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Sample records for southern caribbean sea

  1. Prevalence and Distribution of Vibrio spp. in Wild Aquatic Birds of the Southern Caribbean Sea, Venezuela, 2011-12.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Sanz, Virginia; Giner, Sandra; Suárez, Paula; Contreras, Monica; Michelangeli, Fabian; García-Amado

    2016-07-01

    Vibrio spp. are associated with waterbirds mainly in temperate latitudes. We evaluated the prevalence and distribution of Vibrio spp. from fecal samples of resident and migratory aquatic birds collected during October 2011 and March 2012 at two coastal sites in the tropical southern Caribbean Sea. We amplified DNA by PCR in 40% of samples, resulting in 47% and 36% estimated prevalence for resident and migratory birds in Cuare Wildlife Refuge, and 33% and 44% in Margarita Island, respectively. We found nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Cuare Wildlife Refuge with a higher prevalence in resident birds (18%). Our PCR results for Vibrio and V. cholerae were not significantly different between sites or bird migratory status. The 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis sequences from fecal samples from Cuare Wildlife Refuge were highly similar to V. cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus , whereas sequences from Margarita Island samples formed clusters with species related to the Harveyi clade. Our findings indicate that several species of Vibrio are common in aquatic birds along the southern Caribbean Sea and contribute to our understanding of the role of birds as possible reservoirs of potentially pathogenic bacteria.

  2. A Rossby whistle: A resonant basin mode observed in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Chris W.; Williams, Joanne; Hibbert, Angela; Boening, Carmen; Oram, James

    2016-07-01

    We show that an important source of coastal sea level variability around the Caribbean Sea is a resonant basin mode. The mode consists of a baroclinic Rossby wave which propagates westward across the basin and is rapidly returned to the east along the southern boundary as coastal shelf waves. Almost two wavelengths of the Rossby wave fit across the basin, and it has a period of 120 days. The porous boundary of the Caribbean Sea results in this mode exciting a mass exchange with the wider ocean, leading to a dominant mode of bottom pressure variability which is almost uniform over the Grenada, Venezuela, and Colombia basins and has a sharp spectral peak at 120 day period. As the Rossby waves have been shown to be excited by instability of the Caribbean Current, this resonant mode is dynamically equivalent to the operation of a whistle.

  3. Subduction in the Southern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Bezada, M.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Pindell, J.

    2012-04-01

    The southern Caribbean is bounded at either end by subduction zones: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west under the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt accretionary prism, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system. A variety of seismic probes identify where the two plates tear as they begin to subduct (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Masy et al, 2009). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone by the Atlantic tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate tears, its southernmost element subducting at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia and then rapidly descending to transition zone depths under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab produces the Merida Andes, the Perija, and the Santa Marta ranges. The southern edge of the nonsubducting Caribbean plate underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the underthrust Caribbean plate supports the coastal mountains, and controls continuing deformation.

  4. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  5. Ciguatera fish poisoning and sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean Sea and the West Indies.

    PubMed

    Tester, Patricia A; Feldman, Rebecca L; Nau, Amy W; Kibler, Steven R; Wayne Litaker, R

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a circumtropical disease caused by ingestion of a variety of reef fish that bioaccumulate algal toxins. Distribution and abundance of the organisms that produce these toxins, chiefly dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus, are reported to correlate positively with water temperature. Consequently, there is growing concern that increasing temperatures associated with climate change could increase the incidence of CFP. This concern prompted experiments on the growth rates of six Gambierdiscus species at temperatures between 18 degrees C and 33 degrees C and the examination of sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean and West Indies for areas that could sustain rapid Gambierdiscus growth rates year-round. The thermal optimum for five of six Gambierdiscus species tested was >/=29 degrees C. Long-term SST data from the southern Gulf of Mexico indicate the number of days with sea surface temperatures >/=29 degrees C has nearly doubled (44 to 86) in the last three decades. To determine how the sea surface temperatures and Gambierdiscus growth data correlate with CFP incidences in the Caribbean, a literature review and a uniform, region-wide survey (1996-2006) of CFP cases were conducted. The highest CFP incidence rates were in the eastern Caribbean where water temperatures are warmest and least variable. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Ecosystem responses in the southern Caribbean Sea to global climate change

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Gordon T.; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Thunell, Robert C.; Scranton, Mary I.; Astor, Yrene; Varela, Ramon; Ghinaglia, Luis Troccoli; Lorenzoni, Laura; Fanning, Kent A.; Hameed, Sultan; Doherty, Owen

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades, rising greenhouse gas emissions have promoted poleward expansion of the large-scale atmospheric Hadley circulation that dominates the Tropics, thereby affecting behavior of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Expression of these changes in tropical marine ecosystems is poorly understood because of sparse observational datasets. We link contemporary ecological changes in the southern Caribbean Sea to global climate change indices. Monthly observations from the CARIACO Ocean Time-Series between 1996 and 2010 document significant decadal scale trends, including a net sea surface temperature (SST) rise of ∼1.0 ± 0.14 °C (±SE), intensified stratification, reduced delivery of upwelled nutrients to surface waters, and diminished phytoplankton bloom intensities evident as overall declines in chlorophyll a concentrations (ΔChla = −2.8 ± 0.5%⋅y−1) and net primary production (ΔNPP = −1.5 ± 0.3%⋅y−1). Additionally, phytoplankton taxon dominance shifted from diatoms, dinoflagellates, and coccolithophorids to smaller taxa after 2004, whereas mesozooplankton biomass increased and commercial landings of planktivorous sardines collapsed. Collectively, our results reveal an ecological state change in this planktonic system. The weakening trend in Trade Winds (−1.9 ± 0.3%⋅y−1) and dependent local variables are largely explained by trends in two climatic indices, namely the northward migration of the Azores High pressure center (descending branch of Hadley cell) by 1.12 ± 0.42°N latitude and the northeasterly progression of the ITCZ Atlantic centroid (ascending branch of Hadley cell), the March position of which shifted by about 800 km between 1996 and 2009. PMID:23071299

  7. Freshwater exchanges and surface salinity in the Colombian basin, Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Beier, Emilio; Bernal, Gladys; Ruiz-Ochoa, Mauricio; Barton, Eric Desmond

    2017-01-01

    Despite the heavy regional rainfall and considerable discharge of many rivers into the Colombian Basin, there have been few detailed studies about the dilution of Caribbean Surface Water and the variability of salinity in the southwestern Caribbean. An analysis of the precipitation, evaporation and runoff in relation to the climate variability demonstrates that although the salt balance in the Colombian Basin overall is in equilibrium, the area south of 12°N is an important dilution sub-basin. In the southwest of the basin, in the region of the Panama-Colombia Gyre, Caribbean Sea Water is diluted by precipitation and runoff year round, while in the northeast, off La Guajira, its salinity increases from December to May by upwelling. At the interannual scale, continental runoff is related to El Niño Southern Oscillation, and precipitation and evaporation south of 12°N are related to the Caribbean Low Level Jet. During El Niño years the maximum salinification occurs in the dry season (December-February) while in La Niña years the maximum dilution (or freshening), reaching La Guajira Coastal Zone, occurs in the wet season (September-November).

  8. Freshwater exchanges and surface salinity in the Colombian basin, Caribbean Sea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Despite the heavy regional rainfall and considerable discharge of many rivers into the Colombian Basin, there have been few detailed studies about the dilution of Caribbean Surface Water and the variability of salinity in the southwestern Caribbean. An analysis of the precipitation, evaporation and runoff in relation to the climate variability demonstrates that although the salt balance in the Colombian Basin overall is in equilibrium, the area south of 12°N is an important dilution sub-basin. In the southwest of the basin, in the region of the Panama-Colombia Gyre, Caribbean Sea Water is diluted by precipitation and runoff year round, while in the northeast, off La Guajira, its salinity increases from December to May by upwelling. At the interannual scale, continental runoff is related to El Niño Southern Oscillation, and precipitation and evaporation south of 12°N are related to the Caribbean Low Level Jet. During El Niño years the maximum salinification occurs in the dry season (December-February) while in La Niña years the maximum dilution (or freshening), reaching La Guajira Coastal Zone, occurs in the wet season (September-November). PMID:28777801

  9. SeaMARC II mapping of transform faults in the Cayman Trough, Caribbean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosencrantz, Eric; Mann, Paul

    1992-01-01

    SeaMARC II maps of the southern wall of the Cayman Trough between Honduras and Jamaica show zones of continuous, well-defined fault lineaments adjacent and parallel to the wall, both to the east and west of the Cayman spreading axis. These lineaments mark the present, active traces of transform faults which intersect the southern end of the spreading axis at a triple junction. The Swan Islands transform fault to the west is dominated by two major lineaments that overlap with right-stepping sense across a large push-up ridge beneath the Swan Islands. The fault zone to the east of the axis, named the Walton fault, is more complex, containing multiple fault strands and a large pull-apart structure. The Walton fault links the spreading axis to Jamaican and Hispaniolan strike-slip faults, and it defines the southern boundary of a microplate composed of the eastern Cayman Trough and western Hispaniola. The presence of this microplate raises questions about the veracity of Caribbean plate velocities based primarily on Cayman Trough opening rates.

  10. Absolute Sea-level Changes Derived from Integrated Geodetic Datasets (1955-2016) in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Wang, G.; Liu, H.

    2017-12-01

    Rising sea level has important direct impacts on coastal and island regions such as the Caribbean where the influence of sea-level rise is becoming more apparent. The Caribbean Sea is a semi-enclosed sea adjacent to the landmasses of South and Central America to the south and west, and the Greater Antilles and the Lesser Antilles separate it from the Atlantic Ocean to the north and east. The work focus on studying the relative and absolute sea-level changes by integrating tide gauge, GPS, and satellite altimetry datasets (1955-2016) within the Caribbean Sea. Further, the two main components of absolute sea-level change, ocean mass and steric sea-level changes, are respectively studied using GRACE, temperature, and salinity datasets (1955-2016). According to the analysis conducted, the sea-level change rates have considerable temporal and spatial variations, and estimates may be subject to the techniques used and observation periods. The average absolute sea-level rise rate is 1.8±0.3 mm/year for the period from 1955 to 2015 according to the integrated tide gauge and GPS observations; the average absolute sea-level rise rate is 3.5±0.6 mm/year for the period from 1993 to 2016 according to the satellite altimetry observations. This study shows that the absolute sea-level change budget in the Caribbean Sea is closed in the periods from 1955 to 2016, in which ocean mass change dominates the absolute sea-level rise. The absolute sea-level change budget is also closed in the periods from 2004 to 2016, in which steric sea-level rise dominates the absolute sea-level rise.

  11. Changes to Yucatán Peninsula precipitation associated with salinity and temperature extremes of the Caribbean Sea during the Maya civilization collapse.

    PubMed

    Wu, Henry C; Felis, Thomas; Scholz, Denis; Giry, Cyril; Kölling, Martin; Jochum, Klaus P; Scheffers, Sander R

    2017-11-20

    Explanations of the Classic Maya civilization demise on the Yucatán Peninsula during the Terminal Classic Period (TCP; ~CE 750-1050) are controversial. Multiyear droughts are one likely cause, but the role of the Caribbean Sea, the dominant moisture source for Mesoamerica, remains largely unknown. Here we present bimonthly-resolved snapshots of reconstructed sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) variability in the southern Caribbean from precisely dated fossil corals. The results indicate pronounced interannual to decadal SST and SSS variability during the TCP, which may be temporally coherent to precipitation anomalies on the Yucatán. Our results are best explained by changed Caribbean SST gradients affecting the Caribbean low-level atmospheric jet with consequences for Mesoamerican precipitation, which are possibly linked to changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation strength. Our findings provide a new perspective on the anomalous hydrological changes during the TCP that complement the oft-suggested southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. We advocate for a strong role of Caribbean SST and SSS condition changes and related ocean-atmosphere interactions that notably influenced the propagation and transport of precipitation to the Yucatán Peninsula during the TCP.

  12. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

    2014-05-01

    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (< 1.2 mm yr-1) due the water loading following the deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet. We construct two catalogues: one of published Holocene sea-level indicators and the other of published, modern growth rates, abundance and coverage of mangrove and coral species for different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  13. 33 CFR 334.1490 - Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas. 334.1490 Section 334.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1490 Caribbean Sea...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1490 - Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas. 334.1490 Section 334.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1490 Caribbean Sea...

  15. Sea surface temperature 1871-2099 in 38 cells in the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Charles; Rioja-Nieto, Rodolfo

    2005-09-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) data with monthly resolution are provided for 38 cells in the Caribbean Sea and Bahamas region, plus Bermuda. These series are derived from the HadISST1 data set for historical time (1871-1999) and from the HadCM3 coupled climate model for predicted SST (1950-2099). Statistical scaling of the forecast data sets are performed to produce confluent SST series according to a now established method. These SST series are available for download. High water temperatures in 1998 killed enormous amounts of corals in tropical seas, though in the Caribbean region the effects at that time appeared less marked than in the Indo-Pacific. However, SSTs are rising in accordance with world-wide trends and it has been predicted that temperature will become increasingly important in this region in the near future. Patterns of SST rise within the Caribbean region are shown, and the importance of sub-regional patterns within this biologically highly interconnected area are noted.

  16. Weather types across the Caribbean basin and their relationship with rainfall and sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moron, Vincent; Gouirand, Isabelle; Taylor, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Eight weather types (WTs) are computed over 98.75°W-56.25°W, 8.75°N-31.25°N using cluster analysis of daily low-level (925 hPa) winds and outgoing longwave radiation, without removing the mean annual cycle, by a k-means algorithm from 1979 to 2013. The WTs can be firstly interpreted as snapshots of the annual cycle with a clear distinction between 5 "wintertime" and 3 "summertime" WTs, which account together for 70 % of the total mean annual rainfall across the studied domain. The wintertime WTs occur mostly from late November to late April and are characterized by varying intensity and location of the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) and transient synoptic troughs along the northern edge of the domain. Large-scale subsidence dominates the whole basin but rainfall can occur over sections of the basin, especially on the windward shores of the troughs associated with the synoptic waves. The transition between wintertime and summertime WTs is rather abrupt, especially in May. One summertime WT (WT 4) is prevalent in summer, and almost exclusive around late July. It is characterized by strong NASH, fast Caribbean low level jet and rainfall mostly concentrated over the Caribbean Islands, the Florida Peninsula, the whole Central America and the tropical Eastern Pacific. The two remaining summertime WTs display widespread rainfall respectively from Central America to Bermuda (WT 5) and over the Eastern Caribbean (WT 6). Both WTs combine reduced regional scale subsidence and weaker Caribbean low-level jet relatively to WT 4. The relationships between WT frequency and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are broadly linear. Warm central and eastern ENSO events are associated with more WT 4 (less WT 5-6) during boreal summer and autumn (0) while this relationship is reversed during boreal summer (+1) for central events only. In boreal winter, the largest anomalies are observed for two WTs consistent with negative (WT 2) and positive (WT 8) phases of the

  17. Caribbean tectonics and relative plate motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.; Dewey, J. F.; Cooper, C.; Mann, P.; Pindell, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    During the last century, three different ways of interpreting the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean have been proposed, taking into account the Bailey Willis School of a permanent pre-Jurassic deep sea basin, the Edward Suess School of a subsided continental terrain, and the Alfred Wegener School of continental separation. The present investigation is concerned with an outline of an interpretation which follows that of Pindell and Dewey (1982). An attempt is made to point out ways in which the advanced hypotheses can be tested. The fit of Africa, North America, and South America is considered along with aspects of relative motion between North and South America since the early Jurasic. Attention is given to a framework for reconstructing Caribbean plate evolution, the evolution of the Caribbean, the plate boundary zones of the northern and southern Caribbean, and the active deformation of the Caribbean plate.

  18. Southeastern United States and Caribbean Sea from Apollo 8 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Most of the southeastern United States and Caribbean Sea, the U.S. coastline from Chesapeake Bay to the Florida peninsula can be seen from the Apollo 8 spacecraft in orbit above the Earth. The Bahamas and the Islands of Cuba, Jamaica, Hispiniola and Puerto Rico extend across the Caribbean. The light blue of the shallow Bahama banks contrasts with the darker hue of the deeper water especially in the Tongue of the Ocean area.

  19. Regional turbulence patterns driven by meso- and submesoscale processes in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C. Pérez, Juan G.; R. Calil, Paulo H.

    2017-09-01

    The surface ocean circulation in the Caribbean Sea is characterized by the interaction between anticyclonic eddies and the Caribbean Upwelling System (CUS). These interactions lead to instabilities that modulate the transfer of kinetic energy up- or down-cascade. The interaction of North Brazil Current rings with the islands leads to the formation of submesoscale vorticity filaments leeward of the Lesser Antilles, thus transferring kinetic energy from large to small scales. Within the Caribbean, the upper ocean dynamic ranges from large-scale currents to coastal upwelling filaments and allow the vertical exchange of physical properties and supply KE to larger scales. In this study, we use a regional model with different spatial resolutions (6, 3, and 1 km), focusing on the Guajira Peninsula and the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean Sea, in order to evaluate the impact of submesoscale processes on the regional KE energy cascade. Ageostrophic velocities emerge as the Rossby number becomes O(1). As model resolution is increased submesoscale motions are more energetic, as seen by the flatter KE spectra when compared to the lower resolution run. KE injection at the large scales is greater in the Guajira region than in the others regions, being more effectively transferred to smaller scales, thus showing that submesoscale dynamics is key in modulating eddy kinetic energy and the energy cascade within the Caribbean Sea.

  20. Caribbean Oceans: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Detect, Monitor, and Respond to Unprecedented Levels of Sargassum in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ped, Jordan; Scaduto, Erica; Accorsi, Emma; Torres-Perez, Juan (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 and 2015, the nations of the Caribbean Sea were overwhelmed by the unprecedented quantity of Sargassum that washed ashore. This issue prompted international discussion to better understand the origins, distribution, and movement of Sargassum, a free-floating brown macro alga with ecological, environmental, and commercial importance. In the open ocean, Sargassum mats serve a vital ecological function. However, when large quantities appear onshore without warning, Sargassum threatens local tourist industries and nearshore ecosystems within the Caribbean. As part of the international response, this project investigated the proliferation of this macro alga within the Caribbean Sea from 2003-2015, and used NASA Earth observations to detect and model Sargassum growth across the region. The Caribbean Oceans team calculated the Floating Algal Index (FAI) using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and compared the FAI to various oceanic variables to determine the ideal pelagic environment for Sargassum growth. The project also examined the annual spread of Sargassum throughout the region by using Earth Trends Modeler (ETM) in Clark Labs' TerrSet software. As part of the international effort to better understand the life cycle of Sargassum in the Caribbean, the results of this project will help local economies promote sustainable management practices in the region.

  1. Physical Oceanography of the Caribbean Sea: Some Recent Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D.; Johns, W. E.

    2001-12-01

    Recent oceanographic observations in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico (the Intra-Americas Sea) have contributed to our understanding of IAS circulation, the dynamics forcing the circulation, and the role of the IAS in hemispheric ocean processes. Specifically, recent results from several programs will be presented and discussed: The Windward Islands Passages Program, designed to measure upper ocean transport and water mass properties of the exchange between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, is entering its tenth year of observations. Mean transport estimates based on 10 to 20 sections now exist for the major passages between Trinidad and the Virgin Islands. Approximately 19 of the estimated 32 Sv in the Florida Straits enter through these passages, of which approximately 12 enter south of Dominica, 6 in the Grenada Passage. The Caribbean Inflow Variability Experiment is designed to continuously monitor the transport through the Grenada Passage. Plans are in place to monitor a submarine telephone cable between Grenada and Trinidad to estimate transport; at present several shipboard velocity sections and year-long pressure gauge records are available as part of the program. Dominant low-frequency signals in the cross-passage pressure difference are 30 - 60 days. The NOPP Year of the Ocean Drifting Buoy Program placed over 150 WOCE-style surface drifting buoys in the IAS during 1998 - 2000. Analysis of drifter tracks shows the best picture to date of IAS surface currents, including well-resolved gyres in the SW Caribbean (Panama-Colombia) region. Monitoring of Florida Straits transport via submarine cable is once again active, complemented by quarterly CD and transport cruises. Analyses of historical transport data (Baringer & Larson, 2001) have shown correlations between low frequency transport variability and climate indices (e. g., NAO). Additionally, full-depth velocity profiles across the straits are available weekly from the 38 kHz ADCP mounted on

  2. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  3. First observations of the bigfin squid Magnapinna sp. in the Colombian Southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Kommritz, Jurgen; Cantera, Jaime; Puentes, Vladimir; Leon, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Herein, first observations are reported of Magnapinna squids in the Colombian Southern Caribbean. Two specimens were observed by Remote Operated Vehicles (ROV) during exploratory drilling surveys for hydrocarbons at 1,883 and 2,294 m depth. These are the first observations of specimens of Magnapinna in the Southern Caribbean. Resumen La primera observación del calamar Magnapinna sp. en el caribe sur colombiano. Dos especímenes de calamares de aleta grande fueron observados con submarino de operación remota (ROV) durante un proyecto de perforación exploratoria de hidrocaburos a profundidades de 1,883 y de 2,294 m, respectivamente. Estas son las primeras observaciones de especímenes de Magnapinna en el Caribe Sur.

  4. Southeastern United States and Caribbean Sea from Apollo 8 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-12-22

    AS08-16-2581 (21-27 Dec. 1968) --- This photograph of Earth was taken from the Apollo 8 spacecraft while it was in Earth orbit. Most of the southeastern United States and the Caribbean Sea area, the U.S. coastline from Chesapeake Bay to the Florida Peninsula can be seen. The Bahamas and the islands of Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico extend across the Caribbean, the light blue of the shallow Bahama banks contrasting sharply with the darker hue of the deeper water, especially in the Tongue of the Ocean area.

  5. The role of the meridional sea surface temperature gradient in controlling the Caribbean low-level jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Tito; Rutgersson, Anna; Caballero, Rodrigo; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Alfaro, Eric; Amador, Jorge

    2017-06-01

    The Caribbean low-level jet (CLLJ) is an important modulator of regional climate, especially precipitation, in the Caribbean and Central America. Previous work has inferred, due to their semiannual cycle, an association between CLLJ strength and meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradients in the Caribbean Sea, suggesting that the SST gradients may control the intensity and vertical shear of the CLLJ. In addition, both the horizontal and vertical structure of the jet have been related to topographic effects via interaction with the mountains in Northern South America (NSA), including funneling effects and changes in the meridional geopotential gradient. Here we test these hypotheses, using an atmospheric general circulation model to perform a set of sensitivity experiments to examine the impact of both SST gradients and topography on the CLLJ. In one sensitivity experiment, we remove the meridional SST gradient over the Caribbean Sea and in the other, we flatten the mountains over NSA. Our results show that the SST gradient and topography have little or no impact on the jet intensity, vertical, and horizontal wind shears, contrary to previous works. However, our findings do not discount a possible one-way coupling between the SST and the wind over the Caribbean Sea through friction force. We also examined an alternative approach based on barotropic instability to understand the CLLJ intensity, vertical, and horizontal wind shears. Our results show that the current hypothesis about the CLLJ must be reviewed in order to fully understand the atmospheric dynamics governing the Caribbean region.

  6. First observations of the bigfin squid Magnapinna sp. in the Colombian Southern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Cantera, Jaime; Puentes, Vladimir; Leon, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Herein, first observations are reported of Magnapinna squids in the Colombian Southern Caribbean. Two specimens were observed by Remote Operated Vehicles (ROV) during exploratory drilling surveys for hydrocarbons at 1,883 and 2,294 m depth. These are the first observations of specimens of Magnapinna in the Southern Caribbean. Resumen La primera observación del calamar Magnapinna sp. en el caribe sur colombiano. Dos especímenes de calamares de aleta grande fueron observados con submarino de operación remota (ROV) durante un proyecto de perforación exploratoria de hidrocaburos a profundidades de 1,883 y de 2,294 m, respectivamente. Estas son las primeras observaciones de especímenes de Magnapinna en el Caribe Sur. PMID:29765263

  7. Subduction and Plate Edge Tectonics in the Southern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Niu, F.; Bezada, M. J.; Miller, M. S.; Masy, J.; Ave Lallemant, H. G.; Pindell, J. L.; Bolivar Working Group

    2013-05-01

    The southern Caribbean plate boundary consists of a subduction zone at at either end of a complex strike-slip fault system: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west in the Colombia basin, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean plates subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system that has been cut off at the Bocono fault, the southeastern boundary fault of the Maracaibo block. A variety of seismic probes identify subduction features at either end of the system (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Growdon et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2010; Masy et al, 2011). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone with the Atlantic plate tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. Tearing the Atlantic plate from the rest of South America appears to cause further lithospheric instability continentward. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate very likely also tears, as its southernmost element subducts at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia but then rapidly descends to the transition zone under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab controls the tectonics of the Neogene Merida Andes, Perija, and Santa Marta ranges. The nonsubducting part of the Caribbean plate also underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the edge of the underthrust

  8. [Association of the abundance and vertical distribution of tuna and beakfish in the southeast of the Caribbean sea].

    PubMed

    Eslava, Nora; González, Leo W; Gaertner, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    The longline hooks suspension depth was estimated using the Mechanic Imitation of Flexible Systems method. The vertical distribution of tunas and billfish was determined by the relative abundance index, obtained from the catch by 11 to 25 m -long longline vessels, -based at Cumaná, Venezuela, South-eastern Caribbean Sea in depths of 65 to 142 m. The CPUE was evaluated per species, according to depth. High values were found for most of the captured species in the layer from 105 to 125 m. Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) showed the highest yield (3.37 fish/100 hooks) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) the lowest (0.04 fish/100 hooks). However, the statistical comparison did not allow to reject the hypothesis of lack of depth efect (Kruskal-Wallis p > .05), and demonstrated a homogeneous distribution of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), sailfish (Istiophorus albicans), white marlin (Tetrapturus albidus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the water column. The conclusion is that fish concentration in the Southern border of the Caribbean Sea is possibly due to several hydroclimatic factors--which affect tuna and billfish catching--such as water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration which limit the distribution according to depth.

  9. Structural features and oil-and-gas bearing of the Caribbean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabanbark, A.; Lobkovsky, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    The structure of the Caribbean region testifies to the extremely unstable condition of the terrestrial crust of this intercontinental and simultaneously interoceanic area. In the recent geological epoch, the Caribbean region is represented by a series of structural elements, the main of which are the Venezuelan and Colombian deep-sea suboceanic depressions, the Nicaraguan Rise, and the Greater and Lesser Antilles bordering the Caribbean Sea in the north and east. There are 63 sedimentary basins in the entire Caribbean region. However, only the Venezuelan and Colombian basins, the Miskito Basin in Nicaragua, and the northern and eastern shelves of the Antilles, Paria Bay, Barbodos-Tobago, and Grenada basins are promising in terms of oil-and-gas bearig. In the Colombian Basin, the southwestern part, located in the rift zone of the Gulf of Uraba, is the most promising. In the Venezuelan Basin, possible oil-and-gas-bearing basins showing little promise are assumed to be in the northern and eastern margins. The main potential of the eastern Caribbean region is attributed to the southern margin, at the shelf zone of which are the Tokuyo-Bonaire, Tuy-Cariaco, Margarita, Paria Bay, Barbados-Tobago, and Grenada oil-and-gas-bearing basins. The rest of the deepwater depressions of the Caribbean Sea show little promise for hydrocarbon research due to the small thickness of the deposits, their flat bedding, and probably a lack of fluid seals.

  10. Venezuelan Caribbean Sea under the threat of TBT.

    PubMed

    Paz-Villarraga, César Augusto; Castro, Ítalo B; Miloslavich, Patricia; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Although environmental tributyltin (TBT) contamination is considered a solved problem, imposex occurrence in Plicopurpura patula as well as butyltins (BTs) contamination in sediments and tissues were detected along 700 km of the Caribbean coastal shore. Areas under the influence of five main ports of Venezuela were covered, as well as large marinas and sites located away from expected sources. Marinas were the most contaminated areas, whilst imposex incidence and TBT levels were relatively low in areas nearby commercial harbors. Thus, it is evident that marinas have become the main source of fresh TBT to the region. This might explain why imposex incidence seems to be widely distributed along the Venezuelan coast, since leisure boats are circulating along the whole coastal region. In fact, this could be the pattern for other areas of the Caribbean Sea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sargassum-associated mobile fauna communities in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, L.; Schell, J. M.; Goodwin, D.; Biggs, D.; Siuda, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    Sargassum natans and S. fluitans are entirely pelagic, offering a pseudo-benthic structural habitat for an associated community of mobile fauna. In turn, the mobile fauna community supports foraging seabirds, fish, and turtles. Recent satellite observations suggest Sargassum in the Sargasso Sea is seeded annually from the Gulf of Mexico. Furthermore, the Caribbean is in the midst of a Sargassum inundation that appears disconnected in origin from the Sargasso Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Sargassum and fauna were collected via dip net during spring and summer 2015 from the Gulf of Mexico, Sargasso Sea and Eastern Caribbean to study the impacts that region, aggregation pattern (isolated clump, windrow, mat), and Sargassum variety morphology have on mobile fauna community composition. Sargassum from all three regions shared five common (frequency >10%) species: flatworm spp., Portunus sayi, Litiopa melanostoma, Leander tenuicornis, and Latreutes fucorum). The Gulf presented the most unique species (9 unique / 16 total) followed by the Sargasso Sea (5 unique / 12 total) and the Caribbean (1 unique / 6 total). The majority of species unique to the Gulf of Mexico were juvenile fish while those in the Caribbean and Sargasso Sea were benthic-like species residing on the Sargassum itself. Differences in the morphological forms of Sargassum had a marked effect on fauna diversity and abundance. In all three regions, fewer individuals and species were found on the broad-leafed, less compact S. natans VIII than on the denser S. natans I and S. fluitans III. This study identifies the differences in macrofauna abundance and diversity between varieties of Sargassum and highlights the potential for dramatic community changes that could result from largescale Sargassum blooms and species shifts. Any shift in these keystone communities could result in negative cascading effects on seabirds, economically important fish populations, and juvenile turtles which use the seaweed as a nursery

  12. Subduction and Plate Edge Tectonics in the Southern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Niu, F.; Bezada, M. J.; Miller, M. S.; Masy, J.; Ave Lallemant, H. G.; Pindell, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    The southern Caribbean plate boundary consists of a subduction zone at at either end connected by a strike-slip fault system: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west in the Colombia basin, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system that has been cut off at the Bocono fault, the southeastern boundary of the Maracaibo block. A variety of seismic probes identify where the two plates tear as they begin to subduct (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Growdon et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2010; Masy et al., 2011). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone with the Atlantic plate tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate very likely also tears, as its southernmost element subducts at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia and the northern, nonsubducting part underthrusts the continental edge. The subducting segment rapidly descends to transition zone depths under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab produces the Merida Andes, the Perija, and the Santa Marta ranges. The nonsubducting part of the Caribbean plate underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009), where the plate edge supports the coastal mountains, and controls continuing deformation.

  13. Tsunami Risk for the Caribbean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozelkov, A. S.; Kurkin, A. A.; Pelinovsky, E. N.; Zahibo, N.

    2004-12-01

    The tsunami problem for the coast of the Caribbean basin is discussed. Briefly the historical data of tsunami in the Caribbean Sea are presented. Numerical simulation of potential tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea is performed in the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. The tsunami wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed. These results are used to estimate the far-field tsunami potential of various coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. In fact, five zones with tsunami low risk are selected basing on prognostic computations, they are: the bay "Golfo de Batabano" and the coast of province "Ciego de Avila" in Cuba, the Nicaraguan Coast (between Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas), the border between Mexico and Belize, the bay "Golfo de Venezuela" in Venezuela. The analysis of historical data confirms that there was no tsunami in the selected zones. Also, the wave attenuation in the Caribbean Sea is investigated; in fact, wave amplitude decreases in an order if the tsunami source is located on the distance up to 1000 km from the coastal location. Both factors wave attenuation and wave height distribution should be taken into account in the planned warning system for the Caribbean Sea.

  14. Potential oil spill risk from shipping and the implications for management in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Singh, Asha; Asmath, Hamish; Chee, Candice Leung; Darsan, Junior

    2015-04-15

    The semi enclosed Caribbean Sea is ranked as having one of the most intense maritime traffic in the world. These maritime activities have led to significant oil pollution. Simultaneously, this sea supports many critical habitats functioning as a Large Marine Ecosystem (LME). While the impacts of oil pollution are recognised, a number of management challenges remain. This study applies spatial modelling to identify critical areas potentially at risk from oil spills in the form of a potential oil spill risk (POSR) model. The model indicates that approximately 83% of the sea could be potentially impacted by oil spills due to shipping. The results from this study collectively support a management framework for minimising ship generated oil pollution in the Caribbean Sea. Among the recommended components are a common policy, surveillance and monitoring controls, standards, monitoring programmes, data collection and greater rates of convention ratifications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Southern Ocean Climate and Sea Ice Anomalies Associated with the Southern Oscillation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, R.; Comiso, J. C.

    2002-03-01

    The anomalies in the climate and sea ice cover of the Southern Ocean and their relationships with the Southern Oscillation (SO) are investigated using a 17-yr dataset from 1982 to 1998. The polar climate anomalies are correlated with the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and the composites of these anomalies are examined under the positive (SOI > 0), neutral (0 > SOI > 1), and negative (SOI < 1) phases of SOI. The climate dataset consists of sea level pressure, wind, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature fields, while the sea ice dataset describes its extent, concentration, motion, and surface temperature. The analysis depicts, for the first time, the spatial variability in the relationship of the above variables with the SOI. The strongest correlation between the SOI and the polar climate anomalies are found in the Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Ross Seas. The composite fields reveal anomalies that are organized in distinct large-scale spatial patterns with opposing polarities at the two extremes of SOI, and suggest oscillations that are closely linked to the SO. Within these sectors, positive (negative) phases of the SOI are generally associated with lower (higher) sea level pressure, cooler (warmer) surface air temperature, and cooler (warmer) sea surface temperature in these sectors. Associations between these climate anomalies and the behavior of the Antarctic sea ice cover are evident. Recent anomalies in the sea ice cover that are clearly associated with the SOI include the following: the record decrease in the sea ice extent in the Bellingshausen Sea from mid-1988 to early 1991; the relationship between Ross Sea SST and the ENSO signal, and reduced sea ice concentration in the Ross Sea; and the shortening of the ice season in the eastern Ross Sea, Amundsen Sea, far western Weddell Sea and lengthening of the ice season in the western Ross Sea, Bellinghausen Sea, and central Weddell Sea gyre during the period 1988-94. Four ENSO episodes over the

  16. Projected SST trends across the Caribbean Sea based on PRECIS downscaling of ECHAM4, under the SRES A2 and B2 scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurse, Leonard A.; Charlery, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean Sea and adjacent land areas are highly sensitive to the projected impacts of global climate change. The countries bordering the Caribbean Sea depend heavily on coastal and marine assets as a major source of livelihood support. Rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are known to be associated with coral bleaching, ocean acidification, and other phenomena that threaten livelihoods in the region. The paucity of SST systematic observations in both the Caribbean Sea and adjoining Western Atlantic waters is a limiting factor in the projection of future climate change impacts on the region's marine resources. Remote sensing of SST by satellites began only within the last three decades and although the data collected so far might be insufficient to provide conclusive definitions of long-term SST variations in the Caribbean waters, these data along with the output from climate model simulations provide a useful basis for gaining further insights into plausible SST futures under IPCC SRES scenarios. In this paper, we examine the recent SST records from the NESDIS AVHRR satellite data and NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) sea surface temperature V2 and provide a comparative analysis of projected SST changes for the Caribbean Sea up to the end of the twenty-first century, under the SRES A2 and B2 scenarios' simulations of the sea surface skin temperatures (SSsT) using the Hadley Centre's regional model, PRECIS. The implications of these projected SST changes for bleaching of coral reefs, one of the region's most valuable marine resource, and for rainfall are also discussed.

  17. Dusty air masses transport between Amazon Basin and Caribbean Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euphrasie-Clotilde, Lovely; Molinie, Jack; Prospero, Joseph; Feuillard, Tony; Brute, Francenor; Jeannot, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Depend on the month, African desert dust affect different parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. From December to April, Saharan dust outbreaks are often reported over the amazon basin and from May to November over the Caribbean islands and the southern regions of USA. This annual oscillation of Saharan dust presence, related to the ITCZ position, is perturbed some time, during March. Indeed, over Guadeloupe, the air quality network observed between 2007 and 2012 several dust events during March. In this paper, using HISPLIT back trajectories, we analyzed air masses trajectories for March dust events observed in Guadeloupe, from 2007 to 2012.We observed that the high pressure positions over the Atlantic Ocean allow the transport of dusty air masses from southern region of West Africa to the Caribbean Sea with a path crossing close to coastal region of French Guyana. Complementary investigations including the relationship between PM10 concentrations recorded in two sites Pointe-a-Pitre in the Caribbean, and Cayenne in French Guyana, have been done. Moreover we focus on the mean delay observed between the times arrival. All the results show a link between pathway of dusty air masses present over amazon basin and over the Caribbean region during several event of March. The next step will be the comparison of mineral dust composition for this particular month.

  18. Drivers of Holocene sea-level change in the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khan, Nicole; Ashe, Erica; Horton, Benjamin P.; Dutton, Andrea; Kopp, Robert E.; Brocard, Gilles; Engelhart, Simon E.; Hill, David F.; Peltier, W.R.; Vane, Christopher H.; Scatena, Fred N.

    2017-01-01

    We present a Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) database for the Caribbean region (5°N to 25°N and 55°W to 90°W) that consists of 499 sea-level index points and 238 limiting dates. The database was compiled from multiple sea-level indicators (mangrove peat, microbial mats, beach rock and acroporid and massive corals). We subdivided the database into 20 regions to investigate the influence of tectonics and glacial isostatic adjustment on RSL. We account for the local-scale processes of sediment compaction and tidal range change using the stratigraphic position (overburden thickness) of index points and paleotidal modeling, respectively. We use a spatio-temporal empirical hierarchical model to estimate RSL position and its rates of change in the Caribbean over 1-ka time slices. Because of meltwater input, the rates of RSL change were highest during the early Holocene, with a maximum of 10.9 ± 0.6 m/ka in Suriname and Guyana and minimum of 7.4 ± 0.7 m/ka in south Florida from 12 to 8 ka. Following complete deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) by ∼7 ka, mid-to late-Holocene rates slowed to < 2.4 ± 0.4 m/ka. The hierarchical model constrains the spatial extent of the mid-Holocene highstand. RSL did not exceed the present height during the Holocene, except on the northern coast of South America, where in Suriname and Guyana, RSL attained a height higher than present by 6.6 ka (82% probability). The highstand reached a maximum elevation of +1.0 ± 1.1 m between 5.3 and 5.2 ka. Regions with a highstand were located furthest away from the former LIS, where the effects from ocean syphoning and hydro-isostasy outweigh the influence of subsidence from forebulge collapse.

  19. Forecasting sea fog on the coast of southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Huang, B.; Liu, C.; Tu, J.; Wen, G.; Mao, W.

    2016-12-01

    Forecast sea fog is still full of challenges. We have performed the numerical forecasting of sea fog on the coast of southern China by using the operational meso-scale regional model GRAPES (Global/Regional assimilation and prediction system). The GRAPES model horizontal resolution was 3km and with 66 vertical levels. A total of 72 hours forecasting of sea fog was conducted with hourly outputs over the sea fog event. The results show that the model system can predict reasonable characteristics of typical sea fog events on the coast of southern China. The scope of sea fog coincides with the observations of meteorological stations, the observations of the Marine Meteorological Science Experiment Base (MMSEB) at Bohe, Maoming and satellite products of sea fog. The goal of this study is to establish an operational numerical forecasting model system of sea fog on the coast of southern China.

  20. 77 FR 55448 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    .... 120718253-2367-01] RIN 0648-BC30 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the Southern Atlantic States; Transferability of Black Sea Bass Pot Endorsements...) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (Amendment 18A), as prepared and...

  1. 77 FR 72991 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    .... 120718253-2644-02] RIN 0648-BC30 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Transferability of Black Sea Bass Pot Endorsements... Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (Amendment 18A), as prepared and submitted by the South Atlantic...

  2. Southern Ocean Climate and Sea Ice Anomalies Associated with the Southern Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, R.; Comiso, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    The anomalies in the climate and sea ice cover of the Southern Ocean and their relationships with the Southern Oscillation (SO) are investigated using a 17-year of data set from 1982 through 1998. We correlate the polar climate anomalies with the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and examine the composites of these anomalies under the positive (SOI > 0), neutral (0 > SOI > -1), and negative (SOI < -1) phases of SOL The climate data set consists of sea-level pressure, wind, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature fields, while the sea ice data set describes its extent, concentration, motion, and surface temperature. The analysis depicts, for the first time, the spatial variability in the relationship of the above variables and the SOL The strongest correlation between the SOI and the polar climate anomalies are found in the Bellingshausen, Amundsen and Ross sea sectors. The composite fields reveal anomalies that are organized in distinct large-scale spatial patterns with opposing polarities at the two extremes of SOI, and suggest oscillating climate anomalies that are closely linked to the SO. Within these sectors, positive (negative) phases of the SOI are generally associated with lower (higher) sea-level pressure, cooler (warmer) surface air temperature, and cooler (warmer) sea surface temperature in these sectors. Associations between these climate anomalies and the behavior of the Antarctic sea ice cover are clearly evident. Recent anomalies in the sea ice cover that are apparently associated with the SOI include: the record decrease in the sea ice extent in the Bellingshausen Sea from mid- 1988 through early 199 1; the relationship between Ross Sea SST and ENSO signal, and reduced sea ice concentration in the Ross Sea; and, the shortening of the ice season in the eastern Ross Sea, Amundsen Sea, far western Weddell Sea, and the lengthening of the ice season in the western Ross Sea, Bellingshausen Sea and central Weddell Sea gyre over the period 1988

  3. Short-term Inundation Forecasting for Tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado-Irizarry, A.; Schmidt, W.

    2007-05-01

    After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the USA Congress gave a mandate to the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess the tsunami threat for all USA interests, and adapt to them the Short-term Inundation Forecasting for Tsunamis (SIFT) methodology first developed for the USA Pacific seaboard states. This methodology would be used with the DART buoys deployed in the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. The first step involved the evaluation and characterization of the major tsunamigenic regions in both regions, work done by the US Geological Survey (USGS). This was followed by the modeling of the generation and propagation of tsunamis due to unit slip tsunamigenic earthquakes located at different locations along the tsunamigenic zones identified by the USGS. These pre-computed results are stored and are used as sources (in an inverse modeling approach using the DART buoys) for so-called Standby Inundation Models (SIM's) being developed for selected coastal cities in Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, and others along the Atlantic seaboard of the USA. It is the purpose of this presentation to describe the work being carried out in the Caribbean Sea region, where two SIM's for Puerto Rico have already being prepared, allowing for near real-time assessment (less than 10 minutes after detection by the DART buoys) of the expected tsunami impact for two major coastal cities.

  4. Late Quaternary uplift along the North America-Caribbean plate boundary: Evidence from the sea level record of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Schweig, Eugene S.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Halley, Robert B.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonic setting of the North America-Caribbean plate boundary has been studied intensively, but some aspects are still poorly understood, particularly along the Oriente fault zone. Guantanamo Bay, southern Cuba, is considered to be on a coastline that is under a transpressive tectonic regime along this zone, and is hypothesized to have a low uplift rate. We tested this by studying emergent reef terrace deposits around the bay. Reef elevations in the protected, inner part of the bay are ∼11-12 m and outer-coast, wave-cut benches are as high as ∼14 m. Uranium-series analyses of corals yield ages ranging from ∼133 ka to ∼119 ka, correlating this reef to the peak of the last interglacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5.5. Assuming a span of possible paleo-sea levels at the time of the last interglacial period yields long-term tectonic uplift rates of 0.02-0.11 m/ka, supporting the hypothesis that the tectonic uplift rate is low. Nevertheless, on the eastern and southern coasts of Cuba, east and west of Guantanamo Bay, there are flights of multiple marine terraces, at higher elevations, that could record a higher rate of uplift, implying that Guantanamo Bay may be anomalous. Southern Cuba is considered to have experienced a measurable but modest effect from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) processes. Thus, with a low uplift rate, Guantanamo Bay should show no evidence of emergent marine terraces dating to the ∼100 ka (MIS 5.3) or ∼80 ka (MIS 5.1) sea stands and results of the present study support this.

  5. Late Quaternary uplift along the North America-Caribbean plate boundary: Evidence from the sea level record of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, Daniel; Schweig, Eugene S.; Simmons, Kathleen; Halley, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    The tectonic setting of the North America-Caribbean plate boundary has been studied intensively, but some aspects are still poorly understood, particularly along the Oriente fault zone. Guantanamo Bay, southern Cuba, is considered to be on a coastline that is under a transpressive tectonic regime along this zone, and is hypothesized to have a low uplift rate. We tested this by studying emergent reef terrace deposits around the bay. Reef elevations in the protected, inner part of the bay are ∼11–12 m and outer-coast, wave-cut benches are as high as ∼14 m. Uranium-series analyses of corals yield ages ranging from ∼133 ka to ∼119 ka, correlating this reef to the peak of the last interglacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5.5. Assuming a span of possible paleo-sea levels at the time of the last interglacial period yields long-term tectonic uplift rates of 0.02–0.11 m/ka, supporting the hypothesis that the tectonic uplift rate is low. Nevertheless, on the eastern and southern coasts of Cuba, east and west of Guantanamo Bay, there are flights of multiple marine terraces, at higher elevations, that could record a higher rate of uplift, implying that Guantanamo Bay may be anomalous. Southern Cuba is considered to have experienced a measurable but modest effect from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) processes. Thus, with a low uplift rate, Guantanamo Bay should show no evidence of emergent marine terraces dating to the ∼100 ka (MIS 5.3) or ∼80 ka (MIS 5.1) sea stands and results of the present study support this.

  6. 76 FR 30034 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    .... 930792-3265] RIN 0648-XA431 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Reopening of Commercial Penaeid Shrimp Trawling Off South... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; reopening. SUMMARY: NMFS reopens commercial penaeid shrimp...

  7. Depth distribution of benthic dinoflagellates in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisnoir, Aurélie; Pascal, Pierre-Yves; Cordonnier, Sébastien; Lemée, Rodolophe

    2018-05-01

    Monitoring of benthic dinoflagellates is usually conducted between sub-surface and 5 m depth, where these organisms are supposed to be in highest abundances. However, only few studies have focused on the small-scale depth distribution of benthic dinoflagellates. In the present study, abundances of dinoflagellates were evaluated on an invasive macrophyte Halophila stipulacea in two coastal sites in Guadeloupe (Caribbean Sea) along a depth gradient from sub-surface to 3 m at Gosier and until 20 m at Rivière Sens during the tropical wet and dry seasons. Species of genus Ostreopsis and Prorocentrum were the most abundant. Depth did not influence total dinoflagellate abundance but several genera showed particular depth-distribution preferences. The highest abundances of Ostreopsis and Gambierdiscus species were estimated preferentially in surface waters, whereas Coolia spp. were found in the same proportions but in deeper waters. Halophila stipulacea biomass was positively correlated with Ostreopsis spp. abundance. Our study suggests that sampling of benthic dinoflagellates should be conducted at different water depths taking into account the presence of the macroalgal substrate as well. In the Caribbean area, special attention should be addressed to the presence of H. stipulacea which tends to homogenize the marine landscape and represents a substrate for hosting dinoflagellate growth.

  8. Mass Balance of Multiyear Sea Ice in the Southern Beaufort Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1) Determination of the net growth and melt of multiyear (MY) sea ice during its transit through the southern Beaufort Sea 2) Identification of...which we refer to as the FGIV dataset. Analysis of melt processes from ice core and IMB data (Eicken) Through stratigraphic analysis of sea ice...samples that are brought back to shore were melted and used to determine profiles of salinity and stable isotope ratios. These data allow us to identify

  9. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Leeward Antilles: Evolution of the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard A.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Kounov, Alexandre; Cosca, Michael; Chew, David; Villagomez, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Caribbean Plate are severely hampered by a paucity of geochronologic and exhumation constraints from anastomosed basement blocks along its southern margin. New U/Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission track, and apatite (U-Th)/He data constrain quantitative thermal and exhumation histories, which have been used to propose a model for the tectonic evolution of the emergent parts of the Bonaire Block and the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone. An east facing arc system intruded through an oceanic plateau during ~90 to ~87 Ma and crops out on Aruba. Subsequent structural displacements resulted in >80°C of cooling on Aruba during 70–60 Ma. In contrast, exhumation of the island arc sequence exposed on Bonaire occurred at 85–80 Ma and 55–45 Ma. Santonian exhumation on Bonaire occurred immediately subsequent to burial metamorphism and may have been driven by the collision of a west facing island arc with the Caribbean Plate. Island arc rocks intruded oceanic plateau rocks on Gran Roque at ~65 Ma and exhumed rapidly at 55–45 Ma. We attribute Maastrichtian-Danian exhumation on Aruba and early Eocene exhumation on Bonaire and Gran Roque to sequential diachronous accretion of their basement units to the South American Plate. Widespread unconformities indicate late Eocene subaerial exposure. Late Oligocene–early Miocene dextral transtension within the Bonaire Block drove subsidence and burial of crystalline basement rocks of the Leeward Antilles to ≤1 km. Late Miocene–recent transpression caused inversion and ≤1 km of exhumation, possibly as a result of the northward escape of the Maracaibo Block.

  10. 78 FR 14069 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ...-BC58 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern... Fishery Management Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP) for review, approval... Atlantic states may request a concurrent closure of the penaeid shrimp (brown, pink, and white shrimp...

  11. 76 FR 53381 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to remove the regulations that govern the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) translocation program, including the establishment of an experimental population of southern sea otters, and all associated management actions. We are also proposing to amend the Authority citation for 50 CFR part 17 by removing the reference to Public Law 99- 625, the statute that authorized the Secretary to promulgate regulations establishing the southern sea otter translocation program. Removal of the regulations will terminate the program. We are proposing this action because we believe that the southern sea otter translocation program has failed to fulfill its purpose, as outlined in the southern sea otter translocation plan, and that our recovery and management goals for the species cannot be met by continuing the program. Our conclusion is based, in part, on an evaluation of the program against specific failure criteria established at the program's inception. This proposed action would terminate the designation of the experimental population of southern sea otters, abolish the southern sea otter translocation and management zones, and eliminate the current requirement to remove southern sea otters from San Nicolas Island and the management zone. This proposed rule would also eliminate future actions, required under the current regulations, to capture and relocate southern sea otters for the purpose of establishing an experimental population, and to remove southern sea otters in perpetuity from an ``otter-free'' management zone. As a result, it would allow southern sea otters to expand their range naturally into southern California waters. We have prepared a revised draft supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) and an initial regulatory flexibility analysis (IRFA) to accompany this proposed rule.

  12. Patterns of Deep-Water Coral Diversity in the Caribbean Basin and Adjacent Southern Waters: An Approach based on Records from the R/V Pillsbury Expeditions

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ávila, Iván

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of deep-water corals in the Caribbean Sea was studied using records from oceanographic expeditions performed by the R/V Pillsbury. Sampled stations were sorted according to broad depth ranges and ecoregions and were analyzed in terms of species accumulation curves, variance in the species composition and contributions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity. According to the analysis of species accumulation curves using the Chao2 estimator, more diversity occurs on the continental slope (200–2000 m depth) than on the upper continental shelf (60–200 m depth). In addition to the effect of depth sampling, differences in species composition related to depth ranges were detected. However, the differences between ecoregions are dependent on depth ranges, there were fewer differences among ecoregions on the continental slope than on the upper continental shelf. Indicator species for distinctness of ecoregions were, in general, Alcyonaria and Antipatharia for the upper continental shelf, but also the scleractinians Madracis myriabilis and Cladocora debilis. In the continental slope, the alcyonarian Placogorgia and the scleractinians Stephanocyathus and Fungiacyathus were important for the distinction of ecoregions. Beta diversity was the most important component of gamma diversity in the Caribbean Basin. The contribution of ecoregions to alpha, beta and gamma diversity differed with depth range. On the upper continental shelf, the Southern Caribbean ecoregion contributed substantially to all components of diversity. In contrast, the northern ecoregions contributed substantially to the diversity of the Continental Slope. Strategies for the conservation of deep-water coral diversity in the Caribbean Basin must consider the variation between ecoregions and depth ranges. PMID:24671156

  13. Characterisation of nutrients wet deposition under influence of Saharan dust at Puerto-Rico in Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desboeufs, Karine; Formenti, Paola; Triquet, Sylvain; Laurent, Benoit; Denjean, Cyrielle; Gutteriez-Moreno, Ian E.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2015-04-01

    Large quantities of African dust are carried across the North Atlantic toward the Caribbean every summer by Trade Winds. Atmospheric deposition of dust aerosols, and in particular wet deposition, is widely acknowledged to be the major delivery pathway for nutrients to ocean ecosystems, as iron, phosphorus and various nitrogen species. The deposition of this dustis so known to have an important impact on biogeochemical processes in the Tropical and Western Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean including Puerto-Rico. However, very few data exists on the chemical composition in nutrients in dusty rain in this region. In the framework of the Dust-ATTAcK project, rainwater was collected at the natural reserve of Cape San Juan (CSJ) (18.38°N, 65.62°W) in Puerto-Ricobetween 20 June 2012 and 12 July 2012 during thedusty period. A total of 7 rainwater events were sampled during various dust plumes. Complementary chemical analyses on aerosols in suspension was also determined during the campaign. The results on dust composition showed that no mixing with anthropogenic material was observed, confirming dust aerosols were the major particles incorporated in rain samples. The partitioning between soluble and particulate nutrients in rain samples showed that phosphorous solubility ranged from 30 and 80%. The average Fe solubility was around 0.5%, in agreement with Fe solubility observed in rains collected in Niger during African monsoon. That means that the high solubility measurements previously observed in Caribbean was probably due to an anthropogenic influence. Atmospheric wet deposition fluxes of soluble and total nutrients (N, P, Si, Fe, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn) to Caribbean Sea were determined. Atmospheric P and N inputs were strongly depleted relative to the stoichiometry of phytoplankton Fe, N, P and Si requirements.The nitrogen speciation was also determined and showed the predominance of ammonium form. 3-D modeling was used to estimate the spatial extend of these fluxes over the

  14. Marine climate influences on interannual variability of tropical cyclones in the eastern Caribbean: 1979-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2015-04-01

    Interannual variability of tropical cyclones (TCs) in the eastern Caribbean is studied using MIT-Hurdat fields during the July-October season from 1979 to 2008. TC intensity shows local climate sensitivity particularly for upper ocean currents, salinity and mixed-layer depth, and 200-850 mb wind shear. Remote influences from the Southern Oscillation, Saharan dust, and the South American monsoon are also identified as important. Ocean currents diminish along the coast of South America, so interbasin transfer between the North Brazil and Caribbean Currents declines in seasons of frequent and intense TCs. This is related to a dipole pattern in the sea surface height formed mainly by reduced trade wind upwelling northeast of Venezuela. A low-salinity plume from the Orinoco River spreads across the eastern Caribbean. It is the weaker currents and shallower mixed layer that conspire with surplus heat to build thermodynamic energy available for TC intensification.

  15. Holocene relative sea-level changes from North America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Benjamin; Engelhart, Simon; Vacchi, Matteo; Khan, Nicole; Peltier, Dick; Roy, Keven

    2014-05-01

    Reconstructions of Holocene relative sea level (RSL) are important for identifying the ice equivalent meltwater contribution to sea-level change during deglaciation. Holocene RSL reconstructions from near, intermediate and far field regions enable the assessment of earth and ice parameters of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models. RSL reconstructions provide data for estimating rates of spatially variable and ongoing vertical land motion; a requirement for understanding the variation in modern and late Holocene sea level as recorded by instrumental and proxy records. Here we explain the methodology employed to reconstruct former sea levels, which follows the practice of the International Geoscience Programme (IGCP). We produce sea level index points from the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America and the Caribbean. Index points are defined as the most reliable observations of former sea levels. They consist of an estimate of X (age) and Y (the position of former RSL). Where a suite of index points are developed for a locality or region, they describe changes in RSL through time and estimate rates of change. A valid index point must meet the following four criteria; (1) location of the sample is known; (2) the altitude of the sample (and the error associated with measuring that altitude) is known; (3) the indicative meaning (the relationship between the sample and a tide level) is estimated; and (4) the age of the sample, which is commonly radiocarbon dated is calibrated to sidereal years using the latest calibration curves. In total databases have over 2000 sea-level index points from formerly ice covered, uplifting regions of Canada, to the region of forebulge collapse along the subsiding mid-Atlantic and mid-Pacific coastlines of the United States, to the tropical regions of the Caribbean. Recent analyses of these new published databases have led to a further refinement of the most recent of the ICE-NG (VMX) series of global models of GIA. The records

  16. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanni, K.D.; Mazet, J.A.K.; Gulland, F.M.D.; Estes, James A.; Staedler, M.; Murray, M.J.; Miller, M.; Jessup, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population in California (USA) and the Alaskan sea otter (E. lutris kenyoni) population in the Aleutian Islands (USA) chain have recently declined. In order to evaluate disease as a contributing factor to the declines, health assessments of these two sea otter populations were conducted by evaluating hematologic and/or serum biochemical values and exposure to six marine and terrestrial pathogens using blood collected during ongoing studies from 1995 through 2000. Samples from 72 free-ranging Alaskan, 78 free-ranging southern, and (for pathogen exposure only) 41 debilitated southern sea otters in rehabilitation facilities were evaluated and compared to investigate regional differences. Serum chemistry and hematology values did not indicate a specific disease process as a cause for the declines. Statistically significant differences were found between free-ranging adult southern and Alaskan population mean serum levels of creatinine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorous, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, and sodium. These were likely due to varying parasite loads, contaminant exposures, and physiologic or nutrition statuses. No free-ranging sea otters had signs of disease at capture, and prevalences of exposure to calicivirus, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. were low. The high prevalence (35%) of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging southern sea otters, lack of antibodies to this parasite in Alaskan sea otters, and the pathogen's propensity to cause mortality in southern sea otters suggests that this parasite may be important to sea otter population dynamics in California but not in Alaska. The evidence for exposure to pathogens of public health importance (e.g., Leptospira spp., T. gondii) in the southern sea otter population, and the naïveté of both populations to other pathogens (e.g., morbillivirus

  17. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters.

    PubMed

    Hanni, Krista D; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gulland, Frances M D; Estes, James; Staedler, Michelle; Murray, Michael J; Miller, Melissa; Jessup, David A

    2003-10-01

    The southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population in California (USA) and the Alaskan sea otter (E. lutris kenyoni) population in the Aleutian Islands (USA) chain have recently declined. In order to evaluate disease as a contributing factor to the declines, health assessments of these two sea otter populations were conducted by evaluating hematologic and/or serum biochemical values and exposure to six marine and terrestrial pathogens using blood collected during ongoing studies from 1995 through 2000. Samples from 72 free-ranging Alaskan, 78 free-ranging southern, and (for pathogen exposure only) 41 debilitated southern sea otters in rehabilitation facilities were evaluated and compared to investigate regional differences. Serum chemistry and hematology values did not indicate a specific disease process as a cause for the declines. Statistically significant differences were found between free-ranging adult southern and Alaskan population mean serum levels of creatinine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorous, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, and sodium. These were likely due to varying parasite loads, contaminant exposures, and physiologic or nutrition statuses. No free-ranging sea otters had signs of disease at capture, and prevalences of exposure to calicivirus, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. were low. The high prevalence (35%) of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging southern sea otters, lack of antibodies to this parasite in Alaskan sea otters, and the pathogen's propensity to cause mortality in southern sea otters suggests that this parasite may be important to sea otter population dynamics in California but not in Alaska. The evidence for exposure to pathogens of public health importance (e.g., Leptospira spp., T. gondii) in the southern sea otter population, and the naïveté of both populations to other pathogens (e.g., morbillivirus

  18. 76 FR 68393 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Revised Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... draft supplemental environmental impact statement on the translocation of southern sea otters (revised...

  19. Coccidioidomycosis in southern sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Nancy J.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Duncan, Ruth M.

    1994-01-01

    Disseminated coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed postmortem in six southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dying or dead along the Pacific Coast of California at San Luis Obispo County.  These otters were found during winter or summer 1992, 1993, and 1994.  Coccidioides immitis was identified by its morphology in tissue impression smears and by histopathology, and was confirmed by culture.  Positive serologic results were obtained from four of five sea otters tested.  The lungs, pleura, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, liver, and spleen were involved in each case.  There was meningeal involvement in half of the affected animals.  Coccidioidomycosis has been reported in a wild sea otter only once previously, in 1976, and that otter was also found on the coast of San Luis Obispo County.

  20. 77 FR 67302 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters (final SEIS). The final...

  1. Numerical Simulation of Several Tectonic Tsunami Sources at the Caribbean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon-Barrantes, S. E.; Lopez, A. M.; Macias, J.; Zamora, N.; Moore, C. W.; Llorente Isidro, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Tsunami Hazard Assessment Working Group (WG2) of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards Early Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG/CARIBE-EWS), has been tasked to identify tsunami sources for the Caribbean region and evaluate their effects along Caribbean coasts. A list of tectonic sources was developed and presented at the Fall 2015 AGU meeting and the WG2 is currently working on a list of non-tectonic sources. In addition, three Experts Meetings have already been held in 2016 to define worst-case, most credible scenarios for southern Hispaniola and Central America. The WG2 has been tasked to simulate these scenarios to provide an estimate of the resulting effects on coastal areas within the Caribbean. In this study we simulated tsunamis with two leading numerical models (NEOWAVE and Tsunami-HySEA) to compare results among them and report on the consequences for the Caribbean region if a tectonically-induced tsunami occurs in any of these postulated sources. The considered sources are located offshore Central America, at the North Panamá Deformed Belt (NPDB), at the South Caribbean Deformed Belt (SCDB) and around La Hispaniola Island. Results obtained in this study are critical to develop a catalog of scenarios that can be used in future CaribeWave exercises, as well as their usage for ICG/CARIBE-EWS member states as input to model tsunami inundation for their coastal locations. Data from inundation parameters are an additional step to produce tsunami evacuation maps, and develop plans and procedures to increase tsunami awareness and preparedness within the Caribbean.

  2. Cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and their relationship to extreme wave events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Otero, L. J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Ruiz, J.; Cadena, M.

    2013-11-01

    Extreme ocean waves in the Caribbean Sea are commonly related to the effects of storms and hurricanes during the months of June through November. The collapse of 200 m of the Puerto Colombia pier in March 2009 revealed the effects of meteorological phenomena other than storms and hurricanes that may be influencing the extreme wave regime in the Colombian Caribbean. The marked seasonality of these atmospheric fronts was established by analyzing the meteorological-marine reports of the Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales of Colombia (IDEAM, based on its initials in Spanish) and the Centro de Investigación en Oceanografía y Meteorología of Colombia (CIOH, based on its initials in Spanish) during the last 16 yr. The highest number of cold fronts was observed during the months of January, February, and March, with 6 fronts occurring per year. An annual trend was observed and the highest number of fronts occurred in 2010 (20 in total); moreover, an annual strong relationship between the maximum average wave values and the cold fronts in the central zone of the Colombian Caribbean during the first three months of the year was established. In addition, the maximum values of the significant height produced by the passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the

  3. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two “golden basses” found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberransand L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus,Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, includingBathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3–135 m, 30–150 m, 133–411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182–241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropomaspecies. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini.

  4. Planktonic Foraminifera Study at Site ODP 999A (Caribbean Sea): Insights into Oceanic Exchange and Paleocirculation During the last 450 Kyrs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vautravers, M. J.; Spero, H. J.; Schmidt, M. W.

