In Australia, this nematode can be extremely pathogenic in summer rainfall areas, particularly in the hot, sub-tropical Kimberley region, in the far north of the state of Western Australia (WA). Although cattle are occasionally transferred to southern parts of WA, it was believed that H. placei did not occur in southern regions of WA, as it is less cold-adapted than Haemonchus contortus, and the free-living stages would not develop during the cold winter and dry summer periods. Here, we show that, although H. contortus is found in cattle in the temperate southern region of WA, it appears that H. placei also occurs in southern WA. While investigating the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of cattle in WA, the existence of H. placei was suspected on a range of participating farms, following the morphological examination of third-stage larvae cultured from faeces, and of adult worms recovered from sheep experimentally infected with these larvae. Genomic DNAs from individual worms as well as eggs from pooled faecal samples from seven farms in southern WA were subjected to PCR-based mutation scanning and sequence analyses of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The results showed that both H. contortus and H. placei were harboured by cattle. This first record of H. placei in cattle in southern WA raises questions as to the prevalence and distribution of this parasite in other temperate and cool climatic regions of Australia. Although clinical disease due to H. placei has not yet been seen in southern WA, global, climatic trends might suggest an increased importance of this parasite in the longer term.

  11. Management of death, dying and euthanasia: attitudes and practices of medical practitioners in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Stevens, C A; Hassan, R

    1994-03-01

    This article presents the first results of a study of the decisions made by health professionals in South Australia concerning the management of death, dying, and euthanasia, and focuses on the findings concerning the attitudes and practices of medical practitioners. Mail-back, self-administered questionnaires were posted in August 1991 to a ten per cent sample of 494 medical practitioners in South Australia randomly selected from the list published by the Medical Board of South Australia. A total response rate of 68 per cent was obtained, 60 per cent of which (298) were usable returns. It was found that forty-seven per cent had received requests from patients to hasten their deaths. Nineteen per cent had taken active steps which had brought about the death of a patient. Sixty-eight per cent thought that guidelines for withholding and withdrawal of treatment should be established. Forty-five per cent were in favour of legalisation of active euthanasia under certain circumstances. PMID:8035439

  12. Occurrence of a new subclade of Leptosphaeria biglobosa in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Vincenot, L; Balesdent, M H; Li, H; Barbetti, M J; Sivasithamparam, K; Gout, L; Rouxel, T

    2008-03-01

    Stem canker of crucifers is caused by an ascomycete species complex comprising of two main species, Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa. These are composed of at least seven distinct subclades based on biochemical data or on sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the mating type MAT1-2 or fragments of actin or beta-tubulin genes. In the course of a wide-scale characterization of the race structure of L. maculans from Western Australia, a few isolates from two locations failed to amplify specific sequences of L. maculans, i.e., the mating-type or minisatellite alleles. Based on both pathogenicity tests and ITS size, these isolates were classified as belonging to the L. biglobosa species. Parsimony and distance analyses performed on ITS, actin and beta-tubulin sequences revealed that these isolates formed a new L. biglobosa subclade, more related to the Canadian L. biglobosa 'canadensis' subclade than to the L. biglobosa 'australensis' isolates previously described in Australia (Victoria). They are termed here as L. biglobosa 'occiaustralensis'. These isolates were mainly recovered from resistant oilseed rape cultivars that included the Brassica rapa sp. sylvestris-derived resistance source, but not from the susceptible cv. Westar. The pathogenicity of L. biglobosa 'occiaustralensis' to cotyledons of most oilseed rape genotypes was higher than that of L. biglobosa 'canadensis' or L. biglobosa 'australensis' isolates.

  13. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia.

  14. Molecular Analysis of the Microbial Communities of Mars Analog Lakes in Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormile, Melanie R.; Hong, Bo-Young; Benison, Kathleen C.

    2009-12-01

    Unique, shallow interdune lakes and groundwaters with extremely low pH and high salinity exist in Australia, along with nearby lakes that possess higher pH values. These acidic hypersaline environments are possibly the best modern terrestrial analogues for past martian environments. However, no previous microbiological analyses of these lakes have been conducted. During the Australian winter of 2005, water samples were taken from several hypersaline lakes located in southern Western Australia that possessed acidic to slightly alkaline pH. These samples were subjected to molecular analysis to identify bacterial communities. DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16S rRNA gene sequences, by using universal bacterial primers, were also performed on the samples. Extracted DNA was amplified with 1070 forward and 1392 GC-clamped reverse primers and analyzed by using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In addition, libraries were developed from DNA retrieved from four lakes, including a marginal marine neutral lake, an inland neutral lake, and two inland acid lakes, and selected clones with distinct operational taxonomic units were sequenced. The DGGE profiles and clone sequence data indicate that there are distinct, abundant, and diverse microbial populations in these Australian hypersaline environments, especially the acidic ones. These results are significant for two reasons: (1) they provide the first microbiological survey of natural acid saline lakes and (2) they hint at the possibility that there could have been a diverse microbial population in acidic hypersaline environments on Mars.

  15. Experimental assessment of wind erosion after soil stabilization treatments at Eneabba, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Bell, D T; Carter, D J; Hetherington, R E

    1986-12-01

    Wind tunnel experiments on rehabilitation surfaces at Eneabba, Western Australia evaluated the techniques used by Associated Minerals Consolidated Ltd. (AMC) and Allied Eneabba Ltd. (AEL) to stabilize regions being revegetated following heavy mineral sand mining.Newly landscaped areas proved to be the most erodible, beginning to erode at 9 m sec(-1) and producing a soil flux of 10 kg m(-1) min(-1) at 18 m sec(-1) wind speeds. Sandier, more organically-rich, surfaces in the rehabilitation areas were somewhat less erodible with losses of only 2 kg m(-1) min(-1) at wind speeds of 18 m sec(-1).The mining companies use various nurse crops and top dressing mulch for surface stabilization. Rows of oats, sparse plantings of the grass cultivar "SUDAX" (Dekalb ST6) supplied by Westfarmers Ltd. and applications of Terolas, a cold, bituminous surface binding material supplied by Shell Co. of Australia Ltd., all proved successful in reducing wind erosion in this semi-arid region where more than 25% of summer days experience winds greater than 8 m sec(-1).

  16. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia. PMID:26790893

  17. Diagnosing the dry: historical case notes from Southwest Western Australia, 1945-2007.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ruth A

    2011-01-01

    Long regarded for its reliable winter rainfall, the Southwest region of Western Australia was beset by unexpected dry conditions in the early 1970s whose persistence was baffling. The gradual growth of scientific interest in the region's rainfall, as this article contends, was strongly influenced by political, social, and economic concerns about the challenges posed by drought and climate change. The experience of rainfall decline coincided with international scientific and political interest in the global climate and the perception that it was deviating from its "normal" state. Indeed, this extended "dry" provided an Australian link to international concerns regarding anthropogenic global warming. This article argues that the historical, political, and economic importance of the Southwest's agricultural industries has led policy makers and researchers to perceive the region's changing climatic conditions as pathological and in need of diagnosis.

  18. Non-song vocalizations of pygmy blue whales in Geographe Bay, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Recalde-Salas, A; Salgado Kent, C P; Parsons, M J G; Marley, S A; McCauley, R D

    2014-05-01

    Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with song, and thus were identified as non-song vocalizations. Five of these were not previously described for this population. Their acoustic characteristics and context are presented. Given that 56% of groups vocalized, 86% of which produced non-song vocalizations and 14% song units, the inclusion of non-song vocalizations in passive-acoustic monitoring is proposed. PMID:24815291

  19. Calibration of Valiantzas' reference evapotranspiration equations for the Pilbara region, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahooghalandari, Matin; Khiadani, Mehdi; Jahromi, Mina Esmi

    2016-02-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is a critical component of water resources management and planning. Different methods have been developed to estimate ET0 with various required data. In this study, Hargreaves, Turc, Oudin, Copais, Abtew methods and three forms of Valiantzas' formulas, developed in recent years, were used to estimate ET0 for the Pilbara region of Western Australia. The estimated ET0 values from these methods were compared with those from the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (PM) method. The results showed that the Copais methods and two of Valiantzas' equations, in their original forms, are suitable for estimating ET0 for the study area. A modification of Honey-Bee Mating Optimization (MHBMO) algorithm was further implemented, and three Valiantzas' equations for a region located in the southern hemisphere were calibrated.

  20. Abiotic Earth - Establishing a Baseline for Earliest Life, Data from the Archean of Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, J. F.; Brasier, M. D.; McLoughlin, N.; Green, O. R.; Fogel, M.; McNamara, K. M.; Steele, A.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    Stromatolitic structures preserved at two stratigraphic levels within the 3.47-3.43 Ga Warrawoona Group of Western Australia have been interpreted as some of "the least controversial evidence of early life on earth" and "the oldest firmly established biogenic deposits now known from the geologic record". The structures were said to have formed in a shallow sub-tidal to intertidal setting as part of an evaporite succession. In an extensive field program we have re-evaluated exposures of the Strelley Pool Chert from which stromatolites have been described and carried out detailed mapping and sampling of the Strelley Pool West site 13.7 km west of the type locality. Data from our ongoing program cast considerable doubt on the biogenic origins of the stromatolitic structures and on the nature of their depositional setting.

  1. Investigation of a swimming pool-associated cryptosporidiosis outbreak in the Kimberley region of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Ng-Hublin, J S Y; Hargrave, D; Combs, B; Ryan, U

    2015-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a gastroenteric disease caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium, which manifests primarily as watery diarrhoea. Transmitted via the faecal-oral route, infection with the parasite can occur through ingestion of water, food or other fomites contaminated with its infective oocyst stage. In the months of November and December 2012, there were 18 notified cases of cryptosporidiosis from Broome, Western Australia. The 5-year average for the Kimberley region for this period is <1 case. Interviews conducted by Broome local government staff on the notified cases revealed that 11/18 cases had been swimming at the Broome public swimming pool. Molecular analyses of extracted DNA performed on 8/18 microscopy-positive faecal samples from interviewed cases and three water samples from different locations at the hypervariable glycoprotein 60 (gp60) gene, identified the C. hominis IbA10G2 subtype in all human samples and one water sample.

  2. Carriage of intestinal spirochaetes by humans: epidemiological data from Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, C. J.; Clair, A. N.; Mikosza, A. S.; Riley, T. V.; Hampson, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate carriage of intestinal spirochaetes by selected population groups in Western Australia. Stool specimens from 293 rural patients with gastrointestinal disorders, and from 227 healthy migrants from developing countries were cultured. Spirochaete isolates were identified using PCR, and typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Brachyspira aalborgi was not isolated. Brachyspira pilosicoli was recovered from 15 rural patients, all Aboriginal. Prevalence was 9.9% in 151 Aboriginals and 0% in 142 non-Aboriginals. Carriage of B. pilosicoli amongst migrants was 10.6% (24/227). Carriage was significantly increased in Aboriginal children aged 2-5 years (P = 0.0027) and in migrant individuals from the Middle East and Africa (P = 0.0034). Carriage was significantly associated with detection of faecal protozoa in both Aboriginals (P = 0.0021) and migrants (P = 0.012). PFGE results indicated that the B. pilosicoli strains were genetically diverse. PMID:11693517

  3. Genetic characterization of K13965, a strain of Oak Vale virus from Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Phenix-Lan; Williams, David T.; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Jain, Komal; Petrosov, Alexandra; Diviney, Sinead M.; Tashmukhamedova, Alla; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Tesh, Robert B.; Mackenzie, John S.; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    K13965, an uncharacterized virus, was isolated in 1993 from Anopheles annulipes mosquitoes collected in the Kimberley region of northern Western Australia. Here, we report its genomic sequence, identify it as a rhabdovirus, and characterize its phylogenetic relationships. The genome comprises a P′ (C) and SH protein similar to the recently characterized Tupaia and Durham viruses, and shows overlap between G and L genes. Comparison of K13965 genome sequence to other rhabdoviruses identified K13965 as a strain of the unclassified Australian Oak Vale rhabdovirus, whose complete genome sequence we also determined. Phylogenetic analysis of N and L sequences indicated genetic relationship to a recently proposed Sandjima virus clade, although the Oak Vale virus sequences form a branch separate from the African members of that group. PMID:21740935

  4. Salt lakes of Western Australia - Natural abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, T.; Studenroth, S.; Mulder, I.; Tubbesing, C.; Kotte, K.; Ofner, J.; Junkermann, W.; Schöler, H. F.

    2012-04-01

    Western Australia is a semi-/arid region that is heavily influenced by global climate change and agricultural land use. The area is known for its many ephemeral saline and hypersaline lakes with a wide range of hydrogeochemical parameters that have gradually changed over the last fifty years. Historically, the region was covered by eucalyptus trees and shrubs, but was cleared mainly within 10 years after WWII to make room for wheat and live stock. After the clearance of the deep rooted native plants the groundwater started to rise, bringing increased amounts of dissolved salts and minerals to the surface and discharging them into streams and lakes. Thus most of Western Australia is influenced by secondary salinisation (soil salting) [1]. Another problem is that the discharged minerals affect the pH of ground and surface water, which ranges from acidic to slightly basic. During the 2011 campaign surface water was measured with a pH between 2.5 and 7.1. Another phenomenon in Western Australia is the decrease of rainfall over the last decades assumed to be linked to the secondary salinisation. The rising saline and mineral rich groundwater increases the biotical and abiotical activity of the salt lakes. Halogenated and non-halogenated volatile organic compounds emitted from those lakes undergo fast oxidation and chemical reactions to form small particles modifying cloud microphysics and thus suppressing rain events [2]. Our objective is to gain a better understanding of this extreme environment with its hypersaline acidic lakes with regard to the potential abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds and its impact on the local climate. In spring 2011 fifty-three sediment samples from ten salt lakes in the Lake King region where taken, freeze-dried and ground. In order to simulate the abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds the soil samples were resuspended with water in gas-tight headspace vials. The headspace was measured using a purge and trap GC

  5. A geochemical reconstruction of oil generation in the Barrow Sub-basin of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkman, John K.; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert Ian; Noble, Rohinton A.; Woodhouse, Carry Wayne

    1983-12-01

    A suite of crude oils and petroleum source rock extracts from the Barrow Sub-basin of Western Australia have been analysed for biological marker compounds by capillary GC-MS, and for volatile hydrocarbons by whole oil capillary GC. These analyses were used to calculate values for twenty-three biomarker parameters in order to assess aspects of source type, maturity, migration and biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. The crude oils had a source in the Upper Jurassic Dingo Claystone formation. These hydrocarbons accumulated in the reservoir sands and in some cases were biodegraded. Several accumulation and biodegradation episodes have been recognised while the basin continued to subside, which resulted in a suite of oils showing marked differences in composition.

  6. New Analyses of Diverse Hadean Zircon Inclusions from Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trail, D.; Catlos, E. J.; Harrison, T. M.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The geological record is the only direct source of information regarding physical/chemical processes that may have ultimately been responsible for the origin of life. Known terrestrial rocks have ages that span from present day to approx. 4.0 Ga. This leaves a time gap of more than 500 Myr between lunar formation, and preservation of the oldest terrestrial crust. What were planetary conditions like wherein the prebiotic chemistry leading to life took place? The recent discovery of up to 4.37 Ga detrital zircons from Western Australia represents the only tangible record of the time period termed the Hadean Eon (4.5-4.0 Ga). Knowledge of the paragenesis of the oldest zircons potentially contributes information regarding the origin of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, continental lithosphere and the potential for life on the Hadean Earth.

  7. Patterns of marine debris distribution on the beaches of Rottnest Island, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen D A; Gillies, Chris L; Shortland-Jones, Helen

    2014-11-15

    Rottnest Island, Western Australia, receives >500,000 visitors y(-1), who are mainly attracted by the Island's natural values. Marine debris is a threat to both these natural values and to Island wildlife, and is consequently an important issue for managers. Engaging with volunteers, we quantified marine debris at 16 beach sites around the Island. The highest loads occurred on the SW coast and primarily comprised items originating from fishing activities. Sites on the NE coast, where >95% of the Island's accommodation is located, supported the highest abundance of items deposited in situ (e.g. bottles and cigarette butts). We conclude that marine debris management may require a range of strategies to address the different primary sources. Raising awareness through education and intervention may be highly effective at popular beaches on the NE coast, but broader liaison with commercial and recreational fishers will be necessary to address the issue at the Island scale.

  8. Disequilibrium in the 238uranium series in samples from yeelirrie, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lively, R.S.; Harmon, R.S.; Levinson, A.A.; Bland, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium-series disequilibrium studies carried out on samples from the Yeelirrie uranium deposit, Western Australia, indicate that uranium and radium have been migrating within the deposit during recent times, and are actually being removed from the deposit. Samples collected for 230Th/234U age dating were found to be substantially out of equilibrium, with 230Th/234U activity ratios ranging from 0.750 to 1.345. This can be explained by a dynamic hydrologic system in which there has been, and continues to be, uranium migration caused by leaching in this arid, oxidizing environment, and a fluctuating water table. Recent, extensive 226Ra migration (226Ra/230Th activity ratios range from 0.53 to 1.30), and a very low emanation factor (E) of 222Rn limit the quantitative application of radon exploration techniques in this environment. ?? 1979.

  9. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cats (Felis catus) in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Ying, Joyce Lau Jie; Monis, Paul; Ryan, Una

    2015-08-01

    Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic cats in Western Australia and their potential role as zoonotic reservoirs for human infection. In the present study, a total of 345 faecal samples from four different sources were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by PCR and genotyped by sequence analysis. Oocyst numbers and cyst numbers for Cryptosporidium and Giardia respectively were also determined using quantitative PCR assays. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 9.9% (95% CI 6.7-13.0) and 10.1% (95% CI 7.0-13.3) of cats in Western Australia respectively. Sequence analysis at the 18S rRNA locus identified five Cryptosporidium species/genotypes; C. felis (n = 8), C. muris (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 1), Cryptosporidium rat genotype III (n = 5) and a novel genotype most closely related to Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in one isolate. This is the first report of C. ryanae and Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in cats. For Giardia, assemblage F the most commonly identified species, while only 1 assemblage sequence was detected. Since most human cases of cryptosporidiosis are caused by C. parvum and C. hominis and human cases of giardiasis are caused by G. duodenalis assemblage A and B, the domestic cats in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic risk to pet owners in Perth. Risk analyses identified that elderly cats (more than 6 years) were more prone to Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections than kittens (less than 6 months) (P = 0.009). Clinical symptoms were not associated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in cats.

  10. Bartonella Species Identified in Rodent and Feline Hosts from Island and Mainland Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, Dave; Adams, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria of the genus Bartonella have been described in multiple mammalian hosts with many species capable of causing disease in humans. Cats and various species of rats have been reported to play a role as vertebrate hosts to a number of Bartonella spp. This study aimed to identify Bartonella spp. in Western Australia, Dirk Hartog Island (DHI), and Christmas Island (CI) and to investigate the presence of potential arthropod vectors. Feral cats were collected from CI (n = 35), DHI (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (swWA; n = 58), and black rats were collected from CI (n = 48). Individuals were necropsied, ectoparasites were collected by external examination of carcasses, and splenic tissue was collected for polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect Bartonella DNA. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected from two cats and Bartonella koehlerae DNA from one cat in southwest WA, but Bartonella DNA was not identified in cats on DHI or CI. Bartonella phoceensis (28/48 = 58.3%) and a novel Bartonella genotype (8/48 = 16.7%) based on the internal transcribed space region were detected in the spleens of black rats on CI. Detection of Bartonella spp. in each location corresponded to the presence of ectoparasites. Cats from southwest WA harbored four species of fleas, including Ctenocephalides felis, and black rats on CI were infested with multiple species of ectoparasites, including mites, fleas, and lice. Conversely, cats on Dirk Hartog and CI were free of ectoparasites. This study has identified the DNA of Bartonella species from island and mainland swWA with some (B. henselae and B. koehlerae) of known zoonotic importance. This study further extends the geographical range for the pathogenic B. koehlerae. The association of Bartonella with ectoparasites is unsurprising, but little is known about the specific vector competence of the ectoparasites identified in this study.

  11. Molecular systematics and biodiversity of oniscidean isopods in the groundwater calcretes of central Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Javidkar, Mohammad; Cooper, Steven J B; King, Rachael A; Humphreys, William F; Bertozzi, Terry; Stevens, Mark I; Austin, Andrew D

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater calcrete aquifers of central Western Australia have been shown to contain a high diversity of stygobiont (subterranean aquatic) invertebrates, with each species confined to an individual calcrete and the entire system resembling a 'subterranean archipelago' containing hundreds of isolated calcretes. Here, we utilised alternative sampling techniques above the water table and uncovered a significant fauna of subterranean terrestrial oniscidean isopods from the calcretes. We explored the diversity and evolution of this fauna using molecular analyses based on one mitochondrial gene, Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI), two Ribosomal RNA genes (28S and 18S), and one protein coding nuclear gene, Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase (LysRS). The results from 12 calcretes showed the existence of 36 divergent DNA lineages belonging to four oniscidean families (Paraplatyarthridae, Armadillidae, Stenoniscidae and Philosciidae). Using a combination of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods, we hypothesized the occurrence of at least 27 putative new species of subterranean oniscideans, of which 24 taxa appeared to be restricted to an individual calcrete, lending further support to the "subterranean island hypothesis". Three paraplatyarthrid species were present on adjacent calcretes and these exceptions possessed more ommatidia and body pigments compared with the calcrete-restricted taxa, and are likely to represent troglophiles. The occurrence of stenoniscid isopods in the calcretes of central Western Australia, a group previously only known from the marine littoral zone, suggests a link to the marine inundation of the Eucla basin during the Late Eocene. The current oniscidean subterranean fauna consists of groups known to be subtropical, littoral and benthic, reflecting different historical events that have shaped the evolution of the fauna in the calcretes. PMID:27469380

  12. Molecular systematics and biodiversity of oniscidean isopods in the groundwater calcretes of central Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Javidkar, Mohammad; Cooper, Steven J B; King, Rachael A; Humphreys, William F; Bertozzi, Terry; Stevens, Mark I; Austin, Andrew D

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater calcrete aquifers of central Western Australia have been shown to contain a high diversity of stygobiont (subterranean aquatic) invertebrates, with each species confined to an individual calcrete and the entire system resembling a 'subterranean archipelago' containing hundreds of isolated calcretes. Here, we utilised alternative sampling techniques above the water table and uncovered a significant fauna of subterranean terrestrial oniscidean isopods from the calcretes. We explored the diversity and evolution of this fauna using molecular analyses based on one mitochondrial gene, Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI), two Ribosomal RNA genes (28S and 18S), and one protein coding nuclear gene, Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase (LysRS). The results from 12 calcretes showed the existence of 36 divergent DNA lineages belonging to four oniscidean families (Paraplatyarthridae, Armadillidae, Stenoniscidae and Philosciidae). Using a combination of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods, we hypothesized the occurrence of at least 27 putative new species of subterranean oniscideans, of which 24 taxa appeared to be restricted to an individual calcrete, lending further support to the "subterranean island hypothesis". Three paraplatyarthrid species were present on adjacent calcretes and these exceptions possessed more ommatidia and body pigments compared with the calcrete-restricted taxa, and are likely to represent troglophiles. The occurrence of stenoniscid isopods in the calcretes of central Western Australia, a group previously only known from the marine littoral zone, suggests a link to the marine inundation of the Eucla basin during the Late Eocene. The current oniscidean subterranean fauna consists of groups known to be subtropical, littoral and benthic, reflecting different historical events that have shaped the evolution of the fauna in the calcretes.

  13. Connecting for Innovation: Four Universities Collaboratively Preparing Pre-Service Teachers to Teach in Rural and Remote Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Sue; Sharplin, Elaine; Ledger, Sue; Broadley, Tania

    2014-01-01

    In 2010 a group of teacher educators from four universities, experienced in rural and remote education, formed the Tertiary Educators Rural, Regional and Remote Network (TERRR Network). The collaborative goal was to improve the quality of graduates taking appointments beyond the metropolitan areas of Western Australia. The TERRR Network developed…

  14. Situation Report--Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Somoa. Information is provided under three topics, statistical information, general background information,…

  15. A Long-Term Population-Based Clinical and Morbidity Review of Prader-Willi Syndrome in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, A. K.; Glasson, E. J.; Bittles, A. H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: An investigation of the clinical morbidity and genetic profiles of individuals with Prader?Willi syndrome (PWS) in Western Australia (WA) was undertaken as part of a wider study into the effects of intellectual disability (ID) on the life course of individuals. Methods: All persons with a diagnosis of PWS were identified from the…

  16. Enabling Voice: Aboriginal Parents, Experiences and Perceptions of Sending a Child to Boarding School in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the experience of having a child educated away from home at boarding school for Aboriginal parents living in regional and remote communities in Western Australia (WA). In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants and thematic analysis found the following major themes emerged from the data: (1) Access, Standards and…

  17. Is there really carbon in the detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menneken, Martina; Geisler, Thorsten; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Pollok, Kilian; Whitehouse, Martin; Pidgeon, Robert; Wilde, Simon

    2014-05-01

    We have previously reported the discovery of graphite and diamond inclusions in detrital zircon grains from the Jack Hills in Western Australia, with the oldest inclusion-bearing zircon being 4,252 Myrs (Menneken et al. 2007). When the diamond inclusions were first identified by Raman spectroscopy, several characteristics were taken as evidence against possible contamination from diamond polishing powder used to prepare the samples. Some diamond inclusions appeared larger than the grain-size of the diamond polishing powder, while most of them were associated with graphite. Raman spectra of the diamond inclusions were clearly different to those from diamond particles in the polishing powder. Also, the extremely large spread of carbon isotope compositions of the diamond-graphite composite inclusions with δ13C values extending from -58 to -5 per mil argued against contamination, as both synthetic and natural diamonds have a narrow range of carbon isotope composition (Nemchin et al. 2008). In this study, we have applied transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy on focussed ion beam sections cut from a fully embedded diamond inclusion and a fully embedded carbon inclusion in two zircon grains from Jack Hills. Results show that the graphitic material is not a solid inclusion, but covers the walls of a void as a 10-20 nm thick layer. Since we identified numerous CO2 inclusions in the same host zircon by Raman spectroscopy, it is likely that this inclusion was once filled with CO2 On the other hand, similar to a study by Dobrzhinetskaya et al. (2014), performed on surface diamond-graphite inclusions from one of our samples, we found that the embedded diamond inclusion consists of several hundred nano-meter large angular diamond fragments mixed with some gold particles. This is strong evidence that the embedded diamond particles originated from the diamond polishing powder. The diamond particles could enter the cavity through an opening 2 - 3 μm wide

  18. Factors influencing the speed of cancer diagnosis in rural Western Australia: a General Practice perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jiwa, Moyez; Halkett, Georgia; Aoun, Samar; Arnet, Hayley; Smith, Marthe; Pilkington, Megan; McMullen, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The speed of diagnosis impacts on prognosis and survival in all types of cancer. In most cases survival and prognosis are significantly worse in rural and remote Australian populations who have less access to diagnostic and therapeutic services than metropolitan communities in this country. Research suggests that in general delays in diagnosis were a factor of misdiagnosis, the confounding effect of existing conditions and delayed or misleading investigation of symptoms. The aim of this study is to further explore the factors that impact on the speed of diagnosis in rural Western Australia with direct reference to General Practitioners (GPs) working in this setting. Methods The methodology consisted of a structured discussion of specific cases. GPs based in two rural locations in Western Australia were asked to identify up to eight clinical cases for discussion. A diversity of cases was requested encompassing those with timely and delayed diagnosis of cancer. Focus groups were held with the practitioners to identify which factors under six headings delayed or facilitated the diagnosis in each case. A structured summary of the discussion was relayed to a wider group of GPs to seek additional views or comments on specific factors that impact on the speed of cancer diagnosis in rural and remote locations in Australia. Results A number of factors affecting the speed of diagnosis were identified: the demographic shift towards a frailer and older population, presenting with multiple and complex diseases, increases the challenge to identify early cancer symptoms; seasonal and demanding work patterns leading to procrastination in presenting for medical care; unhelpful scheduling of specialist appointments; and the varying impact of informal networks and social relationships. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study we have generated a number of hypotheses that require formal evaluation: (1) GPs working within informal professional and social networks

  19. Being alone and expectations lost: a critical realist study of maternal depression in South Western Sydney.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John G; Kemp, Lynn A; Jalaludin, Bin B

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here is part of a critical realist multilevel study. It seeks to identify and explain complex perinatal contextual social and psychosocial mechanisms that may influence the developmental origins of health and disease, with a focus on the role of postnatal depression. The aims of the greater study are to: (1) describe the phenomenon of postnatal depression in South Western Sydney; and (2) identify mechanisms that would add to our understanding of the psycho-social causes of maternal depression. This paper will move beyond our previous quantitative descriptions of individual-level predictors of depressive symptoms by seeking the views of local mothers and practitioners, to explain the mechanisms that might be involved. The study was set in South Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. An Explanatory Theory Building Method was used. The previously reported quantitative study was a non-linear principal component analysis and logistic regression study of 15,389 months delivering in 2002 and 2003. This intensive qualitative study used open coding of interviews, of seven practitioners and three naturally occurring mothers groups, to enable maximum emergence. The theoretical concepts identified were: attachment and nurturing, infant temperament, unplanned pregnancy and sole parenthood, support for mothers, access to services, stress, financial hardship, isolation and marginalisation, mothers' "loss of control" and "power", and expectations and dreams. Being alone and expectations lost emerged as possible triggers of stress and depression for mothers. These findings might also apply to others who have their dreams shattered during life's transitions. In these situations social and cultural context can either nurture and support or marginalise and isolate. The challenge for policy and practice is to support mothers and their partners during the transition to parenthood within a challenging social and material context. PMID:26609502

  20. Patterns of Attendance of Children Under 12 Years at School Dental Service in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lam, SPL; Baros, H; O’Grady, MJ; Kendall, GE; Messer, LB; Slack-Smith, LM

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of attendance at School Dental Service (SDS) and reasons for attendance (treatment or prevention) for children in the Perth Metropolitan Area, in particular investigating the first year of SDS attendance and attendance until the year the child turned 12. The first 150 SDS records located for children from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were used for this study. Patterns of attendance of children at SDS were described, as were associated factors (enrolment, age and nature of first visit, general nature of visits and number of visits) until the end of the year that the child turned 12. The age of the child at the first SDS visit ranged from 4 years 3 months to 14 years 11 months, with a median of 5 years 1 month. First visits were primarily for an examination (98%). Children had a median of 13 visits until 12 years of age, with 10% having less than five visits and 4% having more than 25 visits. These data provide useful information regarding attendance at the SDS in Western Australia which could provide a basis for oral health promotion programs. PMID:22623948

  1. Flavivirus isolations from mosquitoes collected from western Cape York Peninsula, Australia, 1999-2000.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Cheryl A; Nisbet, Debra J; Zborowski, Paul; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Ritchie, Scott A; Mackenzie, John S

    2003-12-01

    After the 1st appearance of Japanese encephalitis virus (JE) on mainland Australia in 1998, a study was undertaken to investigate whether JE had become established in enzootic transmission cycles on western Cape York Peninsula. Adult mosquitoes were collected during the late wet season from Kowanyama and Pormpuraaw in April 1999, and Pormpuraaw and Barr's Yard in April 2000. Despite processing 269,270 mosquitoes for virus isolation, no isolates of JE were obtained. However, other flaviviruses comprising Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Kunjin virus, Alfuy virus, and Kokobera virus (KOK) were isolated. Isolates of the alphaviruses Ross River virus, Barmah Forest virus (BF), and Sindbis virus (SIN) also were obtained. The majority (88%) of isolates were from members of the Culex sitiens subgroup. Single isolates of KOK, BF, and SIN were obtained from Ochlerotatus vigilax, Oc. normanensis, and Anopheles bancroftii, respectively. The isolations of flaviviruses during the late wet season indicate that conditions were suitable for flavivirus activity in the area. No evidence was found to suggest that JE has become established in enzootic transmission cycles on western Cape York, although study sites and field trips were limited. PMID:14710742

  2. Acidophilic Halophilic Microorganisms in Fluid Inclusions in Halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Amber J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as 1–3 μm, bright cocci that fluoresce green with UV-vis illumination. Dimpled, 5–7 μm yellow spherules that fluoresce blue with UV-vis illumination are interpreted as Dunaliella algae. Yellow-orange beta-carotene crystals, globules, and coatings are characterized by orange-red fluorescence and three distinct Raman peaks. Because acid saline lakes are good Mars analogues, the documentation of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organic compounds preserved in the halite here has implications for the search for life on Mars. Missions to Mars should incorporate such in situ optical and chemical examination of martian evaporites for possible microorganisms and/or organic compounds in fluid inclusions. Key Words: Acid—Extremophiles—Western Australia—Fluid inclusions—Lake Magic—Dunaliella. Astrobiology 13, 850–860. PMID:23971647

  3. Ten years of hospitalisation for oral health-related conditions in Western Australia: an unjust dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was: (1) to examine the demographics of in-patient oral health care by Aboriginal status; (2) to identify the mix of oral conditions by Aboriginal status; and (3) to describe trends over a 10-year period, comparing Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups. Hospitalisation data were obtained from the Western Australian Morbidity Data System (HMDS). The principal diagnosis, as classified by the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10AM), was obtained for every episode for adult patients who were discharged from all hospitals in Western Australia (WA) for the financial years 1999-2000 to 2008-09. Results indicated that more than 130000 persons were admitted to hospitals in WA over 10 years, for oral health-related conditions, at a direct cost of more than $400million. Most of those admitted were younger than 30 years, and 2.8% of all those admitted were Aboriginal people. Aboriginal people were admitted at significantly higher rates, for a very different mix of conditions, they were mostly from younger age groups, were mostly from very remote and the most disadvantaged areas and were almost all uninsured, compared with non-Aboriginal people. Hospital admissions for oral health-related conditions, as well as the mix of conditions that drive these hospitalisations, are strongly divided across social, racial and geographic variables, and remain a burden to the health-care system.

  4. Perceived Challenges in Dementia Care by Vietnamese Family Caregivers and Care Workers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Habel, Lesley; De Bellis, Anita

    2015-09-01

    The majority of Vietnamese Australians migrated to Australia as refugees to escape a war and this unique migration background may affect their ability to access and utilize healthcare services in Australia. Inability to utilize dementia services is associated with higher levels of caregiver burden, higher rates of morbidities and mortality and hospitalization. The aim of the study was to explore the perceived challenges of dementia care from Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret and describe the experiences of the participants. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with six Vietnamese family caregivers and a focus group with Vietnamese care workers using purposive sampling. Participants were recruited from a Vietnamese community care organization in South Australia. Five themes were identified from the data analysis namely: (1) a need for culturally and linguistically appropriate dementia education programs; (2) a willingness and unwillingness to seek help; (3) poor knowledge of health care service availability related to dementia; (4) the effect of language barrier in accessing services; and (5) the main sources of services utilized. The study revealed that Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers held different views on the association of stigma with dementia. Findings also revealed factors that impacted accessing and utilizing dementia services. These findings facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of Vietnamese family caregivers' needs and have implications for developing individualized support for family caregivers and for consumer-directed dementia services in Australia.

  5. Perceived Challenges in Dementia Care by Vietnamese Family Caregivers and Care Workers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Habel, Lesley; De Bellis, Anita

    2015-09-01

    The majority of Vietnamese Australians migrated to Australia as refugees to escape a war and this unique migration background may affect their ability to access and utilize healthcare services in Australia. Inability to utilize dementia services is associated with higher levels of caregiver burden, higher rates of morbidities and mortality and hospitalization. The aim of the study was to explore the perceived challenges of dementia care from Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret and describe the experiences of the participants. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with six Vietnamese family caregivers and a focus group with Vietnamese care workers using purposive sampling. Participants were recruited from a Vietnamese community care organization in South Australia. Five themes were identified from the data analysis namely: (1) a need for culturally and linguistically appropriate dementia education programs; (2) a willingness and unwillingness to seek help; (3) poor knowledge of health care service availability related to dementia; (4) the effect of language barrier in accessing services; and (5) the main sources of services utilized. The study revealed that Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers held different views on the association of stigma with dementia. Findings also revealed factors that impacted accessing and utilizing dementia services. These findings facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of Vietnamese family caregivers' needs and have implications for developing individualized support for family caregivers and for consumer-directed dementia services in Australia. PMID:25935206

  6. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: rising rates with obesity and aboriginality in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, A R; Ling, J; Gomes, B; Antoniou, G; Sutherland, L M; Cundy, P J

    2011-10-01

    We analysed the incidence of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) in South Australia, investigating possible associations between an increased incidence of SCFE, the local indigenous population and the Australian obesity epidemic during the last 20 years. Data including race, age and gender were collected to obtain a profile of the South Australian SCFE patient, and were then compared with epidemiological data for South Australian adolescents. We concluded that the incidence of both obesity and SCFE is increasing. We also noted that the median weight of SCFE patients has increased and the mean age at diagnosis has decreased. Despite weight profiles comparable with those of the general population, we noted that an indigenous child was three times more likely to develop SCFE than a non-indigenous child. As far as we know there is no published literature on the predisposition of Aboriginal Australians to SCFE.

  7. Applications of Mobile GIS in Forestry South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battad, D. T.; Mackenzie, P.

    2012-07-01

    South Australian Forestry Corporation (ForestrySA) had been actively investigating the applications of mobile GIS in forestry for the past few years. The main objective is to develop an integrated mobile GIS capability that allows staff to collect new spatial information, verify existing data, and remotely access and post data from the field. Two (2) prototype mobile GIS applications have been developed already using the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ARCGISR technology as the main spatial component. These prototype systems are the Forest Health Surveillance System and the Mobile GIS for Wetlands System. The Forest Health Surveillance System prototype is used primarily for aerial forest health surveillance. It was developed using a tablet PC with ArcMapR GIS. A customised toolbar was developed using ArcObjectsR in the Visual Basic 6 Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The resulting dynamic linked library provides a suite of custom tools which enables the following: - quickly create spatial features and attribute the data - full utilisation of global positioning system (GPS) technology - excellent screen display navigation tools, i.e. pan, rotate map, capture of flight path - seamless integration of data into GIS as geodatabase (GDB) feature classes - screen entry of text and conversion to annotation feature classes The Mobile GIS for Wetlands System prototype was developed for verifying existing wetland areas within ForestrySA's plantation estate, collect new wetland data, and record wetland conditions. Mapping of actual wetlands within ForestrySA's plantation estate is very critical because of the need to establish protection buffers around these features during the implementation of plantation operations. System development has been focussed on a mobile phone platform (HTC HD2R ) with WindowsR Mobile 6, ESRI's ArcGISR Mobile software development kit (SDK) employing ArcObjectsR written on C#.NET IDE, and ArcGIS ServerR technology. The system

  8. A climatological interpretation of the circulation in the western South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, T.; Lindstrom, E. J.

