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Sample records for southern king crab

  1. [Biologically Active Peptides of King Crab Hepatopancreas].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, V V; Berezin, B B; Il'ina, A P; Yamskova, V P; Yamskov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Substances of a peptide nature isolated from the hepatopancreas of the king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus exhibited physicochemical properties and membranotropic and specific activities similar to those of membranotropic homeostatic tissue-specific bioregulators previously found in different mammalian and plant tissues. Their biological effect on vertebrate tissues was demonstrated on a model of roller organotypic cultivation of Pleurodeles waltl newt liver tissue.

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red king crab

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jewett, Stephen C.; Onuf, Christopher P.

    1988-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for evaluating habitat of different life stages of red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica). A model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat) in Alaskan coastal waters, especially in the Gulf of Alaska and the southeastern Bering Sea. HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  3. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  8. Distribution of larval and juvenile red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschatica) in Bristol Bay. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, G.; Vogel, A.H.; Fishman, P.A.; Armstrong, D.A.; Jewett, S.C.

    1984-02-01

    The goal of the present study is to provide sufficient information on larval and juvenile red king crab distributions and associated environmental variables to reasonably describe the potential effects of oil and gas development on the crab population and its fishery in Bristol Bay.

  9. Heavy metals and POPs in red king crab from the Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Julshamn, Kaare; Valdersnes, Stig; Duinker, Arne; Nedreaas, Kjell; Sundet, Jan H; Maage, Amund

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the food safety of the red king crab from Norwegian waters and obtain information on possible geographical and gender differences. Samples of claw and leg meat of 185 red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschaticus), collected from 23 positions in the Barents Sea, were analysed for dioxins, furans, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs, non dioxin-like PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated alkyl substances and elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead. The concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and metals were low compared to maximum levels laid down in European regulations. Hence, red king crab is a safe food. Significant differences in the concentrations of metals among different areas, and between male and female crabs, were found. Positive correlations were found between carapace length and mercury, methylmercury and cadmium concentrations, and between fat and arsenic and inorganic arsenic concentrations.

  10. Spatial patterns and movements of red king and Tanner crabs: Implications for the design of marine protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taggart, S.J.; Mondragon, Jennifer; Andrews, A.G.; Nielsen, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Most examples of positive population responses to marine protected areas (MPAs) have been documented for tropical reef species with very small home ranges; the utility of MPAs for commercially harvested temperate species that have large movement patterns remains poorly tested. We measured the distribution and abundance of red king Paralithodes camtschaticus and Tanner Chionoecetes bairdi crabs inside and outside of MPAs in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, USA. By tagging a sub-sample of crabs with sonic tags, we estimated the movement of adult crabs from one of the MPAs (Muir Inlet) into the central portion of Glacier Bay where fishing still occurs. Tanner crabs and red king crabs moved similar average distances per day, although Tanner crabs had a higher transfer out of the Muir Inlet MPA into the central bay. Tanner crab movements were characterized by large variation among individual crabs, both in distance and direction traveled, while red king crabs migrated seasonally between 2 specific areas. Although Tanner crabs exhibited relatively large movements, distribution and abundance data suggest that they may be restricted at large spatial scales by habitat barriers. MPAs that are effective at protecting king and especially Tanner crab brood stock from fishing mortality will likely need to be larger than is typical of MPAs worldwide. However, by incorporating information on the seasonal movements of red king crabs and the location of habitat barriers for Tanner crabs, MPAs could likely be designed that would effectively protect adults from fishing mortality. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  11. Effects of ocean acidification on the embryos and larvae of red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus.

    PubMed

    Christopher Long, W; Swiney, Katherine M; Foy, Robert J

    2013-04-15

    The effects of the decline in ocean pH, known as ocean acidification, on marine species are not well understood. To test the effects on embryos and larvae of red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus, ovigerous crab and their larvae were held in CO2-acidified (pH 7.7) and control (ambient; pH 8.0) seawater during development. Morphometrics, hatch duration, fecundity, survival, mineral content, and condition were measured. Acidified embryos had 4% larger eyes and 5% smaller yolks, while mean hatch duration was 33% longer and female fecundity was unaffected. Acidified embryos also resulted in 4% longer larvae while acidified larvae had lower survival. Calcium content of both larvae and female carapaces after molting increased by 5% and 19%, respectively. Although ocean acidification may increase larval size and calcium content, the implications of this are unclear and decreased survival is likely to harm red king crab populations.

  12. Mitochondrial genome of the Caribbean king crab Damithrax spinosissimus (Lamarck, 1818) (Decapoda: Majidae).

    PubMed

    Márquez, Edna J; Hurtado-Alarcón, Julio C; Isaza, Juan P; Alzate, Juan F; Campos, Néstor H

    2016-05-01

    The Caribbean king crab Damithrax spinosissimus (former Mithrax spinosissimus) is a large brachyuran in the tropical and subtropical western Atlantic. This is the first report of the complete mitochondrial genome of D. spinosissimus, which was pyrosequenced by FLX 454 technology. The mtDNA encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of brachyuran.

  13. Development of a real-time PCR assay for detection of planktonic red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius 1815)) larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, Pamela C.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Morado, J. Frank; Eckert, Ginny L.

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) fishery was once one of the most economically important single-species fisheries in the world, but is currently depressed. This fishery would benefit from improved stock assessment capabilities. Larval crab distribution is patchy temporally and spatially, requiring extensive sampling efforts to locate and track larval dispersal. Large-scale plankton surveys are generally cost prohibitive because of the effort required for collection and the time and taxonomic expertise required to sort samples to identify plankton individually via light microscopy. Here, we report the development of primers and a dual-labeled probe for use in a DNA-based real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the red king crab, mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I for the detection of red king crab larvae DNA in plankton samples. The assay allows identification of plankton samples containing crab larvae DNA and provides an estimate of DNA copy number present in a sample without sorting the plankton sample visually. The assay was tested on DNA extracted from whole red king crab larvae and plankton samples seeded with whole larvae, and it detected DNA copies equivalent to 1/10,000th of a larva and 1 crab larva/5mL sieved plankton, respectively. The real-time polymerase chain reaction assay can be used to screen plankton samples for larvae in a fraction of the time required for traditional microscopial methods, which offers advantages for stock assessment methodologies for red king crab as well as a rapid and reliable method to assess abundance of red king crab larvae as needed to improve the understanding of life history and population processes, including larval population dynamics.

  14. Effects of ocean acidification on juvenile red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) and Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) growth, condition, calcification, and survival.

    PubMed

    Long, William Christopher; Swiney, Katherine M; Harris, Caitlin; Page, Heather N; Foy, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification, a decrease in the pH in marine waters associated with rising atmospheric CO2 levels, is a serious threat to marine ecosystems. In this paper, we determine the effects of long-term exposure to near-future levels of ocean acidification on the growth, condition, calcification, and survival of juvenile red king crabs, Paralithodes camtschaticus, and Tanner crabs, Chionoecetes bairdi. Juveniles were reared in individual containers for nearly 200 days in flowing control (pH 8.0), pH 7.8, and pH 7.5 seawater at ambient temperatures (range 4.4-11.9 °C). In both species, survival decreased with pH, with 100% mortality of red king crabs occurring after 95 days in pH 7.5 water. Though the morphology of neither species was affected by acidification, both species grew slower in acidified water. At the end of the experiment, calcium concentration was measured in each crab and the dry mass and condition index of each crab were determined. Ocean acidification did not affect the calcium content of red king crab but did decrease the condition index, while it had the opposite effect on Tanner crabs, decreasing calcium content but leaving the condition index unchanged. This suggests that red king crab may be able to maintain calcification rates, but at a high energetic cost. The decrease in survival and growth of each species is likely to have a serious negative effect on their populations in the absence of evolutionary adaptation or acclimatization over the coming decades.

  15. Effects of Ocean Acidification on Juvenile Red King Crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) and Tanner Crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) Growth, Condition, Calcification, and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Long, William Christopher; Swiney, Katherine M.; Harris, Caitlin; Page, Heather N.; Foy, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification, a decrease in the pH in marine waters associated with rising atmospheric CO2 levels, is a serious threat to marine ecosystems. In this paper, we determine the effects of long-term exposure to near-future levels of ocean acidification on the growth, condition, calcification, and survival of juvenile red king crabs, Paralithodes camtschaticus, and Tanner crabs, Chionoecetes bairdi. Juveniles were reared in individual containers for nearly 200 days in flowing control (pH 8.0), pH 7.8, and pH 7.5 seawater at ambient temperatures (range 4.4–11.9 °C). In both species, survival decreased with pH, with 100% mortality of red king crabs occurring after 95 days in pH 7.5 water. Though the morphology of neither species was affected by acidification, both species grew slower in acidified water. At the end of the experiment, calcium concentration was measured in each crab and the dry mass and condition index of each crab were determined. Ocean acidification did not affect the calcium content of red king crab but did decrease the condition index, while it had the opposite effect on Tanner crabs, decreasing calcium content but leaving the condition index unchanged. This suggests that red king crab may be able to maintain calcification rates, but at a high energetic cost. The decrease in survival and growth of each species is likely to have a serious negative effect on their populations in the absence of evolutionary adaptation or acclimatization over the coming decades. PMID:23593357

  16. Inter-annual dynamics of the Barents Sea red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) stock indices in relation to environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoretsky, Alexander G.; Dvoretsky, Vladimir G.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of relationships between environmental variables and biological processes can greatly improve fisheries assessment and management in commercially important species. We analyzed the effects of environmental factors (climatic indices and water temperature) on the stock characteristics (total population number, number of pre-recruits and number of legal males) of the red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus), an introduced species in the Barents Sea. Stock trends in red king crab appear to be related to decadal climate shifts. Abundances were negatively related to the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO) in August and positively related to water temperature in late winter-early summer. Total and commercial stock abundance were negatively correlated with the lag-1 Arctic Oscillation index (AO) in August and the lag-2 winter NAO index. The total number of P. camtschaticus was most strongly associated with water temperature in spring and summer and NAO/AO indices in April and May. Lagged NAO indices in February and August (9 or 10 yr) had a positive relationship to the commercial stock of P. camtschaticus. These findings suggest that temperature conditions of current and previous year affect natural mortality of larvae and juvenile red king crabs. Warmer temperature conditions lead to increased biomass of red king crab food items. Negative correlations between climatic indices and the red king crab stocks may be associated with predator pressure on juvenile red king crabs or higher mortality because of predator or parasite pressure and diseases. The associations between stock indices and environmental variables could help better predict recruitment patterns of P. camtschaticus.