    2004-12-01

    A recent micro-palaeontological study of a core from the South Atlantic (Peeters et al., Nature. 430, 661, 2004) stresses the importance of the Agulhas leakage intensity as a key control on North Atlantic Thermohaline operation. Planktonic foraminifera counts were conducted on the Colombian Basin core ODP 999A (12° N, 74° W, 2878 m); results are presented on a SPECMAP-based age model (Schmidt et al., in prep 2004). At present both climate and surface circulation are driven by the motion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which governs dry/wet seasons and upwelling intensity. Caribbean surface water originates from both the south Atlantic, which re-circulates Indian Ocean water, and the north Atlantic subtropical gyre. Similarly the deep-water is a mixture of AAIW and UNADW, originating in the southern and northern hemispheres respectively. A CaCO3 preservation index, which is deduced from planktonic fragments and pteropod remains, is used to trace changes in the intermediate water mixture. This study confirms that the sediments are better preserved during glacial times. Furthermore, it shows that the sediments of MIS11 are intensely dissolved, suggesting a maximal contribution of AAIW. Over the last 450 kyr, we observe a decreasing contribution of the AAIW during both interglacial and glacial times. In addition, the Holocene appears unusual, with a low AAIW to UNADW ratio in comparison to previous warm intervals. An examination of the percentages of the surface Indo-Pacific species G. menardii seems to confirm part this result, identifying MIS11 as a time of maximal Indian-Atlantic exchange via the Agulhas 3valve2. It also confirms that during MIS2, 3 and 4, Caribbean surface waters were unusually unfavourable for this species and/or that the Agulhas connection was absent. The % of G. Hexagona, another Indo-Pacific species, which lives in deeper thermocline waters, peaks during MIS11, MIS9e, MIS7c and MIS5e but is absent during the Holocene and MIS7e

  5. Observed and Modeled Trends in Southern Ocean Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2003-01-01

    Conceptual models and global climate model (GCM) simulations have both indicated the likelihood of an enhanced sensitivity to climate change in the polar regions, derived from the positive feedbacks brought about by the polar abundance of snow and ice surfaces. Some models further indicate that the changes in the polar regions can have a significant impact globally. For instance, 37% of the temperature sensitivity to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 in simulations with the GCM of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) is attributable exclusively to inclusion of sea ice variations in the model calculations. Both sea ice thickness and sea ice extent decrease markedly in the doubled CO, case, thereby allowing the ice feedbacks to occur. Stand-alone sea ice models have shown Southern Ocean hemispherically averaged winter ice-edge retreats of 1.4 deg latitude for each 1 K increase in atmospheric temperatures. Observations, however, show a much more varied Southern Ocean ice cover, both spatially and temporally, than many of the modeled expectations. In fact, the satellite passive-microwave record of Southern Ocean sea ice since late 1978 has revealed overall increases rather than decreases in ice extents, with ice extent trends on the order of 11,000 sq km/year. When broken down spatially, the positive trends are strongest in the Ross Sea, while the trends are negative in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas. Greater spatial detail can be obtained by examining trends in the length of the sea ice season, and those trends show a coherent picture of shortening sea ice seasons throughout almost the entire Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula and in the far western Weddell Sea immediately to the east of the Peninsula, with lengthening sea ice seasons around much of the rest of the continent. This pattern corresponds well with the spatial pattern of temperature trends, as the Peninsula region is the one region in the Antarctic with a strong

  6. Recent Extreme Marine Events at Southern Coast of Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Kirezci, Cagil; Baykal, Cuneyt; Gokhan Guler, Hasan; Erol, Onur; Zaytsev, Andrey; Kurkin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The utilization at the coastal areas of Black Sea basin has increased in the recent years with the projects such as large commercial ports, international transportation hubs, gas and petrol pipelines, touristic and recreational infrastructures both along surrounding shoreline. Although Black Sea is a closed basin, extreme storms and storm surges have also been observed with an increasing frequency in the recent years. Among those events, February 1999, March 2013 and September 2014 storms impacted Southern coast of Black sea have clearly shown that the increasing economic value at the coastal areas caused the increasing cost of damages and loss of property by natural hazards. The storm occurred on February 19-20, 1999 is one of the most destructive storm in the last decades. The 1999 event (1999 Southern Black sea storm) caused destruction at all harbors and coastal protection structures along the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The complete damage of the breakwater of Giresun Harbor and damage on the harbor structures and cargo handling equipment were the major impacts of the 1999 Southern Black sea storm. Similar coastal impact have also been observed during the September 24, 2014 storm at 500m East of Giresun harbor. Although there are considerable number of destructive storms observed at southern coast of Black sea recently, data on these events are limited and vastly scattered. In this study the list of recent extreme marine events at South coast of the Black sea compiled and related data such as wind speed, wave height, period, and type of damages are cataloged. Particular attention is focused on the 1999 and 2014 storm events. The meteorological and morphological characteristics which may be considered as the reasons of the generation and coastal amplification of these storms are discussed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This study is partly supported by Turkish Russian Joint Research Grant Program by TUBITAK (Turkey) and RFBR (Russia), and TUBITAK 213M534 Research Project.

  7. Defining and Dividing the Greater Caribbean: Insights from the Biogeography of Shorefishes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, “Carolinian” biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1) a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2) a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii) a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves), and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the Tropical

  8. Dynamic Topography and Sea Level Anomalies of the Southern Ocean: Variability and Teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, Thomas W. K.; Kwok, Ron; Thompson, Andrew F.; Cunningham, Glenn

    2018-01-01

    This study combines sea surface height (SSH) estimates of the ice-covered Southern Ocean with conventional open-ocean SSH estimates from CryoSat-2 to produce monthly composites of dynamic ocean topography (DOT) and sea level anomaly (SLA) on a 50 km grid spanning 2011-2016. This data set reveals the full Southern Ocean SSH seasonal cycle for the first time; there is an antiphase relationship between sea level on the Antarctic continental shelf and the deeper basins, with coastal SSH highest in autumn and lowest in spring. As a result of this pattern of seasonal SSH variability, the barotropic component of the Antarctic Slope Current (ASC) has speeds that are regionally up to twice as fast in the autumn. Month-to-month circulation variability of the Ross and Weddell Gyres is strongly influenced by the local wind field, and is correlated with the local wind curl (Ross: -0.58; Weddell: -0.67). SSH variability is linked to both the Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode, dominant modes of southern hemisphere climate variability. In particular, during the strong 2015-2016 El Niño, a sustained negative coastal SLA of up to -6 cm, implying a weakening of the ASC, was observed in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. The ability to examine sea level variability in the seasonally ice-covered regions of the Southern Ocean—climatically important regions with an acute sparsity of data—makes this new merged sea level record of particular interest to the Southern Ocean oceanography and glaciology communities.

  9. Early dispersals of maize and other food plants into the Southern Caribbean and Northeastern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagán-Jiménez, Jaime R.; Rodríguez-Ramos, Reniel; Reid, Basil A.; van den Bel, Martijn; Hofman, Corinne L.

    2015-09-01

    Grindstones from Eva 2 and St. John, two of the earliest sites in northeastern South America and the southern Caribbean respectively, were subjected to starch grain analysis. Results of this study revealed that these stone artifacts were utilized to process a variety of cultivars such as maize (Zea mays), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), achira (Canna spp.), legumes (Fabaceae), and yams (Dioscoreaceae), coupled with wild resources, most notably marunguey (Zamia spp.). Radiocarbon dates indicate that the use of plants identified at these two sites were much older than previously considered, going back to at least 7790 cal. BP at St. John and 5990 cal. BP at Eva 2. This new evidence showcases the importance of the Caribbean basin as an arena for early phytocultural dispersals. It also focuses attention on the role of navigation as a mechanism for crop diffusion in the Neotropics.

  10. Influence of longer dry seasons in the Southern Amazon on patterns of water vapor transport over northern South America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo, Jhoana; Arias, Paola A.; Vieira, Sara C.; Martínez, J. Alejandro

    2018-06-01

    Several studies have identified a recent lengthening of the dry season over the southern Amazon during the last three decades. Some explanations to this lengthening suggest the influence of changes in the regional circulation over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, whereas others point to the influence of vegetation changes over the Amazon rainforest. This study aims to understand the implications of more frequent long dry seasons in this forest on atmospheric moisture transport toward northern South America and the Caribbean region. Using a semi-Langrangian model for water vapor tracking, results indicate that longer dry seasons in the southern Amazon relate to reductions of water vapor content over the southern and eastern Amazon basin, due to significant reductions of evaporation and recycled precipitation rates in these regions, especially during the transition from dry to wet conditions in the southern Amazon. On the other hand, longer dry seasons also relate to enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Caribbean and northern South America regions, mainly due to increased contributions of water vapor from oceanic regions and the increase of surface moisture convergence over the equatorial region. This highlights the importance of understanding the relative role of regional circulation and local surface conditions on modulating water vapor transport toward continental regions.

  11. Southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, north of Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-01-20

    SL4-141-4340 (20 Jan. 1974) --- An oblique view of the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, north of Japan, as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit by one of the Skylab 4 crewmen. The camera used was a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad, and SO-368 medium-speed Ektachrome. NORTH IS AT THE TOP WHEN THE PICTURE IS HELD WITH THE LARGEST LAND MASS AT THE BOTTOM. Most of the land area is Hokkaido Island, Japan. The southern tip of Sakhalin Island (Soviet Union) is in the northwest corner. This photograph was taken to aid in the study of the formation of sea ice. Comparison of these photographs will be made with observations made during a joint USSR-U.S. experiment in the Bering Sea a year earlier. Observations in the Sea of Okhotsk are of interest because the ice has a morphology similar to that of the Bering Sea. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Paleoenvironmental evidence for first human colonization of the eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Peter E.; Jones, John G.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Dunning, Nicholas P.; Farrell, Pat; Duncan, Neil A.; Curtis, Jason H.; Singh, Sushant K.

    2015-12-01

    Identifying and dating first human colonization of new places is challenging, especially when group sizes were small and material traces of their occupations were ephemeral. Generating reliable reconstructions of human colonization patterns from intact archaeological sites may be difficult to impossible given post-depositional taphonomic processes and in cases of island and coastal locations the inundation of landscapes resulting from post-Pleistocene sea-level rise. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction is proving to be a more reliable method of identifying small-scale human colonization events than archaeological data alone. We demonstrate the method through a sediment-coring project across the Lesser Antilles and southern Caribbean. Paleoenvironmental data were collected informing on the timing of multiple island-colonization events and land-use histories spanning the full range of human occupations in the Caribbean, from the initial forays into the islands through the arrival and eventual domination of the landscapes and indigenous people by Europeans. In some areas, our data complement archaeological, paleoecological, and historical findings from the Lesser Antilles and in others amplify understanding of colonization history. Here, we highlight data relating to the timing and process of initial colonization in the eastern Caribbean. In particular, paleoenvironmental data from Trinidad, Grenada, Martinique, and Marie-Galante (Guadeloupe) provide a basis for revisiting initial colonization models of the Caribbean. We conclude that archaeological programs addressing human occupations dating to the early to mid-Holocene, especially in dynamic coastal settings, should systematically incorporate paleoenvironmental investigations.

  13. Wilma Trek Through Warm Caribbean/Gulf Waters

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-21

    This sea surface height map of the Gulf of Mexico and the northwestern Caribbean Sea, with the Florida peninsula on the upper right, is based on altimeter data from three satellites including NASA Jason-1.

  14. Methylated Arsenic in the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millward, G. E.; Kitts, H. J.; Comber, S. D. W.; Ebdon, L.; Howard, A. G.

    1996-07-01

    Water samples collected in the southern North Sea in August 1988 (mid-summer), April 1989 (spring), September/October 1989 (late summer) and May 1990 were analysed for dissolved inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsenic (MMA) and dimethylarsenic (DMA). In mid-summer 1988, both MMA and DMA were observed throughout the southern North Sea, with lowest concentrations of dissolved inorganic arsenic (mean 6·48 nmol l -1) and the highest proportions of methylated arsenic (29%) being found in highly productive continental coastal waters. In April 1989, waters of the North Sea had a mean inorganic arsenic concentration of 12 nmol l -1and methylated species were not detected, even though phytoplankton blooms were present. Shipboard phytoplankton incubation studies (in May 1990) revealed that uptake of dissolved inorganic arsenic occurred at a rate of 0·57 nmol l -1 day -1, but the appearance of dissolved methylated species was not observed. During September/October 1989, while MMA and DMA were present in all sectors of the North Sea, the relative proportion of methylated compounds (11%) in continental coastal waters was less than mid-summer 1988. It was shown that estuarine, porewater and atmospheric inputs of arsenic species were relatively small during the observational periods, and that almost all of the methylated compounds originated from decaying algal tissue. Demethylation of DMA and MMA throughout winter contributed to the dissolved inorganic arsenic pool. The results are discussed in the context of the development of a predictive model for the cycling of arsenic in the North Sea.

  15. Sea otters are recolonizing southern California in fits and starts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2014-01-01

    After near extinction as a result of the fur trade in the 1700s and 1800s, the southern sea otter slowly reoccupied the core of its range in central California. Range expansion beyond central California is seen as key to full recovery of otters, but the rate of expansion has been sporadic, raising concerns about habitat quality in southern California. To describe the range expansion of sea otters from central into southern California, we used skiff surveys, aerial surveys, and archival time-depth recorders from 2004 to 2013. These observations show that range expansion began when male otters swam southeast of Point Conception (Cojo Anchorage), perhaps to seek refuge from bad weather and to feed on unexploited resources. After several years of seasonal use by male groups, females began to use the area, leading to reproduction and a secondary increase in abundance. In contrast, a second male group that moved farther down the coast to Coal Oil Point stalled and retreated. Such range expansion and contraction can be explained by the social nature of sea otters, which acts to slow dispersal away from groups. Otter densities at Cojo Anchorage are now approaching equilibrium levels reported for central California. As in central California, otters rested in and near kelp forest habitat, but used deeper water for foraging. Together, these observations suggest habitat in the Santa Barbara Channel can still support sea otters, but range expansion of otters into southern California will be episodic due to social dynamics.

  16. Subregional precipitation climate of the Caribbean and relationships with ENSO and NAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark; Malmgren, BjöRn A.; Winter, Amos

    2007-08-01

    Thirty-five meteorological stations encompassing the Caribbean region (Cuba, Bahamas, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, St. Maarten, and Barbados) were analyzed over the time interval 1951-1981 to assess regional precipitation patterns and their relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Application of factor analysis to these series revealed the existence of four geographically distinct precipitation regions, (C1) western Cuba and northwestern Bahamas, (C2) Jamaica, eastern Cuba, and southeastern Bahamas, (C3) Dominican Republic and northwestern Puerto Rico, and (C4) eastern Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, St. Maarten, and Barbados. This regionalization is related to different annual cycles and interannual fluctuations of rainfall. The annual cycle is more unimodal and largest in the northwest Caribbean (C1) and becomes increasingly bimodal toward lower latitudes (C4) as expected. Year-to-year variations of precipitation are compared with two well-known climatic indices. The ENSO relationship, represented by Niño 3.4 sea surface temperatures (SST), is positive and stable at all lags, but tends to reverse over the SE Caribbean (C4) in late summer. The NAO influence is weak and seasonally dependent. Early summer rainfall in the northwest Caribbean (C1) increases under El Niño conditions. Clusters 2 and 3 are less influenced by the global predictors and more regional in character.

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of native maize populations in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Claudia A; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Hearne, Sarah; Franco, Jorge; Mir, Celine; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Taba, Suketoshi; Charcosset, Alain; Warburton, Marilyn L

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the genetic diversity and population structure of 194 native maize populations from 23 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The germplasm, representing 131 distinct landraces, was genetically characterized as population bulks using 28 SSR markers. Three main groups of maize germplasm were identified. The first, the Mexico and Southern Andes group, highlights the Pre-Columbian and modern exchange of germplasm between North and South America. The second group, Mesoamerica lowland, supports the hypothesis that two separate human migration events could have contributed to Caribbean maize germplasm. The third, the Andean group, displayed early introduction of maize into the Andes, with little mixing since then, other than a regional interchange zone active in the past. Events and activities in the pre- and post-Columbian Americas including the development and expansion of pre-Columbian cultures and the arrival of Europeans to the Americas are discussed in relation to the history of maize migration from its point of domestication in Mesoamerica to South America and the Caribbean through sea and land routes.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of native maize populations in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Bedoya, Claudia A.; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Hearne, Sarah; Franco, Jorge; Mir, Celine; Prasanna, Boddupalli M.; Taba, Suketoshi; Charcosset, Alain; Warburton, Marilyn L.

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the genetic diversity and population structure of 194 native maize populations from 23 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The germplasm, representing 131 distinct landraces, was genetically characterized as population bulks using 28 SSR markers. Three main groups of maize germplasm were identified. The first, the Mexico and Southern Andes group, highlights the Pre-Columbian and modern exchange of germplasm between North and South America. The second group, Mesoamerica lowland, supports the hypothesis that two separate human migration events could have contributed to Caribbean maize germplasm. The third, the Andean group, displayed early introduction of maize into the Andes, with little mixing since then, other than a regional interchange zone active in the past. Events and activities in the pre- and post-Columbian Americas including the development and expansion of pre-Columbian cultures and the arrival of Europeans to the Americas are discussed in relation to the history of maize migration from its point of domestication in Mesoamerica to South America and the Caribbean through sea and land routes. PMID:28403177

  19. Caribbean coral growth influenced by anthropogenic aerosol emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Cox, Peter M.; Economou, Theo; Halloran, Paul R.; Mumby, Peter J.; Booth, Ben B. B.; Carilli, Jessica; Guzman, Hector M.

    2013-05-01

    Coral growth rates are highly dependent on environmental variables such as sea surface temperature and solar irradiance. Multi-decadal variability in coral growth rates has been documented throughout the Caribbean over the past 150-200 years, and linked to variations in Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Multi-decadal variability in sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic, in turn, has been linked to volcanic and anthropogenic aerosol forcing. Here, we examine the drivers of changes in coral growth rates in the western Caribbean between 1880 and 2000, using previously published coral growth chronologies from two sites in the region, and a numerical model. Changes in coral growth rates over this period coincided with variations in sea surface temperature and incoming short-wave radiation. Our model simulations show that variations in the concentration of anthropogenic aerosols caused variations in sea surface temperature and incoming radiation in the second half of the twentieth century. Before this, variations in volcanic aerosols may have played a more important role. With the exception of extreme mass bleaching events, we suggest that neither climate change from greenhouse-gas emissions nor ocean acidification is necessarily the driver of multi-decadal variations in growth rates at some Caribbean locations. Rather, the cause may be regional climate change due to volcanic and anthropogenic aerosol emissions.

  20. 33 CFR 334.1470 - Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques; bombing and gunnery target area. 334.1470 Section 334.1470 Navigation...; bombing and gunnery target area. (a) The danger zone. From Punta Conejo on the south coast of Vieques at...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1470 - Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques; bombing and gunnery target area. 334.1470 Section 334.1470 Navigation...; bombing and gunnery target area. (a) The danger zone. From Punta Conejo on the south coast of Vieques at...

  2. Antarctic icebergs melt over the Southern Ocean : Climatology and impact on sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Nacho; Le Sommer, Julien; Durand, Gael; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Madec, Gurvan; Mathiot, Pierre; Tournadre, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Recent increase in Antarctic freshwater release to the Southern Ocean is suggested to contribute to change in water masses and sea ice. However, climate models differ in their representation of the freshwater sources. Recent improvements in altimetry-based detection of small icebergs and in estimates of the mass loss of Antarctica may help better constrain the values of Antarctic freshwater releases. We propose a model-based seasonal climatology of iceberg melt over the Southern Ocean using state-of-the-art observed glaciological estimates of the Antarctic mass loss. An improved version of a Lagrangian iceberg model is coupled with a global, eddy-permitting ocean/sea ice model and compared to small icebergs observations. Iceberg melt increases sea ice cover, about 10% in annual mean sea ice volume, and decreases sea surface temperature over most of the Southern Ocean, but with distinctive regional patterns. Our results underline the importance of improving the representation of Antarctic freshwater sources. This can be achieved by forcing ocean/sea ice models with a climatological iceberg fresh-water flux.

  3. Interannual variability of monthly Southern Ocean sea ice distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    1992-01-01

    The interannual variability of the Southern-Ocean sea-ice distributions was mapped and analyzed using data from Nimbus-5 ESMR and Nimbus-7 SMMR, collected from 1973 to 1987. The set of 12 monthly maps obtained reveals many details on spatial variability that are unobtainable from time series of ice extents. These maps can be used as baseline maps for comparisons against future Southern Ocean sea ice distributions. The maps are supplemented by more detailed maps of the frequency of ice coverage, presented in this paper for one month within each of the four seasons, and by the breakdown of these results to the periods covered individually by each of the two passive-microwave imagers.

  4. Evaluation of wind induced currents modeling along the Southern Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohluly, Asghar; Esfahani, Fariba Sadat; Montazeri Namin, Masoud; Chegini, Fatemeh

    2018-02-01

    To improve our understanding of the Caspian Sea hydrodynamics, its circulation is simulated with special focus on wind-driven currents of its southern basin. The hydrodynamic models are forced with a newly developed fine resolution wind field to increase the accuracy of current modeling. A 2D shallow water equation model and a 3D baroclinic model are applied separately to examine the performance of each model for specific applications in the Caspian Sea. The model results are validated against recent field measurements including AWAC and temperature observations in the southern continental shelf region. Results show that the 2D model is able to well predict the depth-averaged current speed in storm conditions in narrow area of southern coasts. This finding suggests physical oceanographers apply 2D modeling as a more affordable method for extreme current speed analysis at the continental shelf region. On the other hand the 3D model demonstrates a better performance in reproducing monthly mean circulation and hence is preferable for surface circulation of Caspian Sea. Monthly sea surface circulation fields of the southern basin reveal a dipole cyclonic-anticyclonic pattern, a dominant eastward current along the southern coasts which intensifies from May to November and a dominant southward current along the eastern coasts in all months except February when the flow is northward. Monthly mean wind fields exhibit two main patterns including a north-south pattern occurring at warm months and collision of two wind fronts especially in the cold months. This collision occurs on a narrow region at the southern continental shelf regions. Due to wind field complexities, it leads to a major source of uncertainty in predicting the wind-driven currents. However, this source of uncertainty is significantly alleviated by applying a fine resolution wind field.

  5. CARICOF - The Caribbean Regional Climate Outlook Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meerbeeck, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs) are viewed as a critical building block in the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The GFCS seeks to extend RCOFs to all vulnerable regions of the world such as the Caribbean, of which the entire population is exposed to water- and heat-related natural hazards. An RCOF is initially intended to identify gaps in information and technical capability; facilitate research cooperation and data exchange within and between regions, and improve coordination within the climate forecasting community. A focus is given on variations in climate conditions on a seasonal timescale. In this view, the relevance of a Caribbean RCOF (CARICOF) is the following: while the seasonality of the climate in the Caribbean has been well documented, major gaps in knowledge exist in terms of the drivers in the shifts of amplitude and phase of seasons (as evidenced from the worst region-wide drought period in recent history during 2009-2010). To address those gaps, CARICOF has brought together National Weather Services (NWSs) from 18 territories under the coordination of the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH), to produce region-wide, consensus, seasonal climate outlooks since March 2012. These outlooks include tercile rainfall forecasts, sea and air surface temperature forecasts as well as the likely evolution of the drivers of seasonal climate variability in the region, being amongst others the El Niño Southern Oscillation or tropical Atlantic and Caribbean Sea temperatures. Forecasts for both the national-scale forecasts made by the NWSs and CIMH's regional-scale forecast amalgamate output from several forecasting tools. These currently include: (1) statistical models such as Canonical Correlation Analysis run with the Climate Predictability Tool, providing tercile rainfall forecasts at weather station scale; (2) a global outlooks published by the WMO appointed Global Producing

  6. Survival and breeding of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea in relation to sea ice.

    PubMed

    Regehr, Eric V; Hunter, Christine M; Caswell, Hal; Amstrup, Steven C; Stirling, Ian

    2010-01-01

    1. Observed and predicted declines in Arctic sea ice have raised concerns about marine mammals. In May 2008, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed polar bears (Ursus maritimus) - one of the most ice-dependent marine mammals - as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. 2. We evaluated the effects of sea ice conditions on vital rates (survival and breeding probabilities) for polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea. Although sea ice declines in this and other regions of the polar basin have been among the greatest in the Arctic, to date population-level effects of sea ice loss on polar bears have only been identified in western Hudson Bay, near the southern limit of the species' range. 3. We estimated vital rates using multistate capture-recapture models that classified individuals by sex, age and reproductive category. We used multimodel inference to evaluate a range of statistical models, all of which were structurally based on the polar bear life cycle. We estimated parameters by model averaging, and developed a parametric bootstrap procedure to quantify parameter uncertainty. 4. In the most supported models, polar bear survival declined with an increasing number of days per year that waters over the continental shelf were ice free. In 2001-2003, the ice-free period was relatively short (mean 101 days) and adult female survival was high (0.96-0.99, depending on reproductive state). In 2004 and 2005, the ice-free period was longer (mean 135 days) and adult female survival was low (0.73-0.79, depending on reproductive state). Breeding rates and cub litter survival also declined with increasing duration of the ice-free period. Confidence intervals on vital rate estimates were wide. 5. The effects of sea ice loss on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea may apply to polar bear populations in other portions of the polar basin that have similar sea ice dynamics and have experienced similar, or more severe, sea ice declines. Our findings therefore are

  7. Improved Chlorophyll-a Algorithm for the Satellite Ocean Color Data in the Northern Bering Sea and Southern Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Heon; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Jung-woo; Lee, Dabin; Kwon, Jae-Il; Zhao, Jingping; Son, SeungHyun

    2018-03-01

    The Bering and Chukchi seas are an important conduit to the Arctic Ocean and are reported to be one of the most productive regions in the world's oceans in terms of high primary productivity that sustains large numbers of fishes, marine mammals, and sea birds as well as benthic animals. Climate-induced changes in primary production and production at higher trophic levels also have been observed in the northern Bering and Chukchi seas. Satellite ocean color observations could enable the monitoring of relatively long term patterns in chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations that would serve as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass. The performance of existing global and regional Chl-a algorithms for satellite ocean color data was investigated in the northeastern Bering Sea and southern Chukchi Sea using in situ optical measurements from the Healy 2007 cruise. The model-derived Chl-a data using the previous Chl-a algorithms present striking uncertainties regarding Chl-a concentrations-for example, overestimation in lower Chl-a concentrations or systematic overestimation in the northeastern Bering Sea and southern Chukchi Sea. Accordingly, a simple two band ratio (R rs(443)/R rs(555)) algorithm of Chl-a for the satellite ocean color data was devised for the northeastern Bering Sea and southern Chukchi Sea. The MODIS-derived Chl-a data from July 2002 to December 2014 were produced using the new Chl-a algorithm to investigate the seasonal and interannual variations of Chl-a in the northern Bering Sea and the southern Chukchi Sea. The seasonal distribution of Chl-a shows that the highest (spring bloom) Chl-a concentrations are in May and the lowest are in July in the overall area. Chl-a concentrations relatively decreased in June, particularly in the open ocean waters of the Bering Sea. The Chl-a concentrations start to increase again in August and become quite high in September. In October, Chl-a concentrations decreased in the western area of the Study area and the Alaskan

  8. Suspended sediment load in northwestern South America (Colombia): A new view on variability and fluxes into the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo López, Juan Camilo; Orejarena R, Andrés F.; Torregroza, Ana Carolina

    2017-12-01

    Monthly averaged suspended sediment load data from seven rivers in northern Colombia (Caribbean alluvial plain) draining into the Caribbean Sea were analyzed to quantify magnitudes, estimate long-term trends, and evaluate variability patterns of suspended sediment load. Collectively these rivers deliver an average of around 146.3 × 106 t yr-1 of suspended sediments to the Colombian Caribbean coast. The largest sediment supply is provided by the Magdalena River, with a mean suspended sediment load of 142.6 × 106 t yr-1, or 38% of the total fluvial discharge estimated for the whole Caribbean littoral zone. Between 2000 and 2010, the annual suspended sediment load of these rivers increased by as much as 36%. Wavelet spectral analyses identified periods of intense variability between 1987-1990 and 1994-2002, where major oscillation processes appeared simultaneously. The semi-annual, annual and quasi-decadal bands are the main factors controlling suspended sediment load variability in fluvial systems, whereas the quasi-biennial and interannual bands constitute second-order sources of variability. The climatic and oceanographic drivers of the oscillations identified through wavelet spectral analyses define a signal of medium-long-term variability for the suspended sediment load, while the physiographic and environmental characteristics of the basins determine their ability to magnify, attenuate or modify this signal.

  9. Area and shape metrics of rainfall fields associated with tropical cyclones landfalling over the western Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The rainfall associated with TCs making landfall over western Gulf Coast and Caribbean Sea Coast caused numerous fatalities and divesting damage, however, few studies have been done over these regions. This study examines spatial pattern of rain fields associated with TCs making landfall over western Gulf Coast and Caribbean Sea Coast during 1998-2015 through a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based analysis of satellite-estimated rain rates. Regions of light rainfall (rain rate > 2.5 mm/h) and moderate rainfall (rain rate > 5.0 mm/h) during entire life cycle of each TC are converted into polygons and measurements are made of their area, dispersion and displacement during entire life cycle. The metric of dispersion is calculated for the entire rain field as defined by outlining light and moderate rain rates. The displacement to east and north is calculated by area weighted methods. There are three main objectives of this study. The first goal is to measure the area and spatial distribution of rain fields of TCs making landfall over the western Gulf and Caribbean Sea coastlines. We examine in which regions, the light and moderate rainfall area, dispersion and displacement of rainfall have higher values, and how they change during the entire TC life cycle. The second goal is to determine to determine which environmental conditions are associated with the spatial configuration of light and moderate rain rates. The conditions include storm intensity, motion direction and speed, total precipitable water and wind shear. Last, we determine the time that rainfall reaches land relative to the time that the storm's center makes landfall and durations of rainfall from TCs over land.

  10. Diversity and distribution of Chirostyloidea and Galatheoidea (Decapoda, Anomura) in the Southern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Bader, Ana Rosa; Gracia, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We examined the diversity, abundance, distribution, and average size of squat lobsters collected during eight cruises conducted on the continental shelf and slope of the Gulf of Mexico (Mexican/USA border to the Caribbean Sea). Six species belonging to two genera of Chirostyloidea, and 25 species of four genera of Galatheoidea are reported. A total of 1513 specimens were obtained of which 95 were Chirostylidae, two Galatheidae, 285 Munidopsidae, and 1131 Munididae. Of the species collected, 13.8% were only known from Caribbean Sea. Three species of Chirostylidae—Gastroptychus salvadori, Uroptychus capillatus, and Uroptychus spiniger—as well two of Munidopsidae, Munidopsis bradleyi and Munidopsis riveroi, are recorded for the first time in the Gulf of Mexico. The upper bathymetric range of one species and the lower one for eight species are extended. Biological and ecological traits of squat lobsters in the southern Gulf of Mexico are also provided. PMID:27667921

  11. Diversity and distribution of Chirostyloidea and Galatheoidea (Decapoda, Anomura) in the Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Bader, Ana Rosa; Gracia, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the diversity, abundance, distribution, and average size of squat lobsters collected during eight cruises conducted on the continental shelf and slope of the Gulf of Mexico (Mexican/USA border to the Caribbean Sea). Six species belonging to two genera of Chirostyloidea, and 25 species of four genera of Galatheoidea are reported. A total of 1513 specimens were obtained of which 95 were Chirostylidae, two Galatheidae, 285 Munidopsidae, and 1131 Munididae. Of the species collected, 13.8% were only known from Caribbean Sea. Three species of Chirostylidae-Gastroptychus salvadori, Uroptychus capillatus, and Uroptychus spiniger-as well two of Munidopsidae, Munidopsis bradleyi and Munidopsis riveroi, are recorded for the first time in the Gulf of Mexico. The upper bathymetric range of one species and the lower one for eight species are extended. Biological and ecological traits of squat lobsters in the southern Gulf of Mexico are also provided.

  12. Ship-borne electromagnetic induction sounding of sea-ice thickness in the southern Sea of Okhotsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uto, Shotaro; Toyota, Takenobu; Shimoda, Haruhito; Tateyama, Kazutaka; Shirasawa, Kunio

    Recent observations have revealed that dynamical thickening is dominant in the growth process of sea ice in the southern Sea of Okhotsk. That indicates the importance of understanding the nature of thick deformed ice in this area. The objective of the present paper is to establish a ship-based method for observing the thickness of deformed ice with reasonable accuracy. Since February 2003, one of the authors has engaged in the core sampling using a small basket from the icebreaker Soya. Based on these results, we developed a new model which expressed the internal structure of pack ice in the southern Sea of Okhotsk, as a one-dimensional multilayered structure. Since 2004, the electromagnetic (EM) inductive sounding of sea-ice thickness has been conducted on board Soya. By combining the model and theoretical calculations, a new algorithm was developed for transforming the output of the EM inductive instrument to ice + snow thickness (total thickness). Comparison with total thickness by drillhole observations showed fair agreement. The probability density functions of total thickness in 2004 and 2005 showed some difference, which reflected the difference of fractions of thick deformed ice.

  13. Survival and breeding of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea in relation to sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Regehr, E.V.; Hunter, C.M.; Caswell, H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2010-01-01

    1. Observed and predicted declines in Arctic sea ice have raised concerns about marine mammals. In May 2008, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed polar bears (Ursus maritimus) - one of the most ice-dependent marine mammals - as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. 2. We evaluated the effects of sea ice conditions on vital rates (survival and breeding probabilities) for polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea. Although sea ice declines in this and other regions of the polar basin have been among the greatest in the Arctic, to date population-level effects of sea ice loss on polar bears have only been identified in western Hudson Bay, near the southern limit of the species' range. 3. We estimated vital rates using multistate capture-recapture models that classified individuals by sex, age and reproductive category. We used multimodel inference to evaluate a range of statistical models, all of which were structurally based on the polar bear life cycle. We estimated parameters by model averaging, and developed a parametric bootstrap procedure to quantify parameter uncertainty. 4. In the most supported models, polar bear survival declined with an increasing number of days per year that waters over the continental shelf were ice free. In 2001-2003, the ice-free period was relatively short (mean 101 days) and adult female survival was high (0 ∙ 96-0 ∙ 99, depending on reproductive state). In 2004 and 2005, the ice-free period was longer (mean 135 days) and adult female survival was low (0 ∙ 73-0 ∙ 79, depending on reproductive state). Breeding rates and cub litter survival also declined with increasing duration of the ice-free period. Confidence intervals on vital rate estimates were wide. 5. The effects of sea ice loss on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea may apply to polar bear populations in other portions of the polar basin that have similar sea ice dynamics and have experienced similar, or more severe, sea ice declines. Our findings

  14. Mesozoic Compressional Folds of the Nansha Waters, Southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R.; Liu, H.; Yao, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    As an important part of the South China Sea, the southern margin of the South China Sea is fundamental to understand the interaction of the Eurasian, Pacific and Indian-Australian plates and the evolution of the South China Sea. Some multi-channel seismic profiles of the Nansha waters together with published drillings and dredge data were correlated for interpretation. The strata of the study region can be divided into the upper, middle and lower structural layers. The upper and middle structural layers with extensional tectonics are Cenozoic; the lower structural layer suffered compression is Mesozoic. Further structural restoration was done to remove the Cenozoic tectonic influence and to calculate the Mesozoic tectonic compression ratios. The results indicate that two diametrically opposite orientations of compressive stress, S(S)E towards N(N)W orientation and N(N)W towards S(S)E orientation respectively, once existed in the lower structural layer of the study area and shared the same variation trend. The compression ratio values gradually decrease both from the north to the south and from the west to the east in each stress orientation. The phenomena may be related to the opening of the proto-South China Sea (then located in south of the Nansha block) and the rate of the Nansha block drifted northward in Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, which had pushed the Nansha block drifted northward until it collided and sutured with the Southern China Margin. Thus the opening of the present-day South China Sea may be related to this suture zone, which was tectonically weakness zone.Key words: Mesozoic compression; structural restoration; proto-South China Sea; Nansha waters; Southern South China Sea; Acknowledgements: The work was granted by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41476039, 91328205, 41576068 and 41606080).

  15. Holocene Evolution of Precipitation Patterns in the Southwestern US, Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean: Comparison with Tropical SST Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, J. A.; Metcalfe, S. E.; Davies, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    We evaluate proxy reconstructions of Holocene records precipitation in the North American Monsoon region (SW US and northern Mexico) and regions to the south (southern Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean). Seventy-seven precipitation records are tabulated at 2-3 kyr increments for the past 12 kyr, with results displayed mainly on maps. Sites currently dominated by summer precipitation, coupled with proxy records that distinguish summer vs. winter vegetation are used to estimate summer precipitation. Resulting patterns of precipitation variability are evaluated against SST reconstructions from surrounding tropical seas -eastern tropical Pacific, Gulf of California (GoC), Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico (GoM), which are source areas for summer precipitation. During the Younger Dryas, ca. 12 ka, widespread drying in southern regions contrasted with evidence for wetter conditions in multiple records from the SW US. By 9 ka wetter conditions had spread to the southern regions, likely reflecting an increased Caribbean low-level jet associated with an enhanced Bermuda High. Pacific westerlies contributed significant winter precipitation to the southwestern US and northernmost Mexico at 9 ka. The modern geographical pattern of summer precipitation was established by 6 ka, as the Bermuda High moved northward following the demise of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. SSTs in the GoC and GoM increased, and the NAM strengthened. Increased regional precipitation differences are apparent by 4 ka, likely reflecting enhanced ENSO variability. Most of the southern region experienced increased precipitation during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), whereas winter drought dominated in the north. In contrast, much of the Little Ice Age (LIA) was characterized by generally drier conditions in Central America and Mexico, with wetter conditions in the SW US. Results are broadly supportive of enhanced La Niña-like conditions during the MCA vs. increased ENSO variability during the LIA.

  16. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  17. Wide-ranging phylogeographic structure of invasive red lionfish in the Western Atlantic and Greater Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterfield, John S.; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Silliman, Brian R.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Buddo, Dayne; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Searle, Linda; Allen, Aarin Conrad; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    The red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is an invasive predatory marine fish that has rapidly expanded its presence in the Western Hemisphere. We collected 214 invasive red lionfish samples from nine countries and territories, including seven unpublished locations. To more comprehensively evaluate connectivity, we compiled our d-loop sequence data with 846 published sequences, resulting in 1,060 samples from 14 locations. We found low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.003) and moderate haplotype diversity (h = 0.59). Using haplotype population pairwise ΦST tests, we analyzed possible phylogeographic breaks that were previously proposed based on other reef organisms. We found support for the Bahamas/Turks/Caicos versus Caribbean break (ΦST = 0.12) but not for the Northwestern Caribbean, Eastern Caribbean, or US East Coast versus Bahamas breaks. The Northern Region had higher variation and more haplotypes, supporting introductions of at least five haplotypes to the region. Our wide-ranging samples showed that a lower-frequency haplotype in the Northern Region dominated the Southern Region and suggested multiple introductions, possibly to the south. We tested multiple scenarios of phylogeographic structure with analyses of molecular variance and found support for a Northern and Southern Region split at the Bahamas/Turks/Caicos versus Caribbean break (percentage of variation among regions = 8.49 %). We found that Puerto Rico clustered with the Southern Region more strongly than with the Northern Region, as opposed to previous reports. We also found the rare haplotype H03 for the first time in the southern Caribbean (Panama), indicating that either secondary releases occurred or that the low-frequency haplotypes have had time to disperse to extreme southern Caribbean locations.

  18. Horizontal movements, migration patterns, and population structure of whale sharks in the Gulf of Mexico and northwestern Caribbean sea.

    PubMed

    Hueter, Robert E; Tyminski, John P; de la Parra, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, aggregate by the hundreds in a summer feeding area off the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, where the Gulf of Mexico meets the Caribbean Sea. The aggregation remains in the nutrient-rich waters off Isla Holbox, Isla Contoy and Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo for several months in the summer and then dissipates between August and October. Little has been known about where these sharks come from or migrate to after they disperse. From 2003-2012, we used conventional visual tags, photo-identification, and satellite tags to characterize the basic population structure and large-scale horizontal movements of whale sharks that come to this feeding area off Mexico. The aggregation comprised sharks ranging 2.5-10.0 m in total length and included juveniles, subadults, and adults of both sexes, with a male-biased sex ratio (72%). Individual sharks remained in the area for an estimated mean duration of 24-33 days with maximum residency up to about 6 months as determined by photo-identification. After leaving the feeding area the sharks showed horizontal movements in multiple directions throughout the Gulf of Mexico basin, the northwestern Caribbean Sea, and the Straits of Florida. Returns of individual sharks to the Quintana Roo feeding area in subsequent years were common, with some animals returning for six consecutive years. One female shark with an estimated total length of 7.5 m moved at least 7,213 km in 150 days, traveling through the northern Caribbean Sea and across the equator to the South Atlantic Ocean where her satellite tag popped up near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We hypothesize this journey to the open waters of the Mid-Atlantic was for reproductive purposes but alternative explanations are considered. The broad movements of whale sharks across multiple political boundaries corroborates genetics data supporting gene flow between geographically distinct areas and underscores the need for management and conservation strategies for

  19. Horizontal Movements, Migration Patterns, and Population Structure of Whale Sharks in the Gulf of Mexico and Northwestern Caribbean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hueter, Robert E.; Tyminski, John P.; de la Parra, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, aggregate by the hundreds in a summer feeding area off the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, where the Gulf of Mexico meets the Caribbean Sea. The aggregation remains in the nutrient-rich waters off Isla Holbox, Isla Contoy and Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo for several months in the summer and then dissipates between August and October. Little has been known about where these sharks come from or migrate to after they disperse. From 2003–2012, we used conventional visual tags, photo-identification, and satellite tags to characterize the basic population structure and large-scale horizontal movements of whale sharks that come to this feeding area off Mexico. The aggregation comprised sharks ranging 2.5–10.0 m in total length and included juveniles, subadults, and adults of both sexes, with a male-biased sex ratio (72%). Individual sharks remained in the area for an estimated mean duration of 24–33 days with maximum residency up to about 6 months as determined by photo-identification. After leaving the feeding area the sharks showed horizontal movements in multiple directions throughout the Gulf of Mexico basin, the northwestern Caribbean Sea, and the Straits of Florida. Returns of individual sharks to the Quintana Roo feeding area in subsequent years were common, with some animals returning for six consecutive years. One female shark with an estimated total length of 7.5 m moved at least 7,213 km in 150 days, traveling through the northern Caribbean Sea and across the equator to the South Atlantic Ocean where her satellite tag popped up near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We hypothesize this journey to the open waters of the Mid-Atlantic was for reproductive purposes but alternative explanations are considered. The broad movements of whale sharks across multiple political boundaries corroborates genetics data supporting gene flow between geographically distinct areas and underscores the need for management and conservation strategies

  20. Dynamics of the Water Circulations in the Southern South China Sea and Its Seasonal Transports

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, See Hai; Samah, Azizan Abu; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic currents while those in the southern areas are due solely to the wind stress because of negligible Coriolis force there. This study clearly shows that individual surface freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation) controls the sea salinity balance in the Southern South China Sea thermohaline circulations. Analysis of climatological data from a high resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System reveals that the complex bathymetry is important not only for water exchange through the Southern South China Sea but also in regulating various transports across the main passages in the Southern South China Sea, namely the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca. Apart from the above, in comparision with the dynamics of the Sunda Shelf, the Strait of Malacca reflects an equally significant role in the annual transports into the Andaman Sea. PMID:27410682

  1. Dynamics of the Water Circulations in the Southern South China Sea and Its Seasonal Transports.

    PubMed

    Daryabor, Farshid; Ooi, See Hai; Samah, Azizan Abu; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic currents while those in the southern areas are due solely to the wind stress because of negligible Coriolis force there. This study clearly shows that individual surface freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation) controls the sea salinity balance in the Southern South China Sea thermohaline circulations. Analysis of climatological data from a high resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System reveals that the complex bathymetry is important not only for water exchange through the Southern South China Sea but also in regulating various transports across the main passages in the Southern South China Sea, namely the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca. Apart from the above, in comparision with the dynamics of the Sunda Shelf, the Strait of Malacca reflects an equally significant role in the annual transports into the Andaman Sea.

  2. The boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation's influence on summertime precipitation in the greater Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Scott; Gamble, Douglas W.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation totals in the greater Caribbean are known to be affected by interannual variability. In particular, dry conditions in the spring-summer have been physically linked to the positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the literature. In this study, it was found through regression analysis that an active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in winter geographically focused over the Maritime Continent contributes to a positive NAO in March via the generation of Rossby waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, a negative Pacific-North American pattern develops in the winter and transitions to an Atlantic pattern in spring. The positive NAO is a transient feature of this evolving wave train, but a center of significant positive 200 hPa geopotential heights is entrenched over the southeast U.S. throughout the February to May time period and is manifested as high pressure at the surface. The southern flank of this system increases the speeds of the trade winds and leads to a cooling of the Caribbean sea surface temperatures and, thus, convection suppression and reduced precipitation. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the climate of the greater Caribbean by using climate teleconnections to relate the MJO to rainfall in the region.

  3. Southern Salish Sea Habitat Map Series data catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.

    2015-01-01

    This data catalog contains much of the data used to prepare the SIMs in the Southern Salish Sea Habitat Map Series. Other data that were used to prepare the maps were compiled from previously published sources (for example, sediment samples and seismic reflection profiles) and are not included in this data series.

  4. Polar bear population dynamics in the southern Beaufort Sea during a period of sea ice decline.

    PubMed

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey F; Mcdonald, Trent L; Stirling, Ian; Derocher, Andrew E; Richardson, Evan S; Regehr, Eric V; Douglas, David C; Durner, George M; Atwood, Todd; Amstrup, Steven C

    2015-04-01

    In the southern Beaufort Sea of the United States and Canada, prior investigations have linked declines in summer sea ice to reduced physical condition, growth, and survival of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Combined with projections of population decline due to continued climate warming and the ensuing loss of sea ice habitat, those findings contributed to the 2008 decision to list the species as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Here, we used mark-recapture models to investigate the population dynamics of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea from 2001 to 2010, years during which the spatial and temporal extent of summer sea ice generally declined. Low survival from 2004 through 2006 led to a 25-50% decline in abundance. We hypothesize that low survival during this period resulted from (1) unfavorable ice conditions that limited access to prey during multiple seasons; and possibly, (2) low prey abundance. For reasons that are not clear, survival of adults and cubs began to improve in 2007 and abundance was comparatively stable from 2008 to 2010, with ~900 bears in 2010 (90% CI 606-1212). However, survival of subadult bears declined throughout the entire period. Reduced spatial and temporal availability of sea ice is expected to increasingly force population dynamics of polar bears as the climate continues to warm. However, in the short term, our findings suggest that factors other than sea ice can influence survival. A refined understanding of the ecological mechanisms underlying polar bear population dynamics is necessary to improve projections of their future status and facilitate development of management strategies.

  5. Podocotyle nimoyi n. sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae: Plagioporinae) and a re-description of Podocotyle pearsei Manter, 1934 from five species of deep-sea macrourids from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Blend, Charles K; Dronen, Norman O; Armstrong, Howard W

    2016-06-02

    Two rare species of Podocotyle Dujardin, 1845 (Digenea: Opecoelidae) parasitizing five macrourid species inhabiting the deep waters of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea off Panama are described. Podocotyle nimoyi n. sp. was found in the intestine of the pugnose grenadier, Sphagemacrurus grenadae (Parr), and the common Atlantic grenadier, Nezumia aequalis (Günther) (Gadiformes: Macrouridae), at depths of 534-995 m in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico off Florida and represents the fifth species of Podocotyle endemic to the deep sea. Podocotyle pearsei Manter, 1934, was re-described from the intestine of the bullseye grenadier, Bathygadus macrops Goode & Bean, the doublethread grenadier, Gadomus arcuatus (Goode & Bean), and the western softhead grenadier, Malacocephalus occidentalis Goode & Bean (Gadiformes: Macrouridae), collected from 591-728 m depths in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico off Florida and the Caribbean Sea off Panama. The following new host records are established: P. nimoyi n. sp. is the third parasite species known from S. grenadae and the first digenean species reported from this host; P. nimoyi n. sp. is the first reported species of Podocotyle parasitizing N. aequalis; and this is the first report of P. pearsei or any representative of the genus Podocotyle infecting B. macrops, G. arcuatus and M. occidentalis. A listing of all digenean parasites previously reported from the five macrourid species examined herein is given and some observations are made about Podocotyle in the deep sea.

  6. Seafaring Capabilities in the Pre-Columbian Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Scott M.

    2013-06-01

    At historic contact Europeans remarked on the skill and proficiency of native Caribbean Amerindians to build and travel in dugout canoes. While archaeological examples of these have been recorded throughout the circum-Caribbean, very few exist in the Antillean chain of islands. Despite this deficiency, indirect evidence of seafaring along with archaeological data has suggested to many that the sea was an artery that linked prehistoric communities together between islands and continents through exchange networks and settlement `lifelines'. It is clear that frequent interaction was taking place prehistorically in the region, but examination of seafaring capabilities and the general lack of hard archaeological evidence for contacts in many places suggest this was largely restricted to interaction between the islands and with South America. The fact remains that seafaring in the Caribbean, as one of the smaller aquatic realms inhabited by humans in the past, was highly influenced and largely structured by oceanographic and anemological effects that limited the development of various watercraft designs and navigational techniques which are seen in many of the other world's seas and oceans. In this paper I: (1) synthesize what is currently known about the antiquity and development of early seafaring in the Caribbean; (2) highlight debates about the level of technologies found in the region; (3) discuss how environmental conditions likely influenced seafaring capabilities and settlement patterns; (4) outline the possible evidence for connections between the different surrounding mainland areas; and (5) provide a comparison with seafaring technologies found in the Pacific to help contextualize the Caribbean into the broader context of global seafaring.

  7. Numerical tool for tsunami risk assessment in the southern coast of Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias Sanchez, J.; Llorente Isidro, M.; Ortega, S.; Gonzalez Vida, J. M., Sr.; Castro, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The southern coast of Dominican Republic is a very populated region, with several important cities including Santo Domingo, its capital. Important activities are rooted in the southern coast including tourism, industry, commercial ports, and, energy facilities, among others. According to historical reports, it has been impacted by big earthquakes accompanied by tsunamis as in Azua in 1751 and recently Pedernales in 2010, but their sources are not clearly identified. The aim of the present work is to develop a numerical tool to simulate the impact in the southern coast of the Dominican Republic of tsunamis generated in the Caribbean Sea. This tool, based on the Tsunami-HySEA model from EDANYA group (University of Malaga, Spain), could be used in the framework of a Tsunami Early Warning Systems due the very short computing times when only propagation is computed or it could be used to assess inundation impact, computing inundation with a initial 5 meter resolution. Numerical results corresponding to three theoretical sources are used to test the numerical tool.

  8. Polar bear population dynamics in the southern Beaufort Sea during a period of sea ice decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; McDonald, Trent L.; Stirling, Ian; Derocher, Andrew E.; Richardson, Evan S.; Regehr, Eric V.; Douglas, David C.; Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    In the southern Beaufort Sea of the United States and Canada, prior investigations have linked declines in summer sea ice to reduced physical condition, growth, and survival of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Combined with projections of population decline due to continued climate warming and the ensuing loss of sea ice habitat, those findings contributed to the 2008 decision to list the species as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Here, we used mark–recapture models to investigate the population dynamics of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea from 2001 to 2010, years during which the spatial and temporal extent of summer sea ice generally declined. Low survival from 2004 through 2006 led to a 25–50% decline in abundance. We hypothesize that low survival during this period resulted from (1) unfavorable ice conditions that limited access to prey during multiple seasons; and possibly, (2) low prey abundance. For reasons that are not clear, survival of adults and cubs began to improve in 2007 and abundance was comparatively stable from 2008 to 2010, with ~900 bears in 2010 (90% CI 606–1212). However, survival of subadult bears declined throughout the entire period. Reduced spatial and temporal availability of sea ice is expected to increasingly force population dynamics of polar bears as the climate continues to warm. However, in the short term, our findings suggest that factors other than sea ice can influence survival. A refined understanding of the ecological mechanisms underlying polar bear population dynamics is necessary to improve projections of their future status and facilitate development of management strategies.

  9. COCONet enhancements to circum-Caribbean tsunami warning, tidal, and sea-level monitoring: update on tide gauge installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dausz, K.; Dittmann, S. T.; Feaux, K.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Mattioli, G. S.; Normandeau, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Continually Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network (COCONet) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded multi-hazard geodetic and meteorological network distributed throughout the Caribbean, which provides infrastructure and capacity building for a broad range of earth science questions. The network is a multi-national collaboration consisting of 46 newly constructed continuous Global Positioning Systems (cGPS) and 21 refurbished existing GPS stations, all co-located with meteorological sensors. One recommendation of the COCONet working group was to improve the vertical reference frame for long-term sea level monitoring. A COCONet supplement was awarded by the NSF to further address this particular objective through the co-location of GPS and tide gauges. This COCOnet infrastructure, along with the new tide gauges, will have broad scientific implications for hazards mitigation, solid earth, and atmospheric science research. UNAVCO engineers have meet with members of the Caribbean tide gauge community to establish target locations and design station layout. Allocated NSF funds allow for the construction of two complete new tide gauge systems each with two complimentary cGPS. Following the recommendations of NOAA and the sea level monitoring community, the two "new" locales will be Port Royal, Jamaica and Puerto Morelos, Mexico. Both locations had previously existing, but currently non-operational tide gauges. UNAVCO engineers will install a Sutron Radar Level Recorder and a backup pressure sensor tide gauge with GOES satellite telemetry. Tide data will be freely available by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (www.ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org). The NSF supplement also provided funds for adding cGPS to two additional locations where currently functioning tide gauge systems exist. Proposed locations for this additional infrastructure are Barahona, Dominican Republic and Bocas del Toro, Panama. All four locations will feature two standard

  10. Sea Ice on the Southern Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Stanley S.

    1998-01-01

    Year-round satellite records of sea ice distribution now extend over more than two decades, providing a valuable tool to investigate related characteristics and circulations in the Southern Ocean. We have studied a variety of features indicative of oceanic and atmospheric interactions with Antarctic sea ice. In the Amundsen & Bellingshausen Seas, sea ice extent was found to have decreased by approximately 20% from 1973 through the early 1990's. This change coincided with and probably contributed to recently warmer surface conditions on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula, where air temperatures have increased by approximately 0.5 C/decade since the mid-1940's. The sea ice decline included multiyear cycles of several years in length superimposed on high interannual variability. The retreat was strongest in summer, and would have lowered the regional mean ice thickness, with attendant impacts upon vertical heat flux and the formation of snow ice and brine. The cause of the regional warming and loss of sea ice is believed to be linked to large-scale circulation changes in the atmosphere and ocean. At the eastern end of the Weddell Gyre, the Cosmonaut Polyna revealed greater activity since 1986, a recurrence pattern during recent winters and two possible modes of formation. Persistence in polynya location was noted off Cape Ann, where the coastal current can interact more strongly with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. As a result of vorticity conservation, locally enhanced upwelling brings warmer deep water into the mixed layer, causing divergence and melting. In the Ross Sea, ice extent fluctuates over periods of several years, with summer minima and winter maxima roughly in phase. This leads to large interannual cycles of sea ice range, which correlate positively with meridinal winds, regional air temperatures and subsequent shelf water salinities. Deep shelf waters display considerable interannual variability, but have freshened by approximately 0.03/decade

  11. Mechanisms controlling the intra-annual mesoscale variability of SST and SPM in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzak, Julie D.; de Boer, Gerben J.; Eleveld, Marieke A.

    2011-04-01

    Thermal and optical remote sensing data were used to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of sea surface temperature (SST) and of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the southern North Sea. Monthly SST composites showed pronounced seasonal warming of the southern North Sea and delineated the English coastal and continental coastal waters. The East-Anglia Plume is the dominant feature of the English coastal waters in the winter and autumn SPM composites, and the Rhine region of freshwater influence (ROFI), including the Flemish Banks, is the dominant feature of the continental waters. These mesoscale spatial structures are also influenced by the evolution of fronts, such as the seasonal front separating well-mixed water in the southern Bight, from the seasonally stratified central North Sea waters. A harmonic analysis of the SST and SPM images showed pronounced seasonal variability, as well as spring-neap variations in the level of tidal mixing in the East Anglia Plume, the Rhine ROFI and central North Sea. The harmonic analysis indicates the important role played by the local meteorology and tides in governing the SST and near-surface SPM concentrations in the southern North Sea. In the summer, thermal stratification affects the visibility of SPM to satellite sensors in the waters to the north of the Flamborough and Frisian Fronts. Haline stratification plays an important role in the visibility of SPM in the Rhine ROFI throughout the year. When stratified, both regions typically exhibit low surface SPM values. A numerical model study, together with the harmonic analysis, highlights the importance of tides and waves in controlling the stratification in the southern North Sea and hence the visibility of SPM.

  12. The Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water Intrusion Regulates the Southern Red Sea Summer Phytoplankton Blooms.

    PubMed

    Dreano, Denis; Raitsos, Dionysios E; Gittings, John; Krokos, George; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on large-scale biological processes in the southern Red Sea is relatively limited, primarily due to the scarce in situ, and satellite-derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) datasets. During summer, adverse atmospheric conditions in the southern Red Sea (haze and clouds) have long severely limited the retrieval of satellite ocean colour observations. Recently, a new merged ocean colour product developed by the European Space Agency (ESA)-the Ocean Color Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI)-has substantially improved the southern Red Sea coverage of Chl-a, allowing the discovery of unexpected intense summer blooms. Here we provide the first detailed description of their spatiotemporal distribution and report the mechanisms regulating them. During summer, the monsoon-driven wind reversal modifies the circulation dynamics at the Bab-el-Mandeb strait, leading to a subsurface influx of colder, fresher, nutrient-rich water from the Indian Ocean. Using satellite observations, model simulation outputs, and in situ datasets, we track the pathway of this intrusion into the extensive shallow areas and coral reef complexes along the basin's shores. We also provide statistical evidence that the subsurface intrusion plays a key role in the development of the southern Red Sea phytoplankton blooms.

  13. Diel foraging behavior of gravid leatherback sea turtles in deep waters of the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Casey, James; Garner, Jeanne; Garner, Steve; Williard, Amanda Southwood

    2010-12-01

    It is generally assumed that leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), like other species of sea turtle, do not feed while offshore from nesting beaches, and rely instead on fat reserves to fuel reproductive activities. Recent studies, however, provide evidence that leatherbacks may forage during the internesting interval while offshore in the Western Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Bio-logging technology was used to investigate the foraging behavior of female leatherback turtles at St Croix, US Virgin Islands. Leatherback gastrointestinal tract temperatures (T(GT)) were analyzed for sudden fluctuations indicative of ingestions, and laboratory ingestion simulations were used to characterize temperature fluctuations associated with ingestion of prey versus seawater. Dive patterns associated with prey ingestion were characterized and the proportion of prey ingestion during the day (05:00-18:59 h) and night (19:00-04:59 h) were compared. A combined total of 111 prey ingestions for seven leatherback turtles were documented during the internesting interval. The number of prey ingestions ranged from six to 48 for individual turtles, and the majority (87.4%) of these events occurred during the daytime. Prey ingestions were most frequently associated with V-shaped dives, and the mean (±1 s.d.) maximum dive depth with prey ingestion ranged from 154±51 to 232±101 m for individual turtles. Although leatherbacks were found to opportunistically feed during the internesting interval, the low prey ingestion rates indicate that energy reserves acquired prior to the breeding season are critical for successful reproduction by leatherbacks from the St Croix, USVI nesting population.

  14. The Two Subduction Zones of the Southern Caribbean: Lithosphere Tearing and Continental Margin Recycling in the East, Flat Slab Subduction and Laramide-Style Uplifts in the West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, A.; Bezada, M. J.; Niu, F.; Schmitz, M.

    2015-12-01

    The southern Caribbean plate boundary is a complex strike-slip fault system bounded by oppositely vergent subduction zones, the Antilles subduction zone in the east, and a currently locked Caribbean-South American subduction zone in the west (Bilham and Mencin, 2013). Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography images both the Atlanic (ATL) and the Caribbean (CAR) plates subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America. Ps receiver functions show a depressed 660 discontinuity and thickened transition zone associated with each subducting plate. In the east the oceanic (ATL) part of the South American (SA) plate subducts westward beneath the CAR, initiating the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike slip system, a subduction-transform edge propagator (STEP) fault (Govers and Wortel, 2005). The point at which the ATL tears away from SA as it descends into the mantle is evidenced by the Paria cluster seismicity at depths of 60-110 km (Russo et al, 1993). Body wave tomography and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) thickness determined from Sp and Ps receiver functions and Rayleigh waves suggest that the descending ATL also viscously removes the bottom third to half of the SA continental margin lithospheric mantle as it descends. This has left thinned continental lithosphere under northern SA in the wake of the eastward migrating Antilles subduction zone. The thinned lithosphere occupies ~70% of the length of the El Pilar-San Sebastian fault system, from ~64oW to ~69oW, and extends inland several hundred kilometers. In northwestern SA the CAR subducts east-southeast at low angle under northern Colombia and western Venezuela. The subducting CAR is at least 200 km wide, extending from northernmost Colombia as far south as the Bucaramanga nest seismicity. The CAR descends steeply under Lake Maracaibo and the Merida Andes. This flat slab is associated with three Neogene basement cored, Laramide-style uplifts: the Santa Marta

  15. Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Simões, Nuno; Tello-Musi, José Luis; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2013-01-01

    Seven sea anemone species from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico are taxonomically diagnosed and images from living specimens including external and internal features, and cnidae are provided. Furthermore, the known distribution ranges from another 10 species are extended. No species records of sea anemones have been previously published in the primary scientific literature for coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico and thus, this study represents the first inventory for the local actiniarian fauna.

  16. Monsoon-driven variability in the southern Red Sea and the exchange with the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofianos, S. S.; Papadopoulos, V. P.; Abualnaja, Y.; Nenes, A.; Hoteit, I.

    2016-02-01

    Although progress has been achieved in describing and understanding the mean state and seasonal cycle of the Red Sea dynamics, their interannual variability is not yet well evaluated and explained. The thermohaline characteristics and the circulation patterns present strong variability at various time scales and are affected by the strong and variable atmospheric forcing and the exchange with the Indian Ocean and the gulfs located at the northern end of the basin. Sea surface temperature time-series, derived from satellite observations, show considerable trends and interannual variations. The spatial variability pattern is very diverse, especially in the north-south direction. The southern part of the Red Sea is significantly influenced by the Indian Monsoon variability that affects the sea surface temperature through the surface fluxes and the circulation patterns. This variability has also a strong impact on the lateral fluxes and the exchange with the Indian Ocean through the strait of Bab el Mandeb. During summer, there is a reversal of the surface flow and an intermediate intrusion of a relatively cold and fresh water mass. This water originates from the Gulf of Aden (the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water - GAIW), is identified in the southern part of the basin and spreads northward along the eastern Red Sea boundary to approximately 24°N and carried across the Red Sea by basin-size eddies. The GAIW intrusion plays an important role in the heat and freshwater budget of the southern Red Sea, especially in summer, impacting the thermohaline characteristics of the region. It is a permanent feature of the summer exchange flow but it exhibits significant variation from year to year. The intrusion is controlled by a monsoon-driven pressure gradient in the two ends of the strait and thus monsoon interannual variability can laterally impose its signal to the southern Red Sea thermohaline patterns.

  17. Land subsidence and relative sea-level rise in the southern Chesapeake Bay region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleston, Jack; Pope, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The southern Chesapeake Bay region is experiencing land subsidence and rising water levels due to global sea-level rise; land subsidence and rising water levels combine to cause relative sea-level rise. Land subsidence has been observed since the 1940s in the southern Chesapeake Bay region at rates of 1.1 to 4.8 millimeters per year (mm/yr), and subsidence continues today. This land subsidence helps explain why the region has the highest rates of sea-level rise on the Atlantic Coast of the United States. Data indicate that land subsidence has been responsible for more than half the relative sea-level rise measured in the region. Land subsidence increases the risk of flooding in low-lying areas, which in turn has important economic, environmental, and human health consequences for the heavily populated and ecologically important southern Chesapeake Bay region. The aquifer system in the region has been compacted by extensive groundwater pumping in the region at rates of 1.5- to 3.7-mm/yr; this compaction accounts for more than half of observed land subsidence in the region. Glacial isostatic adjustment, or the flexing of the Earth’s crust in response to glacier formation and melting, also likely contributes to land subsidence in the region.

  18. Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Simões, Nuno; Tello-Musi, José Luis; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seven sea anemone species from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico are taxonomically diagnosed and images from living specimens including external and internal features, and cnidae are provided. Furthermore, the known distribution ranges from another 10 species are extended. No species records of sea anemones have been previously published in the primary scientific literature for coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico and thus, this study represents the first inventory for the local actiniarian fauna. PMID:24146599

  19. Late Quaternary Palaeoceanographic Changes in Sea Surface Conditions in the Tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischel, Andrea; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Kuijpers, Antoon; Nürnberg, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Palaeoceanographic changes and the variability in surface water mass hydrography are reconstructed in order to track tropical ocean and climate variability and inter-hemispheric heat exchange through the last 42,000 year BP. Our studies are based on the relative abundance of planktonic foraminifera combined with sea surface temperature approximation based Mg/Ca measurements, XRF scanning and stable oxygen isotope analyses in a 5 m long gravity core Ga307-Win-12GC (17°50.80N, 64°48.7290W), retrieved in the Virgin Island Basin in approx. 3,960 m water depth. The Virgin Island Basin is the deepest part of the Anegada-Jungfern Passage in the northeast Caribbean, one of the most important pathways for water mass exchange between the Central Atlantic and the Caribbean Sea. Due to its bathymetry surface waters as well as deep water mass strata from the northern and southern hemisphere enter the basin, comprising Caribbean Surface Water (CSW), Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), Atlantic Intermediate Water (AIW) and North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The planktonic foraminiferal assemblage suggests rather stable sea-surface conditions during the Holocene in the NE Caribbean. However, major changes in the hydrographic setting could be identified within the glacial period. During the glacial period, clear millennial-scale variability in sea-surface temperature and productivity are present. Fluctuations in the relative abundance of Globigerinoides ruber in the sediment core may be correlated to Dansgaard-Oeschger events in the northern North Atlantic. Furthermore an increase in relative abundance of Globorotalia rubescens occurs synchronous with ice rafted debris layers described from the North Atlantic. The faunal changes in the tropical Atlantic may thus be correlated to major climate changes in the North Atlantic, mainly D-O cyclicity as well as Heinrich events. Thus, the synchronous change in water mass distribution and hydrographic cyclicity suggests a possible linkage

  20. The Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water Intrusion Regulates the Southern Red Sea Summer Phytoplankton Blooms

    PubMed Central

    Dreano, Denis; Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Gittings, John; Krokos, George; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on large-scale biological processes in the southern Red Sea is relatively limited, primarily due to the scarce in situ, and satellite-derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) datasets. During summer, adverse atmospheric conditions in the southern Red Sea (haze and clouds) have long severely limited the retrieval of satellite ocean colour observations. Recently, a new merged ocean colour product developed by the European Space Agency (ESA)—the Ocean Color Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI)—has substantially improved the southern Red Sea coverage of Chl-a, allowing the discovery of unexpected intense summer blooms. Here we provide the first detailed description of their spatiotemporal distribution and report the mechanisms regulating them. During summer, the monsoon-driven wind reversal modifies the circulation dynamics at the Bab-el-Mandeb strait, leading to a subsurface influx of colder, fresher, nutrient-rich water from the Indian Ocean. Using satellite observations, model simulation outputs, and in situ datasets, we track the pathway of this intrusion into the extensive shallow areas and coral reef complexes along the basin’s shores. We also provide statistical evidence that the subsurface intrusion plays a key role in the development of the southern Red Sea phytoplankton blooms. PMID:28006006

  1. The Influence of Sea Ice on Primary Production in the Southern Ocean: A Satellite Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Walker O., Jr.; Comiso, Josefino C.