    2002-05-01

    Time-averaged circulation is examined using historical hydrographic data near the Australia and Papua New Guinea coast in the Pacific. By averaging the data along isopycnal surfaces in a 0.5øby 0.5ø grid, we are able to show many detailed phenomena associated with the narrow western boundary currents, including the vertical structure of the bifurcation latitude of the South Equatorial Current (SEC) and the connection between the Solomon and Coral Seas. The bifurcation latitude of the SEC is found to move southward from about 15øS near the surface to south of 22øS in the intermediate layers. The origin of the Great Barrier Reef Undercurrent (GBRUC) is identified to be at about 22øS. Farther to the north, the GBRUC intensifies underlying the surface East Australian Current, and merges with the North Queensland Current (NQC) at about 15øS. The NQC turns eastward to flow along the Papua New Guinea coast and feeds into the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent (NGCUC) through the Louisiade Archipelago. Further analysis shows that there is a strong water property connection between the Coral and Solomon Seas, confirming the earlier speculation on the water-mass origins of the NGCUC.

  9. Building a Nation: Religion and Values in the Public Schools of the USA, Australia, and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, Jacqueline Joy; de Waal, Elda

    2008-01-01

    Although the systems of public schools differ among Australia, South Africa and the USA, all three countries recognize that religion plays a significant role in determining values. All three countries have written constitutions but only South Africa and the USA have a Bill of Rights that protects persons' exercise of religious beliefs. In…

  10. A monsoon-like Southwest Australian circulation and its relation with rainfall in Southwest Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Juan; Li, Jianping; Li, Yun

    2010-05-01

    Using the NCEP/NCAR, ERA-40 reanalysis, and precipitation data from CMAP and Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the variability and circulation features influencing the southwest Western Australia (SWWA) winter rainfall are investigated. It is found that the climate of southwest Australia bears a strong seasonality in the annual cycle and exhibits a monsoon-like atmospheric circulation, which is termed as the southwest Australian circulation (SWAC) for its several distinct features characterizing a monsoonal circulation: the seasonal reversal of winds, alternate wet and dry seasons, and an evident land-sea thermal contrast. The seasonal march of the SWAC in extended winter (May to October) is demonstrated by pentad data. An index based on the dynamics normalized seasonality was introduced to describe the behavior and variation of the winter SWAC. It is found that the winter rainfall over SWWA has a significant positive correlation with the SWAC index in both early (May to July) and late (August to October) winter. In weaker winter SWAC years there is an anti-cyclonic anomaly over southern Indian Ocean resulting in weaker westerlies and northerlies which are not favorable for more rainfall over SWWA, and the opposite combination is true in the stronger winter SWAC years. The SWAC explains not only a large portion of the interannual variability of SWWA rainfall in both early and late winter, but also the long term drying trend over SWWA in early winter. The well-coupled SWAC-SWWA rainfall relationship seems to be largely independent of the well-known effects of large-scale atmospheric circulations such as the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM), El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and ENSO Modoki (EM). The result offers qualified support for the argument that the monsoon-like circulation may contribute to the rainfall decline in early winter over SWWA.

  11. Making the most of open windows: establishing health in all policies in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Williams, Carmel; Lawless, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Significant improvements in population health are likely to arise when the social determinants ofhealth are addressed. This creates a challenge for health systems, as the policy levers to influence the determinants largely lie outside of their direct control. Health agencies have been attempting to develop responses that affect these policy levers with mixed success. Success often requires particular conditions or "windows of opportunity" to be present before even small systemic change can be made. The government of South Australia has developed a practical, policy-oriented response to address the determinants of health--Health in All Policies--and has been successfully working across government for the past five years, using a policy learning process to implement this approach. This article will focus on how the South Australian Health in All Policies initiative started and the conditions that enabled South Australia to establish a centralized governance structure, harness a group of cross-sector policy entrepreneurs, and conduct health lens projects across a range of policy issues. The authors will comment on the nature of these conditions and their relevance for other governments struggling to reduce the burden of chronic disease and growing health budgets by addressing the social determinants of health. PMID:24684091

  12. Ageing, Chronic Disease and Injury: A Study in Western Victoria (Australia)

    PubMed Central

    Sajjad, M. Amber; Holloway, Kara L.; Kotowicz, Mark A.; Livingston, Patricia M.; Khasraw, Mustafa; Hakkennes, Sharon; Dunning, Trisha L.; Brumby, Susan; Page, Richard S.; Pedler, Daryl; Sutherland, Alasdair; Venkatesh, Svetha; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L.; Williams, Lana J.; Pasco, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: An increasing burden of chronic disease and associated health service delivery is expected due to the ageing Australian population. Injuries also affect health and wellbeing and have a long-term impact on health service utilisation. There is a lack of comprehensive data on disease and injury in rural and regional areas of Australia. The aim of the Ageing, Chronic Disease and Injury study is to compile data from various sources to better describe the patterns of chronic disease and injury across western Victoria. Design: Ecological study. Methods: Information on demographics, socioeconomic indicators and lifestyle factors are obtained from health surveys and government departments. Data concerning chronic diseases and injuries will be sourced from various registers, health and emergency services, local community health centres and administrative databases and compiled to generate profiles for the study region and for sub-populations within the region. Expected impact for public health: This information is vital to establish current and projected population needs to inform policy and improve targeted health services delivery, care transition needs and infrastructure development. This study provides a model that can be replicated in other geographical settings. Significance for public health The pattern of chronic disease and injury and its relationship with age, sex and location has not been described for the region. This study will collect new data and collate existing databases to provide a comprehensive snapshot of the health and safety across western Victoria, Australia. Baseline data collected in the project will be used to forecast disease burden into the future, based on Australian Bureau of Statistics models. In order to determine gaps in service delivery, plan future interventions including prevention strategies, and evaluate their effectiveness, it is essential to have a contemporary evidence base and processes in place for monitoring on

  13. Fireball observations in central Europe and western Australia: instruments, methods, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurny, P.

    2012-01-01

    Penetration of larger meteoroids through the atmosphere which gives rise to spectacular luminous events - fireballs or even superbolides - is of the greatest interest. Their registrations, especially photographic and newly also photoelectric recordings, provide excellent means to examine physical properties as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of extraterrestrial matter in near-Earth space. The most efficient tools for registration of these very scarce events are the fireball networks: systems covering large areas of the Earth's surface, with multiple camera stations designed to image a large fraction of the night sky. Such camera networks for fireball observations have been set up in several nations at various times in the past (European Fireball Network (EN) in the Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, and Slovakia; the Prairie Network in the USA; and the Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP) in Canada). Of these networks, only the European fireball network is still in operation, and this continuously since it was started up, but recently new networks were established in South-West Australia and in Ontario, Canada. The two main scientific aims of all these programs remain the same as in the very beginning - first, to constrain the flux of extraterrestrial material to the Earth over a range of masses, and second, to provide a statistically significant group of meteorites with accurate orbits. This contribution was focused on the current work and some particular recent results from the European Fireball Network, especially from its Czech part (current status is described, for example, by Spurny et al., 2006) and from the Desert Fireball Network in the Nullarbor Plains of South-West Australia (Bland, 2004; Spurny et al., 2012; and Bland et al., 2012). The mode of operation of both networks and the analysis methods used were described in detail and illustrated by some examples. Similarly, the most important recent results, especially from the

  14. Modelling aggregated catchment-scale phosphorus transport over 200 years in the Peel Harvey catchment, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, M.; Weaver, D.; Smettem, K.; Davies, P.

    2009-04-01

    Intensification of agricultural activity has resulted in increased eutrophication of waterways throughout the world. In Australia, naturally oligotrophic systems have been severely impacted by changing land use from natural ecosystems to commercial agriculture. Development of amelioration strategies to minimise the water quality impacts of intensive agriculture requires an understanding of nutrient uptake and nutrient flow pathways through catchments. To address this issue, a simulation model was developed using the STELLA dynamic modelling software package to model the transport of phosphorus (P) through major source, sink and flow sectors of the Peel-Harvey Catchment in South Western Australia. Phosphorus is the most important nutrient in this catchment for promotion of nuisance and toxic algal blooms. The model simulates changes in stores and flows of P over a 200 year time horizon to match catchment development and associated nutrient inputs and outputs to the present day (100 years of development) and a further 100 years into the future. The present catchment scenario produces model outputs which agree well with monitored water quality data, survey data of farm inputs and outputs, and soil P content data. The model allows for nutrient storage, assimilation and release from the various components of the catchment environment (soil, runoff, groundwater, stream sediment and estuarine water and sediment) and indicates that over the course of a 200 year simulation, releases of P from the soil store reach their maxima approximately 70 years from present and do not reduce from this point. That is, the soil P "storage" components of the catchment are already "leaking" P, and their ability to buffer any more P will be almost exhausted in 70 years if current agricultural practices continue. From this point onwards, P release into the regional waterways will equal annual application (currently 2610 tonnes). The P load target for the estuary is 70 tPpa, with current loads

  15. Geochemical indicators and characterization of soil water repellence in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordan, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Soil water repellency (SWR) has critical implications for restoration of vegetation in degraded areas as it is responsible of poor plant establishment and a high incidence of erosion processes. Different organic substances are capable of inducing SWR but polar molecules such as certain fatty acids, and waxes i.e. esters and salts of fatty acids, appear to be the main constituents of hydrophobic coatings on soil mineral particles (Doerr et al., 2005). Plant species most commonly associated with SWR are evergreen trees with a considerable amount of resins, waxes or aromatic oils such as eucalypts and pines. Most of these substances are abundant in ecosystems and are released to soil by plants as root exudates or decaying organic debris, and by soil fauna, fungi and other microorganisms, but a thorough knowledge of substances capable of inducing hydrophobicity in soils is still not complete (Jordan et al., 2013). Although SWR has been reported in most continents of the world for different soil types, climate conditions and land uses, there are still many research gaps in this area, particularly in semi-arid areas largely affected by this phenomenon. Materials and methods This research was conducted in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia (WA), e.g. semi-arid grassland in the Pilbara region (North WA), Banksia woodland, and a coastal dune (both located in South WA). These environments have different climate characteristics and soil types but similar vegetation communities. Soil samples were collected under the canopy of a broad range of plant species that compose the dominant vegetation communities of these ecosystems, and SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C). Soil microbial activity was measured with the 1-day CO2 test, a cost-effective and rapid method to determine soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Soil p

  16. Inter-annual rainfall variations and suicide in New South Wales, Australia, 1964-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Neville; Butler, Colin D.; Hanigan, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The suicide rate in New South Wales is shown to be related to annual precipitation, supporting a widespread and long-held assumption that drought in Australia increases the likelihood of suicide. The relationship, although statistically significant, is not especially strong and is confounded by strong, long-term variations in the suicide rate not related to precipitation variations. A decrease in precipitation of about 300 mm would lead to an increase in the suicide rate of approximately 8% of the long-term mean suicide rate.

  17. Impact ejecta horizon within late precambrian shales, adelaide geosyncline, South australia.

    PubMed

    Gostin, V A; Haines, P W; Jenkins, R J; Compston, W; Williams, I S

    1986-07-11

    A solitary layer of shattered crustal rock fragments has been traced over a distance of 260 kilometers within folded 600-million-year-old Precambrian marine shales of the Adelaide Geosyncline, South Australia. The fragments consist entirely of acid to intermediate volcanics (approximately 1575 million years old) displaying shattered mineral grains, shock lamellae in quartz, and small shatter cones. Fragments reach 30 centimeters in diameter and show evidence of vertical fall emplacement. Available evidence points to derivation of the rock fragments from a distant hypervelocity impact into the Gawler Range Volcanics at Lake Acraman, approximately 300 kilometers west of the Adelaide Geosyncline.

  18. The struggle for recognition: The nurse practitioner in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Appel, A L; Malcolm, P

    1999-09-01

    Recognition of clinical expertise seems to be a worldwide struggle for nurses. In New South Wales (NSW), Australia, nurse practitioners (NPs) are currently struggling for formal recognition of their position. The role of NP is seen as a means of fulfilling the desire of expert nurses for optimal autonomy and recognition in the health care system. This article examines advanced nursing practice within the context of the Australian health care system and the NP movement in NSW, including the pilot projects conducted. Discussion includes contentious issues such as nurse-prescribed medications, Medicare funding, and support for the NP role from within the nursing and medical professions. PMID:11188555

  19. Colonial judiciaries, Aboriginal protection and South Australia's policy of punishing "with exemplary severity".

    PubMed

    Nettelbeck, Amanda; Foster, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The ways in which Europeans experienced the legal system for crimes against Aboriginal people needs more systematic research. Although for the first fifty years of Australian settlement Aboriginal legal status was protractedly ambiguous, the foundational principle of later-established South Australia was that Aboriginal people were British subjects and settler crimes against them would be punished 'with exemplary severity'. This paper puts this foundational principle to the test by examining the working of the legal system where Europeans were investigated for the deaths of Aboriginal people. Ultimately, we argue, the principle of protecting Aboriginal people as British subjects not only failed, but became inverted into a principle of Aboriginal punishment.

  20. Impact of cyclones and aquatic macrophytes on recruitment and landings of tiger prawns Penaeus esculentus in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loneragan, N. R.; Kangas, M.; Haywood, M. D. E.; Kenyon, R. A.; Caputi, N.; Sporer, E.

    2013-07-01

    The cover of seagrasses and macroalgae, landings and fishery-independent measures of spawning stock and recruitment for brown tiger prawns, were monitored immediately following a major cyclone in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia in March 1999. Anecdotal evidence on the extent of seagrass from 1990 to 1998 suggests that the cyclone caused a major, immediate disruption and loss of the seagrass/macroalgal beds (to ≤2% cover), the critical prawn nursery habitat, and mangroves in the shallow inshore waters of the system. Prawn landings and recruitment to the fishery were not affected in the year of the cyclone, but were markedly lower in the two years immediately afterwards and then increased as the cover of macrophytes increased to over 40% in 2003. Tiger prawn landings and catch rates were not affected in Shark Bay, a system 500 km south of Exmouth Gulf that did not experience cyclonic disturbance. Seagrasses in Exmouth Gulf showed a succession of species from small colonising species (Halophila ovalis and Halodule uninervis) to larger, broad-leaved species (Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium) only two years after the cyclone. The recruitment and landings of tiger prawns were correlated significantly with the total cover of macroalgae and seagrass. The large loss of seagrass and macroalgae reduced the settling habitat for postlarvae and the nursery habitat for juvenile tiger prawns, probably leading to the lower recruitment to the fishery. These findings suggest that the extent of seagrass and macroalgae are some of the factors defining the productivity of the tiger prawn fishery in Exmouth Gulf.

  1. Management Of Saline Groundwater Discharge By Long-term Windmill Pumping In The Wheatbelt, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, R. B.; Otto, C. J.; Bartle, G. A.; Watson, G. D.

    1994-01-01

    Land and stream salinization in the Western Australian wheatbelt developed as a result of clearing of native vegetation. This caused a shift in the hydrological balance and a 10- to 30-fold increase in recharge. Rising water levels rejuvenated groundwater flow through paleao channels and increased baseflow to drainage lines. An increase in saline groundwater ascension (TDS 5000-30 000 mgl-1) to the near-surface, induced by rising pressure heads in the deeper semi-confined aquifer system, advanced land and stream salinization. Areas in a catchment where groundwater flow is channelled upwards by subsurface geological strctures are especially susceptible to salinization and water logging. Enhanced discharge by windmill pumping is an engineering method to reduce excess pressure heads of deep semi-confined aquifers in discharge areas and, consequently, lower water levels at shallower depths. It is an interim solution to halt and prevent salinization in the wheatbelt of Western Australia. Long-term field experiments in three catchments and modelling have shown that windmill pumping (15-30 m3d-1) in the wheatbelt can reduce water levels by 1 to 2 m at radial distance of more than 1 km after several years of pumping. The pumped groundwater can be reused for irrigation (TDS < 3000 mgl-1) or stock water (TDS < 10 000 mgl-1). In some instances, highly saline effluent can be discharged into saline streams or salt lakes. Often saline water disposal requires on-farm evaporation ponds or sacrificial basins. The enhanced discharge method should be part of an integrated catchment management program for the restoration of saline land and streams. the technology is applicable to other irrigated and non-irrigated salt-contaminated regions.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in plasma of pregnant women from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Stasinska, Ania; Heyworth, Jane; Reid, Alison; Callan, Anna; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Trong Duong, Phi; Van Ho, Quoc; Hinwood, Andrea

    2014-09-15

    PBDEs are a class of brominated flame retardants applied to consumer goods to reduce their flammability. These compounds are lipophilic, persistent and bioaccumulate through the food web. PBDEs have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue and breast milk. There are a small number of studies reporting concentrations of PBDEs in Australian populations. These indicate that concentrations are higher than in studies reporting concentrations from Europe but lower than those from Northern America. The aim of this paper was to determine the concentrations of PBDEs in the plasma of pregnant women participating in the Australian Maternal Exposure to Toxic Substances (AMETS) study in Western Australia. The samples comprised 164 pregnant women, aged 18 years and over, who were non-smokers and not occupationally exposed to persistent substances. Participants provided blood samples at 38 weeks gestation and these were analysed for five PBDE congeners. Maternal health and birth outcomes data were also obtained. The median for sum PBDE concentrations in plasma was 53.9 pg g(-1) (range 13.2 to 1390 pg g(-1)ww). Concentrations were adjusted for the estimated plasma lipid content. The concentrations of Σ5PBDE ranged from 2.44 to 258 ng g(-1) lipid with a median of 9.97 ng g(-1) lipid. BDE-47 was the dominant congener (median 21.4 pg g(-1), range <4.95 to 1030 pg g(-1)) followed by BDE-153 (median 12.2 pg g(-1), range <2.94 to 353 pg g(-1)). There were no significant associations between maternal, housing or dietary factors and concentrations of PBDEs in this study. Maternal PBDE concentrations were not associated with infant birth weight. This study builds upon previous Australian research and shows that concentrations in this sample of Western Australian women were higher than in parts of Europe. PMID:24973935

  3. Pliocene-Pleistocene coastal events and history along the western margin of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendrick, G.W.; Wyrwoll, K.-H.; Szabo, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    Coastal deposits along the western coastal margin of Australia, a region of relative tectonic stability, record Plio-Pleistocene events and processes affecting the inner shelf and adjacent hinterland. Tectonic deformation of these deposits is more apparent in the Carnarvon Basin, and rather less so in the Perth Basin. The most complete record comes from the Perth Basin, where units of Pliocene and Pleistocene ages are well represented. In the Perth Basin, the predominantly siliciclastic Yoganup Formation, Ascot Formation and Bassendean Sand represent a complex of shoreline, inner shelf and regressive-dune facies equivalents, the deposition of which began at an undetermined stage of the Pliocene, through to the Early Pleistocene. The deposition of this sequence closed with a major regression and significant faunal extinction. Bioclastic carbonates characterize the Middle and Late Pleistocene of the Perth and Carnarvon basins. Fossil assemblages include a distinct subtropical element, unknown from the Ascot Formation and suggesting a strengthening of the Leeuwin Current. The estuarine arcoid bivalve Anadara trapezia characterizes assemblages of Oxygen Isotope Stages 5 and 7 in the Perth and Carnarvon basins, where it is now extinct. Deposits of Substage 5e (Perth Basin) also record a southerly expansion of warm-water corals and other fauna consistent with shelf temperatures warmer than present. New uranium-series ages on corals from marine sequences of the Tantabiddi Member, of the Bundera Calcarenite of the western Cape Range are consistent with the 'double peak' hypothesis for levels of Substage 5e but the evidence remains less than conclusive. Initial uranium-series dates from the Bibra and Dampier formations of Shark Bay indicate that both derive from the Late Pleistocene. These numerical ages contradict previous interpretations of relative ages obtained from field studies. The age relationship of the units requires further investigation. ?? 1991.

  4. Vocalisations of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) in the Bremer Canyon, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Wellard, Rebecca; Erbe, Christine; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    To date, there has been no dedicated study in Australian waters on the acoustics of killer whales. Hence no information has been published on the sounds produced by killer whales from this region. Here we present the first acoustical analysis of recordings collected off the Western Australian coast. Underwater sounds produced by Australian killer whales were recorded during the months of February and March 2014 and 2015 in the Bremer Canyon in Western Australia. Vocalisations recorded included echolocation clicks, burst-pulse sounds and whistles. A total of 28 hours and 29 minutes were recorded and analysed, with 2376 killer whale calls (whistles and burst-pulse sounds) detected. Recordings of poor quality or signal-to-noise ratio were excluded from analysis, resulting in 142 whistles and burst-pulse vocalisations suitable for analysis and categorisation. These were grouped based on their spectrographic features into nine Bremer Canyon (BC) "call types". The frequency of the fundamental contours of all call types ranged from 600 Hz to 29 kHz. Calls ranged from 0.05 to 11.3 seconds in duration. Biosonar clicks were also recorded, but not studied further. Surface behaviours noted during acoustic recordings were categorised as either travelling or social behaviour. A detailed description of the acoustic characteristics is necessary for species acoustic identification and for the development of passive acoustic tools for population monitoring, including assessments of population status, habitat usage, migration patterns, behaviour and acoustic ecology. This study provides the first quantitative assessment and report on the acoustic features of killer whales vocalisations in Australian waters, and presents an opportunity to further investigate this little-known population. PMID:26352429

  5. Vocalisations of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) in the Bremer Canyon, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Wellard, Rebecca; Erbe, Christine; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    To date, there has been no dedicated study in Australian waters on the acoustics of killer whales. Hence no information has been published on the sounds produced by killer whales from this region. Here we present the first acoustical analysis of recordings collected off the Western Australian coast. Underwater sounds produced by Australian killer whales were recorded during the months of February and March 2014 and 2015 in the Bremer Canyon in Western Australia. Vocalisations recorded included echolocation clicks, burst-pulse sounds and whistles. A total of 28 hours and 29 minutes were recorded and analysed, with 2376 killer whale calls (whistles and burst-pulse sounds) detected. Recordings of poor quality or signal-to-noise ratio were excluded from analysis, resulting in 142 whistles and burst-pulse vocalisations suitable for analysis and categorisation. These were grouped based on their spectrographic features into nine Bremer Canyon (BC) "call types". The frequency of the fundamental contours of all call types ranged from 600 Hz to 29 kHz. Calls ranged from 0.05 to 11.3 seconds in duration. Biosonar clicks were also recorded, but not studied further. Surface behaviours noted during acoustic recordings were categorised as either travelling or social behaviour. A detailed description of the acoustic characteristics is necessary for species acoustic identification and for the development of passive acoustic tools for population monitoring, including assessments of population status, habitat usage, migration patterns, behaviour and acoustic ecology. This study provides the first quantitative assessment and report on the acoustic features of killer whales vocalisations in Australian waters, and presents an opportunity to further investigate this little-known population.

  6. Vocalisations of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) in the Bremer Canyon, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wellard, Rebecca; Erbe, Christine; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    To date, there has been no dedicated study in Australian waters on the acoustics of killer whales. Hence no information has been published on the sounds produced by killer whales from this region. Here we present the first acoustical analysis of recordings collected off the Western Australian coast. Underwater sounds produced by Australian killer whales were recorded during the months of February and March 2014 and 2015 in the Bremer Canyon in Western Australia. Vocalisations recorded included echolocation clicks, burst-pulse sounds and whistles. A total of 28 hours and 29 minutes were recorded and analysed, with 2376 killer whale calls (whistles and burst-pulse sounds) detected. Recordings of poor quality or signal-to-noise ratio were excluded from analysis, resulting in 142 whistles and burst-pulse vocalisations suitable for analysis and categorisation. These were grouped based on their spectrographic features into nine Bremer Canyon (BC) “call types”. The frequency of the fundamental contours of all call types ranged from 600 Hz to 29 kHz. Calls ranged from 0.05 to 11.3 seconds in duration. Biosonar clicks were also recorded, but not studied further. Surface behaviours noted during acoustic recordings were categorised as either travelling or social behaviour. A detailed description of the acoustic characteristics is necessary for species acoustic identification and for the development of passive acoustic tools for population monitoring, including assessments of population status, habitat usage, migration patterns, behaviour and acoustic ecology. This study provides the first quantitative assessment and report on the acoustic features of killer whales vocalisations in Australian waters, and presents an opportunity to further investigate this little-known population. PMID:26352429

  7. The Influence of Climate Science on Water Management in Western Australia: Lessons for Climate Scientists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Scott; Sadler, Brian; Nicholls, Neville

    2005-06-01

    Water flow into dams that supply Perth in Western Australia (WA) has fallen by 50% since the mid-1970s, and this has severely tested water managers. Climate change scenarios available since the 1980s have suggested that global warming will reduce rainfall over southern Australia, including Perth. Water managers recognize the uncertainties associated with the projections, including the significant differences that exist between the timing and magnitude of the observed changes and modeled projections. The information has, nevertheless, influenced their decision making.To understand why, we need to consider the broader environment in which the water managers operate. One key factor is that the imposition of severe water restrictions can lead to significant economic loss and increased unemployment. Prolonged restrictions can therefore create strong debate in the wider community. In recognition of this, state government policy requires that water managers ensure that the chance of having severe restrictions is kept low. Severe restrictions have not been imposed since 1979, but moderate restrictions are more common, and were imposed as recently as 2002. Scrutiny of water management can become intense even after moderate restrictions are imposed, and at these times it is unacceptable to many people if a known risk—even if very uncertain—is perceived to have been ignored in earlier planning. Climate science has established regional drying driven by global warming as a risk, and so global warming has to be addressed in planning. Water managers also need climate science to reassure the public that the restrictions imposed were necessary because of unprecedented changes in rainfall, not because of poor management.In recent years much of the influence that climate science has had on water managers can be attributed to the Indian Ocean Climate Initiative (IOCI). IOCI is a research partnership between the Western Australia Water Corporation, other state government agencies

  8. Canopy Profiling for Vegetation Mapping in South-Western Australian Forested Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schut, A. G. T.; Wardell-Johnson, G. W.; Baran, I.

    2012-09-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is already impacting native vegetation world-wide. Thus accurate mapping of current vegetation condition is necessary for benchmarking and conservation planning. We examine the potential for the mapping of native vegetation of forested ecosystems in south-western Australia using LiDAR data. Airborne LiDAR (distance between data points 1.2 m) and RGB imagery was acquired with a discrete 4-return Leica ALS 50-II system in April 2011 and vertical canopy profiles determined in Boyagin Nature Reserve. Elevation, slope and geomorphological descriptions of the terrain in combination with vertical canopy profiles based on presence/absence of returns within voxels were derived from the LiDAR data and processed at a spatial resolution of 4.0 meters. Based on these profiles, crown height and depth, ground cover, mean intensity of crown returns, presence of understory and number of vegetation layers were determined for each grid cell. Unsupervised classification revealed distinctive canopy profiles. Vegetation is strongly linked to geomorphology in this old landscape. Thus Kwongan shrubland occurs on the plateaus, Allocasuarina heugeliana woodland on the fringes of rock outcrops, Eucalyptus astringens and E. accedens woodland on breakaways and E. wandoo and Corymbia calophylla woodland in more fertile valley systems. The vegetation types present within distinctive spatial clusters were determined in two field visits. Vegetation types were mapped with an object-based image analysis approach at geomorphological, vegetation and tree scales using the geomorphology of the terrain and structural, textural and reflective characteristics of the canopy. All vertical profiles identified were present on each geomorphological unit. Tree species with a distinctive vertical profile such as Eucalyptus astringens and Allocasuarina heugeliana were defined and distinguished in combination with object-based geomorphological and spatial characteristics. Vegetation

  9. A new specimen of the Mount Dooling iron meteorite from Mount Manning, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laeter, J. R.

    1980-06-01

    The discovery of an iron meteorite near the Mount Manning Range in Western Australia which has been identified with the Mount Dooling meteorite is reported. The 701-kg iron meteorite was found embedded in the ground at a site 3 km east of the Mount Manning Range and approximately 6 km from the probable discovery site of Mount Dooling. The meteorite has a fan-shaped or delta wing configuration, with one side smooth and slightly concave with a well defined fusion crust and the other side rough, convex and possessing numerous regmaglypts; it is suggested that the meteorite performed a delta-wing-like flight at high angle of attack through much of the atmosphere. A comparison of the chemical composition, surface features, microstructure and location of the present meteorite with those of the Mount Dooling siderite confirms that the find represents a larger specimen of Mount Dooling. In light of the present discovery and that of another Mount Dooling fragment, Gosnells, it is predicted that other specimens may be discovered in the future.

  10. Cyanobacterial Inhabitation on Archean Rock Surfaces in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Yosuke; George, Simon C

    2015-07-01

    High abundances of 7- and 6-monomethylalkanes as well as C17 n-alkane, indicative of cyanobacteria, have been discovered near the surfaces of Archean carbonate rocks of the Fortescue Group in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. The presence of cyanobacterial biomarkers is mostly limited to the surface layer (<1 cm thickness) of the rocks, indicating that the cyanobacteria are an endolithic species. Biomarkers are found in bitumen I (solvent-extracted rock) and also in bitumen II (solvent-extracted decarbonated rock). The abundance of biomarkers is generally the same between both bitumen fractions in the surface layer, which suggests that the cyanobacteria penetrated into the carbonate minerals. Trace amounts of the biomarkers have also diffused into a deeper part of the rocks, but this influence is only seen in bitumen I. This implies that hydrocarbons moved toward the inside of the rock through pores and fissures in the rock fabric. In contrast, hydrocarbons in bitumen II, which mainly come from within the carbonate minerals, are isolated from the hydrocarbon migration from the outside of the rock and may be ancient indigenous organic matter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the past or modern inhabitation of cyanobacteria on Archean rocks in the Pilbara region for which hydrocarbon biomarker analyses was used. PMID:26153724

  11. Predominance of biotic over abiotic formation of halogenated hydrocarbons in hypersaline sediments in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Ruecker, A; Weigold, P; Behrens, S; Jochmann, M; Laaks, J; Kappler, A

    2014-08-19

    Volatile halogenated organic compounds (VOX) contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. There is evidence of natural VOX formation in many environments ranging from forest soils to salt lakes. Laboratory studies have suggested that VOX formation can be chemically stimulated by reactive Fe species while field studies have provided evidence for direct biological (enzymatic) VOX formation. However, the relative contribution of abiotic and biotic processes to global VOX budgets is still unclear. The goals of this study were to quantify VOX release from sediments from a hypersaline lake in Western Australia (Lake Strawbridge) and to distinguish between the relative contributions of biotic and abiotic VOX formation in microbially active and sterilized microcosms. Our experiments demonstrated that the release of organochlorines from Lake Strawbridge sediments was mainly biotic. Among the organochlorines detected were monochlorinated, e.g., chloromethane (CH3Cl), and higher chlorinated VOX compounds such as trichloromethane (CHCl3). Amendment of sediments with either Fe(III) oxyhydroxide (ferrihydrite) or a mixture of lactate/acetate or both ferrihydrite and lactate/acetate did not stimulate VOX formation. This suggests that although microbial Fe(III) reduction took place, there was no stimulation of VOX formation via Fe redox transformations or the formation of reactive Fe species under our experimental conditions.

  12. Distribution of 13 virulence genes among clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Aravena-Román, M; Inglis, T J J; Riley, T V; Chang, B J

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the pathogenic potential of 98 clinical and 31 environmental Aeromonas isolates by detecting the presence of 13 virulence genes using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method. The majority (96 %) of the strains contained at least one of the virulence genes. The overall distribution was aerA/haem (77 %), alt (53 %), lafA (51 %), ast (39 %), flaA (32 %), aspA (29 %), vasH (26 %), ascV (16 %) and aexT (13 %). No amplification products were detected for the genes encoding a bundle-forming pilus (BfpA and BfpG) or a Shiga-like toxin (stx-1 and stx-2). Five or more virulence genes were detected in 42 % of environmental and 24 % of clinical isolates. Among the major species, 48 % of A. hydrophila and 42 % of A. dhakensis isolates harboured five or more virulence genes compared with 19 % in A. veronii bv. sobria and none in A. caviae isolates. Our results suggest that, in Western Australia, strains of A. dhakensis and A. hydrophila are potentially more virulent than those of A. veronii bv. sobria and A. caviae, although the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas spp. is probably strain- rather than species-dependent.

  13. Dental anomalies in children with cleft lip and palate in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper was to describe the prevalence and type of dental anomalies in the primary and permanent dentition in children with a cleft condition at Princess Margaret Hospital in Perth, Western Australia. Materials and Methods: The details of 162 current dental patients extracted from the main dental database through their year of birth for the period 1998–2001 were selected consecutively. Dental records and X-rays were examined by one examiner (WN) and verified by a second examiner (RB) to determine dental development. The mean age of the subjects was 10.8 years with equal numbers of males and females. Subjects were further divided into cleft type; unilateral cleft lip (UCL) and palate, bilateral cleft lip (BCL) and palate, UCL, BCL, and cleft palate. Results: One hundred sixty-two subjects were grouped into 21 categories of anomaly or abnormality. Prevalence rates for the categories were calculated for the overall group and for gender and cleft type. Conclusion: Overall, 94% of patients were found to have at least one dental anomaly, with fifty-six (34%) patients having more than one anomaly or abnormality. PMID:27095907

  14. The Geohydrology of MVT-Ore Genesis in the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garven, G.; Wallace, M. M.

    2009-05-01

    In the Lennard Shelf, Western Australia, epigenetic MVT-type Pb-Zn mineralization occurs in Middle Devonian evaporitic dolomites which were part of a barrier reef system (Hurley & Lohmann, 1989). Ore mineralization exhibits a strong structural control at the basin scale and normal faults probably controlled pathways for brine and petroleum migration that affected ore deposition (Wallace et al., 1999). For the Canning basin, finite element simulations show that compaction was the most important process for creating overpressures and driving basinal fluids in this thick extensional basin. Basinal fluids are shown to have been driven across the Fitzroy Trough through permeable and deeply buried Silurian-Ordovician aquifer units. The fluids then migrated upwards at rates of m/yr up during periods of episodic extension (Braun, 1992) where fluid flow was channeled by major normal fault zones like the Cadjebut and Pinnacles Faults. Reactive flow simulations test a petroleum-reservoir model for mineralization whereby metal-bearing brines mix with accumulated hydrocarbons (Anderson & Garven, 1987). The results show that compaction-driven flow, as proposed by Beales & Jackson (1966) and Jackson & Beales (1967), works rather well in this ore district--other mechanisms such as sealevel tidal pumping (Cathles, 1988) or topographic drive (Solomon & Groves, 1994) are more tenuous and really unnecessary from a mass transport or geohydrologic basis.

  15. Unusual Rebuilding Method of Historic St Mary's Cathedral in the Capital of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysokowski, Adam

    2016-06-01

    St Mary's Cathedral is the Archbishop church of the Archdiocese in Perth in Western Australia. The presented sacral building was built in neo-Gothic style during the years 1863-1865. Cathedral was officially dedicated and opened for the service on 29th January, 1865. In 1973 was proclaimed the Marian Sanctuary and now represents one of the largest religious facilities in Perth. In 2005, the city authorities, together with the Archdiocese took a collective decision on the necessity of a comprehensive renovation of this sacred object. The renovation was due to the technical condition and the lack of usability of the object. The author of the paper had the opportunity to experience these problems by visiting this place several times, first time in 1989 and next years. Thus, the renovation of the present Cathedral was in its assumption not only to perform maintenance of the building and its specific architectural elements but also to increase its functional features - usable for the faithful and tourists. Reconstruction of St Mary's Cathedral in Perth can be a good example increasing the wider functionality of such facilities while keeping their antique and historical qualities. In this paper the above-mentioned issues will be more widely developed by the author.

  16. Impact of Sauropod Dinosaurs on Lagoonal Substrates in the Broome Sandstone (Lower Cretaceous), Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Thulborn, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Existing knowledge of the tracks left by sauropod dinosaurs (loosely ‘brontosaurs’) is essentially two-dimensional, derived mainly from footprints exposed on bedding planes, but examples in the Broome Sandstone (Early Cretaceous) of Western Australia provide a complementary three-dimensional picture showing the extent to which walking sauropods could deform the ground beneath their feet. The patterns of deformation created by sauropods traversing thinly-stratified lagoonal deposits of the Broome Sandstone are unprecedented in their extent and structural complexity. The stacks of transmitted reliefs (underprints or ghost prints) beneath individual footfalls are nested into a hierarchy of deeper and more inclusive basins and troughs which eventually attain the size of minor tectonic features. Ultimately the sauropod track-makers deformed the substrate to such an extent that they remodelled the topography of the landscape they inhabited. Such patterns of substrate deformation are revealed by investigating fragmentary and eroded footprints, not by the conventional search for pristine footprints on intact bedding planes. For that reason it is not known whether similar patterns of substrate deformation might occur at sauropod track-sites elsewhere in the world. PMID:22662116

  17. Varicella-Zoster Virus in Perth, Western Australia: Seasonality and Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Korostil, Igor A.; Regan, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of the factors affecting reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) largely remains an open question. Exposure to solar ultra violet (UV) radiation is speculated to facilitate reactivation. Should the role of UV in reactivation be significant, VZV reactivation patterns would generally be expected to be synchronous with seasonal UV profiles in temperate climates. Methods We analysed age and gender specific VZV notification time series data from Perth, Western Australia (WA). This city has more daily sunshine hours than any other major Australian city. Using the cosinor and generalized linear models, we tested these data for seasonality and correlation with UV and temperature. Results We established significant seasonality of varicella notifications and showed that while herpes-zoster (HZ) was not seasonal it had a more stable seasonal component in males over 60 than in any other subpopulation tested. We also detected significant association between HZ notifications and UV for the entire Perth population as well as for females and males separately. In most cases, temperature proved to be a significant factor as well. Conclusions Our findings suggest that UV radiation may be important for VZV reactivation, under the assumption that notification data represent an acceptably accurate qualitative measure of true VZV incidence. PMID:26963841

  18. Determination of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) bloodmeal sources in Western Australia: implications for arbovirus transmission.

    PubMed

    Johansen, C A; Power, S L; Broom, A K

    2009-09-01

    A double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the bloodmeal sources of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in encephalitis vector surveillance mosquito traps in Western Australia between May 1993 and August 2004. In total, 2,606 blood-fed mosquitoes, representing 29 mosquito species, were tested, and 81.7% reacted with one or more of the primary antibodies. Aedes camptorhynchus (Thomson) and Culex annulirostris Skuse were the most common species tested, making up 47.2% (1,234) and 35.6% (930), respectively. These species obtained bloodmeals from a variety of vertebrate hosts but particularly marsupials and cows. In contrast, Culex pullus Theobald (72.7%; 24/33), Culiseta atra (Lee) (70.0%; 7/10), Culex globocoxitus Dobrotworsky (54.5%; 12/22), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (39.3%; 22/56) often obtained bloodmeals from birds. Although Ae. camptorhynchus and Cx. annulirostris are well established vectors of arboviruses, other mosquitoes also may have a role in enzootic and/ or epizootic transmission.

  19. Ocean Transport Pathways to a World Heritage Fringing Coral Reef: Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiangtao; Lowe, Ryan J; Ivey, Gregory N; Jones, Nicole L; Zhang, Zhenlin

    2016-01-01

    A Lagrangian particle tracking model driven by a regional ocean circulation model was used to investigate the seasonally varying connectivity patterns within the shelf circulation surrounding the 300 km long Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia (WA) during 2009-2010. Forward-in-time simulations revealed that surface water was transported equatorward and offshore in summer due to the upwelling-favorable winds. In winter, however, water was transported polewards down the WA coast due to the seasonally strong Leeuwin Current. Using backward-in-time simulations, the subsurface transport pathways revealed two main source regions of shelf water reaching Ningaloo Reef: (1) a year-round source to the northeast in the upper 100 m of water column; and (2) during the summer, an additional source offshore and to the west of Ningaloo in depths between ~30 and ~150 m. Transient wind-driven coastal upwelling, onshore geostrophic transport and stirring by offshore eddies were identified as the important mechanisms influencing the source water origins. The identification of these highly time-dependent transport pathways and source water locations is an essential step towards quantifying how key material (e.g., nutrients, larvae, contaminants, etc.) is exchanged between Ningaloo Reef and the surrounding shelf ocean, and how this is mechanistically coupled to the complex ocean dynamics in this region.