  17. The impact of the hydrodynamic conditions in aquatic areas on the red king crab fouling communities of the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoretsky, A. G.; Dvoretsky, V. G.

    2014-03-01

    A comparative analysis of the species composition and indices of associated organisms for the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus has been carried out at two aquatic areas of the Barents Sea that differ based on the intensity of their water exchange with the open sea areas. In Dolgaya Bay, a typical fjord of the Barents Sea with low water circulation, such common fouling organisms as the barnacles Balanus crenatus dominated on the crabs, while, in Dalnezelenetskaya Bay, a semiopen coastal area, the most common mobile symbionts on the red king crab were the amphipods Ischyrocerus commensalis and I. anguipes. In Dolgaya Bay, the hydrodynamic conditions promote the settlement of larval foulers, whose colonization leads to a decrease of the crab infestation with the mobile symbionts and changes in their distribution along the host body if compared to the more open coastal areas of Eastern Murman.

  18. Two new cryptic and sympatric species of the king crab parasite Briarosaccus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) in the North Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Noever, Christoph; Olson, Andrew; Glenner, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Rhizocephalan barnacles have been reported to parasitize a wide range of king crab species (Lithodidae). So far all these parasites have been assigned to a single species, Briarosaccus callosus Boschma, 1930, which is assumed to have a global distribution. Here we investigate Briarosaccus specimens from three different king crab hosts from the fjord systems of Southeastern Alaska: Lithodes aequispinus Benedict, 1895, Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815), and Paralithodes platypus (Brandt, 1850). Using molecular markers and by morphological comparison we show that Briarosaccus specimens from these three commercial exploited king crabs are in fact morphologically distinct from B. callosus, and further represent two separate species which we describe. The two new species, Briarosaccus auratum n. sp. and B. regalis n. sp., are cryptic by morphological means and were identified as distinct species by the use of genetic markers (COI and 16S). They occur sympatrically, yet no overlap in king crab hosts occurs, with B. auratum n. sp. only found on L. aequispinus, and B. regalis n. sp. as parasite of the two Paralithodes hosts. PMID:26792948

  19. Macrobenthic biomass and production in a heterogenic subarctic fjord after invasion by the red king crab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Mona M.; Pedersen, Torstein; Ramasco, Virginie; Nilssen, Einar M.

    2015-12-01

    We studied the macrobenthic fauna and their production potential in Porsangerfjord, Northern Norway, in relation to environmental gradients and the recent invasion by the predatory red king crab into the outer fjord. The study area is characterized by a distinct along-fjord temperature gradient, with the influence of warmer Atlantic water in the outer fjord and year-round bottom temperatures around zero in the inner fjord. Benthic organisms can play a crucial role in ecosystem energy flow. Despite this, our knowledge of factors regulating benthic secondary production in high latitude ecosystems is limited. Macrobenthic abundance, biomass (B), production (P) and production-to-biomass ratio (P/B) were estimated from grab samples collected in 2010. Annual P/B ratios were calculated using a multi-parameter artificial neural network (ANN) model by Brey (2012). The mean abundance, biomass, production and P/B were 4611 ind. m- 2 (95% CI = 3994, 5316), 65 g ww m- 2 (95% CI = 51, 82), 174 kJ m- 2 y- 1 (95% CI = 151, 201) and 1.02 y- 1, respectively. Benthic biomass and production in the fjord were dominated by polychaetes. Spatial variability in P/B and production was mainly driven by community structure and differences in environmental habitat conditions. The inner basins of the fjord were characterized by high total production (439 kJ m- 2 y- 1), attributable to high standing stock biomass and community structure, despite cold bottom temperatures. In the middle and outer fjord, smaller taxa with low individual body masses increased the P/B ratios, but they did not compensate for the low biomass, thereby resulting in lower total production in these areas. The low biomass and the sparseness of large taxa in the outer and middle fjord may already be a result of predation by the invasive red king crab resulting in an overall lower macrobenthic production regime.

  20. King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Stenseth, Nils C; Park, Young-Hyang; Pradel, Roger; Grémillet, David; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Le Maho, Yvon

    2008-02-19

    Seabirds are sensitive indicators of changes in marine ecosystems and might integrate and/or amplify the effects of climate forcing on lower levels in food chains. Current knowledge on the impact of climate changes on penguins is primarily based on Antarctic birds identified by using flipper bands. Although flipper bands have helped to answer many questions about penguin biology, they were shown in some penguin species to have a detrimental effect. Here, we present for a Subantarctic species, king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), reliable results on the effect of climate on survival and breeding based on unbanded birds but instead marked by subcutaneous electronic tags. We show that warm events negatively affect both breeding success and adult survival of this seabird. However, the observed effect is complex because it affects penguins at several spatio/temporal levels. Breeding reveals an immediate response to forcing during warm phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation affecting food availability close to the colony. Conversely, adult survival decreases with a remote sea-surface temperature forcing (i.e., a 2-year lag warming taking place at the northern boundary of pack ice, their winter foraging place). We suggest that this time lag may be explained by the delay between the recruitment and abundance of their prey, adjusted to the particular 1-year breeding cycle of the king penguin. The derived population dynamic model suggests a 9% decline in adult survival for a 0.26 degrees C warming. Our findings suggest that king penguin populations are at heavy extinction risk under the current global warming predictions.

  1. King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming

    PubMed Central

    Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M.; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Stenseth, Nils C.; Park, Young-Hyang; Pradel, Roger; Grémillet, David; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Le Maho, Yvon

    2008-01-01

    Seabirds are sensitive indicators of changes in marine ecosystems and might integrate and/or amplify the effects of climate forcing on lower levels in food chains. Current knowledge on the impact of climate changes on penguins is primarily based on Antarctic birds identified by using flipper bands. Although flipper bands have helped to answer many questions about penguin biology, they were shown in some penguin species to have a detrimental effect. Here, we present for a Subantarctic species, king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), reliable results on the effect of climate on survival and breeding based on unbanded birds but instead marked by subcutaneous electronic tags. We show that warm events negatively affect both breeding success and adult survival of this seabird. However, the observed effect is complex because it affects penguins at several spatio/temporal levels. Breeding reveals an immediate response to forcing during warm phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation affecting food availability close to the colony. Conversely, adult survival decreases with a remote sea-surface temperature forcing (i.e., a 2-year lag warming taking place at the northern boundary of pack ice, their winter foraging place). We suggest that this time lag may be explained by the delay between the recruitment and abundance of their prey, adjusted to the particular 1-year breeding cycle of the king penguin. The derived population dynamic model suggests a 9% decline in adult survival for a 0.26°C warming. Our findings suggest that king penguin populations are at heavy extinction risk under the current global warming predictions. PMID:18268328

  2. [Phosphatases and phosphodiesterases isolated from the red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica) hepatopancreas].

    PubMed

    Menzorova, N I; Ivleva, A D; Sibirtsev, Iu T; Rasskazov, V A

    2008-01-01

    Five enzymes have been isolated from the hepatopancreas of the red king crab Paralithodes camtschatica by means of ion exchange and gel chromatography: two acid (AcP) and one alkaline (AlkP) phosphmonoesterases, one alkaline phosphodiesterase (AlkPD), and one acid phosphodiesterase (AcPD). The pH optimum values of these enzymes are: AlkPs and AlkPD, 7.5; AcP, 5.5; and AcPD, 5.0. The activity of AlkP and AlkPD demands Mg2+ ions. The molecular weights of the enzymes (kDa) are the following: AlkP, 80: AcPs, 80 and 82; AlkPD, 51; and AcPD, 57. The enzymes are relatively thermostable (ID50 from 47 to 62 degrees C). AlkP is inhibited by NaCl (IC50 at 0.4 M). The AcP, AcPD, and AlkPD activities are tolerant of high ionic strength.