    2007-01-01

    Sea ice in the Southern Ocean is a major controlling factor on phytoplankton productivity and growth, but the relationship is modified by regional differences in atmospheric and oceanographic conditions. We used the phytoplankton biomass (binned at 7-day intervals), PAR and cloud cover data from SeaWiFS, ice concentrations data from SSM/I and AMSR-E, and sea-surface temperature data from AVHRR, in combination with a vertically integrated model to estimate primary productivity throughout the Southern Ocean (south of 60"s). We also selected six areas within the Southern Ocean and analyzed the variability of the primary productivity and trends through time, as well as the relationship of sea ice to productivity. We found substantial interannual variability in productivity from 1997 - 2005 in all regions of the Southern Ocean, and this variability appeared to be driven in large part by ice dynamics. The most productive regions of Antarctic waters were the continental shelves, which showed the earliest growth, the maximum biomass, and the greatest areal specific productivity. In contrast, no large, sustained blooms occurred in waters of greater depth (> 1,000 m). We suggest that this is due to the slightly greater mixed layer depths found in waters off the continental shelf, and that the interactive effects of iron and irradiance (that is, increased iron requirements in low irradiance environments) result in the limitation of phytoplankton biomass over large regions of the Southern Ocean.

  2. Carbonyl compounds in the lower marine troposphere over the Caribbean Sea and Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianliang; Mopper, Kenneth

    1993-02-01

    A highly sensitive carbonyl trapping technique based on special 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent purification and cartridge preparation procedures was used on a cruise to the Orinoco estuary and the Caribbean Sea in order to determine the nature, concentration, and diurnal variation of low molecular weight carbonyl compounds in the lower marine boundary layer. The results suggest that the main source of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the lower marine boundary layer in the studied region is photooxidation of locally derived organic matter such as nonmethane hydrocarbons and long-chained lipids. Samples that were influenced by local land masses showed significantly higher concentrations of all carbonyl compounds. The main loss pathway appears to be dilution in the atmosphere as a result of vertical convective mixing, probably followed by photolysis in the upper marine boundary layer and free troposphere.

  3. Sea-ice transport driving Southern Ocean salinity and its recent trends.

    PubMed

    Haumann, F Alexander; Gruber, Nicolas; Münnich, Matthias; Frenger, Ivy; Kern, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Recent salinity changes in the Southern Ocean are among the most prominent signals of climate change in the global ocean, yet their underlying causes have not been firmly established. Here we propose that trends in the northward transport of Antarctic sea ice are a major contributor to these changes. Using satellite observations supplemented by sea-ice reconstructions, we estimate that wind-driven northward freshwater transport by sea ice increased by 20 ± 10 per cent between 1982 and 2008. The strongest and most robust increase occurred in the Pacific sector, coinciding with the largest observed salinity changes. We estimate that the additional freshwater for the entire northern sea-ice edge entails a freshening rate of -0.02 ± 0.01 grams per kilogram per decade in the surface and intermediate waters of the open ocean, similar to the observed freshening. The enhanced rejection of salt near the coast of Antarctica associated with stronger sea-ice export counteracts the freshening of both continental shelf and newly formed bottom waters due to increases in glacial meltwater. Although the data sources underlying our results have substantial uncertainties, regional analyses and independent data from an atmospheric reanalysis support our conclusions. Our finding that northward sea-ice freshwater transport is also a key determinant of the mean salinity distribution in the Southern Ocean further underpins the importance of the sea-ice-induced freshwater flux. Through its influence on the density structure of the ocean, this process has critical consequences for the global climate by affecting the exchange of heat, carbon and nutrients between the deep ocean and surface waters.

  4. On the generation and evolution of internal solitary waves in the southern Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Daquan; Zhan, Peng; Kartadikaria, Aditya; Akylas, Triantaphyllos; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Satellite observations recently revealed the existence of trains of internal solitary waves in the southern Red Sea between 16.0°N and 16.5°N, propagating from the centre of the domain toward the continental shelf [Da silva et al., 2012]. Given the relatively weak tidal velocity in this area and their generation in the central of the domain, Da Silva suggested three possible mechanisms behind the generation of the waves, namely Resonance and disintegration of interfacial tides, Generation of interfacial tides by impinging, remotely generated internal tidal beams and for geometrically focused and amplified internal tidal beams. Tide analysis based on tide stations data and barotropic tide model in the Red Sea shows that tide is indeed very weak in the centre part of the Red Sea, but it is relatively strong in the northern and southern parts (reaching up to 66 cm/s). Together with extreme steep slopes along the deep trench, it provides favourable conditions for the generation of internal solitary in the southern Red Sea. To investigate the generation mechanisms and study the evolution of the internal waves in the off-shelf region of the southern Red Sea we have implemented a 2-D, high-resolution and non-hydrostatic configuration of the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). Our simulations reproduce well that the generation process of the internal solitary waves. Analysis of the model's output suggests that the interaction between the topography and tidal flow with the nonlinear effect is the main mechanism behind the generation of the internal solitary waves. Sensitivity experiments suggest that neither tidal beam nor the resonance effect of the topography is important factor in this process.

  5. The East Falcon Basin: Its Caribbean roots

    SciTech Connect

    Bartok, P.; Boesi, T.

    1996-08-01

    The East Falcon Basin has been described persistently in the context of the Maracaibo Basin tectonic framework. It is the objective of the present study to demonstrate that the Falcon Basin is, in effect, a Caribbean basin juxtaposed on South America and affected by Caribbean tectonics. The oldest rocks outcropping in the region are Late Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks rafted from northcentral Colombia, Middle Jurassic ophiolite complexes, sediments and metasediments and Cretaceous ophiolites transported by a melange of late Cretaceous to early Tertiary sediments. The south vergence of the Caribbean Nappe province has been documented and extends to themore » present limit of the Andean uplift and to the southern limit of the Coastal Range. The migrating foredeep that developed during the Paleocene-Eocene deposited dominantly basinal shales and thin sandstones. During the Oligocene the Caribbean faults of the Oca system and conjugates began with a dominantly transtensional regime becoming progressively transpressional by Miocene time. The facies development of the Oligocene-Miocene documents the tectonic history. Unique blocks remained as resistant blocks creating ramparts and modifying the basin configuration. During transpression northward-verging thrusting progressively migrated towards the present coastline. The most evident structures of the region are Caribbean in affinity and combined with the sedimentary history of the region can serve to unravel the complex Caribbean-South American plate interaction.« less

  6. African dust and the demise of Caribbean coral reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, E.A.; Smith, G.W.; Prospero, J.M.; Betzer, P.; Hayes, M.L.; Garrison, V.; Barber, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    The vitality of Caribbean coral reefs has undergone a continual state of decline since the late 1970s, a period of time coincidental with large increases in transatlantic dust transport. It is proposed that the hundreds of millions of tons/year of soil dust that have been crossing the Atlantic during the last 25 years could be a significant contributor to coral reef decline and may be affecting other ecosystems. Benchmark events, such as near synchronous Caribbean-wide mortalities of acroporid corals and the urchin Diadema in 1983, and coral bleaching beginning in 1987, correlate with the years of maximum dust flux into the Caribbean. Besides crustal elements, in particular Fe, Si, and aluminosilicate clays, the dust can serve as a substrate for numerous species of viable spores, especially the soil fungus Aspergillus. Aspergillus sydowii, the cause of an ongoing Caribbean-wide seafan disease, has been cultured from Caribbean air samples and used to inoculate sea fans.

  7. Population Genetics of a Trochid Gastropod Broadens Picture of Caribbean Sea Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Haney, Robert; Wares, John; Silliman, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Background Regional genetic connectivity models are critical for successful conservation and management of marine species. Even though rocky shore invertebrates have been used as model systems to understand genetic structure in some marine environments, our understanding of connectivity in Caribbean communities is based overwhelmingly on studies of tropical fishes and corals. In this study, we investigate population connectivity and diversity of Cittarium pica, an abundant rocky shore trochid gastropod that is commercially harvested across its natural range, from the Bahamas to Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested for genetic structure using DNA sequence variation at the mitochondrial COI and 16S loci, AMOVA and distance-based methods. We found substantial differentiation among Caribbean sites. Yet, genetic differentiation was associated only with larger geographic scales within the Caribbean, and the pattern of differentiation only partially matched previous assessments of Caribbean connectivity, including those based on larval dispersal from hydrodynamic models. For instance, the Bahamas, considered an independent region by previous hydrodynamic studies, showed strong association with Eastern Caribbean sites in our study. Further, Bonaire (located in the east and close to the meridional division of the Caribbean basin) seems to be isolated from other Eastern sites. Conclusions/Significance The significant genetic structure and observed in C. pica has some commonalities in pattern with more commonly sampled taxa, but presents features, such as the differentiation of Bonaire, that appear unique. Further, the level of differentiation, together with regional patterns of diversity, has important implications for the application of conservation and management strategies in this commercially harvested species. PMID:20844767

  8. Shallow gas in Cenozoic sediments of the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trampe, Anna F.; Lutz, Rüdiger; Franke, Dieter; Thöle, Hauke; Arfai, Jashar

    2013-04-01

    Shallow petroleum systems in the southern North Sea are known for several decades but they were not actively explored for a long time. In recent years these unconventional shallow petroleum systems are studied in greater detail and one shallow gas field (A-12) is in production in the Netherlands. Additionally, oil was encountered in Miocene sandstones in the southern Danish North Sea (Lille John well) just north of the Danish-German border. Seismic amplitude anomalies are an indication for hydrocarbons in sediments. Therefore we have mapped the occurrence of seismic amplitude anomalies in the German North Sea based on more than 25.000 km of 2D seismic data and around 4.000 km2 of 3D seismic data. Amplitude anomalies are ubiquitous phenomena in the study area. These anomalies are not only caused by hydrocarbons but also by changing lithologies e.g. peat or fluid migration. Therefore several classes of seismic anomalies, e.g. bright spots, chimneys, blanking areas and velocity pull-down were mapped. Examples for these classes were studied with AVO (amplitude variation with offset) analyses to verify the existence or non-existence of gas in the sediments. Shallow gas can be produced and transported through the dense pipeline grid of the southern and central North Sea or it could be burned offshore close to wind parks in small power plants and the electric energy then transported through the existing power connections of the wind parks. Thus enabling a continuous energy supply during calm wind periods. This study is carried out within the framework of the project "Geoscientific Potential of the German North Sea (GPDN)" in which the Cenozoic sedimentary system was mapped in great detail. A detailed model of delta evolution (Baltic river system) was developed which serves as a structural framework. The studied interval is time equivalent to the Utsira formation which is used offshore Norway for sequestration of CO2. These different possibilities of using or exploiting

  9. Southern Ocean frontal structure and sea-ice formation rates revealed by elephant seals

    PubMed Central

    Charrassin, J.-B.; Hindell, M.; Rintoul, S. R.; Roquet, F.; Sokolov, S.; Biuw, M.; Costa, D.; Boehme, L.; Lovell, P.; Coleman, R.; Timmermann, R.; Meijers, A.; Meredith, M.; Park, Y.-H.; Bailleul, F.; Goebel, M.; Tremblay, Y.; Bost, C.-A.; McMahon, C. R.; Field, I. C.; Fedak, M. A.; Guinet, C.

    2008-01-01

    Polar regions are particularly sensitive to climate change, with the potential for significant feedbacks between ocean circulation, sea ice, and the ocean carbon cycle. However, the difficulty in obtaining in situ data means that our ability to detect and interpret change is very limited, especially in the Southern Ocean, where the ocean beneath the sea ice remains almost entirely unobserved and the rate of sea-ice formation is poorly known. Here, we show that southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) equipped with oceanographic sensors can measure ocean structure and water mass changes in regions and seasons rarely observed with traditional oceanographic platforms. In particular, seals provided a 30-fold increase in hydrographic profiles from the sea-ice zone, allowing the major fronts to be mapped south of 60°S and sea-ice formation rates to be inferred from changes in upper ocean salinity. Sea-ice production rates peaked in early winter (April–May) during the rapid northward expansion of the pack ice and declined by a factor of 2 to 3 between May and August, in agreement with a three-dimensional coupled ocean–sea-ice model. By measuring the high-latitude ocean during winter, elephant seals fill a “blind spot” in our sampling coverage, enabling the establishment of a truly global ocean-observing system. PMID:18695241

  10. Seasonally resolved climate variability during the last interglacial from southern Caribbean corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocas, William; Felis, Thomas; Kölling, Martin; Scholz, Denis; Lohmann, Gerrit; Scheffers, Sanders

    2013-04-01

    A range of future climate scenarios have been predicted for a warmer Earth as a result of varying anthropogenic greenhouse emissions. The Last Interglacial period (~125,000 years ago, Marine Isotope Stage 5) offers a period in time which is estimated to have been in the range of 0.1 to > 2oC warmer than present (AD 1961-1990). Although this period is not considered completely analogous for future climate states, the mechanisms behind such changes have the potential to be well understood. Here we present the initial findings of a study which aims to augment current understanding by quantifying the climate dynamics of the tropical southern Caribbean using high resolution marine climate archives. In doing so, we highlight geochemical proxies obtained from aragonitic coral skeletons as a proxy for seasonality and interannual to decadal climate variability. Unique fossil coral material has been collected from an uplifted reef terrace on the island of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles), which according to 230Th/U dating, was deposited during the Last Interglacial. The sampling technique employed here has been focused using C/T scanning and X-radiography which revealed annual density bands in 21 individual coral colonies. Due to a high average extension rate of greater than 6mm/year, monthly records are available which represent growth periods from 9 to 40 years and so cover various time windows across the Last Interglacial. We discuss the results from geochemical signals of Sr/Ca and oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) which reflect, respectively, regional temperature and hydrological balance at the sea surface. The finding that Sr/Ca and δ18O cycles occur alongside visible annual density bands allows the quality of the fossil coral material to be considered high and reliable. To further supplement the interpretation of these records greyscale increment analysis, Mg/Ca and δ13C records are presented. The implications of these findings, when compared to Holocene records, identify

  11. Phylogenetic relationships among zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) associated to excavating sponges (Cliona spp.) reveal an unexpected lineage in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Granados, C; Camargo, C; Zea, S; Sánchez, J A

    2008-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of symbiotic dinoflagellate lineages, distributed in all tropical and subtropical seas, suggest strategies for long distance dispersal but at the same time strong host specialization. Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium: Dinophyta), which are associated to diverse shallow-water cnidarians, also engage in symbioses with some sponge species of the genus Cliona. In the Caribbean, zooxanthellae-bearing Cliona has recently become abundant due to global warming, overfishing, and algae abundance. Using molecular techniques, the symbionts from five excavating species (Clionacaribbaea, C. tenuis, C. varians, C. aprica and C. laticavicola) from the southern and southwestern Caribbean were surveyed. Several DNA sequence regions were used in order to confirm zooxanthellae identity; 18S rDNA, domain V of chloroplast large subunit (cp23S), internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), and ITS2 secondary structure. Sequence analyses corroborated the presence of three zooxanthellae clades: A, B, and G. Presence of clades A and B in common boring sponges of the Caribbean fit with the general pattern of the province. The discovery of clade G for the first time in any organism of the Atlantic Ocean leads us to consider this unusual finding as a phylogenetic relict through common ancestors of sponge clades or an invasion of the sponge from the Indo-Pacific.

  12. Mortality sensitivity in life-stage simulation analysis: A case study of southern sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerber, L.R.; Tinker, M.T.; Doak, D.F.; Estes, J.A.; Jessup, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Currently, there are no generally recognized approaches for linking detailed mortality and pathology data to population-level analyses of extinction risk. We used a combination of analytical and simulation-based analyses to examine 20 years of age- and sex-specific mortality data for southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris), and we applied results to project the efficacy of alternative conservation strategies. Population recovery of the southern sea otter has been slow (rate of population increase ?? = 1.05) compared to other recovering populations (?? = 1.17-1.20), and the population declined (?? = 0.975) between 1995 and 1999. Age-based Leslie matrices were developed to explore explanations for the slow recovery and recent decline in the southern sea other population. An elasticity analysis was performed to predict effects of proportional changes in stage-specific reproductive or survival rates on the rate of population increase. A life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) was developed to evaluate the impact of changing age- and cause-specific mortality rates on ??. The information used to develop these models was derived from death assemblage, pathology, and live population census data to examine the sensitivity of sea otter population growth to different sources of mortality (e.g., disease and starvation, direct human take [fisheries, gun shot, boat strike, oil pollution], mating trauma and intraspecific aggression, shark bites, and unknown). We used resampling simulations to generate random combinations of vital rates for a large number of matrix replicates and drew on these to estimate potential effects of mortality sources on population growth (??). Our analyses suggest management actions that are likely and unlikely to promote recovery of the southern sea otter and more broadly indicate a methodology to better utilize cause-of-death data in conservation decision-making.

  13. Epidemiological description of the sea lice (Caligus rogercresseyi) situation in southern Chile in August 2007.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-West, Christopher; Arriagada, Gabriel; Yatabe, Tadaishi; Valdés, Pablo; Hervé-Claude, Luis Pablo; Urcelay, Santiago

    2012-05-01

    Salmon sea lice represent one of the most important threats to salmon farming throughout the world. Results of private monitoring efforts have shown an increase in the number of positive cages and cage-level abundance of sea lice in southern Chile since 2004. As a consequence, the Chilean Fisheries Service implemented an Official Surveillance Program in the main salmon production area of southern Chile to assess the situation of sea lice in fish farms. Results showed that the prevalence of sea lice in the fish farms was 53.4%, ranging from 3.5% in Puerto Aysén to 100% in the Seno de Reloncaví zone. The average sea lice abundance was 11.8 per fish (Geometrical mean (GM)=8.61, 95% CI (2.1-6.9)). The highest levels were found in Seno de Reloncaví (GM=24.99, 95% CI (15.9-39.2)), Hornopirén (GM=14.7, 95% CI (10.4-20.8)) and Chiloé norte (GM=9.75, 95% CI (1-1.9)), and the lowest loads were observed in Puerto Aysén (GM=1.35, 95%CI (1-1.9)) and Puerto Cisnes (GM=1.67, 95%CI (1.1-2.6)). Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus mykiss had the highest abundance levels (GM=6.93, 95% CI (5.7-8.5), and (GM=5.55, 95% CI (3.6-8.5), respectively). O. kisutch showed lower levels (GM=1.34, 95% CI (1-1.7)), apparently being more resistant to infestation. Sea lice in farmed salmon are widely distributed in different zones of southern Chile, and are becoming a serious threat to this industry. Prevalence and abundance levels were found to be generally high, decreasing in southern zones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Unprecedented Proliferation of Novel Pelagic Sargassum Form has Implications for Ecosystem Function and Regional Diversity in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siuda, A. N.; Schell, J. M.; Goodwin, D. S.

    2016-02-01

    Pelagic Sargassum is a planktonic macroalgae comprised of two species, S. fluitans and S. natans, each exhibiting a variety of morphological forms; it is found throughout the North Atlantic, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico. Drifting open ocean Sargassum provides essential habitat and food resources to organisms across multiple trophic levels, from resident shrimp to migratory sea turtles. Historic observations, including Sea Education Association's (SEA) 22-year field sampling dataset, indicate that S. natans-I and S. fluitans-III are most common and that S. natans-VIII is rare. Furthermore, SEA's long-term record shows very low pelagic Sargassum abundance in the Eastern Caribbean in contrast to the Sargasso Sea. During April 2014, Sargassum began washing ashore along Caribbean coastlines in unprecedented quantities. Shipboard observations of the recent inundation event occurred November 2014 to May 2015. In total, 30.5 kg of pelagic Sargassum was collected in 92.6% of surface neuston tows, sorted and weighed by morphological form. Notably, the predominant Sargassum form observed during the 2014/15 event is S. natans-VIII, a documented change in Sargassum diversity. Strong spatial patterns were also observed, with S. natans-VIII dominant in the Western Tropical Atlantic (87.3% wet weight) and Eastern Caribbean (95.3% wet weight) and S. natans-I most common in the South Sargasso Sea (87.5% wet weight). S. fluitans-III was observed in low abundance across all regions. These sudden assemblage and abundance changes, the biophysical mechanisms of which are not yet understood, have significant ecological consequences at multiple scales. Impacts to associated mobile fauna diversity and community structure, dependent fisheries and iconic species, and coastal ecosystem function will echo throughout the Caribbean, and should comprise focal areas of future research efforts across the region.

  15. Understanding Climate Change and Sea Level: A Case Study of Middle School Student Comprehension and An Evaluation of Tide Gauges off the Panama Canal in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan-Otoya, Juan C.

    The present study had two main objectives. The first was to determine the degree of understanding of climate change, sea level and sea level rise among middle school students. Combining open-ended questions with likert-scaled questions, we identified student conceptions on these topics in 86 students from 7th and 8th grades during 2012 and 2013 before and after implementing a Curriculum Unit (CU). Additional information was obtained by adding drawings to the open-ended questions during the second year to gauge how student conceptions varied from a verbal and a visual perspective. Misconceptions were identified both pre- and post-CU among all the topics taught. Students commonly used climate and climate change as synonyms, sea level was often defined as water depth, and several students failed to understand the complexities that determine changes in sea level due to wind, tides, and changes in sea surface temperature. In general, 8th grade students demonstrated a better understanding of these topics, as reflected in fewer apparent misconceptions after the CU. No previous study had reported such improvement. This showed the value of implementing short lessons. Using Piaget's theories on cognitive development, the differences between 7th and 8th grade students reflect a transition to a more mature level which allowed students to comprehend more complex concepts that included multiple variables. The second objective was to determine if the frequency of sea level maxima not associated with tides over the last 100 years increased in two tide gauges located on the two extremes of the Panama canal, i.e. Balboa in the Pacific Ocean and Cristobal in the Caribbean Sea. These records were compared to time series of regional sea surface temperature, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), to determine if these played a role as physical drivers of sea level at either location. Neither record showed an increase in the frequency of sea level

  16. Scientific investigations in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea during the 1974-1975 Calypso cruise, parts 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsayed, S. Z.; Reheim, H. A.; Fryxell, G. A.; Harlan, J. C.; Hill, J. M.; Babai, P.; Whitney, P.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution and concentrations of the standing crop of phytoplankton and nutrient salts in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea were investigated to provide ground truth for correlating temperature and chlorophyll-a measurements with observations from NASA U-2 aircraft equipped with specially designed sensors for measuring ocean color phenomena. The physical, chemical, and biological data obtained is summarized. Sampling procedures and methods used for determining plant pigments, species composition of phytoplankton, nutrient salt analysis, and the euphotic zones are described.

  17. Accelerated warming of the Southern Ocean and its impacts on the hydrological cycle and sea ice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiping; Curry, Judith A

    2010-08-24

    The observed sea surface temperature in the Southern Ocean shows a substantial warming trend for the second half of the 20th century. Associated with the warming, there has been an enhanced atmospheric hydrological cycle in the Southern Ocean that results in an increase of the Antarctic sea ice for the past three decades through the reduced upward ocean heat transport and increased snowfall. The simulated sea surface temperature variability from two global coupled climate models for the second half of the 20th century is dominated by natural internal variability associated with the Antarctic Oscillation, suggesting that the models' internal variability is too strong, leading to a response to anthropogenic forcing that is too weak. With increased loading of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere through the 21st century, the models show an accelerated warming in the Southern Ocean, and indicate that anthropogenic forcing exceeds natural internal variability. The increased heating from below (ocean) and above (atmosphere) and increased liquid precipitation associated with the enhanced hydrological cycle results in a projected decline of the Antarctic sea ice.

  18. The ocean mixed layer under Southern Ocean sea-ice: seasonal cycle and forcing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violaine, P.; Sallee, J. B.; Schmidtko, S.; Roquet, F.; Charrassin, J. B.

    2016-02-01

    The mixed-layer at the surface of the ocean is the gateway for all exchanges between air and sea. A vast area of the Southern Ocean is however seasonally capped by sea-ice, which alters this gateway and the characteristic the ocean mixed-layer. The interaction between the ocean mixed-layer and sea-ice plays a key role for water-mass formation and circulation, carbon cycle, sea-ice dynamics, and ultimately for the climate as a whole. However, the structure and characteristics of the mixed layer, as well as the processes responsible for its evolution, are poorly understood due to the lack of in-situ observations and measurements. We urgently need to better understand the forcing and the characteristics of the ocean mixed-layer under sea-ice if we are to understand and predict the world's climate. In this study, we combine a range of distinct sources of observation to overcome this lack in our understanding of the Polar Regions. Working on Elephant Seal-derived data as well as ship-based observations and Argo float data, we describe the seasonal cycle of the characteristics and stability of the ocean mixed layer over the entire Southern Ocean (South of 40°S), and specifically under sea-ice. Mixed-layer budgets of heat and freshwater are used to investigate the main forcings of the mixed-layer seasonal cycle. The seasonal variability of sea surface salinity and temperature are primarily driven by surface processes, dominated by sea-ice freshwater flux for the salt budget, and by air-sea flux for the heat budget. Ekman advection, vertical diffusivity and vertical entrainment play only secondary role.Our results suggest that changes in regional sea-ice distribution or sea-ice seasonal cycle duration, as currently observed, would widely affect the buoyancy budget of the underlying mixed-layer, and impacts large-scale water-mass formation and transformation.

  19. Predicting Sargassum blooms in the Caribbean Sea from MODIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengqiu; Hu, Chuanmin

    2017-04-01

    Recurrent and significant Sargassum beaching events in the Caribbean Sea (CS) have caused serious environmental and economic problems, calling for a long-term prediction capacity of Sargassum blooms. Here we present predictions based on a hindcast of 2000-2016 observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which showed Sargassum abundance in the CS and the Central West Atlantic (CWA), as well as connectivity between the two regions with time lags. This information was used to derive bloom and nonbloom probability matrices for each 1° square in the CS for the months of May-August, predicted from bloom conditions in a hotspot region in the CWA in February. A suite of standard statistical measures were used to gauge the prediction accuracy, among which the user's accuracy and kappa statistics showed high fidelity of the probability maps in predicting both blooms and nonblooms in the eastern CS with several months of lead time, with overall accuracy often exceeding 80%. The bloom probability maps from this hindcast analysis will provide early warnings to better study Sargassum blooms and prepare for beaching events near the study region. This approach may also be extendable to many other regions around the world that face similar challenges and opportunities of macroalgal blooms and beaching events.

  20. Present-day stress tensors along the southern Caribbean plate boundary zone from inversion of focal mechanism solutions: A successful trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard M., Franck A.; Castilla, Raymi

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a compilation of 16 present-day stress tensors along the southern Caribbean plate boundary zone (PBZ), and particularly in western and along northern Venezuela. As a trial, these new stress tensors along PBZ have been calculated from inversion of 125 focal mechanism solutions (FMS) by applying the Angelier & Mechler's dihedral method, which were originally gathered by the first author and published in 2005. These new tensors are compared to those 59 tensors inverted from fault-slip data measured only in Plio-Quaternary sedimentary rocks, compiled in Audemard et al. (2005), which were originally calculated by several researchers through the inversion methods developed by Angelier and Mechler or Etchecopar et al. The two sets of stress tensors, one derived from geological data and the other one from seismological data, compare very well throughout the PBZ in terms of both stress orientation and shape of the stress tensor. This region is characterized by a compressive strike-slip (transpressional senso lato), occasionally compressional, regime from the southern Mérida Andes on the southwest to the gulf of Paria in the east. Significant changes in direction of the maximum horizontal stress (σH = σ1) can be established along it though. The σ1 direction varies progressively from nearly east-west in the southern Andes (SW Venezuela) to between NW-SE and NNW-SSE in northwestern Venezuela; this direction remaining constant across northern Venezuela, from Colombia to Trinidad. In addition, the σV defined by inversion of focal mechanisms or by the shape of the stress ellipsoid derived from the Etchecopar et al.'s method better characterize whether the stress regime is transpressional or compressional, or even very rarely trantensional at local scale. The orientation and space variation of this regional stress field in western Venezuela results from the addition of the two major neighbouring interplate maximum horizontal stress orientations (

  1. Mass coral bleaching in 2010 in the southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Alemu I, Jahson Berhane; Clement, Ysharda

    2014-01-01

    Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision making process to cope with mass bleaching events. The bleaching signal (length of exposure to high ocean temperatures) varied widely between the Atlantic and Caribbean reefs, but regardless of this variation most taxa bleached. Colpophyllia natans, Montastraea faveolata and Siderastrea siderea were considered the most bleaching vulnerable taxa. Interestingly, reefs with the highest coral cover showed the greatest decline reef building taxa, and conversely, reefs with the lowest coral cover showed the most bleaching but lowest change in coral cover with little algal overgrowth post-bleaching.

  2. Mass Coral Bleaching in 2010 in the Southern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Alemu I, Jahson Berhane; Clement, Ysharda

    2014-01-01

    Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision making process to cope with mass bleaching events. The bleaching signal (length of exposure to high ocean temperatures) varied widely between the Atlantic and Caribbean reefs, but regardless of this variation most taxa bleached. Colpophyllia natans, Montastraea faveolata and Siderastrea siderea were considered the most bleaching vulnerable taxa. Interestingly, reefs with the highest coral cover showed the greatest decline reef building taxa, and conversely, reefs with the lowest coral cover showed the most bleaching but lowest change in coral cover with little algal overgrowth post-bleaching. PMID:24400078

  3. Increase in earthquake swarm activity in the southern Red Sea, Afar and Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruch, Joël; Keir, Derek; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; di Giacomo, Domenico; Ladron Viltres, Renier; Jónsson, Sigurjón

    2017-04-01

    Rifting events periodically occur at divergent plate boundaries, consisting of magmatic intrusions, seismic swarms, surface faulting and in some cases volcanic eruptions. While earthquake swarms also occur at other types of plate boundaries, the swarms that have been observed in inland rift zones (e.g., in Afar and Iceland) and in a few offshore cases show an unambiguous relation with magmatic intrusions. These swarms typically last for a few days to a few weeks, lack a clear mainshock-aftershock decay pattern. Here we present a new study on earthquake swarms in the southern Red Sea, Afar and Gulf of Aden. We provide the first earthquake swarm catalogue for the region, which we compiled by integrating reexamined global and local earthquake catalogues with historical observations from 1960 to 2016. We find that in several cases in all the three areas, swarms have been re-occurring at the same locations every few decades (e.g., in the Bada area in Eritrea and Port Sudan region in the southern Red Sea in 1967 and 1993, and in the western Gulf of Aden in 1979, 1997 and 2010-2012). This suggests the existence of active spreading centers that are more active than previously thought. The swarms show different families of earthquake magnitudes, with clusters of Mw4 and Mw5 events (southern Red Sea and Aden) and occasional larger than Mw6 events, primarily in the southern Afar region (the Serdo and Dobi areas). Of the three areas, Gulf of Aden shows the highest swarm activity, followed by the Afar area and the southern Red Sea. Despite seeing the least amount of activity and lower magnitudes, the southern Red Sea has experienced multiple earthquake swarms and three volcanic eruptions (two of which resulted in new volcanic islands) during the past 10 years. We show that the three areas have been subject to an almost simultaneous increase of earthquake swarm activity during the last 10 years. This period (2005-2014) was much more active compared to the preceding decades (1960

  4. Spatial patterns in the length of the sea ice season in the Southern Ocean, 1979-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    1994-01-01

    The length of the sea ice season summarizes in one number the ice coverage conditions for an individual location for an entire year. It becomes a particularly valuable variable when mapped spatially over a large area and examined for regional and interannual differences, as is done here for the Southern Ocean over the years 1979-1986, using the satellite passive microwave data of the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer. Three prominent geographic anomalies in ice season lengths occur consistently in each year of the data set, countering the general tendency toward shorter ice seasons from south to north: (1) in the Weddell Sea the tendency is toward shorter ice seasons from southwest to northeast, reflective of the cyclonic ice/atmosphere/ocean circulations in the Weddell Sea region. (2) Directly north of the Ross Ice Shelf anomalously short ice seasons occur, lasting only 245-270 days, in contrast to the perennial ice coverage at comparable latitudes in the southern Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas and in the western Weddell Sea. The short ice season off the Ross Ice Shelf reflects the consistently early opening of the ice cover each spring, under the influence of upwelling along the continental slope and shelf and atmospheric forcing from winds blowing off the Antarctic continent. (3) In the southern Amundsen Sea, anomalously short ice seasons occur adjacent to the coast, owing to the frequent existence of coastal polynyas off the many small ice shelves bordering the sea. Least squares trends in the ice season lengths over the 1979-1986 period are highly coherent spatially, with overall trends toward shorter ice seasons in the northern Weddell and Bellingshausen seas and toward longer ice seasons in the Ross Sea, around much of East Antarctica, and in a portion of the south central Weddell Sea.

  5. Spatial patterns in the length of the sea ice season in the Southern Ocean, 1979-1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    1994-08-01

    The length of the sea ice season summarizes in one number the ice coverage conditions for an individual location for an entire year. It becomes a particularly valuable variable when mapped spatially over a large area and examined for regional and interannual differences, as is done here for the Southern Ocean over the years 1979-1986, using the satellite passive microwave data of the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer. Three prominent geographic anomalies in ice season lengths occur consistently in each year of the data set, countering the general tendency toward shorter ice seasons from south to north: (1) In the Weddell Sea the tendency is toward shorter ice seasons from southwest to northeast, reflective of the cyclonic ice/atmosphere/ocean circulations in the Weddell Sea region. (2) Directly north of the Ross Ice Shelf anomalously short ice seasons occur, lasting only 245-270 days, in contrast to the perennial ice coverage at comparable latitudes in the southern Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas and in the western Weddell Sea. The short ice season off the Ross Ice Shelf reflects the consistently early opening of the ice cover each spring, under the influence of upwelling along the continental slope and shelf and atmospheric forcing from winds blowing off the Antarctic continent. (3) In the southern Amundsen Sea, anomalously short ice seasons occur adjacent to the coast, owing to the frequent existence of coastal polynyas off the many small ice shelves bordering the sea. Least squares trends in the ice season lengths over the 1979-1986 period are highly coherent spatially, with overall trends toward shorter ice seasons in the northern Weddell and Bellingshausen seas and toward longer ice seasons in the Ross Sea, around much of East Antarctica, and in a portion of the south central Weddell Sea.

  6. The Use of Satellite Imagery in the Monitoring and Forecasting of Sargassum Seaweed in the Caribbean Phase II of the Sargassum Early Advisory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, J.; Webster, R.; Linton, T.; Hill, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the Southern Caribbean was plagued by an unusually massive amount of seaweed wrack, an event so rare that locals couldn't think of a season where Sargassum had been that abundant, for sixty years. At this time, the SEAS program had been created, however the path of the seaweed from the Atlantic to the beaches of Texas had yet to be determined. This event sparked the idea that seaweed migrated through the Caribbean then North through the Yucatan Peninsula. While this idea was only partially correct, it did initiate the second phase of the SEAS Program. As it turns out, the seaweed drifts through the Northern passages of the Caribbean (Windward, Mona, and Anegada Passages) and migrates westward, rather than entering the Caribbean from the Southeastern islands (the Virgin Islands down to Granada). Monitoring these passes using ground-truthing and local reports has proven difficult, so in order to determine the presence of seaweed, one can use remote sensing. NASA's satellite Landsat 7 produces images of the passes every eight days, allowing the SEAS Team to monitor the Sargassum. These images have a sufficient resolution to see seaweed mats in the ocean. Based on several factors, such as ocean and wind currents, time of the year, and size of seaweed mats, one can ultimately forecast Sargassum as it makes its journey through the loop system. The seaweed is monitored as it migrates westward, and eventually gets pushed North in massive blooms as a result of neritic waters. These blooms can travel North in warm water gyres. The Sargassum can then break off and wash up on the beaches of Texas or get caught in the Gulf Stream where it is flushed out the Florida Straits back into the Atlantic. Remote sensing makes the first ever system of monitoring Sargassum possible and allows for advanced warning of these troublesome seaweed wracks up and down the coast.

  7. First measurements with Argo flots in the Southern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczowski, Waldemar; Goszczko, Ilona; Wieczorek, Piotr; Merchel, Malgorzata; Rak, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The Argo programme is one of the most important elements of the ocean observing system. Currently almost 4000 Argo floats profile global oceans and deliver real time data. Originally Argo floats were developed for open ocean observations. Therefore a standard float can dive up to 2000 m and deep Argo floats are under development. However in the last years the shallow shelf seas become also interesting for Argo users. Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences (IOPAN) participates in the Euro-Argo research infrastructure, the European contribution to Argo system. A legal and governance framework (Euro-Argo ERIC) was set up in May 2014. For a few years IOPAN has deployed floats mostly in the Nordic Seas and the European Arctic region. In the end of 2016 the first Polish Argo float was deployed in the Southern Baltic Sea. Building on the successful experience with Argo floats deployed by the Finnish oceanographers in the Bothnian Sea and Gotland Basin, the IOPAN float was launched in the Bornholm Deep during the fall cruise of IOPAN research vessel Oceania. The standard APEX float equipped with 2-way Iridium communication was used and different modes of operation, required for the specific conditions in the shallow and low saline Baltic Sea, were tested. Settings for the Baltic float are different than for the oceanic mode and were frequently changed during the mission to find the optimum solution. Changing the float parking depth during the mission allows for the limited control of the float drift direction. Results of a high resolution numerical forecast model for the Baltic Sea proved to be a valuable tool for determining the parking depth of the float in the different flow regimes. Trajectory and drift velocity of the Argo float deployed in the Southern Baltic depended strongly on the atmospheric forcing (in particular wind speed and direction), what was clearly manifested during the 'Axel' storm passing over the deployment area in January 2017. The first

  8. The Effects of Snow Depth Forcing on Southern Ocean Sea Ice Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powel, Dylan C.; Markus, Thorsten; Stoessel, Achim

    2003-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of snow on sea ice is an important factor for sea ice and climate models. First, it acts as an efficient insulator between the ocean and the atmosphere, and second, snow is a source of fresh water for altering the already weak Southern Ocean stratification. For the Antarctic, where the ice thickness is relatively thin, snow can impact the ice thickness in two ways: a) As mentioned above snow on sea ice reduces the ocean-atmosphere heat flux and thus reduces freezing at the base of the ice flows; b) a heavy snow load can suppress the ice below sea level which causes flooding and, with subsequent freezing, a thickening of the sea ice (snow-to-ice conversion). In this paper, we compare different snow fall paramterizations (incl. the incorporation of satellite-derived snow depth) and study the effect on the sea ice using a sea ice model.

  9. High frequency solar influence revealed in sclerosponge-derived Caribbean SST record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrella, J.; Winter, A.; Sherman, C.; Mangini, A.

    2012-12-01

    We present a high-resolution (annual) record of the Caribbean mixed layer temperature at different depths derived from oxygen isotopic ratios obtained from the sclerosponge Ceratoporella nicholsoni. Sclerosponges precipitate their calcium carbonate skeleton in equilibrium with their surrounding environment and are capable of living at depths down to 200 m. The sponges for this project were collected off the coasts of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands in northeastern Caribbean Sea. The records obtained extend from the early 1500's to the present and suggest that the Northeastern Caribbean was 1 - 2 °C cooler during the Little Ice Age than present conditions and that sea surface temperature (SST) has been rising at an average linear rate of 0.009 °C yr-1 since the mid 1800's, three times faster than the World Ocean. Wavelet time series analysis of our records suggests that Caribbean SST variability is regulated by the sunspot cycle, especially when the total solar irradiance is high, at what time the SSTs and the sunspot cycle are highly coupled. Our findings suggest a SST response to solar influence of 0.40 °C (W/m2)-1, almost twice that of the World Ocean. Deceleration of the Caribbean Current is proposed as a possible reason for this disparity. Further work is currently being done on other sponges and other calcium carbonate proxies to examine the extension of this forcing in other climate phenomena.

  10. Assessing Temperature Risk to Crab in the Northeast Pacific (Southern California to the Beaufort Sea)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the vulnerability of the Brachyura crabs (<200 m) to projected increases in sea surface temperature (SST), we developed an approach that evaluates risk within each of the ten Marine Ecoregions of the World (MEOW) ranging from Southern California to the Beaufort Sea...

  11. STS-32 Earth observation of the southern Sand Sea, Namibia, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 Earth observation taken onboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of the southern Sand Sea. Low sun angles on this south-looking view of the sand dunes of the southern Sand Sea (foreground) shows the many subtle patterns produced by winds. Along the coast very strong southerly winds have generated a zone of ribbed, transverse dunes. Further inland, different patterns appear, which may relate to present winds, or perhaps to winds which blew in different directions at times in the geological past. Strong Santa Ana-type winds blow from inland (left) during the winter which may explain the small patterns (center left). The small fishing port of Luderitz occupies the main bay on the coastline. Otherwise the area is empty of inhabitants on the very dry and windy coast. Railways connect the post with inland centers.

  12. Implications of Deoxygenation and Acidification for Deep Sea Urchins in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kirk Nicholas Suda

    Implications of multiple climate drivers for sea urchins were investigated across a spectrum of biological organization ranging from the urchin guild scale, to individual life history traits, to the geochemistry, material properties and porosity of sea urchin calcium carbonate skeletal tests. Using pink fragile sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus fragilis) on the southern California upwelling margin as a model species, links between biological traits and environmental parameters in nature across multiple spatial and temporal scales revealed correlations with dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, and temperature. Temporal trends in sea urchin populations assessed from trawl surveys conducted in southern California over the last 20 years (1994-2013) revealed changes in deep-sea urchin densities and depth distributions that coincide with trends in DO and pH on multidecadal and interdecadal (El Nino Southern Oscillation) time scales. The shallower urchin species ( Lytechinus pictus) decreased in density in the upper 200 m by 80%, and the deeper S. fragilis increased in density by ˜300%, providing the first evidence of habitat compression and expansion in sea urchin populations associated with secular and interdecadal variability in DO and pH. In this context, marketable food quality properties of the roe were compared between S. fragilis and the currently fished California red urchin, Mesocentrotus franciscanus, to assess the feasibility of developing a climate change-tolerant future S. fragilis trap fishery. Although roe color, texture, and resilience were similar between the two species, smaller and softer S. fragilis roe suggest it may only supplement, but not replace M. franciscanus in future fisheries. In comparisons across natural margin depth and climate gradients from 100-1100 m, S. fragilis exhibited reduced gonad production, smaller, weaker and more porous calcified tests in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (DO < 22 mumol kg-1) and pH Minimum Zone (in situ pHTotal <7.57) than those

  13. The ocean mixed layer under Southern Ocean sea-ice: Seasonal cycle and forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellichero, Violaine; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste; Schmidtko, Sunke; Roquet, Fabien; Charrassin, Jean-Benoît

    2017-02-01

    The oceanic mixed layer is the gateway for the exchanges between the atmosphere and the ocean; in this layer, all hydrographic ocean properties are set for months to millennia. A vast area of the Southern Ocean is seasonally capped by sea-ice, which alters the characteristics of the ocean mixed layer. The interaction between the ocean mixed layer and sea-ice plays a key role for water mass transformation, the carbon cycle, sea-ice dynamics, and ultimately for the climate as a whole. However, the structure and characteristics of the under-ice mixed layer are poorly understood due to the sparseness of in situ observations and measurements. In this study, we combine distinct sources of observations to overcome this lack in our understanding of the polar regions. Working with elephant seal-derived, ship-based, and Argo float observations, we describe the seasonal cycle of the ocean mixed-layer characteristics and stability of the ocean mixed layer over the Southern Ocean and specifically under sea-ice. Mixed-layer heat and freshwater budgets are used to investigate the main forcing mechanisms of the mixed-layer seasonal cycle. The seasonal variability of sea surface salinity and temperature are primarily driven by surface processes, dominated by sea-ice freshwater flux for the salt budget and by air-sea flux for the heat budget. Ekman advection, vertical diffusivity, and vertical entrainment play only secondary roles. Our results suggest that changes in regional sea-ice distribution and annual duration, as currently observed, widely affect the buoyancy budget of the underlying mixed layer, and impact large-scale water mass formation and transformation with far reaching consequences for ocean ventilation.

  14. Trophic interactions, ecosystem structure and function in the southern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qun; Jin, Xianshi; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The southern Yellow Sea is an important fishing ground, providing abundant fishery resources. However, overfishing and climate change have caused a decline in the resource and damaged the ecosystem. We developed an ecosystem model to analyze the trophic interactions and ecosystem structure and function to guide sustainable development of the ecosystem. A trophic mass-balance model of the southern Yellow Sea during 2000-2001 was constructed using Ecopath with Ecosim software. We defined 22 important functional groups and studied their diet composition. The trophic levels of fish, shrimp, crabs, and cephalopods were between 2.78 and 4.39, and the mean trophic level of the fisheries was 3.24. The trophic flows within the food web occurred primarily in the lower trophic levels. The mean trophic transfer efficiency was 8.1%, of which 7.1% was from primary producers and 9.3% was from detritus within the ecosystem. The transfer efficiency between trophic levels II to III to IV to V to >V was 5.0%, 5.7%, 18.5%, and 19.7%-20.4%, respectively. Of the total flow, phytoplankton contributed 61% and detritus contributed 39%. Fishing is defined as a top predator within the ecosystem, and has a negative impact on most commercial species. Moreover, the ecosystem had a high gross efficiency of the fishery and a high value of primary production required to sustain the fishery. Together, our data suggest there is high fishing pressure in the southern Yellow Sea. Based on analysis of Odum's ecological parameters, this ecosystem was at an immature stage. Our results provide some insights into the structure and development of this ecosystem.

  15. CLOUDS, AEROSOLS, RADIATION AND THE AIR-SEA INTERFACE OF THE SOUTHERN OCEAN: ESTABLISHING DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Robert; Bretherton, Chris; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-09-29

    A workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy was convened at the University of Washington to discuss the state of knowledge of clouds, aerosols and air-sea interaction over the Southern Ocean and to identify strategies for reducing uncertainties in their representation in global and regional models. The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global climate system and is a unique pristine environment, yet other than from satellite, there have been sparse observations of clouds, aerosols, radiation and the air-sea interface in this region. Consequently, much is unknown about atmospheric and oceanographic processes and their linkage in this region.more » Approximately 60 scientists, including graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and senior researchers working in atmospheric and oceanic sciences at U.S. and foreign universities and government laboratories, attended the Southern Ocean Workshop. It began with a day of scientific talks, partly in plenary and partly in two parallel sessions, discussing the current state of the science for clouds, aerosols and air-sea interaction in the Southern Ocean. After the talks, attendees broke into two working groups; one focused on clouds and meteorology, and one focused on aerosols and their interactions with clouds. This was followed by more plenary discussion to synthesize the two working group discussions and to consider possible plans for organized activities to study clouds, aerosols and the air-sea interface in the Southern Ocean. The agenda and talk slides, including short summaries of the highlights of the parallel session talks developed by the session chars, are available at http://www.atmos.washington.edu/socrates/presentations/SouthernOceanPresentations/.« less

  16. Regional P-wave Tomography in the Caribbean Region for Plate Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Bedle, H.; Suppe, J.

    2017-12-01

    The complex plate-tectonic interactions around the Caribbean Sea have been studied and interpreted by many researchers, but questions still remain regarding the formation and subduction history of the region. Here we report current progress towards creating a new regional tomographic model, with better lateral and spatial coverage and higher resolution than has been presented previously. This new model will provide improved constraints on the plate-tectonic evolution around the Caribbean Plate. Our three-dimensional velocity model is created using taut spline parameterization. The inversion is computed by the code of VanDecar (1991), which is based on the ray theory method. The seismic data used in this inversion are absolute P wave arrival times from over 700 global earthquakes that were recorded by over 400 near Caribbean stations. There are over 25000 arrival times that were picked and quality checked within frequency band of 0.01 - 0.6 Hz by using a MATLAB GUI-based software named Crazyseismic. The picked seismic delay time data are analyzed and compared with other studies ahead of doing the inversion model, in order to examine the quality of our dataset. From our initial observations of the delay time data, the more equalized the ray azimuth coverage, the smaller the deviation of the observed travel times from the theoretical travel time. Networks around the NE and SE side of the Caribbean Sea generally have better ray coverage, and smaller delay times. Specifically, seismic rays reaching SE Caribbean networks, such as XT network, generally pass through slabs under South American, Central American, Lesser Antilles, Southwest Caribbean, and the North Caribbean transform boundary, which leads to slightly positive average delay times. In contrast, the Puerto Rico network records seismic rays passing through regions that may lack slabs in the upper mantle and show slightly negative or near zero average delay times. These results agree with previous tomographic

  17. Storminess trends in the Gulf and Mexican Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, E. T.; Ojeda, E.; Appendini, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies have focused on whether the attributes of tropical cyclones have varied, or how they are expected to vary in a warming climate and yet, a defined conclusion has not been reached. However, an increase in storm intensity, with the inherent increase of wave height and storm surge, will be responsible of heavy economic loss on coastal areas. This contribution analyzes possible variations in the long term storminess pattern observed in 10 nearshore locations along the southern coasts of the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Caribbean using modeled wave data from the last 30 years (Appendini et al., 2013). Storminess is studied in terms of wave energy content focusing on extreme event conditions. Wave storm events are obtained using the Peak Over Threshold method. The wave conditions during the events are separated into those caused by tropical cyclones (TC) and extratropical storm (ETS) events because they are expected to behave differently in response to changing climate conditions. In order to characterize the waves generated by these different phenomena the data set is inspected separating individual storm events into TC and ETS using the IBtracks information. The trend and Mann-Kendall test are performed for each node to account for possible trends in the frequency, mean and maximum significant wave heights, and the mean energy content (taken as E=integral(Hs*dt) of TC and ETS. For the TC and ETS events, the results of the MK test show an absence of significant temporal trends for the majority of the nodes even at the 90% confidence interval. The significant trends in the number of ETS events show differential results (negative trend in the northernmost node and positive trends in the two Caribbean nodes and the easternmost GoM node). Regarding the TC events, the two nodes located in the Caribbean Sea present significant temporal (positive) trends in the energy content of the events. However, this trend is related to an increase in the magnitude of

  18. Sensitivity of Antarctic sea ice to the Southern Annular Mode in coupled climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Marika M.; Landrum, Laura; Kostov, Yavor; Marshall, John

    2017-09-01

    We assess the sea ice response to Southern Annular Mode (SAM) anomalies for pre-industrial control simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Consistent with work by Ferreira et al. (J Clim 28:1206-1226, 2015. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00313.1), the models generally simulate a two-timescale response to positive SAM anomalies, with an initial increase in ice followed by an eventual sea ice decline. However, the models differ in the cross-over time at which the change in ice response occurs, in the overall magnitude of the response, and in the spatial distribution of the response. Late twentieth century Antarctic sea ice trends in CMIP5 simulations are related in part to different modeled responses to SAM variability acting on different time-varying transient SAM conditions. This explains a significant fraction of the spread in simulated late twentieth century southern hemisphere sea ice extent trends across the model simulations. Applying the modeled sea ice response to SAM variability but driven by the observed record of SAM suggests that variations in the austral summer SAM, which has exhibited a significant positive trend, have driven a modest sea ice decrease. However, additional work is needed to narrow the considerable model uncertainty in the climate response to SAM variability and its implications for 20th-21st century trends.

  19. Receiver Functions Imaging of the Moho and LAB in the Southern Caribbean plate boundary and Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masy, J.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.

    2011-12-01

    We have made teleseismic Ps and Sp receiver functions from data recorded from 2003 to 2009 by the permanent national seismic network of Venezuela, the BOLIVAR (Broadband Onshore-offshore Lithospheric Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) and WAVE (Western Array for Venezuela) experiments. The receiver functions show rapid variations in Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depths both across and along the southern Caribbean plate boundary region. We used a total of 69 events with Mw > 6 occurring at epicentral distances from 30° to 90° for the Ps receiver functions, and 43 events with Mw > 5.7 from 55° to 85° to make Sp receiver functions. For CCP stacking we constructed a 3D velocity model from numerous active source profiles (Schmitz et al., 2001; Bezada et al., 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Guedez, 2008; Magnani et al., 2009), from finite-frequency P wave upper mantle tomography model of Bezada et al., (2010) and the Rayleigh wave tomography model of Miller et al., (2009). The Moho ranges in depth from ~25 km beneath the Caribbean Large Igneous Provinces to ~55 km beneath the Mérida Andes in western Venezuela. These results are consistent with previous receiver functions studies (Niu et al., 2007) and the available active source profiles. Beneath the Maracaibo Block in northwestern Venezuela, we observe a strong positive signal at 40 to 60 km depth dipping ~6° towards the continent. We interpret this as the Moho of the Caribbean slab subducting beneath northernmost South America from the west. Beneath northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela the top of this slab has been previously inferred from intermediate depth seismicity (Malavé and Suarez, 1995), which indicates a slab dipping between 20° - 30° beneath Lake Maracaibo. Our results could indicate that the slab is tearing beneath Lake Maracaibo as suggested previously by Masy et al. (2011). The deeper (> 100 km depth) part of the slab has been imaged using P

  20. Deep-water sponges (Porifera) from Bonaire and Klein Curaçao, Southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Van Soest, Rob W M; Meesters, Erik H W G; Becking, Leontine E

    2014-10-29

    Four submersible dives off the coast of Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands) and Klein Curaçao (Curaçao) to depths of 99.5-242 m, covering lower mesophotic and upper dysphotic zones, yielded 52 sponge specimens belonging to 31 species. Among these we identified 13 species as new to science. These are Plakinastrella stinapa n. sp., Pachastrella pacoi n. sp., Characella pachastrelloides n. sp., Geodia curacaoensis n. sp., Caminus carmabi n. sp., Discodermia adhaerens n. sp., Clathria (Microciona) acarnoides n. sp., Antho (Acarnia) pellita n. sp., Parahigginsia strongylifera n. sp., Calyx magnoculata n. sp., Neopetrosia dutchi n. sp., Neopetrosia ovata n. sp. and Neopetrosia eurystomata n. sp. We also report an euretid hexactinellid, which belongs to the rare genus Verrucocoeloidea, recently described (2014) as V. liberatorii Reiswig & Dohrmann. The remaining 18 already known species are all illustrated by photos of the habit, either in situ or 'on deck', but only briefly characterized in an annotated table to confirm their occurrence in the Southern Caribbean. The habitat investigated-steep limestone rocks, likely representing Pleistocene fossil reefs--is similar to deep-water fossil reefs at Barbados of which the sponges were sampled and studied by Van Soest and Stentoft (1988). A comparison is made between the two localities, showing a high degree of similarity in sponge composition: 53% of the present Bonaire-Klein Curaçao species were also retrieved at Barbados. At the level of higher taxa (genera, families) Bonaire-Klein Curaçao shared approximately 80% of its lower mesophotic and upper dysphotic sponge fauna with Barbados, despite a distance between them of 1000 km, indicating high faunal homogeneity. We also preliminarily compared the shallow-water (euphotic) sponge fauna of Curaçao with the combined data available for the Barbados, Bonaire and Klein Curaçao mesophotic and upper dysphotic sponges, which resulted in the conclusion that the two faunas show only

  1. The past, present and future distribution of a deep-sea shrimp in the Southern Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Shrimps have a widespread distribution across the shelf, slope and seamount regions of the Southern Ocean. Studies of Antarctic organisms have shown that individual species and higher taxa display different degrees of sensitivity and adaptability in response to environmental change. We use species distribution models to predict changes in the geographic range of the deep-sea Antarctic shrimp Nematocarcinus lanceopes under changing climatic conditions from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present and to the year 2100. The present distribution range indicates a pole-ward shift of the shrimp population since the last glaciation. This occurred by colonization of slopes from nearby refugia located around the northern part of Scotia Arc, southern tip of South America, South Georgia, Bouvet Island, southern tip of the Campbell plateau and Kerguelen plateau. By 2100, the shrimp are likely to expand their distribution in east Antarctica but have a continued pole-ward contraction in west Antarctica. The range extension and contraction process followed by the deep-sea shrimp provide a geographic context of how other deep-sea Antarctic species may have survived during the last glaciation and may endure with projected changing climatic conditions in the future. PMID:26925334

  2. The past, present and future distribution of a deep-sea shrimp in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Basher, Zeenatul; Costello, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Shrimps have a widespread distribution across the shelf, slope and seamount regions of the Southern Ocean. Studies of Antarctic organisms have shown that individual species and higher taxa display different degrees of sensitivity and adaptability in response to environmental change. We use species distribution models to predict changes in the geographic range of the deep-sea Antarctic shrimp Nematocarcinus lanceopes under changing climatic conditions from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present and to the year 2100. The present distribution range indicates a pole-ward shift of the shrimp population since the last glaciation. This occurred by colonization of slopes from nearby refugia located around the northern part of Scotia Arc, southern tip of South America, South Georgia, Bouvet Island, southern tip of the Campbell plateau and Kerguelen plateau. By 2100, the shrimp are likely to expand their distribution in east Antarctica but have a continued pole-ward contraction in west Antarctica. The range extension and contraction process followed by the deep-sea shrimp provide a geographic context of how other deep-sea Antarctic species may have survived during the last glaciation and may endure with projected changing climatic conditions in the future.

  3. How a collaborative integrated taxonomic effort has trained new spongiologists and improved knowledge of Martinique Island (French Antilles, eastern Caribbean Sea) marine biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Although sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems of the Caribbean Sea, their diversity remained poorly investigated in the Lesser Antilles. By organizing a training course in Martinique, we wanted both to promote taxonomy and to provide a first inventory of the sponge diversity on this island. The course was like a naturalist expedition, with a field laboratory and a classroom nearby. Early-career scientists and environmental managers were trained in sponge taxonomy. We gathered unpublished data and conducted an inventory at 13 coastal sites. We explored only shallow water habitats (0–30 m), such as mangroves, reefs or rocky bottoms and underwater caves. According to this study, the sponge fauna of Martinique is currently represented by a minimum of 191 species, 134 of which we could assign species names. One third of the remaining non-identified sponge species we consider to be new to science. Martinique appears very remarkable because of its littoral marine fauna harboring sponge aggregations with high biomass and species diversity dominating over coral species. In mangroves, sponges cover about 10% of the surface of subtidal roots. Several submarine caves are true reservoirs of hidden and insufficiently described sponge diversity. Thanks to this new collaborative effort, the Eastern Caribbean has gained a significant increase of knowledge, with sponge diversity of this area potentially representing 40% of the total in the Caribbean Sea. We thus demonstrated the importance of developing exploratory and educational research in areas historically devoid of biodiversity inventories and systematics studies. Finally, we believe in the necessity to consider not only the number of species but their distribution in space to evaluate their putative contribution to ecosystem services and our willingness to preserve them. PMID:28329020

  4. Drivers of Antarctic sea-ice expansion and Southern Ocean surface cooling over the past four decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purich, Ariaan; England, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Despite global warming, total Antarctic sea-ice coverage has increased overall during the past four decades. In contrast, the majority of CMIP5 models simulate a decline. In addition, Southern Ocean surface waters have largely cooled, in stark contrast to almost all historical CMIP5 simulations. Subantarctic Surface Waters have cooled and freshened while waters to the north of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current have warmed and increased in salinity. It remains unclear as to what extent the cooling and Antarctic sea-ice expansion is due to natural variability versus anthropogenic forcing; due for example to changes in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). It is also unclear what the respective role of surface buoyancy fluxes is compared to internal ocean circulation changes, and what the implications are for longer-term climate change in the region. In this presentation we will outline three distinct drivers of recent Southern Ocean surface trends that have each made a significant contribution to regional cooling: (1) wind-driven surface cooling and sea-ice expansion due to shifted westerly winds, (2) teleconnections of decadal variability from the tropical Pacific, and (3) surface cooling and ice expansion due to large-scale Southern Ocean freshening, most likely driven by SAM-related precipitation trends over the open ocean. We will also outline the main reasons why climate models for the most part miss these Southern Ocean cooling trends, despite capturing overall trends in the SAM.

  5. Focused study of interweaving hazards across the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, John J.; Mattioli, Glen S.; Calais, Eric; Carlson, David; Dixon, Timothy H.; Jackson, Michael E.; Kursinski, E. Robert; Mora-Paez, Hector; Miller, M. Meghan; Pandya, Rajul; Robertson, Richard; Wang, Guoquan

    2012-02-01

    The Caribbean is a region of lush vegetation, beaches, active volcanoes, and significant mountain ranges, all of which create a natural aesthetic that is recognized globally. Yet these very same features, molded through geological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes, also pose natural hazards for the developing countries in the Caribbean. The rise in population density, migration to coastal areas, and substandard building practices, combined with the threat of natural hazards, put the region's human population at risk for particularly devastating disasters. These demographic and social characteristics exist against a backdrop of the threat of an evolving climate, which produces a more vigorous hurricane environment and a rising average sea level.

  6. Role of the offshore Pedro Banks left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in the plate tectonic evolution of the northern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, B.; Mann, P.; Saunders, M.

    2013-12-01

    Previous workers, mainly mapping onland active faults on Caribbean islands, defined the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone as a 200-km-wide bounded by two active and parallel strike-slip faults: the Oriente fault along the northern edge of the Cayman trough with a GPS rate of 14 mm/yr, and and the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) with a rate of 5-7 mm/yr. In this study we use 5,000 km of industry and academic data from the Nicaraguan Rise south and southwest of the EPGFZ in the maritime areas of Jamaica, Honduras, and Colombia to define an offshore, 700-km-long, active, left-lateral strike-slip fault in what has previously been considered the stable interior of the Caribbean plate as determined from plate-wide GPS studies. The fault was named by previous workers as the Pedro Banks fault zone because a 100-km-long segment of the fault forms an escarpment along the Pedro carbonate bank of the Nicaraguan Rise. Two fault segments of the PBFZ are defined: the 400-km-long eastern segment that exhibits large negative flower structures 10-50 km in width, with faults segments rupturing the sea floor as defined by high resolution 2D seismic data, and a 300-km-long western segment that is defined by a narrow zone of anomalous seismicity first observed by previous workers. The western end of the PBFZ terminates on a Quaternary rift structure, the San Andres rift, associated with Plio-Pleistocene volcanism and thickening trends indicating initial rifting in the Late Miocene. The southern end of the San Andreas rift terminates on the western Hess fault which also exhibits active strands consistent with left-lateral, strike-slip faults. The total length of the PBFZ-San Andres rift-Southern Hess escarpment fault is 1,200 km and traverses the entire western end of the Caribbean plate. Our interpretation is similar to previous models that have proposed the "stable" western Caribbean plate is broken by this fault whose rate of displacement is less than the threshold

  7. Dominant covarying climate signals in the Southern Ocean and Antarctic Sea Ice influence during last three decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerrone, Dario; Fusco, Giannetta; Simmonds, Ian; Aulicino, Giuseppe; Budillon, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    A composite dataset (comprising geopotential height, sea surface temperature, zonal and meridional surface winds, precipitation, cloud cover, surface air temperature, latent plus sensible heat fluxes , and sea ice concentration) has been investigated with the aim of revealing the dominant timescales of variability from 1982 to 2013. Three covarying climate signals associated with variations in the sea ice distribution around Antarctica have been detected through the application of the Multiple-Taper Method with Singular Value Decomposition (MTM-SVD). Features of the established patterns of variation over the Southern Hemisphere (SH) extratropics have been identified in each of these three climate signals in the form of coupled or individual oscillations. The climate patterns considered here are the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the Pacific-South America (PSA) teleconnection, the Semi-Annual Oscillation (SAO) and Zonal Wavenumber-3 (ZW3) mode. It is shown that most of the sea ice temporal variance is concentrated at the quasi-triennial scale resulting from the constructive superposition of the PSA and ZW3 patterns. In addition the combination of the SAM and SAO patterns is found to promote the interannual sea ice variations underlying a general change in the Southern Ocean atmospheric and oceanic circulations. These two modes of variability are also found consistent with the occurrence of the SAM+/PSA- or SAM-/PSA+ combinations, which could have favored the cooling of the sub-Antarctic and important changes in the Antarctic sea ice distribution since 2000.

  8. Tsunamis from Tectonic Sources along Caribbean Plate Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, A. M.; Chacon, S.; Zamora, N.; Audemard, F. A.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Clouard, V.; Løvholt, F.; Harbitz, C. B.; Vanacore, E. A.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Working Group 2 (WG2) of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG/CARIBE-EWS) in charge of Tsunami Hazards Assessment, has generated a list of tsunami sources for the Caribbean region. Simulating these worst-case, most credible scenarios would provide an estimate of the resulting effects on coastal areas within the Caribbean. In the past few years, several publications have addressed this issue resulting in a collection of potential tsunami sources and scenarios. These publications come from a wide variety of sources; from government agencies to academic institutions. Although these provide the scientific community with a list of sources and scenarios, it was the interest of the WG2 to evaluate what has been proposed and develop a comprehensive list of sources, therefore leaving aside proposed scenarios. The seismo-tectonics experts of the Caribbean within the WG2 members were tasked to evaluate comprehensively which published sources are credible, worst-cases, and consider other sources that have been omitted from available reports. Among these published sources are the GEM Faulted Earth Subduction Characterization Project, and the LANTEX/Caribe Wave annual exercise publications (2009-2015). Caribbean tectonic features capable of generating tsunamis from seismic dislocation are located along the Northeastern Caribbean, the Lesser Antilles Trench, and the Panamá and Southern Caribbean Deformed Belts. The proposed sources have been evaluated based on historical and instrumental seismicity as well as geological and geophysical studies. This paper presents the sources and their justification as most-probable tsunami sources based on the context of crustal deformation due to Caribbean plate interacting with neighboring North and South America plates. Simulations of these sources is part of a subsequent phase in which effects of these tectonically induced tsunamis

  9. Kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region since the Early Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochman, Lydian; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Torsvik, Trond; Spakman, Wim; Pindell, James

    2014-05-01

    reconstruction in the most recent mantle reference frames shows that the CLIP erupted 2000-3000 km east of the modern Galápagos hotspot, and may not have been derived from the corresponding mantle plume. Finally, our reconstruction suggests that most if not all modern subduction zones surrounding the Caribbean plate initiated at transform faults, two of these (along the southern Mexican and NW South American margins) evolved diachronously as a result of migrating trench-trench-transform triple junctions.