  20. New multi-scale perspectives on the stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suosaari, E. P.; Reid, R. P.; Playford, P. E.; Foster, J. S.; Stolz, J. F.; Casaburi, G.; Hagan, P. D.; Chirayath, V.; MacIntyre, I. G.; Planavsky, N. J.; Eberli, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    A recent field-intensive program in Shark Bay, Western Australia provides new multi-scale perspectives on the world’s most extensive modern stromatolite system. Mapping revealed a unique geographic distribution of morphologically distinct stromatolite structures, many of them previously undocumented. These distinctive structures combined with characteristic shelf physiography define eight ‘Stromatolite Provinces’. Morphological and molecular studies of microbial mat composition resulted in a revised growth model where coccoid cyanobacteria predominate in mat communities forming lithified discrete stromatolite buildups. This contradicts traditional views that stromatolites with the best lamination in Hamelin Pool are formed by filamentous cyanobacterial mats. Finally, analysis of internal fabrics of stromatolites revealed pervasive precipitation of microcrystalline carbonate (i.e. micrite) in microbial mats forming framework and cement that may be analogous to the micritic microstructures typical of Precambrian stromatolites. These discoveries represent fundamental advances in our knowledge of the Shark Bay microbial system, laying a foundation for detailed studies of stromatolite morphogenesis that will advance our understanding of benthic ecosystems on the early Earth.

  1. Public support for tobacco control policy extensions in Western Australia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Michael; Wood, Lisa; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Policy makers seeking to introduce new tobacco control measures need to anticipate community support to assist them in planning appropriate implementation strategies. This study assessed community support for plain packaging and smoking bans in outdoor locations in Australia. Design Analytical cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants 2005 Western Australian adults participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview. Random household telephone numbers were used to obtain a representative sample. Outcome measures Support for plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking bans at outdoor venues by demographic characteristics. Results Around half of the survey respondents supported plain packaging and almost a further quarter reported being neutral on the issue. Only one in three smokers disagreed with the introduction of a plain packaging policy. A majority of respondents supported smoking bans at five of the six nominated venues, with support being strongest among those with children under the age of 15 years. The venues with the highest levels of support were those where smoke-free policies had already been voluntarily introduced by the venue managers, where children were most likely to be in attendance, and that were more limited in size. Conclusions The study results demonstrate community support for new tobacco control policies. This evidence can be used by public policy makers in their deliberations relating to the introduction of more extensive tobacco control regulations. PMID:22382124

  2. Radium isotopes reveal seasonal groundwater inputs to Cockburn Sound, a marine embayment in Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, Alicia M.; Oldham, Carolyn E.; Hancock, Gary J.

    2008-03-01

    SummaryThe mass balance and activity ratios of naturally occurring radium (Ra) isotopes ( 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra) were investigated in Cockburn Sound (Western Australia) to further understand submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into these coastal waters. Water samples from 11 marine stations and 20 groundwater sites (encompassing three aquifer layers) were analysed for Ra at four times, at the end of winter (September 2003), early summer (December 2003), late summer (March 2004) and mid-winter (July 2004). Variable isotopic signatures of groundwater suggested that vertical mixing may occur between different aquifer layers and two isotopically different water sources were identified in marine waters both inside and outside of Cockburn Sound. A mass balance of the long lived radium isotopes ( 228Ra and 226Ra) produced a range of discharge estimates from 0.8 × 10 7 L day -1 in late summer to 2.7 × 10 7 L day -1 at the end of winter. Signatures of radium isotopes in the coastal waters suggested that groundwater discharge was not confined to the shoreline and may have occurred from a number of aquifer sources at a temporally variable scale.

  3. Groundwater cooling of a supercomputer in Perth, Western Australia: hydrogeological simulations and thermal sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Heather A.; Schaubs, Peter M.; Rachakonda, Praveen K.; Trefry, Michael G.; Reid, Lynn B.; Lester, Daniel R.; Metcalfe, Guy; Poulet, Thomas; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater cooling (GWC) is a sustainable alternative to conventional cooling technologies for supercomputers. A GWC system has been implemented for the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre in Perth, Western Australia. Groundwater is extracted from the Mullaloo Aquifer at 20.8 °C and passes through a heat exchanger before returning to the same aquifer. Hydrogeological simulations of the GWC system were used to assess its performance and sustainability. Simulations were run with cooling capacities of 0.5 or 2.5 Mega Watts thermal (MWth), with scenarios representing various combinations of pumping rate, injection temperature and hydrogeological parameter values. The simulated system generates a thermal plume in the Mullaloo Aquifer and overlying Superficial Aquifer. Thermal breakthrough (transfer of heat from injection to production wells) occurred in 2.7-4.3 years for a 2.5 MWth system. Shielding (reinjection of cool groundwater between the injection and production wells) resulted in earlier thermal breakthrough but reduced the rate of temperature increase after breakthrough, such that shielding was beneficial after approximately 5 years pumping. Increasing injection temperature was preferable to increasing flow rate for maintaining cooling capacity after thermal breakthrough. Thermal impacts on existing wells were small, with up to 10 wells experiencing a temperature increase ≥ 0.1 °C (largest increase 6 °C).

  4. Hospital admissions before the age of 2 years in Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Read, A W; Gibbins, J; Stanley, F J; Morich, P

    1994-01-01

    A linked data file of birth records and hospital admissions was used to investigate inpatient hospital morbidity before 2 years of age for all non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal children born in Western Australia in 1986. Of the non-Aboriginal children, 31.8% were admitted to hospital at least once before the age of 2 years, with an overall admission rate of 526/1000 live births; the corresponding figures for Aboriginal children were 68.7% and 2797. The mean number of days in hospital for each non-Aboriginal child admitted was 7.4, and 26.5 for Aboriginal children. Of the total cohort, 21% of non-Aboriginal and 20% of Aboriginal children were admitted only once, and 4% of non-Aboriginal and 36% of Aboriginal children were admitted at least three times; 23% of non-Aboriginal and 24% of Aboriginal children were admitted for only one major disease category, and 1% of non-Aboriginal and 16% of Aboriginal children were in at least four categories. The highest admission rates and highest percentages of the cohort admitted were for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases and social admissions. These results illustrate the importance for both descriptive and analytical research of relating admissions to hospital for the total population to the individual child, and of using clinically relevant disease classifications. PMID:8135564

  5. Extremophile microbiomes in acidic and hypersaline river sediments of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shipeng; Peiffer, Stefan; Lazar, Cassandre Sara; Oldham, Carolyn; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Näb, Olga; Lillicrap, Adam; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Küsel, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the microbial community compositions in two sediment samples from the acidic (pH ∼3) and hypersaline (>4.5% NaCl) surface waters, which are widespread in Western Australia. In West Dalyup River, large amounts of NaCl, Fe(II) and sulfate are brought by the groundwater into the surface run-off. The presence of K-jarosite and schwertmannite minerals in the river sediments suggested the occurrence of microbial Fe(II) oxidation because chemical oxidation is greatly reduced at low pH. 16S rRNA gene diversity analyses revealed that sequences affiliated with an uncultured archaeal lineage named Aplasma, which has the genomic potential for Fe(II) oxidation, were dominant in both sediment samples. The acidophilic heterotrophs Acidiphilium and Acidocella were identified as the dominant bacterial groups. Acidiphilium strain AusYE3-1 obtained from the river sediment tolerated up to 6% NaCl at pH 3 under oxic conditions and cells of strain AusYE3-1 reduced the effects of high salt content by forming filamentous structure clumping as aggregates. Neither growth nor Fe(III) reduction by strain AusYE3-1 was observed in anoxic salt-containing medium. The detection of Aplasma group as potential Fe(II) oxidizers and the inhibited Fe(III)-reducing capacity of Acidiphilium contributes to our understanding of the microbial ecology of acidic hypersaline environments. PMID:26524974

  6. Characterization and significance of shocked quartz from the Woodleigh impact structure, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, R. M.; Lee, M. R.; Bevan, A. W. R.

    2003-09-01

    We re-examined the buried Woodleigh structure in Western Australia, which has been inferred to be a multi-ringed, 120 km diameter impact crater, because the proposed size and possible synchronicity with one of the pre-Mesozoic mass extinction events has attracted controversy. We undertook a detailed study of the petrology and mineralogy of a number of samples of core from the Woodleigh-1 borehole that was drilled into the central uplift of the structure. Crystalline Proterozoic basement rocks comprising granites and gneisses in the Woodleigh-1 core contain minor brecciation in discrete veins and reveal clear evidence of shock metamorphism over the full extent of the core. Imaging of laboratory-etched quartz showed that a large number of grains contain shock deformation lamellae. Microstructural and crystallographic analysis of these lamellae by TEM showed that they are planar deformation features (PDFs) that have subsequently undergone annealing and water assisted recrystallization. The available geological, petrographic, and mineralogical evidence suggest that Woodleigh is an eroded impact crater that is nearer to 60 km than 120 km in diameter. Future drilling projects should better constrain the level of erosion, and may reveal any preserved impact lithologies.

  7. Distribution and diagenesis of microfossils from the lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Strother, P. K.; Rossi, S.

    1988-01-01

    Two distinct generations of microfossils occur in silicified carbonates from a previously undescribed locality of the Lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia. The earlier generation occurs in discrete organic-rich clasts and clots characterized by microquartz anhedra; it contains a variety of filamentous and coccoidal fossils in varying states of preservation. Second generation microfossils consist almost exclusively of well-preserved Gunflintia minuta filaments that drape clasts or appear to float in clear chalcedony. These filaments appear to represent an ecologically distinct assemblage that colonized a substrate containing the partially degraded remains of the first generation community. The two assemblages differ significantly in taxonomic frequency distribution from previously described Duck Creek florules. Taken together, Duck Creek microfossils exhibit a range of assemblage variability comparable to that found in other Lower Proterozoic iron formations and ferruginous carbonates. With increasing severity of post-mortem alteration, Duck Creek microfossils appear to converge morphologically on assemblages of simple microstructures described from early Archean cherts. Two new species are described: Oscillatoriopsis majuscula and O. cuboides; the former is among the largest septate filamentous fossils described from any Proterozoic formation.

  8. Rhodenigma contortum, an obscure new genus and species of Rhodogorgonales (Rhodophyta) from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    West, John A; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C; de Goër, Susan Loiseaux; Stavrias, Lambros A; Verbruggen, Heroen

    2016-06-01

    An unknown microscopic, branched filamentous red alga was isolated into culture from coral fragments collected in Coral Bay, Western Australia. It grew well unattached or attached to glass with no reproduction other than fragmentation of filaments. Cells of some branch tips became slightly contorted and digitated, possibly as a substrate-contact-response seen at filament tips of various algae. Attached multicellular compact disks on glass had a very different cellular configuration and size than the free filaments. In culture the filaments did not grow on or in coral fragments. Molecular phylogenies based on four markers (rbcL, cox1, 18S, 28S) clearly showed it belongs to the order Rhodogorgonales, as a sister clade of Renouxia. Based on these results, the alga is described as the new genus and species Rhodenigma contortum in the Rhodogorgonaceae. It had no morphological similarity to either of the other genera in Rhodogorgonaceae and illustrates the unknown diversity in cryptic habitats such as tropical coral rubble. PMID:27273532

  9. Benefits of swimming pools in two remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia: intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Deborah; Tennant, Mary T; Silva, Desiree T; McAullay, Daniel; Lannigan, Francis; Coates, Harvey; Stanley, Fiona J

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the health impact of swimming pools built with the aim of improving quality of life and reducing high rates of pyoderma and otitis media. Design Intervention study assessing prevalence of ear disease and skin infections before and at six monthly intervals after opening of swimming pools. Setting Two remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia. Participants 84 boys and 78 girls aged < 17 years. Main outcome measures Changes in prevalence and severity of pyoderma and perforation of tympanic membranes with or without otorrhoea over 18 months after opening of pools. Results In community A, 61 children were seen before the pool was opened, and 41, 46, and 33 children were seen at the second, third, and fourth surveys. Equivalent figures for community B were 60, 35, 39, and 45. Prevalence of pyoderma declined significantly from 62% to 18% in community A and from 70% to 20% in community B during the 18 months after the pools opened. Over the same period, prevalence of severe pyoderma fell from 30% to 15% in community A and from 48% to 0% in community B. Prevalence of perforations of the tympanic membrane fell from 32% in both communities to 13% in community A and 18% in community B. School attendance improved in community A. Conclusion Swimming pools in remote communities were associated with reduction in prevalence of pyoderma and tympanic membrane perforations, which could result in long term benefits through reduction in chronic disease burden and improved educational and social outcomes. PMID:12933727

  10. New multi-scale perspectives on the stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Suosaari, E P; Reid, R P; Playford, P E; Foster, J S; Stolz, J F; Casaburi, G; Hagan, P D; Chirayath, V; Macintyre, I G; Planavsky, N J; Eberli, G P

    2016-01-01

    A recent field-intensive program in Shark Bay, Western Australia provides new multi-scale perspectives on the world's most extensive modern stromatolite system. Mapping revealed a unique geographic distribution of morphologically distinct stromatolite structures, many of them previously undocumented. These distinctive structures combined with characteristic shelf physiography define eight 'Stromatolite Provinces'. Morphological and molecular studies of microbial mat composition resulted in a revised growth model where coccoid cyanobacteria predominate in mat communities forming lithified discrete stromatolite buildups. This contradicts traditional views that stromatolites with the best lamination in Hamelin Pool are formed by filamentous cyanobacterial mats. Finally, analysis of internal fabrics of stromatolites revealed pervasive precipitation of microcrystalline carbonate (i.e. micrite) in microbial mats forming framework and cement that may be analogous to the micritic microstructures typical of Precambrian stromatolites. These discoveries represent fundamental advances in our knowledge of the Shark Bay microbial system, laying a foundation for detailed studies of stromatolite morphogenesis that will advance our understanding of benthic ecosystems on the early Earth. PMID:26838605

  11. Off-Label Use of Ondansetron in Pregnancy in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Lyn; Gill, Andrew W.; Slack-Smith, Linda; Stanley, Fiona J.; Bower, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is the most common medical condition in pregnancy. There is an increasing trend to prescribe ondansetron although its safety for use in pregnancy has not been established. Methods. Exposed pregnancies were all births in Western Australia, 2002–2005, where the mother was dispensed ondansetron under the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, compared with all other births during the same period. Outcomes investigated include maternal and child characteristics, birth defects, pregnancy, and delivery characteristics. Results. There were 96,968 births from 2002 to 2005. Ondansetron was dispensed to 251 pregnant women during this period. The women dispensed ondansetron were more likely to be privately insured (OR: 5.8; 95% CI: 4.3–7.9), to be Caucasian (3.3; 1.9–5.7), not to smoke during their pregnancy (2.9; 1.8–4.7), to have a multiple birth (2.7; 1.5–5.0), and to have used fertility treatment (1.8; 1.0–3.4). There was a small but not significantly increased risk of a major birth defect with first trimester exposure (1.2; 0.6–2.2). Conclusions. Our study did not detect any adverse outcomes from the use of ondansetron in pregnancy but could not conclude that ondansetron is safe to use in pregnancy. PMID:24396830

  12. Ocean Transport Pathways to a World Heritage Fringing Coral Reef: Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiangtao; Lowe, Ryan J.; Ivey, Gregory N.; Jones, Nicole L.; Zhang, Zhenlin

    2016-01-01

    A Lagrangian particle tracking model driven by a regional ocean circulation model was used to investigate the seasonally varying connectivity patterns within the shelf circulation surrounding the 300 km long Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia (WA) during 2009–2010. Forward-in-time simulations revealed that surface water was transported equatorward and offshore in summer due to the upwelling-favorable winds. In winter, however, water was transported polewards down the WA coast due to the seasonally strong Leeuwin Current. Using backward-in-time simulations, the subsurface transport pathways revealed two main source regions of shelf water reaching Ningaloo Reef: (1) a year-round source to the northeast in the upper 100 m of water column; and (2) during the summer, an additional source offshore and to the west of Ningaloo in depths between ~30 and ~150 m. Transient wind-driven coastal upwelling, onshore geostrophic transport and stirring by offshore eddies were identified as the important mechanisms influencing the source water origins. The identification of these highly time-dependent transport pathways and source water locations is an essential step towards quantifying how key material (e.g., nutrients, larvae, contaminants, etc.) is exchanged between Ningaloo Reef and the surrounding shelf ocean, and how this is mechanistically coupled to the complex ocean dynamics in this region. PMID:26790154

  13. Ocean Transport Pathways to a World Heritage Fringing Coral Reef: Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiangtao; Lowe, Ryan J; Ivey, Gregory N; Jones, Nicole L; Zhang, Zhenlin

    2016-01-01

    A Lagrangian particle tracking model driven by a regional ocean circulation model was used to investigate the seasonally varying connectivity patterns within the shelf circulation surrounding the 300 km long Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia (WA) during 2009-2010. Forward-in-time simulations revealed that surface water was transported equatorward and offshore in summer due to the upwelling-favorable winds. In winter, however, water was transported polewards down the WA coast due to the seasonally strong Leeuwin Current. Using backward-in-time simulations, the subsurface transport pathways revealed two main source regions of shelf water reaching Ningaloo Reef: (1) a year-round source to the northeast in the upper 100 m of water column; and (2) during the summer, an additional source offshore and to the west of Ningaloo in depths between ~30 and ~150 m. Transient wind-driven coastal upwelling, onshore geostrophic transport and stirring by offshore eddies were identified as the important mechanisms influencing the source water origins. The identification of these highly time-dependent transport pathways and source water locations is an essential step towards quantifying how key material (e.g., nutrients, larvae, contaminants, etc.) is exchanged between Ningaloo Reef and the surrounding shelf ocean, and how this is mechanistically coupled to the complex ocean dynamics in this region. PMID:26790154

  14. Predominance of biotic over abiotic formation of halogenated hydrocarbons in hypersaline sediments in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Ruecker, A; Weigold, P; Behrens, S; Jochmann, M; Laaks, J; Kappler, A

    2014-08-19

    Volatile halogenated organic compounds (VOX) contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. There is evidence of natural VOX formation in many environments ranging from forest soils to salt lakes. Laboratory studies have suggested that VOX formation can be chemically stimulated by reactive Fe species while field studies have provided evidence for direct biological (enzymatic) VOX formation. However, the relative contribution of abiotic and biotic processes to global VOX budgets is still unclear. The goals of this study were to quantify VOX release from sediments from a hypersaline lake in Western Australia (Lake Strawbridge) and to distinguish between the relative contributions of biotic and abiotic VOX formation in microbially active and sterilized microcosms. Our experiments demonstrated that the release of organochlorines from Lake Strawbridge sediments was mainly biotic. Among the organochlorines detected were monochlorinated, e.g., chloromethane (CH3Cl), and higher chlorinated VOX compounds such as trichloromethane (CHCl3). Amendment of sediments with either Fe(III) oxyhydroxide (ferrihydrite) or a mixture of lactate/acetate or both ferrihydrite and lactate/acetate did not stimulate VOX formation. This suggests that although microbial Fe(III) reduction took place, there was no stimulation of VOX formation via Fe redox transformations or the formation of reactive Fe species under our experimental conditions. PMID:25073729

  15. New multi-scale perspectives on the stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Suosaari, E P; Reid, R P; Playford, P E; Foster, J S; Stolz, J F; Casaburi, G; Hagan, P D; Chirayath, V; Macintyre, I G; Planavsky, N J; Eberli, G P

    2016-02-03

    A recent field-intensive program in Shark Bay, Western Australia provides new multi-scale perspectives on the world's most extensive modern stromatolite system. Mapping revealed a unique geographic distribution of morphologically distinct stromatolite structures, many of them previously undocumented. These distinctive structures combined with characteristic shelf physiography define eight 'Stromatolite Provinces'. Morphological and molecular studies of microbial mat composition resulted in a revised growth model where coccoid cyanobacteria predominate in mat communities forming lithified discrete stromatolite buildups. This contradicts traditional views that stromatolites with the best lamination in Hamelin Pool are formed by filamentous cyanobacterial mats. Finally, analysis of internal fabrics of stromatolites revealed pervasive precipitation of microcrystalline carbonate (i.e. micrite) in microbial mats forming framework and cement that may be analogous to the micritic microstructures typical of Precambrian stromatolites. These discoveries represent fundamental advances in our knowledge of the Shark Bay microbial system, laying a foundation for detailed studies of stromatolite morphogenesis that will advance our understanding of benthic ecosystems on the early Earth.

  16. Impact of sauropod dinosaurs on lagoonal substrates in the Broome Sandstone (Lower Cretaceous), Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Thulborn, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Existing knowledge of the tracks left by sauropod dinosaurs (loosely 'brontosaurs') is essentially two-dimensional, derived mainly from footprints exposed on bedding planes, but examples in the Broome Sandstone (Early Cretaceous) of Western Australia provide a complementary three-dimensional picture showing the extent to which walking sauropods could deform the ground beneath their feet. The patterns of deformation created by sauropods traversing thinly-stratified lagoonal deposits of the Broome Sandstone are unprecedented in their extent and structural complexity. The stacks of transmitted reliefs (underprints or ghost prints) beneath individual footfalls are nested into a hierarchy of deeper and more inclusive basins and troughs which eventually attain the size of minor tectonic features. Ultimately the sauropod track-makers deformed the substrate to such an extent that they remodelled the topography of the landscape they inhabited. Such patterns of substrate deformation are revealed by investigating fragmentary and eroded footprints, not by the conventional search for pristine footprints on intact bedding planes. For that reason it is not known whether similar patterns of substrate deformation might occur at sauropod track-sites elsewhere in the world.

  17. Dynamics of hourly sea level at Hillarys Boat Harbour, Western Australia: a chaos theory perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatibi, Rahman; Ghorbani, Mohammad Ali; Aalami, Mohammad Taghi; Kocak, Kasim; Makarynskyy, Oleg; Makarynska, Dina; Aalinezhad, Mahdi

    2011-11-01

    Water level forecasting using recorded time series can provide a local modelling capability to facilitate local proactive management practices. To this end, hourly sea water level time series are investigated. The records collected at the Hillarys Boat Harbour, Western Australia, are investigated over the period of 2000 and 2002. Two modelling techniques are employed: low-dimensional dynamic model, known as the deterministic chaos theory, and genetic programming, GP. The phase space, which describes the evolution of the behaviour of a nonlinear system in time, was reconstructed using the delay-embedding theorem suggested by Takens. The presence of chaotic signals in the data was identified by the phase space reconstruction and correlation dimension methods, and also the predictability into the future was calculated by the largest Lyapunov exponent to be 437 h or 18 days into the future. The intercomparison of results of the local prediction and GP models shows that for this site-specific dataset, the local prediction model has a slight edge over GP. However, rather than recommending one technique over another, the paper promotes a pluralistic modelling culture, whereby different techniques should be tested to gain a specific insight from each of the models. This would enable a consensus to be drawn from a set of results rather than ignoring the individual insights provided by each model.

  18. New multi-scale perspectives on the stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Suosaari, E. P.; Reid, R. P.; Playford, P. E.; Foster, J. S.; Stolz, J. F.; Casaburi, G.; Hagan, P. D.; Chirayath, V.; Macintyre, I. G.; Planavsky, N. J.; Eberli, G. P.

    2016-01-01

    A recent field-intensive program in Shark Bay, Western Australia provides new multi-scale perspectives on the world’s most extensive modern stromatolite system. Mapping revealed a unique geographic distribution of morphologically distinct stromatolite structures, many of them previously undocumented. These distinctive structures combined with characteristic shelf physiography define eight ‘Stromatolite Provinces’. Morphological and molecular studies of microbial mat composition resulted in a revised growth model where coccoid cyanobacteria predominate in mat communities forming lithified discrete stromatolite buildups. This contradicts traditional views that stromatolites with the best lamination in Hamelin Pool are formed by filamentous cyanobacterial mats. Finally, analysis of internal fabrics of stromatolites revealed pervasive precipitation of microcrystalline carbonate (i.e. micrite) in microbial mats forming framework and cement that may be analogous to the micritic microstructures typical of Precambrian stromatolites. These discoveries represent fundamental advances in our knowledge of the Shark Bay microbial system, laying a foundation for detailed studies of stromatolite morphogenesis that will advance our understanding of benthic ecosystems on the early Earth. PMID:26838605

  19. Haplosporidium sp. (Alveolata: Haplosporidia) associated with mortalities among rock oysters Saccostrea cuccullata in north Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hine, P M; Thorne, Tina

    2002-08-29

    Haplosporidium sp. is described from rock oysters Saccostrea cuccullata Born, 1778 experiencing epizootics on the northwestern coast of Western Australia. All stages were observed as focal infections in the connective tissue of the gills, or as disseminated infections in the mantle and around digestive diverticulae. Haplosporidium sp. occurred between epithelial cells of the gut, in focal lesions in the gills, but not in the epithelium of the digestive diverticulae, and sporulation was confined to the connective tissue. Plasmodia developed into sporonts and sporocysts in a loose syncytium that gave rise to binucleate and uninucleate sporoblasts from which spores developed. Spores were flask-shaped, 5.6-6.7 x 3.3-4.0 microm, with a characteristic operculum, a few filamentous wrappings and rod-like structures in the posterior sporoplasm. Mature spores had a wall comprising inner (90 nm wide), middle (30 nm wide) and outer (130 nm wide) layers, and a surface coat of microtubules giving them a furry appearance. Oysters with empty gonad follicles were most heavily infected, and oyster condition and mortality appeared to be related to degree of infection.

  20. Acidophilic halophilic microorganisms in fluid inclusions in halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Conner, Amber J; Benison, Kathleen C

    2013-09-01

    Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as 1-3 μm, bright cocci that fluoresce green with UV-vis illumination. Dimpled, 5-7 μm yellow spherules that fluoresce blue with UV-vis illumination are interpreted as Dunaliella algae. Yellow-orange beta-carotene crystals, globules, and coatings are characterized by orange-red fluorescence and three distinct Raman peaks. Because acid saline lakes are good Mars analogues, the documentation of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organic compounds preserved in the halite here has implications for the search for life on Mars. Missions to Mars should incorporate such in situ optical and chemical examination of martian evaporites for possible microorganisms and/or organic compounds in fluid inclusions. PMID:23971647

  1. Late Devonian carbonate-conglomerate association in the Canning basin, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, A.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Siliciclastic conglomerates of Late Devonian to Carboniferous age crop out discontinuously along the northern margin of the Canning basin in Western Australia, where they are associated with a classic example of reefal carbonate rocks. An understanding of these deposits is relevant to the timing of extension in the basin, uplift of the adjacent Kimberley block, and to the interpretation of the sequence stratigraphy of the carbonates. The conglomerates indicate that the Kimberley block was high-standing, even though most normal faulting appears to have ceased by Late Devonian time, and provided a continuous source of siliclastic material. The carbonate-conglomerate relationships were studied in detail at two localities, with brief visits to several other sections to provide a regional context. A sequence boundary of late Frasnian age is exposed at several localities. Incised valleys with 10 m relief (e.g. Van Emmerick and Mt. Elma) and onlapping relationships (e.g. Stony Creek, Van Emmerick) provide strong evidence for a type 1 boundary that likely formed during a eustatic base-level drop (cf., Devonian carbonates of Canada). The recognition of several intervals of siliciclastic conglomerate influx in the Canning basin is important because it suggests the presence of distal lowstand sandstone reservoirs that may represent potential petroleum targets.

  2. Dryland Salinity in the North Stirling Land Conservation District, Western Australia: Simulation and Management Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomboso, J.; Ghassemi, F.; Appleyard, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    The North Stirling Land Conservation District consists of approximately 100,000 hectares north of the Stirling Range National Park, Western Australia. Clearing of land for agriculture occurred in the 1960's and early 1970's. The groundwater is highly saline, and, since clearing, the water table has risen by as much as 12 m; it is now generally less than 3 m below ground level throughout the area. The rise in groundwater levels following clearing and the use of crops and pastures requiring low water use have caused dramatic secondary salinisation over a short period of time. Groundwater flow was simulated with models of steady-state and transient groundwater flow. By incorporating economic simulations with the calibrated transient hydrogeological model, estimates of the expected gross margin losses were made. Three salinity-management strategies were simulated. Results indicate that 1) under the `do-nothing' strategy, future gross margins are expected to decline; 2) under the agronomic strategy, the rate of water-table rise would be reduced and foregone agricultural production losses would be less than the `do-nothing' strategy; and 3) under the agroforestry strategy, the water table is expected to decline in the long term, which would increase future agricultural production levels and, hence, profitability.

  3. Acidophilic halophilic microorganisms in fluid inclusions in halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Conner, Amber J; Benison, Kathleen C

    2013-09-01

    Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as 1-3 μm, bright cocci that fluoresce green with UV-vis illumination. Dimpled, 5-7 μm yellow spherules that fluoresce blue with UV-vis illumination are interpreted as Dunaliella algae. Yellow-orange beta-carotene crystals, globules, and coatings are characterized by orange-red fluorescence and three distinct Raman peaks. Because acid saline lakes are good Mars analogues, the documentation of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organic compounds preserved in the halite here has implications for the search for life on Mars. Missions to Mars should incorporate such in situ optical and chemical examination of martian evaporites for possible microorganisms and/or organic compounds in fluid inclusions.

  4. A conceptual model for recruitment and retention: allied health workforce enhancement in Western Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Schoo, Adrian M; Stagnitti, Karen E; Mercer, Catherine; Dunbar, James

    2005-01-01

    Attracting and retaining allied health professionals in rural areas is a recognised problem in both Australia and overseas. Predicted increases in health needs will require strategic actions to enhance the rural workforce and its ability to deliver the required services. A range of factors in different domains has been associated with recruitment and retention in the allied health workforce. For example, factors can be related to the nature of the work, the personal needs, or the way an organisation is led. Some factors cannot be changed (eg geographical location of extended family) whereas others can be influenced (eg education, support, management styles). Recruitment and retention of allied health professionals is a challenging problem that deserves attention in all domains and preparedness to actively change established work practices, both individually as well as collectively, in order to cater for current and predicted health needs. Changes to enhance workforce outcomes can be implemented and evaluated using a cyclic model. The Allied Health Workforce Enhancement Project of the Greater Green Triangle University Department of Rural Health (GGT UDRH) is working towards increasing the number of allied health professionals in the south west of Victoria. Based on themes identified in the literature, an interactive model is being developed that addresses recruitment and retention factors in three domains: (1) personal or individual; (2) organisation; and (3) community.

  5. A conceptual model for recruitment and retention: allied health workforce enhancement in Western Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Schoo, Adrian M; Stagnitti, Karen E; Mercer, Catherine; Dunbar, James

    2005-01-01

    Attracting and retaining allied health professionals in rural areas is a recognised problem in both Australia and overseas. Predicted increases in health needs will require strategic actions to enhance the rural workforce and its ability to deliver the required services. A range of factors in different domains has been associated with recruitment and retention in the allied health workforce. For example, factors can be related to the nature of the work, the personal needs, or the way an organisation is led. Some factors cannot be changed (eg geographical location of extended family) whereas others can be influenced (eg education, support, management styles). Recruitment and retention of allied health professionals is a challenging problem that deserves attention in all domains and preparedness to actively change established work practices, both individually as well as collectively, in order to cater for current and predicted health needs. Changes to enhance workforce outcomes can be implemented and evaluated using a cyclic model. The Allied Health Workforce Enhancement Project of the Greater Green Triangle University Department of Rural Health (GGT UDRH) is working towards increasing the number of allied health professionals in the south west of Victoria. Based on themes identified in the literature, an interactive model is being developed that addresses recruitment and retention factors in three domains: (1) personal or individual; (2) organisation; and (3) community. PMID:16375575

  6. Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Wayne S J; Shephard, Lisa; Bastian, Ivan; Globan, Maria; Fyfe, Janet A M; Cousins, Debby V; Machado, Aaron; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the first case in South Australia, Australia, of Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Severe pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia with intrahistocytic acid-fast beaded filamentous bacilli was seen on histology. M. pinnipedii was confirmed by full 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spillover concerns for public health and cattle are discussed. PMID:25632695

  7. Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Wayne S J; Shephard, Lisa; Bastian, Ivan; Globan, Maria; Fyfe, Janet A M; Cousins, Debby V; Machado, Aaron; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the first case in South Australia, Australia, of Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Severe pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia with intrahistocytic acid-fast beaded filamentous bacilli was seen on histology. M. pinnipedii was confirmed by full 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spillover concerns for public health and cattle are discussed.

  8. Lead in livers and gizzards of waterfowl shot in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kingsford, R T; Kacprzak, J L; Ziaziaris, J

    1994-01-01

    Few data exist on lead in waterfowl within New South Wales, Australia, despite global concern about lead poisoning in this group of birds. The gizzards and livers from 716 ducks (seven species) were collected from six sites within New South Wales during the 1992 duck shooting season. Six birds had ingested shot in their gizzards (<1%); four waterfowl had high concentrations of lead in their livers (>6 mg kg(-1) wet-weight (ww)) and a further three had elevated concentrations of lead in their livers (>2 mg kg(-1) ww). Mean lead concentrations in the livers of birds were low (range 0.11-0.28 mg kg(-1) ww; among six sites). Lead concentrations in livers of the herbivorous maned duck Chenonetta jubata were generally lower than in other omnivorous or carnivorous species. Low lead concentrations in tissues reflected low hunting pressure at all sites (0-0.27 hunters ha(-1) year(-1)).

  9. Pyrosequencing reveals diverse microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; He, Liming; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Diverse sessile organisms inhabit the coral reef ecosystems, including corals, sponges, and sea anemones. In the past decades, scleractinian corals (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia) and their associated microorganisms have attracted much attention. Zoanthids (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea) are commonly found in coral reefs. However, little is known about the community structure of zoanthid-associated microbiota. In this study, the microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae in the South China Sea was investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. As a result, 2,353 bacterial, 583 archaeal, and 36 eukaryotic microbial ribotypes were detected, respectively. A total of 22 bacterial phyla (16 formally described phyla and six candidate phyla) were recovered. Proteobacteria was the most abundant group, followed by Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria. High-abundance Rhizobiales and diverse Chloroflexi were observed in the bacterial community. The archaeal population was composed of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, with Marine Group I as the dominant lineage. In particular, Candidatus Nitrosopumilus dominated the archaeal community. Besides bacteria and archaea, the zoanthid harbored eukaryotic microorganisms including fungi and algae though their diversity was very low. This study provided the first insights into the microbial community associated with P. australiae by 454 pyrosequencing, consequently laid a basis for the understanding of the association of P. australiae-microbes symbioses.

  10. Lyme disease: a search for a causative agent in ticks in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Russell, R C; Doggett, S L; Munro, R; Ellis, J; Avery, D; Hunt, C; Dickeson, D

    1994-04-01

    Attempts were made to identify the causative organism of Lyme disease in Australia from possible tick vectors. Ticks were collected in coastal areas of New South Wales, Australia, from localities associated with putative human infections. The ticks were dissected; a portion of the gut contents was examined for spirochaetes by microscopy, the remaining portion inoculated into culture media. The detection of spirochaetes in culture was performed using microscopy, and immunochemical and molecular (PCR) techniques. Additionally, whole ticks were tested with PCR for spirochaetes. From 1990 to 1992, approximately 12,000 ticks were processed for spirochaetes. No evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi or any other spirochaete was recovered from or detected in likely tick vectors. Some spirochaete-like objects detected in the cultures were shown to be artifacts, probably aggregates of bacterial flagellae. There is no definitive evidence for the existence in Australia of B. burgdorferi the causative agent of true Lyme disease, or for any other tick-borne spirochaete that may be responsible for a local syndrome being reported as Lyme disease.

  11. School leaver (graduate) celebrations in Margaret River, Western Australia: a community approach to management.

    PubMed

    Midford, Richard; Midford, Sarah; Farringdon, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of young Western Australians have chosen the tourist town of Margaret River, about 300 kilometers south of the Perth, as the place to celebrate completing school. Typically, the celebrations involve intense socializing and considerable binge drinking. In 2001, the community developed a comprehensive management strategy to minimize the impact of the celebrations, while still facilitating an enjoyable experience for the leavers (recent graduates). This incorporated community members providing supervised activities for the leavers. Evaluation of the intervention employed a mixed methodology, comprising surveys of school leavers, interviews with community stakeholders, and participant observation. The findings indicated that the leavers generally got what they wanted from the experience and the community felt it had maintained control. Providing activities built a relationship between the leavers and the community and seemed important in minimizing problems for both groups. An added bonus was the community developed greater confidence and capacity.