  3. Incorporating deep and shallow components of genetic structure into the management of Alaskan red king crab

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William Stewart; Cheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Observed patterns of genetic variability among marine populations are shaped not only by contemporary levels of gene flow, but also by divergences during historical isolations. We examined variability at 15 SNP loci and in mtDNA sequences (COI, 665 bp) in red king crab from 17 localities in the North Pacific. These markers define three geographically distinct evolutionary lineages (SNPs, FCT = 0.054; mtDNA ΦCT = 0.222): (i) Okhotsk Sea–Norton Sound–Aleutian Islands, (ii) southeastern Bering Sea–western Gulf of Alaska, and (iii) Southeast Alaska. Populations in the Bering Sea and in Southeast Alaska are genetically heterogeneous, but populations in the center of the range are homogeneous. Mitochondrial DNA diversity drops from h = 0.91 in the northwestern Pacific to h = 0.24 in the Southeast Alaska. Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) indicate postglacial population expansions, presumably from ice-age refugia. BSPs of sequences simulated under a demographic model defined by late Pleistocene temperatures failed to detect demographic variability before the last glacial maximum. These results sound a note of caution for the interpretation of BSPs. Population fragmentation in the Bering Sea and in Southeast Alaskan waters requires population management on a small geographic scale, and deep evolutionary partitions between the three geographic groups mandate regional conservation measures. PMID:23346227

  4. No barrier to emergence of bathyal king crabs on the Antarctic shelf

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Richard B.; Smith, Kathryn E.; Vos, Stephanie C.; McClintock, James B.; Amsler, Margaret O.; Moksnes, Per-Olav; Ellis, Daniel S.; Kaeli, Jeffrey; Singh, Hanumant; Bailey, John W.; Schiferl, Jessica C.; van Woesik, Robert; Martin, Michael A.; Steffel, Brittan V.; Deal, Michelle E.; Lazarus, Steven M.; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne; Thatje, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Cold-water conditions have excluded durophagous (skeleton-breaking) predators from the Antarctic seafloor for millions of years. Rapidly warming seas off the western Antarctic Peninsula could now facilitate their return to the continental shelf, with profound consequences for the endemic fauna. Among the likely first arrivals are king crabs (Lithodidae), which were discovered recently on the adjacent continental slope. During the austral summer of 2010‒2011, we used underwater imagery to survey a slope-dwelling population of the lithodid Paralomis birsteini off Marguerite Bay, western Antarctic Peninsula for environmental or trophic impediments to shoreward expansion. The population density averaged ∼4.5 individuals × 1,000 m−2 within a depth range of 1,100‒1,500 m (overall observed depth range 841–2,266 m). Images of juveniles, discarded molts, and precopulatory behavior, as well as gravid females in a trapping study, suggested a reproductively viable population on the slope. At the time of the survey, there was no thermal barrier to prevent the lithodids from expanding upward and emerging on the outer shelf (400- to 550-m depth); however, near-surface temperatures remained too cold for them to survive in inner-shelf and coastal environments (<200 m). Ambient salinity, composition of the substrate, and the depth distribution of potential predators likewise indicated no barriers to expansion of lithodids onto the outer shelf. Primary food resources for lithodids—echinoderms and mollusks—were abundant on the upper slope (550–800 m) and outer shelf. As sea temperatures continue to rise, lithodids will likely play an increasingly important role in the trophic structure of subtidal communities closer to shore. PMID:26417090

  5. No barrier to emergence of bathyal king crabs on the Antarctic shelf.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Richard B; Smith, Kathryn E; Vos, Stephanie C; McClintock, James B; Amsler, Margaret O; Moksnes, Per-Olav; Ellis, Daniel S; Kaeli, Jeffrey; Singh, Hanumant; Bailey, John W; Schiferl, Jessica C; van Woesik, Robert; Martin, Michael A; Steffel, Brittan V; Deal, Michelle E; Lazarus, Steven M; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne; Thatje, Sven

    2015-10-20

    Cold-water conditions have excluded durophagous (skeleton-breaking) predators from the Antarctic seafloor for millions of years. Rapidly warming seas off the western Antarctic Peninsula could now facilitate their return to the continental shelf, with profound consequences for the endemic fauna. Among the likely first arrivals are king crabs (Lithodidae), which were discovered recently on the adjacent continental slope. During the austral summer of 2010 ‒ 2011, we used underwater imagery to survey a slope-dwelling population of the lithodid Paralomis birsteini off Marguerite Bay, western Antarctic Peninsula for environmental or trophic impediments to shoreward expansion. The population density averaged ∼ 4.5 individuals × 1,000 m(-2) within a depth range of 1,100 ‒ 1,500 m (overall observed depth range 841-2,266 m). Images of juveniles, discarded molts, and precopulatory behavior, as well as gravid females in a trapping study, suggested a reproductively viable population on the slope. At the time of the survey, there was no thermal barrier to prevent the lithodids from expanding upward and emerging on the outer shelf (400- to 550-m depth); however, near-surface temperatures remained too cold for them to survive in inner-shelf and coastal environments (<200 m). Ambient salinity, composition of the substrate, and the depth distribution of potential predators likewise indicated no barriers to expansion of lithodids onto the outer shelf. Primary food resources for lithodids--echinoderms and mollusks--were abundant on the upper slope (550-800 m) and outer shelf. As sea temperatures continue to rise, lithodids will likely play an increasingly important role in the trophic structure of subtidal communities closer to shore.

  6. A large population of king crabs in Palmer Deep on the west Antarctic Peninsula shelf and potential invasive impacts

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Craig R.; Grange, Laura J.; Honig, David L.; Naudts, Lieven; Huber, Bruce; Guidi, Lionel; Domack, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Lithodid crabs (and other skeleton-crushing predators) may have been excluded from cold Antarctic continental shelf waters for more than 14 Myr. The west Antarctic Peninsula shelf is warming rapidly and has been hypothesized to be soon invaded by lithodids. A remotely operated vehicle survey in Palmer Deep, a basin 120 km onto the Antarctic shelf, revealed a large, reproductive population of lithodids, providing the first evidence that king crabs have crossed the Antarctic shelf. DNA sequencing and morphology indicate the lithodid is Neolithodes yaldwyni Ahyong & Dawson, previously reported only from Ross Sea waters. We estimate a N. yaldwyni population density of 10 600 km−2 and a population size of 1.55 × 106 in Palmer Deep, a density similar to lithodid populations of commercial interest around Alaska and South Georgia. The lithodid occurred at depths of more than 850 m and temperatures of more than 1.4°C in Palmer Deep, and was not found in extensive surveys of the colder shelf at depths of 430–725 m. Where N. yaldwyni occurred, crab traces were abundant, megafaunal diversity reduced and echinoderms absent, suggesting that the crabs have major ecological impacts. Antarctic Peninsula shelf waters are warming at approximately 0.01°C yr−1; if N. yaldwyni is currently limited by cold temperatures, it could spread up onto the shelf (400–600 m depths) within 1–2 decades. The Palmer Deep N. yaldwyni population provides an important model for the potential invasive impacts of crushing predators on vulnerable Antarctic shelf ecosystems. PMID:21900324

  7. A large population of king crabs in Palmer Deep on the west Antarctic Peninsula shelf and potential invasive impacts.

    PubMed

    Smith, Craig R; Grange, Laura J; Honig, David L; Naudts, Lieven; Huber, Bruce; Guidi, Lionel; Domack, Eugene

    2012-03-07

    Lithodid crabs (and other skeleton-crushing predators) may have been excluded from cold Antarctic continental shelf waters for more than 14 Myr. The west Antarctic Peninsula shelf is warming rapidly and has been hypothesized to be soon invaded by lithodids. A remotely operated vehicle survey in Palmer Deep, a basin 120 km onto the Antarctic shelf, revealed a large, reproductive population of lithodids, providing the first evidence that king crabs have crossed the Antarctic shelf. DNA sequencing and morphology indicate the lithodid is Neolithodes yaldwyni Ahyong & Dawson, previously reported only from Ross Sea waters. We estimate a N. yaldwyni population density of 10 600 km(-2) and a population size of 1.55 × 10(6) in Palmer Deep, a density similar to lithodid populations of commercial interest around Alaska and South Georgia. The lithodid occurred at depths of more than 850 m and temperatures of more than 1.4°C in Palmer Deep, and was not found in extensive surveys of the colder shelf at depths of 430-725 m. Where N. yaldwyni occurred, crab traces were abundant, megafaunal diversity reduced and echinoderms absent, suggesting that the crabs have major ecological impacts. Antarctic Peninsula shelf waters are warming at approximately 0.01°C yr(-1); if N. yaldwyni is currently limited by cold temperatures, it could spread up onto the shelf (400-600 m depths) within 1-2 decades. The Palmer Deep N. yaldwyni population provides an important model for the potential invasive impacts of crushing predators on vulnerable Antarctic shelf ecosystems.

  8. Inter-cohort cannibalism of early benthic phase blue king crabs (Paralithodes platypus): alternate foraging strategies in different habitats lead to different functional responses.

    PubMed

    Daly, Benjamin; Long, W Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Blue king crabs (Paralithodes platypus) are commercially and ecologically important in Alaska, USA, but population abundances have fluctuated over the past several decades likely resulting from a combination of environmental and biological factors, including recruitment variability. Cannibalism between cohorts may be a source of mortality limiting recruitment success in the wild, but the degree of inter-cohort cannibalism is unknown for early benthic phase blue king crabs. In laboratory experiments, we evaluated the effects of habitat type (sand and shell) on the predator functional response and foraging behavior of year-1 blue king crabs as predators of year-0 conspecifics and examined the effects of predator presence on crypsis of prey crabs. In sand, consumption rates increased with predator size and prey density until satiation, while predation rates in shell were low regardless of predator size or prey density. These differential predation rates yielded a type III functional response in sand but a type I functional response in shell habitat. Crypsis of prey crabs was generally high and did not change in the presence of predators. Predator foraging activity was reduced in shell and may be an adaptive behavior to balance foraging efficiency and susceptibility to larger predators. Our results demonstrate that early benthic phase blue king crabs are cannibalistic between cohorts in the laboratory and that shell material is extremely effective for reducing encounter rates with conspecific predators. The distribution and abundance of such habitat may be important for recruitment success in some populations. Future studies should compare benthic habitat and species assemblages in areas with variable abundances, such as the Pribilof Islands and Saint Matthew Island in the eastern Bering Sea, to better understand possible mechanisms for recruitment variability.

  9. Larval development of the subantarctic king crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagno, J. A.; Anger, K.; Lovrich, G. A.; Thatje, S.; Kaffenberger, A.