  10. Back-arc basin opening and closure along the southern margin of the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Claringbould, Johan; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Kato, Naoko; Abe, Susumu; Kawasaki, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    Following the tsunami disaster produced by 2001 Off-Tohoku earthquake (M9) along the Pacific coast of Japan, the Japanese government started an intense evaluation of tsunami hazards. This evaluation spanned along the full Japanese coast, including the Sea of Japan coast on the western side of the Japan arc. In the Sea of Japan, tsunamis are produced by crustal faults. As the longer interval of faulting activity, the historical records of tsunamis in the Sea of Japan are not enough for the evaluation of tsunami height. Thus, the evaluation is carried out based on structural analyses of the margin of the Sea of Japan. To get better understanding of the present-day structural geometry and develop a source-fault model in this region, intense seismic reflection profiling has been carried out since 2013. We introduce the results of the seismic reflection profiles and discuss the structural evolution of the southern margin of the Sea of Japan. 2D seismic reflection profiles were acquired using 1950 cu. in. air-gun and 2100 m streamer cable. The seismic profiles provide the image image up to 3 seconds TWT. The southern margin of the Sea of Japan was produced by back-arc opening and post-rift deformation, and the structural evolution of this area is divided into several stages: rifting (25 - 14 Ma), post-rift compression (14 - 5 Ma), weak thrusting (5 - 1 Ma), and strike-slip deformation (1 Ma to present). During the rifting stage that is associated with the fan-shaped opening of the Sea of Japan, grabens and half-grabens were formed trending parallel to the extension of SW-Japan arc. These grabens were filled by syn-rift sediments, and the maximum thickness of basin fill is observed along the southern margin of the rifted crust. The opening of the Sea of Japan ceased as a result of the collision of Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system at the Izu collision zone on the central part of Honshu, Japan. Soon after the this event, the young Shikoku basin within the Philippine Sea plate

  11. Deep seawater inherent optical properties in the Southern Ionian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobene, G.; Capone, A.; Aiello, S.; Ambriola, M.; Ameli, F.; Amore, I.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Avanzini, C.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Beverini, N.; Bonori, M.; Bouhadef, B.; Brescia, M.; Cacopardo, G.; Cafagna, F.; Caponetto, L.; Castorina, E.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; Cuneo, S.; D'Amico, A.; de Bonis, G.; de Marzo, C.; de Rosa, G.; de Vita, R.; Distefano, C.; Falchini, E.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Gabrielli, A.; Galeotti, S.; Gandolfi, E.; Grimaldi, A.; Habel, R.; Leonora, E.; Lonardo, A.; Longo, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Lucarelli, F.; Maccioni, E.; Margiotta, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Megna, R.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Osipenko, M.; Osteria, G.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Raffaelli, F.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Rovelli, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Russo, S.; Russo, S.; Sapienza, P.; Sedita, M.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spurio, M.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Urso, S.; Valente, V.; Vicini, P.

    2007-02-01

    The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) Collaboration has been carrying out since 1998 an evaluation programme of deep sea sites suitable for the construction of the future Mediterranean km3 Čerenkov neutrino telescope. We investigated the seawater optical and oceanographic properties of several deep sea marine areas close to the Italian Coast. Inherent optical properties (light absorption and attenuation coefficients) have been measured as a function of depth using an experimental apparatus equipped with standard oceanographic probes and the commercial transmissometer AC9 manufactured by WETLabs. This paper reports on the visible light absorption and attenuation coefficients measured in deep seawater of a marine region located in the Southern Ionian Sea, 60 100 km SE of Capo Passero (Sicily). Data show that blue light absorption coefficient is about 0.015 m-1 (corresponding to an absorption length of 67 m) close to the one of optically pure water and it does not show seasonal variation.

  12. Comparison of modern pollen distribution between the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuanxiu; Chen, Muhong; Xiang, Rong; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lanlan; Lu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted a palynological analysis based on different number of air pollen samples for the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea, respectively, in order to give a reference to reconstruct the paleoclimate of the area. (1) Fifteen air pollen samples were collected from the northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011, and 13 air pollen samples were collected from the southern part of the South China Sea in December 2011. The pollen types were more abundant in the north than in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north was 10 times more than that in the south, which may be because of the sampling season. Airborne pollen types and concentrations have a close relationship with wind direction and distance from the sampling point to the continent. (2) Seventy-four samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea in the autumn. Thirty-three samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea in the winter. Pollen concentrations in the north were nearly 10 times higher than that in the south. This is because trilete spores are transported by rivers from Hainan Island to the sea and also by the summer monsoon-forced marine current. (3) Ten air pollen samples and 10 surface sediments samples were selected for comparison. The pollen and spores in the air were mainly herbaceous and woody pollen, excluding fern spores, having seasonal pollen characteristics. Pollen in the surface sediments were mainly trilete, Pinus, and herbaceous, and may also show a combination of annual pollen characteristics.

  13. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments in southern Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Nardi, Matthew J.; Andring, Matthew A.

    2015-09-09

    Multibeam echosounder data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration along with sediment samples and still and video photography of the sea floor collected by the U.S. Geological Survey were used to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments in southern Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, as part of a long-term effort to map the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. Sea-floor features include rocky areas and scour depressions in high-energy environments characterized by erosion or nondeposition, and sand waves and megaripples in environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Two shipwrecks are also located in the study area. Much of the sea floor is relatively featureless within the resolution of the multibeam data; sedimentary environments in these areas are characterized by processes associated with sorting and reworking. This report releases bathymetric data from the multibeam echosounder, grain-size analyses of sediment samples, and photographs of the sea floor and interpretations of the sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. It provides base maps that can be used for resource management and studies of topics such as benthic ecology, contaminant inventories, and sediment transport.

  14. Towards an Earthquake and Tsunami Early Warning in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; Vanacore, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Caribbean region (CR) has a documented history of large damaging earthquakes and tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of Jamaica in 1692, Virgin Islands in 1867, Puerto Rico in 1918, the Dominican Republic in 1946 and Haiti in 2010. There is clear evidence that tsunamis have been triggered by large earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor around the Caribbean Plate boundary. The CR is monitored jointly by national/regional/local seismic, geodetic and sea level networks. All monitoring institutions are participating in the UNESCO ICG/Caribe EWS, the purpose of this initiative is to minimize loss of life and destruction of property, and to mitigate against catastrophic economic impacts via promoting local research, real time (RT) earthquake, geodetic and sea level data sharing and improving warning capabilities and enhancing education and outreach strategies. Currently more than, 100 broad-band seismic, 65 sea levels and 50 GPS high rate stations are available in real or near real-time. These real-time streams are used by Local/Regional or Worldwide detection and warning institutions to provide earthquake source parameters in a timely manner. Currently, any Caribbean event detected to have a magnitude greater than 4.5 is evaluated, and sea level is measured, by the TWC for tsumanigenic potential. The regional cooperation is motivated both by research interests as well as geodetic, seismic and tsunami hazard monitoring and warning. It will allow the imaging of the tectonic structure of the Caribbean region to a high resolution which will consequently permit further understanding of the seismic source properties for moderate and large events and the application of this knowledge to procedures of civil protection. To reach its goals, the virtual network has been designed following the highest technical standards: BB sensors, 24 bits A/D converters with 140 dB dynamic range, real-time telemetry. Here we will discuss the state of the PR

  15. First Report of an Adult Tapeworm (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea) in a Southern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis).

    PubMed

    Young, Colleen; Miller, Melissa A; Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Newsome, Seth D; Dailey, Murray

    2017-10-01

    We present a novel case of an intestinal cestode infection in a southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). The cestode species Diphyllobothrium tetrapterum (syn. Diplogonoporus tetrapterus) was confirmed genetically. Stable isotope analysis of whiskers collected from the sea otter did not confirm the consumption of fish as the route of exposure.

  16. Wind waves generated by Typhoon Vamei in the southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Aboobacker; Tkalich, Pavel; Krishnakumar, Vinod Kumar; Ponnumony, Vethamony

    2013-04-01

    Typhoon-generated waves are of interest scientifically for understanding wind-wave interaction physics, as well as operationally for predicting potential hazards. The Typhoon Vamei formed in the southern South China Sea (SCS) was one of the rare typhoon events that occurred near the equator. The typhoon developed on 26 Dec 2001 at 1.4°N in the southern SCS, strengthened quickly, made a landfall along the southeast coast of Malaysia and dissipated over Sumatra on 28 Dec 2001. With the wind speeds were as high as 36 m/s in the southern SCS, this event has significantly affected the atmospheric and oceanic conditions over the region. In the present study, we aim at understanding the wind wave characteristics induced by Vamei along the Sunda Shelf and the southeast coast of Malaysia. Wind velocity vectors over the southern SCS have been simulated for 22-30 Dec 2001 using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. These winds have been forced in a third generation wave model to compute the wind waves in the affected domain. Simulated significant wave heights reach as high as 7.5m off the southeast coast of Malaysia and 5.8m in the Singapore Strait (SS). Wave propagation from the SCS to the SS is highly noticeable during the typhoon event. Directional distribution and propagation of the Vamei generated waves towards the southeast coast of Malaysia and part of Singapore region have been discussed. Keywords: South China Sea; wind waves; typhoon; numerical modelling; significant wave height.

  17. Numerical Simulations of the 1991 Limón Tsunami, Costa Rica Caribbean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia; Zamora, Natalia

    2017-08-01

    The second largest recorded tsunami along the Caribbean margin of Central America occurred 25 years ago. On April 22nd, 1991, an earthquake with magnitude Mw 7.6 ruptured along the thrust faults that form the North Panamá Deformed Belt (NPDB). The earthquake triggered a tsunami that affected the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and Panamá within few minutes, generating two casualties. These are the only deaths caused by a tsunami in Costa Rica. Coseismic uplift up to 1.6 m and runup values larger than 2 m were measured along some coastal sites. Here, we consider three solutions for the seismic source as initial conditions to model the tsunami, each considering a single rupture plane. We performed numerical modeling of the tsunami propagation and runup using NEOWAVE numerical model (Yamazaki et al. in Int J Numer Methods Fluids 67:2081-2107, 2010, doi: 10.1002/fld.2485 ) on a system of nested grids from the entire Caribbean Sea to Limón city. The modeled surface deformation and tsunami runup agreed with the measured data along most of the coastal sites with one preferred model that fits the field data. The model results are useful to determine how the 1991 tsunami could have affected regions where tsunami records were not preserved and to simulate the effects of the coastal surface deformations as buffer to tsunami. We also performed tsunami modeling to simulate the consequences if a similar event with larger magnitude Mw 7.9 occurs offshore the southern Costa Rican Caribbean coast. Such event would generate maximum wave heights of more than 5 m showing that Limón and northwestern Panamá coastal areas are exposed to moderate-to-large tsunamis. These simulations considering historical events and maximum credible scenarios can be useful for hazard assessment and also as part of studies leading to tsunami evacuation maps and mitigation plans, even when that is not the scope of this paper.

  18. Late Neogene benthic stable isotope record of ODP Site 999: Implications for Caribbean paleoceanography, organic carbon burial and the Messininian salinity crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickert, T.; Haug, G.; Tiedemann, R.

    2003-04-01

    The late Neogene closure of the seaway between the North and South American continents is thought to have caused extensive changes in ocean circulation and Northern Hemisphere climate. The timing and consequences of the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama for the ocean circulation have been addressed in several papers which indicate a marked reorganization of surface and deep ocean circulation starting 4.6 million years ago. However, the biogeographic development of marine faunas and floras on both sides of the Panama Isthmus suggests that the paleoceanographic changes related to the closing of the isthmus started much earlier. Furthermore, the closing history of the Panama Seaway overlaps with the tectonic evolution of other ocean gateways in the late Miocene, especially the closure of the Strait of Gibraltar, which led to a transient isolation of the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean, known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis. We report on epibenthic foraminiferal d18O and d13C and percentage sand records of the carbonate fraction from Caribbean ODP Site 999 (12°44´N, 78° 44´W, water depth 2828 m) spanning the interval from 8.6 to 5.3 Ma. Low epibenthic d13C values and low sand contents indicate a poorly ventilated deep Caribbean throughout the late Miocene. At this time the deep Caribbean was dominated by a nutrient-rich Southern Ocean water mass. A mostly constant d13C gradient between the Caribbean and deep Atlantic records suggests that the fluctuations in d13C reflect rather global changes in d13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon due to varying erosion of organic carbon from terrigenous soils and shelf sediments. The observed 100-ky cyclicity of epibenthic d13C is in well accordance with the variability of the terrigenous input to the equatorial Atlantic as recorded by susceptibility records of the Ceara Rise. However, some gradient changes between 6.8 and 5.6 Ma indicate a poorer ventilation of the deep Atlantic related to a reduced production of

  19. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Benthem, Steven; Govers, Rob; Spakman, Wim; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-06-01

    investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. These anomalies are interpreted as remnants of Atlantic lithosphere subduction and confirm tectonic reconstructions that suggest at least 1100 km of convergence at the Lesser Antilles island arc during the past 45 Myr. The imaged Lesser Antilles slab consists of a northern and southern anomaly, separated by a low-velocity anomaly across most of the upper mantle, which we interpret as the subducted North America-South America plate boundary. The southern edge of the imaged Lesser Antilles slab agrees with vertical tearing of South America lithosphere. The northern Lesser Antilles slab is continuous with the Puerto Rico slab along the northeastern plate boundary. This results in an amphitheater-shaped slab, and it is interpreted as westward subducting North America lithosphere that remained attached to the surface along the northeastern boundary of the Caribbean plate. At the Muertos Trough, however, material is imaged until a depth of only 100 km, suggesting a small amount of subduction. The location and length of the imaged South Caribbean slab agrees with proposed subduction of Caribbean lithosphere under the northern South America plate. An anomaly related to proposed Oligocene subduction at the Nicaragua rise is absent in the tomographic model. Beneath Panama, a subduction window exists across the upper mantle, which is related to the cessation of subduction of the Nazca plate under Panama since 9.5 Ma and possibly the preceding subduction of the extinct Cocos-Nazca spreading center. In the lower mantle, two large anomaly patterns are imaged. The westernmost anomaly agrees with the subduction of Farallon lithosphere. The second lower mantle anomaly is found east of

  20. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthem, Steven; Govers, Rob; Spakman, Wim; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-06-01

    investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. These anomalies are interpreted as remnants of Atlantic lithosphere subduction and confirm tectonic reconstructions that suggest at least 1100 km of convergence at the Lesser Antilles island arc during the past ~45 Myr. The imaged Lesser Antilles slab consists of a northern and southern anomaly, separated by a low-velocity anomaly across most of the upper mantle, which we interpret as the subducted North America-South America plate boundary. The southern edge of the imaged Lesser Antilles slab agrees with vertical tearing of South America lithosphere. The northern Lesser Antilles slab is continuous with the Puerto Rico slab along the northeastern plate boundary. This results in an amphitheater-shaped slab, and it is interpreted as westward subducting North America lithosphere that remained attached to the surface along the northeastern boundary of the Caribbean plate. At the Muertos Trough, however, material is imaged until a depth of only 100 km, suggesting a small amount of subduction. The location and length of the imaged South Caribbean slab agrees with proposed subduction of Caribbean lithosphere under the northern South America plate. An anomaly related to proposed Oligocene subduction at the Nicaragua rise is absent in the tomographic model. Beneath Panama, a subduction window exists across the upper mantle, which is related to the cessation of subduction of the Nazca plate under Panama since 9.5 Ma and possibly the preceding subduction of the extinct Cocos-Nazca spreading center. In the lower mantle, two large anomaly patterns are imaged. The westernmost anomaly agrees with the subduction of Farallon lithosphere. The second lower mantle anomaly is found east of

  1. Turbidity in the southern Irish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, D. G.; Gaffney, S.; White, M.; Bowyer, P.

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents new in situ optical and associated measurements from 85 stations in the central and southern Irish Sea. There is a strong linear relationship between the irradiance reflectance RA in the orange-red part of the spectrum (580-680 nm) and the diffuse attenuation coefficient, K, for white light: K=0.05+0.26 R A, where K is in m -1 and RA has been corrected to just above-surface reflectance and expressed as a percentage. The significance of this result is that this particular reflectance can be measured by the advanced very high resolution radiometer on board the NOAA series of satellites. In principle, therefore, cloud cover permitting, the transparency of the Irish Sea to sunlight, can be mapped from space. This result is shown to be consistent with a simple optical model in which light scattering is principally by mineral suspended solids, and light absorption is by water, mineral suspended solids and chlorophyll. Best fit between model and observations is achieved with a specific scattering coefficient of 0.5 m 2 g -1. The measurements were made during four cruises, at different times of year and across the range of turbidity found in the Irish Sea. The geographical distribution of suspended sediments confirms the presence, previously inferred from satellite imagery, of two separate turbidity maxima, one off Wicklow Head, the other off Anglesey. These correspond to the areas of strongest tidal currents. Yellow substance was found in highest concentration in a band along the Irish coast. Chlorophyll concentrations were generally low during these cruises. A residual problem is that a direct comparison of in situ reflectance and satellite measured reflectance possible on one of the cruises shows a serious discrepancy, although on average there appears to be a good agreement between satellite and in situ reflectance.

  2. Spatio-temporal hierarchical modeling of rates and variability of Holocene sea-level changes in the western North Atlantic and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashe, E.; Kopp, R. E.; Khan, N.; Horton, B.; Engelhart, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Sea level varies over of both space and time. Prior to the instrumental period, the sea-level record depends upon geological reconstructions that contain vertical and temporal uncertainty. Spatio-temporal statistical models enable the interpretation of RSL and rates of change as well as the reconstruction of the entire sea-level field from such noisy data. Hierarchical models explicitly distinguish between a process level, which characterizes the spatio-temporal field, and a data level, by which sparse proxy data and its noise is recorded. A hyperparameter level depicts prior expectations about the structure of variability in the spatio-temporal field. Spatio-temporal hierarchical models are amenable to several analysis approaches, with tradeoffs regarding computational efficiency and comprehensiveness of uncertainty characterization. A fully-Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM), which places prior probability distributions upon the hyperparameters, is more computationally intensive than an empirical hierarchical model (EHM), which uses point estimates of hyperparameters, derived from the data [1]. Here, we assess the sensitivity of posterior estimates of relative sea level (RSL) and rates to different statistical approaches by varying prior assumptions about the spatial and temporal structure of sea-level variability and applying multiple analytical approaches to Holocene sea-level proxies along the Atlantic coast of North American and the Caribbean [2]. References: 1. N Cressie, Wikle CK (2011) Statistics for spatio-temporal data (John Wiley & Sons). 2. Kahn N et al. (2016). Quaternary Science Reviews (in revision).

  3. Mesoscale Variability of the Caribbean Sea from GEOSAT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    the basin. In other words, negatives Figre 11 GEOSAT detection values should be interpreted as "less positive", unless the strength of the negative...km to the southwest. On June 17, feature A has doubled its strength to +20 cm and is displaced 360 km to the west, indicating an approximate speed of...independently from the main flow of the Caribbean cui-rent. This cyclonic anomaly matches in position and strength the one that appeared in the models in

  4. Habitat-dependent growth in a Caribbean sea urchin Tripneustes ventricosus: the importance of food type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciá, Silvia; Robinson, Michael P.

    2008-12-01

    The sea urchin Tripneustes ventricosus is a common, yet relatively poorly known, grazer of seagrass beds and coral reefs throughout the Caribbean. We compared the size and abundance of urchins between adjacent seagrass and coral reef habitats (where macroalgae are the dominant primary producers). We also conducted a laboratory experiment comparing the growth rate of juvenile urchins fed a diet of either macroalgae or seagrass. Reef urchins had significantly larger test diameter than those in the seagrass on some sampling dates. This size difference may be at least partially explained by diet, because laboratory-reared urchins fed macroalgae grew significantly faster than those fed seagrass. The seagrass population, however, was stable over time, whereas the reef population exhibited strong fluctuations in abundance. Overall, our study indicates that both the seagrass and coral reef habitats are capable of supporting healthy, reproductive populations of T. ventricosus. Each, however, appears to offer a distinct advantage: faster growth on the reef and greater population stability in the seagrass.

  5. Chlorophyll and suspended sediment mapping to the Caribbean Sea from rivers in the capital city of the Dominican Republic using ALOS AVNIR-2 data.

    PubMed

    Sakuno, Yuji; Miño, Esteban R; Nakai, Satoshi; Mutsuda, Hidemi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Castro, Rolando; García, Amarillis; Peña, Rosanna; Rodríguez, Marcos; Depratt, G Conrado

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to study the distribution of contaminants in rivers that flow into the Caribbean Sea using chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and suspended sediment (SS) as markers and ALOS AVNIR-2 satellite sensor data. The Haina River (HN) and Ozama and Isabela Rivers (OZ-IS) that flow through the city of Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic, were chosen. First, in situ spectral reflectance/Chl-a and SS datasets obtained from these rivers were acquired in March 2011 (case A: with no rain influence) and June 2011 (case B: with rain influence), and the estimation algorithm of Chl-a and SS using AVNIR-2 data was developed from the datasets. Moreover, the developed algorithm was applied to AVNIR-2 data in November 2010 for case A and August 2010 for case B. Results revealed that for Chl-a and SS estimations under cases A and B conditions, the reflectance ratio of AVNIR-2 band 4 and band 3 (AV4/AV3) and the reflectance of AVNIR-2 band 4 (AV4) were effective. The Chl-a and SS mapping results obtained using AVNIR-2 data corresponded with the field survey results. Finally, an outline of the distribution of contaminants at the mouth of the river that flows into the Caribbean Sea was obtained for both rivers in cases A and B.

  6. Rapidly spreading seagrass invades the Caribbean with unknown ecological consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Caroline S.; Willette, Demian A; Miller, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The non-native seagrass Halophila stipulacea has spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Sea (Willette et al. 2014); without additional research, the ecological ramifications of this invasion are difficult to predict. Biodiversity, connectivity of marine ecosystems, and recovery of degraded coral reefs could all be affected. The invasive seagrass, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, has taken over sand bottoms and intermixed with or replaced native seagrasses, including Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, and Halodule wrightii.

  7. Bioproductivity in the Southern Ocean since the last Interglacial - new high-resolution biogenic opal flux records from the Scotia Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprenk, D.; Weber, M. E.; Kuhn, G.; Rosén, P.; Röhling, H.-G.

    2012-04-01

    The Southern Ocean plays an important role in transferring CO2 via wind-induced upwelling from the deep sea to the atmosphere. It is therefore one of the key areas to study climate change. Bioproductivity in the Southern Ocean is mostly influenced by the extent of sea ice, upwelling of cold nutrient- and silica-rich water, and the availability of light. Biogenic opal (BSi) is a significant nutrient in the Southern Ocean, and according to recent investigations only marginally affected by preservation changes. It can therefore be used as bioproductivity proxy. Here we present several methods to determine BSi, discuss them and put the results into context with respect to regional bioproductivity changes in Southern Ocean during the last glacial cycle. We studied deep-sea sediment core sites MD07-3133 and MD07-3134 from the central Scotia Sea with extraordinary high sedimentation rates of up to 2.1 to 1.2 m/kyr, respectively covering the last 92.5 kyr. BSi leaching according to Müller & Schneider (1993) is very time-consuming and expensive, so we measured only 253 samples from large-amplitude variation core sections. In addition, we determined BSi using non-destructive measurements of sediment colour b*, wet-bulk density, and Ti/Si count ratios. Furthermore, we provide the first attempts to estimate BSi in marine sediment using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS), a cost-efficient method, which requires only 11 mg of sediment. All estimation methods capture the main BSi trends, however FTIRS seems to be the most promising one. In the central Scotia Sea, south of the modern Antarctic Polar Front, the BSi flux reflects a relatively complicated glacial-to-interglacial pattern with large-amplitude, millennial-scale fluctuations in bioproductivity. During Antarctic Isotopic Maxima, BSi fluxes were generally increased. Lowest bioproductivity occur at the Last Glacial Maximum, while upwelling of mid-depth water was reduced, atmospheric CO2 low, and sea-ice cover

  8. Messinian Salinity Crisis and Course of Messinian Valleys in the Southern Shelf of the Sea of Marmara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çifçi, Günay; Barın, Burcu; Okay, Seda; Dondurur, Derman; Sorlien, Christopher; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Lericolais, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis widely accepted as one of the most interesting events concerning the Mediterranean marine environment in the earth's geological history. Late Miocene tectonic changes in Mediterranean-Atlantic connectivity caused this huge event. The Sea of Marmara region has been improperly considered as a gateway between the Paratethys and Mediterranean since the Middle Miocene. However, it is a very important location for paleoclimatic research including the sea level change associated with the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Although considerable work has been carried out on the Messinian Salinity Crisis, very little has been reported on the status of the Marmara Sea during the Messinian. The case study includes the southern shelf and North İmrali Basin of the Marmara Sea, which is in the region located from the Çanakkale Strait (Dardanelles) to İmralı Island. The structural and stratigraphic interpretation were carried out using high resolution multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) data which were collected with the facilities of Seismic Laboratory (SeisLab) in the Institute of Marine Sciences and Technology and R/V K. Piri Reis belonging to Dokuz Eylül University under the frame of several projects including TUBİTAK-NSF. Seismic profiles acquired in southern shelf of the Marmara Sea suggest that Messinian fluvial erosion has occurred at the base of all the main sub-basins. The southern shoreline has provided well-preserved evidence of Messinian fluvial erosion followed by the post-crisis marine reflooding. Interpretation is focused on the nature of erosion related to this acoustic basement and to a major angular unconformity that may merge with it. The basement and erosionalsurface are interpreted in the Çanakkale outletandon the southern shelf of the Sea of Marmara. A buried East-West to NW-SE channel cut into acoustic basement that may belong to the Messinian period was interpreted on the MCS data. For instance, based on interpretation of

  9. Impact of increasing antarctic glacial freshwater release on regional sea-ice cover in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Nacho; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Le Sommer, Julien; Goosse, Hugues; Mathiot, Pierre; Durand, Gael

    2018-01-01

    The sensitivity of Antarctic sea-ice to increasing glacial freshwater release into the Southern Ocean is studied in a series of 31-year ocean/sea-ice/iceberg model simulations. Glaciological estimates of ice-shelf melting and iceberg calving are used to better constrain the spatial distribution and magnitude of freshwater forcing around Antarctica. Two scenarios of glacial freshwater forcing have been designed to account for a decadal perturbation in glacial freshwater release to the Southern Ocean. For the first time, this perturbation explicitly takes into consideration the spatial distribution of changes in the volume of Antarctic ice shelves, which is found to be a key component of changes in freshwater release. In addition, glacial freshwater-induced changes in sea ice are compared to typical changes induced by the decadal evolution of atmospheric states. Our results show that, in general, the increase in glacial freshwater release increases Antarctic sea ice extent. But the response is opposite in some regions like the coastal Amundsen Sea, implying that distinct physical mechanisms are involved in the response. We also show that changes in freshwater forcing may induce large changes in sea-ice thickness, explaining about one half of the total change due to the combination of atmospheric and freshwater changes. The regional contrasts in our results suggest a need for improving the representation of freshwater sources and their evolution in climate models.

  10. Crustal structure of the southern Dead Sea basin derived from project DESIRE wide-angle seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechie, J.; Abu-Ayyash, K.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; El-Kelani, R.; Qabbani, I.; Weber, M.

    2009-07-01

    As part of the DEad Sea Integrated REsearch project (DESIRE) a 235 km long seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction (WRR) profile was completed in spring 2006 across the Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the region of the southern Dead Sea basin (DSB). The DST with a total of about 107 km multi-stage left-lateral shear since about 18 Ma ago, accommodates the movement between the Arabian and African plates. It connects the spreading centre in the Red Sea with the Taurus collision zone in Turkey over a length of about 1100 km. With a sedimentary infill of about 10 km in places, the southern DSB is the largest pull-apart basin along the DST and one of the largest pull-apart basins on Earth. The WRR measurements comprised 11 shots recorded by 200 three-component and 400 one-component instruments spaced 300 m to 1.2 km apart along the whole length of the E-W trending profile. Models of the P-wave velocity structure derived from the WRR data show that the sedimentary infill associated with the formation of the southern DSB is about 8.5 km thick beneath the profile. With around an additional 2 km of older sediments, the depth to the seismic basement beneath the southern DSB is about 11 km below sea level beneath the profile. Seismic refraction data from an earlier experiment suggest that the seismic basement continues to deepen to a maximum depth of about 14 km, about 10 km south of the DESIRE profile. In contrast, the interfaces below about 20 km depth, including the top of the lower crust and the Moho, probably show less than 3 km variation in depth beneath the profile as it crosses the southern DSB. Thus the Dead Sea pull-apart basin may be essentially an upper crustal feature with upper crustal extension associated with the left-lateral motion along the DST. The boundary between the upper and lower crust at about 20 km depth might act as a decoupling zone. Below this boundary the two plates move past each other in what is essentially a shearing motion. Thermo

  11. Trends in the Length of the Southern Ocean Sea Ice Season: 1979-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite data can be used to observe the sea ice distribution around the continent of Antarctica on a daily basis and hence to determine how many days a year have sea ice at each location. This has been done for each of the 21 years 1979-1999. Mapping the trends in these data over the 21-year period reveals a detailed pattern of changes in the length of the sea ice season around Antarctica. Most of the Ross Sea ice cover has undergone a lengthening of the sea ice season, whereas most of the Amundsen Sea ice cover and almost the entire Bellingshausen Sea ice cover have undergone a shortening of the sea ice season. Results around the rest of the continent, including in the Weddell Sea, are more mixed, but overall, more of the Southern Ocean experienced a lengthening of the sea ice season than a shortening. For instance, the area experiencing a lengthening of the sea ice season by at least 1 day per year is 5.8 x 10(exp 6) sq km, whereas the area experiencing a shortening of the sea ice season by at least 1 day per year is less than half that, at 2.8 x 10(exp 6) sq km. This contrasts sharply with what is happened over the same period in the Arctic, where, overall, there has been some depletion of the ice cover, including shortened sea ice seasons and decreased ice extents.

  12. Southern Pine Beetle Outbreak in Belize

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Claus M. Eckelmann; Earl Green

    2000-01-01

    Belize is a Central American country that borders Mexico, Guatemala, and the Caribbean Sea (see Map). Belize, formerly called British Honduras from 1862 until 1973, is about 23,000 square kilometers in size, which is about the area of Massachusetts. Elevation varies from sea level to 1120 meters. The major vegetation types include mangrove swamp, broadleafjungle,...

  13. Oxygen in the Southern Ocean From Argo Floats: Determination of Processes Driving Air-Sea Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushinsky, Seth M.; Gray, Alison R.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-11-01

    The Southern Ocean is of outsized significance to the global oxygen and carbon cycles with relatively poor measurement coverage due to harsh winters and seasonal ice cover. In this study, we use recent advances in the parameterization of air-sea oxygen fluxes to analyze 9 years of oxygen data from a recalibrated Argo oxygen data set and from air-calibrated oxygen floats deployed as part of the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) project. From this combined data set of 150 floats, we find a total Southern Ocean oxygen sink of -183 ± 80 Tmol yr-1 (positive to the atmosphere), greater than prior estimates. The uptake occurs primarily in the Polar-Frontal Antarctic Zone (PAZ, -94 ± 30 Tmol O2 yr-1) and Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ, -111 ± 9.3 Tmol O2 yr-1). This flux is driven by wintertime ventilation, with a large portion of the flux in the SIZ passing through regions with fractional sea ice. The Subtropical Zone (STZ) is seasonally driven by thermal fluxes and exhibits a net outgassing of 47 ± 29 Tmol O2 yr-1 that is likely driven by biological production. The Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) uptake is -25 ± 12 Tmol O2 yr-1. Total oxygen fluxes were separated into a thermal and nonthermal component. The nonthermal flux is correlated with net primary production and mixed layer depth in the STZ, SAZ, and PAZ, but not in the SIZ where seasonal sea ice slows the air-sea gas flux response to the entrainment of deep, low-oxygen waters.

  14. Oceanic Remnants In The Caribbean Plate: Origin And Loss Of Related LIPs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunta, G.

    2005-12-01

    The modern Caribbean Plate is an independent lithospheric entity, occupying more than 4 Mkm2 and consisting of the remnants of little deformed Cretaceous oceanic plateau of the Colombia and Venezuela Basins (almost 1 Mkm2) and the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic Chortis continental block (about 700,000 km2), both bounded by deformed marginal belts. The northern (Guatemala and Greater Antilles) and the southern (northern Venezuela) plate margins are marked by collisional zones, whereas the western (Central America Isthmus) and the eastern (Lesser Antilles) margins are represented by convergent boundaries and their magmatic arcs, all involving ophiolitic terranes. The evolutionary history of the Caribbean Plate since the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous encompasses plume, accretionary, and collisional tectonics, the evidence of which has been recorded in the oceanic remnants of lost LIPs, as revealed in: i) the MORB to OIB thickened crust of the oceanic plateau, including its un-deformed or little deformed main portion, and scattered deformed tectonic units; ii) ophiolitic tectonic units of MORB affinity and the rock blocks in ophiolitic melanges; iii) intra-oceanic, supra subduction magmatic sequences with IAT and CA affinities. The Mesozoic oceanic LIPs, from which the remnants of the Caribbean Plate have been derived, have been poorly preserved during various episodes of the intra-oceanic convergence, either those related to the original proto-Caribbean oceanic realm or those connected with two eo-Caribbean stages of subduction. The trapped oceanic plateau of the Colombia and Venezuela Basins is likely to be an unknown portion of a bigger crustal element of a LIP, similar to the Ontong-Java plateau. The Jurassic-Early Cretaceous proto-Caribbean oceanic domain consists of oceanic crust generated at multiple spreading centres; during the Cretaceous, part of this crust was thickened to form an oceanic plateau with MORB and OIB affinities. At the same time, both South and North American

  15. Biodiversity of free-living marine nematodes in the southern Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoshou; Xu, Man; Hua, Er; Zhang, Zhinan

    2016-02-01

    Biodiversity patterns of free-living marine nematodes were studied using specific, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity measures in the southern Yellow Sea, China. The results showed that the average of Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H') in the study area was 3.17. The higher values were distributed in the east part of Shandong coastal waters and north part of Jiangsu coastal waters, while the lower values were distributed in the southern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). The average of taxonomic diversity ( Δ) was 62.09 in the study region. The higher values were distributed in the transitional areas between the coastal areas and the southern YSCWM, while the lower values were distributed near the north part of Jiangsu coastal waters and the YSCWM. Results of correlation analysis of species diversity and taxonomic diversity showed that some of the two kinds of diversity index were independent, which suggested that combining the two kinds of diversity indices can reflect the ecological characteristics better. A test for 95% probability funnels of average taxonomic distinctness and variation in taxonomic distinctness suggested that Station 8794 (in the YSCWM) was outside of the 95% probability funnels, which may be due to the environmental stress. Results of correlation analysis between marine nematodes biodiversity and environmental variables showed that the sediment characteristics (Mdø and Silt-clay fraction) and phaeophorbide a (Pha- a) were the most important factors to determine the biodiversity patterns of marine nematodes.

  16. Digenetic trematodes in South American sea lions from southern Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E M; Müller, G; Secchi, E; Pereira, J; Valente, A L S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to perform a systematic study to detect and quantify the digenetic trematode infections in South American sea lions from the southern Brazilian coast. Twenty-four South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otaridae), were found dead along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, between June 2010 and September of 2011. Two trematode species were found in the intestines of O. flavescens, i.e., Stephanoprora uruguayense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa (Digenea: Heterophyidae). Ascocotyle (P.) longa reached a prevalence of 33.3% and mean intensity of 248,500, whereas S. uruguayense showed a prevalence of 4.2% and mean intensity of 202. The 2 trematode species infecting sea lions were likely transmitted by feeding on mullets, Mugil platanus, that commonly harbor heterophyid metacercariae. The present work is the first report of digenetic trematodes infecting O. flavescens in Brazil. The high prevalence and mean intensity values of the 2 trematode species infecting sea lions in the present study suggest caution in human consumption of mullets and other fish, which can be infected with the metacercariae of these trematodes known to have zoonotic potential.

  17. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D.; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea. PMID:27579575

  18. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María Del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea.

  19. Forecasting decadal changes in sea surface temperatures and coral bleaching within a Caribbean coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Angang; Reidenbach, Matthew A.

    2014-09-01

    Elevated sea surface temperature (SST) caused by global warming is one of the major threats to coral reefs. While increased SST has been shown to negatively affect the health of coral reefs by increasing rates of coral bleaching, how changes to atmospheric heating impact SST distributions, modified by local flow environments, has been less understood. This study aimed to simulate future water flow patterns and water surface heating in response to increased air temperature within a coral reef system in Bocas del Toro, Panama, located within the Caribbean Sea. Water flow and SST were modeled using the Delft3D-FLOWcomputer simulation package. Locally measured physical parameters, including bathymetry, astronomic tidal forcing, and coral habitat distribution were input into the model and water flow, and SST was simulated over a four-month period under present day, as well as projected warming scenarios in 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. Changes in SST, and hence the thermal stress to corals, were quantified by degree heating weeks. Results showed that present-day reported bleaching sites were consistent with localized regions of continuous high SST. Regions with highest SST were located within shallow coastal sites adjacent to the mainland or within the interior of the bay, and characterized by low currents with high water retention times. Under projected increases in SSTs, shallow reef areas in low flow regions were found to be hot spots for future bleaching.

  20. Faulting, Seismicity and Stress Interaction in the Salton Sea Region of Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilb, D. L.; Brothers, D. S.; Lin, G.; Kent, G.; Newman, R. L.; Driscoll, N.

    2009-12-01

    The Salton Sea region in southern California provides an ideal location to study the relationship between transcurrent and extensional motion in the northern Gulf of California margin, allowing us to investigate the spatial and temporal interaction of faults in the area and better understand their kinematics. In this region, the San Andreas Fault (SAF) and Imperial Fault present two major transform faults separated by the Salton Sea transtensional domain. Earthquakes over magnitude 4 in this area almost always have associated aftershock sequences. Recent seismic reflection surveys in the Salton Sea reveal that the majority of faults under the southern Salton Sea trend ~N15°E, appear normal-dominant and have very minimal associated microseismicity. These normal faults rupture every 100-300 years in large earthquakes and most of the nearby microseismicity locates east of the mapped surface traces. For example, there is profuse microseismicity in the Brawley Seismic Zone (BSZ), which is coincident with the southern terminus of the SAF as it extends offshore into the Salton Sea. Earthquakes in the BSZ are dominantly swarm-like, occurring along short (<5 km) ~N45°E oriented sinistral and N35°W oriented dextral fault planes. This mapped seismicity makes a rung-and-ladder pattern. In an effort to reconcile differences between processes at the surface and those at seismogenic depths we integrate near surface fault kinematics, geometry and paleoseismic history with seismic data. We identify linear and planer trends in these data (20 near surface faults, >20,000 relocated earthquakes and >2,000 earthquake focal mechanisms) and when appropriate estimate the fault strike and dip using principal component analysis. With our more detailed image of the fault structure we assess how static stress changes imparted by magnitude ~6.0 ruptures along N15E oriented normal faults beneath the Salton Sea can modulate the stress field in the BSZ and along the SAF. These tests include

  1. At-sea distribution and abundance of seabirds off southern California: A 20-year comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, J.W.; McChesney, G.J.; McIver, W.R.; Carter, H.R.; Takekawa, John Y.; Golightly, R.T.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Perry, W.M.; Yee, J.L.; Pierson, M.O.; McCrary, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted aerial at-sea and coastal surveys to examine the distribution and abundance of seabirds off southern California, from Cambria, California, to the Mexican border. From May 1999-January 2002, we flew 102 d, covered >54,640 km of transect lines, and conducted nine complete surveys of southern California in January, May, and September. We identified 54 species comprising 12 families and counted >135,000 individuals. Seabird densities were greater along island and mainland coastlines than at sea and were usually greatest in January surveys. Densities were greatest at sea near the northern Channel Islands in January and north of Point Conception in May, and lowest in the southwestern portion of the Southern California Bight in all survey months. On coastal transects, seabird densities were greatest along central and southern portions of the mainland coastline from Point Arguello to Mexico. We estimated that 981,000 ?? 144,000 (x?? ?? SE) seabirds occurred in the study area in January, 862,000 ?? 95,000 in May, and 762,000 ?? 72,000 in September. California Gulls (Larus californicus), Western Grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis), and Cassin's Auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) were most abundant in January surveys at sea, whereas Sooty and Short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus griseus and P. tenuirostris), phalaropes (Phalaropus spp.), and Western Gulls (Larus. occidentalis) were most abundant in May and September surveys. On coastal transects, California Gulls, Western Grebes, Western Gulls, and Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) were most abundant in January; Western Grebes, Western Gulls, Surf Scoters, and Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) were most abundant in May; and Sooty Shearwaters, Short-tailed Shearwaters, Western Gulls, Western Grebes, Brown Pelicans, and Heermann's Gulls (Larus heermanni) were most abundant in September. Compared to historical seabird densities collected in the same area two decades ago (1975-1978 and 1980-1983), abundance

  2. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Benthem, Steven; Govers, Rob; Spakman, Wim; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-04-01

    In the broad context of investigating the relationship between deep structure & processes and surface expressions, we study the Caribbean plate and underlying mantle. We investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P-wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. These anomalies are interpreted as remnants of Atlantic lithosphere subduction and confirm tectonic reconstructions that suggest at least 1100 km of convergence at the Lesser Antilles island arc during the past ~45 Myr. The imaged Lesser-Antilles slab consists of a northern and southern anomaly, separated by a low velocity anomaly across most of the upper mantle, which we interpret as the subducted North-South America plate boundary. The southern edge of the imaged Lesser Antilles slab agrees with vertical tearing of South America lithosphere. The northern Lesser Antilles slab is continuous with the Puerto Rico slab along the northeastern plate boundary. This results in an amphitheater-shaped slab and it is interpreted as westward subducting North America lithosphere that remained attached to the surface along the northern boundary. At the Muertos Trough, however, material is imaged until a depth of only 100 km, suggesting a small amount of subduction. The location and length of the imaged South Caribbean slab agrees with proposed subduction of Caribbean lithosphere under the northern South America plate. An anomaly related to proposed Oligocene subduction at the Nicaragua rise is absent in the tomographic model. Beneath Panama, a subduction window exists across the upper mantle, which is related to the cessation of subduction of the Nazca plate under Panama since 9.5 Ma and possibly the preceding subduction of the extinct Cocos-Nazca spreading center. In the lower mantle two large anomaly patterns are

  3. Temporal variation of biomass and productivity of Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae) in Venezuela, Southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Daisy; Guevara, Marcel; Bone, David

    2006-06-01

    Annual biomass and productivity of Thalassia testudinum were determined during a year at a seagrass bed located in the Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. Leaf, rhizome and root biomass were determined monthly, together with short-shoot density, from February 1992 to January 1993, from nine replicated core samples. Productivity was measured using the methodology by Zieman (1974) with minor modifications, and leaf turnover rate was calculated. Leaf biomass values ranged between 101.73 dry g m(-2) in February and 178.11 dry g m(-2) in August. Productivity ranged from 1.69 dry g m(-2) d(-1) in April and October to 3.30 dry g m(-2) d(-1) in July, showing two annual peaks: one in July and one in March. The leaf turnover rate showed the highest value in June (2.41% d(-1)) and the lowest in May (1.23% d(-1)). Sampling time differences in leaf biomass, productivity and turnover rate were statistically significant. Short-shoot density values varied between 811.10 shoots m(-2) in April and 1226.08 shoots m(-2) in December, but the differences were not significant along the year. These results indicated seasonal trends for leaf biomass, productivity and turnover rate of T. testudinum in the Southern Caribbean (latitude 10 degrees N).

  4. Teaching Wide Sargasso Sea in New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolley, Susan Arpajian

    2005-01-01

    High school teacher Susan Arpajian Jolley emphasizes experience and understanding by using the related novels "Wide Sargasso Sea" and "Jane Eyre" to help her students travel into unfamiliar cultural territory. "Wide Sargasso Sea" relates to Caribbean history and culture, feminism, race relations, colonialism, and…

  5. A low-cost and reliable technique to monitor the spread of an invasive seagrass in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobsis, D.; Wyllie-Echeverria, S.

    2016-02-01

    In 2002 the seagrass Halophila stipulacea was observed in Grenada in the Eastern Caribbean Sea. Since then this invasive species has spread northward through the Lesser Antilles and Leeward Islands into the US Virgin Islands. There are native Halophila species as well as other seagrass species in Eastern Caribbean therefore it is essential to accurately identify H. stipulacea before an invasion event is reported. Moreover, because the consequences of H. stipulaceapresence and spread are not known in many locations, after accurate identification is made it is also important to map patch expansion as a first step in process studies designed to determine impact. We now report a low-cost (<$1000) and reliable technique to produce species specific, geo-referenced maps that can be used to track invasion spread. System components are: a GoPro video camera placed inside underwater housing, a weighted towfish and a GPS tracking device. The camera, set in the time-lapse mode, is fixed to the towfish; Afterward using a series of straight line transects, our array is towed at low speeds while synched to GPS. The accuracy of an underwater video system is based on knowing the accurate position of seagrass on the seafloor during filming (Norris et al. 1997). After sampling images and their associated GPS coordinates are imported to a spreadsheet and coded such that H. stipulaceais related to a known position on the bottom. With this system we produce accurate maps that specifically identify H. stipulacea patches, regardless of water depth, on the seafloor. During our poster presentation we will show a series of images from 2015 sampling and display mapping results. Since the 2002 sighting in Grenada, H. stipulaceae has spread northward to nineteen Eastern Caribbean Islands (Williette et al 2014). Our technique will allow those charged with protecting natural resources to track the spread of this invasion and potentially provide an early warning system for islands nations not yet

  6. The seasonal sea-ice zone in the glacial Southern Ocean as a carbon sink.

    PubMed

    Abelmann, Andrea; Gersonde, Rainer; Knorr, Gregor; Zhang, Xu; Chapligin, Bernhard; Maier, Edith; Esper, Oliver; Friedrichsen, Hans; Lohmann, Gerrit; Meyer, Hanno; Tiedemann, Ralf

    2015-09-18

    Reduced surface-deep ocean exchange and enhanced nutrient consumption by phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean have been linked to lower glacial atmospheric CO2. However, identification of the biological and physical conditions involved and the related processes remains incomplete. Here we specify Southern Ocean surface-subsurface contrasts using a new tool, the combined oxygen and silicon isotope measurement of diatom and radiolarian opal, in combination with numerical simulations. Our data do not indicate a permanent glacial halocline related to melt water from icebergs. Corroborated by numerical simulations, we find that glacial surface stratification was variable and linked to seasonal sea-ice changes. During glacial spring-summer, the mixed layer was relatively shallow, while deeper mixing occurred during fall-winter, allowing for surface-ocean refueling with nutrients from the deep reservoir, which was potentially richer in nutrients than today. This generated specific carbon and opal export regimes turning the glacial seasonal sea-ice zone into a carbon sink.

  7. The seasonal sea-ice zone in the glacial Southern Ocean as a carbon sink

    PubMed Central

    Abelmann, Andrea; Gersonde, Rainer; Knorr, Gregor; Zhang, Xu; Chapligin, Bernhard; Maier, Edith; Esper, Oliver; Friedrichsen, Hans; Lohmann, Gerrit; Meyer, Hanno; Tiedemann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Reduced surface–deep ocean exchange and enhanced nutrient consumption by phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean have been linked to lower glacial atmospheric CO2. However, identification of the biological and physical conditions involved and the related processes remains incomplete. Here we specify Southern Ocean surface–subsurface contrasts using a new tool, the combined oxygen and silicon isotope measurement of diatom and radiolarian opal, in combination with numerical simulations. Our data do not indicate a permanent glacial halocline related to melt water from icebergs. Corroborated by numerical simulations, we find that glacial surface stratification was variable and linked to seasonal sea-ice changes. During glacial spring–summer, the mixed layer was relatively shallow, while deeper mixing occurred during fall–winter, allowing for surface-ocean refueling with nutrients from the deep reservoir, which was potentially richer in nutrients than today. This generated specific carbon and opal export regimes turning the glacial seasonal sea-ice zone into a carbon sink. PMID:26382319

  8. The deeper structure of the southern Dead Sea basin derived from neural network analysis of velocity and attenuation tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeuer, Benjamin; Haberland, Christian; Bauer, Klaus; Weber, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The Dead Sea basin is a pull-apart basin at the Dead Sea transform fault, the boundary between the African and the Arabian plates. Though the DSB has been studied for a long time, the available knowledge - based mainly on surface geology, drilling and seismic reflection surveys - gives only a partial picture of its shallow structure. Therefore, within the framework of the international DESIRE (DEad Sea Integrated REsearch) project, a dense temporary local seismological network was operated in the southern Dead Sea area. Within 18 month of recording 650 events were detected. In addition to an already published tomography study revealing the distribution of P velocities and the Vp/Vs ratios a 2D P-wave attenuation tomography (parameter Qp) was performed. The neural network technique of Self-organizing maps (SOM) is used for the joint interpretation of these three parameters (Vp, Vp/Vs, Qp). The resulting clusters in the petrophysical parameter space are assigned to the main lithological units below the southern part of the Dead Sea basin: (1) The basin sediments characterized by strong attenuation, high vp/vs ratios and low P velocities. (2) The pre-basin sediments characterized by medium to strong attenuation, low Vp/Vs ratios and medium P velocities. (3) The basement characterized by low to moderate attenuation, medium vp/vs ratios and high P velocities. Thus, the asymmetric southern Dead Sea basin is filled with basin sediments down to depth of 7 to 12 km. Below the basin sediments, the pre-basin sediments are extending to a depth between 13 and 18 km.

  9. Prediction and explanation of increases of mean sea levels in northern hemisphere, in southern hemisphere and all ocean of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    The phenomenon of contrast secular changes of sea levels in the southern and northern hemispheres, predicted on the basis of geodynamic model about the forced relative oscillations and displacements of the Earth shells, has obtained theoretical explanation. In northern hemisphere the mean sea level of ocean increases with velocity about 2.45±0.32 mm/yr, and in a southern hemisphere the mean sea level increases with velocity about 0.67±0.30 mm/yr. Theoretical values of velocity of increase of global mean sea level thus has been estimated in 1.61±0.36 mm/yr. 1 Introduction. The slow (secular) drift of the centre of mass of the Earth in the direction of North Pole with velocity about 12-20 mm/yr has been predicted by author in 1995, and now has confirmed with methods of space geodesy. The DORIS data in period 1999-2008 let us to estimate velocity of polar drift in 5.24 ± 0.29 mm/yr. To explain this fundamental planetary phenomenon it is possible only, having admitted, that similar northern drift tests the centre of mass of the liquid core relatively to the centre of mass of viscous-elastic and thermodynamically changeable mantle with velocity about 2-3 cm/yr [1]. Naturally, a drift of the core is accompanied by the global changes (deformations) of all layers of the mantle and the core, by inversion changes of their tension states when in one hemisphere the tension increases and opposite on the contrary - decreases. Also it is possible that thermodynamical mechanism actively works with inversion properties of molting and solidification of materials at core-mantle boundary in opposite (northern - southern) hemispheres. 2 Atmospheric and oceanic inversion tides. The gravitational attraction of superfluous mass of the drifting to the North core (in 17 masses of the Moon) causes a planetary inversion tide of air masses of the Earth and its oceanic masses, from the southern hemisphere - to the northern hemisphere [2, 3]. As consequence the phenomenon of increasing of

  10. USGS contributions to earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D.; Caribbean Project Team, U.; Partners, C.

    2007-05-01

    USGS Caribbean Project Team: Lind Gee, Gary Gyure, John Derr, Jack Odum, John McMillan, David Carver, Jim Allen, Susan Rhea, Don Anderson, Harley Benz Caribbean Partners: Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade-PRSN, Juan Payero ISU-UASD,DR, Eduardo Camacho - UPAN, Panama, Lloyd Lynch - SRU,Gonzalo Cruz - UNAH,Honduras, Margaret Wiggins-Grandison - Jamaica, Judy Thomas - CERO Barbados, Sylvan McIntyre - NADMA Grenada, E. Bermingham - STRI. The magnitude-9 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness of the destructive hazard posed by earthquakes and tsunamis. In response to this tragedy, the US government undertook a collaborative project to improve earthquake and tsunami monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions, in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Seismically active areas of the Caribbean Sea region pose a tsunami risk for Caribbean islands, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North America. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region in the past 500 years, including 14 tsunamis reported in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Smithsonian Institute, the National Oceanic and Aeronautic Administration (NOAA), and several partner institutions in the Caribbean region. This presentation focuses on the deployment of nine broadband seismic stations to monitor earthquake activity in the Caribbean region that are affiliated with the Global Seismograph Network (GSN). By the end of 2006, five stations were transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Service (NEIS), and regional partners through Puerto Rico seismograph network (PRSN) Earthworm systems. The following stations are currently operating: SDDR - Sabaneta Dam Dominican Republic, BBGH - Gun Hill Barbados, GRGR - Grenville, Grenada, BCIP - Barro Colorado, Panama, TGUH - Tegucigalpa

  11. [Molecular genetic study of the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas: Cetacea, Monodontidae) summering in the southern Sea of Okhotsk as compared to North American populations].

    PubMed

    Meshcherskiĭ, I G; Kholodova, M V; Zvychaĭnaia, E Iu

    2008-09-01

    The structure of the left part of the mtDNA control region has been studied in Delphinapterus leucas captured in summer in the southern Sea of Okhotsk. The data have been compared with published results of similar studies on D. leucas at different sites along the American coast. A high specificity of maternal lineages of D. leucas from the southern Sea of Ok.

  12. The risk of disease and threats to the wild population. Special Issue: Conservation and Management of the Southern Sea Otter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Nancy J.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    1996-01-01

    The growth of the southern sea otter population has been steady, but slow in comparison to Alaskan subspecies, and range expansion in California has faltered. Slower growth is occurring in California despite birth rates comparable to those in Alaska, so biologists have reasoned that mortality is hindering the growth of the California population (Riedman and Estes 1990; see Estes et al., this issue). In order to investigate this issue, research efforts have been directed toward identifying the causes of death in southern sea otters.

  13. The importance of modeling nonhydrostatic processes for dense water reproduction in the Southern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellafiore, Debora; McKiver, William J.; Ferrarin, Christian; Umgiesser, Georg

    2018-05-01

    Dense water (DW) formation commonly occurs in the shallow Northern Adriatic Sea during winter outbreaks, when there is a combination of the cooling of surface waters by the winds and high salinity as a result of reduced river inputs. These DWs subsequently propagate southwards over a period of weeks/months, eventually arriving in the Southern Adriatic Sea. The investigation is based on a new nonhydrostatic (NH) formulation of the 3D finite element model SHYFEM that is validated for a number of theoretical test cases. Subsequently this model is used to simulate, through high-resolution numerical simulations, an extreme DW event that occurred in the Adriatic Sea in 2012. We perform both hydrostatic (HY) and NH simulations in order to explicitly see the impact of NH processes on the DW dynamics. The modeled results are compared to observations collected in the field campaign of March-April 2012 in the Southern Adriatic Sea. The NH run correctly reproduces the across isobath bottom-trapped gravity current characterizing the canyon DW pathways. It also more accurately captures the frequency and intensity of dense water cascading pulsing events, as the inclusion of NH processes produces stronger currents with different DW mixing characteristics. Finally, the NH run simulates internal gravity waves (IGW), generated during the cascading at the edge of the canyon, which propagate downslope. This IGW activity is not captured in the HY case.

  14. Tides and Their Dynamics over the Sunda Shelf of the Southern South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, See Hai; Abu Samah, Azizan; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modelling System is used to study the tidal characteristics and their dynamics in the Sunda Shelf of the southern South China Sea. In this model, the outer domain is set with a 25 km resolution and the inner one, with a 9 km resolution. Calculations are performed on the inner domain. The model is forced at the sea surface by climatological monthly mean wind stress, freshwater (evaporation minus precipitation), and heat fluxes. Momentum and tracers (such as temperature and salinity) are prescribed in addition to the tidal heights and currents extracted from the Oregon State University TOPEX/Poseidon Global Inverse Solution (TPXO7.2) at the open boundaries. The results are validated against observed tidal amplitudes and phases at 19 locations. Results show that the mean average power energy spectrum (in unit m2/s/cph) for diurnal tides at the southern end of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia is approximately 43% greater than that in the East Malaysia region located in northern Borneo. In contrast, for the region of northern Borneo the semidiurnal power energy spectrum is approximately 25% greater than that in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This implies that diurnal tides are dominant along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia while both diurnal and semidiurnal tides dominate almost equally in coastal East Malaysia. Furthermore, the diurnal tidal energy flux is found to be 60% greater than that of the semidiurnal tides in the southern South China Sea. Based on these model analyses, the significant tidal mixing frontal areas are located primarily off Sarawak coast as indicated by high chlorophyll-a concentrations in the area. PMID:27622552

  15. Molecules and fossils reveal punctuated diversification in Caribbean “faviid” corals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even with well-known sampling biases, the fossil record is key to understanding macro-evolutionary patterns. During the Miocene to Pleistocene in the Caribbean Sea, the fossil record of scleractinian corals shows a remarkable period of rapid diversification followed by massive extinction. Here we combine a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny based on three nuclear introns with an updated fossil stratigraphy to examine patterns of radiation and extinction in Caribbean corals within the traditional family Faviidae. Results Concatenated phylogenetic analysis showed most species of Caribbean faviids were monophyletic, with the exception of two Manicina species. The time-calibrated tree revealed the stem group originated around the closure of the Tethys Sea (17.0 Ma), while the genus Manicina diversified during the Late Miocene (8.20 Ma), when increased sedimentation and productivity may have favored free-living, heterotrophic species. Reef and shallow water specialists, represented by Diploria and Favia, originate at the beginning of the Pliocene (5 – 6 Ma) as the Isthmus of Panama shoaled and regional productivity declined. Conclusions Later origination of the stem group than predicted from the fossil record corroborates the hypothesis of morphological convergence in Diploria and Favia genera. Our data support the rapid evolution of morphological and life-history traits among faviid corals that can be linked to Mio-Pliocene environmental changes. PMID:22831179

  16. Modulation of the Seasonal Cycle of Antarctic Sea Ice Extent Related to the Southern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doddridge, Edward W.; Marshall, John

    2017-10-01

    Through analysis of remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice concentration data, we investigate the impact of winds related to the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) on sea ice extent around Antarctica. We show that positive SAM anomalies in the austral summer are associated with anomalously cold SSTs that persist and lead to anomalous ice growth in the following autumn, while negative SAM anomalies precede warm SSTs and a reduction in sea ice extent during autumn. The largest effect occurs in April, when a unit change in the detrended summertime SAM is followed by a 1.8±0.6 ×105 km2 change in detrended sea ice extent. We find no evidence that sea ice extent anomalies related to the summertime SAM affect the wintertime sea ice extent maximum. Our analysis shows that the wind anomalies related to the negative SAM during the 2016/2017 austral summer contributed to the record minimum Antarctic sea ice extent observed in March 2017.

  17. Impact of the initialisation on the predictability of the Southern Ocean sea ice at interannual to multi-decadal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunz, Violette; Goosse, Hugues; Dubinkina, Svetlana

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we assess systematically the impact of different initialisation procedures on the predictability of the sea ice in the Southern Ocean. These initialisation strategies are based on three data assimilation methods: the nudging, the particle filter with sequential resampling and the nudging proposal particle filter. An Earth-system model of intermediate complexity has been used to perform hindcast simulations in a perfect model approach. The predictability of the Southern Ocean sea ice is estimated through two aspects: the spread of the hindcast ensemble, indicating the uncertainty on the ensemble, and the correlation between the ensemble mean and the pseudo-observations, used to assess the accuracy of the prediction. Our results show that, at decadal timescales, more sophisticated data assimilation methods as well as denser pseudo-observations used to initialise the hindcasts decrease the spread of the ensemble but improve only slightly the accuracy of the prediction of the sea ice in the Southern Ocean. Overall, the predictability at interannual timescales is limited, at most, to three years ahead. At multi-decadal timescales, there is a clear improvement of the correlation of the trend in sea ice extent between the hindcasts and the pseudo-observations if the initialisation takes into account the pseudo-observations. The correlation reaches values larger than 0.5 and is due to the inertia of the ocean, showing the importance of the quality of the initialisation below the sea ice.

  18. Ocean sea-ice modelling in the Southern Ocean around Indian Antarctic stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anurag; Dwivedi, Suneet; Rajak, D. Ram

    2017-07-01

    An eddy-resolving coupled ocean sea-ice modelling is carried out in the Southern Ocean region (9°-78°E; 51°-71°S) using the MITgcm. The model domain incorporates the Indian Antarctic stations, Maitri (11.7{°}E; 70.7{°}S) and Bharati (76.1{°}E; 69.4{°}S). The realistic simulation of the surface variables, namely, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), surface currents, sea ice concentration (SIC) and sea ice thickness (SIT) is presented for the period of 1997-2012. The horizontal resolution of the model varies between 6 and 10 km. The highest vertical resolution of 5 m is taken near the surface, which gradually increases with increasing depths. The seasonal variability of the SST, SSS, SIC and currents is compared with the available observations in the region of study. It is found that the SIC of the model domain is increasing at a rate of 0.09% per month (nearly 1% per year), whereas, the SIC near Maitri and Bharati regions is increasing at a rate of 0.14 and 0.03% per month, respectively. The variability of the drift of the sea-ice is also estimated over the period of simulation. It is also found that the sea ice volume of the region increases at the rate of 0.0004 km3 per month (nearly 0.005 km3 per year). Further, it is revealed that the accumulation of sea ice around Bharati station is more as compared to Maitri station.

  19. Regional characteristics of the effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the sea level in the China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Kexiu; Wang, Aimei; Feng, Jianlong; Fan, Wenjing; Liu, Qiulin; Xu, Yao; Zhang, Zengjian

    2018-05-01

    Based on coastal tide level, satellite altimetry, and sea surface temperature (SST) data of offshore areas of China's coast and the equatorial Pacific Ocean, the regional characteristics of the effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the sea level in the China Sea were investigated. Singular value decomposition results show a significant teleconnection between the sea level in the China Sea and the SST of the tropical Pacific Ocean; the correlation coefficient decreases from south to north. Data from tide gauges along China's coast show that the seasonal sea-level variations are significantly correlated with the ENSO. In addition, China's coast was divided into three regions based on distinctive regional characteristics. Results obtained show that the annual amplitude of sea level was low during El Niño developing years, and especially so during the El Niño year. The ENSO intensity determined the response intensity of the annual amplitude of the sea level. The response region (amplitude) was relatively large for strong ENSO intensities. Significant oscillation periods at a timescale of 4-7 years existed in the sea level of the three regions. The largest amplitude of oscillation was 1.5 cm, which was the fluctuation with the 7-year period in the South China Sea. The largest amplitude of oscillation in the East China Sea was about 1.3 cm. The amplitude of oscillation with the 6-year period in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea was the smallest (less than 1 cm).

  20. Hematology of southern Beaufort Sea polar bears (2005-2007): biomarker for an Arctic ecosystem health sentinel.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Cassandra M; Amstrup, Steven; Swor, Rhonda; Holcomb, Darce; O'Hara, Todd M

    2010-09-01

    Declines in sea-ice habitats have resulted in declining stature, productivity, and survival of polar bears in some regions. With continuing sea-ice declines, negative population effects are projected to expand throughout the polar bear's range. Precise causes of diminished polar bear life history performance are unknown, however, climate and sea-ice condition change are expected to adversely impact polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health and population dynamics. As apex predators in the Arctic, polar bears integrate the status of lower trophic levels and are therefore sentinels of ecosystem health. Arctic residents feed at the apex of the ecosystem, thus polar bears can serve as indicators of human health in the Arctic. Despite their value as indicators of ecosystem welfare, population-level health data for U.S. polar bears are lacking. We present hematological reference ranges for southern Beaufort Sea polar bears. Hematological parameters in southern Beaufort Sea polar bears varied by age, geographic location, and reproductive status. Total leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and serum immunoglobulin G were significantly greater in males than females. These measures were greater in nonlactating females ages ≥5, than lactating adult females ages ≥5, suggesting that females encumbered by young may be less resilient to new immune system challenges that may accompany ongoing climate change. Hematological values established here provide a necessary baseline for anticipated changes in health as arctic temperatures warm and sea-ice declines accelerate. Data suggest that females with dependent young may be most vulnerable to these changes and should therefore be a targeted cohort for monitoring in this sentinel.