  12. School leaver (graduate) celebrations in Margaret River, Western Australia: a community approach to management.

    PubMed

    Midford, Richard; Midford, Sarah; Farringdon, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of young Western Australians have chosen the tourist town of Margaret River, about 300 kilometers south of the Perth, as the place to celebrate completing school. Typically, the celebrations involve intense socializing and considerable binge drinking. In 2001, the community developed a comprehensive management strategy to minimize the impact of the celebrations, while still facilitating an enjoyable experience for the leavers (recent graduates). This incorporated community members providing supervised activities for the leavers. Evaluation of the intervention employed a mixed methodology, comprising surveys of school leavers, interviews with community stakeholders, and participant observation. The findings indicated that the leavers generally got what they wanted from the experience and the community felt it had maintained control. Providing activities built a relationship between the leavers and the community and seemed important in minimizing problems for both groups. An added bonus was the community developed greater confidence and capacity. PMID:18075917

  13. Biogeography and speciation of terrestrial fauna in the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Rix, Michael G; Edwards, Danielle L; Byrne, Margaret; Harvey, Mark S; Joseph, Leo; Roberts, J Dale

    2015-08-01

    The south-western land division of Western Australia (SWWA), bordering the temperate Southern and Indian Oceans, is the only global biodiversity hotspot recognised in Australia. Renowned for its extraordinary diversity of endemic plants, and for some of the largest and most botanically significant temperate heathlands and woodlands on Earth, SWWA has long fascinated biogeographers. Its flat, highly weathered topography and the apparent absence of major geographic factors usually implicated in biotic diversification have challenged attempts to explain patterns of biogeography and mechanisms of speciation in the region. Botanical studies have always been central to understanding the biodiversity values of SWWA, although surprisingly few quantitative botanical analyses have allowed for an understanding of historical biogeographic processes in both space and time. Faunistic studies, by contrast, have played little or no role in defining hotspot concepts, despite several decades of accumulating quantitative research on the phylogeny and phylogeography of multiple lineages. In this review we critically analyse datasets with explicit supporting phylogenetic data and estimates of the time since divergence for all available elements of the terrestrial fauna, and compare these datasets to those available for plants. In situ speciation has played more of a role in shaping the south-western Australian fauna than has long been supposed, and has occurred in numerous endemic lineages of freshwater fish, frogs, reptiles, snails and less-vagile arthropods. By contrast, relatively low levels of endemism are found in birds, mammals and highly dispersive insects, and in situ speciation has played a negligible role in generating local endemism in birds and mammals. Quantitative studies provide evidence for at least four mechanisms driving patterns of endemism in south-western Australian animals, including: (i) relictualism of ancient Gondwanan or Pangaean taxa in the High Rainfall

  14. Biogeography and speciation of terrestrial fauna in the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Rix, Michael G; Edwards, Danielle L; Byrne, Margaret; Harvey, Mark S; Joseph, Leo; Roberts, J Dale

    2015-08-01

    The south-western land division of Western Australia (SWWA), bordering the temperate Southern and Indian Oceans, is the only global biodiversity hotspot recognised in Australia. Renowned for its extraordinary diversity of endemic plants, and for some of the largest and most botanically significant temperate heathlands and woodlands on Earth, SWWA has long fascinated biogeographers. Its flat, highly weathered topography and the apparent absence of major geographic factors usually implicated in biotic diversification have challenged attempts to explain patterns of biogeography and mechanisms of speciation in the region. Botanical studies have always been central to understanding the biodiversity values of SWWA, although surprisingly few quantitative botanical analyses have allowed for an understanding of historical biogeographic processes in both space and time. Faunistic studies, by contrast, have played little or no role in defining hotspot concepts, despite several decades of accumulating quantitative research on the phylogeny and phylogeography of multiple lineages. In this review we critically analyse datasets with explicit supporting phylogenetic data and estimates of the time since divergence for all available elements of the terrestrial fauna, and compare these datasets to those available for plants. In situ speciation has played more of a role in shaping the south-western Australian fauna than has long been supposed, and has occurred in numerous endemic lineages of freshwater fish, frogs, reptiles, snails and less-vagile arthropods. By contrast, relatively low levels of endemism are found in birds, mammals and highly dispersive insects, and in situ speciation has played a negligible role in generating local endemism in birds and mammals. Quantitative studies provide evidence for at least four mechanisms driving patterns of endemism in south-western Australian animals, including: (i) relictualism of ancient Gondwanan or Pangaean taxa in the High Rainfall

  15. Supratidal beach deposits in Giralia Bay (Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia) - a record for past tropical cyclones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Simon Matthias; Gelhausen, Henrik; Brill, Dominik; Callow, Nik; Engel, Max; Scheffers, Anja; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Leopold, Matthias; Opitz, Stephan; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Past coastal flooding events related to tropical cyclones (TCs) and tsunamis may be inferred from geomorphic and sedimentary archives, i.e. in the form of particular landforms (beach ridges, washover fans), deposits (washover sediments in lagoons) or erosional features. In Giralia Bay, southern Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia), sandy ridge sequences in supratidal elevations form the landward margin of extensive mudflats. The formation of these ridges, as in other mudflats of NW Australia, is assumed to be mainly driven by TCs, although their relation to depositional processes and inundation levels during spring tide conditions, exceptional precipitation and discharge events, and storm surges needs to be clarified. Based on a simple process monitoring setup using a time-lapse camera and pressure gauges, geomorphological mapping by means of unmanned aerial vehicle survey and structure-from-motion techniques, as well as sedimentological and geochronological investigations, this study aims at (i) establishing the chronostratigraphy and reconstructing the formation of the supratidal beach deposits; (ii) identifying the most important driving processes involved in their formation; and (iii) understanding their significance for recording past TC activity. Sediment trenches cross the youngest, most seaward part of the ridge sequence. At the base of the sedimentary succession, sandy units are interbedded with mud layers, reflecting depositional conditions similar to the present distal mudflat. In the upper part of the ridges, mud intercalations recede, and sand layers of varying grain size distribution and mineralogical content dominate. Younger sediment layers clearly attach to older ones documenting the stepwise accretion of the ridges onto the mudflat. Muddy intercalations in the upper part of the succession are interpreted to represent deposition in locally restricted swales. Monitoring covered the time period between August 2013 and 2015 and capture an exceptional

  16. Rural Empowerment through the Arts: The Role of the Arts in Civic and Social Participation in the Mid West Region of Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Julia Anwar

    2011-01-01

    To combat social and economic inequity in rural Australia, governments, communities, and policy makers are seeking ways to empower local residents to find local solutions to local problems. Through an exploratory review of the literature and semi-structured interviews conducted in the Mid West of Western Australia, this research examined the role…

  17. Hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, C L S; Santander-Neto, J; Costa, T L A

    2016-09-01

    Based on material deposited in collections, photographic records and other reports from fishermen and divers, the occurrence of the hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) is confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean, near the Brazilian coast as far south as southern Brazil. The recognized range of this species should therefore be extended c. 3000 km further south. PMID:27397557

  18. Hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, C L S; Santander-Neto, J; Costa, T L A

    2016-09-01

    Based on material deposited in collections, photographic records and other reports from fishermen and divers, the occurrence of the hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) is confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean, near the Brazilian coast as far south as southern Brazil. The recognized range of this species should therefore be extended c. 3000 km further south.

  19. Sequence stratigraphy of the Orange basin, western offshore South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Muntingh, A. )

    1991-03-01

    A seismic/sequence-stratigraphic framework for the siliciclastic fluvial to deepwater Cretaceous strata of the Orange basin has been constructed. Sequence-stratigraphic concepts developed by Exxon were used to interpret 10,000 km of seismic data and logs from 31 exploration boreholes within an area of 90,000 km{sup 2}. The sequence stratigraphy of the western margin exhibits 34 cyclical depositional sequences interpreted to document the response of the passive margin to cyclical changes in relative sea-level from Mid-Aptian to Late Maastrichtian times. All but one of the sequence boundaries are type 1 unconformities displaying intense erosion on the shelf and interpreted to develop during periods of rapid fall in relative sea-level. Basin-wide sequence boundaries (type 1 and 2 unconformities) were correlated with the third-order cycles of Exxon's global cycle chart utilizing SOEKOR's paleontological dating of a limited number of marine condensed sections. Higher-order cycles are recognized and best developed along the flanks of the structural arches where lower subsidence rates permitted impact of higher frequency cycles. Component depositional systems tracts inferred to have resulted from changes in relative sea level were interpreted and paleogeographic maps were constructed outlining incised valley systems on the shelf, shelf edge canyons, prograding wedges, basin floor fan, and slope fan systems. Distal marine shales and marine condensed sections provide both seal and hydrocarbon source. The chronostratigraphic and depositional framework being used to predict prospective play areas for hydrocarbon exploration on the western offshore of South Africa is also applicable to the Namibian offshore.

  20. Quantification of the aridity process in South-Western Romania.

    PubMed

    Peptenatu, Daniel; Sîrodoev, Igor; Pravalie, Remus

    2013-01-01

    The report released by the Intergovernmental Committee for Climate Change indicates that Romania ranks among the top seven countries in Europe that would be strongly impacted by aridity in the next few years, with climate changes consisting in a rise of average annual temperatures by as much as 5°C. The research work was conducted in the South of the Oltenia South-Western Development Region, where more than 700,000 hectares of farmland is impacted by aridification, more than 100,000 hectares among them impacted by aridity. Research methodology encompassed the analysis of average annual temperatures over the time span data was available for, at three weather stations, an analysis of average annual precipitations, an analysis of the piezometric data, the evolution of land use as a result of the expansion of the aridity process. The assessment of the aridity process also involved taking into consideration the state of the vegetation by means of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), used to assess the quality of the vegetal stratum, an important element in the complex analysis of the territory. The aridity process is an effect of global warming, and, based on the results of this study, the post-1990 escalation of its effects was brought about by socio-economic factors. The destruction of the irrigation systems and protective forest belts because of the uncertain situation of land ownership are the main factors that contributed to amplification of the effects of aridity on the efficiency of agricultural systems that nowadays are exposed to very high risks. PMID:24499565

  1. Modelling Infragravity Waves and Currents across a Fringing Reef: Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dongeren, A. R.; Duong Minh, T.; Lowe, R.; Roelvink, J.; Ranasinghe, R.; Symonds, G.

    2010-12-01

    The majority of the world’s coastlines contain submerged reef structures of various types, i.e. tropical coral reefs, relic temperate limestone platforms, and other submerged rock formations. Relatively little research has been conducted to study nearshore hydrodynamic processes that occur in reef environments. A good understanding of these processes is important because waves and wave-induced currents drive sediment transport, nutrient dynamics, and dispersal of larval coral and fish. Through the development of improved hydrodynamic models, the impact of environmental changes and human impacts on reefs may be accurately assessed. However, predictive models have historically been developed and tested using sandy coast environments. There are some important differences with reefs: wave breaking over the reef results in onshore flows with a higher bed friction coefficient, as well as set-up. Recent field studies (e.g., Lowe et al. JPO, 2009a) have shown the transformation of swell energy on reefs, and numerical model studies (Symonds and Black, JCR 2001, Ranasinghe et al., Coastal Eng. 2006, Lowe et al. J. Geoph. Res. 2009b) have shown that the spatial pattern of mean wave heights and mean currents can be qualitatively reproduced. However, the bulk of the measured variability is often in the infragravity frequency band (Pequignet et al. Geoph. Res. Lett., 2009 and Lowe et al., in prep.). The recently developed open-source model XBeach (Roelvink et al, Coastal Eng. 2009) is specifically designed to model these wave motions and associated sediment transport and has been successfully applied to sandy coasts (McCall et al., Coastal Eng. 2010). The objective of this paper is to apply XBeach to simulate infragravity forcing at Ningaloo Reef, a large fringing coral reef located along the northwest coastline of Western Australia. A field experiment at Ningaloo Reef (Western Australia) conducted in June 2009 by Lowe et al (in prep.) specifically aimed at measuring

  2. Epidemiology of hepatitis B infection in the Western Pacific and South East Asia.

    PubMed Central

    Gust, I D

    1996-01-01

    The Western Pacific and South East Asia regions are the largest and most populous of the six World Health Organisation regions and include more than 40 countries. More than 75% of the world's estimated 350 million carriers are located here. The region has therefore provided many insights into the epidemiology, natural history, and control of hepatitis B infection and has been home to the first national control programmes. Hepatitis B is hyperendemic in most countries of the region, with carrier rates ranging from 5-35% except in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, where the mean carrier rate is less than 2%. Patterns of infection vary considerably from country to country, city to city, and even village to village, and can change with time. Most infections are acquired early in childhood or in early adult life. A variety of control measures are in place and many countries in the region have introduced widespread or universal childhood immunisation policies with significant success. While it is theoretically possible that hepatitis B infection could be eradicated by universal childhood immunisation, there are several biological and practical issues that make this extremely difficult, suggesting that, for the foreseeable future, control may be a more realisable goal. PMID:8786047

  3. Characterization of a moderately halo-acidophilic bacterium isolated from Lake Brown, western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormile, Melanie R.; Hong, Bo-young; Adams, Nicholas T.; Benison, Kathleen C.; Oboh-Ikuenobe, Francisca

    2007-09-01

    Compared to prevalent alkaline to neutral hypersaline environments, acidic hypersaline environments have been scarcely studied. However, they hold interest to many researchers in that these environments have similar geological and geochemical characteristics as those found in lithified strata on Mars. Fieldwork indicated that Lake Brown, located in Western Australia, possessed pH values of 3.1-4.5 and salinity between 13.0-23.0%. Water column, groundwater, and sediment samples were collected from the lake during the austral winter of 2005. These samples were analyzed with both traditional culture and molecular methods. Modified growth media and minimal media were designed to match the composition (Cl, Na, Mg, SO4, K, Ca, and Br) of Lake Brown surface and ground waters for the enrichment of microorganisms. One of the isolates obtained, Brown 1, can grow in media that possesses pH values of 3-7 with optimal growth at pH 4, salinity that ranged from 5% to saturation with optimal growth at 5% and could grow under temperatures that ranged from 20°C to 65°C with optimal grow occurring at 37°C. The isolate's optimum growth conditions are similar to those found in Lake Brown. The isolate is a Gram-negative rod that forms yellow colonies on 17% Phytogel. Its 16S rRNA gene can be amplified with bacterial primers but not with archaeal primers. Its 16S rRNA gene sequence suggests that the isolate is a gamma proteobacterium. Studies on organisms isolated from environments such as Lake Brown, an acid hypersaline lake, can provide an opportunity to both expand our knowledge of terrestrial extremophiles and gain insight on the possible forms of life that might have existed on Mars.

  4. Managing wastewater effluent to enhance aquatic receiving ecosystem productivity: a coastal lagoon in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daniel A; Imberger, Jörg

    2012-05-30

    Large amounts of waste are generated in urban centers that if properly managed could promote ecological services. In order to promote nutrient cycling and productivity without endangering aquatic ecosystems, management of wastewater treatment and effluent discharges to receiving waters must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. We applied this premise to examine a municipal wastewater treated effluent discharge in a shallow oligotrophic coastal lagoon in Western Australia. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecological modeling (ELCOM-CAEDYM) was used to assess the reaction of ecosystem for effluent quality. Two scenarios were evaluated for the summer 2000-2001 period, the actual or "current" (conventional secondary treatment) and an "alternative" (involving substitution of biological nutrient removal by advanced treatment). The residence time of the simulated numerical domain averaged 8.4 ± 1.3 days. For the current scenario the model successfully estimated phytoplankton biomass, as chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), that is within field-measured ranges and previously recorded levels. The model was able to reproduce nitrogen as the main limiting nutrient for primary production in the coastal ecosystem. Simulated surface Chl-a means were 0.26 (range 0.19-0.38) μg Chl-a/L for the current scenario and 0.37 (range 0.19-0.67) μg Chl-a/L for the alternative one. Comparison of the alternative scenario with field-measured Chl-a levels suggests moderate primary production increase (16-42%), within local historical variability. These results, suggest that such a scenario could be used, as part of a comprehensive wastewater management optimization strategy, to foster receiving ecosystem's productivity and related ecological services maintaining its oligotrophic state. PMID:22322127

  5. Habitat associations of juvenile fish at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia: the importance of coral and algae.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Shaun K; Depczynski, Martial; Fisher, Rebecca; Holmes, Thomas H; O'Leary, Rebecca A; Tinkler, Paul

    2010-12-07

    Habitat specificity plays a pivotal role in forming community patterns in coral reef fishes, yet considerable uncertainty remains as to the extent of this selectivity, particularly among newly settled recruits. Here we quantified habitat specificity of juvenile coral reef fish at three ecological levels; algal meadows vs. coral reefs, live vs. dead coral and among different coral morphologies. In total, 6979 individuals from 11 families and 56 species were censused along Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Juvenile fishes exhibited divergence in habitat use and specialization among species and at all study scales. Despite the close proximity of coral reef and algal meadows (10's of metres) 25 species were unique to coral reef habitats, and seven to algal meadows. Of the seven unique to algal meadows, several species are known to occupy coral reef habitat as adults, suggesting possible ontogenetic shifts in habitat use. Selectivity between live and dead coral was found to be species-specific. In particular, juvenile scarids were found predominantly on the skeletons of dead coral whereas many damsel and butterfly fishes were closely associated with live coral habitat. Among the coral dependent species, coral morphology played a key role in juvenile distribution. Corymbose corals supported a disproportionate number of coral species and individuals relative to their availability, whereas less complex shapes (i.e. massive & encrusting) were rarely used by juvenile fish. Habitat specialisation by juvenile species of ecological and fisheries importance, for a variety of habitat types, argues strongly for the careful conservation and management of multiple habitat types within marine parks, and indicates that the current emphasis on planning conservation using representative habitat areas is warranted. Furthermore, the close association of many juvenile fish with corals susceptible to climate change related disturbances suggests that identifying and protecting reefs

  6. Prioritising weed management activities in a data deficient environment: the Pilbara islands, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl; Passeretto, Kellie; Lohr, Michael; Keighery, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Along the Pilbara coast of Western Australia (WA) there are approximately 598 islands with a total area of around 500 km(2). Budget limitations and logistical complexities mean the management of these islands tends to be opportunistic. Until now there has been no review of the establishment and impacts of weeds on Pilbara islands or any attempt to prioritise island weed management. In many instances only weed occurrence has been documented, creating a data deficient environment for management decision making. The purpose of this research was to develop a database of weed occurrences on WA islands and to create a prioritisation process that will generate a ranked list of island-weed combinations using currently available data. Here, we describe a model using the pairwise comparison formulae in the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), four metrics describing the logistical difficulty of working on each island (island size, ruggedness, travel time, and tenure), and two well established measures of conservation value of an island (maximum representation and effective maximum rarity of eight features). We present the sensitivity of the island-weed rankings to changes in weights applied to each decision criteria using Kendall's tau statistics. We also present the top 20 ranked island-weed combinations for four modelling scenarios. Many conservation prioritisation tools exist. However, many of these tools require extrapolation to fill data gaps and require specific management objectives and dedicated budgets. To our knowledge, this study is one of a few attempts to prioritise conservation actions using data that are currently available in an environment where management may be opportunistic and spasmodic due to budgetary restrictions. PMID:27441230

  7. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

    PubMed

    Blakeway, David; Byers, Michael; Stoddart, James; Rossendell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements). Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m(2) over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m(2) at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m(2) at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations.

  8. Determining the Biogenicity of Microfossils in the Apex Chert, Western Australia, Using Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeGregorio, B. T.; Sharp, T. G.

    2003-01-01

    For over a decade, the oldest evidence for life on this planet has been microfossils in the 3.5 Ga Apex Chert in Western Australia. Recently, the biogenicity of these carbon-rich structures has been called into question through reanalysis of the local geology and reinterpretation of the original thin sections. Although initially described as a stratiform, bedded chert of siliceous clasts, the unit is now thought to be a brecciated hydrothermal vein chert. The high temperatures of a hydrothermal environment would probably have detrimental effects to early non-hyperthermophilic life, compared to that of a shallow sea. Conversely, a hydrothermal origin would suggest that if the microfossils were valid, they might have been hyperthermophilic. Apex Chert controversy. The Apex Chert microfossils were originally described as septate filaments composed of kerogen similar in morphology to Proterozoic and modern cyanobacteria. However new thin section analysis shows that these carbonaceous structures are not simple filaments. Many of the original microfossils are branched and have variable thickness when the plane of focus is changed. Hydrothermal alteration of organic remains has also been suggested for the creation of these strange morphologies. Another point of contention lies with the nature of the carbon material in these proposed microfossils. Kerogen is structurally amorphous, but transforms into well-ordered graphite under high pressures and temperatures. Raman spectrometry of the carbonaceous material in the proposed microfossils has been interpreted both as partially graphitized kerogen and amorphous graphite. However, these results are inconclusive, since Raman spectrometry cannot adequately discriminate between kerogen and disordered graphite. There are also opposing views for the origin of the carbon in the Apex Chert. The carbon would be biogenic if the proposed microfossils are indeed the remains of former living organisms. However, an inorganic Fischer

  9. Stratigraphic Sedimentary Environmental Change of the Mount Bruce Supergroup, Beasley River Area, Southern Pilbara, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komure, M.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ikehara, M.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Horie, K.

    2005-12-01

    The Mount Bruce Supergroup is deposited from Late Archaean to Early Proterozoic in the Pilbara craton, Western Australia. It is filed the information of the period that changes from the Late Archean to the Early Proterozoic, and is the key sequences which could reconstruct the sedimentary environment because of its low metamorphic grade. The evidence of early Proterozoic global ice age as the glacial sediment is reported in this uppermost group (Martin 1999). In this study, we focus the lithological changes of the Mount Bruce Supergroup at the Beasley River - Rocklea Dome area in the Southern Pilbara. Along the Beasley River, this supergroup distributes more than 10000m thick with 5 billion years sequences, and is divided into three groups. The Fortescue Group is identified with the flood basalt to the Shallow marine or the non-marine sediment, the middle Hamersley Group rich in the banded iron formation and the acidic volcanic rock and the upper Turee Creek Group mainly of the Shallow marine sediment. Here we focused origin of the sandstone in each group, especially in the Meteorite Bore Member of Turee Creek Formation which is identified as the early snowball earth events. At the matrix of the diamictite of the Meteorite Bore Member, Origin of diamictite matrix in the Turee Creek Group sediment by the U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology by CHIME and SHRIMP2. The zircon ages points between 2.7Ga and 2.4Ga. In addtion from this matrix, TOC value indicate 0.1-0.05%, the delta 13 C value is -30--20 par mil. These evidence suggested that the organic activity might take place at during ice age.

  10. Prioritising weed management activities in a data deficient environment: the Pilbara islands, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl; Passeretto, Kellie; Lohr, Michael; Keighery, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Along the Pilbara coast of Western Australia (WA) there are approximately 598 islands with a total area of around 500 km(2). Budget limitations and logistical complexities mean the management of these islands tends to be opportunistic. Until now there has been no review of the establishment and impacts of weeds on Pilbara islands or any attempt to prioritise island weed management. In many instances only weed occurrence has been documented, creating a data deficient environment for management decision making. The purpose of this research was to develop a database of weed occurrences on WA islands and to create a prioritisation process that will generate a ranked list of island-weed combinations using currently available data. Here, we describe a model using the pairwise comparison formulae in the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), four metrics describing the logistical difficulty of working on each island (island size, ruggedness, travel time, and tenure), and two well established measures of conservation value of an island (maximum representation and effective maximum rarity of eight features). We present the sensitivity of the island-weed rankings to changes in weights applied to each decision criteria using Kendall's tau statistics. We also present the top 20 ranked island-weed combinations for four modelling scenarios. Many conservation prioritisation tools exist. However, many of these tools require extrapolation to fill data gaps and require specific management objectives and dedicated budgets. To our knowledge, this study is one of a few attempts to prioritise conservation actions using data that are currently available in an environment where management may be opportunistic and spasmodic due to budgetary restrictions.

  11. Volcanology of the Aries micaceous kimberlite, central Kimberley Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, Peter J.; Ferguson, Dale; Griffin, Brendan J.

    2007-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic (815.4 ± 4.3 Ma) Aries kimberlite intrudes the King Leopold Sandstone and the Carson Volcanics in the central Kimberley Basin, northern Western Australia. Aries is comprised of a N-NNE-trending series of three diatremes and associated hypabyssal kimberlite dykes and plugs. The diatremes are volumetrically dominated by massive, clast-supported, accidental lithic-rich kimberlite breccias that were intruded by hypabyssal macrocrystic phlogopite kimberlite dykes and plugs with variably uniform- to globular segregationary-textured groundmasses. Lower-diatreme facies, accidental lithic-rich breccias probably formed through fall-back of debris into the vent with a major contribution from the collapse of the vent walls. These massive breccias are overlain by a sequence of bedded volcaniclastic breccias in the upper part of the north lobe diatreme. Abundant, poorly vesicular to nonvesicular, juvenile kimberlite ash and lapilli, with morphologies that are indicative of phreatomagmatic fragmentation processes, occur in a reversely graded volcaniclastic kimberlite breccia unit at the base of this sequence. This unit and overlying bedded accidental lithic-rich breccias are interpreted to be sediment gravity-flow deposits (including possible debris flows) derived from the collapse of the crater walls and/or tephra ring deposits that surrounded the crater. Diatreme-forming eruptions may have been initiated by magma-water interactions along fracture and joint-controlled aquifers within the King Leopold Sandstone. The current level of exposure of the diatremes probably extends from the lower-diatreme facies up into the base of a bedded upper-diatreme sequence.

  12. Familial aggregation of malignant mesothelioma in former workers and residents of Wittenoom, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    de Klerk, Nicholas; Alfonso, Helman; Olsen, Nola; Reid, Alison; Sleith, Jan; Palmer, Lyle; Berry, Geoffrey; Musk, Aw Bill

    2013-03-15

    Clustering of cases of malignant mesothelioma within families has often been observed, but disentangling genetic and exposure effects has not been done. Former workers and residents exposed to crocidolite at Wittenoom, Western Australia, where many families shared exposure to asbestos, have had high rates of mesothelioma. Our study aimed to estimate the additional risk of mesothelioma in relatives, after allowance for common exposure to crocidolite. More than 11,000 former asbestos workers and residents from Wittenoom have been followed up in cancer and death registries. Levels of exposure for all members of the Wittenoom cohorts have been estimated previously. Relationships between family members of all mesothelioma cases were established from questionnaires, birth and death certificates. Expected numbers of cases of mesothelioma were estimated by fitting a Weibull survival model to all data, based on time from first asbestos exposure, duration and intensity of exposure and age. For each family group, the earliest case was considered the index case. Predicted risk was estimated for each subject from the time of diagnosis of the index case. Familial risk ratios were estimated by dividing observed cases by the sum of risks of all same degree relatives of index cases. There were 369 family groups with at least one case of mesothelioma and a further 25 cases of mesothelioma among relatives in the same families, with 12.9 expected. The risk ratio for blood relatives was 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.9, p = 0.002). These findings suggest an important, but not large, genetic component in mesothelioma, similar to many other cancers.

  13. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

    PubMed

    Blakeway, David; Byers, Michael; Stoddart, James; Rossendell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements). Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m(2) over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m(2) at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m(2) at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations. PMID:24040405

  14. Cannabis law reform in Western Australia: an opportunity to test theories of marginal deterrence and legitimacy.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Monica J; Chanteloup, Francoise; Lenton, Simon; Marsh, Ali

    2005-07-01

    'Marginal deterrence' refers to deterrence of a more harmful act because its expected sanction exceeds that for a less harmful act. 'Legitimacy of the law' predicts that laws perceived as fair will generate compliance and laws perceived as unfair will generate defiance. The introduction of the Cannabis Infringement Notice (CIN) scheme in Western Australia provided an opportunity to test these theories by assessing whether perceptions of certainty, severity and fairness of punishments dictated by the CIN scheme would affect how regular cannabis users intended to obtain cannabis after legislative change. One hundred Perth residents (mean age 32.2 years; two-thirds male) who reported using cannabis at least once a week were given semi-structured interviews before the CIN scheme came into effect. There was limited opportunity for the CIN scheme to effect marginal deterrence, as most of the sample were already purchasing or growing within the lower penalty thresholds. However, of the minority who were purchasing and growing outside the CIN scheme, a significant proportion reported intending to change their behaviour to fit within the scheme, including the only purchaser of more than 30 g and six of 14 non-hydroponic growers of three or more plants. Perceived certainty, severity and fairness of penalties were not as important in determining purchasing and growing behaviour as factors such as 'meeting needs', 'cost' and 'preference'. The results suggest that under the CIN scheme, marginal deterrence and legitimacy will probably play only a small or selective role in decisions about obtaining cannabis, although in some areas, such as the numbers of non-hydroponic plants, marginal deterrence may be evident.

  15. Shrimps Down Under: Evolutionary Relationships of Subterranean Crustaceans from Western Australia (Decapoda: Atyidae: Stygiocaris)

    PubMed Central

    Page, Timothy J.; Humphreys, William F.; Hughes, Jane M.

    2008-01-01

    Background We investigated the large and small scale evolutionary relationships of the endemic Western Australian subterranean shrimp genus Stygiocaris (Atyidae) using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Stygiocaris is part of the unique cave biota of the coastal, anchialine, limestones of the Cape Range and Barrow Island, most of whose nearest evolutionary relations are found in coastal caves of the distant North Atlantic. The dominance of atyids in tropical waters and their food resources suggest they are pivotal in understanding these groundwater ecosystems. Methodology/Principle Findings Our nuclear and mitochondrial analyses all recovered the Mexican cave genus Typhlatya as the sister taxon of Stygiocaris, rather than any of the numerous surface and cave atyids from Australia or the Indo-Pacific region. The two described Stygiocaris species were recovered as monophyletic, and a third, cryptic, species was discovered at a single site, which has very different physiochemical properties from the sites hosting the two described species. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that Stygiocaris and Typhlatya may descend from a common ancestor that lived in the coastal marine habitat of the ancient Tethys Sea, and were subsequently separated by plate tectonic movements. This vicariant process is commonly thought to explain the many disjunct anchialine faunas, but has rarely been demonstrated using phylogenetic techniques. The Cape Range's geological dynamism, which is probably responsible for the speciation of the various Stygiocaris species, has also led to geographic population structure within species. In particular, Stygiocaris lancifera is split into northern and southern groups, which correspond to population splits within other sympatric subterranean taxa. PMID:18286175

  16. Radiocarbon dating and wood density chronologies of mangrove trees in arid Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Santini, Nadia S; Hua, Quan; Schmitz, Nele; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove trees tend to be larger and mangrove communities more diverse in tropical latitudes, particularly where there is high rainfall. Variation in the structure, growth and productivity of mangrove forests over climatic gradients suggests they are sensitive to variations in climate, but evidence of changes in the structure and growth of mangrove trees in response to climatic variation is scarce. Bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating provides accurate dates of recent wood formation and tree age of tropical and subtropical tree species. Here, we used radiocarbon techniques combined with X-ray densitometry to develop a wood density chronology for the mangrove Avicennia marina in the Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia (WA). We tested whether wood density chronologies of A. marina were sensitive to variation in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index, which reflects temperature fluctuations in the Pacific Ocean and is linked to the instrumental rainfall record in north WA. We also determined growth rates in mangrove trees from the Exmouth Gulf, WA. We found that seaward fringing A. marina trees (~10 cm diameter) were 48 ± 1 to 89 ± 23 years old (mean ± 1 σ) and that their growth rates ranged from 4.08 ± 2.36 to 5.30 ± 3.33 mm/yr (mean ± 1 σ). The wood density of our studied mangrove trees decreased with increases in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index. Future predicted drying of the region will likely lead to further reductions in wood density and their associated growth rates in mangrove forests in the region.

  17. Hydrodynamics of Shark Bay, Western Australia: Implications for Population Dynamics of Snapper.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahas, E. L.; Jackson, G.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Ivey, G. N.

    2001-12-01

    Field data and hydrodynamic modeling were used to examine the dynamics of Shark Bay, a large inverse estuary in Western Australia. Work was focused on the hydrodynamic factors influencing snapper - a fish important to both commercial and recreational fisheries in the region. Shark Bay is a large coastal embayment, with inverse estuarine features, shallow waters, and the relatively warm Leeuwin current running along its seaward boundary. Other important physical influences include highly seasonal winds, with snapper spawning occurring in winter months when winds are low in magnitude and variable in direction. Density contours from fieldwork showed a vertically mixed system, implying a dominance of horizontal diffusive transport and therefore low volume or exchange fluxes in the Bay. T-S diagrams showed unique water signatures throughout; consistent with the concept of limited mixing. Hydrodynamic modeling, using typical tidal, current and meteorological data for winter, supported the limited mixing scheme, with low residual velocities in most areas. The model also showed the ubiquitous presence of topographically generated eddies, which operate as effective retention mechanisms, preventing large-scale mixing. Finally, biological field data on snapper spawning locations were used to seed the model. Particles released in the model were consistently located in or advected into cyclonic eddy structures, and therefore experienced little advection through the system. However, the process is seasonal, with retention mechanisms only in place in wintertime when winds are low and the system is tidally driven. These results verify the hypothesis that young snapper - eggs and larvae - do not mix throughout the bay, and are therefore isolated within specific spawning areas.

  18. Perennial growth of hermatypic corals at Rottnest Island, Western Australia (32°S)

    PubMed Central

    Falter, James L.; Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the viability of high latitude environments as coral refugia, we report measurements of seasonal changes in seawater parameters (temperature, light, and carbonate chemistry) together with calcification rates for two coral species, Acropora yongei and Pocillopora damicornis from the southernmost geographical limit of these species at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island (32°S) in Western Australia. Changes in buoyant weight were normalised to colony surface areas as determined from both X-ray computed tomography and geometric estimation. Extension rates for A. yongei averaged 51 ± 4 mm y−1 and were comparable to rates reported for Acroporid coral at other tropical and high latitude locations. Mean rates of calcification for both A. yongei and P. damicornis in winter were comparable to both the preceding and following summers despite a mean seasonal temperature range of ∼6 °C (18.2°–24.3 °C) and more than two-fold changes in the intensity of downwelling light. Seasonal calcification rates for A. yongei (1.31–2.02 mg CaCO3 cm−2 d−1) and P. damicornis (0.34–0.90 mg CaCO3 cm−2 d−1) at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island were comparable to rates from similar taxa in more tropical environments; however, they appeared to decline sharply once summer temperatures exceeded 23 °C. A coral bleaching event observed in December 2013 provided further evidence of how coral at Rottnest Island are still vulnerable to the deleterious effects of episodic warming despite its high latitude location. Thus, while corals at Rottnest Island can sustain robust year-round rates of coral growth, even over cool winter temperatures of 18°–19 °C, there may be limits on the extent that such environments can provide refuge against the longer term impacts of anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25755921

  19. Perennial growth of hermatypic corals at Rottnest Island, Western Australia (32°S).

    PubMed

    Ross, Claire L; Falter, James L; Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T

    2015-01-01

    To assess the viability of high latitude environments as coral refugia, we report measurements of seasonal changes in seawater parameters (temperature, light, and carbonate chemistry) together with calcification rates for two coral species, Acropora yongei and Pocillopora damicornis from the southernmost geographical limit of these species at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island (32°S) in Western Australia. Changes in buoyant weight were normalised to colony surface areas as determined from both X-ray computed tomography and geometric estimation. Extension rates for A. yongei averaged 51 ± 4 mm y(-1) and were comparable to rates reported for Acroporid coral at other tropical and high latitude locations. Mean rates of calcification for both A. yongei and P. damicornis in winter were comparable to both the preceding and following summers despite a mean seasonal temperature range of ∼6 °C (18.2°-24.3 °C) and more than two-fold changes in the intensity of downwelling light. Seasonal calcification rates for A. yongei (1.31-2.02 mg CaCO3 cm(-2) d(-1)) and P. damicornis (0.34-0.90 mg CaCO3 cm(-2) d(-1)) at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island were comparable to rates from similar taxa in more tropical environments; however, they appeared to decline sharply once summer temperatures exceeded 23 °C. A coral bleaching event observed in December 2013 provided further evidence of how coral at Rottnest Island are still vulnerable to the deleterious effects of episodic warming despite its high latitude location. Thus, while corals at Rottnest Island can sustain robust year-round rates of coral growth, even over cool winter temperatures of 18°-19 °C, there may be limits on the extent that such environments can provide refuge against the longer term impacts of anthropogenic climate change.

  20. Pore Structure and Petrophysical Characterization of Hamelin Pool Stromatolites, Shark Bay, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaca, E.; Eberli, G. P.; Weger, R. J.; Parke, E.

    2014-12-01

    Stromatolites are organic-sedimentary structures that form by trapping and binding of sediments and calcium carbonate precipitation through microbial activity. The largest modern stromatolite province is the hypersaline Hamelin Pool, Western Australia. Microbial precipitation generates a rigid framework with a wide range of porosities and pore sizes that influence the ultrasonic velocity permeability and resistivity in stromatolites. Stromatolites generally have simple and large pore structures and an impressive high permeability values. In the 55 core plugs, permeability varies from 0.5 D to 9 D, while porosity ranges from 17% to 46%. Ultrasonic velocity, measured under dry and saturated conditions, is generally high with a large scatter at any given porosity. Likewise large variations of porosity exist at any given velocity. For example, at 29% porosity, (dry) velocity ranges from 3611m/s to 5384m/s. Similarly at a velocity of 4048m/s the porosity ranges from 23% to 46%. Digital image analysis indicates that the main control on the variations is the pore complexity and size. Larger pores produce faster velocities at equal porosity. In saturated plugs compressional velocities increase up to 365m/s. In contrast, shear velocities show both a decrease (up to 578m/s) and an increase (up to 391m/s) in shear velocity (vs) with saturation. These changes in vsindicate that the stromatolites do change the shear modulus with saturation, thus violating the assumption by Gassmann. The cementation factor "m" (from Archie's equation, F = φ-m) determined from electrical resistivity varies in a narrow range from 2.1 to 2.6. This narrow range reduces the uncertainty in predicting the hydrocarbon/water saturation in stromatolites. The large range of porosities at a given velocity, however, makes porosity estimates from seismic inversion a challenge and, similarly, the shear moduli changes and the resultant shear strengthening and weakening add uncertainties to AVO analysis in

  1. Access block causes emergency department overcrowding and ambulance diversion in Perth, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fatovich, D; Nagree, Y; Sprivulis, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Access block refers to the situation where patients in the emergency department (ED) requiring inpatient care are unable to gain access to appropriate hospital beds within a reasonable time frame. We systematically evaluated the relationship between access block, ED overcrowding, ambulance diversion, and ED activity. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of data from the Emergency Department Information System for the three major central metropolitan EDs in Perth, Western Australia, for the calendar years 2001–2. Bivariate analyses were performed in order to study the relationship between a range of emergency department workload variables, including access block (>8 hour total ED stay for admitted patients), ambulance diversion, ED overcrowding, and ED waiting times. Results: We studied 259 580 ED attendances. Total diversion hours increased 74% from 3.39 hours/day in 2001 to 5.90 hours/day in 2002. ED overcrowding (r = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91 to 0.98), ambulance diversion (r = 0.75; 95% CI 0.49 to 0.88), and ED waiting times for care (r = 0.83; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.93) were strongly correlated with high levels of ED occupancy by access blocked patients. Total attendances, admissions, discharges, and low acuity patient attendances were not associated with ambulance diversion. Conclusion: Reducing access block should be the highest priority in allocating resources to reduce ED overcrowding. This would result in reduced overcrowding, reduced ambulance diversion, and improved ED waiting times. Improving hospital inpatient flow, which would directly reduce access block, is most likely to achieve this. PMID:15843704

  2. Differentiation of clonal complex 59 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Slickers, Peter; Pearson, Julie C; Tan, Hui-Leen; Christiansen, Keryn J; O'Brien, Frances G

    2010-05-01

    Clonal complex 59 (CC59) community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains were characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, diagnostic DNA microarrays, and PCRs targeting staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Six distinct groups within CC59 were characterized. At least seven different variants of SCCmec elements were identified (IVa [2B], IVb [2B], IVd [2B], IV variant [2B], IVa [2B&5], V variant [5C2], and V [5C2&5]). (The structural type is indicated by a Roman numeral, with a lowercase letter indicating the subtype, and the ccr complex and the mec complex are indicated by an Arabic numeral and an uppercase letter, respectively. Where there is an extra ccr element, this is indicated by "&" and an Arabic numeral designating the ccr type.) The first group is similar to the American sequence type 59 (ST59) MRSA-IV CA-MRSA strain USA1000. The second group includes a PVL-negative ST87 strain with an SCCmec element of subtype IVb (2B). The third group comprises PVL-variable ST59 MRSA-IV strains harboring multiple SCCmec IV subtypes. PVL-negative ST59 MRSA strains with multiple or composite SCCmec elements (IVa [2B&5]) form the fourth group. Group 5 corresponds to the internationally known "Taiwan clone," a PVL-positive strain with a variant SCCmec element (V [5C2&5]). This strain proved to be the most common CC59 MRSA strain isolated in Western Australia. Finally, group 6 encompasses the ST59 MRSA-V variant (5C2). The differentiation of CC59 into groups and strains indicates a rapid evolution and spread of SCCmec elements. Observed differences between groups of strains as well as intrastrain variability within a group facilitate the tracing of their spread. PMID:20211891

  3. Geological Setting of Diamond Drilling for the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, A.

    2004-12-01

    The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) is a collaborative international research project conducting systematic (bio)geochemical investigations to improve our understanding of the biosphere of the early Earth. The Pilbara Craton of Western Australia, which includes exceptionally well preserved 3.52 to 2.70 Ga sedimentary sequences, was selected for an innovative sampling program commencing in 2003. To avoid near-surface alteration and contamination effects, sampling was by diamond drilling to depths of between 150 and 300 m, and was located at sites where the target lithologies were least deformed and had lowest metamorphic grade (below 300°C). The first of five successful drilling sites (Jasper Deposit) targeted red, white and black chert in the 3.46 Ga Marble Bar Chert Member. This chert marks the top of a thick mafic-felsic volcanic cycle, the third of four such cycles formed by mantle plumes between 3.52 and 3.43 Ga. The geological setting was a volcanic plateau founded on 3.72 to 3.60 Ga sialic crust (isotopic evidence). The second hole (Salgash) was sited on the basal section of the fourth cycle, and sampled sulfidic (Cu-Zn-Fe), carbon-rich shale and sandstone units separated by flows of peridotite. The third hole (Eastern Creek) was sited on the margin of a moderately deep-water rift basin, the 2.95 to 2.91 Ga Mosquito Creek Basin. This is dominated by turbidites, but the sandstones and carbon-rich shales intersected at the drilling site were deposited in shallower water. The fourth and fifth holes, located 300 km apart, sampled 2.77 to 2.76 Ga continental formations of the Fortescue Group; both holes included black shales.