    2004-02-01

    The larval development and survival in the two subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Jaquinot) and Paralomis granulosa (Molina) from the Argentine Beagle Channel were studied in laboratory cultures. In L. santolla, larval development lasted about 70 days, passing through three zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with a duration of approximately 4, 7, 11 and 48 days, respectively. The larval development in P. granulosa is more abbreviated, comprising only two zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with 6, 11 and 43 days' duration, respectively. In both species, we tested for effects of presence versus absence of food (Artemia nauplii) on larval development duration and survival rate. In P. granulosa, we also studied effects of different rearing conditions, such as individual versus mass cultures, as well as aerated versus unaerated cultures. No differences in larval development duration and survival were observed between animals subjected to those different rearing conditions. The lack of response to the presence or absence of potential food confirms, in both species, a complete lecithotrophic mode of larval development. Since lithodid crabs are of high economic importance in the artisanal fishery in the southernmost parts of South America, the knowledge of optimal rearing conditions for lithodid larvae is essential for future attempts at repopulating the collapsing natural stocks off Tierra del Fuego.

  10. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fisheries. 4 years 5. Pribilof red king and blue king crab (PIK) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on... requirement. 4 years 6. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on: (1... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab...

  11. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... fisheries. 4 years 5. Pribilof red king and blue king crab (PIK) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on... requirement. 4 years 6. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on: (1... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab...

  12. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fisheries. 4 years 5. Pribilof red king and blue king crab (PIK) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on... requirement. 4 years 6. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on:(1... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab...

  13. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fisheries. 4 years 5. Pribilof red king and blue king crab (PIK) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on... requirement. 4 years 6. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on:(1... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab...

  14. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fisheries. 4 years 5. Pribilof red king and blue king crab (PIK) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on... requirement. 4 years 6. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 4 years of the 5-year period beginning on: (1... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab QS by Crab...

  15. Zehntneriana serrata n. sp., a new species of pilumnid crab from southern Taiwan (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Lin, Chia-Wei

    2015-02-03

    A new species of rhizopine crab, Zehntneriana serrata (Pilumnidae) is described from a coral reef in southern Taiwan. The new species differs from congeners by its smooth and glabrous carapace, prominently serrated anterolateral margins, elongated ambulatory legs with a serrated anterior margin of the merus, and the diagnostic morphology of the male first gonopod. 

  16. Deepwater Chondrichthyan Bycatch of the Eastern King Prawn Fishery in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Cassandra L.; White, William T.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.

    2016-01-01

    The deepwater chondrichthyan fauna of the Great Barrier Reef is poorly known and life history information is required to enable their effective management as they are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. The chondrichthyan bycatch from the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery at the Swain Reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef was examined to determine the species present and provide information on their life histories. In all, 1533 individuals were collected from 11 deepwater chondrichthyan species, with the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata, piked spurdog Squalus megalops and pale spotted catshark Asymbolus pallidus the most commonly caught. All but one species is endemic to Australia with five species restricted to waters offshore from Queensland. The extent of life history information available for each species varied but the life history traits across all species were characteristic of deep water chondrichthyans with relatively large length at maturity, small litters and low ovarian fecundity; all indicative of low biological productivity. However, variability among these traits and spatial and bathymetric distributions of the species suggests differing degrees of resilience to fishing pressure. To ensure the sustainability of these bycatch species, monitoring of their catches in the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery is recommended. PMID:27218654

  17. Deepwater Chondrichthyan Bycatch of the Eastern King Prawn Fishery in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Cassandra L; White, William T; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    The deepwater chondrichthyan fauna of the Great Barrier Reef is poorly known and life history information is required to enable their effective management as they are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. The chondrichthyan bycatch from the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery at the Swain Reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef was examined to determine the species present and provide information on their life histories. In all, 1533 individuals were collected from 11 deepwater chondrichthyan species, with the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata, piked spurdog Squalus megalops and pale spotted catshark Asymbolus pallidus the most commonly caught. All but one species is endemic to Australia with five species restricted to waters offshore from Queensland. The extent of life history information available for each species varied but the life history traits across all species were characteristic of deep water chondrichthyans with relatively large length at maturity, small litters and low ovarian fecundity; all indicative of low biological productivity. However, variability among these traits and spatial and bathymetric distributions of the species suggests differing degrees of resilience to fishing pressure. To ensure the sustainability of these bycatch species, monitoring of their catches in the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery is recommended.

  18. 50 CFR 622.372 - Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west coast subzone. 622.372 Section 622.372 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF...

  19. 50 CFR 622.372 - Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west coast subzone. 622.372 Section 622.372 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF...

  20. Mercury burdens in Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) in three tributaries of southern San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, C.A.; Rudnick, D.; Williams, E.

    2005-01-01

    Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis), endemic to Asia, were first reported in the San Francisco Bay in 1992. They are now established in nearly all San Francisco Bay tributaries. These crabs accumulate more metals, such as mercury, than crustaceans living in the water column. Because their predators include fish, birds, mammals and humans, their mercury burdens have an exceptional potential to impact the ecosystem and public health. We sought to elucidate the potential threat of mitten crab mercury burdens in three adjacent streams in southern San Francisco Bay, one of which is known to be contaminated with mercury. Mitten crabs had hepatopancreas concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury that did not differ among streams. The maximum burden we measured was below the action level of 1 ppm recommended by the USEPA. Hepatopancreas concentrations of methylmercury declined with increasing crab size, suggesting a mechanism for mercury excretion and that predators might reduce mercury exposure if they select larger crabs. Because mercury may be heterogeneously distributed among tissues, estimation of the impacts of crab mercury burdens on the environment requires more data on the feeding preferences of predators. Hepatopancreas concentrations of mercury decline with crab size, which may have important consequences for bio-magnification in food webs. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Pribilof blue king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Pribilof red king and blue king crab), and (6) St. Matthew blue king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is also St. Matthew blue...) crab species fee payment and collection system. 600.1104 Section 600.1104 Wildlife and...

  2. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Pribilof blue king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Pribilof red king and blue king crab), and (6) St. Matthew blue king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is also St. Matthew blue...) crab species fee payment and collection system. 600.1104 Section 600.1104 Wildlife and...

  3. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pribilof blue king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Pribilof red king and blue king crab), and (6) St. Matthew blue king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is also St. Matthew blue...) crab species fee payment and collection system. 600.1104 Section 600.1104 Wildlife and...

  4. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pribilof blue king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Pribilof red king and blue king crab), and (6) St. Matthew blue king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is also St. Matthew blue...) crab species fee payment and collection system. 600.1104 Section 600.1104 Wildlife and...

  5. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Pribilof blue king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Pribilof red king and blue king crab), and (6) St. Matthew blue king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is also St. Matthew blue...) crab species fee payment and collection system. 600.1104 Section 600.1104 Wildlife and...

  6. Ovicides paralithodis (Nemertea, Carcinonemertidae), a new species of symbiotic egg predator of the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815) (Decapoda, Anomura).

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Hiroshi; Kuris, Armand M

    2013-01-01

    Ovicides paralithodis sp. n. is described from the egg mass of the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815) from the Sea of Okhotsk, off Hokkaido, Japan, and Alaska, USA. Among four congeners, Ovicides paralithodis can be distinguished from Ovicides julieae Shields, 2001 and Ovicides davidi Shields and Segonzac, 2007 by having no eyes; from Ovicides jonesi Shields and Segonzac, 2007 by the presence of basophilic, vacuolated glandular lobes in the precerebral region; and from Ovicides jasoni Shields and Segonzac, 2007 by the arrangement of the acidophilic submuscular glands, which are not arranged in a row. Ovicides paralithodis represents the third described species of egg-predatory nemertean from Paralithodes camtschaticus, the second described carcinonemertid species from Japan, and the 21st described species in the family. The intensity of infestations may exceed 24,000 worms per a single egg-bearing pleopod of Paralithodes camtschaticus. A preliminary molecular phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of 28S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes among selected monostiliferous hoplonemertean species supported the monophyly of Carcinonemertidae, suggesting that within the lineage of the family, evolution of the unique vas deferens, Takakura's duct, preceded loss of accessory stylets and accessory-stylet pouches.

  7. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition and reproductive cycle of the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787) in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Graziani de Freitas; do Amaral, Ana Paula Nunes; Ribarcki, Fabiana Pinto; Wiilland, Elenir de Fátima; Zancan, Denise Maria; Vinagre, Anapaula Sommer

    2010-06-01

    The ghost crab, Ocypode quadrata, is found on sandy beaches from the United States to Southern Brazil. Because there is still little information about the metabolism and reproduction of O. quadrata on the southern coast of Brazil, the objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the effect of seasonal variations on the carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism of O. quadrata at Rondinha Beach, a beach with high anthropogenic activity, and to compare it with data from Siriú Beach, which has less human activity; and (ii) describe the effect of seasonal variations on the histological characteristics of male and female gonads, in order to assess the reproductive capacity of the crabs. The gonads of male crabs showed no significant variations in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and glycogen levels; however, histological analysis of the testes revealed that they are mature in the summer. In females, the GSI and glycogen values are higher in summer, concomitantly with the presence of mature oocytes. These results suggest that the reproductive peak of O. quadrata occurs in summer. The seasonal analysis of the biochemical parameters, as well as comparison with Siriú Beach, demonstrated that the ghost crabs of Rondinha Beach have a different pattern of metabolism than those of Siriú. This difference may be a consequence of differences in the environmental conditions as well as in the anthropogenic pressures, such as vehicle traffic and the increase in human population at the beach in summer.

  8. 76 FR 68358 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Program, the western Aleutian Islands red king crab and Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab fisheries have failed to open, and the Saint Matthew Island blue king crab fishery has only been open during the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  9. 76 FR 49423 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... the CR Program, the western Aleutian Islands red king crab and Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab fisheries have failed to open, and the Saint Matthew Island blue king crab fishery has only been open during... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  10. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Islands red and blue king crab (PIK) 3 years of the 3-year period beginning on: (1) September 15-26, 1996; (2) September 15-29, 1997; and (3) September 15-28, 1998. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 3 years of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab...