  1. Seasonal and Spatial Changes in Trichodesmium Associated With Physicochemical Properties in East China Sea and Southern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhibing; Li, Hongliang; Zhai, Hongchang; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Quanzhen; Chen, Jianfang; Zhang, Dongsheng; Yan, Xiaojun

    2018-02-01

    Trichodesmium is broadly distributed and occasionally blooms in the East China Sea (ECS) and southern Yellow Sea, where it contributes to local N and C budgets. However, its population structure, spatiotemporal distribution, controlling factors, and N2 fixation remain poorly documented. Here we provide high spatial resolution data sets of Trichodesmium during the four seasons of 2011-2012 using water- and net-collected methods. The net-collected method captures colonial trichomes of Trichodesmium effectively but results in an underestimation of free trichomes. Colonies are rarely observed and occur only on the ECS shelf, which are easily missed in water-collected samples. Depth-integrated densities of Trichodesmium were found to be significantly higher in warm seasons than in cold seasons. Maximum densities in the water column were generally found at depths of 10-50 m. Trichodesmium thrives on the oligotrophic, warm, offshore ECS shelf (controlled by the Kuroshio and Taiwan Warm Current), but restrains in the cold southern Yellow Sea and the eutrophic, inshore ECS. Seasonal and spatial variations in Trichodesmium are closely correlated with physicochemical properties (mainly temperature and P), which are primarily controlled by circulation alteration and water mass movement. The N2 fixation rates of Trichodesmium in the ECS in summer and autumn (>20°C) are roughly estimated at 17.1 and 41.7 μmol N m-2 d-1 under nonbloom conditions, which potentially contribute to 81% and 57% of biological N2 fixation, respectively. Compared with historical data since the 1970s, Trichodesmium densities have increased considerably in all seasons, and the distribution boundary has shifted northward under regional warming and hydrological changes.

  2. The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for Biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Alex D.; Tyler, Paul A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jon T.; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D.; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A.; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearce, David A.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; German, Christopher R.; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Alker, Belinda J.; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A.; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J. J.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D. K.; Roterman, Christopher N.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than

  3. Long-term decrease in phosphate concentrations in the surface layer of the southern Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Taketoshi; Igeta, Yosuke; Kuga, Mizuki; Abe, Shoko

    2016-10-01

    To identify possible causes for the long-term trends in nutrient concentrations in the southern Japan Sea (JS), we studied nutrient concentrations that were obtained by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Our evaluation shows that phosphate concentrations declined in the surface layers in summer (0-20 and 21-50 m depth) and winter (0-20, 21-50, and 51-100 m depth) over the last 40 years, while no significant linear trend was observed for nitrate concentrations. The declining trend in the phosphate concentration was quantified as 1.8-3.3 nM yr-1. The increase in atmospheric nutrient deposition to the JS could not explain the decline in phosphate concentration. In addition, the mixed-layer depth during winter did not demonstrate any significant trend, and an increase in phosphate concentrations was not observed in any layers; therefore, the decrease in nutrient supply from deep JS water was not considered a major possible cause for the decline in the phosphate concentration. In contrast, the phosphate concentration in the surface of the southern JS during winter showed a significant positive correlation with the concentration in the 21-50 m depth layer of the saline East China Sea (ECS) water in the preceding summer, and the surface water of the southern JS was almost entirely replaced by water originating from the ECS during May-October. Therefore, it is concluded that the declining trend in the phosphate concentrations in the southern JS is caused by horizontal advection of ECS water.

  4. Growth responses of Ulva prolifera to inorganic and organic nutrients: Implications for macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Yongyu; Han, Xiurong; Shi, Xiaoyong; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The marine macrophyte Ulva prolifera is the dominant green-tide-forming seaweed in the southern Yellow Sea, China. Here we assessed, in the laboratory, the growth rate and nutrient uptake responses of U. prolifera to different nutrient treatments. The growth rates were enhanced in incubations with added organic and inorganic nitrogen [i.e. nitrate (NO3−), ammonium (NH4+), urea and glycine] and phosphorus [i.e. phosphate (PO43−), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P)], relative to the control. The relative growth rates of U. prolifera were higher when enriched with dissolved organic nitrogen (urea and glycine) and phosphorus (ATP and G-6-P) than inorganic nitrogen (NO3− and NH4+) and phosphorus (PO43−). In contrast, the affinity was higher for inorganic than organic nutrients. Field data in the southern Yellow Sea showed significant inverse correlations between macroalgal biomass and dissolved organic nutrients. Our laboratory and field results indicated that organic nutrients such as urea, glycine and ATP, may contribute to the development of macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea. PMID:27199215

  5. Continental Break-up Above A Mantle Plume: Opening of The Southern Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, C.; Eagles, G.; Elders, C.; Gloaguen, R.; McClay, K.; Tiberi, C.; Wolfenden, E.

    Initial rifting in the Red Sea occurred concurrent with, or soon after flood basaltic mag- matism at~31 Ma in the Ethiopia-Yemen plume province. Yet, the development of the ca. 400 km-wide extensional province of the southern Red Sea between 31 Ma and the onset of seafloor spreading at ~4 Ma has been poorly understood, in large part owing to inaccessibility in the Afar depression. The Afar depression is a diffuse extensional province marking a triple point zone between plate boundaries in the Red Sea (Arabia Nubia), the Gulf of Aden (Arabia Somalia); and the Main Ethiopian Rift (Somalia Nu- bia). Complicating this setting, the Danakil horst is a microplate lying between oceanic provinces in the southernmost Red Sea and incipient seafloor spreading in the northern Afar depression. We have integrated exploration seismic, gravity, well, and magnetic data from offshore regions with remote sensing, geological and geophysical data from Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Yemen to evaluate models for continental break-up above mantle plumes. Plate kinematic reconstructions using a pole of rotation within the error ellipse of the Chu and Gordon (1999) pole predict real features in remote sensing and gravity data; these reconstructions provide a general framework for our interpretations. Field and geochronology studies along the western margin of Afar show a southward prop- agation of rifting since about 25 Ma when extension commenced offshore Red Sea and in Yemen. We also see an eastward migration of strain from the western border fault to narrow zones of primarily basaltic magmatism since mid-Miocene time. These magmatic sequences, where not onlapped by Pliocene-Recent sedimentary strata, dip steeply seaward and define a regional eastward flexure into transitional oceanic crust, as suggested by gravity models constrained by existing seismic data. Our synthesis suggests that the southern Afar depression, assumed to be most proximal to the plume, was the site of incipient seafloor

  6. 50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Possession at sea and landing. 635.30....30 Possession at sea and landing. (a) Atlantic tunas. Persons that own or operate a fishing vessel... Atlantic coastal port, including ports in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, must have all fins and...

  7. 50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Possession at sea and landing. 635.30....30 Possession at sea and landing. (a) Atlantic tunas. Persons that own or operate a fishing vessel... Atlantic coastal port, including ports in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, must have all fins and...

  8. 50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Possession at sea and landing. 635.30....30 Possession at sea and landing. (a) Atlantic tunas. Persons that own or operate a fishing vessel... Atlantic coastal port, including ports in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, must have all fins and...

  9. 50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Possession at sea and landing. 635.30....30 Possession at sea and landing. (a) Atlantic tunas. Persons that own or operate a fishing vessel... Atlantic coastal port, including ports in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, must have all fins and...

  10. Late Quaternary depositional history, Holocene sea-level changes, and vertical crustal movement, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, Brian F.; Hedel, Charles W.; Helley, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Sediments collected for bridge foundation studies at southern San Francisco Bay, Calif., record estuaries that formed during Sangamon (100,000 years ago) and post-Wisconsin (less than 10,000 years ago) high stands of sea level. The estuarine deposits of Sangamon and post-Wisconsin ages are separated by alluvial and eolian deposits and by erosional unconformities and surfaces of nondeposition, features that indicate lowered base levels and oceanward migrations of the shoreline accompanying low stands of the sea. Estuarine deposits of mid-Wisconsin age appear to be absent, suggesting that sea level was not near its present height 30,000–40,000 years ago in central California. Holocene sea-level changes are measured from the elevations and apparent 14C ages of plant remains from 13 core samples. Uncertainties of ±2 to ±4 m in the elevations of the dated sea levels represent the sum of errors in determination of (1) sample elevation relative to present sea level, (2) sample elevation relative to sea level at the time of accumulation of the dated material, and (3) postdepositional subsidence of the sample due to compaction of underlying sediments. Sea level in the vicinity of southern San Francisco Bay rose about 2 cm/yr from 9,500 to 8,000 years ago. The rate of relative sea-level rise then declined about tenfold from 8,000 to 6,000 years ago, and it has averaged 0.1–0.2 cm/yr from 6,000 years ago to the present. This submergence history indicates that the rising sea entered the Golden Gate 10,000–11,000 years ago and spread across land areas as rapidly as 30 m/yr until 8,000 years ago. Subsequent shoreline changes were more gradual because of the decrease in rate of sea-level rise. Some of the sediments under southern San Francisco Bay appear to be below the level at which they initially accumulated. The vertical crustal movement suggested by these sediments may be summarized as follows: (1) Some Quaternary(?) sediments have sustained at least 100 m of

  11. Study of southern CHAONAN sag lower continental slope basin deposition character in Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Northern South China Sea Margin locates in Eurasian plate,Indian-Australia plate,Pacific Plates.The South China Sea had underwent a complicated tectonic evolution in Cenozoic.During rifting,the continental shelf and slope forms a series of Cenozoic sedimentary basins,including Qiongdongnan basin,Pearl River Mouth basin,Taixinan basin.These basins fill in thick Cenozoic fluviolacustrine facies,transitional facies,marine facies,abyssal facies sediment,recording the evolution history of South China Sea Margin rifting and ocean basin extending.The studies of tectonics and deposition of depression in the Southern Chaonan Sag of lower continental slope in the Norther South China Sea were dealt with,based on the sequence stratigraphy and depositional facies interpretation of seismic profiles acquired by cruises of“China and Germany Joint Study on Marine Geosciences in the South China Sea”and“The formation,evolution and key issues of important resources in China marginal sea",and combining with ODP 1148 cole and LW33-1-1 well.The free-air gravity anomaly of the break up of the continental and ocean appears comparatively low negative anomaly traps which extended in EW,it is the reflection of passive margin gravitational effect.Bouguer gravity anomaly is comparatively low which is gradient zone extended NE-SW.Magnetic anomaly lies in Magnetic Quiet Zone at the Northern Continental Margin of the South China Sea.The Cenozoic sediments of lower continental slope in Southern Chaonan Sag can be divided into five stratum interface:SB5.5,SB10.5,SB16.5,SB23.8 and Hg,their ages are of Pliocene-Quaternary,late Miocene,middle Miocene,early Miocene,paleogene.The tectonic evolution of low continental slope depressions can be divided into rifting,rifting-depression transitional and depression stages,while their depositional environments change from river to shallow marine and abyssa1,which results in different topography in different stages.The topographic evolvement in the study

  12. A comparison of the physics of the northern and southern shelves of the eastern Bering Sea and some implications for the ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Kachel, Nancy B.; Moore, Sue; Mordy, Calvin W.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Overland, James E.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Sigler, Michael F.

    2012-06-01

    Sufficient oceanographic measurements have been made in recent years to describe the latitudinal variation in the physics of the eastern Bering Sea shelf and the potential impact of climate change on the species assemblages in the two ecosystems (north and south). Many of the predicted ecosystem changes will result from alterations in the timing and extent of sea ice. It is predicted that the sea ice in the northern Bering Sea will be less common in May, but will continue to be extensive through April. In contrast, the southern shelf will have, on average, much less sea ice than currently observed, but with large interannual and multiyear variability until at least 2050. Thus, even under current climate warming scenarios, bottom temperatures on the northern shelf will remain cold. Based on biophysical measurements, the southern and northern ecosystems were divided by a North-South Transition at ˜60°N. The northern middle shelf was characterized by a freshwater lens at the surface, cold bottom temperatures, and a thicker pycnocline than found on the southern shelf. Subsurface phytoplankton blooms were common. In contrast, the southern shelf stratification was largely determined by temperature alone; the pycnocline was thin (often<3 m) and subsurface blooms were uncommon. Biological responses to climate warming could include greater north-south differences in zooplankton community structure, the transport of large Outer Shelf Domain crustacean zooplankton to the middle shelf, and the disappearance of two principal prey taxa (Calanus spp. and Thysanoessa spp.) of planktivorous fish, seabirds and whales. The response of commercially and ecologically important fish species is predicted to vary. Some species of fish (e.g., juvenile sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka) may expand their summer range into the northern Bering Sea; some (e.g., pink salmon, O. gorbuscha) may increase in abundance while still other species (e.g., walleye pollock and arrowtooth flounder

  13. Terrestrial source to deep-sea sink sediment budgets at high and low sea levels: Insights from tectonically active Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covault, J.A.; Romans, B.W.; Graham, S.A.; Fildani, A.; Hilley, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment routing from terrestrial source areas to the deep sea influences landscapes and seascapes and supply and filling of sedimentary basins. However, a comprehensive assessment of land-to-deep-sea sediment budgets over millennia with significant climate change is lacking. We provide source to sink sediment budgets using cosmogenic radionuclide-derived terrestrial denudation rates and submarine-fan deposition rates through sea-level fluctuations since oxygen isotope stage 3 (younger than 40 ka) in tectonically active, spatially restricted sediment-routing systems of Southern California. We show that source-area denudation and deep-sea deposition are balanced during a period of generally falling and low sea level (40-13 ka), but that deep-sea deposition exceeds terrestrial denudation during the subsequent period of rising and high sea level (younger than 13 ka). This additional supply of sediment is likely owed to enhanced dispersal of sediment across the shelf caused by seacliff erosion during postglacial shoreline transgression and initiation of submarine mass wasting. During periods of both low and high sea level, land and deep-sea sediment fluxes do not show orders of magnitude imbalances that might be expected in the wake of major sea-level changes. Thus, sediment-routing processes in a globally significant class of small, tectonically active systems might be fundamentally different from those of larger systems that drain entire orogens, in which sediment storage in coastal plains and wide continental shelves can exceed millions of years. Furthermore, in such small systems, depositional changes offshore can reflect onshore changes when viewed over time scales of several thousand years to more than 10 k.y. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  14. Hematology of southern Beaufort Sea polar bears (2005-2007): Biomarker for an arctic ecosystem health sentinel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirk, Cassandra M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Swor, Rhonda; Holcomb, Darce; O'Hara, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Declines in sea-ice habitats have resulted in declining stature, productivity, and survival of polar bears in some regions. With continuing sea-ice declines, negative population effects are projected to expand throughout the polar bear's range. Precise causes of diminished polar bear life history performance are unknown, however, climate and sea-ice condition change are expected to adversely impact polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health and population dynamics. As apex predators in the Arctic, polar bears integrate the status of lower trophic levels and are therefore sentinels of ecosystem health. Arctic residents feed at the apex of the ecosystem, thus polar bears can serve as indicators of human health in the Arctic. Despite their value as indicators of ecosystem welfare, population-level health data for U.S. polar bears are lacking. We present hematological reference ranges for southern Beaufort Sea polar bears. Hematological parameters in southern Beaufort Sea polar bears varied by age, geographic location, and reproductive status. Total leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and serum immunoglobulin G were significantly greater in males than females. These measures were greater in nonlactating females ages ???5, than lactating adult females ages ???5, suggesting that females encumbered by young may be less resilient to new immune system challenges that may accompany ongoing climate change. Hematological values established here provide a necessary baseline for anticipated changes in health as arctic temperatures warm and sea-ice declines accelerate. Data suggest that females with dependent young may be most vulnerable to these changes and should therefore be a targeted cohort for monitoring in this sentinel. ?? 2010 International Association for Ecology and Health.

  15. Food limitation of sea lion pups and the decline of forage off central and southern California

    PubMed Central

    McClatchie, Sam; Field, John; Thompson, Andrew R.; Gerrodette, Tim; Lowry, Mark; Fiedler, Paul C.; Watson, William; Nieto, Karen M.; Vetter, Russell D.

    2016-01-01

    California sea lions increased from approximately 50 000 to 340 000 animals in the last 40 years, and their pups are starving and stranding on beaches in southern California, raising questions about the adequacy of their food supply. We investigated whether the declining sea lion pup weight at San Miguel rookery was associated with changes in abundance and quality of sardine, anchovy, rockfish and market squid forage. In the last decade off central California, where breeding female sea lions from San Miguel rookery feed, sardine and anchovy greatly decreased in biomass, whereas market squid and rockfish abundance increased. Pup weights fell as forage food quality declined associated with changes in the relative abundances of forage species. A model explained 67% of the variance in pup weights using forage from central and southern California and 81% of the variance in pup weights using forage from the female sea lion foraging range. A shift from high to poor quality forage for breeding females results in food limitation of the pups, ultimately flooding animal rescue centres with starving sea lion pups. Our study is unusual in using a long-term, fishery-independent dataset to directly address an important consequence of forage decline on the productivity of a large marine predator. Whether forage declines are environmentally driven, are due to a combination of environmental drivers and fishing removals, or are due to density-dependent interactions between forage and sea lions is uncertain. However, declining forage abundance and quality was coherent over a large area (32.5–38° N) for a decade, suggesting that trends in forage are environmentally driven. PMID:27069651

  16. Temperature history of the Caribbean mixed layer as derived from sclerosponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrella, J.; Winter, A.; Sherman, C.; Mangini, A.; Ramírez, W.

    2011-12-01

    We present a high resolution record of the Caribbean mixed layer temperature at different depths derived from oxygen isotopic ratios obtained from the sclerosponge Ceratoporella nicholsoni. Sclerosponges precipitate their calcium carbonate skeleton in equilibrium with their surrounding environment and are capable of living at great depths (down to 200 m). The sponges for this project were collected off Puerto Rico and St. Croix in northeastern region of the Caribbean Sea. The record obtained closest to the surface (36 m) indicates a sudden rise in sea surface temperature that started in 1866 and ended in 1877 with a total rise of 0.5 °C. At this time the rise decelerated until it finally stopped in 1935. From there onwards the record shows a declining trend that lasts until present day. We found that up to 51 % of the temperature variability in this record can be attributed to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (Trenberth and Shea, 2006). Further work is taking place on sponges located at various depths to determine the rate of expansion of the mixed layer.

  17. Forecasting sea cliff retreat in Southern California using process-based models and artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limber, P. W.; Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.

    2016-02-01

    Modeling coastal geomorphic change over multi-decadal time and regional spatial scales (i.e. >20 km alongshore) is in high demand due to rising global sea levels and heavily populated coastal zones, but is challenging for several reasons: adequate geomorphic and oceanographic data often does not exist over the entire study area or time period; models can be too computationally expensive; and model uncertainty is high. In the absence of rich datasets and unlimited computer processing power, researchers are forced to leverage existing data, however sparse, and find analytical methods that minimize computation time without sacrificing (too much) model reliability. Machine learning techniques, such as artificial neural networks, can assimilate and efficiently extrapolate geomorphic model behavior over large areas. They can also facilitate ensemble model forecasts over a broad range of parameter space, which is useful when a paucity of observational data inhibits the constraint of model parameters. Here, we assimilate the behavior of two established process-based sea cliff erosion and retreat models into a neural network to forecast the impacts of sea level rise on sea cliff retreat in Southern California ( 400 km) through the 21st century. Using inputs such as historical cliff retreat rates, mean wave power, and whether or not a beach is present, the neural network independently reproduces modeled sea cliff retreat as a function of sea level rise with a high degree of confidence (R2 > 0.9, mean squared error < 0.1 m yr-1). Results will continuously improve as more model scenarios are assimilated into the neural network, and more field data (i.e., cliff composition and rock hardness) becomes available to tune the cliff retreat models. Preliminary results suggest that sea level rise rates of 2 to 20 mm yr-1 during the next century could accelerate historical cliff retreat rates in Southern California by an average of 0.10 - 0.56 m yr-1.

  18. 50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession at sea and landing. 635.30....30 Possession at sea and landing. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57702, Sept. 22, 2010. (a... Atlantic coastal port, including ports in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, must have all fins and...

  19. Oceanographic mechanisms and penguin population increases during the Little Ice Age in the southern Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lianjiao; Sun, Liguang; Emslie, Steven D.; Xie, Zhouqing; Huang, Tao; Gao, Yuesong; Yang, Wenqing; Chu, Zhuding; Wang, Yuhong

    2018-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is a well-known indicator for climate and environmental changes. Exploring how large-scale climate variability affects penguin ecology in the past is essential for understanding the responses of Southern Ocean ecosystems to future global change. Using ornithogenic sediments at Cape Bird, Ross Island, Antarctica, we inferred relative population changes of Adélie penguins in the southern Ross Sea over the past 500 yr, and observed an increase in penguin populations during the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1500-1850 AD). We used cadmium content in ancient penguin guano as a proxy of ocean upwelling and identified a close linkage between penguin dynamics and atmospheric circulation and oceanic conditions. During the cold period of ∼1600-1825 AD, a deepened Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) led to stronger winds, intensified ocean upwelling, enlarged Ross Sea and McMurdo Sound polynyas, and thus higher food abundance and penguin populations. We propose a mechanism linking Antarctic marine ecology and atmospheric/oceanic dynamics which can help explain and predict responses of Antarctic high latitudes ecosystems to climate change.

  20. Marine biogeochemical influence on primary sea spray aerosol composition in the Southern Ocean: predictions from a mechanistic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, D.; Burrows, S. M.; Elliott, S.; Frossard, A. A.; Russell, L. M.; Liu, X.; Ogunro, O. O.; Easter, R. C.; Rasch, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Remote marine clouds, such as those over the Southern Ocean, are particularly sensitive to variations in the concentration and chemical composition of aerosols that serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Observational evidence indicates that the organic content of fine marine aerosol is greatly increased during the biologically active season near strong phytoplankton blooms in certain locations, while being nearly constant in other locations. We have recently developed a novel modeling framework that mechanistically links the organic fraction of submicron sea spray to ocean biogeochemistry (Burrows et al., in discussion, ACPD, 2014; Elliott et al., ERL, 2014). Because of its combination of large phytoplankton blooms and high wind speeds, the Southern Ocean is an ideal location for testing our understanding of the processes driving the enrichment of organics in sea spray aerosol. Comparison of the simulated OM fraction with satellite observations shows that OM fraction is a statistically significant predictor of cloud droplet number concentration over the Southern Ocean. This presentation will focus on predictions from our modeling framework for the Southern Ocean, specifically, the predicted geographic gradients and seasonal cycles in the aerosol organic matter and its functional group composition. The timing and location of a Southern Ocean field campaign will determine its utility in observing the effects of highly localized and seasonal phytoplankton blooms on aerosol composition and clouds. Reference cited: Burrows, S. M., Ogunro, O., Frossard, A. A., Russell, L. M., Rasch, P. J., and Elliott, S.: A physically-based framework for modelling the organic fractionation of sea spray aerosol from bubble film Langmuir equilibria, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 14, 5375-5443, doi:10.5194/acpd-14-5375-2014, 2014. Elliott, S., Burrows, S. M., Deal, C., Liu, X., Long, M., Ogunro, O., Russell, L. M., and Wingenter O.. "Prospects for simulating macromolecular surfactant

  1. Interaction between Tropical Atlantic Variability and El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, R.; Chang, Ping

    2000-07-01

    The interaction between tropical Atlantic variability and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is investigated using three ensembles of atmospheric general circulation model integrations. The integrations are forced by specifying observed sea surface temperature (SST) variability over a forcing domain. The forcing domain is the global ocean for the first ensemble, limited to the tropical ocean for the second ensemble, and further limited to the tropical Atlantic region for the third ensemble. The ensemble integrations show that extratropical SST anomalies have little impact on tropical variability, but the effect of ENSO is pervasive in the Tropics. Consistent with previous studies, the most significant influence of ENSO is found during the boreal spring season and is associated with an anomalous Walker circulation. Two important aspects of ENSO's influence on tropical Atlantic variability are noted. First, the ENSO signal contributes significantly to the `dipole' correlation structure between tropical Atlantic SST and rainfall in the Nordeste Brazil region. In the absence of the ENSO signal, the correlations are dominated by SST variability in the southern tropical Atlantic, resulting in less of a dipole structure. Second, the remote influence of ENSO also contributes to positive correlations between SST anomalies and downward surface heat flux in the tropical Atlantic during the boreal spring season. However, even when ENSO forcing is absent, the model integrations provide evidence for a positive surface heat flux feedback in the deep Tropics, which is analyzed in a companion study by Chang et al. The analysis of model simulations shows that interannual atmospheric variability in the tropical Pacific-Atlantic system is dominated by the interaction between two distinct sources of tropical heating: (i) an equatorial heat source in the eastern Pacific associated with ENSO and (ii) an off-equatorial heat source associated with SST anomalies near the Caribbean

  2. Cenozoic tectonic subsidence in the Southern Continental Margin, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Penggao; Ding, Weiwei; Fang, Yinxia; Zhao, Zhongxian; Feng, Zhibing

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed two recently acquired multichannel seismic profiles across the Dangerous Grounds and the Reed Bank area in the South China Sea. Reconstruction of the tectonic subsidence shows that the southern continental margin can be divided into three stages with variable subsidence rate. A delay of tectonic subsidence existed in both areas after a break-up, which was likely related to the major mantle convection during seafloor spreading, that was triggered by the secondary mantle convection below the continental margin, in addition to the variation in lithospheric thickness. Meanwhile, the stage with delayed subsidence rate differed along strikes. In the Reed Bank area, this stage is between 32-23.8 Ma, while in the Dangerous Grounds, it was much later (between 19-15.5 Ma). We believe the propagated rifting in the South China Sea dominated the changes of this delayed subsidence rate stage.

  3. Spatio-temporal patterns of Ulva prolifera blooms and the corresponding influence on chlorophyll-a concentration in the Southern Yellow Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Wu, Mengquan; Xing, Qianguo; Song, Xiaodong; Zhao, Deheng; Han, Qianqian; Zhang, Guangzong

    2018-06-04

    The world's largest macroalgal blooms (MABs) caused by the Ulva prolifera outbreaks have occurred every summer since 2007 in the Southern Yellow Sea, China. Accumulating evidence showed that MABs may deteriorate the regional marine environment and influence the growth of some primary producers such as phytoplankton. In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of U. prolifera green tides and chlorophyll-a concentration in the Southern Yellow Sea in 2015 using satellite images obtained from HJ-1 CCD, MODIS, and GOCI. The correlation between the distributions of U. prolifera abundance and chlorophyll-a concentration was analyzed quantitatively by setting up a series of 5 × 5 km experimental grids, and we also discussed the possible mechanisms about the influence of U. prolifera blooms on the other floating microalgae. The results showed that the development of U. prolifera blooms in the Southern Yellow Sea in 2015 could be featured as "appearance - development - outbreak - decline - disappearance", while the concentration of chlorophyll-a showed "increase - sharp decline - slow recovery - stabilization" from April to August. We also found that the concentration of chlorophyll-a had the following relationships with U. prolifera temporally: (1) the concentration of chlorophyll-a increased with the growth of U. prolifera from April to mid-May; (2) the chlorophyll-a concentration decreased sharply with the dramatically increased coverage of U. prolifera in June; and (3) the chlorophyll-a concentration slowly recovered and finally stabilized as U. prolifera decreased in July. Generally, there was a negative correlation between the occurrence of U. prolifera and chlorophyll-a concentration in the Southern Yellow Sea, China. Our results showed that the outbreak of U. prolifera does have a certain impact on the growth and reproduction of planktonic microalgae, and it suggests that U. prolifera blooms have potentially altered the ecological balance in

  4. Presence of Foraminifera of Superfamily Komokioidea (Order Astrorhizida) in Colombian deep Caribbean waters.

    PubMed

    Tavera-Martínez, Laura; Marchant, Margarita

    2017-10-20

    Research regarding deep-sea benthic foraminifera in the Colombian Caribbean requires further development given the complete lack of information related to the different groups that constitute associations and the ecological functions they fulfill. For this purpose, a taxonomic description of Superfamily Komokioidea was composed from macrofauna samples from between 1,215 m and 3,179 m depth, obtained during the research cruise ANH-COL 4 and COL 5 carried out in 2014. Results showed foraminifera belonging to the three families: Komokiidae, Baculellidae, and Normaninidae, inclu-ding five genera (Lana, Komokia, Ipoa, Normaninam, and Catena) and five species (Lana neglecta, Komokia multiramosa, Normanina conferta, Ipoa fragila, and Catena piriformis). This study presents knowledge regarding deep-sea Colombian Caribbean benthic foraminifera, which to date have not been recorded from this region. Their depth distribution when compared with other studies from the Atlantic and Pacific, allows the expansion of taxonomic inventories and the characterization of biodiversity within poorly explored regions.

  5. Soundscapes from a Tropical Eastern Pacific reef and a Caribbean Sea reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staaterman, E.; Rice, A. N.; Mann, D. A.; Paris, C. B.

    2013-06-01

    Underwater soundscapes vary due to the abiotic and biological components of the habitat. We quantitatively characterized the acoustic environments of two coral reef habitats, one in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (Panama) and one in the Caribbean (Florida Keys), over 2-day recording durations in July 2011. We examined the frequency distribution, temporal variability, and biological patterns of sound production and found clear differences. The Pacific reef exhibited clear biological patterns and high temporal variability, such as the onset of snapping shrimp noise at night, as well as a 400-Hz daytime band likely produced by damselfish. In contrast, the Caribbean reef had high sound levels in the lowest frequencies, but lacked clear temporal patterns. We suggest that acoustic measures are an important element to include in reef monitoring programs, as the acoustic environment plays an important role in the ecology of reef organisms at multiple life-history stages.

  6. Imprint of Southern Red Sea Major Tectonic Zone In A New Bouguer Anomaly Map of Southern Yemen Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecha, V.

    A new Bouguer anomaly map of western part of southern Yemen margin has been compiled. Densities of rock samples from main geological units (Precambrian base- ment, Mesozoic sediments, Tertiary volcanites) have been measured and used for grav- ity modeling. Regional gravity map indicates decrease of thickness of continental crust from volcanites of the Yemen Trap Series towards the coast of the Gulf of Aden. Most remarkable feature in the map of residual anomalies is a positive anomaly over the Dhala graben. The Dhala graben is a prominent geological structure in the area of study trending parallel to the Red Sea axis. Gravity modeling on a profile across the Dhala graben presumes intrusive plutonic rocks beneath the graben. There are two other areas in the southwestern tip of Arabia, which have essentially the same struc- tural position as the Dhala graben: the Jabal Tirf volcanic rift zone in the southern Saudi Arabia and Jabal Hufash extensional zone in northern Yemen. All three areas extend along the line trending parallel to the Red Sea axis with length of about 500 km. The line coincides with the axis of Afar (Danakil) depression after Arabia is shifted and rotated back to Africa. These facts imply conclusion that the Oligocene - Early Miocene magmatic activity on the Jabal Tirf - Dhala lineament is related to the same original deep tectonic zone, forming present-day Afar depression and still active.

  7. Strong and highly variable push of ocean waves on Southern Ocean sea ice.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Justin E; Sutherland, Peter; Ardhuin, Fabrice

    2018-06-05

    Sea ice in the Southern Ocean has expanded over most of the past 20 y, but the decline in sea ice since 2016 has taken experts by surprise. This recent evolution highlights the poor performance of numerical models for predicting extent and thickness, which is due to our poor understanding of ice dynamics. Ocean waves are known to play an important role in ice break-up and formation. In addition, as ocean waves decay, they cause a stress that pushes the ice in the direction of wave propagation. This wave stress could not previously be quantified due to insufficient observations at large scales. Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radars (SARs) provide high-resolution imagery from which wave height is measured year round encompassing Antarctica since 2014. Our estimates give an average wave stress that is comparable to the average wind stress acting over 50 km of sea ice. We further reveal highly variable half-decay distances ranging from 400 m to 700 km, and wave stresses from 0.01 to 1 Pa. We expect that this variability is related to ice properties and possibly different floe sizes and ice thicknesses. A strong feedback of waves on sea ice, via break-up and rafting, may be the cause of highly variable sea-ice properties.

  8. Numerical study of summertime dynamical and physical changes in the southern South China Sea due to the monsoons and its impacts on primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Abu Samah, Azizan; Hai Ooi, See

    2016-04-01

    The ecosystem off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia is controlled by multiple physical processes during the monsoons (winter and summer) , including the air-sea interaction (such as net heat and surface freshwater fluxes), the small-scale eddies off the southern South China Sea (SSCS), and the monsoon wind induced coastal upwelling. Using high-resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), in-situ observations and remote sensing data, this paper attempts to study the hydrodynamics of the shelf and coastal processes as well as thermohaline circulation in response to changes in the hydrological seasonal cycle especially in the summer monsoon. In addition, we investigate its impacts on the spatial patterns of chlorophyll biomass which acts as a proxy for primary productivity in the SSCS. This study looks into not only the detailed small-scale-circulation such as localized eddies but also the link between the southern South China Sea and the Indian Ocean through the Straits of Malacca and the Java Sea. The flow through the Strait of Malacca and the Java Sea is not only important for navigational purpose but also has an influence on the seasonal spatial and temporal variations of primary productivity in the region. Keywords: southern South China Sea; summer monsoon; coastal upwelling; primary productivity

  9. Carbonate saturation state of surface waters in the Ross Sea and Southern Ocean: controls and implications for the onset of aragonite undersaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJong, H. B.; Dunbar, R. B.; Mucciarone, D. A.; Koweek, D.

    2016-02-01

    Predicting when surface waters of the Ross Sea and Southern Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to biogenic carbonate minerals is challenging in part due to the lack of baseline high resolution carbon system data. Here we present 1700 surface total alkalinity measurements from the Ross Sea and along a transect between the Ross Sea and southern Chile from the austral autumn (February-March 2013). We calculate the saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr) and calcite (ΩCa) using measured total alkalinity and pCO2. In the Ross Sea and south of the Polar Front, variability in carbonate saturation state (Ω) is mainly driven by algal photosynthesis. Freshwater dilution and calcification have minimal influence on Ω variability. We estimate an early spring surface water ΩAr value of 1.2 for the Ross Sea using a total alkalinity-salinity relationship and historical pCO2 measurements. Our results suggest that the Ross Sea is not likely to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite until the year 2070.

  10. Offshore Windfarm Impact on Pelagic Primary Production in the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavik, Kaela; Zhang, Wenyan; Lemmen, Carsten; Wirtz, Kai

    2016-04-01

    As society struggles to find solutions to mitigate global warming, the demand for renewable energy technology has increased. Especially investment in offshore wind energy has proliferated in the European Union, with projections over the next 15 years estimating an over 40 fold increase in total offshore wind electricity. Though built with the goal of reducing the environmental impacts associated with traditional energy production, the long-term ecological impacts of offshore windfarm structures is not yet well understood. The consequences are of particular importance in the southern North Sea, where the expansion of offshore windfarms is focused. Our study investigates how the gradual accumulation of epifaunal biomass on submerged substrate at offshore windfarms impacts ecosystem services in the southern North Sea. Biofouling is governed predominately by the filter feeder Mytilus edulis, which, as an ecological engineer, will further alter the surrounding benthic and pelagic environment. We reconstruct the distribution of benthic filter feeders in the SNS and generate scenarios of increased potential distribution based on available information of Mytilus edulis settlement at turbines and of turbine locations. These maps are coupled through the MOSSCO (Modular Coupling System for Shelves and Coasts) to state-of-the-art and high resolution hydrodynamic and ecosystem models. We find a substantial change in pelagic primary production as a result of additional Mytilus edulis growth at offshore windfarms.

  11. @Caribbean_LCC | CARIBBEAN LANDSCAPE CONSERVATION COOPERATIVE (A2)

    Science.gov Websites

    Monitoring Data Ecosystem Governance Community Get involved Advisory Groups Scientific Community Practitioner ! Caribbean Agriculture, Forestry and Climate Governance Database Slide background LANDSCAPE Conservation Is Caribbean. Ecosystem Governance Discover our compendium of NGOs and coalition groups doing conservation

  12. Intrareef variations in Li/Mg and Sr/Ca sea surface temperature proxies in the Caribbean reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowell, Sara E.; Sandford, Kate; Stewart, Joseph A.; Castillo, Karl D.; Ries, Justin B.; Foster, Gavin L.

    2016-10-01

    Caribbean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have increased at a rate of 0.2°C per decade since 1971, a rate double that of the mean global change. Recent investigations of the coral Siderastrea siderea on the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) have demonstrated that warming over the last 30 years has had a detrimental impact on calcification. Instrumental temperature records in this region are sparse, making it necessary to reconstruct longer SST records indirectly through geochemical temperature proxies. Here we investigate the skeletal Sr/Ca and Li/Mg ratios of S. siderea from two distinct reef zones (forereef and backreef) of the MBRS. Our field calibrations of S. siderea show that Li/Mg and Sr/Ca ratios are well correlated with temperature, although both ratios are 3 times more sensitive to temperature change in the forereef than in the backreef. These differences suggest that a secondary parameter also influences these SST proxies, highlighting the importance for site- and species-specific SST calibrations. Application of these paleothermometers to downcore samples reveals highly uncertain reconstructed temperatures in backreef coral, but well-matched reconstructed temperatures in forereef coral, both between Sr/Ca-SSTs and Li/Mg-SSTs, and in comparison to the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature record. Reconstructions generated from a combined Sr/Ca and Li/Mg multiproxy calibration improve the precision of these SST reconstructions. This result confirms that there are circumstances in which both Li/Mg and Sr/Ca are reliable as stand-alone and combined proxies of sea surface temperature. However, the results also highlight that high-precision, site-specific calibrations remain critical for reconstructing accurate SSTs from coral-based elemental proxies.

  13. Asynchrony in craniomandibular development and growth in Enhydra lutris nereis (Carnivora: Mustelidae): Are southern sea otters born to bite?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, Chris J; Baliga, Vikram B.; Tinker, M. Tim; Mehta, Rita S.

    2017-01-01

    Weaning represents a major ontogenetic dietary shift in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis), as juveniles must transition from depending on mother’s milk to independently processing hard-shelled invertebrates. When the skulls of juveniles have reached sufficient maturity to transition to a durophagous diet remains to be investigated. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of skull development and growth and sexual dimorphism using geometric morphometric approaches in 204 southern sea otter skulls. We found that southern sea otters of both sexes exhibit dramatic changes in cranial and mandibular shape and size over ontogeny. Although the majority of these changes occur in the pup stage, full development and growth of the skull does not occur until well after weaning. We hypothesize that the slower maturation of the crania of newly weaned juveniles serves as a handicap by constraining jaw adductor muscle size, biting ability and feeding on hard-shelled prey. In our analysis of sexual dimorphism, we found significant sexual shape and size dimorphism in adult craniomandibular morphology that arose through differences in developmental and growth rates and duration. We postulate that males are selected to attain mature crania faster to presumably reach adult biting ability sooner, gaining a competitive advantage in obtaining food and in male–male agonistic interactions.

  14. Real-Time Eddy-Resolving Ocean Prediction in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlburt, H. E.; Smedstad, O. M.; Shriver, J. F.; Townsend, T. L.; Murphy, S. J.

    2001-12-01

    A {1/16}o eddy-resolving, nearly global ocean prediction system has been developed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Stennis Space Center, MS. It has been run in real-time by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO), Stennis Space Center, MS since 18 Oct 2000 with daily updates for the nowcast and 30-day forecasts performed every Wednesday. The model has ~8 km resolution in the Caribbean region and assimilates real-time altimeter sea surface height (SSH) data from ERS-2, GFO and TOPEX/POSEIDON plus multi-channel sea surface temperature (MCSST) from satellite IR. Real-time and archived results from the system can be seen at web site: http://www7320.nrlssc.navy.mil/global\

  15. Newly Digitized Historical Climate Data of the German Bight and the Southern Baltic Sea Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhrbein, Dörte; Tinz, Birger; von Storch, Hans

    2015-04-01

    The detection of historical climate information plays an important role with regard to the discussion on climate change, particularly on storminess. The German Meteorological Service houses huge archives of historical handwritten journals of weather observations. A considerable number of original observation sheets from stations along the coast of the German Bight and the southern Baltic Sea exists which has been until recently almost unnoticed. These stations are called signal stations and are positioned close to the shore. However, for this region meteorological observation data of 128 stations exist from 1877 to 1999 and are partly digitized. In this study we show an analysis of firstly newly digitized wind and surface air pressure data of 15 stations from 1877 to 1939 and we also present a case study of the storm surge at the coast of the southern Baltic Sea in December 1913. The data are quality controlled by formal, climatological, temporal and consistency checks. It is shown that these historical climate data are usable in consistency and quality for further investigations on climate change, e.g. as input for regional and global reanalysis.

  16. Radioactivity near the sunken submarine "Kursk" in the Southern Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Matishov, Genady G; Matishov, Dimitry G; Namiatov, Alexey E; Smith, John Norton; Carroll, Jolynn; Dahle, Salve

    2002-05-01

    Radioactivity measurements were conducted on seawater, sediment, and biota samples collected in the vicinity of the Russian submarine "Kursk" in September, 2000, within 1 month of the vessel's sinking in the Barents Sea to determine whether leakage of radioactivity from the vessel's two nuclear reactors had occurred and to assess the impact on one of the most productive fishing areas in the world. Levels of radioactivity in surface sediments and biota are within the range of values previously measured in the Barents Sea and can be ascribed to inputs from global fallout, European nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, and the Chernobyl accident. However, levels of 1291 in seawater in the Southern Barents Sea increased by 500% between 1992 and 2000, and the 129I/137Cs ratio increased by more than an order of magnitude during this time, owing to long-range transport of releases from reprocessing facilities at Sellafield (U.K.) and La Hague (France). Although these results indicate that, at the time of sampling, leakage from the Kursk had a negligible impact on the environment, they also show that regional background levels of artificial radioactivity are varying rapidly on annual timescales and that Europe's nuclear reprocessing facilities are the leading contributor of anthropogenic radioactivity to the region.

  17. On the Squeezing of the North Brazil Current Rings Through the Lesser Antilles as Observed From Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgakov, S. N.; Cruz Gomez, R. C.

    2007-05-01

    The North Brazil Current Rings (NBCR) penetration into the Caribbean Sea is being investigated employing a merged altimeter-derived sea height anomaly (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and ERS-1,2), the ocean surface color data (SeaWiFS) and Global Drifter Program information. Four strategies are being applied to process the data: (1) calculations of Okubo-Weiss parameter for NBCR identification, (2) longitude-time plots (also known as Hovmöller diagrams), (3) two-dimensional Radon transforms and (4) two-dimensional Fourier transforms. A twofold NBCR structure has been detected in the region under investigation. The results have shown that NBC rings mainly propagate into the Caribbean Sea along two principal pathways (near 12ºN and 17ºN) in the ring translation corridor. Thus, rings following the southern pathway in the fall-winter period can enter through very shallow southern straits as non-coherent structures. A different behavior is observed near the northern pathway (near 17ºN), where NBC rings are thought to have a coherent structure during their squeezing into the eastern Caribbean, i.e. conserving the principal characteristics of the incident rings. We attribute this difference in the rings' behavior to the vertical scales of the rings and to the bottom topography features in the vicinity of the Lesser Antilles.

  18. Sub-regional Precipitation Climate of the Caribbean and Relationships With ENSO and NAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, A.; Jury, M.; Malmgren, B.

    2006-12-01

    Thirty-five meteorological stations encompassing the Caribbean region (Cuba, Bahamas, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, St. Maarten, and Barbados) were analyzed over the time interval 1951-1981 to assess regional precipitation patterns and their relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Application of factor analysis to these series revealed the existence of four geographically distinct precipitation regions: (1) western Cuba and northwestern Bahamas, (2) Jamaica, eastern Cuba, and southeastern Bahamas, (3) Dominican Republic and northwestern Puerto Rico, and (4) eastern Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, St. Marteen, and Barbados. This regionalization is related to different annual cycles and interannual fluctuations of rainfall. The annual cycle is unimodal and largest in the northwest Caribbean (1), and becomes increasingly bimodal toward lower latitudes (4) as expected. Year-to-year variations of precipitation are compared with two well known climatic indices. The ENSO relationship, represented by Niño3.4 SST, is positive and stable at all lags, but tends to reverse over the SE Caribbean (4) in late summer. The NAO influence is weak and seasonally dependent. Early summer rainfall in the northwest Caribbean (1) increases under El Niño conditions. Clusters 2 and 3 are less influenced by the global predictors and more regional in character. Previous related work sub-divided the Caribbean into two to three regions. Our work also shows that the main Caribbean basin should be divided into two clusters and not one homogeneous region as has previously been reported.

  19. A 3-D shear velocity model of the southern North American and Caribbean plates from ambient noise and earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, B.; Villaseñor, A.; Iglesias, A.; Herraiz, M.; Jiménez-Munt, I.

    2015-02-01

    We use group velocities from earthquake tomography together with group and phase velocities from ambient noise tomography (ANT) of Rayleigh waves to invert for the 3-D shear-wave velocity structure (5-70 km) of the Caribbean (CAR) and southern North American (NAM) plates. The lithospheric model proposed offers a complete image of the crust and uppermost-mantle with imprints of the tectonic evolution. One of the most striking features inferred is the main role of the Ouachita-Marathon-Sonora orogeny front on the crustal seismic structure of the NAM plate. A new imaged feature is the low crustal velocities along the USA-Mexico border. The model also shows a break of the east-west mantle velocity dichotomy of the NAM and CAR plates beneath the Isthmus of the Tehuantepec and the Yucatan Block. High upper-mantle velocities along the Mesoamerican Subduction Zone coincide with inactive volcanic areas while the lowest velocities correspond to active volcanic arcs and thin lithospheric mantle regions.

  20. Diagnosing the leading mode of interdecadal covariability between the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature and summer precipitation in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingpeng; Ren, Hong-Li; Li, Weijing; Zuo, Jinqing

    2018-03-01

    Precipitation in southern China during boreal summer (June to August) shows a substantial interdecadal variability on the timescale longer than 8 years. In this study, based on the analysis of singular value decomposition, we diagnose the leading mode of interdecadal covariability between the observational precipitation in southern China and the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean. Results indicate that there exist a remarkable southern China zonal dipole (SCZD) pattern of interdecadal variability of summer precipitation and an interdecadal Indian Ocean basin mode (ID-IOBM) of SST. It is found that the SCZD is evidently covaried with the ID-IOBM, which may induce anomalous inter-hemispheric vertical circulation and atmospheric Kelvin waves. During the warm phase of the ID-IOBM, an enhanced lower-level convergence and upper-level divergence exist over the tropical Indian Ocean, which is a typical Gill-Matsuno-type response to the SST warming. Meanwhile, the accompanied upper-level outflow anomalies further converge over the Indo-China peninsula, resulting in a lower-level anticyclone that contributes to reduction of the eastward moisture transport from the Bay of Bengal to the west part of southern China. In addition, the Kelvin wave-like pattern, as a response of the warm ID-IOBM phase, further induces the lower-level anticyclonic anomaly over the South China Sea-Philippines. Such an anticyclonic circulation is favorable for more water vapor transport from the East China Sea into the east part of southern China. Therefore, the joint effects of the anomalous inter-hemispheric vertical circulation and the Kelvin wave-like pattern associated with the ID-IOBM may eventually play a key role in generating the SCZD pattern.

  1. Further records of the deep-sea pandalid shrimp Heterocarpus chani Li, 2006 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea) from southern India

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chien-Hui; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The commercial deep-sea caridean shrimp Heterocarpus gibbosus Spence Bate, 1888 has long been recorded from India and constitutes an important part of the catches in the context of the further development of deep-sea fisheries in India. A recent survey in some deep-sea fishing ports in southern India, however, revealed that all material previously reported as “H. gibbosus” is actually a misidentification of its closely related species H. chani Li, 2006, which has only recently been reported from India. More detailed comparisons allowed the discovery of more distinctive characters between H. chani and H. gibbosus. PMID:29089843

  2. Crustal Structure in the Southern Rockall Trough from Satellite Gravity Data: Evidence for Sea-floor Spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, A.; Kusznir, N. J.

    2005-05-01

    The southern Rockall Trough south of 57 N has previously been interpreted as either an intra-continental rift floored with highly extended continental crust, or a failed oceanic rift formed by Cretaceous sea floor spreading. Satellite gravity, bathymetry data and seismic estimates of sediment thickness are used to derive crustal basement thickness for the southern Rockall Trough and adjacent regions using a gravity inversion method incorporating a correction for the large negative thermal gravity component present in oceanic and stretched continental lithosphere. The marine Bouguer anomaly, derived from satellite free air gravity (Sandwell & Smith 1997) and Gebco 2003 bathymetry data, is inverted using the method of Oldenberg (1974), incorporating an iteratively applied thermal anomaly correction, to give Moho depth. For oceanic crust the thermal anomaly correction is calculated using isochron ages (Muller et al. 1997) and for continental crust from the beta stretching factors resulting from gravity derived crustal basement thickness and an assumed rift age. When sediment thickness and volcanic addition are assumed to be zero, the resulting upper bound of crustal thickness from the gravity inversion is as little as 10 km in the southern Rockall Trough. A segmented axial thickening of the crust at the centre of the Rockall Trough is predicted, between the Barra volcanic ridge and the Anton Dohrn seamount and is interpreted as having a volcanic origin. Inclusion of a sediment thickness correction in the gravity inversion further reduces predicted crustal thickness. A pseudo-sediment-thickness map has been constructed from the available wide-angle data and incorporated in the gravity inversion. The addition of up to 5.5 km of sediment in the gravity inversion reduces the upper bound of crustal thickness to less than 3 km in some locations. The segmented axial thickening and thin crust shown by the gravity inversion, the lack of intra-basinal faulting, and the volcanic

  3. Land-sea coupling of early Pleistocene glacial cycles in the southern North Sea exhibit dominant Northern Hemisphere forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donders, Timme H.; van Helmond, Niels A. G. M.; Verreussel, Roel; Munsterman, Dirk; ten Veen, Johan; Speijer, Robert P.; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Peterse, Francien; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Lourens, Lucas; Kuhlmann, Gesa; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2018-03-01

    We assess the disputed phase relations between forcing and climatic response in the early Pleistocene with a spliced Gelasian (˜ 2.6-1.8 Ma) multi-proxy record from the southern North Sea basin. The cored sections couple climate evolution on both land and sea during the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG) in NW Europe, providing the first well-constrained stratigraphic sequence of the classic terrestrial Praetiglian stage. Terrestrial signals were derived from the Eridanos paleoriver, a major fluvial system that contributed a large amount of freshwater to the northeast Atlantic. Due to its latitudinal position, the Eridanos catchment was likely affected by early Pleistocene NHG, leading to intermittent shutdown and reactivation of river flow and sediment transport. Here we apply organic geochemistry, palynology, carbonate isotope geochemistry, and seismostratigraphy to document both vegetation changes in the Eridanos catchment and regional surface water conditions and relate them to early Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles and relative sea level changes. Paleomagnetic and palynological data provide a solid integrated timeframe that ties the obliquity cycles, expressed in the borehole geophysical logs, to Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 103 to 92, independently confirmed by a local benthic oxygen isotope record. Marine and terrestrial palynological and organic geochemical records provide high-resolution reconstructions of relative terrestrial and sea surface temperature (TT and SST), vegetation, relative sea level, and coastal influence.During the prominent cold stages MIS 98 and 96, as well as 94, the record indicates increased non-arboreal vegetation, low SST and TT, and low relative sea level. During the warm stages MIS 99, 97, and 95 we infer increased stratification of the water column together with a higher percentage of arboreal vegetation, high SST, and relative sea level maxima. The early Pleistocene distinct warm-cold alterations are

  4. Air-sea interaction regimes in the sub-Antarctic Southern Ocean and Antarctic marginal ice zone revealed by icebreaker measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lisan; Jin, Xiangze; Schulz, Eric W.; Josey, Simon A.