  4. Coral Colonisation of an Artificial Reef in a Turbid Nearshore Environment, Dampier Harbour, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Blakeway, David; Byers, Michael; Stoddart, James; Rossendell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements). Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m2 over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m2 at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m2 at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions—Pseudosiderastreatayami, Mycediumelephantotus and Leptastreapurpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations. PMID:24040405

  5. Familial aggregation of malignant mesothelioma in former workers and residents of Wittenoom, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    de Klerk, Nicholas; Alfonso, Helman; Olsen, Nola; Reid, Alison; Sleith, Jan; Palmer, Lyle; Berry, Geoffrey; Musk, Aw Bill

    2013-03-15

    Clustering of cases of malignant mesothelioma within families has often been observed, but disentangling genetic and exposure effects has not been done. Former workers and residents exposed to crocidolite at Wittenoom, Western Australia, where many families shared exposure to asbestos, have had high rates of mesothelioma. Our study aimed to estimate the additional risk of mesothelioma in relatives, after allowance for common exposure to crocidolite. More than 11,000 former asbestos workers and residents from Wittenoom have been followed up in cancer and death registries. Levels of exposure for all members of the Wittenoom cohorts have been estimated previously. Relationships between family members of all mesothelioma cases were established from questionnaires, birth and death certificates. Expected numbers of cases of mesothelioma were estimated by fitting a Weibull survival model to all data, based on time from first asbestos exposure, duration and intensity of exposure and age. For each family group, the earliest case was considered the index case. Predicted risk was estimated for each subject from the time of diagnosis of the index case. Familial risk ratios were estimated by dividing observed cases by the sum of risks of all same degree relatives of index cases. There were 369 family groups with at least one case of mesothelioma and a further 25 cases of mesothelioma among relatives in the same families, with 12.9 expected. The risk ratio for blood relatives was 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.9, p = 0.002). These findings suggest an important, but not large, genetic component in mesothelioma, similar to many other cancers. PMID:22858896

  6. Radiocarbon Dating and Wood Density Chronologies of Mangrove Trees in Arid Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Nadia S.; Hua, Quan; Schmitz, Nele; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove trees tend to be larger and mangrove communities more diverse in tropical latitudes, particularly where there is high rainfall. Variation in the structure, growth and productivity of mangrove forests over climatic gradients suggests they are sensitive to variations in climate, but evidence of changes in the structure and growth of mangrove trees in response to climatic variation is scarce. Bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating provides accurate dates of recent wood formation and tree age of tropical and subtropical tree species. Here, we used radiocarbon techniques combined with X-ray densitometry to develop a wood density chronology for the mangrove Avicennia marina in the Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia (WA). We tested whether wood density chronologies of A. marina were sensitive to variation in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index, which reflects temperature fluctuations in the Pacific Ocean and is linked to the instrumental rainfall record in north WA. We also determined growth rates in mangrove trees from the Exmouth Gulf, WA. We found that seaward fringing A. marina trees (∼10 cm diameter) were 48±1 to 89±23 years old (mean ± 1σ) and that their growth rates ranged from 4.08±2.36 to 5.30±3.33 mm/yr (mean ±1σ). The wood density of our studied mangrove trees decreased with increases in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index. Future predicted drying of the region will likely lead to further reductions in wood density and their associated growth rates in mangrove forests in the region. PMID:24265797

  7. Habitat Associations of Juvenile Fish at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia: The Importance of Coral and Algae

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Shaun K.; Depczynski, Martial; Fisher, Rebecca; Holmes, Thomas H.; O'Leary, Rebecca A.; Tinkler, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Habitat specificity plays a pivotal role in forming community patterns in coral reef fishes, yet considerable uncertainty remains as to the extent of this selectivity, particularly among newly settled recruits. Here we quantified habitat specificity of juvenile coral reef fish at three ecological levels; algal meadows vs. coral reefs, live vs. dead coral and among different coral morphologies. In total, 6979 individuals from 11 families and 56 species were censused along Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Juvenile fishes exhibited divergence in habitat use and specialization among species and at all study scales. Despite the close proximity of coral reef and algal meadows (10's of metres) 25 species were unique to coral reef habitats, and seven to algal meadows. Of the seven unique to algal meadows, several species are known to occupy coral reef habitat as adults, suggesting possible ontogenetic shifts in habitat use. Selectivity between live and dead coral was found to be species-specific. In particular, juvenile scarids were found predominantly on the skeletons of dead coral whereas many damsel and butterfly fishes were closely associated with live coral habitat. Among the coral dependent species, coral morphology played a key role in juvenile distribution. Corymbose corals supported a disproportionate number of coral species and individuals relative to their availability, whereas less complex shapes (i.e. massive & encrusting) were rarely used by juvenile fish. Habitat specialisation by juvenile species of ecological and fisheries importance, for a variety of habitat types, argues strongly for the careful conservation and management of multiple habitat types within marine parks, and indicates that the current emphasis on planning conservation using representative habitat areas is warranted. Furthermore, the close association of many juvenile fish with corals susceptible to climate change related disturbances suggests that identifying and protecting reefs

  8. Impact of a prescribed fire on soil water repellency in a Banksia woodland (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Ben; Tangney, Ryan; Miller, Russell; González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION The Swan Coastal plain of Western Australia is dominated by fire-prone banksia woodland (Burrows and McCaw, 1990). In these areas, prescription burning is often used to reduce the risk of wildfires, by reducing available fuels (Boer et al., 2009). Little research has been conducted on the effects of prescription burning on Banksia woodlands, and, in particular, information on the impacts on soil properties and soil water repellency (SWR) is scarce. Here, we have studied the impact of fire on SWR in a Banksia woodland and monitored its evolution in the medium-term. It is expected that results are useful for management and restoration of fire-affected Banksia woodlands. METHODS An experimental fire was conducted on May 7th 2015 in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. The fire affected an area of 6 ha of mixed Banksia/Allocasuarina woodland under moderate fire intensity. At the time of ignition, the wind speed below the canopy was 1.2 km/h. During the prescribed burning, air temperatures were on average 20 ± 1 °C and relative humidity ranged between 45 and 55% (measured using a Kestrel portable weather station). Fuel moisture averaged 11.8% (measured using Wiltronics moisture meter) and soil moisture at 1 cm deep ranged from 0.1% to 8.6% (measured with a PR2 soil profile probe attached to a HH2 data logger). Temperatures greater than 120 °C were measured 1 cm below the soil surface using iButton temperature sensors. SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C) with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test. Soil microbial activity was determined with the 1-day CO2 test that is based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). PRELIMINARY RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SWR was severe in the control (mean WDPT = 2608 s) and pre-burned areas (2722 s). One week after the prescribed fire, persistence of soil water repellency remained stable in the burned area (2402 s). In

  9. Predicting Cereal Root Disease in Western Australia Using Soil DNA and Environmental Parameters.

    PubMed

    Poole, Grant J; Harries, Martin; Hüberli, D; Miyan, S; MacLeod, W J; Lawes, Roger; McKay, A

    2015-08-01

    Root diseases have long been prevalent in Australian grain-growing regions, and most management decisions to reduce the risk of yield loss need to be implemented before the crop is sown. The levels of pathogens that cause the major root diseases can be measured using DNA-based services such as PreDicta B. Although these pathogens are often studied individually, in the field they often occur as mixed populations and their combined effect on crop production is likely to vary across diverse cropping environments. A 3-year survey was conducted covering most cropping regions in Western Australia, utilizing PreDicta B to determine soilborne pathogen levels and visual assessments to score root health and incidence of individual crop root diseases caused by the major root pathogens, including Rhizoctonia solani (anastomosis group [AG]-8), Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (take-all), Fusarium pseudograminearum, and Pratylenchus spp. (root-lesion nematodes) on wheat roots for 115, 50, and 94 fields during 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. A predictive model was developed for root health utilizing autumn and summer rainfall and soil temperature parameters. The model showed that pathogen DNA explained 16, 5, and 2% of the variation in root health whereas environmental parameters explained 22, 11, and 1% of the variation in 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. Results showed that R. solani AG-8 soil pathogen DNA, environmental soil temperature, and rainfall parameters explained most of the variation in the root health. This research shows that interactions between environment and pathogen levels before seeding can be utilized in predictive models to improve assessment of risk from root diseases to assist growers to plan more profitable cropping programs.

  10. Marine airborne salts applied to trace evapotranspiration, local recharge and lateral groundwater flow in Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazor, Emanuel; George, Richard

    1992-11-01

    Concentrations of dissolved Cl, Br, SO 4, Na, K, Ca and Mg in ground waters of six study areas in the flat Wheatbelt of Western Australia revealed: (a) variations of several orders of magnitude of ion concentrations (40-63 000 mg C11 -1) in ground waters encountered in wells 2-46 m deep; (b) variations exceeding an order of magnitude in the salinity observed in depth profiles of individual wells; (c) positive linear correlations between the concentrations of Cl, Br, Na and Mg, observed in all the study areas, and similar correlations also with Ca, K and SO 4 in part of these areas; (d) marine-like relative ionic concentration abundances of Cl, Br, Na and Mg in the six study areas, and of Ca, K and SO 4 in part of the areas; (e) concentrations of the various ions distinctly below saturation with halite, Br-containing salts or gypsum. Observations of this nature are shown to provide a powerful tool to establish: (a) lack of fractionation between the marine ions during the atmospheric transport, (b) salt input dominated by marine airborne salts, (c) operation of evapotranspiration from the regolith in calculable degrees that vary from one surface cell to another, (d) lack of salt phases in the aquifer materials, (e) dominance of local (vertical) recharge over remote (lateral) recharge, (f) infiltration of active recharge through preferred pathways in the aerated zone, (g) storage of ground water in local compartments, (h) amount of annual recharge in each unit of area, and (i) hydrochemical maturity of the local hydrological system. Rise of water tables, as a result of forest clearing, produces a different flow regime for water and solutes. The depth of the aerated zone is drastically reduced, saline interstitial water is mobilized from the aquifer (the former aerated zone), and previously productive land becomes degraded by excessive soil salinities.

  11. Impact of a prescribed fire on soil water repellency in a Banksia woodland (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Ben; Tangney, Ryan; Miller, Russell; González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION The Swan Coastal plain of Western Australia is dominated by fire-prone banksia woodland (Burrows and McCaw, 1990). In these areas, prescription burning is often used to reduce the risk of wildfires, by reducing available fuels (Boer et al., 2009). Little research has been conducted on the effects of prescription burning on Banksia woodlands, and, in particular, information on the impacts on soil properties and soil water repellency (SWR) is scarce. Here, we have studied the impact of fire on SWR in a Banksia woodland and monitored its evolution in the medium-term. It is expected that results are useful for management and restoration of fire-affected Banksia woodlands. METHODS An experimental fire was conducted on May 7th 2015 in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. The fire affected an area of 6 ha of mixed Banksia/Allocasuarina woodland under moderate fire intensity. At the time of ignition, the wind speed below the canopy was 1.2 km/h. During the prescribed burning, air temperatures were on average 20 ± 1 °C and relative humidity ranged between 45 and 55% (measured using a Kestrel portable weather station). Fuel moisture averaged 11.8% (measured using Wiltronics moisture meter) and soil moisture at 1 cm deep ranged from 0.1% to 8.6% (measured with a PR2 soil profile probe attached to a HH2 data logger). Temperatures greater than 120 °C were measured 1 cm below the soil surface using iButton temperature sensors. SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C) with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test. Soil microbial activity was determined with the 1-day CO2 test that is based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). PRELIMINARY RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SWR was severe in the control (mean WDPT = 2608 s) and pre-burned areas (2722 s). One week after the prescribed fire, persistence of soil water repellency remained stable in the burned area (2402 s). In

  12. Quaternary sedimentation and diagenesis in a high-latitude reef, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.R.; Collins, L.B. ); Wyrwoll, K.H.; Hatcher, B.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The Houtman Abrolhos reefs are located 80 km off the west coast of Australia between latitudes 28 and 29{degree} south. The islands are situated on three Pleistocene carbonate reef platforms which rise above the surrounding shelf. The modern coral reefs are close to the geographic limit for coral growth in the southern hemisphere and survive due to the presence of the Leeuwin current (a poleward-flowing warm stream). Two major shallow-water benthic communities coexist in the Abrolhos: a macroalgal-dominated community on the windward platform margins and a coral-dominated community on the leeward margins. These communities overlap-particularly in the platform lagoons, where competition between macroalgae and corals is intense. This interaction has been suggested as a major factor controlling the growth of cord reefs at high latitudes. The Holocene carbonate sediments lack nonskeletal components and are dominated by coral and coralline algal fragments with subordinate molluskan and echinoderm debris. The accumulations can be grouped into the following major facies: (1) coral framestone and coralline algal/serpulid boundstone, (2) submarine sand sheets, (3) subaerial coral storm ridges, (4-) peritidal to subtidal shingle and rubble veneers composed of dominantly coral debris, and (5) eolian dunes and beach sand. The Holocene sediment is a thin (< 2 m) veneer on the Pleistocene reef platform, which is emergent as small islands. The Pleistocene platform is composed of reef facies that can be directly related to the Holocene sediments. The platform is composed of framestone and boundstone facies (corals and coralline algal/serpulid facies), rudstones (submarine coral rubble facies), planar-bedded skeletal grainstones dipping 12-13{degree} (submarine sand sheet and peritidal shingle facies), and large 15-m-high eolianite dunes (eolian dune facies).

  13. Mechanisms of sandstone deposition in a late Proterozoic submarine canyon, Adelaide geosyncline, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    von der Borch, C.C.; Grady, A.E.

    1984-06-01

    Late Proterozoic submarine canyon fills the Adelaide Supergroup (Flinders Range, South Australia) are asymmetrical in terms of their facies. Coarse breccia units, commonly associated with coarse-grained channelized turbidite sandstone units, generally occur adjacent to north walls of all the east-west-trending canyon incisions. In contrast, fine-grained sandstones and mudstones within the canyon fill are generally associated with south walls. In one canyon (Patsy-Springs canyon), an additional element of asymmetry is associated with the prevalence of northward-climbing sets of climbing ripples (southward-dipping stoss sides) within channelized turbidites, in what are interpreted to be major thalweg channels and their associated levees. Flute casts at the bases of individual turbidite sandstones invariably indicate initial turbidity current flow to the west throughout the vertical sequences of the channel fills. Parallel laminations above the flute casts in each flow pass upward into climbing ripples with south-dipping stoss sides, implying southward lateral accretion across the channel of a levee or bar as each turbidity current decelerated. The asymmetries outlined could be explained by: Coriolis force acting on the turbidity currents, or the existence on a steep slope of a meandering canyon gorge, confining a thalweg channel developed within subsequent canyon fill. In such a situation, roller-coastering turbidity currents would seek outer bends of the meandering primary gorge.

  14. Diapirism and structural thickening in an Early Palaeozoic subduction complex, southeastern New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergusson, Christopher L.; Frikken, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A major problem in the study of subduction complexes has been to distinguish between processes of mud diapirism, deformation of unlithified sediments, frontal accretion and underplating. In the Batemans Bay area, Cambro-Ordovician rocks of the south coast of New South Wales (eastern Australia) contain common mud-rich mélanges that occur amongst an imbricated succession of Early to Middle Ordovician quartz turbidites, Late Ordovician black mudstone and chert, Cambrian limestone and mafic volcanics. An early set of fluidal obliquely trending folds are restricted to the Late Ordovician black mudstone and chert and probably formed by gravitational down-slope movement on a lower trench slope. Features indicative of deformation of unlithified sediments are still preserved and include mud injections, delicate small-scale faulting and the absence of grain-scale deformation. Tight to isoclinal north-south folds with axial planar west-dipping cleavage overprint all units and formed during the younger main-phase deformation that post-dated early deformation in the prism. The mélange has been strongly overprinted by this main-phase deformation. Early mélange formation is attributed to mud diapirism involving intrusion along early accretionary faults, bedding planes and in pipe-like features resulting in chaotic outcrop and map patterns.

  15. Regional climate modeling of heat stress, frost, and water stress events in the agricultural region of Southwest Western Australia under the current climate and future climate scenarios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kala, Jatin; Lyons, Tom J.; Abbs, Deborah J.; Foster, Ian J.

    2010-05-01

    Heat stress, frost, and water stress events have significant impacts on grain quality and production within the agricultural region (wheat-belt) of Southwest Western Australia (SWWA) (Cramb, 2000) and understanding how the frequency and intensity of these events will change in the future is crucial for management purposes. Hence, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (Pielke et al, 1992) (RAMS Version 6.0) is used to simulate the past 10 years of the climate of SWWA at a 20 km grid resolution by down-scaling the 6-hourly 1.0 by 1.0 degree National Center for Environmental Prediction Final Analyses from December 1999 to Present. Daily minimum and maximum temperatures, as well as daily rainfall are validated against observations. Simulations of future climate are carried out by down-scaling the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Mark 3.5 General Circulation Model (Gordon et al, 2002) for 10 years (2046-2055) under the SRES A2 scenario using the Cubic Conformal Atmospheric Model (CCAM) (McGregor and Dix, 2008). The 6-hourly CCAM output is then downscaled to a 20 km resolution using RAMS. Changes in extreme events are discussed within the context of the continued viability of agriculture in SWWA. Cramb, J. (2000) Climate in relation to agriculture in south-western Australia. In: The Wheat Book (Eds W. K. Anderson and J. R. Garlinge). Bulletin 4443. Department of Agriculture, Western Australia. Gordon, H. B., Rotstayn, L. D., McGregor, J. L., Dix, M. R., Kowalczyk, E. A., O'Farrell, S. P., Waterman, L. J., Hirst, A. C., Wilson, S. G., Collier, M. A., Watterson, I. G., and Elliott, T. I. (2002). The CSIRO Mk3 Climate System Model [Electronic publication]. Aspendale: CSIRO Atmospheric Research. (CSIRO Atmospheric Research technical paper; no. 60). 130 p McGregor, J. L., and Dix, M. R., (2008) An updated description of the conformal-cubic atmospheric model. High Resolution Simulation of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Hamilton, K. and Ohfuchi

  16. Unstructured cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention in rural South Australia: does it meet best practice guidelines?

    PubMed

    Wachtel, Tracey; Kucia, Angela; Greenhill, Jennene

    2008-06-01

    Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation programs that address risk factors, psychological problems, and physical activity are essential in optimizing health and reducing the risk of further cardiac events. Behavioural and lifestyle modification support offered through these programs is predicated on initial identification of risk. Many rural populations in Australia do not have access to structured cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs, and the level of support available to them in the form of unstructured CR is unclear. A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients presenting to hospital with myocardial infarction in rural South Australia over a 12 month period was undertaken to identify documented evidence of assessment of and intervention for lifestyle and behavioural risk factors in-hospital and at follow up in general practice (GP) clinics. Of 77 eligible participants, permission was received to access the medical records of 55 patients in the hospital setting, and 34 of these 55 patients in GP clinic follow up. Documented evidence of assessment of modifiable risk factors was inadequate for the majority of participants, with the exception of smoking status, hypertension and diabetes. This suggests that the majority of these participants did not receive lifestyle and behavioural interventions in line with current National Heart Foundation Recommendations for Cardiac Rehabilitation. Barriers to comprehensive CR and secondary prevention services in Australia must be addressed, particularly in high risk rural and remote populations. Future research must focus on the ongoing monitoring and evaluation of rural health care services to analyse existing levels of CR and secondary prevention to ensure current guidelines are being implemented, to support the further development and resourcing of CR services and to evaluate the subsequent impact on patient outcomes.

  17. Suicide and drought in New South Wales, Australia, 1970-2007.

    PubMed

    Hanigan, Ivan C; Butler, Colin D; Kokic, Philip N; Hutchinson, Michael F

    2012-08-28

    There is concern in Australia that droughts substantially increase the incidence of suicide in rural populations, particularly among male farmers and their families. We investigated this possibility for the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia between 1970 and 2007, analyzing data on suicides with a previously established climatic drought index. Using a generalized additive model that controlled for season, region, and long-term suicide trends, we found an increased relative risk of suicide of 15% (95% confidence interval, 8%-22%) for rural males aged 30-49 y when the drought index rose from the first quartile to the third quartile. In contrast, the risk of suicide for rural females aged >30 y declined with increased values of the drought index. We also observed an increased risk of suicide in spring and early summer. In addition there was a smaller association during unusually warm months at any time of year. The spring suicide increase is well documented in nontropical locations, although its cause is unknown. The possible increased risk of suicide during drought in rural Australia warrants public health focus and concern, as does the annual, predictable increase seen each spring and early summer. Suicide is a complex phenomenon with many interacting social, environmental, and biological causal factors. The relationship between drought and suicide is best understood using a holistic framework. Climate change projections suggest increased frequency and severity of droughts in NSW, accompanied and exacerbated by rising temperatures. Elucidating the relationships between drought and mental health will help facilitate adaptation to climate change. PMID:22891347

  18. Learner Diversity: A Successful Blended Professional Learning Approach Promoting Quality Inclusion in the United Kingdom and New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clench, Hugh; King, Brian Smyth

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an online training model for teachers and teaching assistants working with students with special educational needs. Originally developed as part of a government funded initiative in the UK, the model has been successfully applied in other contexts, most notably in New South Wales, Australia where it has had…

  19. The Use of Sessional Teachers in Universities: Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues and realities presented by the casualisation of higher education teaching staff. It uses a case study from the University of New South Wales [UNSW] in Sydney Australia. The research presents and analyses perspectives from two key stakeholders in a university [students and academic management] on the use of sessional…

  20. From Vision to Reality: Views of Primary School Principals on Inclusive Education in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Linda J.; Spandagou, Ilektra

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a research study that used semi-structured interviews to explore the views of primary school principals on inclusive education in New South Wales, Australia. Content analysis of the transcript data indicates that principals' attitudes towards inclusive education and their success in engineering inclusive…

  1. A Survey of the Educational and Training Needs of the Pastoral Industry of South Australia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raftery, John; And Others

    In late 1979 and 1980 a survey was conducted of 207 pastoral lease owners and managers in the north of South Australia to determine their education and training requirements. The pastoral industry grazes sheep and cattle on native pastures and shrubs, is beset by widely fluctuating rainfall and production, sells its products of wool and meat on a…

  2. Enough Bad News! Remote Social Health & Aboriginal Action in a Harsh Environment--Coober Pedy in South Australia's "Outback."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brice, G.; And Others

    This paper focuses on the complexities of health care in Coober Pedy (South Australia) and the nearby Umoona Aboriginal community, and highlights the vital role of Aboriginal health workers in the implementation of primary health care principles. The Aboriginal population in this "outback" area is characterized by considerable economic problems,…

  3. Testing a Moderated Model of Satisfaction with Urban Living Using Data for Brisbane-South East Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccrea, Rod; Stimson, Robert; Western, John

    2005-01-01

    Using survey data collected from households living in the Brisbane-South East Queensland region, a rapidly growing metropolis in Australia, path analysis is used to test links between urban residents' assessment of various urban attributes and their level of satisfaction in three urban domains--housing, neighbourhood or local area, and the wider…

  4. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasts for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall is important for agriculture management and planning in arid and semi-arid regions. Australia has complex variations in rainfall patterns in time and space, arising from the combination of the geographic structure and the dual effects of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study aims to develop a forecasting model of spatiotemporal monthly rainfall totals using lagged climate indices and historical rainfall data from 1950-2011 for south-eastern and eastern Australia. Data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high-quality weather stations. To reduce spatial complexity, climate regionalization was used to divide the stations in homogenous sub-regions based on similarity of rainfall patterns and intensity using principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering. Subsequently, a fuzzy ranking algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. Selected predictors by FRA were found to vary by sub-region. After these two stages of pre-processing, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed and optimized separately for each sub-region and the entire area. The results indicate that climate regionalization can improve a monthly spatiotemporal rainfall forecast model. The location and number of sub-regions were important for ranking predictors and modeling. This further suggests that the impact of climate variables on Australian rainfall is more variable in both time and space than indicated thus far.

  5. Whole Genome Sequencing Demonstrates Limited Transmission within Identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clusters in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gurjav, Ulziijargal; Outhred, Alexander C.; Jelfs, Peter; McCallum, Nadine; Wang, Qinning; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Marais, Ben J.; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a low tuberculosis incidence rate with most cases occurring among recent immigrants. Given suboptimal cluster resolution achieved with 24-locus mycobacterium interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU-24) genotyping, the added value of whole genome sequencing was explored. MIRU-24 profiles of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-confirmed tuberculosis cases diagnosed between 2009 and 2013 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, were examined and clusters identified. The relatedness of cases within the largest MIRU-24 clusters was assessed using whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Of 1841 culture-confirmed TB cases, 91.9% (1692/1841) had complete demographic and genotyping data. East-African Indian (474; 28.0%) and Beijing (470; 27.8%) lineage strains predominated. The overall rate of MIRU-24 clustering was 20.1% (340/1692) and was highest among Beijing lineage strains (35.7%; 168/470). One Beijing and three East-African Indian (EAI) clonal complexes were responsible for the majority of observed clusters. Whole genome sequencing of the 4 largest clusters (30 isolates) demonstrated diverse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within identified clusters. All sequenced EAI strains and 70% of Beijing lineage strains clustered by MIRU-24 typing demonstrated distinct SNP profiles. The superior resolution provided by whole genome sequencing demonstrated limited M. tuberculosis transmission within NSW, even within identified MIRU-24 clusters. Routine whole genome sequencing could provide valuable public health guidance in low burden settings. PMID:27737005

  6. Characterising the smoking status and quit smoking behaviour of aboriginal health workers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Maksimovic, Lauren; Paquet, Catherine; Daniel, Mark; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Lekkas, Peter; Cargo, Margaret

    2013-12-13

    The study objectives were to characterise the smoking status and quit smoking behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) in South Australia (SA), Australia; and identify the psychosocial, socio-demographic, and household smoking characteristics that distinguish smokers from quitters and never smokers. A self-reported cross-sectional survey was completed by AHWs in SA. Non-parametric statistics were used for inferential analyses. Eighty-five AHWs completed surveys representing a response rate of 63.0%. The prevalence of current smokers was 50.6%. Non-smokers (49.5%) included quitters (22.4%) and never smokers (27.1%). Smoking status did not differ by gender or geographic location. Of current smokers, 69.0% demonstrated a readiness to quit and 50.0% had made at least one quit attempt in the last 12 months. Compared to quitters and never smokers, current smokers expressed lower emotional wellbeing, and three times as many resided with another smoker. Quitters had the highest levels of perceived social support and part-time employment. A high proportion of AHWs who smoke desire, and are ready to quit. Individual, social and household factors differentiated smokers from non-smokers and quitters. Social support, and relationships and structures that favour social support, are implicated as necessary to enable AHWs who smoke to act on their desire to quit smoking.

  7. Hepatitis A in New South Wales, Australia from consumption of oysters: the first reported outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Conaty, S.; Bird, P.; Bell, G.; Kraa, E.; Grohmann, G.; McAnulty, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Between 22 January and 4 April 1997, 467 hepatitis A cases were reported to the New South Wales Health Department, Australia. To identify the cause of the outbreak, we conducted a matched case-control study, and an environmental investigation. Among 66 cases and 66 postcode-matched controls, there was a strong association between illness and consumption of oysters (adjusted odds ratio 42; 95 % confidence interval 5-379). More than two-thirds of cases reported eating oysters, including one third of cases and no controls who reported eating oysters in the Wallis Lake area. A public warning was issued on 14 February, and Wallis Lake oysters were withdrawn from sale. Hepatitis A virus was subsequently identified in oyster samples taken from the lake. Hepatitis A virus poses a special risk to consumers who eat raw oysters because it can survive for long periods in estuaries and cause severe disease. PMID:10722139

  8. Aboriginal Astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 2: Animals in the Ooldean Sky.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.; Carter, Mark T.

    2016-04-01

    Australian Indigenous astronomical traditions demonstrate a relationship between animals in the skyworld and the behaviour patterns of their terrestrial counterparts. In our continued study of Aboriginal astronomical traditions from the Great Victoria Desert, South Australia, we investigate the relationship between animal behaviour and stellar positions when these relationships are not explicitly described in the written records. We develop a methodology to test the hypothesis that the behaviour of these animals is predicted by the positions of their celestial counterparts at particular times of the day. Of the twelve animals identified in the Ooldean sky, the nine stellar (i.e. non-planet or non-galactic) associations were analysed and each demonstrated a close connection between animal behaviour and stellar positions. We suggest that this may be a recurring theme in Aboriginal astronomical traditions, requiring further development of the methodology.

  9. Demographic response to rural restructuring and counterurbanisation in South Australia, 1981-1991.

    PubMed

    Smailes, P J

    1996-09-01

    "Using South Australia as a case study, this paper seeks to trace and demonstrate two processes (counterurbanisation and rural restructuring) whose effects overlap to differentiate and characterise the population geography of...two zones, separated by a transition along the outer fringe of Adelaide's urban field.... In the demographic core zone [rural restructuring] has been partly offset by continued counterurbanisation, resulting in demographic mixing and rural dilution. The 1981-91 population growth in rural communities is shown to be more a function of population density at the outset of the period than of initial population size. Demographic growth...is shown to conform to a simple unidimensional scale, allowing the production of a clear, easily interpretable typology of rural demographic change with few non-conforming statistical areas. At a local level within individual rural communities, demographic decline is shown to be accompanied by increased concentration of the population into small towns, while demographic growth is associated with deconcentration."

  10. Influence of newly imposed salinity and waterlogging on Eucalyptus gracilis in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Melissa S; Preiss, Katharine A; Sinclair, Russell

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the effects of waterlogging and salinity on the water relations of Eucalyptus gracilis F. Muell. growing within the Stockyard Plain Disposal Basin Reserve, 15 km southwest of Waikerie, South Australia. Presence and depth of the saline groundwater had relatively little effect on the water relations of the trees even when large differences in tree health were visible. Predawn water potential, stomatal conductance, and foliar sodium and potassium concentrations were similar for all individuals independent of the depth and salinity of the groundwater. As expected, the severity of water stress increased over summer when predawn water potentials became progressively more negative and foliar salt concentrations increased. These changes occurred in all plants independent of depth or salinity of the groundwater.

  11. Endemic Q Fever in New South Wales, Australia: A Case Series (2005-2013).

    PubMed

    Graves, Stephen R; Islam, Aminul

    2016-07-01

    Q fever is endemic in Australia, and during the period 2005-2013 our laboratory diagnosed 379 cases in New South Wales. To evaluate clinical symptoms, epidemiology, mode of diagnosis, antibody profiles, and treatment, a subset of 160 (42%) Q fever cases were analyzed in detail following the return of a questionnaire by the patient's doctor and from their laboratory reports. Overall, 82% patients were male and predominantly middle aged. The majority of patients (89%) had animal contact among which 63% were with cattle, 11% with sheep, and 7% with kangaroos. Clinical symptoms were nonspecific: myalgia (94%), fever (91%), headache (80%), acute fatigue (64%), and arthralgia (55%). Most cases (93%) were acute, and serology (immunofluorescence) was the main diagnostic modality. Positive real-time polymerase chain reaction results were useful in the diagnosis of both acute and chronic Q fever, as was the isolation of Coxiella burnetii in cell culture. Doxycycline was the antibiotic most commonly used. PMID:27139451

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Australian Science Education Association (19th, Perth, Western Australia, Australia, November 18, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Leonie J., Ed.

    The Western Australian Science Education Association is an informal group which meets annually for a conference. This document contains the proceedings of the 1994 conference. Papers included were: (1) "Relationship Between Cognitive Style and Students' Proportional Reasoning Ability" (Ayo Akatugba); (2) "Alternative Modes of Instruction in…

  13. Burkholderia dipogonis sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Dipogon lignosus in New Zealand and Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shih-Yi; Chen, Ming-Hui; Liu, Wendy Y Y; Andrews, Mitchell; James, Euan K; Ardley, Julie K; De Meyer, Sofie E; James, Trevor K; Howieson, John G; Coutinho, Bruna G; Chen, Wen-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Seven strains, ICMP 19430T, ICMP 19429, ICMP 19431, WSM4637, WSM4638, WSM4639 and WSM4640, were isolated from nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots of the invasive South African legume Dipogon lignosus (subfamily Papilionoideae, tribe Phaseoleae) in New Zealand and Western Australia, and their taxonomic positions were investigated by using a polyphasic approach. All seven strains grew at 10-37 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 4.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-7.0) and with 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum growth in the absence of NaCl). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strains showed 99.0-99.5 % sequence similarity to the closest type strain, Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJNT, and 98.4-99.7 % sequence similarity to Burkholderia caledonica LMG 19076T. The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c (21.0 % of the total fatty acids in strain ICMP 19430T), C16 : 0 (19.1 %), C17 : 0 cyclo (18.9 %), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c; 10.7 %) and C19 : 0 cyclov ω8c (7.5 %). The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and several uncharacterized aminophospholipids and phospholipids. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8 and the DNA G+C content of strain ICMP 19430T was 63.2 mol%. The DNA–DNA relatedness of the novel strains with respect to the closest neighbouring members of the genus Burkholderia was 55 % or less. On the basis of 16S rRNA and recA gene sequence similarities and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data,these strains represent a novel symbiotic species in the genus Burkholderia, for which the name Burkholderia dipogonis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain ICMP 19430T (=LMG28415T=HAMBI 3637T).

  14. Long-term carbon storage and its recent loss in an estuarine Posidonia australis meadow (Albany, Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozaimi, Mohammad; Lavery, Paul S.; Serrano, Oscar; Kyrwood, Danielle

    2016-03-01

    Oyster Harbour, on the south coast of Western Australia, supports 3.6-3.9 km2 of seagrass meadows, following the loss of approximately 2.8-3.1 km2 in the 1980s. This small area of prevailing meadows hold significant carbon stores accumulated over the past 3000 years. In this study, we sampled three sediment cores from a Posidonia australis meadow and analysed organic matter (OM), organic carbon (OC) and inorganic carbon (IC) contents in bulk sediments, and δ13C signatures of OM. The OM and OC contents (mean ± SE) in the cores were 9.07 ± 0.36% and 2.24 ± 0.05%, respectively. The mean IC content was 3.16 ± 0.17%. δ13C signatures of the sedimentary OM ranged from -10.01‰ to -13.28‰. Using a Bayesian isotopic mixing model, it is estimated that 57-67% of the OM in the seagrass sediments was derived from P. australis detrital matter. The total carbon (TC) stores in 150 cm-thick seagrass sediments averaged 27.92 kg TC m-2 (10.79 kg OC m-2 and 17.13 kg IC m-2). Based on radiocarbon dating, the mean sediment accumulation rate was 0.0494 cm yr-1, which led to a long-term TC accumulation rate of 8.92 g TC m-2 yr-1 (3.45 g OC m-2 yr-1 and 5.47 g IC m-2 yr-1). Based on historical seagrass cover (3.6-6.7 km2 during the 1960s to 1980s), the estimated TC stores in 150 cm-thick seagrass sediments at Oyster Harbour would have been 101-187 Gg TC. The eutrophication-driven loss of seagrasses during the 1980s resulted in the absence of OC accumulation capacity amounting to 280-310 Mg OC (over 29 years). The loss of seagrass area could also have resulted in the release of 37-41 Gg CO2, assuming that all of the OC in shallow sediment is remineralised after meadow disturbance. These results exemplify the importance of seagrasses meadows as important carbon sinks and the potential for losses of carbon stores due to ecosystem degradation.

  15. Crustal and lithospheric structure of the Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, from passive-source seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, C.; Tkalcic, H.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Spaggiari, C. V.; Gessner, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic Albany-Fraser Orogen is situated along the southeastern margin of the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. The orogen records a long history of extension and magmatism, dominantly in a rift or back-arc setting, inboard of the collision zone between the West Australian and South Australian Cratons. The extensional structures were inverted during formation of a fold and thrust architecture during the Mesoproterozoic, which must have left its mark on the orogen's deep crustal and lithospheric structure. In November 2013, a 40-station passive seismic array was installed across the east Albany-Fraser Orogen, which was shifted southeast, along strike of the orogen, in October 2014. The goal of this project is the retrieval of three-dimensional models of crustal and mantle lithospheric structure for the east Albany-Fraser Orogen, thereby extending recently acquired active seismic profiles into the third dimension. First results from analyzing the data recorded by the northern sub-array are presented, exploiting ambient noise, receiver functions and information from occasional local events. Ambient noise tomography yields a three-dimensional S-wave velocity model of the upper and middle crust. The obtained velocity distribution shows a marked contrast between faster upper crustal velocities throughout the Yilgarn margin and the Albany-Fraser Orogen and markedly slower velocities in the Eucla Basin further east. The Fraser Zone, a ~450 km long body of metamorphic gabbros in the Albany-Fraser Orogen, shows up as a prominent upper crustal high-wavespeed anomaly. At mid-crustal levels, the average seismic velocitiy decreases, and the basement beneath the Eucla Basin appears to be faster than the regions further west. P receiver functions have been used for the estimation of bulk crustal Vp/Vs (H-K stacking) as well as for Bayesian inversion that yields a 1D S-wave velocity profiles. The westernmost stations, which lie on the

  16. Wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity of binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangling; Finnegan, Patrick M; Barbetti, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) is one of the most important berry crops in the world. Root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with root rot of strawberry in Australia. To address this, a total of 96 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates recovered from diseased strawberry plants in Western Australia were characterized for their nuclear condition, virulence, genetic diversity and phylogenetic status. All the isolates were found to be binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR). Sixty-five of the 96 BNR isolates were pathogenic on strawberry, but with wide variation in virulence, with 25 isolates having high virulence. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA separated the 65 pathogenic BNR isolates into six distinct clades. The sequence analysis also separated reference BNR isolates from strawberry or other crops across the world into clades that correspond to their respective anastomosis group (AG). Some of the pathogenic BNR isolates from this study were embedded in the clades for AG-A, AG-K and AG-I, while other isolates formed clades that were sister to the clades specific for AG-G, AG-B, AG-I and AG-C. There was no significant association between genetic diversity and virulence of these BNR isolates. This study demonstrates that pathogenic BNR isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia have wide genetic diversity, and highlights new genetic groups not previously found to be associated with root rot of strawberry in the world (e.g., AG-B) or in Australia (e.g., AG-G). The wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity identified in this study will be of high value for strawberry breeding programs in selecting, developing and deploying new cultivars with resistance to these multi-genetic groups of BNR. PMID:23405226

  17. Wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity of binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangling; Finnegan, Patrick M; Barbetti, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) is one of the most important berry crops in the world. Root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with root rot of strawberry in Australia. To address this, a total of 96 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates recovered from diseased strawberry plants in Western Australia were characterized for their nuclear condition, virulence, genetic diversity and phylogenetic status. All the isolates were found to be binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR). Sixty-five of the 96 BNR isolates were pathogenic on strawberry, but with wide variation in virulence, with 25 isolates having high virulence. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA separated the 65 pathogenic BNR isolates into six distinct clades. The sequence analysis also separated reference BNR isolates from strawberry or other crops across the world into clades that correspond to their respective anastomosis group (AG). Some of the pathogenic BNR isolates from this study were embedded in the clades for AG-A, AG-K and AG-I, while other isolates formed clades that were sister to the clades specific for AG-G, AG-B, AG-I and AG-C. There was no significant association between genetic diversity and virulence of these BNR isolates. This study demonstrates that pathogenic BNR isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia have wide genetic diversity, and highlights new genetic groups not previously found to be associated with root rot of strawberry in the world (e.g., AG-B) or in Australia (e.g., AG-G). The wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity identified in this study will be of high value for strawberry breeding programs in selecting, developing and deploying new cultivars with resistance to these multi-genetic groups of BNR.