  11. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Islands red and blue king crab (PIK) 3 years of the 3-year period beginning on: (1) September 15-26, 1996; (2) September 15-29, 1997; and (3) September 15-28, 1998. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 3 years of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab...

  12. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Islands red and blue king crab (PIK) 3 years of the 3-year period beginning on: (1) September 15-26, 1996; (2) September 15-29, 1997; and (3) September 15-28, 1998. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 3 years of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab...

  13. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Islands red and blue king crab (PIK) 3 years of the 3-year period beginning on: (1) September 15-26, 1996; (2) September 15-29, 1997; and (3) September 15-28, 1998. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 3 years of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab...

  14. 50 CFR Table 9 to Part 680 - Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Islands red and blue king crab (PIK) 3 years of the 3-year period beginning on: (1) September 15-26, 1996; (2) September 15-29, 1997; and (3) September 15-28, 1998. St. Matthew blue king crab (SMB) 3 years of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Initial Issuance of Crab PQS by Crab...

  15. Projected poleward shift of king penguins' (Aptenodytes patagonicus) foraging range at the Crozet Islands, southern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Péron, Clara; Weimerskirch, Henri; Bost, Charles-André

    2012-07-07

    Seabird populations of the Southern Ocean have been responding to climate change for the last three decades and demographic models suggest that projected warming will cause dramatic population changes over the next century. Shift in species distribution is likely to be one of the major possible adaptations to changing environmental conditions. Habitat models based on a unique long-term tracking dataset of king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) breeding on the Crozet Islands (southern Indian Ocean) revealed that despite a significant influence of primary productivity and mesoscale activity, sea surface temperature consistently drove penguins' foraging distribution. According to climate models of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the projected warming of surface waters would lead to a gradual southward shift of the more profitable foraging zones, ranging from 25 km per decade for the B1 IPCC scenario to 40 km per decade for the A1B and A2 scenarios. As a consequence, distances travelled by incubating and brooding birds to reach optimal foraging zones associated with the polar front would double by 2100. Such a shift is far beyond the usual foraging range of king penguins breeding and would negatively affect the Crozet population on the long term, unless penguins develop alternative foraging strategies.

  16. Projected poleward shift of king penguins' (Aptenodytes patagonicus) foraging range at the Crozet Islands, southern Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Péron, Clara; Weimerskirch, Henri; Bost, Charles-André

    2012-01-01

    Seabird populations of the Southern Ocean have been responding to climate change for the last three decades and demographic models suggest that projected warming will cause dramatic population changes over the next century. Shift in species distribution is likely to be one of the major possible adaptations to changing environmental conditions. Habitat models based on a unique long-term tracking dataset of king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) breeding on the Crozet Islands (southern Indian Ocean) revealed that despite a significant influence of primary productivity and mesoscale activity, sea surface temperature consistently drove penguins' foraging distribution. According to climate models of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the projected warming of surface waters would lead to a gradual southward shift of the more profitable foraging zones, ranging from 25 km per decade for the B1 IPCC scenario to 40 km per decade for the A1B and A2 scenarios. As a consequence, distances travelled by incubating and brooding birds to reach optimal foraging zones associated with the polar front would double by 2100. Such a shift is far beyond the usual foraging range of king penguins breeding and would negatively affect the Crozet population on the long term, unless penguins develop alternative foraging strategies. PMID:22378808

  17. King Cotton's Lasting Legacy of Poverty and Southern Region Contemporary Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.; Peevely, Gary

    2010-01-01

    One hundred fifty years ago, cotton was considered as the king of all United States' agricultural exports. Cotton's dollar value far exceeded that of any other mid-19th-century United States trade item, much more than tobacco, fish, forest products, raw materials for manufacturing, or manufactured items. Indeed, in the mid-19th century, cotton was…

  18. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 680 - Crab Species Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Table 2 Table 2 to Part 680—Crab Species Code Species code Common name Scientific name 900 Box Lopholithodes mandtii. 910 Dungeness Cancer magister. 921 Red king crab Paralithodes camtshaticus. 922 Blue king... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Species Code 2 Table 2 to Part...

  19. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 680 - Crab Species Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Table 2 Table 2 to Part 680—Crab Species Code Species code Common name Scientific name 900 Box Lopholithodes mandtii. 910 Dungeness Cancer magister. 921 Red king crab Paralithodes camtshaticus. 922 Blue king... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab Species Code 2 Table 2 to Part...

  20. 50 CFR Table 2b to Part 679 - Species Codes: FMP Prohibited Species and CR Crab

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CR Crab 2b Table 2b to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... CR Crab Species Description Code CR Crab Groundfish PSC CRAB Box Lopholithodes mandtii 900 ✓ Dungeness Cancer magister 910 ✓ King, blue Paralithodes platypus 922 ✓ ✓ King, golden (brown)...

  1. 50 CFR Table 2b to Part 679 - Species Codes: FMP Prohibited Species and CR Crab

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CR Crab 2b Table 2b to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... CR Crab Species Description Code CR Crab Groundfish PSC CRAB Box Lopholithodes mandtii 900 ✓ Dungeness Cancer magister 910 ✓ King, blue Paralithodes platypus 922 ✓ ✓ King, golden (brown)...

  2. 50 CFR Table 2b to Part 679 - Species Codes: FMP Prohibited Species and CR Crab

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CR Crab 2b Table 2b to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... CR Crab Species Description Code CR Crab Groundfish PSC CRAB Box Lopholithodes mandtii 900 ✓ Dungeness Cancer magister 910 ✓ King, blue Paralithodes platypus 922 ✓ ✓ King, golden (brown)...

  3. 50 CFR Table 2b to Part 679 - Species Codes: FMP Prohibited Species and CR Crab

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CR Crab 2b Table 2b to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... CR Crab Species Description Code CR Crab Groundfish PSC CRAB Box Lopholithodes mandtii 900 ✓ Dungeness Cancer magister 910 ✓ King, blue Paralithodes platypus 922 ✓ ✓ King, golden (brown)...

  4. 50 CFR Table 2b to Part 679 - Species Codes: FMP Prohibited Species and CR Crab

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CR Crab 2b Table 2b to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... CR Crab Species Description Code CR Crab Groundfish PSC CRAB Box Lopholithodes mandtii 900 ✓ Dungeness Cancer magister 910 ✓ King, blue Paralithodes platypus 922 ✓ ✓ King, golden (brown)...

  5. Yuebeipotamon calciatile, a new genus and new species of freshwater crab from southern China (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao; Shih, Hsi-Te; Mao, Si Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of freshwater crab, Yuebeipotamon calciatile gen. n., sp. n., is described from southern China. While the carapace features are superficially similar to species of Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, Longpotamon Shih, Huang & Ng, 2016, and Tenuilapotamon Dai, Song, Li, Chen, Wang & Hu, 1984, the new genus possesses a distinctive combination of carapace, ambulatory leg, male thoracic sternal, male abdominal, and gonopodal characters that distinguish it from these and other genera. Molecular evidence derived from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA supports the establishment of a new genus. PMID:27667941

  6. Moult cycle and growth of the crab Halicarcinus planatus (Brachyura, Hymenosomatidae) in the Beagle Channel, southern tip of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, Mariano J.; Lovrich, Gustavo A.

    2013-09-01

    The crab Halicarcinus planatus is the only hymenosomatid crab that inhabits the southern tip of South America and is the only decapod species that reproduces twice a year in the Beagle Channel. In this article, we study the moult cycle in the field (moult frequency, analysis of size frequency distribution) and linked it with growth studied in the laboratory (absolute and per cent growth increment, Hiatt function). Hiatt functions were similar for males and females. Moult frequency was seasonal: in early austral spring and in austral summer. In females, the pubertal moult is the terminal moult, whereas males continue moulting after attaining the size of morphometric maturity. Moult increment was highly variable. The relationship between absolute moult increment and crab size was described by a quadratic function. Per cent growth increment decreased with size, and relationships were different for each sex: linear for females and quadratic for males. Seven and eight modal groups explained the size frequency distributions for females and males from the field, respectively, and revealed the existence of two cohorts of recruits per year. Further modal analysis was mainly hampered by the high variability of size increment that could make any moulting individual fall in its own or one of two following modal groups. The antagonism between growth and reproduction was evident in small males. We hypothesize that the terminal pubertal moult is an advantageous feature that allows females to maximize their investment in reproduction after their terminal moult, which allows this species to have two spawnings per year.

  7. Biodiversity and Distribution of Horseshoe Crabs in Northern Coast of Java and Southern Coast of Madura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashar, A.; Butet, NA; Juliandi, B.; Qonita, Y.; Hakim, AA; Wardiatno, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Horseshoe crab is an important component of macro-benthos communities in the fine sand or mud substrate in coastal waters, both in the tropical and temperate region. This primitive animal consists of four species in the world, and three species can be found di Asian region, including Indonesia, namely Tachypleus tridentatus, T. gigas, and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. Scientific information about species distribution of three Asian horseshoe crab in Indonesia is limited, also about morphometric characters. This study aims to determine the morphometric characters and species distribution of three Asian horseshoe crab in north coast of Java and south coast of Madura Island. This study was conducted on July-August 2016. The total number of three Asian horseshoe crab obtained in this study was 260 individuals, distributed along north coast of Java and south coast of Madura Island, respectively 176 individuals of C. rotundicauda, 35 individuals of T. tridentatus, and 49 individuals of T. gigas. Tachypleus gigas has the largest size and widest class interval among three Asian horseshoe crab species. Morphometric characters is differences among three Asian horseshoe crab species. Carapace width and telson length were not significantly different among sampling locations only in T. tridentatus.