    2017-08-01

    This study analyzed shipboard air-sea measurements acquired by the icebreaker Aurora Australis during its off-winter operation in December 2010 to May 2012. Mean conditions over 7 months (October-April) were compiled from a total of 22 ship tracks. The icebreaker traversed the water between Hobart, Tasmania, and the Antarctic continent, providing valuable in situ insight into two dynamically important, yet poorly sampled, regimes: the sub-Antarctic Southern Ocean and the Antarctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the Indian Ocean sector. The transition from the open water to the ice-covered surface creates sharp changes in albedo, surface roughness, and air temperature, leading to consequential effects on air-sea variables and fluxes. Major effort was made to estimate the air-sea fluxes in the MIZ using the bulk flux algorithms that are tuned specifically for the sea-ice effects, while computing the fluxes over the sub-Antarctic section using the COARE3.0 algorithm. The study evidenced strong sea-ice modulations on winds, with the southerly airflow showing deceleration (convergence) in the MIZ and acceleration (divergence) when moving away from the MIZ. Marked seasonal variations in heat exchanges between the atmosphere and the ice margin were noted. The monotonic increase in turbulent latent and sensible heat fluxes after summer turned the MIZ quickly into a heat loss regime, while at the same time the sub-Antarctic surface water continued to receive heat from the atmosphere. The drastic increase in turbulent heat loss in the MIZ contrasted sharply to the nonsignificant and seasonally invariant turbulent heat loss over the sub-Antarctic open water.Plain Language SummaryThe icebreaker Aurora Australis is a research and supply vessel that is regularly chartered by the Australian Antarctic Division during the <span class="hlt">southern</span> summer to operate in waters between Hobart, Tasmania, and Antarctica. The vessel serves as the main lifeline to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4778804','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4778804"><span>Eastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Circulation and Island Mass Effect on St. Croix, US Virgin Islands: A Mechanism for Relatively Consistent Recruitment Patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chérubin, Laurent Marcel; Garavelli, Lysel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The northeastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is under the seasonal influence of the Trade Winds but also of the Orinoco/Amazon freshwater plume. The latter is responsible for intensification of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Current in general and of its eddy activity in the northern part of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. More importantly, we show in this study that the front of the freshwater plume drives a northward flow that impinges directly on the island of St. Croix in the United States Virgin Islands. The angle of incidence of the incoming flow controls the nature of the wake on both sides and ends of the island, which changes from cyclonic to anticylonic wake flow, with either attached or shed eddies. Using an off-line bio-physical model, we simulated the dispersal and recruitment of an abundant <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> coral reef fish, the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) in the context of the wake flow variability around St. Croix. Our results revealed the role played by the consistent seasonal forcing of the wake flow on the recruitment patterns around the island at the interannual scale. The interannual variability of the timing of arrival and northward penetration of the plume instead controls the nature of the wake, hence the regional spatial recruitment patterns. PMID:26942575</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26942575','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26942575"><span>Eastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Circulation and Island Mass Effect on St. Croix, US Virgin Islands: A Mechanism for Relatively Consistent Recruitment Patterns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chérubin, Laurent Marcel; Garavelli, Lysel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The northeastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is under the seasonal influence of the Trade Winds but also of the Orinoco/Amazon freshwater plume. The latter is responsible for intensification of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Current in general and of its eddy activity in the northern part of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. More importantly, we show in this study that the front of the freshwater plume drives a northward flow that impinges directly on the island of St. Croix in the United States Virgin Islands. The angle of incidence of the incoming flow controls the nature of the wake on both sides and ends of the island, which changes from cyclonic to anticylonic wake flow, with either attached or shed eddies. Using an off-line bio-physical model, we simulated the dispersal and recruitment of an abundant <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> coral reef fish, the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) in the context of the wake flow variability around St. Croix. Our results revealed the role played by the consistent seasonal forcing of the wake flow on the recruitment patterns around the island at the interannual scale. The interannual variability of the timing of arrival and northward penetration of the plume instead controls the nature of the wake, hence the regional spatial recruitment patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018NPGeo..25..291R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018NPGeo..25..291R"><span>Nonlinear analysis of the occurrence of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rojo-Garibaldi, Berenice; Salas-de-León, David Alberto; Adela Monreal-Gómez, María; Sánchez-Santillán, Norma Leticia; Salas-Monreal, David</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>Hurricanes are complex systems that carry large amounts of energy. Their impact often produces natural disasters involving the loss of human lives and materials, such as infrastructure, valued at billions of US dollars. However, not everything about hurricanes is negative, as hurricanes are the main source of rainwater for the regions where they develop. This study shows a nonlinear analysis of the time series of the occurrence of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> obtained from 1749 to 2012. The construction of the hurricane time series was carried out based on the hurricane database of the North Atlantic basin hurricane database (HURDAT) and the published historical information. The hurricane time series provides a unique historical record on information about ocean-atmosphere interactions. The Lyapunov exponent indicated that the system presented chaotic dynamics, and the spectral analysis and nonlinear analyses of the time series of the hurricanes showed chaotic edge behavior. One possible explanation for this chaotic edge is the individual chaotic behavior of hurricanes, either by category or individually regardless of their category and their behavior on a regular basis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26376971','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26376971"><span>Trophodynamics of Protomyctophum (Myctophidae) in the Scotia <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saunders, R A; Collins, M A; Ward, P; Stowasser, G; Shreeve, R; Tarling, G A</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>This study investigated spatial and temporal patterns in distribution, population structure and diet of Bolin's lanternfish Protomyctophum bolini, Tenison's lanternfish Protomyctophum tenisoni and gaptooth lanternfish Protomyctophum choriodon in the Scotia <span class="hlt">Sea</span> using data collected by midwater trawl during spring, summer and autumn. Protomyctophum bolini was the most abundant species of the genus encountered throughout the Scotia <span class="hlt">Sea</span> with the greatest concentrations occurring around the Antarctic Polar Front (APF). This species had a life cycle of 2+ years, but spatial differences in population structure were apparent as the I-group was absent from all regions south of the APF, suggesting that the species does not recruit in the Scotia <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Protomyctophum tenisoni occurred mostly in waters characteristic of the APF and was absent from the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Scotia <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. It had a limited size range, but there was clear size-related sexual dimorphism with males significantly larger than females. The species had a life cycle of c. 2 years, but the I-group (c. 1 year old, 1 November to 31 October the next year) occurred only in regions close to the APF suggesting that recruitment is restricted to these waters. A seasonal southward migration for P. choriodon is likely as the species occurred mostly to the south-west of South Georgia in summer, but extended to the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice sectors in autumn. Protomyctophum choriodon had a life cycle of 4+ years in the Scotia <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the population was dominated by age classes >3 years old. Larval stages were absent during the surveys for all species. Diurnal variations in vertical distribution were apparent for all three species. Interspecific variations in diet were evident, but all species were primarily copepod feeders, with Metridia spp., Rhincalanus gigas and Calanus simillimus generally dominating their diet. Small euphausiids, principally Thysanoessa spp., were also an important component of their diets, particularly for P. choriodon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9284B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9284B"><span>S-N secular ocean tide: explanation of observably coastal velocities of increase of a global mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels in northern and <span class="hlt">southern</span> hemispheres and prediction of erroneous altimetry velocities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barkin, Yury</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The phenomenon of contrast secular changes of <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> and northern hemispheres, predicted on the basis of geodynamic model about the forced relative oscillations and displacements of the Earth shells, has obtained a theoretical explanation. In northern hemisphere the mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level of ocean increases with velocity about 2.45±0.32 mm/yr, and in a <span class="hlt">southern</span> hemisphere the mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level increases with velocity about 0.67±0.30 mm/yr. Theoretical values of velocity of increase of global mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level of ocean has been estimated in 1.61±0.36 mm/yr. 1 Introduction. The secular drift of the centre of mass of the Earth in the direction of North Pole with velocity about 12-20 mm/yr has been predicted by author in 1995 [1], [2], and now has confirmed with methods of space geodesy. For example the DORIS data in period 1999-2008 let us to estimate velocity of polar drift in 5.24±0.29 mm/yr [3]. To explain this fundamental planetary phenomenon it is possible only, having admitted, that similar northern drift tests the centre of mass of the liquid core relatively to the centre of mass of viscous-elastic and thermodynamically changeable mantle with velocity about 2-3 cm/yr in present [4]. The polar drift of the Earth core with huge superfluous mass results in slow increase of a gravity in northern hemisphere with a mean velocity about 1.4 ?Gal and to its decrease approximately with the same mean velocity in <span class="hlt">southern</span> hemisphere [5]. This conclusion-prediction has obtained already a number of confirmations in precision gravimetric observations fulfilled in last decade around the world [6]. Naturally, a drift of the core is accompanied by the global changes (deformations) of all layers of the mantle and the core, by inversion changes of their tension states when in one hemisphere the tension increases and opposite on the contrary - decreases. Also it is possible that thermodynamical mechanism actively works with inversion properties of molting and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T21B2358M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T21B2358M"><span>Investigation of Collisional Styles of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Large Igneous Province (CLIP) vs. Normal Oceanic Crust from Seismic Reflection Profiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mataracioglu, M.; Magnani, M.; DeShon, H. R.; Cox, R. T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> plate subducts beneath the North American and the South American plates at the Muertos Trough and the South <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Deformed Belt (SCDB), respectively. During subduction, large amount of crustal material may enter the subduction zone with the subducting plate or may be incorporated into the accretionary prism. To investigate the changes in collisional style and structures associated with subduction of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Large Igneous Province (CLIP) versus normal oceanic crust, we interpret seismic reflection profiles collected around the northern and <span class="hlt">southern</span> margins of the Venezuelan Basin. We refine the extent of the CLIP in the central and eastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> by identifying the structural differences at the top of the acoustic basement (Horizon B") on a dataset of 150 multi-channel seismic time stack and migrated marine reflection profiles acquired in eight cruises from 1975 to 2004, as well as some selected Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) drilling data. We will also attempt to determine whether sedimentary material enters the trench and is recycled back into the mantle, and therefore characterize the northern and <span class="hlt">southern</span> subduction zones as accretionary or erosive. Our preliminary results show that the CLIP extends spatially to most of the Venezuelan Basin, the western part of the Columbian Basin, and a part of the Beata Ridge, but that it does not extend as far south as suggested by previous interpretations. Furthermore, some portions of the CLIP at the northern and <span class="hlt">southern</span> boundaries subduct beneath the North and the South American plates at the Muertos Trough and the SCDB, respectively. The change in nature of the subducting plate (CLIP or normal oceanic crust) causes variations in the collisional style (i.e., accretionary versus erosive) and in structures at the accretionary wedge and on the downgoing plate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2563M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2563M"><span>Warm mid-Cretaceous high-latitude <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface temperatures from the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tethys Ocean and cool high-latitude <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface temperatures from the Arctic Ocean: asymmetric worldwide distribution of dinoflagellates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Masure, Edwige; Desmares, Delphine; Vrielynck, Bruno</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Dealing with 87 articles and using a Geographical Information System, Masure and Vrielynck (2009) have mapped worldwide biogeography of 38 Late Albian dinoflagellate cysts and have demonstrated Cretaceous oceanic bioclimatic belts. For comparison 30 Aptian species derived from 49 studies (Masure et al., 2013) and 49 Cenomanian species recorded from 33 articles have been encountered. Tropical, Subtropical, Boreal, Austral, bipolar and cosmopolitan species have been identified and Cretaceous dinoflagellate biomes are introduced. Asymmetric distribution of Aptian and Late Albian/Cenomanian subtropical Tethyan species, from 40°N to 70°S, demonstrates asymmetric Aptian and Late Albian/Cenomanian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature (SST) gradients with warm water masses in high latitudes of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean. The SST gradients were stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Hemisphere. We note that Aptian and Late Albian/Cenomanian dinoflagellates restricted to subtropical and subpolar latitudes met and mixed at 35-40°N, while they mixed from 30°S to 70°S and from 50°S to 70°S respectively in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Hemisphere. Mixing belts extend on 5° in the Northern Hemisphere and along 40° (Aptian) and 20° (Late Albian/Cenomanian) in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> one. The board <span class="hlt">southern</span> mixing belt of Tethyan and Austral dinoflagellates suggest co-occurrence of warm and cold currents. We record climatic changes such as the Early Aptian cooler period and Late Aptian and Albian warming through the poleward migration of species constrained to cool water masses. These species sensitive to temperature migrated from 35°N to 55°N through the shallow Greenland-Norwergian Seaway connecting the Central Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. While Tethyan species did not migrate staying at 40°N. We suggest that the Greenland-Norwergian Seaway might has been a barrier until Late Albian/Cenomanian for oceanic Tethyan dinoflagellates stopped either by the shallow water column or temperature and salinity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es970914u','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es970914u"><span>Butyltin residues in <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along California coastal waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kannan, K.; Guruge, K.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation products, mono- (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT), were determined in liver, kidney, and brain tissues of adult <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along the coast of California during 1992a??1996. Hepatic concentrations of butyltin compounds (BTs = MBT + DBT + TBT) ranged from 40 to 9200 ng/g wet wt, which varied depending on the sampling location and gender. Concentrations of BTs in <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters were comparable to those reported in stranded bottlenose dolphins from the U.S. Atlantic Coast during 1989a??1994. Greater accumulation of butyltins in <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters was explained by their bottom-feeding habit and the diet that consists exclusively of invertebrates such as mollusks and gastropods. Livers of female <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters contained approximately 2-fold greater concentrations of BTs than did those of males. The composition of butyltin compounds in <span class="hlt">sea</span> otter tissues was predominated by TBT in most cases and suggestive of recent exposure. Large harbors such as Monterey Harbor that handle ships legally painted with TBT-containing antifouling paints continued to experience ecotoxicologically significant butyltin contamination. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> otters, which were affected by infectious diseases, contained greater concentrations of BTs in their tissues than those that died from trauma and other unknown causes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25102635','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25102635"><span>[Reproduction of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus notialis (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in the Colombian <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paramo, Jorge; Pérez, Daniel; Wolff, Matthias</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The shallow water pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus notialis) is among the socioeconomically most important resources of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>. The lack of biological and fishery information is of great concern for the fisheries management authorities. The presented study therefore aimed at the investigation of the reproductive cycle, the size composition and the size at first maturity of this species as a basis for the ordination and management of this resource. The study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 off the coast of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Colombia. A total of 5 356 individuals were collected, identified, classified and preserved for their subsequent analysis in the laboratory. Size, weight, sex and gonad stage were recorded for each specimen. Significant differences were found in sex ratio in all months sampled with a clear predominance of females. Mature females were found year-around, but two reproductive peaks were identified during the periods October-December and April-June. The mean catch total length size (MCS) for females and males was 148.00mm and 122.54mm, respectively. The mean size at maturity (LT50%) was 129.34mm for females and 97.77mm for males. MCS was always above LT50% for both sexes. Considering the large reduction in fishing effort in the Colombian <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> over the last years, we could expect that the shrimp population is in a rebuilding process or perhaps it may be already restored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48.1595K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48.1595K"><span>Fast and slow responses of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature to SAM in coupled climate models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kostov, Yavor; Marshall, John; Hausmann, Ute; Armour, Kyle C.; Ferreira, David; Holland, Marika M.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We investigate how <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperatures (SSTs) around Antarctica respond to the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Annular Mode (SAM) on multiple timescales. To that end we examine the relationship between SAM and SST within unperturbed preindustrial control simulations of coupled general circulation models (GCMs) included in the Climate Modeling Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). We develop a technique to extract the response of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean SST (55°S-70°S) to a hypothetical step increase in the SAM index. We demonstrate that in many GCMs, the expected SST step response function is nonmonotonic in time. Following a shift to a positive SAM anomaly, an initial cooling regime can transition into surface warming around Antarctica. However, there are large differences across the CMIP5 ensemble. In some models the step response function never changes sign and cooling persists, while in other GCMs the SST anomaly crosses over from negative to positive values only 3 years after a step increase in the SAM. This intermodel diversity can be related to differences in the models' climatological thermal ocean stratification in the region of seasonal <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice around Antarctica. Exploiting this relationship, we use observational data for the time-mean meridional and vertical temperature gradients to constrain the real <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean response to SAM on fast and slow timescales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8634D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8634D"><span>Interannual variability of primary production and air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> CO2 flux in the Atlantic and Indian sectors of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dufour, Carolina; Merlivat, Liliane; Le Sommer, Julien; Boutin, Jacqueline; Antoine, David</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>As one of the major oceanic sinks of anthropogenic CO2, the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean plays a critical role in the climate system. However, due to the scarcity of observations, little is known about physical and biological processes that control air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> CO2 fluxes and how these processes might respond to climate change. It is well established that primary production is one of the major drivers of air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> CO2 fluxes, consuming surface Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) during Summer. <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean primary production is though constrained by several limiting factors such as iron and light availability, which are both sensitive to mixed layer depth. Mixed layer depth is known to be affected by current changes in wind stress or freshwater fluxes over the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean. But we still don't know how primary production may respond to anomalous mixed layer depth neither how physical processes may balance this response to set the seasonal cycle of air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> CO2 fluxes. In this study, we investigate the impact of anomalous mixed layer depth on surface DIC in the Atlantic and Indian sectors of the Subantarctic zone of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean (60W-60E, 38S-55S) with a combination of in situ data, satellite data and model experiment. We use both a regional eddy permitting ocean biogeochemical model simulation based on NEMO-PISCES and data-based reconstruction of biogeochemical fields based on CARIOCA buoys and <span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS data. A decomposition of the physical and biological processes driving the seasonal variability of surface DIC is performed with both the model data and observations. A good agreement is found between the model and the data for the amplitude of biological and air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> flux contributions. The model data are further used to investigate the impact of winter and summer anomalies in mixed layer depth on surface DIC over the period 1990-2004. The relative changes of each physical and biological process contribution are quantified and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMS...173....9X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMS...173....9X"><span>Variation in the macrofaunal community over large temporal and spatial scales in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Yong; Sui, Jixing; Yang, Mei; Sun, Yue; Li, Xinzheng; Wang, Hongfa; Zhang, Baolin</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>To detect large, temporal- and spatial-scale variations in the macrofaunal community in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, data collected along the western, middle and eastern regions of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span> from 1958 to 2014 were organized and analyzed. Statistical methods such as cluster analysis, non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination (nMDS), permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA), redundancy analysis (RDA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were applied. The abundance of polychaetes increased in the western region but decreased in the eastern region from 1958 to 2014, whereas the abundance of echinoderms showed an opposite trend. For the entire macrofaunal community, Margalef's richness (d), the Shannon-Wiener index (H‧) and Pielou's evenness (J‧) were significantly lower in the eastern region when compared with the other two regions. No significant temporal differences were found for d and H‧, but there were significantly lower values of J‧ in 2014. Considerable variation in the macrofaunal community structure over the past several decades and among the geographical regions at the species, genus and family levels were observed. The species, genera and families that contributed to the temporal variation in each region were also identified. The most conspicuous pattern was the increase in the species Ophiura sarsii vadicola in the eastern region. In the western region, five polychaetes (Ninoe palmata, Notomastus latericeus, Paralacydonia paradoxa, Paraprionospio pinnata and Sternaspis scutata) increased consistently from 1958 to 2014. The dominance curves showed that both the species diversity and the dominance patterns were relatively stable in the western and middle regions. Environmental parameters such as depth, temperature and salinity could only partially explain the observed biological variation in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Anthropogenic activities such as demersal fishing and other unmeasured environmental variables</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSHI24B1782D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSHI24B1782D"><span>Foundations of Wind Turbines as Stepping Stones for Non-Indigenous Species in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> North <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Mesel, I.; Degraer, S.; Kerckhof, F.; Schön, I.; Martens, K.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Since 2008, offshore wind farms have been constructed in the shallow waters (<50m) of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. At present, hundreds of turbines are operational and many more are planned. A new habitat for benthos has been created, with vertical hard structures in the offshore environment, extending from the sandy seabed to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface. Monitoring in Belgian waters focussed on the succession of the fouling community in the sub- and intertidal zone, with special attention to non-indigenous species (NIS). A Metridium senile-Jassa herdmani dominated community developed in the subtidal, and only few NIS were present (3 out of a total of 90 species observed). Their presence was however most striking in the intertidal zone, where we identified 17 obligate intertidal species with about half of them being non-indigenous. This study confirmed the hypothesis that the introduced hard substrata within offshore wind farms play an important role in the establishment and the expansion of the population of both indigenous and non-indigenous species. Foundations of wind turbines strengthen the strategic position of NIS in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. An ongoing study on the population genetics of a fouling species (Patella vulgata) will, in combination with dispersal modelling, elucidate the dispersal pattern and connectivity with neighbouring areas, and the role of the foundations as stepping stones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20403838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20403838"><span>Statistical analysis of the El Niño-<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Oscillation and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-floor seismicity in the eastern tropical Pacific.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guillas, Serge; Day, Simon J; McGuire, B</p> <p>2010-05-28</p> <p>We present statistical evidence for a temporal link between variations in the El Niño-<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Oscillation (ENSO) and the occurrence of earthquakes on the East Pacific Rise (EPR). We adopt a zero-inflated Poisson regression model to represent the relationship between the number of earthquakes in the Easter microplate on the EPR and ENSO (expressed using the <span class="hlt">southern</span> oscillation index (SOI) for east Pacific <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level pressure anomalies) from February 1973 to February 2009. We also examine the relationship between the numbers of earthquakes and <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels, as retrieved by Topex/Poseidon from October 1992 to July 2002. We observe a significant (95% confidence level) positive influence of SOI on seismicity: positive SOI values trigger more earthquakes over the following 2 to 6 months than negative SOI values. There is a significant negative influence of absolute <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels on seismicity (at 6 months lag). We propose that increased seismicity is associated with ENSO-driven <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface gradients (rising from east to west) in the equatorial Pacific, leading to a reduction in ocean-bottom pressure over the EPR by a few kilopascal. This relationship is opposite to reservoir-triggered seismicity and suggests that EPR fault activity may be triggered by plate flexure associated with the reduced pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMEP33A1913S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMEP33A1913S"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Rise Drove Enhanced Coastal Erosion following the Last Glacial Maximum, <span class="hlt">Southern</span> California, U.S.A.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharman, G.; Covault, J. A.; Stockli, D. F.; Sickmann, Z.; Malkowski, M. A.; Johnstone, S.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Seacliff erosion poses a major threat to <span class="hlt">southern</span> California coastal communities, including the propensity for episodic cliff failure and damage to residential and commercial property. Rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> level is predicted to accelerate seacliff retreat, yet few constraints exist on how rapid <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise influenced coastal erosion rates in pre-modern timescales. Here we look to the geologic record in submarine fans to investigate changes in relative sediment supply from rivers and coastal erosion, the latter including seacliff retreat and bluffland erosion. To understand how <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise driven by past global warming impacted coastal erosion rates, we sampled modern rivers of the Peninsular Ranges and latest Pleistocene-Holocene submarine canyon-fan systems in <span class="hlt">southern</span> California for detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology (1369 analyses from 10 samples). Modern river samples show a systematic north-south change in grain age populations broadly distributed across Cretaceous time (ca. 70-135 Ma) to a predominance of middle Cretaceous grain ages (ca. 95-115 Ma), reflecting variations in the geologic age of units within each river catchment. The Carlsbad and La Jolla submarine canyon-fan systems, deposited during <span class="hlt">sea</span> level lowstand and highstand, respectively, exhibit detrital zircon age distributions consistent with derivation from upstream rivers, with mixing in the littoral zone. However, a sample from the Oceanside fan, deposited during rapid <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise at ca. 13 ka, is dominated by detrital ages that lack a local source in the northern Peninsular Ranges, including latest Cretaceous, late Jurassic, and Proterozoic ages. However, such grain ages are widespread in Paleogene sedimentary rocks that comprise the shelf and coastal area, suggesting increased sediment supply from coastal and shelf erosion. Assuming that the Oceanside sample is representative of sediment production during <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, sediment mixing calculations suggest a one to two orders of magnitude</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9210B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9210B"><span>The central branch of the North Anatolian Fault In The <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Marmara <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: Evidence for a distributed, Holocene-active fault system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barın, Burcu; Okay, Seda; Çifçi, Günay; Dondurur, Derman; Cormier, Marie Helene; Sorlien, Christopher; Meriç İlkimen, Elif</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is a major right-lateral transform fault in northern Turkey that branches westward into several strands in the vicinity of the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara. The main northern branch bisects the Marmara <span class="hlt">Sea</span> from east to west, and seismic reflection profiles acquired over the past 15 years have revealed its complex geometry. Further, the several basins that developed along that branch record stratigraphic sequences that provide the needed framework to interpret the relative timing of tectonic deformation in the Marmara <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. In contrast, the central branch, which snakes across the shallow <span class="hlt">southern</span> shelf of the Marmara <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, has been much less investigated. Here, we analyze a comprehensive dataset of high-resolution multi-channel, sparker, and CHIRP seismic profiles, which were collected with the facilities of Seismic Laboratory (SeisLab) in the Institute of Marine Sciences and Technology and R/V K. Piri Reis belonging to Dokuz Eylül University, along the central branch in 2008 (TAMAM expedition) and in 2013-2014 (SoMAR expedition), within the framework of a bilateral TÜBİTAK - NSF project. In combination with other existing seismic profiles, these new data reveal that the Central Branch consists of multiple faults strands that are distributed across the broad <span class="hlt">southern</span> shelf. They also reveal that many of these strands are Holocene-active, although they slip at slower rates than the northern branch and are associated with slower basin subsidence or local uplift. Lastly, seismic data image a system of half-grabens across the <span class="hlt">southern</span> shelf that are associated with the strands of the central branch. Strata within these half-grabens are progressively tilted and consistently dip to the south. Further analysis will be conducted to determine whether the formation of these grabens are controlled by oblique slip on the strands of the central branch, or by slip on detachment faults beneath the <span class="hlt">southern</span> shelf.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SolED...6.2971G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SolED...6.2971G"><span>A 3-D shear velocity model of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> North America and the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> plates from ambient noise and earthquake tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaite, B.; Villaseñor, A.; Iglesias, A.; Herraiz, M.; Jiménez-Munt, I.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We use group velocities from earthquake tomography together with group and phase velocities from ambient noise tomography (ANT) of Rayleigh-waves to invert for the 3-D shear-wave velocity structure (5-70 km) of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> (CAR) and <span class="hlt">southern</span> North American (NAM) plates. The lithospheric model proposed offers a complete image of the crust and uppermost-mantle with imprints of the tectonic evolution. One of the most striking features inferred is the main role of the Ouachita-Marathon-Sonora orogeny front on the crustal seismic structure of NAM plate. A new imaged feature is the low crustal velocities along USA-Mexico border. The model also shows a break of the E-W mantle velocity dichotomy of the NAM and CAR plates beneath the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and Yucatan Block. High upper-mantle velocities along the Mesoamerican Subduction Zone coincide with inactive volcanic areas while the lowest velocities correspond to active volcanic arcs and thin lithospheric mantle regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018QSRv..188...15C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018QSRv..188...15C"><span>Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> pollen provides new insights into the paleoenvironment of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Levant during MIS 6-5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Chunzhu; Litt, Thomas</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>The paleoclimate of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Levant, especially during the last interglacial (LIG), is still under debate. Reliable paleovegetation information for this period, as independent evidence to the paleoenvironment, was still missing. In this study, we present a high-resolution pollen record encompassing 147-89 ka from the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> deep drilling core 5017-1A. The sediment profile is marked by alternations of laminated marl deposits and thick massive halite, indicating lake-level fluctuations. The pollen record suggests that steppe and desert components predominated in the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> surroundings during the whole investigated interval. The late penultimate glacial (147.3-130.9 ka) and early last glacial (115.5-89.1 ka) were cool and relatively dry, with sub-humid conditions confined to the mountains that sustained moderate amounts of deciduous oaks. Prior to the LIG optimum, a prevalence of desert components and a concomitant increase in frost-sensitive pistachio trees demonstrate the occurrence of an arid initial warming phase (130.9-124.2 ka). The LIG optimum (124.2 ka-115.5 ka) was initiated by an abrupt grass expansion that was followed by a rapid spread of woodlands in the mountains due to increased moisture availability. The remarkable sclerophyllous expansion points to a strong seasonal moisture deficit. These results contradict previous Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> lake-level investigations that suggested pluvial glacials and a warm, dry LIG in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Levant. Prominent discrepancies between vegetation and Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> lake stands are also registered at 128-115 ka, and the potential causes are discussed. In particular, while the pollen spectra mirror increased effective moisture during the LIG optimum, the massive halite deposition is indicative of an extremely low lake level. Given that the climate amelioration triggered the migration of early modern humans to the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Levant, we speculate that the diverse ecosystems in the region provided great potential for their residence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19405196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19405196"><span>Molecular evidence for the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Hemisphere origin and deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> diversification of spiny lobsters (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsang, L M; Chan, T-Y; Cheung, M K; Chu, K H</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Spiny lobsters (family Palinuridae) are economically important marine animals that have been the subject of a considerable amount of research. However, the phylogeny of this group remains disputed. Morphological analyses have not been able to resolve the relationships of the various members of the group, and no agreement has yet been reached on its phylogeny as indicated by the different gene trees reported to date. In the present study, we attempt to reconstruct the phylogeny of Palinuridae and its allies using sequences from three nuclear protein-coding genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, sodium-potassium ATPase alpha-subunit and histone 3). The inferred topology receives strong nodal support for most of the branches. The family Palinuridae is found to be paraphyletic with the polyphyletic Synaxidae nested within it. Stridentes forms a monophyletic assemblage, indicating that the stridulating sound producing organ evolved only once in the spiny lobsters. By contrast, Silentes is paraphyletic, as Palinurellus is more closely related to Stridentes than to other Silentes genera. The three genera restricted to the <span class="hlt">southern</span> high latitudes (Jasus, Projasus and Sagmariasus) constitute the basal lineages in the spiny lobsters, suggesting a <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Hemisphere origin for the group. Subsequent diversification appears to have been driven by the closure of the Tethys <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the formation of the Antarctic circumpolar current, which isolated the northern and <span class="hlt">southern</span> taxa. Contrary to an earlier hypothesis that postulated evolution from a deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ancestral stock, the shallow-water genus Panulirus is the basal taxon in Stridentes, while the deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> genera Puerulus and Linuparus are found to be derived. This indicates that the spiny lobsters invaded deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> habitats from the shallower water rocky reefs and then radiated. Our results suggest that Synaxidae is not a valid family, and should be considered to be synonymous with Palinuridae. We also found that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15162689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15162689"><span>A new estuarine species, Nereis garwoodi (Polychaeta: Nereididae), from Bahía Chetumal, Mexican <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> coast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González-Escalante, Luis E; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>Nereis garwoodi n. sp. is described on the basis of eight syntype specimens (six atokous and two heteronereis) collected in Bahía Chetumal, Mexican <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> coast, and the variability in the paragnath numbers in the pharynx is established using 180 specimens; paragnath numbers are I:10(SD = 1.9); II:30 (SD = 2.6); III:41 (SD = 5.2); IV:29 (SD = 3.5), V:1, VI:4, VII-VIII: > 30. Its eyes are big and its longest tentacular cirri reaches setiger 11. A revised key to species of Nereis recorded from the Grand <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2914069','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2914069"><span>Marine Biodiversity in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>: Regional Estimates and Distribution Patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region. The coastal <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela – Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/44771','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/44771"><span><span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> landscapes and their biodiversity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> geographic focus is on the insular <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012611','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012611"><span>Evolution of the continental margin of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Spain and the Alboran <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dillon, William P.; Robb, James M.; Greene, H. Gary; Lucena, Juan Carlos</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Seismic reflection profiles and magnetic intensity measurements were collected across the <span class="hlt">southern</span> continental margin of Spain and the Alboran basin between Spain and Africa. Correlation of the distinct seismic stratigraphy observed in the profiles to stratigraphic information obtained from cores at Deep <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Drilling Project site 121 allows effective dating of tectonic events. The Alboran <span class="hlt">Sea</span> basin occupies a zone of motion between the African and Iberian lithospheric plates that probably began to form by extension in late Miocene time (Tortonian). At the end of Miocene time (end of Messinian) profiles show that an angular unconformity was cut, and then the strata were block faulted before subsequent deposition. The erosion of the unconformity probably resulted from lowering of Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level by evaporation when the previous channel between the Mediterranean and Atlantic was closed. Continued extension probably caused the block faulting and, eventually the opening of the present channel to the Atlantic through the Strait of Gibraltar and the reflooding of the Mediterranean. Minor tectonic movements at the end of Calabrian time (early Pleistocene) apparently resulted in minor faulting, extensive transgression in southeastern Spain, and major changes in the sedimentary environment of the Alboran basin. Active faulting observed at five locations on seismic profiles seems to form a NNE zone of transcurrent movement across the Alboran <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. This inferred fault trend is coincident with some bathymetric, magnetic and seismicity trends and colinear with active faults that have been mapped on-shore in Morocco and Spain. The faults were probably caused by stresses related to plate movements, and their direction was modified by inherited fractures in the lithosphere that floors the Alboran <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.springerlink.com/content/03227328h7130631','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.springerlink.com/content/03227328h7130631"><span>A comparative analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters that died of infectious diseases and noninfectious causes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kannan, K.; Perrota, E.; Thomas, N.J.; Aldous, D.M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the California coast continue to exhibit a slower population regrowth rate than the population in Alaska. Infectious diseases have been identified as a frequent cause of death. Infectious diseases caused by varied pathogens including bacteria, fungi, and parasites were suggestive of compromised immunological health of mature animals in this population. To test the hypothesis that elevated exposure to immunotoxic contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to disease susceptibility via immunosuppression, we determined concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in livers of 80 adult female <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters that died of infectious diseases, noninfectious causes, or emaciation. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in <span class="hlt">sea</span> otter livers varied widely (10a??26,800 ng/g and 81a??210,000 ng/g, lipid weight, respectively). Concentrations of PBDEs in <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters were some of the highest values reported for marine mammals so far. Although PCB concentrations in <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters have declined during 1992a??2002, the mean concentration was at the threshold at which adverse health effects are elicited. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated, suggesting co-exposure of these contaminants in <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters. No significant association was found between the concentrations of PBDEs and the health status of <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters. Concentrations of PCBs were significantly higher in otters in the infectious disease category than in the noninfectious category, suggesting an association between elevated PCB concentrations and infectious diseases in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.T51D0499L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.T51D0499L"><span>Present-day kinematics of the Danakil block (<span class="hlt">southern</span> Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Afar) constrained by GPS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ladron de Guevara, R.; Jonsson, S.; Ruch, J.; Doubre, C.; Reilinger, R. E.; Ogubazghi, G.; Floyd, M.; Vasyura-Bathke, H.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The rifting of the Arabian plate from the Nubian and Somalian plates is primarily accommodated by seismic and magmatic activity along two rift arms of the Afar triple junction (the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Gulf of Aden rifts). The spatial distribution of active deformation in the Afar region have been constrained with geodetic observations. However, the plate boundary configuration in which this deformation occurs is still not fully understood. South of 17°N, the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> rift is composed of two parallel and overlapping rift branches separated by the Danakil block. The distribution of the extension across these two overlapping rifts, their potential connection through a transform fault zone and the counterclockwise rotation of the Danakil block have not yet been fully resolved. Here we analyze new GPS observations from the Danakil block, the Gulf of Zula area (Eritrea) and Afar (Ethiopia) together with previous geodetic survey data to better constrain the plate kinematics and active deformation of the region. The new data has been collected in 2016 and add up to 5 years to the existing geodetic observations (going back to 2000). Our improved GPS velocity field shows differences with previously modeled GPS velocities, suggesting that the rate and rotation of the Danakil block need to be updated. The new velocity field also shows that the plate-boundary strain is accommodated by broad deformation zones rather than across sharp boundaries between tectonic blocks. To better determine the spatial distribution of the strain, we first implement a rigid block model to constrain the overall regional plate kinematics and to isolate the plate-boundary deformation at the western boundary of the Danakil block. We then study whether the recent <span class="hlt">southern</span> Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> rifting events have caused detectable changes in observed GPS velocities and if the observations can be used to constrain the scale of this offshore rift activity. Finally, we investigate different geometries of transform faults that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26468887','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26468887"><span>Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kiel, Steffen; Hansen, Bent T</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema). In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large lucinids because they</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V74-4KF1HH8-9&_user=696292&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000038819&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=696292&md5=d734d44eccd27a29e9f149a61a99f11b','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V74-4KF1HH8-9&_user=696292&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000038819&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=696292&md5=d734d44eccd27a29e9f149a61a99f11b"><span>Comparison of trace element concentrations in livers of diseased, emaciated and non-diseased <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters from the California coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kannan, K.; Agusa, T.; Perrotta, E.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Infectious diseases have been implicated as a cause of high rates of adult mortality in <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters. Exposure to environmental contaminants can compromise the immuno-competence of animals, predisposing them to infectious diseases. In addition to organic pollutants, certain trace elements can modulate the immune system in marine mammals. Nevertheless, reports of occurrence of trace elements, including toxic heavy metals, in <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters are not available. In this study, concentrations of 20 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, and Bi) were measured in livers of <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters found dead along the central California coast (n = 80) from 1992 to 2002. Hepatic concentrations of trace elements were compared among <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters that died from infectious diseases (n = 27), those that died from non-infectious causes (n = 26), and otters that died in emaciated condition with no evidence of another cause of death (n = 27). Concentrations of essential elements in <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters varied within an order of magnitude, whereas concentrations of non-essential elements varied by two to five orders of magnitude. Hepatic concentrations of Cu and Cd were 10- to 100-fold higher in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters in this study than concentrations reported for any other marine mammal species. Concentrations of Mn, Co, Zn, and Cd were elevated in the diseased and emaciated <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters relative to the non-diseased <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters. Elevated concentrations of essential elements such as Mn, Zn, and Co in the diseased/emaciated <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters suggest that induction of synthesis of metallothionein and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme is occurring in these animals, as a means of protecting the cells from oxidative stress-related injuries. Trace element profiles in diseased and emaciated <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters suggest that oxidative stress mediates the perturbation of essential-element concentrations. Elevated concentrations of toxic metals such as Cd, in addition to several</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27811809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27811809"><span>A new species of Caligus Müller, 1785 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Caligidae) from coral reef plankton in the Mexican <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Gasca, Rebeca</p> <p>2016-10-11</p> <p>During a survey of the zooplankton community of a protected reef system on the <span class="hlt">southern</span> coast of the Mexican <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, many female and male specimens of an undescribed species of Caligus Müller, 1785 were collected. The new species closely resembles C. wilsoni Delamare Deboutteville & Nunez-Ruivo, 1958 and C. belones (Krøyer, 1863) and has affinities with C. balistae Steenstrup & Lütken, 1861 and C. longipedis Bassett-Smith, 1898, all known from the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and adjacent waters of the north-western Atlantic Ocean. Caligus ilhoikimi sp. nov., is described in full and illustrations of both sexes are also provided. The new species differs from C. wilsoni and C. belones in several features, including the shape of the sternal furca, the shape and proportions of the genital complex and abdomen, the lack of accessory processes on the distal elements of leg 1 exopod, and the presence of a lateral spine on the third exopodal segment of leg 2. This is the seventh species of Caligus known from waters of the Atlantic seaboard of Mexico and the 32nd species of the genus recorded in Mexican waters. The specimens were caught with a plankton light trap. The unusually high number of individuals captured and the fact that the sample was monospecific (i.e. only adults of this caligid species were collected) suggests that it is a chiefly planktonic form. This is a mode of life recently revealed as being more common among caligids than previously thought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014241','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014241"><span>A model for tides and currents in the English Channel and <span class="hlt">southern</span> North <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Walters, Roy A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The amplitude and phase of 11 tidal constituents for the English Channel and <span class="hlt">southern</span> North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> are calculated using a frequency domain, finite element model. The governing equations - the shallow water equations - are modifed such that <span class="hlt">sea</span> level is calculated using an elliptic equation of the Helmholz type followed by a back-calculation of velocity using the primitive momentum equations. Triangular elements with linear basis functions are used. The modified form of the governing equations provides stable solutions with little numerical noise. In this field-scale test problem, the model was able to produce the details of the structure of 11 tidal constituents including O1, K1, M2, S2, N2, K2, M4, MS4, MN4, M6, and 2MS6.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987AdWR...10..138W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987AdWR...10..138W"><span>A model for tides and currents in the English Channel and <span class="hlt">southern</span> North <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walters, Roy. A.</p> <p></p> <p>The amplitude and phase of 11 tidal constituents for the English Channel and <span class="hlt">southern</span> North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> are calculated using a frequency domain, finite element model. The governing equations — the shallow water equations — are modifed such that <span class="hlt">sea</span> level is calculated using an elliptic equation of the Helmholz type followed by a back-calculation of velocity using the primitive momentum equations. Triangular elements with linear basis functions are used. The modified form of the governing equations provides stable solutions with little numerical noise. In this field-scale test problem, the model was able to produce the details of the structure of 11 tidal constituents including O 1, K 1, M 2, S 2, N 2, K 2, M 4, MS 4, MN 4, M 6, and 2MS 6.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T21A1930B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T21A1930B"><span>First results from a temporary seismological network in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Braeuer, B.; Asch, G.; Hofstetter, A.; Haberland, C.; Darwish, J.; El-Kelani, R.; Weber, M.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Within the framework of the international project DESIRE (Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Integrated Research Project) a local seismological network was operated in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> area as a co-operation between the GFZ Germany, GII Israel, NRA Jordan and An-Najah National Univer-sity Palestine. From October 2006 to March 2008 about 65 short period (38) and broadband (27) instruments recorded continuously the seismicity of the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> basin. This investiga-tion aims in studying the deeper structure of the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> area based on the distribution of the local seismicity. About 500 local events have been recorded and more than 300 have been processed up to now. A dominant feature in this first part of the dataset we found a cluster of 78 earthquakes, occurring in February 2007, including multiplets. We determined a 1D-reference model of P- and S-velocities using Velest (Kissling et al., 1994). The model shows a high velocity increase between 6 and 10 km depth. This could be related to a prominent reflector found in the results of the wide angle reflection experiment in the area in 2006 (Mechie et al., 2008). The station corrections suggest a 2D structure with the basin in the middle and the shoulders on the east and west. Additionally the results are compared with receiver function and magnetotelluric studies, part of the DESIRE project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8085S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8085S"><span>Changes in Eocene-Miocene shallow marine carbonate factories along the tropical SE Circum-<span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> responded to major regional and global environmental and tectonic events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Changes in the factory of Cenozoic tropical marine carbonates have been for long attributed to major variations on climatic and environmental conditions. Although important changes on the factories of Cenozoic <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> carbonates seem to have followed global climatic and environmental changes, the regional impact of such changes on the factories of shallow marine carbonate along the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> is not well established. Moreover, the influence of transpressional tectonics on the occurrence, distribution and stratigraphy of shallow marine carbonate factories along this area is far from being well understood. Here we report detailed stratigraphic, petrographic and Sr-isotope chemostratigraphic information of several Eocene-Miocene carbonate successions deposited along the equatorial/tropical SE Circum-<span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> (Colombia and Panama) from which we further assess the influence of changing environmental conditions, transtentional tectonics and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level change on the development of the shallow marine carbonate factories. Our results suggest that during the Eocene-early Oligocene interval, a period of predominant high atmospheric pCO2, coralline algae constitute the principal carbonate builders of shallow marine carbonate successions along the SE Circum-<span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>. Detailed stratigraphic and paragenetic analyses suggest the developed of laterally continuous red algae calcareous build-ups along outer-rimmed carbonate platforms. The predominance of coralline red algae over corals on the shallow marine carbonate factories was likely related to high <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperatures and high turbidity. The occurrence of such build-ups was likely controlled by pronounce changes in the basin paleotopography, i.e. the occurrence of basement highs and lows, resulting from local transpressional tectonics. The occurrence of these calcareous red algae dominated factories was also controlled by diachronic opening of different sedimentary basins along the SE Circum <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> resulting from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12154613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12154613"><span>Ecology of <span class="hlt">southern</span> ocean pack ice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brierley, Andrew S; Thomas, David N</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice system: the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice surface; the internal <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and the waters in the vicinity of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice that are modified by the presence of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice cover, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DPS....4420108S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DPS....4420108S"><span>Searching for the Remnants of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> <span class="hlt">Seas</span>: Cassini Observations of the South Pole of Titan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stofan, Ellen R.; Aharonson, O.; Hayes, A. G.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Lucas, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Malaska, M.; Radebaugh, J.; Stiles, B. W.; Turtle, E. P.; Wall, S. D.; Wood, C. A.; Cassini Radar Team</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The north polar region of Titan is home to three large <span class="hlt">seas</span> along with hundreds of smaller lakes, while the south pole apparently has only two partially filled basins of liquid hydrocarbons. Aharonson et al. [2009] has suggested that cycles analogous to Croll-Milankovich cycles on Earth cause long-term cyclic transfer of hydrocarbons from pole to pole, with the north pole now containing the bulk of the liquids. Less than 50,000 years ago, the cycle would have been reversed, suggesting that the south polar region should contain remnants of <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">seas</span>. To identify such <span class="hlt">seas</span>, we search for features enclosed by an apparent remnant shoreline, with an interior region of smooth (radar-dark) plains. Two such features can be readily identified, each with areal extents of over 100,000 km2, along with several other possible candidate remnant <span class="hlt">seas</span> or large lakes. One of the possible <span class="hlt">seas</span> now contains Ontario Lacus. Analysis of the morphologic and topographic characteristics of the two candidate remnant <span class="hlt">seas</span> can help constrain the possible depth and basin characteristics of the northern <span class="hlt">seas</span>, as well as possible rates of surface modification in the time since the <span class="hlt">seas</span> have (largely) dried up. In addition, analysis of the radar characteristics of the remnant <span class="hlt">sea</span> basins may help us to determine if such processes also acted at equatorial regions where evidence of rainfall [Turtle et al., 2011] and a possible lake has recently been presented [Griffith et al., 2012], and at the more homogeneous mid-latitudes on Titan. References: Aharonson, O. et al., Nature Geoscience 2, 851-854; Griffith, C. et al., Nature 486, 237-239; Turtle, E.P. et al., Science 331, 1414-1417.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoJI.214..687B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoJI.214..687B"><span>Resolving carbonate platform geometries on the Island of Bonaire, <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Netherlands through semi-automatic GPR facies classification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bowling, R. D.; Laya, J. C.; Everett, M. E.</p> <p>2018-07-01</p> <p>The study of exposed carbonate platforms provides observational constraints on regional tectonics and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level history. In this work Miocene-aged carbonate platform units of the Seroe Domi Formation are investigated on the island of Bonaire, located in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to probe near-surface structural geometries associated with these lithologies. The single cross-island transect described herein allowed for continuous mapping of geologic structures on kilometre length scales. Numerical analysis was applied to the data in the form of k-means clustering of structure-parallel vectors derived from image structure tensors. This methodology enables radar facies along the survey transect to be semi-automatically mapped. The results provide subsurface evidence to support previous surficial and outcrop observations, and reveal complex stratigraphy within the platform. From the GPR data analysis, progradational clinoform geometries were observed on the northeast side of the island which support the tectonics and depositional trends of the region. Furthermore, several leeward-side radar facies are identified which correlate to environments of deposition conducive to dolomitization via reflux mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoJI.tmp..175B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoJI.tmp..175B"><span>Resolving Carbonate Platform Geometries on the Island of Bonaire, <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Netherlands through Semi-Automatic GPR Facies Classification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bowling, R. D.; Laya, J. C.; Everett, M. E.</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>The study of exposed carbonate platforms provides observational constraints on regional tectonics and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level history. In this work Miocene-aged carbonate platform units of the Seroe Domi Formation are investigated, on the island of Bonaire, located in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to probe near-surface structural geometries associated with these lithologies. The single cross-island transect described herein allowed for continuous mapping of geologic structures on kilometer length scales. Numerical analysis was applied to the data in the form of k-means clustering of structure-parallel vectors derived from image structure tensors. This methodology enables radar facies along the survey transect to be semi-automatically mapped. The results provide subsurface evidence to support previous surficial and outcrop observations, and reveal complex stratigraphy within the platform. From the GPR data analysis, progradational clinoform geometries were observed on the northeast side of the island which supports the tectonics and depositional trends of the region. Furthermore, several leeward-side radar facies are identified which correlate to environments of deposition conducive to dolomitization via reflux mechanisms.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-31/pdf/2011-2125.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-31/pdf/2011-2125.pdf"><span>76 FR 5325 - Fisheries of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-31</p> <p>... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 110114034-1033-01] RIN 0648-BA33 Fisheries of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Atlantic States; Control Date AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-21/pdf/2011-6583.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-21/pdf/2011-6583.pdf"><span>76 FR 15275 - Fisheries of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Golden Crab Fishery Off the...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-21</p> <p>... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 110218148-1169-01] RIN 0648-BA83 Fisheries of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Golden Crab Fishery Off the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Atlantic States; Control Date AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28612610','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28612610"><span>Ecological Change Drives a Decline in Mercury Concentrations in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Polar Bears.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McKinney, Melissa A; Atwood, Todd C; Pedro, Sara; Peacock, Elizabeth</p> <p>2017-07-18</p> <p>We evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations and trends in polar bears from the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> subpopulation from 2004 to 2011. Hair THg concentrations ranged widely among individuals from 0.6 to 13.3 μg g -1 dry weight (mean: 3.5 ± 0.2 μg g -1 ). Concentrations differed among sex and age classes: solitary adult females ≈ adult females with cubs ≈ subadults > adult males ≈ yearlings > cubs-of-the-year ≈ 2 year old dependent cubs. No variation was observed between spring and fall samples. For spring-sampled adults, THg concentrations declined by 13% per year, contrasting recent trends observed for other Western Hemispheric Arctic biota. Concentrations also declined by 15% per year considering adult males only, while a slower, nonsignificant decrease of 4.4% per year was found for adult females. Lower THg concentrations were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) and higher proportions of lower trophic position food resources consumed. Because BMI and diet were related, and the relationship to THg was strongest for BMI, trends were re-evaluated adjusting for BMI as the covariate. The adjusted annual decline was not significant. These findings indicate that changes in foraging ecology, not declining environmental concentrations of mercury, are driving short-term declines in THg concentrations in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> polar bears.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70193122','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70193122"><span>Ecological change drives a decline in mercury concentrations in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> polar bears</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd C.; Pedro, Sara; Peacock, Elizabeth</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations and trends in polar bears from the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> subpopulation from 2004 to 2011. Hair THg concentrations ranged widely among individuals from 0.6 to 13.3 μg g–1 dry weight (mean: 3.5 ± 0.2 μg g–1). Concentrations differed among sex and age classes: solitary adult females ≈ adult females with cubs ≈ subadults > adult males ≈ yearlings > cubs-of-the-year ≈ 2 year old dependent cubs. No variation was observed between spring and fall samples. For spring-sampled adults, THg concentrations declined by 13% per year, contrasting recent trends observed for other Western Hemispheric Arctic biota. Concentrations also declined by 15% per year considering adult males only, while a slower, nonsignificant decrease of 4.4% per year was found for adult females. Lower THg concentrations were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) and higher proportions of lower trophic position food resources consumed. Because BMI and diet were related, and the relationship to THg was strongest for BMI, trends were re-evaluated adjusting for BMI as the covariate. The adjusted annual decline was not significant. These findings indicate that changes in foraging ecology, not declining environmental concentrations of mercury, are driving short-term declines in THg concentrations in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> polar bears.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C11A0748Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C11A0748Y"><span>Comparing IceBridge and CryoSat-2 <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice observations over the Arctic and the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yi, D.; Kurtz, N. T.; Harbeck, J.; Hofton, M. A.; Manizade, S.; Cornejo, H.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>From 2009 to 2015, CryoSat-2 and IceBridge had 34 coincident lines over <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice, 23 over the Arctic (20 with ATM, 2 with LVIS, and 1 with both ATM and LVIS) and 11 over the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean (9 with ATM and 2 with both ATM and LVIS). In this study, we will compare both surface elevation and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice freeboard from CryoSat-2, ATM, and LVIS. We will apply identical ellipsoid, geoid, tide models, and atmospheric corrections to CryoSat-2, ATM, and LVIS data. For CryoSat-2, we will use surface elevation and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice freeboard both in the standard CryoSat-2 data product and calculated through a waveform fitting method. For ATM and LVIS, we will use surface elevation and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice freeboard in the OIB data product and the elevation and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice freeboard calculated through Gaussian waveform fitting method. The results of this study are important for using ATM and LVIS to calibrate/validate CryoSat-2 results and bridging the data gap between ICESat and ICESat-2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513513C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513513C"><span><span class="hlt">Southern</span> Dobrogea coastal potable water sources and Upper Quaternary Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> level changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caraivan, Glicherie; Stefanescu, Diana</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Southern</span> Dobrogea is a typical geologic platform unit, placed in the south-eastern part of Romania, with a Pre-Cambrian crystalline basement and a Paleozoic - Quaternary sedimentary cover. It is bordered to the north by the Capidava - Ovidiu fault and by the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to the east. A regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system divides the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Dobrogea structure in several tectonic blocks. Four drinking water sources have been identified: surface water, phreatic water, medium depth Sarmatian aquifer, and deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer. Surface water sources are represented by several springs emerged from the base of the loess cliff, and a few small rivers, barred by coastal beaches. The phreatic aquifer develops at the base of the loess deposits, on the impervious red clay, overlapping the Sarmatian limestones. The medium depth aquifer is located in the altered and karstified Sarmatian limestones, and discharges into the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The Sarmatian aquifer is unconfined where covered by silty loess deposits, and locally confined, where capped by clayey loess deposits. The aquifer is supplied from the Pre-Balkan Plateau. The Deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer, located in the limestone and dolomite deposits, is generally confined and affected by the regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system. In the south-eastern Dobrogea, the deep aquifer complex is separated from the Sarmatian aquifer by a Senonian aquitard (chalk and marls). The natural boundary of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is the Capidava - Ovidiu Fault. The piezometric heads show that the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is supplied from the Bulgarian territory, where the Upper Jurassic deposits crop out. The aquifer discharges into the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to the east and into Lake Siutghiol to the northeast. The cyclic Upper Quaternary climate changes induced drastic remodeling of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> level and the corresponding shorelines. During the Last Glacial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25543800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25543800"><span>A new species of Boca Lowry & Stoddart, 1997 (Amphipoda: Lysianassoidea: Aristiidae) from a mesophotic coral ecosystem off Puerto Rico, <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Senna, André R; Sorrentino, Rayane; Chatterjee, Tapas; Schizas, Nikolaos V</p> <p>2014-11-18</p> <p>A new species of the genus Boca Lowry & Stoddart, 1997 is described from a mesophotic coral ecosystem off southwestern Puerto Rico, in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The new species is easily recognized from the others in the genus mainly by the following characters: (1) maxilliped, inner plate with 2 long apical simple setae; palp, articles slender, subequal in length; (2) gnathopod 1, propodus slightly elongate, about 2.5 × longer than wide, and palm extremely acute, quite long and distinctly demarked by a robust seta at the palmar corner; (3) gnathopod 2, carpus slightly elongate, about 3.7 × longer than wide; (4) pereopod 5, basis widely expanded posteriorly, posterior margin rounded and smooth, and posteroventral lobe weakly developed. We also present a key to world species of Boca. This is the fifth species of Boca from world's oceans and the first record of the genus from Puerto Rico.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25923109','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25923109"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> California Current.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reimer, Janet J; Vargas, Rodrigo; Rivas, David; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Hernandez-Ayon, J Martin; Lara-Lara, Ruben</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the <span class="hlt">southern</span> areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4414274','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4414274"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> California Current</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reimer, Janet J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Rivas, David; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Hernandez-Ayon, J. Martin; Lara-Lara, Ruben</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the <span class="hlt">southern</span> areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039426','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039426"><span>Osteosarcoma of the maxilla with concurrent osteoma in a <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otter (Enhydra lutris nereis)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fernandez, J. Rodriguez-Ramos; Thomas, N.J.; Dubielzig, R.R.; Drees, R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) are threatened marine mammals that belong to the family Mustelidae and are native to the coast of Central California. Neoplasia is reported infrequently in seaotters. An adult female free-ranging <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otter was found alive at Pebble Beach, Monterey County, California, on January 1st, 1994 and died soon after capture. The carcass was submitted to the US Geological Survey – National Wildlife Health Center for necropsy examination. Grossly, a mass with rubbery texture was firmly attached to the left maxillary region of the skull and the nasopharynx was occluded by soft neoplastic tissue. Post-mortem skull radiographs showed an oval, smoothly marginated mineralized opaque mass centered on the left maxilla, extending from the canine tooth to caudal to the molar and replacing portions of the zygomatic arch and palatine and temporal bones. The majority of the mass protruded laterally from the maxilla and was characterized by central homogeneous mineral opacity. Microscopically, the mass was characterized by fully differentiated lamellar non-osteonal bone that expanded beyond the margins of the adjacent normal osteonal bone. Sections of the nasopharyngeal mass were comprised of moderately pleomorphic cells with bony stroma. Gross, microscopical and radiological findings were compatible with maxillary osteosarcoma with concurrent osteoma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.5308B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.5308B"><span>Subsidence rates at the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> consistent with reservoir depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barbour, Andrew J.; Evans, Eileen L.; Hickman, Stephen H.; Eneva, Mariana</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Space geodetic measurements from the Envisat satellite between 2003 and 2010 show that subsidence rates near the southeastern shoreline of the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> California are up to 52mmyr-1 greater than the far-field background rate. By comparing these measurements with model predictions, we find that this subsidence appears to be dominated by poroelastic contraction associated with ongoing geothermal fluid production, rather than the purely fault-related subsidence proposed previously. Using a simple point source model, we suggest that the source of this proposed volumetric strain is at depths between 1.0 km and 2.4 km (95% confidence interval), comparable to generalized boundaries of the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> geothermal reservoir. We find that fault slip on two previously imaged tectonic structures, which are part of a larger system of faults in the Brawley Seismic Zone, is not an adequate predictor of surface velocity fields because the magnitudes of the best fitting slip rates are often greater than the full plate boundary rate and at least 2 times greater than characteristic sedimentation rates in this region. Large-scale residual velocity anomalies indicate that spatial patterns predicted by fault slip are incompatible with the observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70174931','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70174931"><span>Subsidence rates at the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> consistent with reservoir depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Barbour, Andrew J.; Evans, Eileen; Hickman, Stephen H.; Eneva, Mariana</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Space geodetic measurements from the Envisat satellite between 2003 and 2010 show that subsidence rates near the southeastern shoreline of the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> California are up to 52mmyr−1 greater than the far-field background rate. By comparing these measurements with model predictions, we find that this subsidence appears to be dominated by poroelastic contraction associated with ongoing geothermal fluid production, rather than the purely fault-related subsidence proposed previously. Using a simple point source model, we suggest that the source of this proposed volumetric strain is at depths between 1.0 km and 2.4 km (95% confidence interval), comparable to generalized boundaries of the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> geothermal reservoir. We find that fault slip on two previously imaged tectonic structures, which are part of a larger system of faults in the Brawley Seismic Zone, is not an adequate predictor of surface velocity fields because the magnitudes of the best fitting slip rates are often greater than the full plate boundary rate and at least 2 times greater than characteristic sedimentation rates in this region. Large-scale residual velocity anomalies indicate that spatial patterns predicted by fault slip are incompatible with the observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AnGeo..24.1783D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AnGeo..24.1783D"><span>Variability of three-dimensional <span class="hlt">sea</span> breeze structure in <span class="hlt">southern</span> France: observations and evaluation of empirical scaling laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drobinski, P.; Bastin, S.; Dabas, A.; Delville, P.; Reitebuch, O.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span>-breeze dynamics in <span class="hlt">southern</span> France is investigated using an airborne Doppler lidar, a meteorological surface station network and radiosoundings, in the framework of the ESCOMPTE experiment conducted during summer 2001 in order to evaluate the role of thermal circulations on pollutant transport and ventilation. The airborne Doppler lidar WIND contributed to three-dimensional (3-D) mapping of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> breeze circulation in an unprecedented way. The data allow access to the onshore and offshore <span class="hlt">sea</span> breeze extents (xsb), and to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> breeze depth (zsb) and intensity (usb). They also show that the return flow of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> breeze circulation is very seldom seen in this area due to (i) the presence of a systematic non zero background wind, and (ii) the 3-D structure of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> breeze caused by the complex coastline shape and topography. A thorough analysis is conducted on the impact of the two main valleys (Rhône and Durance valleys) affecting the <span class="hlt">sea</span> breeze circulation in the area. <P style="line-height: 20px;"> Finally, this dataset also allows an evaluation of the existing scaling laws used to derive the <span class="hlt">sea</span> breeze intensity, depth and horizontal extent. The main results of this study are that (i) latitude, cumulative heating and surface friction are key parameters of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> breeze dynamics; (ii) in presence of strong synoptic flow, all scaling laws fail in predicting the <span class="hlt">sea</span> breeze characteristics (the <span class="hlt">sea</span> breeze depth, however being the most accurately predicted); and (iii) the ratio zsb/usb is approximately constant in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> breeze flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-15/pdf/2011-17897.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-15/pdf/2011-17897.pdf"><span>76 FR 41764 - Fisheries of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs off the...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-15</p> <p>... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [RIN 0648-XA491] Fisheries of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs off the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Atlantic... sanctuaries, special management zones, or artificial reefs without additional authorization. A report on the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/rbt/article/view/26867','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/rbt/article/view/26867"><span>Saharan dust - A carrier of persistent organic pollutants, metals and microbes to the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Garrison, V.H.; Foreman, W.T.; Genualdi, S.; Griffin, Dale W.; Kellogg, C.A.; Majewski, M.S.; Mohammed, A.; Ramsubhag, A.; Shinn, E.A.; Simonich, S.L.; Smith, G.W.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>An international team of scientists from government agencies and universities in the United States, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), Trinidad & Tobago, the Republic of Cape Verde, and the Republic of Mali (West Africa) is working together to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> ecosystems. The first step has been to identify and quantify the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), trace metals, and viable microorganisms in the atmosphere in dust source areas of West Africa, and in dust episodes at downwind sites in the eastern Atlantic (Cape Verde) and the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> (USVI and Trinidad & Tobago). Preliminary findings show that air samples from Mali contain a greater number of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and in higher concentrations than the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> sites. Overall, POP concentrations were similar in USVI and Trinidad samples. Trace metal concentrations were found to be similar to crustal composition with slight enrichment of lead in Mali. To date, hundreds of cultureable micro-organisms have been identified from Mali, Cape Verde, USVI, and Trinidad air samples. The <span class="hlt">sea</span> fan pathogen, Aspergillus sydowii, has been identified in soil from Mali and in air samples from dust events in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>. We have shown that air samples from a dust-source region contain orders of magnitude more cultureable micro-organisms per volume than air samples from dust events in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, which in turn contain 3-to 4-fold more cultureable microbes than during non-dust conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2817220','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2817220"><span>Flattening of <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> coral reefs: region-wide declines in architectural complexity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Gill, Jennifer A.; Côté, Isabelle M.; Watkinson, Andrew R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Coral reefs are rich in biodiversity, in large part because their highly complex architecture provides shelter and resources for a wide range of organisms. Recent rapid declines in hard coral cover have occurred across the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region, but the concomitant consequences for reef architecture have not been quantified on a large scale to date. We provide, to our knowledge, the first region-wide analysis of changes in reef architectural complexity, using nearly 500 surveys across 200 reefs, between 1969 and 2008. The architectural complexity of <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> reefs has declined nonlinearly with the near disappearance of the most complex reefs over the last 40 years. The flattening of <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> reefs was apparent by the early 1980s, followed by a period of stasis between 1985 and 1998 and then a resumption of the decline in complexity to the present. Rates of loss are similar on shallow (<6 m), mid-water (6–20 m) and deep (>20 m) reefs and are consistent across all five subregions. The temporal pattern of declining architecture coincides with key events in recent <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> ecological history: the loss of structurally complex Acropora corals, the mass mortality of the grazing urchin Diadema antillarum and the 1998 El Nino <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Oscillation-induced worldwide coral bleaching event. The consistently low estimates of current architectural complexity suggest regional-scale degradation and homogenization of reef structure. The widespread loss of architectural complexity is likely to have serious consequences for reef biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and associated environmental services. PMID:19515663</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-09/pdf/C1-2010-30394.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-09/pdf/C1-2010-30394.pdf"><span>76 FR 12883 - Fisheries of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-09</p> <p>... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 0907271170-0576-03] RIN 0648-AY10 Fisheries of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Atlantic States; Amendment 17A Correction In rule document 2010-30394...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20171208_Archive_e000965.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20171208_Archive_e000965.html"><span>Shrinking Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-12-08</p> <p>(Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: left 2014 and right 2000, 1960 extent black line) In the 1960s, the Soviet Union undertook a major water diversion project on the arid plains of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. The region’s two major rivers, fed by snowmelt and precipitation in faraway mountains, were used to transform the desert into farms for cotton and other crops. Before the project, the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya rivers flowed down from the mountains, cut northwest through the Kyzylkum Desert, and finally pooled together in the lowest part of the basin. The lake they made, the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, was once the fourth largest in the world. Although irrigation made the desert bloom, it devastated the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. This series of images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite documents the changes. At the start of the series in 2000, the lake was already a fraction of its 1960 extent (black line). The Northern Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (sometimes called the Small Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span>) had separated from the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> (Large) Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> had split into eastern and western lobes that remained tenuously connected at both ends. By 2001, the <span class="hlt">southern</span> connection had been severed, and the shallower eastern part retreated rapidly over the next several years. Especially large retreats in the eastern lobe of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> appear to have occurred between 2005 and 2009, when drought limited and then cut off the flow of the Amu Darya. Water levels then fluctuated annually between 2009 and 2014 in alternately dry and wet years. Dry conditions in 2014 caused the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Sea’s eastern lobe to completely dry up for the first time in modern times. Continue reading: 1.usa.gov/1nLX9Ku Read more: 1.usa.gov/1pqEnDj Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157095','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157095"><span>Quantifying 10 years of improved earthquake-monitoring performance in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McNamara, Daniel E.; Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Saurel, Jean-Marie; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Lynch, Lloyd</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> and adjacent regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> coastlines. Were a great tsunamigenic earthquake to occur in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region today, the effects would potentially be catastrophic due to an increasingly vulnerable region that has seen significant population increases in the past 40–50 years and currently hosts an estimated 500,000 daily beach visitors from North America and Europe, a majority of whom are not likely aware of tsunami and earthquake hazards. Following the magnitude 9.1 Sumatra–Andaman Islands earthquake of 26 December 2004, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Early Warning System for the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE‐EWS) was established and developed minimum performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes. In this study, we model earthquake‐magnitude detection threshold and P‐wave detection time and demonstrate that the requirements established by the UNESCO ICG CARIBE‐EWS are met with 100% of the network operating. We demonstrate that earthquake‐monitoring performance in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region has improved significantly in the past decade as the number of real‐time seismic stations available to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration tsunami warning centers have increased. We also identify weaknesses in the current international network and provide guidance for selecting the optimal distribution of seismic stations contributed from existing real‐time broadband national networks in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4938Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4938Z"><span>Decadal predictions of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice : testing different initialization methods with an Earth-system Model of Intermediate Complexity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zunz, Violette; Goosse, Hugues; Dubinkina, Svetlana</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean has increased since 1979 but the causes of this expansion have not been firmly identified. In particular, the contribution of internal variability and external forcing to this positive trend has not been fully established. In this region, the lack of observations and the overestimation of internal variability of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice by contemporary General Circulation Models (GCMs) make it difficult to understand the behaviour of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. Nevertheless, if its evolution is governed by the internal variability of the system and if this internal variability is in some way predictable, a suitable initialization method should lead to simulations results that better fit the reality. Current GCMs decadal predictions are generally initialized through a nudging towards some observed fields. This relatively simple method does not seem to be appropriated to the initialization of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean. The present study aims at identifying an initialization method that could improve the quality of the predictions of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice at decadal timescales. We use LOVECLIM, an Earth-system Model of Intermediate Complexity that allows us to perform, within a reasonable computational time, the large amount of simulations required to test systematically different initialization procedures. These involve three data assimilation methods: a nudging, a particle filter and an efficient particle filter. In a first step, simulations are performed in an idealized framework, i.e. data from a reference simulation of LOVECLIM are used instead of observations, herein after called pseudo-observations. In this configuration, the internal variability of the model obviously agrees with the one of the pseudo-observations. This allows us to get rid of the issues related to the overestimation of the internal variability by models compared to the observed one. This way, we can work out a suitable methodology to assess the efficiency of the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRB..115.8402B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRB..115.8402B"><span>The <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>-South American plate boundary at 65°W: Results from wide-angle seismic data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bezada, M. J.; Magnani, M. B.; Zelt, C. A.; Schmitz, M.; Levander, A.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>We present the results of the analysis of new wide-angle seismic data across the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>-South American plate boundary in eastern Venezuela at about 65°W. The ˜500 km long profile crosses the boundary in one of the few regions dominated by extensional structures, as most of the southeastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> margin is characterized by the presence of fold and thrust belts. A combination of first-arrival traveltime inversion and simultaneous inversion of PmP and Pn arrivals was used to develop a P wave velocity model of the crust and the uppermost mantle. At the main strike-slip fault system, we image the Cariaco Trough, a major pull-apart basin along the plate boundary. The crust under the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Deformed Belt exhibits a thickness of ˜15 km, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Large Igneous Province extends to this part of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> plate. The velocity structures of basement highs and offshore sedimentary basins imaged by the profile are comparable to those of features found in other parts of the margin, suggesting similarities in their tectonic history. We do not image an abrupt change in Moho depth or velocity structure across the main strike-slip system, as has been observed elsewhere along the margin. It is possible that a terrane of <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> island arc origin was accreted to South America at this site and was subsequently bisected by the strike-slip fault system. The crust under the continental portion of the profile is thinner than observed elsewhere along the margin, possibly as a result of thinning during Jurassic rifting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CSR....82...85Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CSR....82...85Z"><span>Diurnal warming in shallow coastal <span class="hlt">seas</span>: Observations from the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> and Great Barrier Reef regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, X.; Minnett, P. J.; Berkelmans, R.; Hendee, J.; Manfrino, C.