  18. Rapid, Human-Induced Siltation of the Macro-Tidal Ord River Estuary, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanski, E.; Moore, K.; Spagnol, S.; D'Adamo, N.; Pattiaratchi, C.

    2001-11-01

    Field studies on the sediment dynamics of the two arms of Cambridge Gulf, tropical Western Australia, were undertaken. The system is macro-tidal with 8 m tides. The West Arm is the estuary of the Durack and Pentecost rivers, which are largely untouched by human activities. The East Arm is the estuary of the Ord River affected by land clearing which started 100 years ago, and by two river dams constructed 30 years ago. Prior to damming of the Ord River, the natural flow in all rivers was highly seasonal, characterized by small, at times negligible, flow during the dry season, which lasts eight months, and occasional river floods during the wet season, which lasts four months. The river flow has been regulated in the East Arm as a result of damming; this resulted in suppressing large river floods. The salinity intrusion length has decreased by about 50% in the East Arm following river damming. The East Arm has silted measurably over the last 30 years, with the stream cross-sectional area decreasing by about 50%. Field and numerical studies suggest that this is due to the dam-induced suppression of large river floods, which has in turn allowed a greater amount of tidal pumping of sediment into the East Arm from Cambridge Gulf. Since tidal pumping is increasing as the system is silting, the East Arm appears to now be geomorphologically unstable as a result of human activities. Numerical studies suggest it may take as little as 100 years for the Ord River to reach a new equilibrium. Modelling suggests that this equilibrium may be characterized by a salinity intrusion length half that before damming, a channel width and depth reduced by 70%, and a much stronger tidal asymmetry characterized by an increasing size of the tidal bore. The West Arm appears to be at equilibrium since there has been no net loss or gain of sediment for the last 111 years. Tidal dynamics and river floods appear responsible for self-scouring this channel.

  19. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Archaean LCT pegmatite deposit Cattlin Creek, Ravensthorpe, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Matthias; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The LCT (lithium-cesium-tantalum) pegmatite Cattlin Creek is located about 550 km ESE of Perth, Western Australia. The complex-type, rare-element pegmatite is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Archaean Ravensthorpe greenstone belt, which constitutes of the southern edge of the Southern Cross Terranes of the Yilgarn Craton. The deposit is currently mined for both lithium and tantalum by Galaxy Resources Limited since 2010. The pegmatitic melt intruded in a weak structural zone of crossing thrust faults and formed several pegmatite sills, of which the surface nearest mineralized pegmatite body is up to 21 m thick. The Cattlin Creek pegmatite is characterized by an extreme fractionation that resulted in the enrichment of rare elements like Li, Cs, Rb, Sn and Ta, as well as the formation of a vertical zonation expressed by distinct mineral assemblages. The border zone comprises a fine-grained mineral assemblage consisting of albite, quartz, muscovite that merges into a medium-grained wall zone and pegmatitic-textured intermediate zones. Those zones are manifested by the occurrence of megacrystic spodumene crystals with grain sizes ranging from a couple of centimeters up to several metres. The core zone represents the most fractionated part of the pegmatite and consists of lepidolite, cleavelandite, and quartz. It also exhibits the highest concentrations of Cs (0.5 wt.%), Li (0.4 wt.%), Rb (3 wt.%), Ta (0.3 wt.%) and F (4 wt.%). This zone was probably formed in the very last crystallization stage of the pegmatite and its minerals replaced earlier crystallized mineral assemblages. Moreover, the core zone hosts subordinate extremely Cs-enriched (up to 13 wt.% Cs2O) mineral species of beryl. The chemical composition of this beryl resamples that of the extreme rare beryl-variety pezzotaite. Other observed subordinate, minor and accessory minerals comprise tourmaline, garnet, cassiterite, apatite, (mangano-) columbite, tantalite, microlite (Bi-bearing), gahnite, fluorite

  20. Time-lapse Geophysical Monitoring of the Subsurface Hydrology at Kings Park, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adekoya, Tunde; McGrath, Gavan; Leopold, Matthias; Shragge, Jeffrey; Challis, Anthea; Stevens, Jason; Miller, Ben

    2015-04-01

    The increasing occurrence of drought stress throughout Southwestern Western Australia is postulated to have contributed to the decline of Banksia populations both in Kings Park, Perth, and in the Banksia woodlands in the greater Swan Coastal Plain region. To help quantify these assertions, there is an urgent need to better understand the base levels of soil moisture content - as well as seasonal variations thereof - in these geographical regions. We conducted time-lapse (TL) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods on a monthly basis (May-August 2014). In addition, at each site we hand-augured test holes to a depth of 3-4 m and collected samples at 20-cm intervals to enable grain-size analysis, soil moisture content and water retention tests. PR2 capacitance probe measurements were also acquired when augering to enable a moisture content comparison study. The acquired TL ERT datasets were inverted using 2D EarthImager software and the temporal variations in resistivity were interpreted in terms of changes in moisture content. The TL ERT data reveal significant calendar variations in the spatial distribution of moisture content. The TL ERT inversions also detected isolated less resistive lithologies and the depth to groundwater. Processed TL GPR data were interpreted to show vertical variations in the vadose zone moisture content. The water content variations were consistent with the rainfall data. The grain-size distributions of the samples were analysed statistically. The apparent resistivity values from the analysed samples and observed volumetric water content are strongly correlated (R2=0.84) as may be expected from Archie's law. Soil moisture content analysis results including the PR2 probe measurements were plotted as a function of depth, the result shows vertical variations in moisture content with depth. The hydrological tests indicated the properties of the subsurface lithologies and confirm the responses of the

  1. Morphological Characteristics of Detrital Zircon Grains from Source to Sink (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwitz, V.; Kirkland, C.

    2015-12-01

    Detrital zircon studies have become the tool of choice to address a wide range of geological questions including basin evolution, geodynamic setting, paleogeographic reconstructions, and determining source-sink relationships. However, grain destruction during transportation may be critical in understanding the detrital zircon record, yet it has not been explored in detail. In the magmatic crystallization environment zircon crystal shape is effectively a function of the magma chemistry and temperature. We address to what extent the zircon population represents an artefact of preservation, or a meaningful record of the magmatic events within the source terrain. We use image analysis of previously SIMS U-Pb dated zircon crystals to quantify how zircon grain shapes relate to the chemical composition of magmatic and detrital zircon crystals. We achieve this by testing the correlation between shape factors and the uranium, thorium content, apparent alpha dose, and isotopic signature of individual zircons with statistical methods. We focus our investigation on two different areas of Western Australia: (1) the Archean of the Yilgarn Craton and (2) the Proterozoic of the Musgrave Province, and their associated Proterozoic basin sediments: (1) The Yilgarn craton represents a Neoarchean amalgamation of c. 3.8 Ga and 2.6 Ga granite-greenstone belts including a variety of gneisses, metasedimentary and metavolcanic rock formations, and granites. Along the northern edge of the craton a series of four Proterozoic basins, with variable tectonic and metamorphic overprinting overlay this basement. (2) The West Musgrave Province consists of an east-west trending Meso- to Neoproterozoic belt dominated by granites and volcanics deformed by several major orogenic events between c. 1.35 Ga and 350 Ma. Based on age and Hf isotopic relationships the bedrock of the Musgrave Province is the source for the Neoproterozoic to Early Carboniferous Amadeus Basin to its north. Using rigorous

  2. The use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding: a population-based survey in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Main concerns for lactating women about medications include the safety of their breastfed infants and the potential effects of medication on quantity and quality of breast milk. While medicine treatments include conventional and complementary medicines, most studies to date have focused on evaluating the safety aspect of conventional medicines. Despite increasing popularity of herbal medicines, there are currently limited data available on the pattern of use and safety of these medicines during breastfeeding. This study aimed to identify the pattern of use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia, and to identify aspects which require further clinical research. Methods This study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire validated through two pilot studies. Participants were 18 years or older, breastfeeding or had breastfed in the past 12 months. Participants were recruited from various community and health centres, and through advertising in newspapers. Simple descriptive statistics were used to summarise the demographic profile and attitudes of respondents, using the SPSS statistical software. Results A total of 304 questionnaires from eligible participants were returned (27.2% response rate) and analysed. Amongst the respondents, 59.9% took at least one herb for medicinal purposes during breastfeeding, whilst 24.3% reported the use of at least one herb to increase breast milk supply. Most commonly used herbs were fenugreek (18.4%), ginger (11.8%), dong quai (7.9%), chamomile (7.2%), garlic (6.6%) and blessed thistle (5.9%). The majority of participants (70.1%) believed that there was a lack of information resources, whilst 43.4% perceived herbal medicines to be safer than conventional medicines. Only 28.6% of users notified their doctor of their decision to use herbal medicine(s) during breastfeeding; 71.6% had previously refused or avoided conventional medicine treatments due to concerns regarding safety of

  3. Environmental conditions predict helminth prevalence in red foxes in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Dybing, Narelle A; Fleming, Patricia A; Adams, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most common and widely distributed wild carnivore worldwide. These predators harbour a wide range of parasites, many of which may have important conservation, agricultural and zoonotic repercussions. This project investigated the occurrence of helminth parasites from the intestines of 147 red foxes across 14 sampling localities of southwest Western Australia. Helminth parasites were detected in 58% of fox intestines: Dipylidium caninum (27.7% of foxes), Uncinaria stenocephala (18.2%), Toxocara canis (14.9%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (5.4%), Toxascaris leonina (4.7%), Taenia serialis (1.4%), Taenia hydatigena (0.7%), unidentified Taenia spp. (4.1%), Brachylaima cribbi (0.7%), Plagiorchis maculosus (0.7%) and an Acanthocephalan; family Centrorhynchidae (2.1%). Importantly, two cestodes of agricultural significance, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia ovis, were not detected in red foxes in this study, despite the presence of suitable intermediate hosts in the diets of these animals. Parasite richness varied from 1-3 species per host, with average parasite number varying from 1-39 worms (across all helminth species). Regression analyses indicated that the presence of four helminth parasites was related to various environmental factors. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei (p < 0.001), T. leonina (p < 0.01) and U. stenocephala (p < 0.01) was positively associated with average relative humidity which may affect the longevity of infective stages in the environment. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with 5-y-average minimum temperature which could reflect poor survival of infective stages through cold winter conditions. The presence of T. canis and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with the percentage cover of native vegetation at each sampling location, which is likely to reflect transmission from native prey species acting as paratenic hosts

  4. Archaean triple junction as a plumbing system: an example from the eastern Pilbara craton (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébaud, N.; Rey, P.; Philippot, P.

    2003-04-01

    It is largely accepted that the development of Archaean ore deposits is related to the mobilisation of fluids through the crust, their channelling along shear zones and concentration in domains bounded by zones of low permeability. In many Archaean cratons a number of modern studies argue that the regional structure, together with the characteristics of metamorphism and plutonism are compatible with the gravity-driven exhumation of granitic domes and sagduction of greenstone basins. Structural mapping in the Pilbara confirms that strain, in Archaean domes and basins, displays a large but coherent spatial variability. Planar fabric develops in domal position, planar-linear fabric develops at the contact between two granitic domes, and intense linear and vertical fabric develops at foliation triple junction where three or more granitic domes interact. We believe this network is the backbone element of an Archaean plumbing system that has channeled and concentrated ore bearing fluids. The Warawoonna syncline in the East Pilbara craton (Western Australia) offers a horizontal section through one spectacular example of triple junction. On the regional scale we have recognized a main drain along a shear zone characterized by a hydraulic breccia. A detailed sampling has been conducted across this breccia and bulk stable isotope (d18O) analyses conducted on mafic, ultramafic and felsic rocks show significant variations in its vicinity that is most likely the signature of fluid rock interaction. At the outcrop scale, the Warawoonna syncline is pervasively intruded by a few quartz veins generations one of which is oriented at high angle to the direction of maximum finite stretching. Fluid inclusions study (micro-thermometry, RAMAN spectroscopy) has been conducted on quartz veins. These preliminary analyses show primary and secondary populations of fluid inclusions with contrasted composition of the trapped phases (e.g. H2O-CO2, H2O, H2O-CO2-CH4…). This is consistent with a

  5. Recognizing the Geochemical Consequences of Zircon Alteration at Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, E. A.; Boehnke, P.; Harrison, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia are the best known >4 Ga terrestrial mineral record. As their ca. 3 Ga host quartzite experienced several documented Precambrian metamorphic events, it is unsurprising that various alteration features have been suggested or identified in the zircons. Using these grains to understand early Earth conditions requires knowledge to what extent they have been altered. We have used 200 ion microprobe δ18O and 67 trace element analyses of these zircons, together with backscattered electron and cathodoluminescence imaging, to assess differences between spots falling on crack-bearing vs. uncracked surfaces. Analyses on uncracked surfaces were further subdivided into those within magmatic zonations versus those in altered regions. We have combined the results with data from previous studies of Jack Hills zircons to identify alteration signatures and their mechanisms. Analyses on cracks overlap the field of uncracked regions in terms of most variables, but also display trends toward distinct compositions. Regions with altered zonationare often intermediate between magmatic and cracked regions but also overlap magmatic regions in other variables. Clear alteration signals include high P (>1000 ppm), high LREE/HREE (Nd/Yb (N) >0.01), high Ti (>900°C apparent Txlln), high Fe (>1000 ppm), and low HREE/MREE (Yb/Gd (N) <10). Cracks and altered regions are more likely to show high Th/U, low Ce/Ce*, and low δ18O, but the considerable overlap with magmatic regions limits the diagnostic usefulness of these variables. Crack-associated alteration is likely due to the extensive Fe-Ti oxide and xenotime mineralization seen in the zircons. Many but not all CL-dark regions are consistent with solid-state recrystallization. Bright regions cross-cutting magmatic zonation are evident in some zircons, but we have not yet identified a diagnostic signature of this alteration mode.Mineral inclusions falling on and away from cracks show distinct

  6. Multifractal spatial organisation in hydrothermal gold systems of the Archaean Yilgarn craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Mark; Ord, Alison; Hobbs, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    A range of factors controls the location of hydrothermal alteration and gold mineralisation in the Earth's crust. These include the broad-scale lithospheric architecture, availability of fluid sources, fluid composition and pH, pressure-temperature conditions, microscopic to macroscopic structural development, the distribution of primary lithologies, and the extent of fluid-rock interactions. Consequently, the spatial distribution of alteration and mineralization in hydrothermal systems is complex and often considered highly irregular. However, despite this, do they organize themselves in a configuration that can be documented and quantified? Wavelets, mathematical functions representing wave-like oscillations, are commonly used in digital signals analysis. Wavelet-based multifractal analysis involves incrementally scanning a wavelet across the dataset multiple times (varying its scale) and recording its degree of fit to the signal at each interval. This approach (the wavelet transform modulus maxima method) highlights patterns of self-similarity present in the dataset and addresses the range of scales over which these patterns replicate themselves (expressed by their range in 'fractal dimension'). Focusing on seven gold ore bodies in the Archaean Yilgarn craton of Western Australia, this study investigates whether different aspects of hydrothermal gold systems evolve to organize themselves spatially as multifractals. Four ore bodies were selected from the Sunrise Dam deposit (situated in the Laverton tectonic zone of the Kurnalpi terrane) in addition to the Imperial, Majestic and Salt Creek gold prospects, situated in the Yindarlgooda dome of the Mount Monger goldfield (approximately 40km due east of Kalgoorlie). The Vogue, GQ, Cosmo East and Astro ore bodies at Sunrise Dam were chosen because they exhibit different structural geometries and relationships between gold and associated host-rock alteration styles. Wavelet-based analysis was conducted on 0.5m and 1m

  7. Seasonal evolution of the mixed layer in the Subantarctic Zone south of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Trull, Thomas W.

    2001-12-01

    The circumpolar Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) is a globally significant region of water mass formation and carbon dioxide uptake from the atmosphere. Here we synthesize the results of nine voyages over 8 years to describe the seasonal variation in mixed layer properties in the SAZ south of Australia for comparison with biogeochemical process studies carried out in late summer (March 1998) as part of the SAZ Project. Winter mixing extends to depths >400 m, resulting in the formation of Subantarctic Mode Water. In summer the mixed layer shoals to 75-100 m, depths which are still sufficiently deep that phytoplankton growth may be light limited. Nitrate and phosphate concentrations are reduced in summer (e.g., nitrate decreases from >15 to <5 μmol kg-1) but remain well above limiting levels. Silicate, in contrast, is low throughout the year (4 μmol kg-1 in winter and <2 μmol kg-1 in summer). Water mass properties along a north-south hydrographic section in March 1998 suggest that near-surface waters spread from south to north across the Subantarctic Front (SAF), supplying cool, fresh, nutrient-rich water to the SAZ. As a consequence, the properties of the southern SAZ differ from those farther north: the mixed layer in the south is cooler, fresher, deeper, higher in nutrients, and bounded below by a halocline (rather than by a seasonal thermocline, as in the northern SAZ). The contrast between the northern and southern SAZ persists throughout the year, suggesting the cross-front exchange occurs year-round and likely contributes to the differences in seasonal thermal amplitude and algal biomass accumulation seen in satellite images. Density-compensated horizontal gradients of temperature and salinity are common in the mixed layer of the SAZ and the northern SAF, consistent with the hypothesis that the vigor of lateral mixing in the mixed layer is a strong function of the magnitude of the lateral density gradient.

  8. Clinical diagnosis and chemical confirmation of ciguatera fish poisoning in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Hazel; Zammit, Anthony; Manning, Jennifer; Shadbolt, Craig; Szabo, Lisa; Harwood, D Tim; McNabb, Paul; Turahui, John A; van den Berg, Debra J

    2016-03-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas and larger fish (> 10 kg) are more susceptible to toxin accumulation with age. Although the coastal climate of northern New South Wales is considered sub-tropical, prior to 2014 there has only been 1 documented outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning from fish caught in the region. During February and March 2014, 2 outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning involved 4 and 9 individuals, respectively, both following consumption of Spanish mackerel from northern New South Wales coastal waters (Evans Head and Scotts Head). Affected individuals suffered a combination of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms requiring hospital treatment. At least 1 individual was symptomatic up to 7 months later. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected the compound Pacific ciguatoxin-1B at levels up to 1.0 µg kg(-1) in fish tissue from both outbreaks. During April 2015, another outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning was reported in 4 individuals. The fish implicated in the outbreak was caught further south than the 2014 outbreaks (South West Rocks). Fish tissue was unavailable for analysis; however, symptoms were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. To our knowledge, these cases are the southernmost confirmed sources of ciguatera fish poisoning in Australia. Educational outreach to the fishing community, in particular recreational fishers was undertaken after the Evans Head outbreak. This highlighted the outbreak, species of fish involved and the range of symptoms associated with ciguatera fish poisoning. Further assessment of the potential for ciguatoxins to occur in previously unaffected locations need to be considered in terms of food safety. PMID:27080020

  9. Clinical diagnosis and chemical confirmation of ciguatera fish poisoning in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Hazel; Zammit, Anthony; Manning, Jennifer; Shadbolt, Craig; Szabo, Lisa; Harwood, D Tim; McNabb, Paul; Turahui, John A; van den Berg, Debra J

    2016-03-31

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas and larger fish (> 10 kg) are more susceptible to toxin accumulation with age. Although the coastal climate of northern New South Wales is considered sub-tropical, prior to 2014 there has only been 1 documented outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning from fish caught in the region. During February and March 2014, 2 outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning involved 4 and 9 individuals, respectively, both following consumption of Spanish mackerel from northern New South Wales coastal waters (Evans Head and Scotts Head). Affected individuals suffered a combination of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms requiring hospital treatment. At least 1 individual was symptomatic up to 7 months later. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected the compound Pacific ciguatoxin-1B at levels up to 1.0 µg kg(-1) in fish tissue from both outbreaks. During April 2015, another outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning was reported in 4 individuals. The fish implicated in the outbreak was caught further south than the 2014 outbreaks (South West Rocks). Fish tissue was unavailable for analysis; however, symptoms were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. To our knowledge, these cases are the southernmost confirmed sources of ciguatera fish poisoning in Australia. Educational outreach to the fishing community, in particular recreational fishers was undertaken after the Evans Head outbreak. This highlighted the outbreak, species of fish involved and the range of symptoms associated with ciguatera fish poisoning. Further assessment of the potential for ciguatoxins to occur in previously unaffected locations need to be considered in terms of food safety.

  10. Distribution models for koalas in South Australia using citizen science-collected data

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Ana M M; Roetman, Philip E J; Daniels, Christopher B; Baker, Andrew K; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2014-01-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) occurs in the eucalypt forests of eastern and southern Australia and is currently threatened by habitat fragmentation, climate change, sexually transmitted diseases, and low genetic variability throughout most of its range. Using data collected during the Great Koala Count (a 1-day citizen science project in the state of South Australia), we developed generalized linear mixed-effects models to predict habitat suitability across South Australia accounting for potential errors associated with the dataset. We derived spatial environmental predictors for vegetation (based on dominant species of Eucalyptus or other vegetation), topographic water features, rain, elevation, and temperature range. We also included predictors accounting for human disturbance based on transport infrastructure (sealed and unsealed roads). We generated random pseudo-absences to account for the high prevalence bias typical of citizen-collected data. We accounted for biased sampling effort along sealed and unsealed roads by including an offset for distance to transport infrastructures. The model with the highest statistical support (wAICc ∼ 1) included all variables except rain, which was highly correlated with elevation. The same model also explained the highest deviance (61.6%), resulted in high R2(m) (76.4) and R2(c) (81.0), and had a good performance according to Cohen's κ (0.46). Cross-validation error was low (∼ 0.1). Temperature range, elevation, and rain were the best predictors of koala occurrence. Our models predict high habitat suitability in Kangaroo Island, along the Mount Lofty Ranges, and at the tips of the Eyre, Yorke and Fleurieu Peninsulas. In the highest-density region (5576 km2) of the Adelaide–Mount Lofty Ranges, a density–suitability relationship predicts a population of 113,704 (95% confidence interval: 27,685–199,723; average density = 5.0–35.8 km−2). We demonstrate the power of citizen science data for predicting species

  11. Distribution models for koalas in South Australia using citizen science-collected data.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Ana M M; Roetman, Philip E J; Daniels, Christopher B; Baker, Andrew K; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2014-06-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) occurs in the eucalypt forests of eastern and southern Australia and is currently threatened by habitat fragmentation, climate change, sexually transmitted diseases, and low genetic variability throughout most of its range. Using data collected during the Great Koala Count (a 1-day citizen science project in the state of South Australia), we developed generalized linear mixed-effects models to predict habitat suitability across South Australia accounting for potential errors associated with the dataset. We derived spatial environmental predictors for vegetation (based on dominant species of Eucalyptus or other vegetation), topographic water features, rain, elevation, and temperature range. We also included predictors accounting for human disturbance based on transport infrastructure (sealed and unsealed roads). We generated random pseudo-absences to account for the high prevalence bias typical of citizen-collected data. We accounted for biased sampling effort along sealed and unsealed roads by including an offset for distance to transport infrastructures. The model with the highest statistical support (wAIC c ∼ 1) included all variables except rain, which was highly correlated with elevation. The same model also explained the highest deviance (61.6%), resulted in high R (2)(m) (76.4) and R (2)(c) (81.0), and had a good performance according to Cohen's κ (0.46). Cross-validation error was low (∼ 0.1). Temperature range, elevation, and rain were the best predictors of koala occurrence. Our models predict high habitat suitability in Kangaroo Island, along the Mount Lofty Ranges, and at the tips of the Eyre, Yorke and Fleurieu Peninsulas. In the highest-density region (5576 km(2)) of the Adelaide-Mount Lofty Ranges, a density-suitability relationship predicts a population of 113,704 (95% confidence interval: 27,685-199,723; average density = 5.0-35.8 km(-2)). We demonstrate the power of citizen science data for predicting species

  12. Long-term marine litter monitoring in the remote Great Australian Bight, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Edyvane, K S; Dalgetty, A; Hone, P W; Higham, J S; Wace, N M

    2004-06-01

    The Anxious Bay beach litter clearance is the longest running annual survey of ocean-based litter in Australia. It's remoteness from centres of human population and location (with respect to prevailing winds and currents) make it an ideal place for monitoring ocean or ship-based litter in Australia's southern oceans and particularly, the Great Australian Bight. Over the 1991-1999 period, a large but gradual decline in the amount of beach washed litter was recorded (with minor peaks recorded during the 1992 and 1994 surveys). Beach washed litter decreased by approximately 86%, from 344 kg recorded in 1991 (13.2 kg/km) to 49 kg in 1999 (i.e. 1.9 kg/km), reaching a maximum of 390 kg in 1992 (or 15 kg/km of beach). However, a sharp increase in litter was recorded in 2000 (i.e. 252 kg or 9.7 kg/km). This increase in litter yield in 2000 is probably due to stronger than average onshore surface flow (or Ekman Transport) in the western Eyre Peninsula and Bight region. Prior to the survey in 2000, the results appeared to indicate that ocean litter on Anxious Bay beach was beginning to level out at around 50-70 kg/year (i.e. 2-3 kg/km). As the beach surveys involve the assumption that the beach is completely cleared of litter, this may represent a baseline level for ocean-based litter in the region. The yields and type of litter collected from the annual survey indicates that the majority of litter washed ashore originates from commercial fishing activities within the Great Australian Bight. Most of the fishing-related litter was directly sourced to the Southern Rock Lobster Fishery (i.e. bait buckets, baskets, pots), the Great Australian Bight Trawl Fishery (i.e. codends, trawl nets) and the Southern Shark Fishery (i.e. monofilament gillnets and longlines). Between 1994 and 1999, large reductions were observed in the amount of bait straps (77% reduction), lobster bait baskets/buckets (86% reduction), nets/ropes (62% reduction) and floats/buoys (83% reduction). Significantly

  13. Land-sea correlations in the Australian region: post-glacial onset of the monsoon in northwestern Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deckker, Patrick; Barrows, Timothy T.; Rogers, John

    2014-12-01

    Deep-sea core Fr10/95-GC17, collected offshore North West Cape at the western tip of Western Australia, is located beneath the path of the Leeuwin Current. This shallow, warm and low salinity current is an offshoot of the Indonesian Throughflow that transfers water and heat from the West Pacific Ocean into the Indian Ocean. The location is at the edge of the Indo Pacific Warm Pool, the source of large-scale transfer of moisture and heat from the ocean to the atmosphere. For this core, we combine previously published data with new research and use a revised chronology to re-examine the timing of climate change during the last 34,000 years in the tropics of northern Australia. The age model for the core is based on 15 radiocarbon dates complemented by luminescence ages and an oxygen isotope record. This study draws on an extensive range of analyses that have been performed on the core, including micropalaeontology of planktic and benthic foraminifera and coccoliths, stable isotopes analysis of foraminifera and their faunal composition, clay content, sediment composition and pollen analyses. Sea-surface and land temperatures are estimated from the foraminifer faunal analyses and from pollen spectra, respectively. The clay fraction and sediment composition and radiogenic isotopes of that fraction helped identify changes both on land and at sea: changes such as rainfall as shown by river discharge, and oceanic current tracing by neodymium, strontium and lead isotopes obtained from sediments. The most significant finding is that a major threshold was crossed at 13 ka BP. Prior to that time, rainfall over NW Western Australia was low as was sea-surface temperature (SST); river discharge to the ocean was also low as a result of the lack of monsoonal activity and finally, ocean alkalinity would have been lower than at present due to the uptake of atmospheric CO2. By 13 ka BP, the entire system moved away from glacial period conditions. The Indo-Australian monsoon commenced

  14. Population Accessibility to Radiotherapy Services in New South Wales Region of Australia: a methodological contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Nagesh; Wickramasuriya, Rohan; Miller, Andrew; Perez, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes an integrated modelling process to assess the population accessibility to radiotherapy treatment services in future based on future cancer incidence and road network-based accessibility. Previous research efforts assessed travel distance/time barriers affecting access to cancer treatment services, as well as epidemiological studies that showed that cancer incidence rates vary with population demography. It is established that travel distances to treatment centres and demographic profiles of the accessible regions greatly influence the demand for cancer radiotherapy (RT) services. However, an integrated service planning approach that combines spatially-explicit cancer incidence projections, and the RT services accessibility based on patient road network have never been attempted. This research work presents this novel methodology for the accessibility assessment of RT services and demonstrates its viability by modelling New South Wales (NSW) cancer incidence rates for different age-sex groups based on observed cancer incidence trends; estimating the road network-based access to current NSW treatment centres; and, projecting the demand for RT services in New South Wales, Australia from year 2011 to 2026.

  15. Global Scale Variation in the Salinity Sensitivity of Riverine Macroinvertebrates: Eastern Australia, France, Israel and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kefford, Ben J.; Hickey, Graeme L.; Gasith, Avital; Ben-David, Elad; Dunlop, Jason E.; Palmer, Carolyn G.; Allan, Kaylene; Choy, Satish C.; Piscart, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is a key abiotic property of inland waters; it has a major influence on biotic communities and is affected by many natural and anthropogenic processes. Salinity of inland waters tends to increase with aridity, and biota of inland waters may have evolved greater salt tolerance in more arid regions. Here we compare the sensitivity of stream macroinvertebrate species to salinity from a relatively wet region in France (Lorraine and Brittany) to that in three relatively arid regions eastern Australia (Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania), South Africa (south-east of the Eastern Cape Province) and Israel using the identical experimental method in all locations. The species whose salinity tolerance was tested, were somewhat more salt tolerant in eastern Australia and South Africa than France, with those in Israel being intermediate. However, by far the greatest source of variation in species sensitivity was between taxonomic groups (Order and Class) and not between the regions. We used a Bayesian statistical model to estimate the species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for salinity in eastern Australia and France adjusting for the assemblages of species in these regions. The assemblage in France was slightly more salinity sensitive than that in eastern Australia. We therefore suggest that regional salinity sensitivity is therefore likely to depend most on the taxonomic composition of respective macroinvertebrate assemblages. On this basis it would be possible to screen rivers globally for risk from salinisation. PMID:22567097

  16. Global scale variation in the salinity sensitivity of riverine macroinvertebrates: eastern Australia, France, Israel and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kefford, Ben J; Hickey, Graeme L; Gasith, Avital; Ben-David, Elad; Dunlop, Jason E; Palmer, Carolyn G; Allan, Kaylene; Choy, Satish C; Piscart, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is a key abiotic property of inland waters; it has a major influence on biotic communities and is affected by many natural and anthropogenic processes. Salinity of inland waters tends to increase with aridity, and biota of inland waters may have evolved greater salt tolerance in more arid regions. Here we compare the sensitivity of stream macroinvertebrate species to salinity from a relatively wet region in France (Lorraine and Brittany) to that in three relatively arid regions eastern Australia (Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania), South Africa (south-east of the Eastern Cape Province) and Israel using the identical experimental method in all locations. The species whose salinity tolerance was tested, were somewhat more salt tolerant in eastern Australia and South Africa than France, with those in Israel being intermediate. However, by far the greatest source of variation in species sensitivity was between taxonomic groups (Order and Class) and not between the regions. We used a bayesian statistical model to estimate the species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for salinity in eastern Australia and France adjusting for the assemblages of species in these regions. The assemblage in France was slightly more salinity sensitive than that in eastern Australia. We therefore suggest that regional salinity sensitivity is therefore likely to depend most on the taxonomic composition of respective macroinvertebrate assemblages. On this basis it would be possible to screen rivers globally for risk from salinisation. PMID:22567097

  17. Quantifying climate and pumping contributions to aquifer depletion using a highly parameterised groundwater model: Uley South Basin (South Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowling, Matthew J.; Werner, Adrian D.; Herckenrath, Daan

    2015-04-01

    The relative contributions of climate and human stresses to aquifer depletion in real-world settings are rarely quantified, particularly where complex patterns of depletion arise from the spatial and temporal variability in aquifer stresses. These impacts can be assessed using calibration-constrained model predictions of disturbed (i.e., subject to human activity) and undisturbed (i.e., natural) conditions. Prior investigations that adopt this approach employ lumped-parameter or one-dimensional models. Here, we extend previous studies by using a highly parameterised, spatially distributed groundwater model to investigate the relative impacts of climate variability and pumping on aquifer depletion. The Uley South Basin (USB), South Australia, where there is conjecture surrounding the cause of declining groundwater levels, serves as a case study. The relative contributions of climate variability and pumping to USB depletion are shown to be highly variable in time and space. Temporal trends reflect variability in rainfall and pumping, as expected. Spatial trends are primarily dependent on the proximity to both the coastal boundary and pumping wells, and to the distribution of recharge and hydraulic properties. Results show that pumping impacts exceed those of climate between 1978 and 2012, and over the majority of the spatial extent of USB. The contribution of pumping to aquifer depletion is shown to be 2.9 and 1.4 times that of climate in terms of the time-averaged and maximum-in-time basin-scale water budget, respectively. Confidence in model predictions is enhanced by the outcomes of a linear predictive uncertainty analysis, which indicates that predictive uncertainty is lower than climatic and pumping impacts. This study demonstrates the application of a relatively simple analysis that can be used in combination with highly parameterised, spatially distributed groundwater models to differentiate causal factors of aquifer depletion.

  18. Transcurrent reactivation of Australia's western passive margin: An example of intraplate deformation from the central Indo-Australian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengesh, J. V.; Whitney, B. B.

    2016-05-01

    Australia's northwestern passive margin intersects the eastern termination of the Java trench segment of the Sunda arc subduction zone and the western termination of Timor trough along the Banda arc tectonic collision zone. Differential relative motion between the Sunda arc subduction zone and the Banda arc collision zone has reactivated the former rifted margin of northwestern Australia evidenced by Pliocene to Quaternary age deformation along a 1400 km long offshore fault system. The fault system has higher rates of seismicity than the adjacent nonextended crustal terranes, has produced the largest historical earthquake in Australia (1941 ML 7.3 Meeberrie event), and is dominated by focal mechanism solutions consistent with dextral motion along northeast trending fault planes. The faults crosscut late Miocene unconformities that are eroded across middle Miocene inversion structures suggesting multiple phases of Neogene and younger fault reactivation. Onset of deformation is consistent with the timing of the collision of the Scott Plateau part of the passive continental margin with the former Banda trench between 3.0 Ma and present. The range of estimated maximum horizontal slip rates across the zone is ~1.4 to 2.6 mm yr-1, at the threshold of geodetically detectable motion, yet significant with respect to an intraplate tectonic setting. The folding and faulting along this part of the continental margin provides an example of intraplate deformation resulting from kinematic transitions along a distant plate boundary and demonstrates the presence of a youthful evolving intraplate fault system within the Indo-Australian plate.

  19. An evaluation of soil water outlooks for winter wheat in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Western, A. W.; Dassanayake, K. B.; Perera, K. C.; Alves, O.; Young, G.; Argent, R.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture is a key limiting resource for rain-fed cropping in Australian broad-acre cropping zones. Seasonal rainfall and temperature outlooks are standard operational services offered by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and are routinely used to support agricultural decisions. This presentation examines the performance of proposed soil water seasonal outlooks in the context of wheat cropping in south-eastern Australia (autumn planting, late spring harvest). We used weather ensembles simulated by the Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), as input to the Agricultural Production Simulator (APSIM) to construct ensemble soil water "outlooks" at twenty sites. Hindcasts were made over a 33 year period using the 33 POAMA ensemble members. The overall modelling flow involved: 1. Downscaling of the daily weather series (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature, humidity, radiation) from the ~250km POAMA grid scale to a local weather station using quantile-quantile correction. This was based on a 33 year observation record extracted from the SILO data drill product. 2. Using APSIM to produce soil water ensembles from the downscaled weather ensembles. A warm up period of 5 years of observed weather was followed by a 9 month hindcast period based on each ensemble member. 3. The soil water ensembles were summarized by estimating the proportion of outlook ensembles in each climatological tercile, where the climatology was constructed using APSIM and observed weather from the 33 years of hindcasts at the relevant site. 4. The soil water outlooks were evaluated for different lead times and months using a "truth" run of APSIM based on observed weather. Outlooks generally have useful some forecast skill for lead times of up to two-three months, except late spring; in line with current useful lead times for rainfall outlooks. Better performance was found in summer and autumn when vegetation cover and water use is low.

  20. Occupational differences, cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits in South Eastern rural Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In rural and remote Australia, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates are higher than metropolitan rates. This study analysed cardiovascular and other chronic disease risk factors and related health behaviours by occupational status, to determine whether agricultural workers have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than other rural workers. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in three rural regions of South Eastern Australia (2004-2006). A stratified random sample of 1001 men and women aged 25-74 from electoral rolls were categorised by occupation into agricultural workers (men = 214, women = 79), technicians (men = 123), managers (men = 148, women = 272) and ‘home duties’ (women = 165). Data were collected from self-administered questionnaire, physical measurements and laboratory tests. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk were assessed by Framingham 5 years risk calculation. Results Amongst men, agricultural workers had higher occupational physical activity levels, healthier more traditional diet, lower alcohol consumption, lower fasting plasma glucose, the lowest proportion of daily smokers and lower age-adjusted 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores. Amongst women, managers were younger with higher HDL cholesterol, lower systolic blood pressure, less hypertension, lower waist circumference, less self-reported diabetes and better 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores. Agricultural workers did not have higher cardiovascular disease risk than other occupational groups. Conclusions Previous studies have suggested that farmers have higher risks of cardiovascular disease but this is because the risk has been compared with non-rural populations. In this study, the comparison has been made with other rural occupations. Cardiovascular risk reduction programs are justified for all. Programs tailored only for agricultural workers are unwarranted. PMID:24266886

  1. 3D Airborne Electromagnetic Inversion: A case study from the Musgrave Region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, L. H.; Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Sunwall, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysicists know and accept that geology is inherently 3D, and is resultant from complex, overlapping processes related to genesis, metamorphism, deformation, alteration, weathering, and/or hydrogeology. Yet, the geophysics community has long relied on qualitative analysis, conductivity depth imaging (CDIs), 1D inversion, and/or plate modeling. There are many reasons for this deficiency, not the least of which has been the lack of capacity for historic 3D AEM inversion algorithms to invert entire surveys so as to practically affect exploration decisions. Our recent introduction of a moving sensitivity domain (footprint) methodology has been a paradigm shift in AEM interpretation. The basis of this method is that one needs only to calculate the responses and sensitivities for that part of the 3D earth model that is within the AEM system's sensitivity domain (footprint), and then superimpose all sensitivity domains into a single, sparse sensitivity matrix for the entire 3D earth model which is then updated in a regularized inversion scheme. This has made it practical to rigorously invert entire surveys with thousands of line kilometers of AEM data to mega-cell 3D models in hours using multi-processor workstations. Since 2010, over eighty individual projects have been completed for Aerodat, AEROTEM, DIGHEM, GEOTEM, HELITEM, HoisTEM, MEGATEM, RepTEM, RESOLVE, SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPEST, and VTEM data from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Finland, Ghana, Peru, Tanzania, the US, and Zambia. Examples of 3D AEM inversion have been published for a variety of applications, including mineral exploration, oil sands exploration, salinity, permafrost, and bathymetry mapping. In this paper, we present a comparison of 3D inversions for SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPET and VTEM data acquired over the same area in the Musgrave region of South Australia for exploration under cover.