  8. Making Kings.

    PubMed

    Ayoup, Colleen; Podmore, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Due to a general lack of representation of female masculinities within the North American media, most urban drag king cultures have evolved in isolation from each other. As a result, drag kings tend to develop locally specific codes of dress, performance styles and forms of masculinity. This chapter describes the case of a group of Montreal drag king performers, The Mambo Drag Kings (MDKs). It is based on interviews that were conducted for Colleen Ayoup's film Kings (2001), a short documentary that explores kinging by examining the development of this specific group of performers. We present excerpts from our discussions regarding the relationships between everyday gender identities, lesbian sexuality, and performing as a king in a society that is fundamentally based on an asymmetrical sex-gender system. While the chapter does highlight these theoretical concerns, the focus is on how the participants of the group interpret and experience kinging and its impact on their own gendered and sexual identities.

  9. 50 CFR Table 8 to Part 680 - Initial QS and PQS Pool for Each Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 200,000,000 PIK Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab 30,000,000 30,000,000 SMB St. Matthew blue... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initial QS and PQS Pool for Each Crab QS... Crab QS Fishery Crab QS Fishery Initial QS Pool Initial PQS Pool BBR Bristol Bay red king crab...

  10. 50 CFR Table 8 to Part 680 - Initial QS and PQS Pool for Each Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 200,000,000 PIK Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab 30,000,000 30,000,000 SMB St. Matthew blue... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Initial QS and PQS Pool for Each Crab QS... Crab QS Fishery Crab QS Fishery Initial QS Pool Initial PQS Pool BBR Bristol Bay red king crab...

  11. 50 CFR Table 8 to Part 680 - Initial QS and PQS Pool for Each Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 200,000,000 PIK Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab 30,000,000 30,000,000 SMB St. Matthew blue... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial QS and PQS Pool for Each Crab QS... Crab QS Fishery Crab QS Fishery Initial QS Pool Initial PQS Pool BBR Bristol Bay red king crab...

  12. 50 CFR Table 8 to Part 680 - Initial QS and PQS Pool for Each Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 200,000,000 PIK Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab 30,000,000 30,000,000 SMB St. Matthew blue... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Initial QS and PQS Pool for Each Crab QS... Crab QS Fishery Crab QS Fishery Initial QS Pool Initial PQS Pool BBR Bristol Bay red king crab...

  13. 50 CFR Table 8 to Part 680 - Initial QS and PQS Pool for Each Crab QS Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 200,000,000 PIK Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab 30,000,000 30,000,000 SMB St. Matthew blue... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initial QS and PQS Pool for Each Crab QS... Crab QS Fishery Crab QS Fishery Initial QS Pool Initial PQS Pool BBR Bristol Bay red king crab...

  14. Field, petrologic and detrital zircon study of the Kings sequence and Calaveras complex, Southern Lake Kaweah Roof Pendant, Tulare County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchen, Christopher T.

    U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains separated from elastic sedimentary rocks is combined with field, petrographic and geochemical data to reconstruct the geologic history of Mesozoic rocks exposed at the southern end of the Lake Kaweah metamorphic pendant, western Sierra Nevada. Identification of rocks exposed at Limekiln Hill, Kern County, CA, as belonging to the Calaveras complex and Kings sequence was confirmed. Detrital zircon populations from two Calaveras complex samples provide Permo-Triassic maximum depositional ages (MDA) and reveal a Laurentian provenance indicating that continental accretion of the northwest-trending Kings-Kaweah ophiolite belt was in process prior to the Jurassic Period. Rock types including radiolarian metachert, metachert-argillite, and calc-silicate rocks with marble lenses are interpreted as formed in a hemipelagic environment of siliceous radiolarian deposition, punctuated by extended episodes of lime-mud gravity flows mixing with siliceous ooze forming cafe-silicate protoliths and limestone olistoliths forming marble lenses. Two samples of the overlying Kings sequence turbidites yield detrital zircons with an MDA of 181.4 +/-3.0 Ma and an interpreted provenance similar to other Jurassic metasediments found in the Yokohl Valley, Sequoia and Boyden Cave roof pendants. Age peaks indicative of Jurassic erg heritage are also present. In contrast, detrital zircon samples from the Sequoia and Slate Mountain roof pendants bear age-probability distributions interpreted as characteristic of the Snow Lake block, a tectonic sliver offset from the Paleozoic miogeocline.

  15. Good Crab, Bad Crab

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are crabs friends or foes of marsh grass, benefit or detriment to the salt marsh system? We examined Uca pugilator (sand fiddler) and Sesarma reticulatum (purple marsh crab) with Spartina patens (salt marsh hay) at two elevations (10 cm below MHW and 10 cm above MHW) in mesocosms...

  16. Recruitment variation of eastern Bering Sea crabs: Climate-forcing or top-down effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jie; Kruse, Gordon H.

    2006-02-01

    During the last three decades, population abundances of eastern Bering Sea (EBS) crab stocks fluctuated greatly, driven by highly variable recruitment. In recent years, abundances of these stocks have been very low compared to historical levels. This study aims to understand recruitment variation of six stocks of red king ( Paralithodes camtschaticus), blue king ( P. platypus), Tanner ( Chionoecetes bairdi), and snow ( C. opilio) crabs in the EBS. Most crab recruitment time series are not significantly correlated with each other. Spatial distributions of three broadly distributed crab stocks (EBS snow and Tanner crabs and Bristol Bay red king crab) have changed considerably over time, possibly related in part to the regime shift in climate and physical oceanography in 1976-1977. Three climate-forcing hypotheses on larval survival have been proposed to explain crab recruitment variation of Bristol Bay red king crab and EBS Tanner and snow crabs. Some empirical evidence supports speculation that groundfish predation may play an important role in crab recruitment success in the EBS. However, spatial dynamics in the geographic distributions of groundfish and crabs over time make it difficult to relate crab recruitment strength to groundfish biomass. Comprehensive field and spatially explicit modeling studies are needed to test the hypotheses and better understand the relative importance and compound effects of bottom-up and top-down controls on crab recruitment.

  17. Quantitative distribution and functional groups of intertidal macrofaunal assemblages in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoshou; Wang, Lu; Li, Shuai; Huo, Yuanzi; He, Peimin; Zhang, Zhinan

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate spatial distribution pattern of intertidal macrofauna, quantitative investigation was performed in January to February, 2013 around Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. A total of 34 species were identified, which were dominated by Mollusca, Annelida and Arthropoda. CLUSTER analysis showed that macrofaunal assemblages at sand-bottom sites belonged to one group, which was dominated by Lumbricillus sp. and Kidderia subquadrata. Macrofaunal assemblages at gravel-bottom sites were divided into three groups while Nacella concinna was the dominant species at most sites. The highest values of biomass and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were found in gravel sediment and the highest value of abundance was in sand sediment of eastern coast. In terms of functional group, detritivorous and planktophagous groups had the highest values of abundance and biomass, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that macrofaunal abundance and biomass had significant positive correlations with contents of sediment chlorophyll a, phaeophorbide and organic matter.

  18. 50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Sound blue king crab. NVDC means the U.S. Coast Guard's National Vessel Documentation Center located in...) Crab species program. 600.1103 Section 600.1103 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. (a) Purpose. This section's purpose is to implement...

  19. 50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sound blue king crab. NVDC means the U.S. Coast Guard's National Vessel Documentation Center located in...) Crab species program. 600.1103 Section 600.1103 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. (a) Purpose. This section's purpose is to implement...

  20. A new species of freshwater crab of the genus Sodhiana Yeo & Ng, 2012 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifian, Sana; Kamrani, Ehsan; Sharifian, Salim

    2014-10-29

    A new species of freshwater crab, Sodhiana iranica n. sp. (Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae), is described from Bastak, Iran. This is fourth species of Sodhiana Yeo & Ng, 2012, described, and is the second one known from Iran. It can be distinguished from congeners by the form of its carapace and the structure of the male first gonopod.

  1. King Day

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    1990 before the crowd approached this size again. On Jan. 20, Stevie Wonder announced he would not perform in Arizona in protest of the King holiday...holiday. Jan 20 -- Singer Stevie Wonder says he’ll never perform in Arizona again because of Mecham’s decision to rescind holiday. Jan 21 -- PHOENIX

  2. Eustatic control on early dolomitization of cyclic peritidal carbonates: Evidence from the Early Ordovician Upper Knox Group, Appalachians and Middle to Late Cambrian Bonanza King Formation, southern Great basin

    SciTech Connect

    Montanez, I.P. )

    1991-03-01

    The origin of massive dolomite in ancient cyclic carbonate successions remains a poorly resolved issue reflecting the lack of modern analogs of extensive dolomitization. This paper presents evidence for extensive synsedimentary dolomitization of peritidal cyclic carbonates of the Early Ordovician upper Knox Group, Appalachians, and of the Middle to Late Cambrian Bonanza King Formation, southern Great basin. Early dolomitization of these Cambro-Ordovician carbonates was synchronous with regressive conditions governed by superimposed sea-level oscillations (fifth-, fourth-, and third-order).

  3. [Application of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the detection of irradiated crustaceans (prawn, shrimp, and crabs)].

    PubMed

    Kameya, Hiromi; Takatsuki, Satoshi; Matsuda, Rieko; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Prawn, shrimp and crabs sold in Japan are mostly imported from overseas. Detection of irradiated crustaceans is very important for quality assurance. In this study, we used ESR to detect radiation-induced radicals after irradiation of prawn, shrimp and crabs of major species. No radiation-induced radicals were detected in prawn (black tiger prawn) or shrimp (white leg shrimp). Radiation-induced radicals due to hydroxyapatite were detected in the claws of snow crab, red king crab, and swimming crab. Our results indicate that ESR measurement on the claw parts of these three species of crab can be used to determine their irradiation history.