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>A good understanding of diurnal warming in the upper ocean is important for the validation of satellite-derived <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) against in-situ buoy data and for merging satellite SSTs taken at different times of the same day. For shallow coastal regions, better understanding of diurnal heating could also help improve monitoring and prediction of ecosystem health, such as coral reef bleaching. Compared to its open ocean counterpart which has been studied extensively and modeled with good success, coastal diurnal warming has complicating localized characteristics, including coastline geometry, bathymetry, water types, tidal and wave mixing. Our goal is to characterize coastal diurnal warming using two extensive in-situ temperature and weather datasets from the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> and Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Results showed clear daily warming patterns in most stations from both datasets. For the three <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> stations where solar radiation is the main cause of daily warming, the mean diurnal warming amplitudes were about 0.4 K at depths of 4-7 m and 0.6-0.7 K at shallower depths of 1-2 m; the largest warming value was 2.1 K. For coral top temperatures of the GBR, 20% of days had warming amplitudes >1 K, with the largest >4 K. The bottom warming at shallower sites has higher daily maximum temperatures and lower daily minimum temperatures than deeper sites nearby. The averaged daily warming amplitudes were shown to be closely related to daily average wind speed and maximum insolation, as found in the open ocean. Diurnal heating also depends on local features including water depth, location on different sections of the reef (reef flat vs. reef slope), the relative distance from the barrier reef chain (coast vs. lagoon stations vs. inner barrier reef sites vs. outer rim sites); and the proximity to the tidal inlets. In addition, the influence of tides on daily temperature changes and its relative importance compared to solar radiation was quantified by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ECSS...71..616L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ECSS...71..616L"><span>Sublittoral meiofauna with particular reference to nematodes in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xiao-Shou; Zhang, Zhi-Nan; Huang, Yong</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>Densities of major meiofaunal taxa were investigated at 34 sampling stations during six cruises by R/V Beidou to the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, China from 2000 to 2004, and the community structure of free-living marine nematodes was studied during one of the cruises in 2003. Meiofauna abundance ranged from 487.4 to 1655.3 individuals per 10 cm 2. Nematodes and harpacticoid copepods were the two most dominant groups, contributing 73.8-92.8% and 3.5-18.7%, respectively, to the total meiofauna abundance. One-way ANOVA showed no significant annual fluctuation of meiofauna and nematode abundances from 2000 to 2004 in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. However, two-way ANOVA based on six stations sampled in 4 years (2001-2004) showed that there were significant differences among the six stations and the 4 sampling years for meiofauna, nematode and copepod abundance. Correlation analysis demonstrated that meiofauna abundance was mainly linked to chloroplastic pigments. Other environmental factors could not be ruled out, however. A total of 232 free-living marine nematode species, belonging to 149 genera, 35 families and 4 orders, were identified. The dominant species in the sampling area were the following: Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi, Microlaimus sp.1, Prochromadorella sp., Promonohystera sp., Cobbia sp.1, Daptonema sp.1, Leptolaimus sp.1, Halalaimus sp.2, Aegialoalaimus sp., Chromadorita sp., Parodontophora marina, Parasphaerolaimus paradoxus, Quadricoma sp.1, Campylaimus sp.1, Halalaimus gracilis, Paramesacanthion sp.1, Paramonohystera sp.1, and Metalinhomoeus longiseta. CLUSTER and SIMPROF analyses revealed three main types of nematode community (or station groups) in the sampling area, including I: coastal community, II: transitory community between coastal and YSCWM (Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Cold Water Mass), and III: YSCWM community. Each community was indicated by a number of dominant nematode species. Bio-Env correlation analysis between the nematode community and environmental variables showed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-01/pdf/2012-13388.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-01/pdf/2012-13388.pdf"><span>77 FR 32572 - Fisheries of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA935 Fisheries of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Atlantic... conditions, various species of reef fish, crabs, and lobsters in Federal waters off South Carolina and North...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26951648','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26951648"><span>Shipwreck rates reveal <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> tropical cyclone response to past radiative forcing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trouet, Valerie; Harley, Grant L; Domínguez-Delmás, Marta</p> <p>2016-03-22</p> <p>Assessing the impact of future climate change on North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity is of crucial societal importance, but the limited quantity and quality of observational records interferes with the skill of future TC projections. In particular, North Atlantic TC response to radiative forcing is poorly understood and creates the dominant source of uncertainty for twenty-first-century projections. Here, we study TC variability in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> during the Maunder Minimum (MM; 1645-1715 CE), a period defined by the most severe reduction in solar irradiance in documented history (1610-present). For this purpose, we combine a documentary time series of Spanish shipwrecks in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> (1495-1825 CE) with a tree-growth suppression chronology from the Florida Keys (1707-2009 CE). We find a 75% reduction in decadal-scale <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> TC activity during the MM, which suggests modulation of the influence of reduced solar irradiance by the cumulative effect of cool North Atlantic <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperatures, El Niño-like conditions, and a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Our results emphasize the need to enhance our understanding of the response of these oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns to radiative forcing and climate change to improve the skill of future TC projections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4812713','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4812713"><span>Shipwreck rates reveal <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> tropical cyclone response to past radiative forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Trouet, Valerie; Harley, Grant L.; Domínguez-Delmás, Marta</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Assessing the impact of future climate change on North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity is of crucial societal importance, but the limited quantity and quality of observational records interferes with the skill of future TC projections. In particular, North Atlantic TC response to radiative forcing is poorly understood and creates the dominant source of uncertainty for twenty-first-century projections. Here, we study TC variability in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> during the Maunder Minimum (MM; 1645–1715 CE), a period defined by the most severe reduction in solar irradiance in documented history (1610–present). For this purpose, we combine a documentary time series of Spanish shipwrecks in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> (1495–1825 CE) with a tree-growth suppression chronology from the Florida Keys (1707–2009 CE). We find a 75% reduction in decadal-scale <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> TC activity during the MM, which suggests modulation of the influence of reduced solar irradiance by the cumulative effect of cool North Atlantic <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperatures, El Niño–like conditions, and a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Our results emphasize the need to enhance our understanding of the response of these oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns to radiative forcing and climate change to improve the skill of future TC projections. PMID:26951648</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-08/pdf/2011-5232.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-08/pdf/2011-5232.pdf"><span>76 FR 12605 - Fisheries of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-08</p> <p>.... 0907271173-1137-04] RIN 0648-AY11 Fisheries of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Atlantic States; Amendment 17B; Correction AGENCY: National Marine... Amendment 17B to the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP31B1870W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP31B1870W"><span>8.2 ky event associated with high precipitation in the eastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winter, A.; Vieten, R.; Miller, T.; Mangini, A.; Scholz, D.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We present data from speleothems collected in Venezuela and Puerto Rico showing that the eastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> was anomalously moist during the 8.2ka event. Evidence from high-resolution analyses of Greenland ice core (GISP2) shows that at the same time northern Europe and the north Atlantic were cooler by 3 - 6° C. The trigger for the 8.2ka event is thought to be pulsed meltwater discharges from a multi-event drainage of proglacial lakes associated with the decaying Laurentide Ice Sheet margin. The meltwater apparently slowed the thermohaline circulation decreasing warmth to northern Europe. At the same time moisture transfer to the northern latitudes may have slowed resulting in the observed lower latitude precipitation patterns. The eastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> seems to be especially sensitive to the changes in the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Higher precipitation values may also have increased lowland flooding along the coastal areas of north eastern South America, already affected by early Holocene <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level change, and are linked to social territory reshuffling which stimulated the earliest migrations into the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Archipelago shortly afterwards. Our age models based on precise MC-ICPMS 230Th/U-dating indicate that the eastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> stalagmites all grew at about the same rate of 15 cm through the 8.2 ka event, much faster than during any other growth period, except today when they are also growing at an accelerated rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28645049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28645049"><span>Gaseous elemental mercury in the marine boundary layer and air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> flux in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean in austral summer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Jiancheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Feiyue; Kang, Hui</p> <p>2017-12-15</p> <p>Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in the marine boundary layer (MBL), and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in surface seawater of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean were measured in the austral summer from December 13, 2014 to February 1, 2015. GEM concentrations in the MBL ranged from 0.4 to 1.9ngm -3 (mean±standard deviation: 0.9±0.2ngm -3 ), whereas DGM concentrations in surface seawater ranged from 7.0 to 75.9pgL -1 (mean±standard deviation: 23.7±13.2pgL -1 ). The occasionally observed low GEM in the MBL suggested either the occurrence of atmospheric mercury depletion in summer, or the transport of GEM-depleted air from the Antarctic Plateau. Elevated GEM concentrations in the MBL and DGM concentrations in surface seawater were consistently observed in the ice-covered region of the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> implying the influence of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice environment. Diminishing <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice could cause more mercury evasion from the ocean to the air. Using the thin film gas exchange model, the air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> fluxes of gaseous mercury in non-ice-covered area during the study period were estimated to range from 0.0 to 6.5ngm -2 h -1 with a mean value of 1.5±1.8ngm -2 h -1 , revealing GEM (re-)emission from the East <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean in summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70194324','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70194324"><span>Collar temperature sensor data reveal long-term patterns in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> polar bear den distribution on pack ice and land</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Olson, Jay W; Rode, Karyn D.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Smith, T.S.; Wilson, R. R.; Durner, George M.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Atwood, Todd C.; Douglas, David C.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In response to a changing climate, many species alter habitat use. Polar bears Ursus maritimus in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> have increasingly used land for maternal denning. To aid in detecting denning behavior, we developed an objective method to identify polar bear denning events using temperature sensor data collected by satellite-linked transmitters deployed on adult females between 1985 and 2013. We then applied this method to determine whether <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> polar bears have continued to increase land denning with recent <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice loss and examined whether <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice conditions affect the distribution of dens between pack-ice and coastal substrates. Because land use in summer and autumn has also increased, we examined potential associations between summering substrate and denning substrate. Statistical process control methods applied to temperature-sensor data identified denning events with 94.5% accuracy in comparison to direct observations (n = 73) and 95.7% accuracy relative to subjective classifications based on temperature, location, and activity sensor data (n = 116). We found an increase in land-based denning during the study period. The frequency of land denning was directly related to the distance that <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice retreated from the coast. Among females that denned, all 14 that summered on land subsequently denned there, whereas 29% of the 69 bears summering on ice denned on land. These results suggest that denning on land may continue to increase with further loss of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. While the effects that den substrate have on nutrition, energetics, and reproduction are unclear, more polar bears denning onshore will likely increase human-bear interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12280949','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12280949"><span>The <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> after-shock.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Canak, W L; Levy, D</p> <p>1988-03-01</p> <p>The population of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> islands, is expected to double by the mid-21st century, placing new pressures on local labor markets and economic resources and increasing the need for social expenditures. Most of this growth will take place in urban areas. Emigration to the US is an increasingly important trend, especially in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Jamaica, and local <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> economies are linked with labor markets in the US through a system of family remittances. Oil price hikes, escalating debt burdens, and falling export prices have created an economic crisis in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> since the late 1970s. There has been double-digit inflation, rising unemployment, and only sporadic growth in the gross national product. The <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Basin Initiative, established by the Reagan Administration, provides the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> nations with duty-free export entry to the US market for 12 years and targets manufacturing, tourism, agriculture, and foreign investment for growth. Overall, however, the results of this initiative have been an effective subsidy to US investors and little stimulus for growth in locally owned businesses. Haiti and the Dominican Republic are the islands with the most poverty, while Trinidad and Tobago are the most prosperous. Puerto Rico plays an important role in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region, serving as a link between North and South America and between cultural differences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.1821W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.1821W"><span>Satellite microwave observations of the interannual variability of snowmelt on <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Willmes, S.; Haas, C.; Nicolaus, M.; Bareiss, J.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Snowmelt processes on Antarctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice are examined. We present a simple snowmelt indicator based on diurnal brightness temperature variations from microwave satellite data. The method is validated through extensive field data from the western Weddell <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and lends itself to the investigation of interannual and spatial variations of the typical snowmelt on Antarctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. We use in situ measurements of physical snow properties to show that despite the absence of strong melting, the summer period is distinct from all other seasons with enhanced diurnal variations of snow wetness. A microwave emission model reveals that repeated thawing and refreezing causes the typical microwave emissivity signatures that are found on perennial Antarctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice during summer. The proposed melt indicator accounts for the characteristic phenomenological stages of snowmelt in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean and detects the onset of diurnal snow wetting. An algorithm is presented to map large-scale snowmelt onset, based on satellite data from the period between 1988 and 2006. The results indicate strong meridional gradients of snowmelt onset with the Weddell, Amundsen and Ross <span class="hlt">Seas</span> showing earliest (beginning of October) and most frequent snowmelt. Moreover, a distinct interannual variability of melt onset dates and large areas of first-year ice where no diurnal freeze-thawing occurs at the surface are determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRC..114.3006W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRC..114.3006W"><span>Satellite microwave observations of the interannual variability of snowmelt on <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Willmes, Sascha; Haas, Christian; Nicolaus, Marcel; Bareiss, JöRg</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Snowmelt processes on Antarctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice are examined. We present a simple snowmelt indicator based on diurnal brightness temperature variations from microwave satellite data. The method is validated through extensive field data from the western Weddell <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and lends itself to the investigation of interannual and spatial variations of the typical snowmelt on Antarctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. We use in-situ measurements of physical snow properties to show that despite the absence of strong melting, the summer period is distinct from all other seasons with enhanced diurnal variations of snow wetness. A microwave emission model reveals that repeated thawing and refreezing cause the typical microwave emissivity signatures that are found on perennial Antarctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice during summer. The proposed melt indicator accounts for the characteristic phenomenological stages of snowmelt in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean and detects the onset of diurnal snow wetting. An algorithm is presented to map large-scale snowmelt onset based on satellite data from the period between 1988 and 2006. The results indicate strong meridional gradients of snowmelt onset with the Weddell, Amundsen, and Ross <span class="hlt">Seas</span> showing earliest (beginning of October) and most frequent snowmelt. Moreover, a distinct interannual variability of melt onset dates and large areas of first-year ice where no diurnal freeze thawing occurs at the surface are determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001551&hterms=safari&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dsafari','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001551&hterms=safari&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dsafari"><span>Smoke in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS true-color image acquired over <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Africa on Sept. 4, 2000, shows a thick shroud of smoke and haze blanketing much of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> half of the continent. The smoke in this scene is being generated by a tremendous number of fires burning over a large area across the countries of Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and the Northern Province of South Africa. In this image, the smoke (grey pixels) is easily distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels). Refer to the Images and Data section for a larger scale view of the fires in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Africa. Data from both the <span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS and Terra satellites are being used by an international team of scientists participating in the SAFARI field experiment. The objective of SAFARI is to measure the effects of windblown smoke and dust on air quality and the Earth's radiant energy budget. This image was produced using <span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS channels 6, 5, and 1 (centered at 670 nm, 555 nm , and 412 nm, respectively). The data were acquired and provided by the Satellite Applications Center in Pretoria, South Africa. Image courtesy Gene Feldman, <span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS Project and Orbital Sciences</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...44.2267Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...44.2267Z"><span>Impact of the initialisation on the predictability of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice at interannual to multi-decadal timescales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zunz, Violette; Goosse, Hugues; Dubinkina, Svetlana</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this study, we assess systematically the impact of different initialisation procedures on the predictability of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean. These initialisation strategies are based on three data assimilation methods: the nudging, the particle filter with sequential importance resampling and the nudging proposal particle filter. An Earth system model of intermediate complexity is used to perform hindcast simulations in a perfect model approach. The predictability of the Antarctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice at interannual to multi-decadal timescales is estimated through two aspects: the spread of the hindcast ensemble, indicating the uncertainty of the ensemble, and the correlation between the ensemble mean and the pseudo-observations, used to assess the accuracy of the prediction. Our results show that at decadal timescales more sophisticated data assimilation methods as well as denser pseudo-observations used to initialise the hindcasts decrease the spread of the ensemble. However, our experiments did not clearly demonstrate that one of the initialisation methods systematically provides with a more accurate prediction of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean than the others. Overall, the predictability at interannual timescales is limited to 3 years ahead at most. At multi-decadal timescales, the trends in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent computed over the time period just after the initialisation are clearly better correlated between the hindcasts and the pseudo-observations if the initialisation takes into account the pseudo-observations. The correlation reaches values larger than 0.5 in winter. This high correlation has likely its origin in the slow evolution of the ocean ensured by its strong thermal inertia, showing the importance of the quality of the initialisation below the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009OcDyn..59..263L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009OcDyn..59..263L"><span>Distributions and characteristics of dissolved organic matter in temperate coastal waters (<span class="hlt">Southern</span> North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lübben, Andrea; Dellwig, Olaf; Koch, Sandra; Beck, Melanie; Badewien, Thomas H.; Fischer, Sibylle; Reuter, Rainer</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The spatial and temporal distributions of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was studied in the East-Frisian Wadden <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (<span class="hlt">Southern</span> North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>) during several cruises between 2002 and 2005. The spatial distribution of CDOM in the German Bight shows a strong gradient towards the coast. Tidal and seasonal variations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) identify freshwater discharge via flood-gates at the coastline and pore water efflux from tidal flat sediments as the most important CDOM sources within the backbarrier area of the Island of Spiekeroog. However, the amount and pattern of CDOM and DOC is strongly affected by various parameters, e.g. changes in the amount of terrestrial run-off, precipitation, evaporation, biological activity and photooxidation. A decoupling of CDOM and DOC, especially during periods of pronounced biological activity (algae blooms and microbial activity), is observed in spring and especially in summer. Mixing of the endmembers freshwater, pore water, and open <span class="hlt">sea</span> water results in the formation of a coastal transition zone. Whilst an almost conservative behaviour during mixing is observed in winter, summer data point towards non-conservative mixing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..367L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..367L"><span>Influence of the May <span class="hlt">Southern</span> annular mode on the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> summer monsoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Ting; Li, Jianping; Li, YanJie; Zhao, Sen; Zheng, Fei; Zheng, Jiayu; Yao, Zhixiong</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The possible impact of the May <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Hemisphere (SH) annular mode (SAM) on the following South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (SCS) summer monsoon (SCSSM) is examined. A close inverse relationship between the two is revealed in the observations. The simultaneous South Pacific dipole (SPD), a dipole-like <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature anomaly pattern in the South Pacific, acts as the "oceanic bridge" to preserve the May SAM signal and prolong it into June-September. Observational evidence and numerical simulations both demonstrate that the SPD communicates its large thermal inertia signal to the atmosphere, regulating the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Pacific Subtropical Jet (SPSJ) variability over eastern Australia. Corresponding to the adjustment of circulation associated with the SPSJ is a prominent tripolar cross-Pacific teleconnection pattern stretching from the SH middle-high latitudes into the NH East Asia coastal region, referred to as the South-North Pacific (SNP) teleconnection pattern. Wave ray tracing analysis manifests that the SNP acts as the "atmospheric bridge" to propagate the related wave energy across the equator and into the Maritime Continent and SCS monsoon region, modulating the vertical motion and middle-lower tropospheric flows, and favoring the out-of-phase variation of the SCSSM. Therefore, the "coupled oceanic-atmospheric bridge" process and the related Rossby wave energy transmission are possible mechanisms for the significant influence of the May SAM on the variability of the following SCSSM. Therefore, the May SAM provides a fresh insight into the prediction of the SCSSM from the perspective of the SH high latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23869874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23869874"><span>Shifting baselines and the extinction of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> monk seal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baisre, Julio A</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The recent extinction of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> monk seal Monachus tropicalis has been considered an example of a human-caused extinction in the marine environment, and this species was considered a driver of the changes that have occurred in the structure of <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> coral reef ecosystems since colonial times. I searched archaeological records, historical data, and geographic names (used as a proxy of the presence of seals) and evaluated the use and quality of these data to conclude that since prehistoric times the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> monk seal was always rare and vulnerable to human predation. This finding supports the hypothesis that in AD 1500, the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> monk seal persisted as a small fragmented population in which individuals were confined to small keys, banks, or isolated islands in the Gulf of Mexico and the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. This hypothesis is contrary to the assumption that the species was widespread and abundant historically. The theory that the main driver of monk seal extinction was harvesting for its oil for use in the sugar cane industry of Jamaica during the 18th century is based primarily on anecdotal information and is overemphasized in the literature. An analysis of reported human encounters with this species indicates monk seal harvest was an occasional activity, rather than an ongoing enterprise. Nevertheless, given the rarity of this species and its restricted distribution, even small levels of hunting or specimen collecting must have contributed to its extinction, which was confirmed in the mid-20th century. Some sources had been overlooked or only partially reviewed, others misinterpreted, and a considerable amount of anecdotal information had been uncritically used. Critical examination of archaeological and historical records is required to infer accurate estimations of the historical abundance of a species. In reconstructing the past to address the shifting baseline syndrome, it is important to avoid selecting evidence to confirm modern prejudices. © 2013</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26ES..149a2057N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26ES..149a2057N"><span>Waveform identification and retracking analyses of Jason-2 altimeter satellite data for improving <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface height estimation in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Java Island Waters and Java <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nababan, Bisman; Hakim, Muhammad R.; Panjaitan, James P.</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>Indonesian waters containing many small islands and shallow waters leads to a less accurate of <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface height (SSH) estimation from satellite altimetry. Little efforts are also given for the validation of SSH estimation from the satellite in Indonesian waters. The purpose of this research was to identify and retrack waveforms of Jason-2 altimeter satellite data in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Java island waters and Java <span class="hlt">Sea</span> using several retrackers and performed improvement percentage analyses for new SSH estimation. The study used data of the Sensor Geophysical Data Record type D (SGDR-D) of Jason-2 satellite altimeter of the year 2010 in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Java island waters and 2012-2014 in Java <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Waveform retracking analyses were conducted using several retrackers (Offset Center of Gravity, Ice, Threshold, and Improved Threshold) and examined using a world reference undulation geoid of EGM08 and Oceanic retracker. Result showed that shape and pattern of waveforms were varied in all passes, seasons, and locations specifically along the coastal regions. In general, non-Brownish and complex waveforms were identified along coastal region specifically within the distance of 0-10 km from the shoreline. In contrary, generally Brownish waveforms were found in offshore. However, Brownish waveform can also be found within coastal region and non-Brownish waveforms within offshore region. The results were also showed that the four retrackers produced a better SSH estimation in coastal region. However, there was no dominant retracker to improve the accuracy of the SSH estimate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JOUC...15..577Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JOUC...15..577Y"><span>Statistical downscaling of IPCC <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface wind and wind energy predictions for U.S. east coastal ocean, Gulf of Mexico and <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yao, Zhigang; Xue, Zuo; He, Ruoying; Bao, Xianwen; Song, Jun</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>A multivariate statistical downscaling method is developed to produce regional, high-resolution, coastal surface wind fields based on the IPCC global model predictions for the U.S. east coastal ocean, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), and the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The statistical relationship is built upon linear regressions between the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) spaces of a cross- calibrated, multi-platform, multi-instrument ocean surface wind velocity dataset (predictand) and the global NCEP wind reanalysis (predictor) over a 10 year period from 2000 to 2009. The statistical relationship is validated before applications and its effectiveness is confirmed by the good agreement between downscaled wind fields based on the NCEP reanalysis and in-situ surface wind measured at 16 National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys in the U.S. east coastal ocean and the GOM during 1992-1999. The predictand-predictor relationship is applied to IPCC GFDL model output (2.0°×2.5°) of downscaled coastal wind at 0.25°×0.25° resolution. The temporal and spatial variability of future predicted wind speeds and wind energy potential over the study region are further quantified. It is shown that wind speed and power would significantly be reduced in the high CO2 climate scenario offshore of the mid-Atlantic and northeast U.S., with the speed falling to one quarter of its original value.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035905','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035905"><span>Deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ostracods from the South Atlantic sector of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> ocean during the Last 370,000 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yasuhara, Moriaki; Cronin, T. M.; Hunt, G.; Hodell, D.A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We report changes of deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ostracod fauna during the last 370,000 yr from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 704A in the South Atlantic sector of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean. The results show that faunal changes are coincident with glacial/interglacial-scale deep-water circulation changes, even though our dataset is relatively small and the waters are barren of ostracods until mid-MIS (Marine Isotope Stage) 5. Krithe and Poseidonamicus were dominant during the Holocene interglacial period and the latter part of MIS 5, when this site was under the influence of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Conversely, Henryhowella and Legitimocythere were dominant during glacial periods, when this site was in the path of Circumpolar Deep Water (CPDW). Three new species (Aversovalva brandaoae, Poseidonamicus hisayoae, and Krithe mazziniae) are described herein. This is the first report of Quaternary glacial/interglacial scale deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ostracod faunal changes in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> and South Atlantic Oceans, a key region for understanding Quaternary climate and deep-water circulation, although the paucity of Quaternary ostracods in this region necessitates further research. ?? 2009 The Paleontological Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25148755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25148755"><span>Comparison of the efficacy of MODIS and MERIS data for detecting cyanobacterial blooms in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moradi, Masoud</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and hydro-biological measurements were used to detect two very severe blooms in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in 2005 and 2010. The MERIS Cyanobacteria Index (CIMERIS) was more reliable for detecting cyanobacterial blooms. The CIMERIS and MODIS cyanobacteria indices (CIMODIS) were compared in an effort to find a reliable method for detecting future blooms, as MERIS data were not available after April 2012. The CIMODIS had a linear relationship with and similar spatial patterns to the CIMERIS. On the CIMODIS images, extremely high biomass cyanobacteria patches were masked. A comparison of classified in situ data with the CIMODIS and Floating Algal Index (FAI) from four images of a severe bloom event in 2005 showed that the FAI is a reliable index for bloom detection over extremely dense patches. The corrected CIMODIS, the MODIS FAI and in situ data are adequate tools for cyanobacterial bloom monitoring in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816306F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816306F"><span>Unstructured-grid coastal ocean modelling in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Adriatic and Northern Ionian <span class="hlt">Seas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Federico, Ivan; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Oddo, Paolo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Adriatic Northern Ionian coastal Forecasting System (SANIFS) is a short-term forecasting system based on unstructured grid approach. The model component is built on SHYFEM finite element three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The operational chain exploits a downscaling approach starting from the Mediterranean oceanographic-scale model MFS (Mediterranean Forecasting System, operated by INGV). The implementation set-up has been designed to provide accurate hydrodynamics and active tracer processes in the coastal waters of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Eastern Italy (Apulia, Basilicata and Calabria regions), where the model is characterized by a variable resolution in range of 50-500 m. The horizontal resolution is also high in open-<span class="hlt">sea</span> areas, where the elements size is approximately 3 km. The model is forced: (i) at the lateral open boundaries through a full nesting strategy directly with the MFS (temperature, salinity, non-tidal <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface height and currents) and OTPS (tidal forcing) fields; (ii) at surface through two alternative atmospheric forcing datasets (ECMWF and COSMOME) via MFS-bulk-formulae. Given that the coastal fields are driven by a combination of both local/coastal and deep ocean forcings propagating along the shelf, the performance of SANIFS was verified first (i) at the large and shelf-coastal scales by comparing with a large scale CTD survey and then (ii) at the coastal-harbour scale by comparison with CTD, ADCP and tide gauge data. Sensitivity tests were performed on initialization conditions (mainly focused on spin-up procedures) and on surface boundary conditions by assessing the reliability of two alternative datasets at different horizontal resolution (12.5 and 7 km). The present work highlights how downscaling could improve the simulation of the flow field going from typical open-ocean scales of the order of several km to the coastal (and harbour) scales of tens to hundreds of meters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA619609','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA619609"><span>Initial Evaluations of a U.S. Navy Rapidly Relocatable Gulf of Mexico/<span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Ocean Forecast System in the Context of the Deepwater Horizon Incident</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-05-06</p> <p>forecast system covering the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> that was designated Americas <span class="hlt">Seas</span>, or AMSEAS, which is documented in this...Office of Naval Reseach One Liberty Center 875 North Randolph Street, Suite 1425 Arlington, VA 22203-1995 73-6669-05-5 ONR Ocean forecasting Skill...Coastal Ocean Model (Global NCOM). This new regional model domain came to be designated Americas <span class="hlt">Seas</span>, or AMSEAS. After a short spin-up and initial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18304737','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18304737"><span>Transplacental toxoplasmosis in a wild <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otter (Enhydra lutris nereis).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miller, Melissa; Conrad, Patricia; James, E R; Packham, Andrea; Toy-Choutka, Sharon; Murray, Michael J; Jessup, David; Grigg, Michael</p> <p>2008-05-06</p> <p>In September 2004, a neonatal <span class="hlt">sea</span> otter pup was found alive on the beach in northern Monterey Bay, CA. Efforts to locate the mother were unsuccessful. Due to a poor prognosis for successful rehabilitation, the pup was euthanized. Postmortem examination revealed emaciation, systemic lymphadenopathy and a malformation of the left cerebral temporal lobe. On histopathology, free tachyzoites and tissue cysts compatible with Toxoplasma gondii were observed in the brain, heart, thymus, liver, lymph nodes and peri-umbilical adipose. The presence of T. gondii within host tissues was associated with lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and tissue necrosis. Immunofluorescent antibody tests using postmortem serum were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG (at 1:320 and 1:1280 serum dilution, respectively), but were negative for IgG directed against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum (<1:40 each). Brain immunohistochemistry revealed positive staining for tachyzoites and tissue cysts using antiserum raised to T. gondii, but not S. neurona or N. caninum. T. gondii parasite DNA was obtained from extracts of brain and muscle by PCR amplification using the diagnostic B1 locus. Restriction enzyme digestion followed by gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of Type X T. gondii, the strain identified in the majority of <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otter infections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4607474','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4607474"><span>Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kiel, Steffen; Hansen, Bent T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted ‘Joes River fauna’ consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted ‘Bath Cliffs fauna’ containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema). In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman’s Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical ‘Cenozoic’ lucinid genera disappeared from the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large lucinids</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29881244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29881244"><span>Evaluating the promise and pitfalls of a potential climate change-tolerant <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin fishery in <span class="hlt">southern</span> California.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sato, Kirk N; Powell, Jackson; Rudie, Dave; Levin, Lisa A</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>Marine fishery stakeholders are beginning to consider and implement adaptation strategies in the face of growing consumer demand and potential deleterious climate change impacts such as ocean warming, ocean acidification, and deoxygenation. This study investigates the potential for development of a novel climate change - tolerant <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin fishery in <span class="hlt">southern</span> California based on Strongylocentrotus fragilis (pink <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin), a deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> species whose peak density was found to coincide with a current trap-based spot prawn fishery ( Pandalus platyceros ) in the 200-300-m depth range. Here we outline potential criteria for a climate change - tolerant fishery by examining the distribution, life-history attributes, and marketable qualities of S. fragilis in <span class="hlt">southern</span> California. We provide evidence of seasonality of gonad production and demonstrate that peak gonad production occurs in the winter season. S. fragilis likely spawns in the spring season as evidenced by consistent minimum gonad indices in the spring/summer seasons across 4 years of sampling (2012-2016). The resiliency of S. fragilis to predicted future increases in acidity and decreases in oxygen was supported by high species abundance, albeit reduced relative growth rate estimates at water depths (485-510 m) subject to low oxygen (11.7-16.9 µmol kg -1 ) and pH Total (<7.44), which may provide assurances to stakeholders and managers regarding the suitability of this species for commercial exploitation. Some food quality properties of the S. fragilis roe (e.g. colour, texture) were comparable with those of the commercially exploited shallow-water red <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin ( Mesocentrotus franciscanus ), while other qualities (e.g. 80% reduced gonad size by weight) limit the potential future marketability of S. fragilis . This case study highlights the potential future challenges and drawbacks of climate-tolerant fishery development in an attempt to inform future urchin fishery stakeholders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616839F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616839F"><span>Towards a coastal ocean forecasting system in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Adriatic Northern Ionian <span class="hlt">seas</span> based on unstructured-grid model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Federico, Ivan; Oddo, Paolo; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Adriatic Northern Ionian Forecasting System (SANIFS) operational chain is based on a nesting approach. The large scale model for the entire Mediterranean basin (MFS, Mediterranean Forecasting system, operated by INGV, e.g. Tonani et al. 2008, Oddo et al. 2009) provides lateral open boundary conditions to the regional model for Adriatic and Ionian <span class="hlt">seas</span> (AIFS, Adriatic Ionian Forecasting System) which provides the open-<span class="hlt">sea</span> fields (initial conditions and lateral open boundary conditions) to SANIFS. The latter, here presented, is a coastal ocean model based on SHYFEM (Shallow HYdrodynamics Finite Element Model) code, which is an unstructured grid, finite element three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (e.g. Umgiesser et al., 2004, Ferrarin et al., 2013). The SANIFS hydrodynamic model component has been designed to provide accurate information of hydrodynamics and active tracer fields in the coastal waters of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Eastern Italy (Apulia, Basilicata and Calabria regions), where the model is characterized by a resolution of about of 200-500 m. The horizontal resolution is also accurate in open-<span class="hlt">sea</span> areas, where the elements size is approximately 3 km. During the development phase the model has been initialized and forced at the lateral open boundaries through a full nesting strategy directly with the MFS fields. The heat fluxes has been computed by bulk formulae using as input data the operational analyses of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Short range pre-operational forecast tests have been performed in different seasons to evaluate the robustness of the implemented model in different oceanographic conditions. Model results are validated by means of comparison with MFS operational results and observations. The model is able to reproduce the large-scale oceanographic structures of the area (keeping similar structures of MFS in open <span class="hlt">sea</span>), while in the coastal area significant improvements in terms of reproduced structures and dynamics are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS13C1208P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS13C1208P"><span>Tidal Impacts on Oceanographic and <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-ice Processes in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Padman, L.; Muench, R. D.; Howard, S.; Mueller, R.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>We review recent field and modeling results that demonstrate the importance of tides in establishing the oceanographic and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice conditions in the boundary regions of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean. The tidal component dominates the total oceanic kinetic energy throughout much of the circum-Antarctic <span class="hlt">seas</span>. This domination is especially pronounced over the continental slope and shelf including the sub-ice-shelf cavities. Tides provide most of the energy that forces diapycnal mixing under ice shelves and thereby contributes to basal melting. The resulting Ice Shelf Water is a significant component of the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) filling much of the deep global ocean. Tides exert significant divergent forcing on <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice along glacial ice fronts and coastal regions, contributing to creation and maintenance of the coastal polynyas where much of the High Salinity Shelf Water component of AABW is formed. Additional tidally forced ice divergence along the shelf break and upper slope significantly impacts area-averaged ice growth and upper-ocean salinity. Tidally forced cross- slope advection, and mixing by the benthic stress associated with tidal currents along the shelf break and upper slope, strongly influence the paths, volume fluxes and hydrographic properties of benthic outflows of dense water leaving the continental shelf. These outflows provide primary source waters for the AABW. These results confirm that general ocean circulation and coupled ocean/ice/atmosphere climate models must incorporate the impacts of tides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150021521&hterms=sea&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsea','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150021521&hterms=sea&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsea"><span>An Assessment of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean Water Masses and <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice During 1988-2007 in a Suite of Interannual CORE-II Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Downes, Stephanie M.; Farneti, Riccardo; Uotila, Petteri; Griffies, Stephen M.; Marsland, Simon J.; Bailey, David; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20150021521'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20150021521_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20150021521_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20150021521_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20150021521_hide"></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We characterise the representation of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean water mass structure and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice within a suite of 15 global ocean-ice models run with the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiment Phase II (CORE-II) protocol. The main focus is the representation of the present (1988-2007) mode and intermediate waters, thus framing an analysis of winter and summer mixed layer depths; temperature, salinity, and potential vorticity structure; and temporal variability of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice distributions. We also consider the interannual variability over the same 20 year period. Comparisons are made between models as well as to observation-based analyses where available. The CORE-II models exhibit several biases relative to <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean observations, including an underestimation of the model mean mixed layer depths of mode and intermediate water masses in March (associated with greater ocean surface heat gain), and an overestimation in September (associated with greater high latitude ocean heat loss and a more northward winter <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice extent). In addition, the models have cold and fresh/warm and salty water column biases centred near 50 deg S. Over the 1988-2007 period, the CORE-II models consistently simulate spatially variable trends in <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice concentration, surface freshwater fluxes, mixed layer depths, and 200-700 m ocean heat content. In particular, <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice coverage around most of the Antarctic continental shelf is reduced, leading to a cooling and freshening of the near surface waters. The shoaling of the mixed layer is associated with increased surface buoyancy gain, except in the Pacific where <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice is also influential. The models are in disagreement, despite the common CORE-II atmospheric state, in their spatial pattern of the 20-year trends in the mixed layer depth and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMPP11B1036R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMPP11B1036R"><span><span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean Circulation: a High Resolution Examination of the Last Deglaciation from Deep-<span class="hlt">Sea</span> Corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robinson, L. F.; Li, T.; Chen, T.; Burke, A.; Pegrum Haram, A.; Stewart, J.; Rae, J. W. B.; van de Flierdt, T.; Struve, T.; Wilson, D. J.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Two decades ago it was first noted that the skeletal remains of deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> corals had the potential to provide absolutely dated archives of past ocean conditions. In the intervening twenty years this field has developed to the point where strategic collections and high throughput dating techniques now allow high resolution, well dated records of past deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> behaviour to be produced. Likewise, efforts to improve understanding of biomineralisation and growth rates are leading to refinements in proxy tools useful for examining circulation, nutrient and carbon cycling, temperature and weathering processes. Deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> corals are particularly valuable archives in high latitude regions where radiocarbon-based age models are susceptible to large changes in surface reservoir ages. In this presentation we show new high resolution multiproxy records of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean (Drake Passage) made on U-Th dated corals spanning the last glacial cycle. With more than seventeen hundred reconnaissance ages, and around 200 precise isotope dilution U-Th ages, subtle changes in ocean behaviour can be identified during times of abrupt climate change. The geochemical signature of corals from the deepest sites, closest to modern day Lower Circumpolar Deep Waters, typically show a gradual shift from glacial to Holocene values during deglaciation, likely related to ventilation of the deep ocean. By contrast for the samples collected shallower in the water column (within sites currently bathed by Upper Circumpolar Deep Waters and Antarctic Intermediate and Mode Waters) the evidence points to a more complicated picture. Vertical zonation in the geochemical data suggests that periods of stratification are interspersed with mixing events within the upper 1500m of the water column. At the same time comparison to U-Th dated records from the low latitude Pacific and Atlantic points to an important role for the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean in feeding the intermediate waters of both ocean basins throughout the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018BGeo...15.2091L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018BGeo...15.2091L"><span>Biogeochemical characteristics of suspended particulate matter in deep chlorophyll maximum layers in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Qianqian; Kandasamy, Selvaraj; Lin, Baozhi; Wang, Huawei; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>Continental shelves and marginal <span class="hlt">seas</span> are key sites of particulate organic matter (POM) production, remineralization and sequestration, playing an important role in the global carbon cycle. Elemental and stable isotopic compositions of organic carbon and nitrogen are thus frequently used to characterize and distinguish POM and its sources in suspended particles and surface sediments in the marginal <span class="hlt">seas</span>. Here we investigated suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected around deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) layers in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> for particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC and PN) contents and their isotopic compositions (δ13CPOC and δ15NPN) to understand provenance and dynamics of POM. Hydrographic parameters (temperature, salinity and turbidity) indicated that the study area was weakly influenced by freshwater derived from the Yangtze River during summer 2013. Elemental and isotopic results showed a large variation in δ13CPOC (-25.8 to -18.2 ‰) and δ15NPN (3.8 to 8.0 ‰), but a narrow molar C / N ratio (4.1-6.3) and low POC / Chl a ratio ( < 200 g g-1) in POM, and indicated that the POM in DCM layers was newly produced by phytoplankton. In addition to temperature effects, the range and distribution of δ13CPOC were controlled by variations in primary productivity and phytoplankton species composition; the former explained ˜ 70 % of the variability in δ13CPOC. However, the variation in δ15NPN was controlled by the nutrient status and δ15NNO3- in seawater, as indicated by similar spatial distribution between δ15NPN and the current pattern and water masses in the East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>; although interpretations of δ15NPN data should be verified with the nutrient data in future studies. Furthermore, the POM investigated was weakly influenced by the terrestrial OM supplied by the Yangtze River during summer 2013 due to the reduced sediment supply by the Yangtze River and north-eastward transport of riverine particles to the northern East China</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022887&hterms=square&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsquare','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022887&hterms=square&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsquare"><span>Observations of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Mean Square Slope During the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean Waves Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walsh, E. J.; Vandemark, D. C.; Wright, C. W.; Banner, M. L.; Chen, W.; Swift, R. N.; Scott, J. F.; Hines, D. E.; Jensen, J.; Lee, S.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20020022887'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20020022887_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20020022887_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20020022887_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20020022887_hide"></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>For the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean Waves Experiment (SOWEX), conducted in June 1992 out of Hobart, Tasmania, the NASA Scanning Radar Altimeter (SRA) was shipped to Australia and installed on a CSIRO Fokker F-27 research aircraft instrumented to make comprehensive surface layer measurements of air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> interaction fluxes. The SRA sweeps a radar beam of P (two-way) half-power width across the aircraft ground track over a swath equal to 0.8 of the aircraft height, simultaneously measuring the backscattered power at its 36 GHz (8.3 mm) operating frequency and the range to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface at 64 cross-track positions. In realtime, the slant ranges are multiplied by the cosine of the off-nadir incidence angles (including the effect of aircraft roll attitude) to determine the vertical distances from the aircraft to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface. These distances are subtracted from the aircraft height to produce a <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface elevation map, which is displayed on a monitor in the aircraft to enable real-time assessments of data quality and wave properties. The <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface mean square slope (mss), which is predominantly caused by the short waves, was determined from the backscattered power falloff with incidence angle measured by the SRA in the plane normal to the aircraft heading. On each flight, data were acquired at 240 m altitude while the aircraft was in a 7 degree roll attitude, interrogating off-nadir incidence angles from -15 degrees through nadir to +29 degrees. The aircraft turned azimuthally through 810 degrees in this attitude, mapping the azimuthal dependence of the backscattered power falloff with incidence angle. Two sets of turning data were acquired on each day, before and after the aircraft measured wind stress at low altitude (12 meters to 65 meters). Wave topography and backscattered power for mss were also acquired during those level flight segments whenever the aircraft altitude was above the SRA minimum range of 35 m. Data were collected over a wide range of wind and <span class="hlt">sea</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PrOce.156...17L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PrOce.156...17L"><span>Under the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice: Exploring the relationship between <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and the foraging behaviour of <span class="hlt">southern</span> elephant seals in East Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Labrousse, Sara; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste; Fraser, Alexander D.; Massom, Robert A.; Reid, Phillip; Sumner, Michael; Guinet, Christophe; Harcourt, Robert; McMahon, Clive; Bailleul, Frédéric; Hindell, Mark A.; Charrassin, Jean-Benoit</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Investigating ecological relationships between predators and their environment is essential to understand the response of marine ecosystems to climate variability and change. This is particularly true in polar regions, where <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice (a sensitive climate variable) plays a crucial yet highly dynamic and variable role in how it influences the whole marine ecosystem, from phytoplankton to top predators. For mesopredators such as seals, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice both supports a rich (under-ice) food resource, access to which depends on local to regional coverage and conditions. Here, we investigate sex-specific relationships between the foraging strategies of <span class="hlt">southern</span> elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in winter and spatio-temporal variability in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration (SIC) and coverage in East Antarctica. We satellite-tracked 46 individuals undertaking post-moult trips in winter from Kerguelen Islands to the peri-Antarctic shelf between 2004 and 2014. These data indicate distinct general patterns of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice usage: while females tended to follow the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice edge as it extended northward, the males remained on the continental shelf despite increasing <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. Seal hunting time, a proxy of foraging activity inferred from the diving behaviour, was longer for females in late autumn in the outer part of the pack ice, ∼150-370 km south of the ice edge. Within persistent regions of compact <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice, females had a longer foraging activity (i) in the highest <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration at their position, but (ii) their foraging activity was longer when there were more patches of low concentration <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice around their position (either in time or in space; 30 days & 50 km). The high spatio-temporal variability of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice around female positions is probably a key factor allowing them to exploit these concentrated patches. Despite lack of information on prey availability, females may exploit mesopelagic finfishes and squids that concentrate near the ice-water interface or within the water column (from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18775556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18775556"><span>Organohalogen concentrations in blood and adipose tissue of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> polar bears.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bentzen, T W; Muir, D C G; Amstrup, S C; O'Hara, T M</p> <p>2008-11-15</p> <p>We analyzed 151 organohalogen chemicals (OHCs) in whole blood and subcutaneous fat of 57 polar bears sampled along the Alaskan Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coast in spring, 2003. All major organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PBDEs and their congeners were assessed. Concentrations of most OHCs continue to be lower among <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> polar bears than reported for other populations. Additionally, toxaphenes and related compounds were assessed in adipose tissue, and 8 perflourinated compounds (PFCs) were examined in blood. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations exceeded those of any other contaminant measured in blood. SigmaChlordane concentrations were higher in females, and both SigmaPCBs and SigmaChlordane concentrations in adipose tissue decreased significantly with age. The rank order of OHC mean concentrations; SigmaPCB>Sigma10PCB>PCB153>SigmaChlordane>Oxychlordane>PCB180>SigmaHCH>beta-HCH>SigmaDDT>p,p-DDE>SigmaPBDE>HCB>Toxaphene was similar for compounds above detection limits in both fat and blood. Although correlation between OHC concentrations in blood and adipose tissue was examined, the predictability of concentrations in one matrix for the other was limited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033292','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033292"><span>Organohalogen concentrations in blood and adipose tissue of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> polar bears</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bentzen, T.W.; Muir, D.C.G.; Amstrup, Steven C.; O'Hara, T. M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We analyzed 151 organohalogen chemicals (OHCs) in whole blood and subcutaneous fat of 57 polar bears sampled along the Alaskan Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coast in spring, 2003. All major organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PBDEs and their congeners were assessed. Concentrations of most OHCs continue to be lower among <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> polar bears than reported for other populations. Additionally, toxaphenes and related compounds were assessed in adipose tissue, and 8 perflourinated compounds (PFCs) were examined in blood. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations exceeded those of any other contaminant measured in blood. ??Chlordane concentrations were higher in females, and both ??PCBs and ??Chlordane concentrations in adipose tissue decreased significantly with age. The rank order of OHC mean concentrations; ??PCB > ??10PCB > PCB153 > ??Chlordane > Oxychlordane > PCB180 > ??HCH > ??-HCH > ??DDT > p,p-DDE > ??PBDE > HCB > Toxaphene was similar for compounds above detection limits in both fat and blood. Although correlation between OHC concentrations in blood and adipose tissue was examined, the predictability of concentrations in one matrix for the other was limited. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSHE44D1538R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSHE44D1538R"><span>Friend or Foe: Variability in How <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Can Both Hinder and Enhance Phytoplankton Blooms Across the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rohr, T.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Globally, a suite of physical and biogeochemical controls govern the structure, size, and timing of seasonal phytoplankton blooms. In the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean, the introduction of seasonal <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice provides an additional constraining factor. From a bottom-up perspective, a reduction in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice can both enhance bloom development by permitting greater levels of surface PAR uninhibited by ice and suppress a bloom when reduced fresh melt-water inputs and increased vulnerability to wind stress combine to create deeper mixed layers and decrease depth integrated light availability. Regions along the Western Antarctic Peninsula have already seen a contradictory response to reduced ice cover, with enhanced summertime chlorophyll concentrations in the South, and large declines to the North. This dichotomy is thought to arise from differences in the interannual mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice state, with extensively ice covered regions benefiting from reduced coverage and more sparsely covered regions hindered by further reductions. The questions arises: 1) At what threshold does a reduction in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice transition from amplifying blooms to suppressing them? 2) How do additional environmental considerations such as nutrient availability and trophic interactions complicate this transition? Here, we combine remote sensing observations and in-situ data (from PAL LTER) with a hierarchy of 1-D water column and global general circulation (CESM) models to access the variability in how regional differences in mean ice state combine with other environmental forcings to dictate how interannual variability (or long term trends) in ice coverage will affect bloom structure, size and dynamics. In doing so we will gain a better understanding of how predicted changes in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice will effect <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean productivity, which of course will have important consequences in the global carbon cycle and sustainability of healthy marine ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5034254','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5034254"><span>The conservative behavior of dissolved organic carbon in surface waters of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Arctic Ocean, during early summer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tanaka, Kazuki; Takesue, Nobuyuki; Nishioka, Jun; Kondo, Yoshiko; Ooki, Atsushi; Kuma, Kenshi; Hirawake, Toru; Yamashita, Youhei</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The spatial distribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) determined by ultraviolet-visible absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy were measured in surface waters of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, western Arctic Ocean, during the early summer of 2013. Neither the DOC concentration nor the optical parameters of the DOM correlated with salinity. Principal component analysis using the DOM optical parameters clearly separated the DOM sources. A significant linear relationship was evident between the DOC and the principal component score for specific water masses, indicating that a high DOC level was related to a terrigenous source, whereas a low DOC level was related to a marine source. Relationships between the DOC and the principal component scores of the surface waters of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span> implied that the major factor controlling the distribution of DOC concentrations was the mixing of plural water masses rather than local production and degradation. PMID:27658444</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.H11O..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.H11O..05H"><span>Is climate change intensifying the drying-trend in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herrera, D. A.; Ault, T.; Fasullo, J.; Carrillo, C. M.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Since 1950, the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> (11ºN-25ºN; 85ºW-60ºW) has seen a significant drying trend characterized by several recent droughts, some of them contemporaneous with El Niño events. Moreover, the most recent drought from 2013 to 2016 was both the most severe and widespread event since at least 1950, and was associated with high temperatures, likely driven in part by climate change. This work examines the role of increased evaporative demand resulting from warmer temperatures on the drying trend observed in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> since 1950, using observations and model simulations. Large-scale dynamics associated with drought are also analyzed using <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature, geopotential height, wind, and precipitation anomalies, as well as radiative fluxes anomalies. Furthermore, land surface model soil moisture and high-resolution self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) datasets are used to quantify drought severity at local scales. The anthropogenic contribution to drought severity is estimated as the difference between the scPDSI calculated using linearly-detrended temperatures, and the scPDSI computed with the observed trend, with unadjusted precipitation, net radiation, and wind speed. Soil moisture anomalies driven by climate change are derived by comparing a large ensemble of forced simulations against a pre-industrial control. The resulting analysis indicates that anthropogenic forcing has intensified the drying trend in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> by -0.4 scPDSI-units over 60 years, and has increased the dry-land area by 10%. These findings are consistent with observed potential evapotranspiration (PET) anomalies, which are 30% higher than PET-anomalies estimated using detrended temperatures. These results suggest that climate change is already increasing the risk of drought in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> by enhancing the atmospheric demand of moisture through temperature, and provide insights into the role of climate change in future drought risk in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23240483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23240483"><span><span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> contributions to contemporary psychiatric psychopathology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hickling, F W; Hutchinson, G</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The intellectual exploration of phenomenological and psychiatric discovery that has flowered in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> in the period of political independence from British colonization is a reflection of the scholarship that has emerged from the academic nurturance by The University of the West Indies. Burgeoning migration of <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> people to England in the twentieth century has resulted in high reported rates of psychosis for this migrant population. <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> research into this condition has revealed that there exist hostile racial and environmental challenges in Britain that have had a profound pathological effect on the mental health of African <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> migrants. These findings have significantly shifted the pendulum of understanding of the aetiology of this condition from a genetic to a biopsychosocial position. Research has also revealed longstanding psychopathological effects of slavery and colonialism in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> that have had significantly negative long term effects on the mental health of many within the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> population. Current research suggests that there is a need to nurture protective strategies to enhance resilience and social capital, which would ensure the wellness and continued survival of <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> people in spite of the many challenges they face.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018Geomo.311...76O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018Geomo.311...76O"><span>Morphologic and seismic evidence of rapid submergence offshore Cide-Sinop in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> shelf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ocakoğlu, Neslihan; İşcan, Yeliz; Kılıç, Fatmagül; Özel, Oğuz</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>Multi-beam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data obtained offshore Cide-Sinop have revealed important records on the latest transgression of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> for the first time. A relatively large shelf plain within the narrow <span class="hlt">southern</span> continental shelf characterized by a flat seafloor morphology at -100 water depth followed by a steep continental slope leading to -500 m depth. This area is widely covered by submerged morphological features such as dunes, lagoons, possible aeolianites, an eroded anticline and small channels that developed by aeolian and fluvial processes. These morphological features sit upon an erosional surface that truncates the top of all seismic units and constitutes the seafloor over the whole shelf. The recent prograded delta deposits around the shelf break are also truncated by the similar erosional surface. These results indicate that offshore Cide-Sinop was once a terrestrial landscape that was then submerged. The interpreted paleoshoreline varies from -100 to -120 m. This variation can be explained by not only <span class="hlt">sea</span> level changes but also the active faults observed on the seismic section. The effective protection of morphological features on the seafloor is the evidence of abrupt submergence rather than gradual. In addition, the absence of coastal onlaps suggests that these morphological features should have developed at low <span class="hlt">sea</span> level before the latest <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise in the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28009107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28009107"><span>Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo and Newport in Free-ranging <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Turtles and Beach Sand in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> and Persistence in Sand and Seawater Microcosms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ives, A-K; Antaki, E; Stewart, K; Francis, S; Jay-Russell, M T; Sithole, F; Kearney, M T; Griffin, M J; Soto, E</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Salmonellae are Gram-negative zoonotic bacteria that are frequently part of the normal reptilian gastrointestinal flora. The main objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica in the nesting and foraging populations of <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtles on St. Kitts and in sand from known nesting beaches. Results suggest a higher prevalence of Salmonella in nesting leatherback <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtles compared with foraging green and hawksbill <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtles. Salmonella was cultured from 2/9 and identified by molecular diagnostic methods in 3/9 leatherback <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtle samples. Salmonella DNA was detected in one hawksbill turtle, but viable isolates were not recovered from any hawksbill <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtles. No Salmonella was detected in green <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtles. In samples collected from nesting beaches, Salmonella was only recovered from a single dry sand sample. All recovered isolates were positive for the wzx gene, consistent with the O:7 serogroup. Further serotyping characterized serovars Montevideo and Newport present in cloacal and sand samples. Repetitive-element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the 2014 isolates from turtles and sand as well as archived Salmonella isolates recovered from leatherback <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtles in 2012 and 2013, identified two distinct genotypes and four different pulsotypes, respectively. The genotyping and serotyping were directly correlated. To determine the persistence of representative strains of each serotype/genotype in these environments, laboratory-controlled microcosm studies were performed in water and sand (dry and wet) incubated at 25 or 35°C. Isolates persisted for at least 32 days in most microcosms, although there were significant decreases in culturable bacteria in several microcosms, with the greatest reduction in dry sand incubated at 35°C. This information provides a better understanding of the epizootiology of Salmonella in free-ranging marine reptiles and the potential</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Modern+AND+Slavery&pg=2&id=EJ625625','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Modern+AND+Slavery&pg=2&id=EJ625625"><span><span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Crucible: History, Culture, and Globalization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yelvington, Kevin A.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Reconsiders the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> as an origin-point of the modern global system. Discusses the conquests and colonization of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>; the slavery system and racial distinctions; the post-emancipation society; and culture, Creolization, and the concept of movement as features of <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> society. Provides a bibliography. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22952888','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22952888"><span>Laboratory-based surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis isolates from disease cases in Latin American and <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> countries, SIREVA II 2006-2010.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ibarz-Pavón, Ana Belén; Lemos, Ana Paula; Gorla, Maria Cecilia; Regueira, Mabel; Gabastou, Jean-Marc</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Published data on the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Latin America and the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region is scarce and, when available, it is often published in Spanish and/or in non-peer-reviewed journals, making it difficult for the international scientific community to have access. Laboratory data on 4,735 Neisseria meningitidis strains was collected and reported by the National Reference Laboratories in 19 Latin American countries and the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) between 2006 and 2010 as part of the work carried out by the SIREVA II network. Serogroup and MIC to penicillin, rifampin and chloramphenicol were determined. Isolates were mainly obtained from patients <5 years, but each year around 25% of isolates came from adult patients. Serogroup distribution was highly variable among countries. Serogroup C was the main cause of disease in Brazil; the majority of disease seen in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> cone was caused by serogroup B, but serogroup W135 strains have increased in recent years. In the Andean and Mexico, Central America and <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> regions, serogroups B and C were equally present, and serogroup Y was frequently isolated. Isolates were generally susceptible to chloramphenicol, penicillin and rifampin, but almost 60% of isolates characterized in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> cone countries presented intermediate resistance to penicillin. Five rifampin-resistant isolates have been isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. Serogroup distribution is highly variable among countries, but some geographic structuring can be inferred from these data. Epidemiological and laboratory data are scarce among Andean and Mexico, Central America and <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> countries. Evaluation and implementation of corrective measures on disease surveillance and reporting systems and the implementation of molecular diagnostic techniques and molecular characterization on meningococcal isolates are advised.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SedG..231...14E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SedG..231...14E"><span>Coastal stratigraphies of eastern Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles): New insights into the palaeo-tsunami history of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Engel, Max; Brückner, Helmut; Wennrich, Volker; Scheffers, Anja; Kelletat, Dieter; Vött, Andreas; Schäbitz, Frank; Daut, Gerhard; Willershäuser, Timo; May, Simon Matthias</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>A sediment record of three alluvial sites along the east- and northeast-oriented shore of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles) provides evidence for the recurrence of several extraordinary wave impacts during the Holocene. The interpretation of onshore high-energy wave deposits is controversially discussed in recent sedimentary research. However, it represents a powerful tool to evaluate the hazard of tsunami and severe storms where historical documentation is short and/or fragmentary. A facies model was established based on sedimentary and geochemical characteristics as well as the assemblage and state of preservation of shells and shell fragments. Radiocarbon data and the comparison of the facies model with both recent local hurricane deposits and global "tsunami signature types" point to the occurrence of three major wave events around 3300, 2000-1700 and shortly before 500 BP. Since (i) the stratigraphically correlated sand layers fulfill several sedimentary characteristics commonly associated with tsunamis and (ii) modern strong hurricanes left only little or even no sediment in the study areas, they were interpreted as tsunamigenic. However, surges largely exceeding the energy of those accompanying modern hurricanes in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> cannot entirely be ruled out. The results are partially consistent with existing chronologies for Holocene extreme wave events deduced from supralittoral coarse-clast deposits on Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao as well as overwash sediments from Cayo Sal, Venezuela.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CorRe..32..737B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CorRe..32..737B"><span>The status of coral reef ecology research in the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berumen, M. L.; Hoey, A. S.; Bass, W. H.; Bouwmeester, J.; Catania, D.; Cochran, J. E. M.; Khalil, M. T.; Miyake, S.; Mughal, M. R.; Spaet, J. L. Y.; Saenz-Agudelo, P.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> has long been recognized as a region of high biodiversity and endemism. Despite this diversity and early history of scientific work, our understanding of the ecology of coral reefs in the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> has lagged behind that of other large coral reef systems. We carried out a quantitative assessment of ISI-listed research published from the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in eight specific topics (apex predators, connectivity, coral bleaching, coral reproductive biology, herbivory, marine protected areas, non-coral invertebrates and reef-associated bacteria) and compared the amount of research conducted in the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to that from Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>. On average, for these eight topics, the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> had 1/6th the amount of research compared to the GBR and about 1/8th the amount of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>. Further, more than 50 % of the published research from the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> originated from the Gulf of Aqaba, a small area (<2 % of the area of the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span>) in the far northern Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. We summarize the general state of knowledge in these eight topics and highlight the areas of future research priorities for the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region. Notably, data that could inform science-based management approaches are badly lacking in most Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> countries. The Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, as a geologically "young" <span class="hlt">sea</span> located in one of the warmest regions of the world, has the potential to provide insight into pressing topics such as speciation processes as well as the capacity of reef systems and organisms to adapt to global climate change. As one of the world's most biodiverse coral reef regions, the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> may yet have a significant role to play in our understanding of coral reef ecology at a global scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012QuRes..78..454M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012QuRes..78..454M"><span>A sedimentary-based history of hurricane strikes on the <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> coast of Nicaragua</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCloskey, Terrence Allen; Liu, Kam-biu</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Multi-millennial hurricane landfall records from the western North Atlantic indicate that landfall frequency has varied dramatically over time, punctuated by multi-centennial to millennial scale periods of hyperactivity. We extend the record geographically by presenting a paleostrike record inferred from a four-core transect from a marsh on the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> coast of Nicaragua. Fossil pollen indicates that the site was a highly organic wetland from ~ 5400-4900 cal yr BP, at which time it became a shallow marine lagoon until ~ 2800 cal yr BP when it transitioned back into swamp/marsh, freshening over time, with the present fresh-to-brackish Typha marsh developing over the very recent past. Hurricane Joan, 1988, is recorded as a distinctive light-colored sand-silt-clay layer across the top of the transect, identifiable by abrupt shifts in color from the dark marsh deposits, increased grain size, and two upward-fining sequences, which are interpreted as representing the storm's traction and suspension loads. The six layers identified as hurricane-generated display temporal clustering, featuring a marked increase in landfall frequency ~ 800 cal yr BP. This pattern is anti-phase with the activity pattern previously identified from the northern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> and the Atlantic coast of North America, thereby opposing the view that hyperactivity occurs simultaneously across the entire basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26059558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26059558"><span>Caspian Rapid Assessment Method: a localized procedure for assessment of wetlands at <span class="hlt">southern</span> fringe of the Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khorami Pour, Sanaz; Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Riazi, Borhan; Khorasani, Nematollah</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Although Iran is of founders of the Ramsar Convention, there is no comprehensive information available in the country on the status of wetlands in the past or at present. There is also no specific guideline for assessing the status of wetlands in the basin of the Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> as an ecosystem with unique ecological features. The main aim of this study was to develop a new procedure called "Caspian Rapid Assessment Method" (CRAM) for assessment of wetlands at <span class="hlt">southern</span> fringe of the Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. To this end, 16 rapid assessment methods analyzed by US EPA in 2003 were reviewed to provide an inventory of rapid assessment indices. Excluding less important indices, the inventory was short-listed based on Delphi panelists' consensus. The CRAM was developed with 6 main criteria and 12 sub-criteria. The modified method was used to assess three important wetlands of Anzali, Boojagh and Miyankaleh at the <span class="hlt">southern</span> border of the Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. According to the obtained results, the highest score of 60 was assigned to the Anzali Wetland. Obtaining the scores of 56 and 47, Miyankaleh and Boojagh wetlands were ranked in the next priorities, respectively. At final stage, the accuracy of CRAM prioritization values was confirmed using the Friedman test. All of the wetlands were classified into category II, which indicates destroyed wetlands with rehabilitation potentials. In recent years, serious threats have deteriorated the wetlands from class III (normal condition) to the class II.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRI..123...90Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRI..123...90Q"><span>Demersal fish assemblages on seamounts and other rugged features in the northeastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quattrini, Andrea M.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Singer, Randal; Roa-Varon, Adela; Chaytor, Jason D.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Recent investigations of demersal fish communities in deepwater (>50 m) habitats have considerably increased our knowledge of the factors that influence the assemblage structure of fishes across mesophotic to deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> depths. While different habitat types influence deepwater fish distribution, whether different types of rugged seafloor features provide functionally equivalent habitat for fishes is poorly understood. In the northeastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, different types of rugged features (e.g., seamounts, banks, canyons) punctuate insular margins, and thus create a remarkable setting in which to compare demersal fish communities across various features. Concurrently, several water masses are vertically layered in the water column, creating strong stratification layers corresponding to specific abiotic conditions. In this study, we examined differences among fish assemblages across different features (e.g., seamount, canyon, bank/ridge) and water masses at depths ranging from 98 to 4060 m in the northeastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>. We conducted 26 remotely operated vehicle dives across 18 sites, identifying 156 species of which 42% of had not been previously recorded from particular depths or localities in the region. While rarefaction curves indicated fewer species at seamounts than at other features in the NE <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, assemblage structure was similar among the different types of features. Thus, similar to seamount studies in other regions, seamounts in the Anegada Passage do not harbor distinct communities from other types of rugged features. Species assemblages, however, differed among depths, with zonation generally corresponding to water mass boundaries in the region. High species turnover occurred at depths <1200 m, and may be driven by changes in water mass characteristics including temperature (4.8-24.4 °C) and dissolved oxygen (2.2-9.5 mg per l). Our study suggests the importance of water masses in influencing community structure of benthic fauna, while considerably adding</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70185712','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70185712"><span>Demersal fish assemblages on seamounts and other rugged features in the northeastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Quattrini, Andrea M.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Singer, Randal; Roa-Varon, Adela; Chaytor, Jason D.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Recent investigations of demersal fish communities in deepwater (>50 m) habitats have considerably increased our knowledge of the factors that influence the assemblage structure of fishes across mesophotic to deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> depths. While different habitat types influence deepwater fish distribution, whether different types of rugged seafloor features provide functionally equivalent habitat for fishes is poorly understood. In the northeastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, different types of rugged features (e.g., seamounts, banks, canyons) punctuate insular margins, and thus create a remarkable setting in which to compare demersal fish communities across various features. Concurrently, several water masses are vertically layered in the water column, creating strong stratification layers corresponding to specific abiotic conditions. In this study, we examined differences among fish assemblages across different features (e.g., seamount, canyon, bank/ridge) and water masses at depths ranging from 98 to 4060 m in the northeastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>. We conducted 26 remotely operated vehicle dives across 18 sites, identifying 156 species of which 42% of had not been previously recorded from particular depths or localities in the region. While rarefaction curves indicated fewer species at seamounts than at other features in the NE <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, assemblage structure was similar among the different types of features. Thus, similar to seamount studies in other regions, seamounts in the Anegada Passage do not harbor distinct communities from other types of rugged features. Species assemblages, however, differed among depths, with zonation generally corresponding to water mass boundaries in the region. High species turnover occurred at depths <1200 m, and may be driven by changes in water mass characteristics including temperature (4.8–24.4 °C) and dissolved oxygen (2.2–9.5 mg per l). Our study suggests the importance of water masses in influencing community structure of benthic fauna, while</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.202..313K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.202..313K"><span>5000 yr of paleoseismicity along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> fault</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klinger, Y.; Le Béon, M.; Al-Qaryouti, M.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p> with no significant earthquake along the entire <span class="hlt">southern</span> part of the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> fault, between the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the Gulf of Aqaba. We computed the Coefficient of Variation for our site and three other sites along the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> fault, south of Lebanon, to compare time distribution of earthquakes at different locations along the fault. With one exception at a site located next to Lake Tiberias, the three other sites are consistent to show some temporal clustering at the scale of few thousands years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030010','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030010"><span>Variation in winter diet of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> polar bears inferred from stable isotope analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, Erich H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; O'Hara, T. M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Ringed seals (Phoca hispida Schreber, 1775 = Pusa hispida (Schreber, 1775)) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus (Erxleben, 1777)) represent the majority of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) annual diet. However, remains of lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758) are available in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and their dietary contribution to polar bears has been unknown. We used stable isotope (13C/12C, δ13C, 15N/14N, and δ15N) analysis to determine the diet composition of polar bears sampled along Alaska’s Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coast in March and April 2003 and 2004. The mean δ15N values of polar bear blood cells were 19.5‰ (SD = 0.7‰) in 2003 and 19.9‰ (SD = 0.7‰) in 2004. Mixing models indicated bowhead whales composed 11%–26% (95% CI) of the diets of sampled polar bears in 2003, and 0%–14% (95% CI) in 2004. This suggests significant variability in the proportion of lower trophic level prey in polar bear diets among individuals and between years. Polar bears depend on <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice for hunting seals, and the temporal and spatial availabilities of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice are projected to decline. Consumption of low trophic level foods documented here suggests bears may increasingly scavenge such foods in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21488904','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21488904"><span>Risk factor analysis for <span class="hlt">sea</span> lice, Caligus rogercresseyi, levels in farmed salmonids in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Chile.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yatabe, T; Arriagada, G; Hamilton-West, C; Urcelay, S</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> lice, Caligus rogercresseyi, are ectoparasitic copepods, which severely affect the salmon farming industry in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Chile, reducing the health status of fish and producing both direct and indirect economic losses. Local farmers have reported increasing infestation levels since 2004, reaching a peak in 2007. In response to this situation, the Chilean Fisheries Service (Sernapesca) developed a surveillance programme; the first step of which consisted of a general survey of salmon farms. This survey included documenting counts of parasite burdens on fish and measurements of several husbandry and environmental factors providing an evaluation of risk factors for the observed infestation levels. The information collected was analysed using a linear mixed model technique, which takes into account the clustered structure of data, decomposing the unexplained variation and assigning it to different aggregation levels of the productive system. Geographical zones, fish species, treatment against <span class="hlt">sea</span> lice performed 1 month before sampling, stocking density, fish weight and water salinity were the variables significantly associated with <span class="hlt">sea</span> lice burdens. In contrast, treatments performed 2-3 months before sampling, use of photoperiod in <span class="hlt">sea</span> cages and water temperature, were not significant. There was significant unexplained variation at all aggregation levels, i.e. sub-zone, fish farm and cage level, with the fish farm level showing the greatest variation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/982155-impacts-climate-changes-renewable-energy-resources-caribbean-region','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/982155-impacts-climate-changes-renewable-energy-resources-caribbean-region"><span>The impacts of climate changes in the renewable energy resources in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Erickson III, David J</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>Assessment of renewable energy resources such as surface solar radiation and wind current has great relevance in the development of local and regional energy policies. This paper examines the variability and availability of these resources as a function of possible climate changes for the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region. Global climate changes have been reported in the last decades, causing changes in the atmospheric dynamics, which affects the net solar radiation balance at the surface and the wind strength and direction. For this investigation, the future climate changes for the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> are predicted using the parallel climate model (PCM) and it is coupledmore » with the numerical model regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) to simulate the solar and wind energy spatial patterns changes for the specific case of the island of Puerto Rico. Numerical results from PCM indicate that the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> basin from 2041 to 2055 will experience a slight decrease in the net surface solar radiation (with respect to the years 1996-2010), which is more pronounced in the western <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span>. Results also indicate that the easterly winds have a tendency to increase in its magnitude, especially from the years 2070 to 2098. The regional model showed that important areas to collect solar energy are located in the eastern side of Puerto Rico, while the more intense wind speed is placed around the coast. A future climate change is expected in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> that will result in higher energy demands, but both renewable energy sources will have enough intensity to be used in the future as alternative energy resources to mitigate future climate changes.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028385','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028385"><span>Recent observations of intraspecific predation and cannibalism among polar bears in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.; Smith, T.S.; Perham, C.; Thiemann, G.W.