  2. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  3. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  4. Salt Lakes of Western Australia - Emissions of natural volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattler, Tobias; Krause, Torsten; Schöler, Heinfried; Kamilli, Katharina; Held, Andreas; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Ofner, Johannes; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Atlas, Elliot

    2013-04-01

    Western Australia is a semi-/arid region that is heavily influenced by global climate change and agricultural land use. The area is known for its many saline lakes with a wide range of hydrogeochemical parameters. This area has been repeatedly investigated since 2006 and consists of ephemeral saline and saline groundwater sourced lakes with a pH reaching from 2.5 to 7.1. The semi-/arid region was originally covered by natural eucalyptus forests, but land-use has changed considerably after large scale deforestation from 1950 to 1970. Today the region is mostly used for growing wheat and live stock. The deforestation led to a rising groundwater table, bringing dissolved salts and minerals to the surface. In the last decades, a concurrent alteration of rain periods has been observed. A reason could be the regional formation of ultra-fine particles that were measured with car-based and airborne instruments around the salt lakes in several campaigns between 2006 and 2011. These ultra-fine particles emitted from the lakes and acting as cloud condensation nuclei can modify cloud microphysics and thus suppress rain events [1]. New data from a campaign in 2012 accentuates the importance of these hyper saline environments for the local climate. Ground-based particle measurements around the salt lakes in 2012 were accompanied by novel chamber experiments directly on the lakes. The 1.5 m³ cubic chamber was constructed from transparent PTFE foil permitting photochemistry within while preventing dilution of the air due to lateral wind transport. This experimental setup allows linking the measured data directly to the chemistry of and above the salt lakes. Another advantage of the PTFE chamber is the enrichment of volatile organic compounds (VOC) that are emitted from salt lakes as possible precursors for the ultra-fine particles. Chamber air was sampled using stainless steel canisters. Sediment, crust and water samples were taken for investigation of potential VOC emissions in

  5. Mineral chemistry of Rare Earth Element (REE) mineralization, Browns Ranges, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Nigel J.; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; O'Rielly, Daniel; Wilson, Robin; Das, Kevin; Wade, Benjamin

    2013-07-01

    ‘Green energy futures’ are driving unprecedented demand for Rare Earth Elements (REE), underpinning significant exploration activity worldwide. Understanding how economic REE concentrations form is critical for development of exploration models. REE mineralisation in the Browns Ranges, Gordon Downs Region, Western Australia, comprises xenotime-dominant mineralisation hosted within Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary units (Browns Range Metamorphics). Mineralogical, petrographic and mineral-chemical investigation, including trace element analysis by Laser-Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy, gives insights into the mineralogical distribution and partitioning of REE, and also provides evidence for the genetic evolution of the Browns Range REE mineralisation via a succession of hydrothermal processes. Two main REE-bearing minerals are identified: xenotime [(Y,REE)PO4], which is HREE selective; and subordinate florencite [(REEAl3(PO4)2(OH)6] which is LREE selective. Two morphological generations of xenotime are recognised; compositions are however consistent. Xenotime contains Dy (up to 6.5 wt.%), Er (up to 4.35 wt.%), Gd (up to 7.56 wt.%), Yb (up to 4.65 wt.%) and Y (up to 43.3 wt.%). Laser Ablation ICP-MS element mapping revealed a subtle compositional zoning in some xenotime grains. LREE appear concentrated in the grain cores or closest to the initial point of growth whereas HREE, particularly Tm, Yb and Lu, are highest at the outer margins of the grains. The HREE enrichment at the outer margins is mimicked by As, Sc, V, Sr, U, Th and radiogenic Pb. Florencite is commonly zoned and contains Ce (up to 11.54 wt.%), Nd (up to 10.05 wt.%) and La (up to 5.40 wt.%) and is also notably enriched in Sr (up to 11.63 wt.%) and Ca. Zircon (which is not a significant contributor of REEs overall due to its low abundance in the rocks) is also enriched in REE (up to 13 wt.% ΣREE) and is the principal host of Sc (up to 0.8 wt.%). Early, coarse

  6. Seasonal dynamics of soil CO2 efflux in biodiverse semi-arid ecosystems of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Lewandrowski, Wolfgang; Martini, Dylan; Erickson, Todd; Merritt, David; Dixon, Kingsley

    2015-04-01

    Introduction In recent years, soil respiration (Rs) has been a major research focus given the increase in atmospheric CO2 emissions and the large contribution of CO2 fluxes from soils. Rs is the second largest carbon flux in terrestrial ecosystems and globally accounts for 98±12 CO2-C yr-1 or ten times that produced by fossil fuel combustion. In addition to its importance in the global carbon cycle, Rs is a key indicator of ecosystem state and functioning. Despite the global importance of this process, there is still limited knowledge of its and responses to abiotic and biotic processes, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas. In this research we investigated the seasonal variations and controlling factors of Rs for different vegetation types in biodiverse ecosystems of the Pilbara region (Western Australia). This region, with a semi-arid climate and two main seasons (wet-summer and dry-winter), is an ancient landscape with diverse geology and high levels of regional endemism. Methods This research was conducted in seven study sites across the Pilbara region with similar native soils and analogous ecosystems representative of the area. A permanent plot was defined at each site which included three of the most representative and dominant vegetation cover types of the Pilbara ecosystems: trees (Corymbia spp.), shrubs (Acacia spp.), grasses (Triodia spp.), and bare soil. Soil sampling and field measurements were carried out in February 2014 (wet-summer season) and July 2014 (dry-winter season). Rs was measured with a portable soil CO2 flux chamber attached to a Li-Cor 6400 and, simultaneously, both temperature and soil moisture were determined. Results Soil CO2 efflux ranged from 0.57 µmol m-2 s-1 to 1.96 µmol m-2 s-1 in the dry-winter season and from 1.57 µmol m-2 s-1 to 3.91 µmol m-2 s-1 in the wet-summer season. Higher Rs rates were found in the wet-summer season in all vegetation types and below Corymbia spp. in both periods. Rs differed significantly

  7. Sulfide Mineralization In The Marble Bar Greenstone Belt Around Mount Edger Batholith, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazono, S.; Nedachi, M.; Taguchi, S.

    2004-12-01

    Pilbara Craton is one of the most important regions in the world to understand the evolution of early Earth, because the geological history is well preserved through the metamorphism of low grade. Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, consists of two different tectonic components formed 3.6 and 2.8 Ga; an older Archean granite occupying the east Pilbara and greenstone belt. In the east Pilbara, the most conspicuous structures are broad domal granitoid complex separated by narrow synformal greenstone belts, and a model of continuous lithostratigraphy in the greenstones in which the dominant structures were produced by multi-stage granitoid diapirism. The Marble Bar greenstone belt is distributed around the Mount Edgar of granitoid pluton, and numerous hydrothermal gold veins are distributed in the greenstone near the boundary of pluton. Also base-metal veins and volcanogenic sedimentary type deposits are located in the same area. In this study, we examined the hydrothermal mineralization observed in the core samples of the Marble Bar greenstone belt, drilled at the Salgash area by the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP). The Salgash drill hole is composed of tuff breccias with numerous fragments of black shale of 100 m in thickness, alternation of sandstone and shale of 40 m in thickness, basaltic lava and tuff of 30 m in thickness, and shale and sandstone of 110m in thickness with some sills of basalt and ultramafic rock. The rocks had been metamorphosed, and the grade is near the boundary between green schist and amphibolite facies. Low REE content (43 to 88 ppm), low La/Yb ratio (6.3 to 14.3), and high Eu/Eu* ratio (0.9 to 1.3) of the volcanic rocks are ordinal as the basaltic rock in Archean greenstone belts. On the other hand, these rocks show extremely high values of Cr (1500ppm), Ni (700ppm), Co (70 ppm), and Zn (600 ppm). The C isotopic ratios of carbonate in the volcanic rocks are around -3.8 permil. The clastic sediment sandstone and black shale show

  8. Modeling of a lot scale rainwater tank system in XP-SWMM: a case study in Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    van der Sterren, Marlène; Rahman, Ataur; Ryan, Garry

    2014-08-01

    Lot scale rainwater tank system modeling is often used in sustainable urban storm water management, particularly to estimate the reduction in the storm water run-off and pollutant wash-off at the lot scale. These rainwater tank models often cannot be adequately calibrated and validated due to limited availability of observed rainwater tank quantity and quality data. This paper presents calibration and validation of a lot scale rainwater tank system model using XP-SWMM utilizing data collected from two rainwater tank systems located in Western Sydney, Australia. The modeling considers run-off peak and volume in and out of the rainwater tank system and also a number of water quality parameters (Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Solids (TS)). It has been found that XP-SWMM can be used successfully to develop a lot scale rainwater system model within an acceptable error margin. It has been shown that TP and TS can be predicted more accurately than TN using the developed model. In addition, it was found that a significant reduction in storm water run-off discharge can be achieved as a result of the rainwater tank up to about one year average recurrence interval rainfall event. The model parameter set assembled in this study can be used for developing lot scale rainwater tank system models at other locations in the Western Sydney region and in other parts of Australia with necessary adjustments for the local site characteristics.

  9. Use of Information Communication Technology by Early Career Science Teachers in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille

    2008-01-01

    Australia wide, all school systems are in the process of providing teachers with computers and there is an expectation that new teachers will possess the expertise to use them in their teaching. In addition to using computers for basic word processing and data manipulation, early-career science teachers need to be able to use a range of…

  10. Unpaid Informal Caregivers in South Australia: Population Characteristics, Prevalence and Age-Period-Cohort Effects 1994–2014

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Tiffany K.; Price, Kay; Warmington, Rosemary; Taylor, Anne W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ongoing need for an availability of informal carers is taking on greater relevance as the global burden of disease transitions from acute fatal diseases to long term morbidity. Growing evidence suggests that extra burden on family carers may further impact on their health and ability to provide care. Important as it is to monitor the prevalence of those conditions which influence the burden of disease, it is also important to monitor the prevalence and health profiles of those who provide the informal care. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence and demographics of adult carers aged 15 and over in the state of South Australia over 20 years between 1994 and 2014. Methods Data from nine representative, cross-sectional population surveys, conducted in South Australia, Australia were used, (total N = 26,788 and n = 1,504 carers). The adjusted prevalence estimate of carers and their demographic characteristics were determined. So as to examine whether there were any generational effects on the prevalence of carers, an Age-Period Cohort (APC) analysis was undertaken. Results The prevalence estimates of carers increased during the two decades from 3.7% in 1994 to 6.7% by 2014. Large increases in the proportion of retired carers, those aged 70 years and over, those carers employed, and those with higher educational qualifications were observed. There were also larger proportions of respondents with a country of birth other than Australia, UK, Ireland and European counties. The APC analysis illustrated an increasing prevalence rate over each decade for carers aged 20–80 years, especially for those over the age of 60 years. Conclusions The results illustrate changing carer characteristics and carer prevalence estimates in South Australia as new generations of carers take on the caring role. There is a need to include questions regarding informal carers within ongoing mainstream population surveys, particularly at state levels, so as to plan

  11. Bias-corrected regional climate projections of extreme rainfall in south-east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jason P.; Argueso, D.; Olson, R.; Di Luca, A.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents future changes in extreme precipitation as projected within the New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory Regional Climate Modelling (NARCliM) project's regional climate ensemble for south-east Australia. Model performance, independence and projected future changes were considered when designing the ensemble. We applied a quantile mapping bias correction to the climate model outputs based on theoretical distribution functions, and the implications of this for the projected precipitation extremes is investigated. Precipitation extremes are quantified using several indices from the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices set of indices. The bias correction was successful in removing most of the magnitude bias in extreme precipitation but does not correct biases in the length of maximum wet and dry spells. The bias correction also had a relatively small effect on the projected future changes. Across a range of metrics, robust increases in the magnitude of precipitation extreme indices are found. While these increases are often in-line with a continuation of the trends present over the last century, they are not found to be statistically significant within the ensemble as a whole. The length of the maximum consecutive wet spell is projected to remain at present-day levels, while the length of the maximum dry spell is projected to increase into the future. The combination of longer dry spells and increases in extreme precipitation magnitude indicate an important change in the character of the precipitation time series. This could have considerable hydrological implications since changes in the sequencing of events can be just as important as changes in event magnitude for hydrological impacts.

  12. Characterisation of the hydrogeology of the Augustus River catchment, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, Shane M.; Clement, T. Prabhakar; Otto, Claus J.

    Understanding the hydrogeology of weathered rock catchments is integral for the management of various problems related to increased salinity within the many towns of Western Australia. This paper presents the results of site characterisation investigations aimed at improving the overall understanding of the hydrogeology of the southern portion of the Augustus River catchment, an example of a weathered rock catchment. Site data have highlighted the presence of both porous media aquifers within the weathered profile and fractured rock aquifers within the basement rocks. Geophysical airborne surveys and other drilling data have identified a large number of dolerite dykes which crosscut the site. Fractured quartz veins have been found along the margins of these dolerite dykes. Detailed groundwater-level measurements and barometric efficiency estimates indicate that these dolerite dykes and fractured quartz veins are affecting groundwater flow directions, promoting a strong hydraulic connection between all aquifers, and also influencing recharge mechanisms. The hydrogeological significance of the dolerite dykes and fractured quartz veins has been assessed using a combination of high-frequency groundwater-level measurements (30-min sampling interval), rainfall measurements (5-min sampling interval) and barometric pressure fluctuations (30-min sampling interval). A conceptual model was developed for describing various hydrogeological features of the study area. The model indicates that fractured quartz veins along the margins of dolerite dykes are an important component of the hydrogeology of the weathered rock catchments. Comprendre l'hydrogéologie des bassins en roches altérées est essentiel pour la gestion de différents problèmes liés à l'augmentation de la salinité dans de nombreuses villes d'Australie occidentale. Cet article présente les résultats d'études de caractérisation de sites conduites pour améliorer la compréhension de l'hydrogéologie de la

  13. Hydrogeophysical Evidence for Groundwater Mixing At Freeling Spring Group, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dailey, M. K.; Halihan, T.; Love, A.; Berens, V.; Wohling, D.; Keppel, M. N.

    2011-12-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is an aquifer system that extends across Australia covering over 22% of the continent and is a vital support system for ecosystems in the region. Current research into the Western Margin of the GAB includes investigations of spring discharge and determining aquifer flow paths. Spring water sampling at nine springs that are a part of the Freeling Spring Group were used along with Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) data to evaluate evidence of mixing between the GAB aquifer and groundwaters from the adjacent basement aquifer in the Peake and Dennison Ranges (PD). Additionally, regional water samples of springs were used as end members to evaluate chemical mixing models for waters at the site. ERI data were collected along three orientations over the Freeling Spring site and extend for 550 meters laterally and 110 meters vertically. The ERI data indicate three possible flow lines providing mixing at the spring orifice similar to what would be predicted from traditional conceptual models of porous and fractured media. Water chemistry indicates that water emanating from the Freeling Spring Group is a mixture from both the GAB and the PD, which confirms the ERI evidence for mixing. The data suggest the mixing occurs along a major fault and that the resulting spring waters maintain a strong PD signature down the elevation gradient hundreds of meters into the GAB side of the fault.

  14. Mathematics Education beyond 2000: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (23rd, Fremantle, Western Australia, Australia, July 5-9, 2000). Volume 1 [and] Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bana, Jack, Ed.; Chapman, Anne, Ed.

    This document contains Volumes 1 and 2 of the proceedings of the 23rd annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Incorporated (MERGA) held at Fremantle, Western Australia, July 5-9, 2000. Papers in Volume 1 include: (1) "Bridging Practices: Intertwining Content and Pedagogy in Teaching and Learning To Teach"…

  15. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Garrick, Ryan C.; Rowell, David M.; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes ‘scale-up’ to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five ‘microgeographic regions’ at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection. PMID:26467960

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility of diverse Mycobacterium abscessus complex strains in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kyra Y L; Bustamante, Andrea; Jelfs, Peter; Chen, Sharon C-A; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2015-12-01

    Members of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex are emerging pathogens of increasing importance, causing both respiratory and soft tissue infections, but precise speciation is problematic. This study was performed to examine the subspecies and antibiotic susceptibility of M. abscessus complex isolates collected during 2013 at the statewide New South Wales Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory (NSW MRL), Australia. Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus accounted for more than half of all M. abscessus isolates (n = 24, 57.1%), and M. abscessus subsp. massiliense comprised the remainder of the isolates (n = 18, 42.9%). There were no M. abscessus subsp. bolletii isolates. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance to all antibiotics, apart from amikacin was high, with 26.3% of isolates being reliably susceptible to only amikacin. Most M. abscessus subsp. abscessus isolates (80%) demonstrated inducible clarithromycin resistance whereas the majority of M. abscessus subsp. massiliense isolates (94.4%) remained susceptible to clarithromycin. There was a good correlation between the erm(41) genotype and clarithromycin susceptibility results after 14 days of incubation for most isolates with only three exceptions. Further studies correlating in vitro susceptibility profiles with clinical outcomes of M. abscessus infections treated with combination antimicrobial therapy are warranted. PMID:26517625

  17. The epidemiology of hospitalised wrist fractures in older people, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; Finch, Caroline; Lord, Stephen; Close, Jacqueline; Gothelf, Todd; Walsh, William

    2006-11-01

    The epidemiology and trends in wrist fracture admissions to public and private acute hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, between July 1993 and June 2003 were examined using routinely collected hospital separations statistics. During the study period, the number of hospital separations for wrist fractures increased by 71% in men, an average yearly increase of 6.5%, and by 43% in women, an average yearly increase of 3.9%. A modest, but significant, increase in age-specific and age-standardised hospitalisation rates for wrist fractures was also observed. Whilst the majority of wrist fractures were due to falls, the proportion of falls-related wrist fractures decreased significantly over time. This decrease was more pronounced in males and was accompanied by a rise in the proportion of wrist fractures resulting from high energy mechanisms such as transport, violence and machinery-related incidents. The difference in hospitalised wrist fracture rates between men and women could not be explained solely on the basis of the role played by osteoporosis, indicating the need for more research to improve our understanding of the underlying factors of this type of fracture in older people.

  18. Is client-centred care planning for chronic disease sustainable? Experience from rural South Australia.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Harvey, Peter; Misan, Gary

    2004-07-01

    This qualitative evaluation of a chronic disease self-management project in rural South Australia considers the sustainability of client-centred care planning under current organisational and funding arrangements. The study involved consultation with a range of five stakeholder types over two stages (40 in the beginning stage and 39 in the middle stage) about their satisfaction with the care planning and self-management approach used in the project. All stakeholder types valued the client-centred approach because they perceived that clients were better able to accept and deal with the long-term management of their condition. However, this required that care planning should deal with a wider range of issues than just medical management, and so it took longer, which raised its sustainability in general practice under the current funding through the national health insurance programme (Medicare). The study concludes that sustainability may be addressed through further research into the role of and funding for peer-led self-management groups and the employment of care planners in organisational settings that are conducive to a client-centred approach. PMID:15272887

  19. A survey of the characteristics and maintenance of rainwater tanks in urban areas of South Australia.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, S; Sinclair, M; Leder, K

    2010-01-01

    Households resident in metropolitan Adelaide and surrounding areas in South Australia were recruited into a randomised controlled trial. A total of 630 rainwater tanks with a total tank capacity of 14.5 ML were installed at the 325 households surveyed. The majority of the tanks were plumbed into the kitchen (64.6%), over 10 years in age (45.5%), over 15,000 L in capacity (42.5%) and composed of galvanised steel (36.9%). Over 90% of the households undertook one or more prevention and maintenance strategies for reducing contamination of collected rainwater. The use of first flush diverters was reported by 30.8% households, the presence of leaf control devices on the tank by 57.2%, and the presence of leaf control screens on gutters by 25.5% households. Most households reported that the rainwater tank was cleaned at some time, with 50.4% of these households stating that tank cleaning occurred 1 to 5 years previously, and 31.9% more than 5 years prior to enrolment Rainwater from the main drinking tank was sampled from a subset of households for turbidity and metals (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Pb, Zn). This information regarding tank characteristics and degree of adherence to recommended maintenance procedures may assist understanding of variability in rainwater quality data and may help determine whether untreated rainwater can be considered a safe water supply for household purposes including drinking.

  20. Cancer mortality in East and Southeast Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia, 1975–1995

    PubMed Central

    McCredie, M; Williams, S; Coates, M

    1999-01-01

    Routinely collected data for New South Wales were used to analyse cancer mortality in migrants born in East or Southeast Asia according to duration of residence in Australia. A case-control approach compared deaths from cancer at particular sites with deaths from all other cancers, adjusting for age, sex and calendar period. Compared with the Australian-born, these Asian migrants had a 30-fold higher risk of dying from nasopharyngeal cancer in the first 2 decades of residence, falling to ninefold after 30 years, and for deaths from liver cancer, a 12-fold risk in the first 2 decades, falling to threefold after 30 years. The initial lower risk from colorectal, breast or prostate cancers later converged towards the Australian-born level, the change being apparent in the third decade after migration. The relative risk of dying from lung cancer among these Asian migrants was above unity for each category of duration of stay for women, but at or below unity for men, with no trend in risk over time. An environmental or lifestyle influence for nasopharyngeal and liver cancers is suggested as well as for cancers of colon/rectum, breast and prostate. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098772

  1. Natural Exposure of Horses to Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses in South-East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Prow, Natalie A.; Tan, Cindy S. E.; Wang, Wenqi; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Kidd, Lisa; Barton, Anita; Wright, John; Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in south-eastern (SE) Australia following heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the preceding 2–4 months. Less than 6% of the documented cases occurred in Queensland, prompting the question of pre-existing immunity in Queensland horses. A small-scale serological survey was conducted on horses residing in one of the severely flood-affected areas of SE-Queensland. Using a flavivirus-specific blocking-ELISA we found that 63% (39/62) of horses older than 3 years were positive for flavivirus antibodies, and of these 18% (7/38) had neutralizing antibodies to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Kunjin virus (WNVKUN) and/or Alfuy virus (ALFV). The remainder had serum-neutralizing antibodies to viruses in the Kokobera virus (KOKV) complex or antibodies to unknown/untested flaviviruses. Amongst eight yearlings one presented with clinical MVEV-encephalomyelitis, while another, clinically normal, had MVEV-neutralizing antibodies. The remaining six yearlings were flavivirus antibody negative. Of 19 foals born between August and November 2011 all were flavivirus antibody negative in January 2012. This suggests that horses in the area acquire over time active immunity to a range of flaviviruses. Nevertheless, the relatively infrequent seropositivity to MVEV, WNVKUN and ALFV (15%) suggests that factors other than pre-existing immunity may have contributed to the low incidence of arboviral disease in SE-Queensland horses during the 2011 epidemic. PMID:24048209

  2. The link between noise perception and quality of life in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Monika; Tucker, Graeme; Simon, David L; Hansen, Alana L; Pisaniello, Dino L

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise is a significant risk factor for a range of short- and long-term adverse health outcomes such as annoyance, cognitive development impairment, sleep disturbance, cardiovascular effects, and psychiatric problems. The aim of this study was to gather standardized quality of life (QOL) data hitherto rarely correlated with noise annoyance by source category. To provide an evidence-base for environmental noise policy development, a representative state-based survey was undertaken in South Australia (SA). A total of 3015 face-to-face interviews were conducted, using a questionnaire addressing noise sources, distances to busy roads and standardized measures of perceived annoyance and QOL. Population weighted descriptive survey and regression analysis. The most common sources of noise annoyances were road transport (27.7%, using a Likert scale, aggregating "little" to "extreme" annoyance), neighbors (22.0%), construction noise (10.0%), air conditioner noise (5.8%), rail transport noise (4.7%), and industry (3.9%). Using the QOL instrument, all eight health dimensions were significantly decreased for those reporting high noise annoyance ("very much" to "extreme") in relation to road transport and neighbors compared to those reporting low annoyance ("none" to "moderate") from these sources. Noise annoyance is common in the SA general population, and the evidence for a strong association with QOL reinforces the need for environmental noise management at a population basis. PMID:24953878

  3. A new pupillarial scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) from Angophora in coastal New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gullan, Penny J; Williams, Douglas J

    2016-05-30

    A new scale insect, Aolacoccus angophorae gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Eriococcidae), is described from the bark of Angophora (Myrtaceae) growing in the Sydney area of New South Wales, Australia. These insects do not produce honeydew, are not ant-tended and probably feed on cortical parenchyma. The adult female is pupillarial as it is retained within the cuticle of the penultimate (second) instar. The crawlers (mobile first-instar nymphs) emerge via a flap or operculum at the posterior end of the abdomen of the second-instar exuviae. The adult and second-instar females, second-instar male and first-instar nymph, as well as salient features of the apterous adult male, are described and illustrated. The adult female of this new taxon has some morphological similarities to females of the non-pupillarial palm scale Phoenicococcus marlatti Cockerell (Phoenicococcidae), the pupillarial palm scales (Halimococcidae) and some pupillarial genera of armoured scales (Diaspididae), but is related to other Australian Myrtaceae-feeding eriococcids.

  4. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans) surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study). Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay. PMID:26401452

  5. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Jason E; Williams, Kane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans) surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study). Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay. PMID:26401452

  6. A new pupillarial scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) from Angophora in coastal New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gullan, Penny J; Williams, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    A new scale insect, Aolacoccus angophorae gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Eriococcidae), is described from the bark of Angophora (Myrtaceae) growing in the Sydney area of New South Wales, Australia. These insects do not produce honeydew, are not ant-tended and probably feed on cortical parenchyma. The adult female is pupillarial as it is retained within the cuticle of the penultimate (second) instar. The crawlers (mobile first-instar nymphs) emerge via a flap or operculum at the posterior end of the abdomen of the second-instar exuviae. The adult and second-instar females, second-instar male and first-instar nymph, as well as salient features of the apterous adult male, are described and illustrated. The adult female of this new taxon has some morphological similarities to females of the non-pupillarial palm scale Phoenicococcus marlatti Cockerell (Phoenicococcidae), the pupillarial palm scales (Halimococcidae) and some pupillarial genera of armoured scales (Diaspididae), but is related to other Australian Myrtaceae-feeding eriococcids. PMID:27395159

  7. Landscape Preferences, Amenity, and Bushfire Risk in New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Nicholas; Dun, Olivia; Brennan-Horley, Chris; Eriksen, Christine

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines landscape preferences of residents in amenity-rich bushfire-prone landscapes in New South Wales, Australia. Insights are provided into vegetation preferences in areas where properties neighbor large areas of native vegetation, such as national parks, or exist within a matrix of cleared and vegetated private and public land. In such areas, managing fuel loads in the proximity of houses is likely to reduce the risk of house loss and damage. Preferences for vegetation appearance and structure were related to varying fuel loads, particularly the density of understorey vegetation and larger trees. The study adopted a qualitative visual research approach, which used ranking and photo-elicitation as part of a broader interview. A visual approach aids in focusing on outcomes of fuel management interventions, for example, by using the same photo scenes to firstly derive residents' perceptions of amenity and secondly, residents' perceptions of bushfire risk. The results are consistent with existing research on landscape preferences; residents tend to prefer relatively open woodland or forest landscapes with good visual and physical access but with elements that provoke their interest. Overall, residents' landscape preferences were found to be consistent with vegetation management that reduces bushfire risk to houses. The terms in which preferences were expressed provide scope for agency engagement with residents in order to facilitate management that meets amenity and hazard reduction goals on private land.

  8. Vicarious resilience and vicarious traumatisation: Experiences of working with refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Puvimanasinghe, Teresa; Denson, Linley A; Augoustinos, Martha; Somasundaram, Daya

    2015-12-01

    The negative psychological impacts of working with traumatised people are well documented and include vicarious traumatisation (VT): the cumulative effect of identifying with clients' trauma stories that negatively impacts on service providers' memory, emotions, thoughts, and worldviews. More recently, the concept of vicarious resilience (VR) has been also identified: the strength, growth, and empowerment experienced by trauma workers as a consequence of their work. VR includes service providers' awareness and appreciation of their clients' capacity to grow, maintaining hope for change, as well as learning from and reassessing personal problems in the light of clients' stories of perseverance, strength, and growth. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of mental health, physical healthcare, and settlement workers caring for refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia. Using a qualitative method (data-based thematic analysis) to collect and analyse 26 semi-structured face-to-face interviews, we identified four prominent and recurring themes emanating from the data: VT, VR, work satisfaction, and cultural flexibility. These findings-among the first to describe both VT and VR in Australians working with refugee people-have important implications for policy, service quality, service providers' wellbeing, and refugee clients' lives. PMID:25795221

  9. Moho geometry along a north-south passive seismic transect through Central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Receiver functions from a temporary deployment of 25 broadband stations along a north-south transect through Central Australia are used to retrieve crustal and uppermost mantle structural constraints from a combination of different methods. Using H-K stacking as well as receiver function inversion, overall thick crust with significant thickness variation along the profile (40 to ≥ 55 km) is found. Bulk crustal vp/vs values are largely in the felsic to intermediate range, with the southernmost stations on the Gawler Craton exhibiting higher values in excess of 1.8. A common conversion point (CCP) stacking profile shows three major discontinuities of the crust-mantle boundary: (1) a two-sided Moho downwarp beneath the Musgrave Province, which has previously been associated with the Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian Petermann Orogeny, (2) a Moho offset along the Redbank Shear Zone further north attributed to the Middle to Late Paleozoic Alice Springs Orogeny, and (3) another Moho offset further north, located at the boundary between the Davenport and Warramunga Provinces, which has not been imaged before. In all cases, the difference in crustal thickness between the two sides of the offset is > 8-10 km. Unlike the two southern Moho offsets, the northernmost one does not coincide with a prominent gravity anomaly. Its location and the absence of known reactivation events in the region make it likely that it belongs to a Proterozoic suture zone that marks a previously unknown block boundary within the North Australian Craton.

  10. Influence of karst hydrology on water quality management in southeast South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmett, A. J.; Telfer, A. L.

    1994-03-01

    Southeast South Australia has large reserves of potable groundwater, generally close to the surface. European settlement has had a major impact on groundwater quality due to the presence of extensive karst in the unconfined aquifer. Historically, industries such as cheese factories were often sited close to karst features (e.g. caves and sinkholes) because they provided a convenient means of waste disposal. Although most have long since closed, they have left a legacy of pollution plumes of varying sizes. In Mount Gambier, the main regional centre, the presence of both exposed and subterranean karst features provided a “perfect system” for the disposal of stormwater. Prior to the provision of a sewerage system within Mount Gambier, all toilet and household wastewaters were disposed to ground. These activities and the subsequent problems that began emerging in the 1960s have led to a concerted effort over the last 20 years to change the philosophy of waste disposal and to generate an understanding and responsibility by those who live in the region and depend on groundwater for the major part of their water supply. Mount Gambier's water supply comes from the Blue Lake. Groundwater inflow from a highly karstic Tertiary limestone aquifer provides 90% of the recharge to the Blue Lake. The lake is a high-value resource in a high-risk environment and in order to minimize this risk, a water-quality management plan for the lake is currently being developed.

  11. Yield Loss Caused by Pratylenchus thornei on Wheat in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Julie M.; Davies, Kerrie A.; Hancock, Trevor W.; Fisher, John M.

    1999-01-01

    A two-year field trial with 130 plots was conducted at Tanunda, South Australia. Ten cereal cultivars differing in susceptibility to Pratylenchus thornei, two poor host crops (non-leguminous), and a bare fallow treatment were used to manipulate the numbers of nematodes in the plots in the first year. Initial and final densities were determined for each plot and varied from 0 to 9,400 nematodes/200 g oven-dried soil at the beginning of the second year. A highly susceptible wheat cultivar, Warigal, and two wheat lines known to have some resistance to P. thornei, GS50A and AUS4930, were planted in the second year. High densities of P. thornei caused more extensive lesions and severe cortical degradation in roots of Warigal than in GS50A or AUS4930. There was a significant linear relationship between initial density of P. thornei and Warigal grain yield (t/ha), with the estimated regression equation Y = 1.86 - 0.0000557x, where Y is the grain yield in t/ha and x is the number of P. thornei/200 g oven-dried soil. High initial densities (9,000 P. thornei/200 g oven-dried soil) caused up to 27% yield loss of this commercial Australian wheat. In contrast, the yield of the two resistant lines was not affected by initial density, suggesting that both were tolerant as well as resistant in the field. PMID:19270909

  12. Geochronology of Precambrian granites and associated U-Ti-Th mineralization, northern Olary province, South Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Proterozoic granitoids and metamorphic rocks in the Olary province of the Willyama block of South Australia host ore-grade amounts of U-Th-Ti and U-Fe-Ti-Th minerals. U-Pb-Th isotope analyses on zircons from all granitoids associated with the Crocker Well brannerite deposit indicate that these granitoids were intruded within a short time span, close to the 1579.2??1.5 m.y. age of the brannerite-bearing host-rock. Though the early Paleozoic Delamerian orogeny was intense in this region, the zircon isotopic systems remained unaffected; rather, the best-defined zircon chords on concordia plots show a welldefined lower intercept of 43.8??6.5 Ma, which can only be associated with early Tertiary block faulting. Pb-U-Th isotope analyses on brannerite from the Crocker Well deposit and davidite from the Mt. Victoria deposit and the Radium Hill deposit yield badly scattered and discordant apparent ages that suggest a primary age at least as old as the age of the Crocker Well granitoids, followed by a severe disturbance in the early Paleozoic. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  13. The descriptive epidemiology of sports/leisure-related heat illness hospitalisations in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Boufous, Soufiane

    2008-01-01

    Sport-related heat illness has not been commonly studied from an epidemiological perspective. This study presents the descriptive epidemiology of sports/leisure-related heat illness hospitalisations in New South Wales, Australia. All in-patient separations from all acute hospitals in NSW during 2001-2004, with an International Classification of Diseases external cause of injury code indicating "exposure to excessive natural heat (X30)" or any ICD-10 diagnosis code in the range: "effects of heat and light (T67.0-T67.9)", were analysed. The sport/leisure relatedness of cases was defined by ICD-10-AM activity codes indicating involvement in sport/leisure activities. Cases of exposure to heat while engaged in sport/leisure were described by gender, year, age, principal diagnosis, type of activity/sport and length of stay. There were 109 hospital separations for exposure to heat while engaging in sport/leisure activity, with the majority occurring during the hottest months. The number of male cases significantly increased over the 4-year period and 45+ -year olds had the largest number of cases. Heat exhaustion was the leading cause of hospital separation (40% of cases). Marathon running, cricket and golf were the activities most commonly associated with heat-related hospitalisation. Ongoing development and refinement of expert position statements regarding heat illnesses need to draw on both epidemiological and physiological evidence to ensure their relevance to all levels of risk from the real world sport training and competition contexts.

  14. A Hydrogeophysical Conceptual Model of Mount Toondina Impact Crater, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, D. K.; Halihan, T.; Love, A.; Xie, Y.; Simmons, C.

    2011-12-01

    Mount Toondina, located on the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), South Australia, is a meteorite impact crater and a ground water discharge feature with a water hole, a tufa salt flat and several former mapped springs. Aerial photographs and field survey data indicate that water was flowing from springs as recent as twenty years ago. Geophysical site surveys including electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), gravity and seismic data were utilized to constrain a hydrogeologic model for the site. Regional magnetic and gravity surveys were also utilized to evaluate the site boundaries using Oasis Montaj. Fluid chemistry and electrical conductivity from the site was used along with the geophysical data to constrain FEFLOW models to test hydrogeological conceptual models of the permeability structure of Mount Toondina. It is hypothesized that the spring system is controlled by advective flow from the subsurface artesian aquifer to the ring of vegetation around the perimeter of the impact structure. Additionally, it is hypothesized that the central salt flat portion of the impact crater is influenced by free convective processes. The field data and FEFLOW model results will be used to better manage flora and fauna in the Mount Toondina area and to better predict groundwater flow on other impact craters.

  15. A hydrogeophysical conceptual model of Mount Toondina impact crater, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, Andrew Kelly

    Mount Toondina, South Australia is an impact crater that currently has groundwater discharging through evapotranspiration, but formerly had eight springs or more flowing around the crater ring. Using field geophysical and geochemical data, a hydrogeophysical conceptual model was developed that suggests that advection of groundwater to the surface through a sandstone layer is the dominant flow mechanism for the system, creating a ring of vegetation at the surface, although faults provide controls over some spring locations. The data also suggest that sufficient fluid density contrast combined with a vertical permeability structure may allow free convection to occur in the impact crater. The conceptual model was tested by developing numerical models to evaluate the permeability structure and the potential for mixed convection in the Mount Toondina system. The FEFLOW models suggest that the Mount Toondina impact crater spring system is controlled by mixed convective flow from the subsurface to the ring of vegetation around the springs which maintains brackish conditions relative to adjacent saline conditions. The models indicated that convective processes result throughout the crater although the character of convection is controlled by the relative permeability of the formations. The results can be applied to better manage flora and fauna in the Mount Toondina area and help to interpret potential for groundwater flow in and around other impact craters.