  4. Highly Connected Populations and Temporal Stability in Allelic Frequencies of a Harvested Crab from the Southern Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Hernandez, Noemi; Veliz, David; Riveros, Marcela P; Fuentes, Juan P; Pardo, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    For marine invertebrates with a benthic adult form and a planktonic larva phase, the connectivity among populations is mainly based on larval dispersal. While an extended larval phase will promote gene flow, other factors such as an intensive fishery and geographical barriers could lead to changes in genetic variability. In this study, the population genetic structure of the commercial crab Metacarcinus edwardsii was analyzed along 700 km of the Chilean coast. The analysis, based on eight microsatellite loci genotyped from megalopae and adult crabs, considered temporal and spatial patterns of genetic variation. The results showed no evidence of spatial patterns in genetic structure, suggesting high connectivity among the sampling sites. The temporal analysis showed no evidence of changes in allele frequencies and no evidence of a recent bottleneck. The lack of spatial structure and allele variation over time could be explained by the interaction of factors such as i) low reproductive variance due to the capability of females to store sperm in the seminal receptacle, which can be used for successive broods, ii) high larval dispersal and iii) high individual reproductive output. Using our data as priors, a genetic modelling approach coincided, predicting this temporal and spatial stability. The same analysis showed that a reduction in population size leads to the loss of genetic variability in populations, as well as of the genetic cohesiveness between populations, pointing out the importance management for species under exploitation, such as M. edwardsii.

  5. Highly Connected Populations and Temporal Stability in Allelic Frequencies of a Harvested Crab from the Southern Pacific Coast

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Hernandez, Noemi; Veliz, David; Riveros, Marcela P; Fuentes, Juan P.; Pardo, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    For marine invertebrates with a benthic adult form and a planktonic larva phase, the connectivity among populations is mainly based on larval dispersal. While an extended larval phase will promote gene flow, other factors such as an intensive fishery and geographical barriers could lead to changes in genetic variability. In this study, the population genetic structure of the commercial crab Metacarcinus edwardsii was analyzed along 700 km of the Chilean coast. The analysis, based on eight microsatellite loci genotyped from megalopae and adult crabs, considered temporal and spatial patterns of genetic variation. The results showed no evidence of spatial patterns in genetic structure, suggesting high connectivity among the sampling sites. The temporal analysis showed no evidence of changes in allele frequencies and no evidence of a recent bottleneck. The lack of spatial structure and allele variation over time could be explained by the interaction of factors such as i) low reproductive variance due to the capability of females to store sperm in the seminal receptacle, which can be used for successive broods, ii) high larval dispersal and iii) high individual reproductive output. Using our data as priors, a genetic modelling approach coincided, predicting this temporal and spatial stability. The same analysis showed that a reduction in population size leads to the loss of genetic variability in populations, as well as of the genetic cohesiveness between populations, pointing out the importance management for species under exploitation, such as M. edwardsii. PMID:27814382

  6. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Huw J; Whittle, Rowan J; Roberts, Stephen J; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the "invasion hypothesis".

  7. Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the

  8. Use of cycle stacking patterns to define third-order depositional sequences: Middle to Late Cambrian Bonanza King Formation, southern Great basin

    SciTech Connect

    Montanez, I.P.; Droser, M.L. )

    1991-03-01

    The Middle to Late Cambrian Bonanza King Formation (CA, NV) is characterized by superimposed scales of cyclicity. Small-scale cycles (0.5 to 10m) occur as shallowing-upward peritidal and subtidal cycles that repeat at high frequencies (10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5}). Systematic changes in stacking patterns of meter-scale cycles define several large-scale (50-250 m) third-order depositional sequences in the Bonanza King Formation. Third-order depositional sequences can be traced within ranges and correlated regionally across the platform. Peritidal cycles in the Bonanza King Formation are both subtidal- and tidal flat-dominated. Tidal flat-dominated cycles consist of muddy bases grading upward into thrombolites or columnar stromatolites all capped by planar stromatolites. Subtidal cycles in the Bonanza King Formation consist of grainstone bases that commonly fine upward and contain stacked hardgrounds. These are overlain by digitate-algal bioherms with grainstone channel fills and/or bioturbated ribbon carbonates with grainstone lenses. Transgressive depositional facies of third-order depositional sequences consist primarily of stacks of subtidal-dominated pertidial cycles and subtidal cycles, whereas regressive depositional facies are dominated by stacks of tidal flat-dominated peritidal cycles and regoliths developed over laminite cycle caps. The use of high frequency cycles in the Bonanza King Formation to delineate regionally developed third-order depositional sequences thus provides a link between cycle stratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy.

  9. 50 CFR Table 36 to Part 679 - Percentage of Crab and Halibut PSC Limit Assigned to Each Amendment 80 Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Percentage of Crab and Halibut PSC Limit... Crab and Halibut PSC Limit Assigned to Each Amendment 80 Species For the following PSCspecies . . . The....47 24.19 31.72 Zone 1 Red king crab 0.14% 0.56% 6.88% 0.48% 61.79% 30.16% C. opilio crab (COBLZ) 0%...

  10. 50 CFR Table 36 to Part 679 - Percentage of Crab and Halibut PSC Limit Assigned to Each Amendment 80 Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Percentage of Crab and Halibut PSC Limit... Crab and Halibut PSC Limit Assigned to Each Amendment 80 Species For the following PSCspecies . . . The....47 24.19 31.72 Zone 1 Red king crab 0.14% 0.56% 6.88% 0.48% 61.79% 30.16% C. opilio crab (COBLZ) 0%...

  11. 50 CFR Table 36 to Part 679 - Percentage of Crab and Halibut PSC Limit Assigned to Each Amendment 80 Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Percentage of Crab and Halibut PSC Limit... Crab and Halibut PSC Limit Assigned to Each Amendment 80 Species For the following PSCspecies . . . The....47 24.19 31.72 Zone 1 Red king crab 0.14% 0.56% 6.88% 0.48% 61.79% 30.16% C. opilio crab (COBLZ) 0%...

  12. 50 CFR Table 36 to Part 679 - Percentage of Crab and Halibut PSC Limit Assigned to Each Amendment 80 Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Percentage of Crab and Halibut PSC Limit... Crab and Halibut PSC Limit Assigned to Each Amendment 80 Species For the following PSCspecies . . . The....47 24.19 31.72 Zone 1 Red king crab 0.14% 0.56% 6.88% 0.48% 61.79% 30.16% C. opilio crab (COBLZ) 0%...

  13. Effect of aerial exposure on the antioxidant status in the subantarctic stone crab Paralomis granulosa (Decapoda: Anomura).

    PubMed

    Romero, M Carolina; Ansaldo, Martín; Lovrich, Gustavo A

    2007-01-01

    In Tierra del Fuego (Southern South America), the stone or false king crab, Paralomis granulosa represents one of the most important crab fisheries. After capture, animals are kept in baskets and exposed to dryness for several hours, when the water flow through the gills is interrupted. As a consequence a concomitant increase of reactive oxygen species begins, triggering oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities due to air exposure in different tissues of P. granulosa. Fifty crabs (carapace length >82 mm) were captured in Beagle Channel (54 degrees 50'S, 68 degrees 20'W) during winter 2004. Five groups of 10 crabs each were exposed to dryness at 6 degrees C for 0, 3, 6, 12 or 24 h, respectively. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST) protein and lipid oxidation were measured in gills, muscle, hepatopancreas and haemolymph samples. Almost all analyzed tissues showed antioxidant enzymes activity, which varied with time of air exposure. The maximum enzyme activity was measured after 6 h of air exposure. Protein oxidation levels varied significantly in gills. Lipid peroxidation levels increased significantly in muscle and hepatopancreas. The critical time of air exposure probably occurs at 6 h. Thereafter animals were unable to induce the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes or proteins. This should be taken into account to minimize the stress generated by the commercial capture process.

  14. 50 CFR Table 35 to Part 679 - Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC... 35 to Part 679—Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access Sectors Fishery Year Halibut PSC limit in the BSAI Zone 1 Red king crab PSC limit . . ....

  15. 50 CFR Table 35 to Part 679 - Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC... 35 to Part 679—Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access Sectors Fishery Year Halibut PSC limit in the BSAI Zone 1 Red king crab PSC limit . . ....

  16. 50 CFR Table 35 to Part 679 - Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC... 35 to Part 679—Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access Sectors Fishery Year Halibut PSC limit in the BSAI Zone 1 Red king crab PSC limit . . ....

  17. 50 CFR Table 35 to Part 679 - Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC... 35 to Part 679—Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access Sectors Fishery Year Halibut PSC limit in the BSAI Zone 1 Red king crab PSC limit . . ....

  18. 76 FR 47493 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs AGENCY: National Marine... economic zone of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands are managed under the FMP. The FMP was prepared by the... ecological conditions warrant doing so. Amendment 39 modifies the existing snow crab rebuilding plan...

  19. Horseshoe crabs.

    PubMed

    Botton, Mark L

    2002-10-01

    Horseshoe crabs are one of evolution's success stories. These living fossils have contributed immensely to biomedical research, and their eggs are a critical link in the migration cycle of New World waders (shorebirds) Can they endure threats posed by a growing commercial fishery and the loss of essential spawning habitats?