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Intraspecific killing has been reported among polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus). Although cannibalism is one motivation for such killings, the ecological factors mediating such events are poorly understood. Between 24 January and 10 April 2004, we confirmed three instances of intraspecific predation and cannibalism in the Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. One of these, the first of this type ever reported for polar bears, was a parturient female killed at her maternal den. The predating bear was hunting in a known maternal denning area and apparently discovered the den by scent. A second predation event involved an adult female and cub recently emerged from their den, and the third involved a yearling male. During 24 years of research on polar bears in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region of northern Alaska and 34 years in northwestern Canada, we have not seen other incidents of polar bears stalking, killing, and eating other polar bears. We hypothesize that nutritional stresses related to the longer ice-free seasons that have occurred in the Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in recent years may have led to the cannibalism incidents we observed in 2004. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70136255','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70136255"><span>Long-distance swimming by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during years of extensive open water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) depend on <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice for catching marine mammal prey. Recent <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice declines have been linked to reductions in body condition, survival, and population size. Reduced foraging opportunity is hypothesized to be the primary cause of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice-linked declines, but the costs of travel through a deteriorated <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice environment also may be a factor. We used movement data from 52 adult female polar bears wearing Global Positioning System (GPS) collars, including some with dependent young, to document long-distance swimming (>50 km) by polar bears in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort and Chukchi <span class="hlt">seas</span>. During 6 years (2004-2009), we identified 50 long-distance swims by 20 bears. Swim duration and distance ranged from 0.7 to 9.7 days (mean = 3.4 days) and 53.7 to 687.1 km (mean = 154.2 km), respectively. Frequency of swimming appeared to increase over the course of the study. We show that adult female polar bears and their cubs are capable of swimming long distances during periods when extensive areas of open water are present. However, long-distance swimming appears to have higher energetic demands than moving over <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. Our observations suggest long-distance swimming is a behavioral response to declining summer <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss055e005471.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss055e005471.html"><span>iss055e005471</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2018-03-25</p> <p>iss055e005471 (March 25, 2018) --- This view of Cuba looks from east to west and reaches the cities of Santiago de Cuba on its west coast and Havana on its east coast. The sun's glint is reflected off the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> on Cuba's <span class="hlt">southern</span> coast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=111740&keyword=tests+AND+microbiology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=111740&keyword=tests+AND+microbiology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>SPORULATION AND SURVIVAL OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII OOCYSTS IN <span class="hlt">SEA</span> WATER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Since 1992, we have been collaborating in studies on <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters (Enhdyra lutris nereis) as part of a program to define factors which may be responsible for limiting the growth of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otter population. We previously demonstrated Toxoplasma gondii in <span class="hlt">sea</span> otter...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChJOL.tmp...75C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChJOL.tmp...75C"><span>Changes in fish diversity and community structure in the central and <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span> from 2003 to 2015</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yunlong; Shan, Xiujuan; Jin, Xianshi; Johannessen, Arne; Yang, Tao; Dai, Fangqun</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The central and <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is an important overwintering ground for many fish species in the Bohai <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. For better understanding the status of the fish community after years of heavy exploitation, variations in fish community structure and diversity were analyzed using data from bottom trawls during 2003-2015. Five fish assemblage indices all showed fluctuations without clear trends from 2003 to 2015, yet there were strong positive and significant correlations (P < 0.05) among them. The top-five dominant species accounted for a high weight percentage (49.7%-82.1%) in the annual fish catch. Multivariate analysis showed that two year groups could be pooled for the fish community: Group I consisted of the years 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2015, while Group II consisted of the years 2003, 2004, 2005, 2009, 2010 and 2014; the groups aggregated with 63.71% similarity, indicating a high level of similarity among all years. The multivariate dispersion values were 1.455 and 0.818 for Groups I and II, respectively, indicating greater variances in fish assemblage structure in Group I than that in Group II. Similarity of percentage analysis demonstrated that the average similarities for Group I and Group II were 71.58% and 67.51%, respectively. Size-spectra analysis revealed no consistent trend in the intercept and slope (P > 0.05); there were also no significant differences between the slope of the size-spectra and fishing effort. The catch per unit effort and mean individual weight analyses of the whole fish assemblage both showed a significantly decreasing trend over time. Overall, the results showed that the fish community structure in the central and <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span> was relatively stable from 2003 to 2015 and the study could be used as a reference for supporting ecosystem-based fishery management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29689869','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29689869"><span>Description of the first <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Oscarellidae (Porifera: Homoscleromorpha).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perez, Thierry; Ruiz, Cesar</p> <p>2018-01-07</p> <p>The sponge class Homoscleromorpha has a challenging taxonomy and its systematics is still a matter of debate. A significant effort has recently been deployed to better evaluate the diversity of these sponges, and each new exploration of cryptic habitats reveals new species. Although several undescribed or wrongly determined Oscarella-like sponges have been reported by different authors, the Oscarellidae family still lacks description of its true <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> representatives. The exploration of various submarine caves in the Lesser Antilles has allowed us to find and to formally describe the first two Oscarellidae of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Oscarella filipoi sp. nov. and Oscarella zoranja sp. nov. Both new species are quite common in semi-dark habitats throughout the Lesser Antilles. Moreover, O. filipoi sp. nov. is the largest Oscarellidae ever observed world-wide. Both species harbor a sylleibid aquiferous system and a high density of ovoid to spherical choanocyte chambers. The molecular taxonomy clearly shows their affiliation to the Oscarella clade containing the type species of the Oscarellidae family. In addition to their growth forms, these two species differ in the shape of their mesohylar cells, and in the degree of development of their basal region. This latter trait is particularly remarkable in large specimens of O. filipoi which can have a very thick ectosome.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G33C..08G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G33C..08G"><span>Three modes of interdecadal trends in <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature and <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface height</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gnanadesikan, A.; Pradal, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>It might be thought that <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface height and <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature would be tightly related. We show that this is not necessarily the case on a global scale. We analysed this relationship in a suite of coupled climate models run under 1860 forcing conditions. The models are low-resolution variants of the GFDL Earth System Model, reported in Galbraith et al. (J. Clim. 2011). 1. Correlated changes in global <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface height and global <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature. This mode corresponds to opening and closing of convective chimneys in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean. As the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean destratifies, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice formation is suppressed during the winter and more heat is taken up during the summer. This mode of variability is highly correlated with changes in the top of the atmosphere radiative budget and weakly correlated with changes in the deep ocean circulation. 2. Uncorrelated changes in global <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface height and global <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature. This mode of variability is associated with interdecadal variabliity in tropical winds. Changes in the advective flux of heat to the surface ocean play a critical role in driving these changes, which also result in significant local changes in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. Changes <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice over the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean still result in changes in solar absorption, but these are now largely cancelled by changes in outgoing longwave radiation. 3. Anticorrelated changes in global <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface height and global <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperatures. By varying the lateral diffusion coefficient in the ocean model, we are able to enhance and suppress convection in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> and Northern Pacific Oceans. Increasing the lateral diffusion coefficients shifts the balance sources of deep water away from the warm salty deep water of the North Atlantic and towards cold fresh deep water from the other two regions. As a result, even though the planet as a whole warms, the deep ocean cools and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level falls, with changes of order 30 cm over 500 years. The increase in solar absorption</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....910331C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....910331C"><span>CO2 exchange in a temperate marginal <span class="hlt">sea</span> of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: processes and carbon budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cossarini, G.; Querin, S.; Solidoro, C.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Marginal <span class="hlt">seas</span> play a potentially important role in the global carbon cycle; however, due to differences in the scales of variability and dynamics, marginal <span class="hlt">seas</span> are seldom fully accounted for in global models or estimates. Specific high-resolution studies may elucidate the role of marginal <span class="hlt">seas</span> and assist in the compilation of a complete global budget. In this study, we investigated the air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> exchange and the carbon cycle dynamics in a marginal sub-basin of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (the Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>) by adopting a coupled transport-biogeochemical model of intermediate complexity including carbonate dynamics. The Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a highly productive area owed to riverine fertilisation and is a site of intense dense water formation both on the northern continental shelf and in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> sub-basin. Therefore, the study area may be an important site of CO2 sequestration in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The results of the model simulation show that the Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, as a whole, is a CO2 sink with a mean annual flux of 36 mg m-2 day-1. The northern part absorbs more carbon (68 mg m-2 day-1) due to an efficient continental shelf pump process, whereas the <span class="hlt">southern</span> part behaves similar to an open ocean. Nonetheless, the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> accumulates dense, southward-flowing, carbon-rich water produced on the northern shelf. During a warm year and despite an increase in aquatic primary productivity, the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 is reduced by approximately 15% due to alterations of the solubility pump and reduced dense water formation. The seasonal cycle of temperature and biological productivity modulates the efficiency of the carbon pump at the surface, whereas the intensity of winter cooling in the northern sub-basin leads to the export of C-rich dense water to the deep layer of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> sub-basin and, subsequently, to the interior of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSED13A..08C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSED13A..08C"><span>Population Structure of the Coral-eating Fireworm Hermodice carunculata in the Wider <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, Atlantic and Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cruz, M.; Schizas, N. V.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The bearded fireworm Hermodice carunculata is an important benthic invertebrate scavenger distributed in reefs worldwide. Fireworms are facultative corallivores and have been shown to transfer pathogenic agents between coral colonies. The effects of predation on coral species can be substantial. There is limited data on the genetic population structure of H. carunculata because of its cryptic nature and past studies resulted in ambiguous findings. Both morphological and molecular data suggest the presence of multiple fireworm sibling species but the morphological differences do not reflect the phylogeographic patterns of the species complex. Hermodice carunculata is an ideal species to use for genetic analysis to infer patterns of population structure and gene flow because of its biphasic life style with planktonic larvae and benthic adults. We collected 412 H. carunculata samples from over 20 locations in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Gulf of Mexico, Western and Eastern Atlantic Ocean. We sequenced two mitochondrial markers: Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit I (COI) and Cytochrome b (Cytb) from each specimen to examine the genetic diversity of H. carunculata. There is substantial genetic diversity within H. carunculata and preliminary evidence suggests the presence of at least two cryptic species in multiple locations. The presence of multiple species in bearded fireworms indicates our incomplete knowledge in one of the most important invertebrate scavengers in tropical and subtropical reefs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3084747','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3084747"><span>An Unprecedented Aggregation of Whale Sharks, Rhincodon typus, in Mexican Coastal Waters of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>de la Parra Venegas, Rafael; Hueter, Robert; González Cano, Jaime; Tyminski, John; Gregorio Remolina, José; Maslanka, Mike; Ormos, Andrea; Weigt, Lee; Carlson, Bruce; Dove, Alistair</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are often perceived as solitary behemoths that live and feed in the open ocean. To the contrary, evidence is accumulating that they are gregarious and form seasonal aggregations in some coastal waters. One such aggregation occurs annually north of Cabo Catoche, off Isla Holbox on the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Here we report a second, much denser aggregation of whale sharks (dubbed “the Afuera”) that occurs east of the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The 2009 Afuera event comprised the largest aggregation of whale sharks ever reported, with up to 420 whale sharks observed in a single aerial survey, all gathered in an elliptical patch of ocean approximately 18 km2. Plankton studies indicated that the sharks were feeding on dense homogenous patches of fish eggs, which DNA barcoding analysis identified as belonging to little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus. This contrasts with the annual Cabo Catoche aggregation nearby, where prey consists mostly of copepods and sergestid shrimp. Increased sightings at the Afuera coincide with decreased sightings at Cabo Catoche, and both groups have the same sex ratio, implying that the same animals are likely involved in both aggregations; tagging data support this idea. With two whale shark aggregation areas, high coastal productivity and a previously-unknown scombrid spawning ground, the northeastern Yucatán marine region is a critical habitat that deserves more concerted conservation efforts. PMID:21559508</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3929637','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3929637"><span>Prevalence of External Injuries in Small Cetaceans in Aruban Waters, <span class="hlt">Southern</span> <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Luksenburg, Jolanda A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Aruba, located close to the coasts of Colombia and Venezuela, is one of the most densely populated islands in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> and supports a wide range of marine-related socio-economic activities. However, little is known about the impacts of human activities on the marine environment. Injuries in marine mammals can be used to examine interactions with human activities and identify potential threats to the survival of populations. The prevalence of external injuries and tooth rake marks were examined in Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) (n = 179), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n = 76) and false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) (n = 71) in Aruban waters using photo identification techniques. Eleven injury categories were defined and linked to either human-related activities or natural causes. All injury categories were observed. In total, 18.7% of all individuals had at least one injury. Almost half (41.7%) of the injuries could be attributed to human interactions, of which fishing gear was the most common cause (53.3%) followed by propeller hits (13.3%). Major disfigurements were observed in all three species and could be attributed to interactions with fishing gear. The results of this study indicate that fishing gear and propeller hits may pose threats to small and medium-sized cetaceans in Aruban waters. Thus, long-term monitoring of population trends is warranted. Shark-inflicted bite wounds were observed in Atlantic spotted dolphin and bottlenose dolphin. Bite wounds of cookie cutter sharks (Isistius sp.) were recorded in all three species, and include the first documented record of a cookie cutter shark bite in Atlantic spotted dolphin. This is one of the few studies which investigates the prevalence of injuries in cetaceans in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>. Further study is necessary to determine to which extent the injuries observed in Aruba affect the health and survival of local populations. PMID:24586473</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T41A2575O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T41A2575O"><span>Early origins of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> plate from deep seismic profiles across the Nicaraguan Rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ott, B.; Mann, W. P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The offshore Nicaraguan Rise in the maritime zones of Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua and Colombia covers a combined area of 500,000 km2, and is one of the least known equatorial Cretaceous-Cenozoic carbonate regions remaining on Earth. The purpose of this study is to describe the Cretaceous to Recent tectonic and stratigraphic history of the deep water Nicaraguan Rise, and to better understand how various types of crustal blocks underlying the Eocene to Recent carbonate cover fused into a single, larger <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> plate known today from GPS studies. We interpreted 8700 km of modern, deep-penetration 2D seismic data kindly provided by the oil industry, tied to five wells that penetrated Cretaceous igneous basement. Based on these data, and integration with gravity, magnetic and existing crustal refraction data, we define four crustal provinces for the offshore Nicaraguan Rise: 1) Thicker (15-18 km) Late Cretaceous <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> ocean plateau (COP) with rough, top basement surface; 2) normal (6-8 km) Late Cretaceous COP with smooth top basement surface (B") and correlative outcrops in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Haiti and Jamaica; 3) Precambrian-Paleozoic continental crust (20-22 km thick) with correlative outcrops in northern Central America; and 4) Cretaceous arc crust (>18 km thick) with correlative outcrops in Jamaica. These strongly contrasting basement belts strike northeastward to eastward, and were juxtaposed by latest Cretaceous-Paleogene northward and northwestward thrusting of <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> arc over continental crust in Central America, and the western Nicaraguan Rise (84 to 85 degrees west). A large Paleogene to recent, CCW rotation of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> plate along the Cayman trough faults and into its present day location explains why terranes in Central America and beneath the Nicaraguan Rise have their present, anomalous north-east strike. Continuing, present-day activity on some of these crustal block boundaries is a likely result of intraplate stresses imposed by the surrounding</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27307975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27307975"><span>Ex situ study of Enterococcus faecalis survival in the recreational waters of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> coast of the Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Irankhah, Sahar; Soudi, Mohammad Reza; Gharavi, Sara</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The US Environmental Protection Agency has suggested faecal enterococci as the primary bacterial indicators. Of more importance is their direct correlation with swimmer-associated gastroenteritis in recreation water quality monitoring. In contrast to other seawater bodies with 3.5% salinity, the recreational waters in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> coast of the Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> possess its own salinity (about 1% w/v) and thus require further investigations to determine the capacity of Enterococcus faecalis as the sole primary microbial index in this unique aquatic environment. The survey of the presence and survival of E. faecalis as a microbial index in the recreational waters of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> was carried out using a microcosm as an experimental model. The concentration of E. faecalis cells in samples of seawater were estimated by a standard membrane filtration method using m-Enterococcus agar as the selective culture medium. As the current standard culture-based methods are not reliable enough for the detection of non-growing, damaged and under-tension bacteria, PCR was used to identify the possible VBNC form of the bacterium after disappearance of the culturable cells. A continuous decline in the number of culturable E. faecalis cells resulted in apparent elimination of the bacteria from seawater in a defined period. Detection of intact DNA was possible in the following 60 days. The salinity of about 1% and the self-purification properties of the Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> make the conditions feasible for the use of this microorganism as a measure of water quality throughout the region. The results confirmed the presence of damaged bacterial cells, namely VBNC forms, indicating the necessity of examining of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> water samples by using molecular approaches or repair procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70135738','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70135738"><span>Effects of capturing and collaring on polar bears: findings from long-term research on the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rode, Karyn D.; Pagano, Anthony M.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Atwood, Todd C.; Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin S.; Amstrup, Steven C.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Context: The potential for research methods to affect wildlife is an increasing concern among both scientists and the public. This topic has a particular urgency for polar bears because additional research is needed to monitor and understand population responses to rapid loss of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice habitat.Aims: This study used data collected from polar bears sampled in the Alaska portion of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to investigate the potential for capture to adversely affect behaviour and vital rates. We evaluated the extent to which capture, collaring and handling may influence activity and movement days to weeks post-capture, and body mass, body condition, reproduction and survival over 6 months or more.Methods: We compared post-capture activity and movement rates, and relationships between prior capture history and body mass, body condition and reproductive success. We also summarised data on capture-related mortality.Key results: Individual-based estimates of activity and movement rates reached near-normal levels within 2–3 days and fully normal levels within 5 days post-capture. Models of activity and movement rates among all bears had poor fit, but suggested potential for prolonged, lower-level rate reductions. Repeated captures was not related to negative effects on body condition, reproduction or cub growth or survival. Capture-related mortality was substantially reduced after 1986, when immobilisation drugs were changed, with only 3 mortalities in 2517 captures from 1987–2013.Conclusions: Polar bears in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> exhibited the greatest reductions in activity and movement rates 3.5 days post-capture. These shorter-term, post-capture effects do not appear to have translated into any long-term effects on body condition, reproduction, or cub survival. Additionally, collaring had no effect on polar bear recovery rates, body condition, reproduction or cub survival.Implications: This study provides empirical evidence that current capture</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1610241M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1610241M"><span>Atmospheric salt deposition in a tropical mountain rainforest at the eastern Andean slopes of south Ecuador - Pacific or Atlantic origin?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makowski Giannoni, Sandro; Trachte, Katja; Rollenbeck, Ruetger; Lehnert, Lukas; Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Joerg</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> salt (NaCl) has recently been proven to be of the utmost importance for ecosystem functioning in Amazon lowland forests because of its impact on herbivory, litter decomposition and, thus, carbon cycling. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> salt deposition should generally decline as distance from its marine source increases. For the Amazon, a negative east-west gradient of <span class="hlt">sea</span> salt availability is assumed as a consequence of the barrier effect of the Andes Mountains for Pacific air masses. However, this generalized pattern may not hold for the tropical mountain rainforest in the Andes of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Ecuador. To analyse <span class="hlt">sea</span> salt availability, we investigated the deposition of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-), which are good proxies of <span class="hlt">sea</span> spray aerosol. Because of the complexity of the terrain and related cloud and rain formation processes, <span class="hlt">sea</span> salt deposition was analysed from both, rain and occult precipitation (OP) along an altitudinal gradient over a period between 2004 and 2009. To assess the influence of easterly and westerly air masses on the deposition of sodium and chloride over <span class="hlt">southern</span> Ecuador, <span class="hlt">sea</span> salt aerosol concentration data from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) reanalysis data set and back-trajectory statistical methods were combined. Our results, based on deposition time series, show a clear difference in the temporal variation of sodium and chloride concentration and Na+ / Cl- ratio in relation to height and exposure to winds. At higher elevations, sodium and chloride present a higher seasonality and the Na+ / Cl- ratio is closer to that of <span class="hlt">sea</span> salt. Medium- to long-range <span class="hlt">sea</span> salt transport exhibited a similar seasonality, which shows the link between our measurements at high elevations and the <span class="hlt">sea</span> salt synoptic transport. Although the influence of the easterlies was predominant regarding the atmospheric circulation, the statistical analysis of trajectories and hybrid receptor models revealed a stronger impact of the north equatorial Atlantic, <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRC..123..746B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRC..123..746B"><span>Physical and Biological Drivers of Biogeochemical Tracers Within the Seasonal <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Zone of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean From Profiling Floats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Briggs, Ellen M.; Martz, Todd R.; Talley, Lynne D.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Johnson, Kenneth S.</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>Here we present initial findings from nine profiling floats equipped with pH, O2, NO3-, and other biogeochemical sensors that were deployed in the seasonal ice zone (SIZ) of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean in 2014 and 2015 through the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modelling (SOCCOM) project. A large springtime phytoplankton bloom was observed that coincided with <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice melt for all nine floats. We argue this bloom results from a shoaling of the mixed layer depth, increased vertical stability, and enhanced nutrient and light availability as the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice melts. This interpretation is supported by the absence of a springtime bloom when one of the floats left the SIZ in the second year of observations. During the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice covered period, net heterotrophic conditions were observed. The rate of uptake of O2 and release of dissolved inorganic carbon (derived from pH and estimated total alkalinity) and NO3- is reminiscent of biological respiration and is nearly Redfieldian for the nine floats. A simple model of mixed layer physics was developed to separate the physical and biological components of the signal in pH and O2 over one annual cycle for a float in the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> SIZ. The resulting annual net community production suggests that seasonal respiration during the ice covered period of the year nearly balances the production in the euphotic layer of up to 5 mol C m-2 during the ice free period leading to a net of near zero carbon exported to depth for this one float.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28564624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28564624"><span>Dissolved rare earth elements in the central-western sector of the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean: Geochemical tracing of seawater masses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Turetta, Clara; Barbaro, Elena; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Barbante, Carlo</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The present essay contributes to the existing literature on rare earth elements (REEs) in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> hemisphere by presenting the first data, to our knowledge, on the vertical profiles of dissolved REEs in 71 samples collected in the central-western sector of the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean-SO). The REEs were measured in the water samples collected during the 2002-2003 and 2005-2006 austral summers. 4 samples were collected and analysed in the framework of a test experiment, as part of the WISSARD Project (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling). Our results show significant differences between the REE patterns of the main water masses present in the SO: we could observe specific signature in the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW), Ice Shelf Water (ISW) and Low Salinity Shelf Water (LSSW). A significant increase in Terbium (Tb) concentration was observed in the HSSW and ISW, the two principal water masses contributing to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> area, and in LSSW. Some of the HSSW samples show enrichment in Neodymium (Nd). Dissolved REE could therefore be used as tracers to understand the deep circulation of the SO (Pacific sector). We hypothesize that: (I) the characteristic dissolved REE pattern may derive from the composition of source area and from the hydrothermal activity of the central-western area of the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span>; (II) the Tb anomaly observed in the AABW on the South Australian platform could be partially explained by the contribution of AABW generated in the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122.2339K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122.2339K"><span>Climate change impacts on <span class="hlt">southern</span> Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> phytoplankton composition, productivity, and export</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaufman, Daniel E.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Smith, Walker O.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Dinniman, Michael S.; Hemmings, John C. P.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, a highly productive region of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean, is expected to experience warming during the next century along with reduced summer <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentrations and shallower mixed layers. This study investigates how these climatic changes may alter phytoplankton assemblage composition, primary productivity, and export. Glider measurements are used to force a one-dimensional biogeochemical model, which includes diatoms and both solitary and colonial forms of Phaeocystis antarctica. Model performance is evaluated with glider observations, and experiments are conducted using projections of physical drivers for mid-21st and late-21st century. These scenarios reveal a 5% increase in primary productivity by midcentury and 14% by late-century and a proportional increase in carbon export, which remains approximately 18% of primary production. In addition, scenario results indicate diatom biomass increases while P. antarctica biomass decreases in the first half of the 21st century. In the second half of the century, diatom biomass remains relatively constant and P. antarctica biomass increases. Additional scenarios examining the independent contributions of expected future changes (temperature, mixed layer depth, irradiance, and surface iron inputs from melting ice) demonstrate that earlier availability of low light due to reduction of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice early in the growing season is the primary driver of productivity increases over the next century; shallower mixed layer depths additionally contribute to changes of assemblage composition and export. This study further demonstrates how glider data can be effectively used to facilitate model development and simulation, and inform interpretation of biogeochemical observations in the context of climate change.<abstract type="synopsis"><title type="main">Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding how the global ocean responds to climate change requires knowing the natural behavior of individual regions and anticipating how future</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075644','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075644"><span>Persistent and energetic bottom-trapped topographic Rossby waves observed in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Wang, Dongxiao; Chai, Fei; Xie, Qiang; Cai, Shuqun; Chen, Rongyu; Chen, Ju; Li, Jian; He, Yunkai</p> <p>2016-04-14</p> <p>Energetic fluctuations with periods of 9-14 days below a depth of 1400 m were observed in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (SCS) from 5 years of direct measurements. We interpreted such fluctuations as topographic Rossby waves (TRWs) because they obey the dispersion relation. The TRWs persisted from May 24, 2009 to August 23, 2013, and their bottom current speed with a maximum of ~10 cm/s was one order of magnitude greater than the mean current and comparable to the tidal currents near the bottom. The bottom-trapped TRWs had an approximate trapping depth of 325 m and reference wavelength of ~82 km, which were likely excited by eddies above. Upper layer current speed that peaked approximately every 2 months could offer the energy sources for the persistent TRWs in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> SCS. Energetic bottom-trapped TRWs may have a comparable role in deep circulation to tides in areas with complex topography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4830981','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4830981"><span>Persistent and energetic bottom-trapped topographic Rossby waves observed in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Wang, Dongxiao; Chai, Fei; Xie, Qiang; Cai, Shuqun; Chen, Rongyu; Chen, Ju; Li, Jian; He, Yunkai</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Energetic fluctuations with periods of 9–14 days below a depth of 1400 m were observed in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (SCS) from 5 years of direct measurements. We interpreted such fluctuations as topographic Rossby waves (TRWs) because they obey the dispersion relation. The TRWs persisted from May 24, 2009 to August 23, 2013, and their bottom current speed with a maximum of ~10 cm/s was one order of magnitude greater than the mean current and comparable to the tidal currents near the bottom. The bottom-trapped TRWs had an approximate trapping depth of 325 m and reference wavelength of ~82 km, which were likely excited by eddies above. Upper layer current speed that peaked approximately every 2 months could offer the energy sources for the persistent TRWs in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> SCS. Energetic bottom-trapped TRWs may have a comparable role in deep circulation to tides in areas with complex topography. PMID:27075644</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/rbt/article/view/26911','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/rbt/article/view/26911"><span>New geographic records of Hamlets, Hypoplectrus spp. (Serranidae), in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Williams, Ernest H.; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Rogers, Caroline S.; Fenner, Robert</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The exact number of species of hamlets, Hypoplectrus spp., in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> is controversial and the geographic distributions of these species/forms are poorly documented. We report Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, as a new locality for the Barred Hamlet, H. puella (Cuvier), and Shy Hamlet, H. guttavarius (Poey); and St. John and St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, for the Tan Hamlet, Hypoplectrus sp. The Black Hamlet, H. nigricans (Poey), has previously been reported from Curaçao, but we did not see it there.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..37.5301M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..37.5301M"><span>Kinematics of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Afar Triple Junction and implications for plate dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McClusky, Simon; Reilinger, Robert; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Amleson, Aman; Healeb, Biniam; Vernant, Philippe; Sholan, Jamal; Fisseha, Shimelles; Asfaw, Laike; Bendick, Rebecca; Kogan, Lewis</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>GPS measurements adjacent to the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Afar Triple Junction, indicate that the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Rift bifurcates south of 17° N latitude with one branch following a continuation of the main Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Rift (˜150° Az.) and the other oriented more N-S, traversing the Danakil Depression. These two rift branches account for the full Arabia-Nubia relative motion. The partitioning of extension between rift branches varies approximately linearly along strike; north of ˜16°N latitude, extension (˜15 mm/yr) is all on the main Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Rift while at ˜13°N, extension (˜20 mm/yr) has transferred completely to the Danakil Depression. The Danakil Block separates the two rifts and rotates in a counterclockwise sense with respect to Nubia at a present-day rate of 1.9 ± 0.1°/Myr around a pole located at 17.0 ± 0.2°N, 39.7 ± 0.2°E, accommodating extension along the rifts and developing the roughly triangular geometry of the Danakil Depression. Rotating the Danakil Block back in time to close the Danakil Depression, and assuming that the rotation rate with respect to Nubia has been roughly constant, the present width of the Danakil Depression is consistent with initiation of block rotation at 9.3 ± 4 Ma, approximately coincident with the initiation of ocean spreading in the Gulf of Aden, and a concomitant ˜70% increase in the rate of Nubia-Arabia relative motion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982JGR....8710656S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982JGR....8710656S"><span>Motion of <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Plate during last 7 million years and implications for earlier Cenozoic movements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sykes, Lynn R.; McCann, William R.; Kafka, Alan L.</p> <p>1982-12-01</p> <p>The direction and rate of movement of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> plate with respect to North America are determined from the slip vectors of shallow earthquakes and from the configuration of downgoing seismic zones in the Greater and Lesser Antilles. A calibration of the relative plate motion for the northeastern <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> using data from other subduction zones indicates an average rate of 3.7±0.5 cm/yr for the past 7 million years (Ma). The direction of plate motion inferred from focal mechanisms (ENE) is nearly the same as that deduced from the configuration of downgoing seismic zones going around the major bend in the arc. With respect to North America, the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> plate is moving at an angular velocity of 0.36°/Ma about a center of rotation near 66°N, 132°W. Vector addition using those data and that for the relative motion of North and South America indicates that the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> is moving at an angular velocity of 0.47°/Ma about a center of rotation near 60°N, 88°W with respect to South America. The presence of intermediate-depth earthquakes beneath Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is ascribed to the curvature of the plate boundary and a component of underthrusting that has been going on for at least the past 7 Ma and is likely occurring today. The alternative hypothesis that earthquakes beneath those areas are occurring in materials that were subducted during the Eocene, the last major episode of magmatism, is not tenable from thermal considerations. The lack of recent magmatism in the eastern Greater Antilles is ascribed to the relatively small component of underthrusting. The 2 cm/yr rate of seafloor creation along the mid-Cayman spreading center for the past 2.4 Ma does not appear to reflect the total <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>-North American plate motion while the 4 cm/yr spreading rate from 6.0 to 2.4 Ma does. Between the mid-Cayman spreading center and eastern Guatemala, the northern boundary of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> plate is narrow and follows the <span class="hlt">southern</span> margin of the Cayman</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss055e023899.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss055e023899.html"><span>iss055e023899</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2018-04-15</p> <p>iss055e023899 (April 15, 2018) --- The United States island territory of Puerto Rico and the surrounding blue waters of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> on its <span class="hlt">southern</span> coast and the Atlantic Ocean on its northern coast were pictured by an Expedition 55 crew member aboard the International Space Station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23E2886D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23E2886D"><span>A GIS Inventory of Critical Coastal Infrastructure Land Use in <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Island Small Island Developing States: Classification and Criteria Methodology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'aversa, N.; Becker, A.; Bove, G.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Small Island Developing States (SIDS) face significant natural hazard risks, as demonstrated by recent Hurricanes Jose, Irma, and Maria. Scientists project storms to become more intense and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise to increase over the next century. As a result, the Inter-American Development Bank projections suggest that <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> nations could face climate-related losses in excess of $22 billion annually by 2050. Critical infrastructure that supports island economies, such as airports, seaports, cruise ports, and energy facilities, are typically located in the coastal zone with high exposure to natural hazards. Despite the increasing danger from climate driven natural hazards in coastal zones in the region, there is very little data available to identify how much land and associated infrastructure is at risk. This work focuses on the criteria and data standards developed for this new region-wide GIS database, which will then be used to formulate a risk assessment. Results will be integrated into a single, comprehensive source for data of lands identified as critical coastal infrastructure and used to address such questions as: How much of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> SIDS infrastructure lands are at risk from <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise? How might demand for such lands change in the future, based on historical trends? Answers to these questions will help decision makers understand how to prioritize resilience investment decisions in the coming decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26623850','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26623850"><span>Nereis alacranensis, a new species of polychaete (Annelida, Nereididae) from Alacranes Reef, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Gulf of Mexico, with a key to Nereis from the Grand <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramírez Hernández, Adriana; Hernández-Alcántara, Pablo; Solís-Weiss, Vivianne</p> <p>2015-09-02</p> <p>A new species of polychaete, Nereis alacranensis n. sp., was found in dead coral rocks in the intertidal zone of Alacranes reef, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Gulf of Mexico. N. alacranensis n. sp. can be included in a group of nereidids characterized by the absence of paragnaths in areas I and V of the pharynx, the presence of cones in a single row or absent in areas VII-VIII, and short blades in notopodial homogomph falcigers. The new species can be separated from the other species of the group by the presence of 3-7 cones in area VI and 7 cones arranged in a row in areas VII-VIII, finely dentate blades in notopodial homogomph falcigers, but most of all, by the presence of an unusual brown coarse arc shaped plate on the external ventral region of the peristomium. This structure has not yet been reported, at least in this genus. A taxonomic key of the species of Nereis recorded from the Grand <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region is included.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRC..112.5047K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRC..112.5047K"><span>Effects of El Niño-<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Oscillation on <span class="hlt">sea</span> level anomalies along the Gulf of Mexico coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kennedy, Andrew J.; Griffin, Melissa L.; Morey, Steven L.; Smith, Shawn R.; O'Brien, James J.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Analyses of daily <span class="hlt">sea</span> level data show the impacts of El Niño-<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Oscillation (ENSO) in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Data from three stations (St. Petersburg, Florida, Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas), all of which have at least 50 years of daily observations, are processed to identify the interannual signals. Although low frequency (interannual) signals in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level anomaly time series are not clearly evident, a low frequency modulation of the extreme anomaly events (upper 10% or lower 10% of the distributions) is identified. Results show that <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variability is seasonally dependent at all stations, with maximum variability in the winter months. In the eastern GOM, low <span class="hlt">sea</span> level events in the winter months are more frequent during El Niño (warm phase) conditions when compared to a neutral ENSO phase. This is consistent with ENSO-related changes in the location where extratropical atmospheric low pressure systems form and in the tracks of these weather systems. The impacts of tropical systems in the summer through early fall months on coastal <span class="hlt">sea</span> level in the GOM are shown by infrequent extreme high and low anomalies coinciding with individual storms. However, the number of storms affecting the data record from a particular <span class="hlt">sea</span> level station is too small to confirm ENSO-related variability. Statistical methods are employed to demonstrate a significant link between extreme <span class="hlt">sea</span> level anomalies in the GOM and ENSO during the October to March period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH13A3730V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH13A3730V"><span>Quantifying 10 years of Improvements in Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> and Adjacent Regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; McNamara, D. E.; Saurel, J. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The magnitude-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness to the destructive hazard of earthquakes and tsunamis. Post event assessments of global coastline vulnerability highlighted the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> as a region of high hazard and risk and that it was poorly monitored. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region and Adjacent Regions in the past 500 years and continue to pose a threat for its nations, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North and South America. Significant efforts to improve monitoring capabilities have been undertaken since this time including an expansion of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Global Seismographic Network (GSN) (McNamara et al., 2006) and establishment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). The minimum performance standards it recommended for initial earthquake locations include: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of <30 km. In this study, we assess current compliance with performance standards and model improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring capabilities in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region since the first meeting of the UNESCO ICG-Caribe EWS in 2006. The three measures of network capability modeled in this study are: 1) minimum Mw detection threshold; 2) P-wave detection time of an automatic processing system and; 3) theoretical earthquake location uncertainty. By modeling three measures of seismic network capability, we can optimize the distribution of ICG-Caribe EWS seismic stations and select an international network that will be contributed from existing real-time broadband national networks in the region. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> level monitoring improvements both offshore and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=past+AND+year+AND+papers&pg=2&id=EJ794394','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=past+AND+year+AND+papers&pg=2&id=EJ794394"><span>Towards a Global Citizenship Education for <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Canadian Youth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walrond, Jean</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The number of people living in Canada of <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> heritage has increased substantially over the past forty years. This paper examines aspects of <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> culture and <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> education culture to explore if <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Canadians can claim a <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> education philosophy. The research claims there is one. The article suggests that this philosophy…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChJOL..35..874W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChJOL..35..874W"><span>Lipids and fatty acids in Calanus sinicus during oversummering in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yanqing; Li, Chaolun; Liu, Mengtan; Jin, Xin</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Over-summering is a crucial period for Calanus sinicus in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, where it is a key member of the zooplankton community. Lipids play an important role in copepod diapause, which is part of their over-summering strategy. We investigated how different fatty acids and lipid classes, including wax esters, changed during over-summering of C. sinicus during three cruises in June and August 2011 and November 2010, corresponding to the pre-, during and post-diapause periods, respectively. Large amounts of lipids were accumulated, mainly wax esters as previously found in C. finmarchicus during its diapause, and most of the storage lipids were used during over-summering. Wax ester polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed the most variation of the fatty acids (FAs), while the percentage composition of FAs in polar lipids was relatively stable. Selective use of wax ester PUFAs has already been shown to play important roles in the winter diapause of Calanus species in other regions, and our FA results show that this is the case for the Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Cold Bottom Water (YSCBW) population that diapauses in summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6150K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6150K"><span>Long-range-transported Saharan dust in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> - an electron microscopy perspective of aerosol composition and modification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kandler, Konrad; Hartmann, Markus; Ebert, Martin; Weinbruch, Stephan; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Walser, Adrian; Sauer, Daniel; Wadinga Fomba, Khanneh</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>From June to July in 2013, the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE) was performed in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>. Airborne aerosol sampling was performed onboard the DLR Falcon aircraft in altitudes between 300 m and 5500 m. Ground-based samples were collected at Ragged Point (Barbados, 13.165 °N, 59.432 °W) and at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (Sao Vicente, 16.864 °N, 24.868 °W). Different types of impactors and sedimentation samplers were used to collect particles between 0.1 µm and 4 µm (airborne) and between 0.1 µm and 100 µm (ground-based). Particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with attached energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, yielding information on particle size, particle shape and chemical composition for elements heavier than nitrogen. A particle size correction was applied to the chemical data to yield better quantification. A total of approximately 100,000 particles were analyzed. For particles larger than 0.7 µm, the aerosol in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> during the campaign was a mixture of mineral dust, <span class="hlt">sea</span>-salt at different aging states, and sulfate. Inside the Saharan dust plume - outside the marine boundary layer (MBL) - the aerosol is absolutely dominated by mineral dust. Inside the upper MBL, <span class="hlt">sea</span>-salt exists as minor component in the aerosol for particles smaller than 2 µm in diameter, larger ones are practically dust only. When crossing the Soufriere Hills volcano plume with the aircraft, an extremely high abundance of small sulfate particles could be observed. At Ragged Point, in contrast to the airborne measurements, aerosol is frequently dominated by <span class="hlt">sea</span>-salt particles. Dust relative abundance at Ragged Point has a maximum between 5 µm and 10 µm particles diameter; at larger sizes, <span class="hlt">sea</span>-salt again prevails due to the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-spray influence. A significant number of dust particles larger than 20 µm was encountered. The dust component in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> - airborne as well as ground</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSeis..18..731B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSeis..18..731B"><span>Detailed seismicity analysis revealing the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Braeuer, B.; Asch, G.; Hofstetter, R.; Haberland, Ch.; Jaser, D.; El-Kelani, R.; Weber, M.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Within the framework of the international DESIRE (DEad <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Integrated REsearch) project, a dense temporary local seismological network was operated in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> area. During 18 recording months, 648 events were detected. Based on an already published tomography study clustering, focal mechanisms, statistics and the distribution of the microseismicity in relation to the velocity models from the tomography are analysed. The determined b value of 0.74 leads to a relatively high risk of large earthquakes compared to the moderate microseismic activity. The distribution of the seismicity indicates an asymmetric basin with a vertical strike-slip fault forming the eastern boundary of the basin, and an inclined western boundary, made up of strike-slip and normal faults. Furthermore, significant differences between the area north and south of the Bokek fault were observed. South of the Bokek fault, the western boundary is inactive while the entire seismicity occurs on the eastern boundary and below the basin-fill sediments. The largest events occurred here, and their focal mechanisms represent the northwards transform motion of the Arabian plate along the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Transform. The vertical extension of the spatial and temporal cluster from February 2007 is interpreted as being related to the locking of the region around the Bokek fault. North of the Bokek fault similar seismic activity occurs on both boundaries most notably within the basin-fill sediments, displaying mainly small events with strike-slip mechanism and normal faulting in EW direction. Therefore, we suggest that the Bokek fault forms the border between the single transform fault and the pull-apart basin with two active border faults.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JOUC..tmp....5Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JOUC..tmp....5Z"><span>Mesozoic Deformation and Its Geological Significance in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Margin of the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Rongwei; Liu, Hailing; Yao, Yongjian; Wang, Yin</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>The pre-Eocene history of the region around the present South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is not well known. New multi-channel seismic profiles provide valuable insights into the probable Mesozoic history of this region. Detailed structural and stratigraphic interpretations of the multi-channel seismic profiles, calibrated with relevant drilling and dredging data, show major Mesozoic structural features. A structural restoration was done to remove the Cenozoic tectonic influence and calculate the Mesozoic tectonic compression ratios. The results indicate that two groups of compressive stress with diametrically opposite orientations, S(S)E-N(N)W and N(N)W-S(S)E, were active during the Mesozoic. The compression ratio values gradually decrease from north to south and from west to east in each stress orientation. The phenomena may be related to the opening of the proto-South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (then located in south of the Nansha block) and the rate at which the Nansha block drifted northward in the late Jurassic to late Cretaceous. The Nansha block drifted northward until it collided and sutured with the <span class="hlt">southern</span> China margin. The opening of the present South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> may be related to this suture zone, which was a tectonic zone of weakness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ClDy..tmp.2377Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ClDy..tmp.2377Z"><span>Interannual variation of the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> circulation during winter: intensified in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zu, Tingting; Xue, Huijie; Wang, Dongxiao; Geng, Bingxu; Zeng, Lili; Liu, Qinyan; Chen, Ju; He, Yunkai</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>Surface geostrophic current derived from altimetry remote sensing data, and current profiles observed from in-situ Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) mooring in the northern South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (NSCS) and <span class="hlt">southern</span> South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (SSCS) are utilized to study the kinetic and energetic interannual variability of the circulation in the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (SCS) during winter. Results reveal a more significant interannual variation of the circulation and water mass properties in the SSCS than that in the NSCS. Composite ananlysis shows a significantly reduced western boundary current (WBC) and a closed cyclonic eddy in the SSCS at the mature phase of El Niño event, but a strong WBC and an unclosed cyclonic circulation in winter at normal or La Niña years. The SST is warmer while the subsurface water is colder and fresher in the mature phase of El Niño event than that in the normal or La Niña years in the SSCS. Numerical experiments and energy analysis suggest that both local and remote wind stress change are important for the interannual variation in the SSCS, remote wind forcing and Kuroshio intrusion affect the circulation and water mass properties in the SSCS through WBC advection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100033640','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100033640"><span>The Satellite Passive-Microwave Record of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice in the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Since Late 1978</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parkinson, Claire L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Satellites have provided us with a remarkable ability to monitor many aspects of the globe day-in and day-out and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice is one of numerous variables that by now have quite substantial satellite records. Passive-microwave data have been particularly valuable in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice monitoring, with a record that extends back to August 1987 on daily basis (for most of the period), to November 1970 on a less complete basis (again for most of the period), and to December 1972 on a less complete basis. For the period since November 1970, Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice imagery is available at spatial resolution of approximately 25 km. This allows good depictions of the seasonal advance and retreat of the ice cover each year, along with its marked interannual variability. The Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice extent typically reaches a minimum of approximately 0.7 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers in February, rising to a maximum of approximately 4.0 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers in September, with much variability among years for both those numbers. The Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> images show clearly the day-by-day activity greatly from year to year. Animations of the data help to highlight the dynamic nature of the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice cover. The satellite data also allow calculation of trends in the ice cover over the period of the satellite record. Using linear least-squares fits, the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice extent increased at an average rate of 12,600 plus or minus 1,800 square kilometers per year between November 1978 and December 2007, with every month exhibiting increased ice extent and the rates of increase ranging from a low of 7,500 plus or minus 5,000 square kilometers per year for the February ice extents to a high of 20,300 plus or minus 6,100 kilometers per year for the October ice extents. On a yearly average basis, for 1979-2007 the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice extent increased at a rate of 4.8 plus or minus 1.6 % per decade. Placing the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in the context of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean as a whole, over the November 1978-December 2007 period the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> had</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GPC...162..163W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GPC...162..163W"><span>Interannual <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variability in the Pearl River Estuary and its response to El Niño-<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Linlin; Li, Qiang; Mao, Xian-zhong; Bi, Hongsheng; Yin, Peng</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>The South China coast, especially the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) region, is prosperous and densely populated, but vulnerable to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level changes. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> level anomalies (SLA) during 1954-2012 from tide gauge station data and regional SLAs during 1993-2012 from satellite altimetry are analyzed and compare to the El Niño-<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Oscillation (ENSO). Results show that <span class="hlt">sea</span> level declines during El Niño events and rises during La Niña. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> level in the PRE responds to ENSO with 3-month lag. The ENSO can cause <span class="hlt">sea</span> level in the PRE to fluctuate from -8.70 to 8.11 cm. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> level cycles of 3 and 5 years are related to ENSO. The ENSO mechanism affecting <span class="hlt">sea</span> level in the PRE was analyzed by identifying dominant regional and local forces. Weak/strong SLAs in most El Niño/La Niña events may be attributed to less/more seawater transport driven by anomalously weak/strong north winds and local anomalously high/low <span class="hlt">sea</span> level pressure. Wind-driven coastal current is the predominant factor. It generated coastal seawater volume transport along a 160 km wide cross section to decrease by 21.07% in a typical El Niño period (January 2010) and increase by 44.03% in a typical La Niña period (January 2011) as compared to an ENSO neutral situation (January 2013). Results of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and its potential mechanism provide insight for disaster protection during extreme El Niño/La Niña events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1337/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1337/"><span>Polar Bear Population Status in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, Ian</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Polar bears depend entirely on <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice for survival. In recent years, a warming climate has caused major changes in the Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice environment, leading to concerns regarding the status of polar bear populations. Here we present findings from long-term studies of polar bears in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (SBS) region of the U.S. and Canada, which are relevant to these concerns. We applied open population capture-recapture models to data collected from 2001 to 2006, and estimated there were 1,526 (95% CI = 1,211; 1,841) polar bears in the SBS region in 2006. The number of polar bears in this region was previously estimated to be approximately 1,800. Because precision of earlier estimates was low, our current estimate of population size and the earlier ones cannot be statistically differentiated. For the 2001-06 period, the best fitting capture-recapture model provided estimates of total apparent survival of 0.43 for cubs of the year (COYs), and 0.92 for all polar bears older than COYs. Because the survival rates for older polar bears included multiple sex and age strata, they could not be compared to previous estimates. Survival rates for COYs, however, were significantly lower than estimates derived in earlier studies (P = 0.03). The lower survival of COYs was corroborated by a comparison of the number of COYs per adult female for periods before (1967-89) and after (1990-2006) the winter of 1989-90, when warming temperatures and altered atmospheric circulation caused an abrupt change in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice conditions in the Arctic basin. In the latter period, there were significantly more COYs per adult female in the spring (P = 0.02), and significantly fewer COYs per adult female in the autumn (P < 0.001). Apparently, cub production was higher in the latter period, but fewer cubs survived beyond the first 6 months of life. Parallel with declining survival, skull measurements suggested that COYs captured from 1990 to 2006 were smaller than those captured before 1990</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ECSS..207..194P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ECSS..207..194P"><span>Hard parts chemical composition as a potentially valuable tool for kutum, Rutilus kutum stock discrimination: A case study of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pourang, N.; Haghighi, F. Parafkandeh; Moazami, H. R.</p> <p>2018-07-01</p> <p>The potential use of elemental fingerprinting of five hard parts (otolith, scale, dorsal spine, eye lens and vertebral bone) for stock discrimination of Rutilus kutum from the Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> was investigated, for the first time. The specimens were sampled from three sampling sites in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in March 2016. Twenty specimens (total length: 32.6-37.9 mm; age: 3-4 yrs) were collected from each site. Concentrations of elements (Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr and Zn) in the samples were determined by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The pattern of elements occurrence in the eye lens was considerably different compared to the other hard parts. No significant differences were found in the Sr level in otolith between the sampling sites 2 and 3 (adjacent to the estuaries of Tajan and Gorganrud rivers, respectively) indicating that the specimens collected from the two sites are probably from the same population. Similar results were also obtained based on the results concerning K accumulation in scales. Generally, it can be concluded that scales may provide an alternative structure to otolith for stock discrimination of R. kutum in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018DSRII.148...21B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018DSRII.148...21B"><span>Potential contribution of surface-dwelling Sargassum algae to deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ecosystems in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> North Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, Philip; Minzlaff, Ulrike; Schoenle, Alexandra; Schwabe, Enrico; Hohlfeld, Manon; Jeuck, Alexandra; Brenke, Nils; Prausse, Dennis; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Brix, Saskia; Frutos, Inmaculada; Jörger, Katharina M.; Neusser, Timea P.; Koppelmann, Rolf; Devey, Colin; Brandt, Angelika; Arndt, Hartmut</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>Deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ecosystems, limited by their inability to use primary production as a source of carbon, rely on other sources to maintain life. Sedimentation of organic carbon into the deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> has been previously studied, however, the high biomass of sedimented Sargassum algae discovered during the VEMA Transit expedition in 2014/2015 to the <span class="hlt">southern</span> North Atlantic, and its potential as a regular carbon input, has been an underestimated phenomenon. To determine the potential for this carbon flux, a literature survey of previous studies that estimated the abundance of surface water Sargassum was conducted. We compared these estimates with quantitative analyses of sedimented Sargassum appearing on photos taken with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) directly above the abyssal sediment during the expedition. Organismal communities associated to Sargassum fluitans from surface waters were investigated and Sargassum samples collected from surface waters and the deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> were biochemically analyzed (fatty acids, stable isotopes, C:N ratios) to determine degradation potential and the trophic significance within deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> communities. The estimated Sargassum biomass (fresh weight) in the deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> (0.07-3.75 g/m2) was several times higher than that estimated from surface waters in the North Atlantic (0.024-0.84 g/m2). Biochemical analysis showed degradation of Sargassum occurring during sedimentation or in the deep <span class="hlt">sea</span>, however, fatty acid and stable isotope analysis did not indicate direct trophic interactions between the algae and benthic organisms. Thus, it is assumed that components of the deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> microbial food web form an important link between the macroalgae and larger benthic organisms. Evaluation of the epifauna showed a diverse nano- micro-, meio, and macrofauna on surface Sargassum and maybe transported across the Atlantic, but we had no evidence for a vertical exchange of fauna components. The large-scale sedimentation of Sargassum forms an important trophic link</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3385849','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3385849"><span>A new species of Caligus (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) from the plankton of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> coast of Venezuela with a key to species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Camisotti, Humberto; Martín, Alberto</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Abstract During a survey of the zooplankton community of Bahía Amuay, Venezuelan <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>, specimens of an undescribed species of Caligus Müller were collected. It resembles Caligus xystercus Cressey and Caligus ocyurus Cressey, both known only from the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The new species can be distinguished from these and other congeners by a combination of characters including the armature of legs 1 and 4, but mainly by its unique female genital complex. This is the first species of Caligus described from Venezuela. The species is described in full and a key to the species of the genus recorded in Venezuela is provided. PMID:22768004</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1052469','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1052469"><span>Analysis and Prediction of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Evolution using Koopman Mode Decomposition Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Koopman Mode Analysis was newly applied to <span class="hlt">southern</span> hemisphere <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration data. The resulting Koopman modes from analysis of both the...<span class="hlt">southern</span> and northern hemisphere <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration data shows geographical regions where <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice coverage has decreased over multiyear time scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915048B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915048B"><span>Framing topographic Rossby waves in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bonaldo, Davide; Orlic, Mirko; Bergamasco, Andrea; Benetazzo, Alvise; Carniel, Sandro</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Topographic Rossby Waves (TRWs) are oscillatory phenomena associated with modulations induced by seabed morphology in the potential vorticity field. These features could be confined to a single layer or could involve the whole water column, and they are controlled by a combination of the bathymetric gradient and the uniform rotation in the same way as planetary Rossby waves are controlled by the meridional modulation of the Coriolis parameter. In terms of deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> circulation, TRWs provide a fundamental contribution by radiating large amounts of energy along and off a continental shelf. Under favorable conditions TRWs can be triggered by a number of factors, such as intense vorticity injections from the wind or the bathymetric perturbations - e.g., a promontory or a canyon crossing the path of a current. In this work we combine observational data and numerical model fields for detecting the presence of TRWs along the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Adriatic Margin (SAM, Eastern Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>) and investigating their dynamics during an episode of dense water downflow in spring 2012. Starting from the observation of high-intensity velocity pulses with a period of approximately 2 days, we carry out a sequence of operations on the results of a high-resolution, ocean currents-waves coupled numerical modelling experiment aiming to reproduce dense water formation and migration in the Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in winter-spring 2012. First, we apply a wavelet analysis to modelled velocity time series at several locations off the Italian coast and along the SAM in order to identify the spatial and temporal extent of the pulsing episodes. Then, the properties of the oscillations are assessed via rotary analysis; the propagation of the band-filtered signal along the continental margin is characterized by extracting wave length and propagation velocity, therefore allowing the comparison against theoretical dispersion relations associated with the bathymetry of the SAM. Our results show that the observed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED401544.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED401544.pdf"><span>Globalizing the English Curriculum through <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Literature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Spoelman, Linda; Thomas, Katherine</p> <p></p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> (English) writers hold differing views on the effectiveness of making connections in an area of so much diversity, <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> literature can be connected to the English curriculum to promote diversity and understanding. V. S. Naipaul, Nobel Prize winning author from the region, presents a pessimistic view of <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> society in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45..915M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45..915M"><span>Interannual and intra-annual variability of rainfall in Haiti (1905-2005)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moron, Vincent; Frelat, Romain; Jean-Jeune, Pierre Karly; Gaucherel, Cédric</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The interannual variability of annual and monthly rainfall in Haiti is examined from a database of 78 rain gauges in 1905-2005. The spatial coherence of annual rainfall is rather low, which is partly due to Haiti's rugged landscape, complex shoreline, and surrounding warm waters (mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperatures >27 °C from May to December). The interannual variation of monthly rainfall is mostly shaped by the intensity of the low-level winds across the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, leading to a drier- (or wetter-) than-average rainy season associated with easterly (or westerly) anomalies, increasing (or decreasing) winds. The varying speed of low-level easterlies across the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> basin may reflect at least four different processes during the year: (1) an anomalous trough/ridge over the western edge of the Azores high from December to February, peaking in January; (2) a zonal pressure gradient between Eastern Pacific and the tropical Northern Atlantic from May/June to September, with a peak in August (i.e. lower-than-average rainfall in Haiti is associated with positive <span class="hlt">sea</span> level pressure anomalies over the tropical North Atlantic and negative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level pressure anomalies over the Eastern Pacific); (3) a local ocean-atmosphere coupling between the speed of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> Low Level Jet and the meridional <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) gradient across the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> basin (i.e. colder-than-average SST in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> is associated with increased easterlies and below-average rainfall in Haiti). This coupling is triggered when the warmest <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> waters move northward toward the Gulf of Mexico; (4) in October/November, a drier- (or wetter-) than-usual rainy season is related to an almost closed anticyclonic (or cyclonic) anomaly located ENE of Haiti on the SW edge of the Azores high. This suggests a main control of the interannual variations of rainfall by intensity, track and/or recurrence of tropical depressions traveling northeast of Haiti. During this period, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27255926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27255926"><span>Trace Element Accumulation and Tissue Distribution in the Purpleback Flying Squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis from the Central and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Yan Yan; Shen, Yu; Huang, Hui; Yang, Xian Qing; Zhao, Yong Qiang; Cen, Jian Wei; Qi, Bo</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis is a species of cephalopod that is becoming economically important in the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn concentrations were determined in the mantle, arms, and digestive gland of S. oualaniensis from 31 oceanographic survey stations in the central and <span class="hlt">southern</span> South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Intraspecific and interspecific comparisons with previous studies were made. Mean concentrations of trace elements analyzed in arms and mantle were in the following orders: Zn > Cu > Cd > Cr > As > Hg. In digestive gland, the concentrations of Cd and Cu exceed that of Zn. All the Pb concentrations were under the detected limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.175.1405C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.175.1405C"><span>A Collaborative Effort Between <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> States for Tsunami Numerical Modeling: Case Study CaribeWave15</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia; López-Venegas, Alberto; Sánchez-Escobar, Rónald; Luque-Vergara, Néstor</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>Historical records have shown that tsunami have affected the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region in the past. However infrequent, recent studies have demonstrated that they pose a latent hazard for countries within this basin. The Hazard Assessment Working Group of the ICG/CARIBE-EWS (Intergovernmental Coordination Group of the Early Warning System for Tsunamis and Other Coastal Threats for the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Adjacent Regions) of IOC/UNESCO has a modeling subgroup, which seeks to develop a modeling platform to assess the effects of possible tsunami sources within the basin. The CaribeWave tsunami exercise is carried out annually in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region to increase awareness and test tsunami preparedness of countries within the basin. In this study we present results of tsunami inundation using the CaribeWave15 exercise scenario for four selected locations within the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> basin (Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá and Puerto Rico), performed by tsunami modeling researchers from those selected countries. The purpose of this study was to provide the states with additional results for the exercise. The results obtained here were compared to co-seismic deformation and tsunami heights within the basin (energy plots) provided for the exercise to assess the performance of the decision support tools distributed by PTWC (Pacific Tsunami Warning Center), the tsunami service provider for the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> basin. However, comparison of coastal tsunami heights was not possible, due to inconsistencies between the provided fault parameters and the modeling results within the provided exercise products. Still, the modeling performed here allowed to analyze tsunami characteristics at the mentioned states from sources within the North Panamá Deformed Belt. The occurrence of a tsunami in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> may affect several countries because a great variety of them share coastal zones in this basin. Therefore, collaborative efforts similar to the one presented in this study, particularly between neighboring</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.tmp..406C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.tmp..406C"><span>A Collaborative Effort Between <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> States for Tsunami Numerical Modeling: Case Study CaribeWave15</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia; López-Venegas, Alberto; Sánchez-Escobar, Rónald; Luque-Vergara, Néstor</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Historical records have shown that tsunami have affected the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region in the past. However infrequent, recent studies have demonstrated that they pose a latent hazard for countries within this basin. The Hazard Assessment Working Group of the ICG/CARIBE-EWS (Intergovernmental Coordination Group of the Early Warning System for Tsunamis and Other Coastal Threats for the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Adjacent Regions) of IOC/UNESCO has a modeling subgroup, which seeks to develop a modeling platform to assess the effects of possible tsunami sources within the basin. The CaribeWave tsunami exercise is carried out annually in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> region to increase awareness and test tsunami preparedness of countries within the basin. In this study we present results of tsunami inundation using the CaribeWave15 exercise scenario for four selected locations within the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> basin (Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá and Puerto Rico), performed by tsunami modeling researchers from those selected countries. The purpose of this study was to provide the states with additional results for the exercise. The results obtained here were compared to co-seismic deformation and tsunami heights within the basin (energy plots) provided for the exercise to assess the performance of the decision support tools distributed by PTWC (Pacific Tsunami Warning Center), the tsunami service provider for the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> basin. However, comparison of coastal tsunami heights was not possible, due to inconsistencies between the provided fault parameters and the modeling results within the provided exercise products. Still, the modeling performed here allowed to analyze tsunami characteristics at the mentioned states from sources within the North Panamá Deformed Belt. The occurrence of a tsunami in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> may affect several countries because a great variety of them share coastal zones in this basin. Therefore, collaborative efforts similar to the one presented in this study, particularly between neighboring</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27061778','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27061778"><span>(90)Sr in fish from the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, coastal lagoons and freshwater lake.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zalewska, Tamara; Saniewski, Michał; Suplińska, Maria; Rubel, Barbara</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Activity concentrations of radioactive (90)Sr were studied in four fish species: herring, flounder, sprat and cod caught in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in two periods: 2005-2009 and 2013-2014. The study included also perch from the coastal lagoons - Vistula Lagoon and Szczcin Lagoon and a freshwater lake - Żarnowieckie Lake as well as additional lake species: pike and bream. (90)Sr activity concentrations were compared in relation to species and to particular tissue: muscle, whole fish (eviscerated) and bones. In 2014, in the Baltic, the maximal (90)Sr concentrations were found in fishbones: herring - 0.39 Bq kg(-1) w.w., cod - 0.48 Bq kg(-1) w.w., and flounder - 0.54 Bq kg(-1) w.w. In the whole fish the maximal concentrations were found in flounder - 0.16 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and cod - 0.15 Bq kg(-1) w.w., while in herring - 0.022 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and sprat - 0.026 Bq kg(-1) w.w. they stayed at lower level. Relatively high (90)Sr concentrations were detected in whole fish from freshwater Lake Żarnowieckie: perch - 0.054 Bq kg(-1) w.w., pike - 0.062 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and bream - 0.140 Bq kg(-1) w.w. Concentration ratio (CR) determined for particular fish tissues and for whole eviscerated fish in relation to (90)Sr concentrations in seawater and lake water were showing significant variability unlike the corresponding (137)Cs concentration ratios which are stable and specific for fish species. The study corroborates with the conviction of the growing role of (90)Sr in the overall radioactivity in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> as compared to (137)Cs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.A31A..08D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.A31A..08D"><span>Warm Water Pools of the Western <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> and Eastern Tropical Pacific: Their Influence on Intraseasonal Rainfall Regimes and Tropical Storm Activity in Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Douglas, A. V.; Englehart, P. J.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>A dipole in tropical cyclone development between the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> and the eastern tropical Pacific will be examined relative to its affect on <span class="hlt">southern</span> Mexican rainfall. With the change over in the AMO and PDO in 1994 and 1998, respectively, tropical storm genesis has been increasing in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> while declining in the tropical east Pacific. This dipole in tropical cyclone development appears to be related to changes in the pre storm season heat content of the two ocean basins (data Scripps Institution of Oceanography). Preliminary work indicates that if the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> is warmer than the Pacific by late May the dipole will be accentuated with a pronounced decrease in tropical storms in the east Pacific with an early and prolonged season in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>. In recent years there appears to have been an increase in the intensity and duration of midsummer drought (Canicula) in Mexico associated with changes in the PDO and AMO. These long term ocean oscillations appear to control the dipole in the strength of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> and East Pacific warm pools. Mid summer drought is a normal occurrence in much of Mexico and Central America, but the intensified droughts of the recent period have stressed the agricultural community of the region. Based on preliminary work, it appears that the recent increased frequency of midsummer drought can be linked to a shift in the warmest pool from the East Pacific to the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715666P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715666P"><span>Current knowledge, gaps and challenges in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> European <span class="hlt">Seas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papathanassiou, Evangelos</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>New knowledge advances our current understanding on the selection and application of the appropriate tools for assessing the state of the marine environment in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> European <span class="hlt">Seas</span> (SES). Diminishing the lack of knowledge is a prerequisite for sound policy decisions. Although gaps and knowledge are fewer today, the health of marine and coastal ecosystems in the SES is under pressure and shows, in places, some signs of deterioration and declining quality. Overall, there is a lack of data accessibility and long time series in the SES, while in many cases poorly constrained processes cannot really support knowledge-based policy making (e.g. ecosystem functioning, climate change, fisheries management, etc.). New knowledge has to be produced and excellence must be promoted to support sustainable economic growth. At the same time, existing and new capacities have to be upgraded and increased in order to support sustainable convergence between SES countries. There are several gaps that have been identified and processes that have been poorly understood in the SES, mainly from research projects that have been working at basin level. The main research priorities that have been identified from the <span class="hlt">Seas</span>ERA Project for both, the Mediterranean and the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> include: the climate change and its impacts, the hydrological cycle, the ventilation and the inter-basin coupling, the marine biodiversity and the provision of goods and services, the marine protected areas, the deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> ecosystems, the biological invasions, the marine pollution and the ocean and human health, the renewable energy, the maritime transport, the fisheries and aquaculture activities and the biotechnology and the exploitation of marine resources for industrial application. More important, however, is the fact that the economic, the social and the scientific and the environmental challenges must be collectively tackled. They should have prioritisation and clear objectives as well as data sharing for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.werc.usgs.gov/ProductDetails.aspx?ID=4166','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.werc.usgs.gov/ProductDetails.aspx?ID=4166"><span>Behavior associated with forced copulation of juvenile Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) by <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Harris, Heather S.; Oates, Stori C.; Staedler, Michelle M.; Tinker, M. Tim; Jessup, David A.; Harvey, James T.; Miller, Melissa A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Nineteen occurrences of interspecific sexual behavior between male <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and juvenile Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) were reported in Monterey Bay, California, between 2000 and 2002. At least three different male <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters were observed harassing, dragging, guarding, and copulating with harbor seals for up to 7 d postmortem. Carcasses of 15 juvenile harbor seals were recovered, and seven were necropsied in detail by a veterinary pathologist. Necropsy findings from two female <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters that were recovered dead from male <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters exhibiting similar behavior are also presented to facilitate a comparison of lesions. The most frequent lesions included superficial skin lacerations; hemorrhage around the nose, eyes, flippers, and perineum; and traumatic corneal erosions or ulcers. The harbor seals sustained severe genital trauma, ranging from vaginal perforation to vagino-cervical transection, and colorectal perforations as a result of penile penetration. One harbor seal developed severe pneumoperitoneum subsequent to vaginal perforation, which was also observed in both female <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters and has been reported as a postcoital lesion in humans. This study represents the first description of lesions resulting from forced copulation of harbor seals by <span class="hlt">sea</span> otters and is also the first report of pneu-moperitoneum secondary to forced copulation in a nonhuman animal. Possible explanations for this behavior are discussed in the context of <span class="hlt">sea</span> otter biology and population demographics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24930738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24930738"><span>Surfactants in the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface microlayer and atmospheric aerosol around the <span class="hlt">southern</span> region of Peninsular Malaysia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jaafar, Shoffian Amin; Latif, Mohd Talib; Chian, Chong Woan; Han, Wong Sook; Wahid, Nurul Bahiyah Abd; Razak, Intan Suraya; Khan, Md Firoz; Tahir, Norhayati Mohd</p> <p>2014-07-15</p> <p>This study was conducted to determine the composition of surfactants in the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface microlayer (SML) and atmospheric aerosol around the <span class="hlt">southern</span> region of the Peninsular Malaysia. Surfactants in samples taken from the SML and atmospheric aerosol were determined using a colorimetric method, as either methylene blue active substances (MBAS) or disulphine blue active substances (DBAS). Principal component analysis with multiple linear regressions (PCA-MLR), using the anion and major element composition of the aerosol samples, was used to determine possible sources of surfactants in atmospheric aerosol. The results showed that the concentrations of surfactants in the SML and atmospheric aerosol were dominated by anionic surfactants and that surfactants in aerosol were not directly correlated (p>0.05) with surfactants in the SML. Further PCA-MLR from anion and major element concentrations showed that combustion of fossil fuel and <span class="hlt">sea</span> spray were the major contributors to surfactants in aerosol in the study area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002202&hterms=Russia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DRussia','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002202&hterms=Russia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DRussia"><span>White <span class="hlt">Sea</span> - Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its <span class="hlt">southern</span> extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T41A2578Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T41A2578Z"><span>Separation of the Guajira-Bonaire pair in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> margin of the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span>: 65-50 Ma exhumation followed by 300 km right-lateral transtensional deformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zapata Henao, S.; Cardona, A.; Montes, C.; Valencia, V.; Vervoort, J. D.; Reiners, P. W.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Middle to upper Eocene fluvial strata in the island of Bonaire contains detrital components that were tracked to the basement massifs of the Guajira Peninsula in northern Colombia. These detrital components confirm previous hypothesis that the Guajira-Bonaire pair constitute a tectonic piercing point along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> plate margin that was right-laterally displaced approximately 300 km after middle Eocene times. Other possible sources, the nearby Curacao and the far away Santa Marta massif, did not pass statistical similarity and overlap tests. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS from the metamorphic boulders of the Soebi Blanco Formation in Bonaire yield Grenvillian ages (1084 Ma, 1130 Ma and 1184 Ma), while the detrital zircons recovered from the sandy matrix of the conglomerates contains populations with peaks of 1000 Ma - 1200 Ma, 750 Ma - 950 Ma, and 200 Ma - 300 Ma. Overlap and Similarity tests run between these populations and published data from Guajira yield values of 0.750 and 0.680, which are significantly higher than the same comparison against the Santa Marta Massif (0.637 and 0.522), and the Curacao island (0.629 and 0.467). Thermochronological results from the metamorphic clasts yield Paleocene-middle Eocene ages (65 - 50 Ma) that confirm not only a regional-scale cooling event in this time period, but also help constrain the maximum depositional age (50 Ma) of the poorly dated Soebi Blanco Formation. Figure 6. U-Pb results from analyzed samples and other <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> provinces. (A), Detrital zircons from Soebi Blanco conglomerate matrix; (B), Zircon ages from metamorphic clasts (C), detrital zircons from late Cretaceous Etpana Formation in Guajira Peninsula (Weber et al., 2010); (D), detrital zircons from late Cretaceous Santa Marta San Lorenzo schists (Cardona et al., 2010a); (E), detrital zircons from late Cretaceous Knip Group (Wrigth and Wyld, 2010); (F), overlap and similarity values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED478868.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED478868.pdf"><span>Sailor's Life at <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (and a Little Poetry).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>At the turn of the 19th century, the United States was a rapidly growing nation. When the United States acquired territories in the <span class="hlt">Caribbean</span> and the Pacific Ocean, the job of maintaining open <span class="hlt">sea</span> lanes fell to the U.S. Navy. To maintain a strong and well-trained force, the Navy needed to attract personnel to work onboard their ships. It used…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324370"><span>Spatiotemporal variations of the ⁹⁰Sr in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> part of the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> over the period of 2005-2010.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saniewski, Michał</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is one of the most contaminated <span class="hlt">seas</span> by the radioactive isotope of strontium in the world; therefore the activity of ⁹⁰Sr is regularly controlled. Due to that fact, seawater samples for ⁹⁰Sr determination were collected at 16 stations located in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> between 2005 and 2010. In this period average activity of ⁹⁰Sr was 7.8 Bq m⁻³ and varied within the range from 3.0 Bq m⁻³ to 11.9 Bq m⁻³. Because the higher activity of ⁹⁰Sr was measured in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> than in the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and rivers, inflows from the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the riverine runoff decreased ⁹⁰Sr activity in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The average ⁹⁰Sr activity in t