  16. A windy day in a sheep saleyard: an outbreak of Q fever in rural South Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, B A; Tribe, I G; Givney, R

    2015-01-01

    In December 2004, the Department of Human Services investigated an outbreak of Q fever in South Australia. A case-control study tested an association between attending a local saleyard and human illness. A case was defined as a person with clinical illness and evidence of seroconversion or high phase II IgM. Controls were selected from a database of community controls matched on sex, age group and postcode. Matched analysis of the first 15 cases with 45 controls indicated that contracting Q fever was associated with attending the saleyard on one particular day (adjusted odds ratio 15·3, 95% confidence interval 1·7-undefined, P = 0·014). Saleyard conditions were windy and conducive for airborne dispersal of contaminated particles. In total, 25 cases were detected. Of these, 22 cases had attended a local saleyard on the same day. This outbreak suggests cases were probably infected by a single exposure at a saleyard from infected sheep and dust. The investigation resulted in an increase in the local uptake of Q fever vaccination and extension of the Australian national vaccination programme. PMID:24814266

  17. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Ryan C; Rowell, David M; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes 'scale-up' to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five 'microgeographic regions' at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection. PMID:26467960

  18. Vicarious resilience and vicarious traumatisation: Experiences of working with refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Puvimanasinghe, Teresa; Denson, Linley A; Augoustinos, Martha; Somasundaram, Daya

    2015-12-01

    The negative psychological impacts of working with traumatised people are well documented and include vicarious traumatisation (VT): the cumulative effect of identifying with clients' trauma stories that negatively impacts on service providers' memory, emotions, thoughts, and worldviews. More recently, the concept of vicarious resilience (VR) has been also identified: the strength, growth, and empowerment experienced by trauma workers as a consequence of their work. VR includes service providers' awareness and appreciation of their clients' capacity to grow, maintaining hope for change, as well as learning from and reassessing personal problems in the light of clients' stories of perseverance, strength, and growth. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of mental health, physical healthcare, and settlement workers caring for refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia. Using a qualitative method (data-based thematic analysis) to collect and analyse 26 semi-structured face-to-face interviews, we identified four prominent and recurring themes emanating from the data: VT, VR, work satisfaction, and cultural flexibility. These findings-among the first to describe both VT and VR in Australians working with refugee people-have important implications for policy, service quality, service providers' wellbeing, and refugee clients' lives.

  19. Landscape Preferences, Amenity, and Bushfire Risk in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gill, Nicholas; Dun, Olivia; Brennan-Horley, Chris; Eriksen, Christine

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines landscape preferences of residents in amenity-rich bushfire-prone landscapes in New South Wales, Australia. Insights are provided into vegetation preferences in areas where properties neighbor large areas of native vegetation, such as national parks, or exist within a matrix of cleared and vegetated private and public land. In such areas, managing fuel loads in the proximity of houses is likely to reduce the risk of house loss and damage. Preferences for vegetation appearance and structure were related to varying fuel loads, particularly the density of understorey vegetation and larger trees. The study adopted a qualitative visual research approach, which used ranking and photo-elicitation as part of a broader interview. A visual approach aids in focusing on outcomes of fuel management interventions, for example, by using the same photo scenes to firstly derive residents' perceptions of amenity and secondly, residents' perceptions of bushfire risk. The results are consistent with existing research on landscape preferences; residents tend to prefer relatively open woodland or forest landscapes with good visual and physical access but with elements that provoke their interest. Overall, residents' landscape preferences were found to be consistent with vegetation management that reduces bushfire risk to houses. The terms in which preferences were expressed provide scope for agency engagement with residents in order to facilitate management that meets amenity and hazard reduction goals on private land.

  20. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Belinda; Undery, Rebecca; Ahmed, Humza

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rate their tooth sensitivity prior to being examined for erosion using a modified Smith & Knight tooth wear index. The data were analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman's correlation test. Results. The results showed that most participants (25 males, 22–66 yrs), brushed twice a day; however, the majority did not floss daily and had limited knowledge of the erosive effect of wine. There was a direct correlation between years of wine tasting, age of participants, and the erosion index. Correlation was not observed between the participant's sensitivity index and erosion index. Conclusion. The lack of significant experience of dentinal hypersensitivity amongst professional wine tasters should not prevent oral health practitioners from providing necessary counselling and undertaking preventive measures, as tooth wear can have serious long-term effect on oral health of an individual. PMID:24526901

  1. Sedimentary and tectonic history of the Holowilena Ironstone, a Neoproterozoic iron formation in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechte, Maxwell Alexander; Wallace, Malcolm William

    2015-11-01

    The Holowilena Ironstone is a Neoproterozoic iron formation in South Australia associated with glacial deposits of the Sturtian glaciation. Through a comprehensive field study coupled with optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray diffraction, a detailed description of the stratigraphy, sedimentology, mineralogy, and structure of the Holowilena Ironstone was obtained. The Holowilena Ironstone comprises ferruginous shales, siltstones, diamictites, and is largely made up of hematite and jasper, early diagenetic replacement minerals of precursor iron oxyhydroxides, and silica. These chemical precipitates are variably influenced by turbidites and debris flows contributing clastic detritus to the depositional system. Structural and stratigraphic evidence suggests deposition within a synsedimentary half-graben. A model for the Holowilena Ironstone is proposed, in which dense oxic fluids expelled during sea ice formation in the Cryogenian pool in the depression of the half-graben, allowing for long-lived mixing with the ferruginous seawater and the deposition of iron oxides. This combination of glacial dynamics, tectonism, and ocean chemistry may explain the return of iron formations in the Neoproterozoic.

  2. Climate variations and salmonellosis transmission in Adelaide, South Australia: a comparison between regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Hiller, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This is the first study to identify appropriate regression models for the association between climate variation and salmonellosis transmission. A comparison between different regression models was conducted using surveillance data in Adelaide, South Australia. By using notified salmonellosis cases and climatic variables from the Adelaide metropolitan area over the period 1990-2003, four regression methods were examined: standard Poisson regression, autoregressive adjusted Poisson regression, multiple linear regression, and a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Notified salmonellosis cases in 2004 were used to test the forecasting ability of the four models. Parameter estimation, goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability of the four regression models were compared. Temperatures occurring 2 weeks prior to cases were positively associated with cases of salmonellosis. Rainfall was also inversely related to the number of cases. The comparison of the goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability suggest that the SARIMA model is better than the other three regression models. Temperature and rainfall may be used as climatic predictors of salmonellosis cases in regions with climatic characteristics similar to those of Adelaide. The SARIMA model could, thus, be adopted to quantify the relationship between climate variations and salmonellosis transmission.

  3. Profenofos residues in wild fish from cotton-growing areas of New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Chapman, J C

    2001-01-01

    The organophosphorus (OP) pesticide profenofos (O-4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate) is used heavily in cotton-growing areas of eastern Australia toward the end of the growing season. European carp (Cyprinus carpio), bony bream (Nematalosa erebi), and mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were collected from the cotton-growing areas around Wee Waa, New South Wales, to determine the relationship between profenofos residues and acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity in wild fish. Profenofos concentrations in water, sediment, and fish tissue reflected its general level of use; levels in March 1994 were significantly higher than in 1993 and generally decreased in May, 6 wk after cessation of spraying. Residues in carp and bony bream generally correlated with concentrations in water and sediment, although residues in fish tend to persist longer at some sites. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was a useful indicator of profenofos exposure within a season, particularly if linked with residue measurements. Bony bream and gravid female mosquitofish recovered AChE levels more slowly than carp or nongravid mosquitofish. Recovery in creeks was generally more rapid than in lagoons. PMID:11401263

  4. Landscape Preferences, Amenity, and Bushfire Risk in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gill, Nicholas; Dun, Olivia; Brennan-Horley, Chris; Eriksen, Christine

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines landscape preferences of residents in amenity-rich bushfire-prone landscapes in New South Wales, Australia. Insights are provided into vegetation preferences in areas where properties neighbor large areas of native vegetation, such as national parks, or exist within a matrix of cleared and vegetated private and public land. In such areas, managing fuel loads in the proximity of houses is likely to reduce the risk of house loss and damage. Preferences for vegetation appearance and structure were related to varying fuel loads, particularly the density of understorey vegetation and larger trees. The study adopted a qualitative visual research approach, which used ranking and photo-elicitation as part of a broader interview. A visual approach aids in focusing on outcomes of fuel management interventions, for example, by using the same photo scenes to firstly derive residents' perceptions of amenity and secondly, residents' perceptions of bushfire risk. The results are consistent with existing research on landscape preferences; residents tend to prefer relatively open woodland or forest landscapes with good visual and physical access but with elements that provoke their interest. Overall, residents' landscape preferences were found to be consistent with vegetation management that reduces bushfire risk to houses. The terms in which preferences were expressed provide scope for agency engagement with residents in order to facilitate management that meets amenity and hazard reduction goals on private land. PMID:25948154

  5. Screening of metal uptake by plant colonizers growing on abandoned copper mine in Kapunda, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nirola, Ramkrishna; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Aryal, Rupak; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Systematic site survey for sample collection and analysis was conducted at a derelict copper (Cu) mine at Kapunda, South Australia. Cu concentrations in the soils at this former mine ranged from 65-10107 mg kg(-1). The pH and EC varied widely in the 3.9-8.4 and 152-7311 µS ranges, respectively. Nine plant species growing over the copper mine site were selected to screen for metal uptake to determine their suitability for phytoremediation. The Australian native tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis indicated enrichment factor (EF) of 2.17, 1.89, and 1.30 for Cu, Zn, and Pb, respectively, suggesting that this species of tree can accumulate these metals to some degree. The stress-resistant exotic olive, Olea europaea exhibited EF of ≤ 0.01 for Cu, Cd, and Pb, and 0.29 for Zn, which is characteristic of an excluder plant. Acacia pycnantha, the Australian pioneer legume species with EF 0.03, 0.80, 0.32, and 0.01 for Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb, respectively, emerged as another strong metal excluder and consequently as an ideal metal stabilizer. PMID:26552328

  6. Seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from baobab and other native trees in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Pavlic, Draginja; Wingfield, Michael J; Barber, Paul; Slippers, Bernard; Hardy, Giles E St J; Burgess, Treena I

    2008-01-01

    In this study seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae are described from baobab (Adansonia gibbosa) and surrounding endemic tree species growing in the Kimberley region of northwestern Australia. Members of the Botryosphaeriaceae were predominantly endophytes isolated from apparently healthy sapwood and bark of endemic trees; others were isolated from dying branches. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and EF1-alpha sequence data revealed seven new species: Dothiorella longicollis, Fusicoccum ramosum, Lasiodiplodia margaritacea, Neoscytalidium novaehollandiae, Pseudofusicoccum adansoniae, P. ardesiacum and P. kimberleyense. PMID:19202840

  7. Mosquito communities with trap height and urban-rural gradient in Adelaide, South Australia: implications for disease vector surveillance.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emily; Weinstein, Phillip; Slaney, David; Flies, Andrew S; Fricker, Stephen; Williams, Craig

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the factors influencing mosquito distribution is important for effective surveillance and control of nuisance and disease vector mosquitoes. The goal of this study was to determine how trap height and distance to the city center influenced the abundance and species of mosquitoes collected in Adelaide, South Australia. Mosquito communities were sampled at two heights (<2 m and ~10 m) along an urban-rural gradient. A total of 5,133 mosquitoes was identified over 176 trap nights. Aedes notoscriptus, Ae. vigilax, and Culex molestus were all more abundant in lower traps while Cx. quinquefasciatus (an ornithophilic species) was found to be more abundant in high traps. Distance to city center correlated strongly with the abundance of Ae. vigilax, Ae. camptorhynchus, Cx. globocoxitus, and Cx. molestus, all of which were most common at the sites farthest from the city and closest to the saltmarsh. Overall, the important disease vectors in South Australia (Ae. vigilax, Ae. camptorhynchus, Ae. notoscriptus, and Cx. annulirostris) were more abundant in low traps farthest from the city and closest to the saltmarsh. The current mosquito surveillance practice of setting traps within two meters of the ground is effective for sampling populations of the important disease vector species in South Australia.

  8. Fatty acid profiles of phyllosoma larvae of western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus) in cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies of the Leeuwin Current off Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; O'Rorke, R.; Waite, A. M.; Beckley, L. E.; Thompson, P.; Jeffs, A. G.

    2014-03-01

    The recent dramatic decline in settlement in the population of the spiny lobster, Panulirus cygnus, may be due to changes in the oceanographic processes that operate offshore of Western Australia. It has been suggested that this decline could be related to poor nutritional condition of the post-larvae, especially lipid which is accumulated in large quantities during the preceding extensive pelagic larval stage. The current study focused on investigations into the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) profiles of lobster phyllosoma larvae from three mid to late stages of larval development (stages VI, VII, VIII) sampled from two cyclonic and two anticyclonic eddies of the Leeuwin Current off Western Australia. The results showed significant accumulation of lipid and energy storage FAs with larval development regardless of location of capture, however, larvae from cyclonic eddies had more lipid and FAs associated with energy storage than larvae from anticyclonic eddies. FA food chain markers from the larvae indicated significant differences in the food webs operating in the two types of eddy, with a higher level of FA markers for production from flagellates and a lower level from copepod grazing in cyclonic versus anticyclonic eddies. The results indicate that the microbial food web operating in cyclonic eddies provides better feeding conditions for lobster larvae despite anticyclonic eddies being generally more productive and containing greater abundances of zooplankton as potential prey for lobster larvae. Gelatinous zooplankton, such as siphonophores, may play an important role in cyclonic eddies by accumulating dispersed microbial nutrients and making them available as larger prey for phyllosoma. The markedly superior nutritional condition of lobster larvae feeding in the microbial food web found in cyclonic eddies, could greatly influence their subsequent settlement and recruitment to the coastal fishery.

  9. The 3.26-3.24 Ga Barberton asteroid impact cluster: Tests of tectonic and magmatic consequences, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew; Vickers, John

    2006-01-01

    Creek Group-GCG [R. M. Hill, Stratigraphy, structure and alteration of hanging wall sedimentary rocks at the Sulphur Springs volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) prospect, east Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. B.Sc Hon. Thesis, University of Western Australia (1997) 67 pp.; M.J. Van Kranendonk, A.H. Hickman, R.H. Smithies, D.R. Nelson, Geology and tectonic evolution of the Archaean north Pilbara terrain, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, Econ. Geol. 97 (2002) 695-732; M.J. Van Kranendonk, Geology of the North Shaw 1 : 100 000 Sheet. Geological Survey Western Australia 1 : 100 000 Geological Series (2000) 86 pp., R. Buick, C.A.W. Brauhart, P. Morant, J.R. Thornett, J.G. Maniew, J.G. Archibald, M.G. Doepel, I.R. Fletcher, A.L. Pickard, J.B. Smith, M.B. Barley, N.J. McNaughton, D.I. Groves, Geochronology and stratigraphic relations of the Sulphur Springs Group and Strelley Granite: a temporally distinct igneous province in the Archaean Pilbara Craton, Australia, Precambrian Res. 114 (2002) 87-120]). The structure and scale of the olistostrome, not seen elsewhere in the Pilbara Craton, is interpreted in terms of intense faulting and rifting, supported by topographic relief represented by deep incision of overlying arenites (Corboy Formation) into underlying units [M.J. Van Kranendonk, Geology of the North Shaw 1 : 100 000 Sheet. Geological Survey Western Australia 1 : 100 000 Geological Series (2000) 86 pp.]. The age overlaps between (1) 3.255 ± 4-3.235 ± 3 Ga peak igneous activity represented by the SSG and the Cleland plutonic suite (Pilbara Craton) and the 3.258 ± 3 Ga S2 Barberton impact unit, and (2) 3.235 ± 3 Ga top SSG break and associated faulting and the 3.243 ± 4 S3-S4 Barberton impact units may not be accidental. Should correlations between the Barberton S2-S4 impact units and magmatic and tectonic events in the Pilbara Craton be confirmed, they would imply impact-triggered reactivation of mantle convection, crustal anatexis, faulting and strong vertical

  10. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia, was one of the earliest sites to provoke interest in Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). The systematic investigation of the deposit in the early 1970s identified megafaunal remains dominated by the 100-200 kg kangaroo Macropus giganteus titan. Associated radiocarbon ages indicated that the species was extant until c.30,000 BP, suggesting significant overlap with human settlement of Sahul. This evidence was inconsistent with contemporary models of rapid human-driven extinctions. Instead, researchers inferred ecological tethering of fauna at Lancefield Swamp due to intense drought precipitated localised mass deaths, consistent with Late Pleistocene climatic variability. Later investigations in another part of the swamp, the Mayne Site, remote to the initial investigations, concluded that mass flow disturbed this area, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analyses on megafauna teeth returned wide-ranging ages. To clarify site formation processes and dating of Lancefield Swamp, we excavated new test-pits next to previous trenches in the Classic and Mayne Sites. We compared absolute chronologies for sediments and teeth, sedimentology, palaeo-topography, taphonomy, and macropod age at death across the swamp. Luminescence dating of sediments and ESR analysis of teeth returned ages between c.80,000 and 45,000 years ago. We found no archaeological remains in the bone beds, and evidence of carnivore activity and fluvial action, in the form of reactivated spring flow. The latter disturbed limited parts of the site and substantial areas of the bone beds remained intact. The faunal assemblage is dominated by megafaunal adult Macropus, consistent with mass die-offs due to severe drought. Such droughts appear to have recurred over millennia during the climatic variability of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3. These events began tens of millennia before the first appearance of Aboriginal people in Sahul

  11. Isolation of ortho- and paramyxoviruses from wild birds in Western Australia, and the characterization of novel influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, J S; Edwards, E C; Holmes, R M; Hinshaw, V S

    1984-02-01

    As part of the World Health Organization's international programme on the ecology of influenza, cloacal swabs were collected from 3,736 birds belonging to 67 species over a 3-year period in Western Australia for the isolation of ortho- and paramyxoviruses. A total of 24 influenza A viruses were isolated from various species of ducks, shearwaters , noddies , terns and a coot , and were subtyped as H1N9 , H3N8 , H4N4 , H4N6 , H6N2 , H6N4 , H?N2, H?N6 and H? N9 . The H? haemagglutinins did not react in tests with reference antisera. Whether they represent a novel haemagglutinin subtype or atypical members of an established subtype remains to be determined, although preliminary results indicate that they may be atypical members of the H7 subtype. The H1N9 isolate is the first reported isolate of this particular antigenic combination. A total of 17 Newcastle disease viruses was isolated from ducks, noddies , terns and a black- fronted plover : preliminary results suggest that they are avirulent for domestic chickens. This study indicates that ortho- and paramyxoviruses are present in a variety of wild birds in Australia.

  12. DNA barcoding for conservation, seed banking and ecological restoration of Acacia in the Midwest of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Nevill, Paul G; Wallace, Mark J; Miller, Joseph T; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2013-11-01

    We used DNA barcoding to address an important conservation issue in the Midwest of Western Australia, working on Australia's largest genus of flowering plant. We tested whether or not currently recommended plant DNA barcoding regions (matK and rbcL) were able to discriminate Acacia taxa of varying phylogenetic distances, and ultimately identify an ambiguously labelled seed collection from a mine-site restoration project. Although matK successfully identified the unknown seed as the rare and conservation priority listed A. karina, and was able to resolve six of the eleven study species, this region was difficult to amplify and sequence. In contrast, rbcL was straightforward to recover and align, but could not determine the origin of the seed and only resolved 3 of the 11 species. Other chloroplast regions (rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH, trnL-F and trnK) had mixed success resolving the studied taxa. In general, species were better resolved in multilocus data sets compared to single-locus data sets. We recommend using the formal barcoding regions supplemented with data from other plastid regions, particularly rpl32-trnL, for barcoding in Acacia. Our study demonstrates the novel use of DNA barcoding for seed identification and illustrates the practical potential of DNA barcoding for the growing discipline of restoration ecology.

  13. Salmonella javiana infection in an infant associated with a marsupial, the quokka, Setonix brachyurus, in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Iveson, J. B.; Bradshaw, S. D.

    1973-01-01

    Salmonella javiana, a serotype rarely isolated in Australia, has been recovered from the faeces of a 14-month-old infant with symptoms of enteritis. The child had been closely associated with a marsupial species, the quokka, during a vacation on Rottnest Island in Western Australia, and S. javiana was isolated from faecal pellets from adult quokkas, and also from a snake collected on the island. Sampling revealed a high incidence of Salmonella infection in the quokkas. In all, 62 out of 87 animals (71%) were found to be infected, and 17 Salmonella and 3 Arizona serotypes were identified from 100 isolations comprising 92 salmonellas and 8 arizonas. Multiple infections were frequently detected and up to four serotypes were recovered from individual animals. S. javiana was isolated from four quokkas. A close parallel was observed between the serotypes isolated from quokkas and sea-gulls on the island, and abattoir effluents, lake waters, bird droppings and reptiles sampled on the adjacent mainland. The epidemiological significance of Salmonella and Arizona infections in the quokka population and their possible association with the seasonal decline in condition and numbers of animals on Rottnest Island is discussed. PMID:4518341

  14. High prevalence Giardia duodenalis assemblage B and potentially zoonotic subtypes in sporadic human cases in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Lee, Jeremy; Ng, Josephine; Ryan, Una

    2010-03-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a widespread parasite of mammalian species, including humans. Fecal samples from sporadic human clinical cases of giardiasis in Western Australia were analysed at two loci; 18S rRNA and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and G. duodenalis assemblage B isolates were identified in 75% of isolates. Sequence analyses of 124 isolates at the 18S rRNA locus identified 93 isolates as assemblage B and 31 as assemblage A. Analyses of 109 isolates at the gdh locus identified 44 as B3, 38 as B4 and 27 were A2. Infection with Giardia was highest amongst children <5 years of age, with >56% of infections in this age group. The majority of the isolates were from rural areas (91/124) compared with urban areas (33/124). The assemblage A isolates were completely homogenous genetically at the gdh locus, while assemblage B isolates showed variability at the nucleotide but not at the amino acid level at this locus. Some of the assemblage B3 and B4 subtypes identified in humans were previously identified in marsupials in Australia and in a fox, indicating potential zoonotic transmission. PMID:19703458

  15. The Late Devonian Gogo Formation Lägerstatte of Western Australia: Exceptional Early Vertebrate Preservation and Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, John A.; Trinajstic, Kate

    2010-05-01

    The Gogo Formation of Western Australia preserves a unique Late Devonian (Frasnian) reef fauna. The exceptional three-dimensional preservation of macrofossils combined with unprecedented soft-tissue preservation (including muscle bundles, nerve cells, and umbilical structures) has yielded a particularly rich assemblage with almost 50 species of fishes described. The most significant discoveries have contributed to resolving placoderm phylogeny and elucidating their reproductive physiology. Specifically, these discoveries have produced data on the oldest known vertebrate embryos; the anatomy of the primitive actinopterygian neurocranium and phylogeny of the earliest actinopterygians; the histology, radiation, and plasticity of dipnoan (lungfish) dental and cranial structures; the anatomy and functional morphology of the extinct onychodonts; and the anatomy of the primitive tetrapodomorph head and pectoral fin.

  16. Lipophilic pigments from cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) and diatom mats in Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmisano, A. C.; Summons, R. E.; Cronin, S. E.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Lipophilic pigments were examined in microbial mat communities dominated by cyanobacteria in the intertidal zone and by diatoms in the subtidal and sublittoral zones of Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia. These microbial mats have evolutionary significance because of their similarity to lithfied stromatolites from the Proterozoic and Early Paleozoic eras. Fucoxanthin, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls a and c characterized the diatom mats, whereas cyanobacterial mats contained myxoxanthophyll, zeaxanthin, echinenone, beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and, in some cases, sheath pigment. The presence of bacteriochlorophyll a within the mats suggest a close association of photosynthetic bacteria with diatoms and cyanobacteria. The high carotenoids : chlorophyll a ratios (0.84-2.44 wt/wt) in the diatom mats suggest that carotenoids served a photoprotective function in this high light environment. By contrast, cyanobacterial sheath pigment may have largely supplanted the photoprotective role of carotenoids in the intertidal mats.

  17. The inverse microconglomerate test: Further evidence for the preservation of Hadean magnetizations in metasediments of the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, Rory D.; Tarduno, John A.; Bono, Richard K.; Dare, Matthew S.; Mitra, Gautam

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new paleomagnetic test, applicable to metamorphosed terrains, that assesses the recording fidelity of a metasediment. Magnetic mineral carriers with unblocking temperatures lower than the peak metamorphic temperature should record a common remagnetization direction, whereas those with higher unblocking temperatures should be randomly distributed if a primary magnetization has been preserved on a sedimentary grain scale. We call this an inverse microconglomerate test. Application to metasediments of the Jack Hills (JH), Western Australia, reveals that the chrome mica fuchsite records a well-grouped secondary magnetization at unblocking temperatures between ˜270 and 340°C, in contrast to the random distribution of in situ directions held by zircons isolated at unblocking temperatures >550°C. This positive test further supports JH zircons as hosts of primary Hadean magnetizations. More generally, the new test can aid in understanding the timing of peak metamorphism and deformation in complex terrains.

  18. [Dengue fever in the Reunion Island and in South Western islands of the Indian Ocean].

    PubMed

    D'Ortenzio, E; Balleydier, E; Baville, M; Filleul, L; Renault, P

    2011-09-01

    South Western islands of the Indian Ocean are permanently threatened by dengue fever outbreaks. On the Reunion Island, two dengue outbreaks were biologically documented (1977-1978 and 2004). And since July 2004 there has been an inter-epidemic period for the island with sporadic cases and clusters. Between January 1, 2007 and October 5, 2009, the epidemiologic surveillance system detected five confirmed autochthonous cases, five confirmed imported cases (South-East Asia), and 71 probable cases. All the five autochthonous confirmed cases occurred in Saint-Louis during two consecutive clusters. In other South Western islands of the Indian Ocean, several dengue fever outbreaks have been reported. Importation of dengue virus from South-East Asia is a major risk for a new outbreak on the island. The introduction of a new serotype could lead to the emergence of new and severe clinical forms, including dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  19. Constraints on the composition of ore fluids and implications for mineralising events at the Cleo gold deposit, Eastern Goldfields Province, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.M.; Johnson, C.A.; Watling, R.J.; Premo, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Cleo gold deposit, 55 km south of Laverton in the Eastern Goldfields Province of Western Australia, is characterised by banded iron-formation (BIF)-hosted ore zones in the gently dipping Sunrise Shear Zone and high-grade vein-hosted ore in the Western Lodes. There is evidence that gold mineralisation in the Western Lodes (which occurred at ca 2655 Ma) post-dates the majority of displacement along the Sunrise Shear Zone, but it remains uncertain if the ore in both structures formed simultaneously or separately. Overall, the Pb, Nd, Sr, C. O and S isotopic compositions of ore-related minerals from both the Western Lodes and ore zones in the Sunrise Shear Zone are similar. Early low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluids and late high-salinity fluids with similar characteristics are trapped in inclusions in quartz veins from both the Sunrise Shear Zone and the Western Lodes. The early CO2, CO2-H2O, and H2O- dominant inclusions are interpreted as being related to ore formation, and to have formed from a single low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluid as a result of intermittent fluid immiscibility. Homogenisation temperatures indicate that these inclusions were trapped at approximately 280??C and at approximately 4 km depth, in the deeper epizonal range. Differences between the ore zones are detected in the trace-element composition of gold samples, with gold from the Sunrise Shear Zone enriched in Ni, Pb, Sn, Te and Zn, and depleted In As, Bi, Cd, Cu and Sb, relative to gold from the Western Lodes. Although there are differences in gold composition between the Sunrise Shear Zone and Western Lodes, and hence the metal content of ore fluids may have varied slightly between the different ore zones, no other systematic fluid or solute differences are detected between the ore zones. Given the fact that the ore fluids in each zone have very similar bulk properties, the considerable differences in gold grade, sulfide mineral abundance, and ore textures between the two ore zones

  20. Fish assemblages associated with oil industry structures on the continental shelf of north-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Pradella, N; Fowler, A M; Booth, D J; Macreadie, P I

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first assessment of fish associations with oil and gas structures located in deep water (85-175 m) on Australia's north-west continental shelf, using rare oil industry video footage obtained from remotely operated vehicles. A diverse range of taxa were observed associating with the structures, including reef-dependent species and transient pelagic species. Ten commercially fished species were observed, the most abundant of which was Lutjanus argentimaculatus, with an estimated biomass for the two deepest structures (Goodwyn and Echo) of 109 kg.

  1. Implications to stormwater management as a result of lot scale rainwater tank systems: a case study in Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    van der Sterren, M; Rahman, A; Dennis, G R

    2012-01-01

    Rainwater tanks are increasingly adopted in Australia to reduce potable water demand and are perceived to reduce the volume of stormwater discharge from developments. This paper investigates the water balance of rainwater tanks, in particular the possible impacts these tanks could have in controlling the stormwater discharge volume. The study collected water quantity data from two sites in the Hawkesbury City Council area, New South Wales, Australia and utilised the collected data in a simple water balance model to assess the effectiveness of rainwater tanks in reducing the stormwater discharge volume. The results indicate that a significant reduction in discharge volume from a lot scale development can be achieved if the rainwater tank is connected to multiple end-uses, but is minimal when using irrigation alone. In addition, the commonly used volumetric runoff coefficient of 0.9 was found to over-estimate the runoff from the roof areas and to thereby under-estimate the available volume within the rainwater tanks for retention or detention. Also, sole reliance on the water in the rainwater tanks can make the users aware of their water use pattern and water availability, resulting in significant reductions in water use as the supply dwindles, through self-imposed water restrictions.

  2. Using electric resistivity tomography in a small scale catchment to evaluate the effectiveness of surfactans in water repellent soils of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Mary-Anne; Leopold, Matthias; McGrath, Gavan; Mattes, Falko; Murphy, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Water repellent soils (WRS) are a major limitation on crop production in the southwest of Western Australia, with losses estimated at 250 million per annum. The amelioration of WRS through surfactant application shows variable success in field trials. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of surfactants on surface runoff and infiltration on WRS in a new laboratory based approach. The experiment used a physical, bench-scale catchment model (0.7 m x 0.7 m), where soils were arranged with a ridge and furrow shape similar to agricultural practices. It quantified irrigation, surface runoff, interflow and basal flow volumes. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was used to measure the sub-surface electrical resistivity which is influenced by the amount of water in the soil. Three WRS from Western Australia were tested: very severely repellent (MED score 4.2 from South Stirling), moderate-severely repellent (MED score 2.4 from Badgingarra), and low repellence (MED score 1 from Dandaragan). Two different surfactants were compared to an untreated control, with application in furrow according to common agricultural practice at two replications and multiple wetting and drying cycles. Using ERT data, 2D-volumetric water contents for each WRS and test run were calculated. Surfactant application increased water infiltration in moderate-severely repellent soils by up to 73%, concentrated within the furrows. Water content also increased below 20 mm depth, where seeds would be located, suggesting a successful amelioration strategy for water repellency in agriculture. Very severely WRS revealed a more concentrated flow where surfactant was applied and only a 33% increase in infiltration. This physical catchment model in conjunction with hydrological and geophysical methods provides a useful tool to assess the effectiveness of surfactants to increase water infiltration into non-wetting soils. It is an inexpensive tool and could be used in future research before the most

  3. 'Not the full Monty': a qualitative study of seniors' perceptions of generic medicines in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Bulsara, Caroline; McKenzie, Anne; Sanfilippo, Frank; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Emery, Jon E

    2010-01-01

    The study explored consumers' perspectives on generic medicine use in Australia. A qualitative methodology was used to explore the topic, including community participation in the form of forums, focus groups and a panel of seniors. Three consumer forums were held from which a seniors' panel was formed and a series of focus groups were conducted. Participants demonstrated considerable mistrust of generic medicines. Participants highlighted their uncertainty about the extent of pharmaceutical companies' influence on health professionals, the mistrust of foreign generic manufacturers and scepticism in their equivalence. In addition, the substitution of generic medicines and variability in packaging added to the overall concern and reported poor compliance. Altering consumers' beliefs and attitudes about generic medicines might require a more concerted effort to reduce consumer mistrust. Consumers' beliefs about generic medicines will strongly affect attempts to increase generic prescribing in Australia. Many seniors require multiple medications for a range of chronic conditions. Currently however, the lack of uniformity in information and packaging implies that closer monitoring, greater clarity of information and improved packaging of generic medicines is required. Otherwise, the widespread problems and lower uptake of generic medicines amongst seniors will remain. PMID:20815994

  4. Innovations in Rural Education: The Isolated Students Matriculation Scheme in Western Australia and the Chidley Educational Centre. Studies in Rural Education No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Max; And Others

    The reports of two innovative approaches to overcoming education problems in the isolated, sparsely populated areas of Western Australia are presented. Established in 1974, the Isolated Students Matriculation Scheme has combined traditional forms of correspondence education with a curriculum development unit and the development of mechanisms to…

  5. Human cryptosporidiosis diagnosed in Western Australia: a mixed infection with Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the Cryptosporidium mink genotype, and an unknown Cryptosporidium species.

    PubMed

    Ng-Hublin, Josephine S Y; Combs, Barry; Mackenzie, Brian; Ryan, Una

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a case of cryptosporidiosis from an immunocompetent patient from Perth, Western Australia, suffering from diarrhea and a spectrum of other symptoms. Molecular identification revealed that this patient was infected with three Cryptosporidium species-Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the Cryptosporidium mink genotype, and an unknown Cryptosporidium species.

  6. Learning and Capacity Building for Irrigators in Western Australia's East Wanneroo Area: A Theoretical Framework for Educational Provision and a Sketch of the Socioecological Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Nan; Horwitz, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    In Western Australia the East Wanneroo horticultural area is reliant on a superficial aquifer, the Gnangara Groundwater Mound, for irrigation. The area is affected by social and political change as the sprawling city of Perth expands, as well as by ecological changes resulting from a decline in groundwater levels. Horticulturalists face increasing…

  7. A Qualitative Study of the Teaching of Modern Greek in Western Australia under the "Seconded Teachers from Greece Scheme": Implications for Other Similar Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evangelinou-Yiannakis, Angela; O'Donoghue, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study reported in this paper was to develop an understanding of how the key stakeholders in Western Australia (WA) "dealt with" the teaching of Modern Greek (Greek) as a second language under the "Seconded Teachers from Greece Scheme" (STGS). It addressed a deficit in research in the field not only in relation to WA, but…

  8. Student Feedback on Teaching: Reflections and Projections. Refereed Proceedings of Teaching Evaluation Forum (Perth, Western Australia, August 28-29, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santhanam, Elizabeth, Ed.

    A forum at the University of Western Australia for those involved in student evaluation of teaching in higher education focused on current issues related to the evaluation of teaching and new developments in the field. Among the issues discussed were traditional methods of obtaining student feedback on teaching, online evaluation of teaching,…

  9. An Analysis of the Geographic Distribution of Recently Graduated Dentists from the University of Western Australia: The World's Most Isolated Dental School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurbuxani, Amit; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the geographic distribution of all new dentists who graduated over a period of six years. Perth, the capital city of Western Australia, is one of the world's most isolated cities, with a population of approximately 1.6 million people, situated over 2000km from its nearest next major…

  10. Long term bicycle related head injury trends for New South Wales, Australia following mandatory helmet legislation.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Jake; Walter, Scott R; Grzebieta, Raphael H

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1991 enactment of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, there has been extensive debate as to its effect on head injury rates at a population level. Many previous studies have focused on the impact of MHL around the time of enactment, while little has been done to examine the ongoing effects. We aimed to extend prior work by investigating long-term trends in cyclist head and arm injuries over the period 1991-2010. The counts of cyclists hospitalised with head or arm injuries were jointly modelled with log-linear regression. The simultaneous modelling of related injury mechanisms avoids the need for actual exposure data and accounts for the effects of changes in the cycling environment, cycling behaviour and general safety improvements. Models were run separately with population counts, bicycle imports, the average weekday counts of cyclists in Sydney CBD and cycling estimates from survey data as proxy exposures. Overall, arm injuries were higher than head injuries throughout the study period, consistent with previous post-MHL observations. The trends in the two injury groups also significantly diverged, such that the gap between rates increased with time. The results suggest that the initial observed benefit of MHL has been maintained over the ensuing decades. There is a notable additional safety benefit after 2006 that is associated with an increase in cycling infrastructure spending. This implies that the effect of MHL is ongoing and progress in cycling safety in NSW has and will continue to benefit from focusing on broader issues such as increasing cycling infrastructure. PMID:23026203

  11. Evaluation of a heat warning system in Adelaide, South Australia, using case-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Monika; Tucker, Graeme; Hansen, Alana; Williams, Susan; Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background Heatwave warning systems aim to assist in reducing health effects during extreme heat. Evaluations of such systems have been limited. This study explored the effect of a heatwave warning programme on morbidity and mortality in Adelaide, South Australia, by comparing extreme events in 2009 and 2014, the latter with exposure to the preventive programme. Methods The health outcomes during the two heatwaves were compared using the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of daily ambulance call-outs, emergency presentations and mortality data during the heatwaves compared with non-heatwave periods during the warm seasons. Excess or reduced numbers of cases were calculated and the differences in cases between the two heatwaves were estimated. Results IRRs for total ambulance call-outs and emergency presentations were lower during the 2014 heatwaves compared with the 2009 event. The estimated differences in health-specific outcomes between 2009 and 2014 were statistically significant with 207 (59%) for cardiac-related call-outs, 134 (30%) for renal and 145 (56%) for heat-related emergency presentations. Mortality was not reduced in 2014. There were an estimated 34.5 excess deaths in 2009 and 38.2 in 2014. Conclusions Morbidity outcomes were reduced significantly during the 2014 event. The fact that cardiac, renal and heat-related diagnoses were significantly reduced is likely to be associated with the intervention in 2014, which comprised a public warning through media and intense preventive measures directed to individual populations at risk. Further analysis of risk factors of mortality during heatwaves should be explored. PMID:27436672

  12. Preliminary evidence of toxicity associated with the benthic cyanobacterium Phormidium in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, P D; Steffensen, D A; Humpage, A R; Nicholson, B C; Falconer, I R; Lanthois, B; Fergusson, K M; Saint, C P

    2001-01-01

    In April 2000, the water supply for Yorke Peninsula in South Australia was deemed non-potable when extracts from a proliferation of the benthic cyanobacterium Phormidium aff. formosum in Upper Paskeville Reservoir were found to be lethally toxic by intraperitoneal injection into mice (400 mg kg-1). Routine water quality monitoring had failed to detect the development of the Phormidium until complaints of musty taste and odour, attributable to the production of 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB), were received from the consumers. The 185 ML open-balancing storage, receiving filtered and chloraminated water from the River Murray, was isolated from the drinking water supply and a health alert was issued to approximately 15,000 consumers. The identity of the toxin(s) is thus far unknown, but clinical symptoms of toxicity in mice and chemical characteristics are distinct from the known major cyanotoxins. Preliminary characterisation of this toxin indicates that it has low solubility in water and organic solvents and is strongly associated with the particulate cellular material of the filaments. Toxicity of extracts was diminished by boiling and by treatment with chlorine, but not by chloramines. Further testing of floating cyanobacterial mats in the Torrens Lake in the city of Adelaide (Phormidium aff. formosum) and Myponga Reservoir (Phormidium aff. amoenum) in 2000/2001 was also found to be toxic by mouse bioassay. Toxicity is yet to be confirmed in monospecific cultured strains and further studies are required to identify the toxin and assess its health significance. Genetic characterisation of isolates has commenced in an attempt to classify their relatedness and to assist in the rapid identification of potentially toxic strains. PMID:11769248

  13. Lack of porphyroblast rotation in noncoaxially deformed schists from Petrel Cove, South Australia, and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhardt, Chris

    1989-02-01

    Inclusion trails representing an S 1 cleavage demonstrate the lack of porphyroblast rotation during subsequent highly non-coaxial deformations. The pelitic schists of the Kanmantoo Group at Petrel Cove, South Australia contain two generations of porphyroblasts. The first one consists of cordierite porphyroblasts that formed early in D 2 and contain straight to slightly sigmoidal inclusion trails of S 1. The second generation consists of andalusite porphyroblasts that overgrew crenulated S 2 late during D 3. Several hundred