  20. Lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) consuming swimming crabs: An important link in the food web of the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemmer, Henriette; Schwemmer, Philipp; Ehrich, Siegfried; Garthe, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Swimming crabs (Liocarcinus spp.) are one of the most common brachyuran species in the North Sea, and their abundance has substantially increased over the last century. Seabirds such as lesser black-backed gulls (LBBG) commonly feed mainly on higher-trophic-level organisms such as fish. However, intensive use of swimming crabs by LBBGs in the eastern North Sea has been noted over several years. Our investigation of this aspect of the food web by examining food remains from breeding LBBGs showed that swimming crabs accounted for more than half of the nutrition of LBBGs. Gulls selected larger individuals than expected, based on sizes of free-living swimming crabs. A long-term data set (2002-2006) shows that gulls took swimming crabs mainly in the early morning and late evening, suggesting that they might migrate vertically in the water column. Moreover, it shows that although swimming crabs occurred at considerable distances from the shore, LBBGs took this prey item exclusively from near the shore where it was most abundant. This suggests the existence of a possible energy threshold above which gulls experience a net energy loss, if they have to travel too far from their colony, where the abundance of swimming crabs is lower and the energy intake might thus not compensate for the long-distance flights. Swimming-crab abundance did not appear to be the primary factor influencing overall gull distribution. A simple bioenergetic model showed that the 22,000 individual LBBGs in the most important breeding colony in the south-eastern North Sea consumed approximately 35 million swimming crabs annually (i.e. 1590 swimming crabs per individual gull) during the breeding period. However, considering the high numbers of swimming crabs in the south-eastern North Sea (demonstrated by bottom-trawl surveys in 2005 and 2007) LBBGs are unlikely to exert top-down control on this prey. Conversely, a bottom-up effect is more likely, potentially enabling further increases in LBBG

  1. 76 FR 35781 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... necessary to prevent disruption to the Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab fishery, while providing... participants to respond quickly to unforeseen disruptions in processing capacity. From the date an exemption...

  2. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest): Brown rock crab, red rock crab, and yellow crab

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.C. ); Winn, R.N. )

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, habitats, and environmental requirements of coastal species of fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. Rock crab'' is the common name designating three similar species of edible crabs: brown rock crab (Cancer antennarius), red rock crab (C. productus), and yellow crab (C. anthonyi). The three species co-occur in shallow coastal waters throughout the Pacific Southwest region. The yellow crab is most common in southern California on sand substrate, and the red rock crab in northernmost areas on rock or gravel substrates; the brown rock crab occurs on rock or sand substrates in all areas. Rock crabs are sought commercially to fill an increasing market demand for whole crabs that approached 2 million pounds annually in 1986. Most of the catch comes from the region of Morro Bay south to Los Angeles, including the Channel Islands. Egg-bearing females are commonly found during winter, although they may occur throughout the year.Rock crabs go through five zoeal stages and one megalopal stage during a larval period that generally requires 90--120 days. Metamorphosis and settlement of the first crab stage is on either sand or rock, and crabs may reach maturity within 1--2 years. All three species are predators on a variety of shelled mollusks, but are also considered scavengers. They are a major food for many commercially and recreationally important fishes, as well as for the threatened southern sea otter, Enhydra lutris. 63 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Quantitative determination of arsenobetaine, the major water-soluble arsenical in three species of crab, using high pressure liquid chromatography and an inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometer as the arsenic-specific detector

    SciTech Connect

    Francesconi, K.A.; Micks, P.; Stockton, R.A.; Irgolic, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    The major water-soluble arsenic compound in the Alaskan king crab, the Alaskan snow crab, and the Dungeness crab was identified as arsenobetaine by HPLC/ICP analysis. This technique is suitable for the identification and quantitative determination of naturally occurring organic arsenic compounds in purified and partially purified extracts from biota.

  4. 76 FR 8700 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... individual fishing quota (IFQ) and individual processor quota (IPQ) in the Western Aleutian Islands golden...-designated golden king crab IFQ to be delivered to a processor in the West region of the Aleutian Islands... stationary floating crab processors; catcher/processor vessel owner (CPO) QS was assigned to LLP holders...

  5. The King and I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Mary Grace

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the 40th anniversary of the first Coretta Scott King Book Award, which encourages "the artistic expression of the black experience via literature and the graphic arts." The award, which began honoring illustrators in 1974, added the John Steptoe Award for New Talent in 1995. No doubt, past King award winners like Sharon Flake,…

  6. Data from exploratory sampling of groundwater in selected oil and gas areas of coastal Los Angeles County and Kern and Kings Counties in southern San Joaquin Valley, 2014–15: California oil, gas, and groundwater project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, David B.; Davis, Tracy A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Land, Michael T.; Wright, Michael T.; Kulongoski, Justin T.

    2016-12-09

    Exploratory sampling of groundwater in coastal Los Angeles County and Kern and Kings Counties of the southern San Joaquin Valley was done by the U.S. Geological Survey from September 2014 through January 2015 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Water Quality in Areas of Oil and Gas Production Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program. The Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program was established in response to the California Senate Bill 4 of 2013 mandating that the California State Water Resources Control Board design and implement a groundwater-monitoring program to assess potential effects of well-stimulation treatments on groundwater resources in California. The U.S. Geological Survey is in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to collaboratively implement the Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program through the California Oil, Gas, and Groundwater Project.Many researchers have documented the utility of different suites of chemical tracers for evaluating the effects of oil and gas development on groundwater quality. The purpose of this exploratory sampling effort was to determine whether tracers reported in the literature could be used effectively in California. This reconnaissance effort was not designed to assess the effects of oil and gas on groundwater quality in the sampled areas. A suite of water-quality indicators and geochemical tracers were sampled at groundwater sites in selected areas that have extensive oil and gas development. Groundwater samples were collected from a total of 51 wells, including 37 monitoring wells at 17 multiple-well monitoring sites in coastal Los Angeles County and 5 monitoring wells and 9 water-production wells in southern San Joaquin Valley, primarily in Kern and Kings Counties.Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality indicators; organic constituents, including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds and dissolved organic carbon indicators; naturally

  7. Quantification of the indirect effects of scallop dredge fisheries on a brown crab fishery.

    PubMed

    Öndes, Fikret; Kaiser, Michel J; Murray, Lee G

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to describe the characteristics of the by-catch of Cancer pagurus in king scallop dredges in the Isle of Man, and to determine the damage, immediate mortality and estimated mortality during fishing seasons associated with scallop dredges. Based on dredge surveys, spatial and seasonal variations were observed, with the highest number of crabs found off the west coast of the Isle of Man in the autumn when berried females crabs were most frequently caught. In general, female crabs comprised 84% of the catch. The damage levels of crabs was high with 45% of crabs recorded as crushed or dead or with severe damage, whilst 24% of crabs exhibited missing limbs. Estimates of the potential mortality associated with scallop dredging led to a lower and upper estimate of possible crab by-catch mortality of 15t and 24t respectively which represented 3.0-4.8% of the commercial landings of brown crab for the Isle of Man. Heaviest mortalities of crabs occurred in autumn to the west of the Isle of Man when female berried crabs move offshore into deeper water. The use of a temporary and spatially restricted scallop dredging closure could provide a simple solution to mitigate additional crab mortality in the event that scallop dredging increased beyond current levels in the future.

  8. Natural history of the King Rail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meanley, Brooke

    1969-01-01

    The King Rail (Rallus elegans Audubon), largest of North American rails, is indeed an elegant bird, as its Latin name implies. Its striking appearance (fig. I), secretive nature, and association with a variety of wetland habitats make it a favorite of bird students and rail hunters. The King Rail is found in most of the eastern half of North America, from the Atlantic coast to the Great Plains and from the Gulf of Mexico to southern Canada. It is most abundant in the fresh and brackish tidal marshes of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, the domestic ricefields of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas, and the marshes of southern Florida. It is fairly common in parts of the Midwest Prairie and Great Lakes region.I began my studies of this interesting bird in 1950 in the Arkansas ricefields, and have continued them until 1967, both in the field and in the laboratory.

  9. Ecology and Population Dynamics of Juvenile Dungeness Crab in Grays Harbor Estuary and Adjacent Nearshore Waters of the Southern Washington Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Zostera marina), and several species of macroalgae . In the intertidal, Mya sp. and oyster shell are more important habitat for 0+ 18 35 0, -j 20 10...material are several species of macroalgae that are very seasonal in occurrence. Especially Enteromorpha sp. and Ulva sp. are taken by the trawl in...Houk and R.O. Kelly. 1983. Laboratory cultivation of the Dungeness crab,Cancer magister. p.259-309. In P.W. Wild and R.N. Tasto. (ed.) Life history

  10. Forty Four Years a King.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Dept. of Intergroup Education.

    This curriculum unit contains guidelines for Martin Luther King Jr. Day, January 15th. Items included in the guide are: a list of suggested activities, a short biography of Dr. King, excerpts from some of his speeches including the famous, "I Have A Dream" speech, a play, study questions, "A King's Journey", a game, and a story…

  11. Dr. King's Dream. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, hear a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech, and discuss what King's words mean to them. Finally, they will create picture books about their own dreams of freedom for…

  12. King cobra bite.

    PubMed

    Karnchanachetanee, C

    1994-12-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) bite is rare. The milestones of management should have specific antivenom, adequate assisting respirator and appropriate antibiotics against Proteus vulgaris infection. Tourniquet may play some role in delaying venom absorption and allow a greater chance of venom detoxification by the human body.

  13. Pubic Lice (Crabs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Pubic Lice (Crabs) KidsHealth > For Teens > Pubic Lice (Crabs) A A A en español Ladilla (piojo del pubis) What Are They? Pubic lice are tiny insects that can crawl from the ...

  14. 75 FR 21600 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW07 Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and Tanner Crab Fisheries in the Bering...

  15. Preliminary survey of a nemertean crab egg predator, Carcinonemertes, on its host crab, Callinectes arcuatus (Decapoda, Portunidae) from Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Robert K.; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The possible presence of egg predators in brood masses of portunid crabs from Pacific Central America has not been studied yet. This survey reports the finding of a nemertean crab egg predator on the portunid crab, Callinectes arcuatus, from the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific Costa Rica. Nemerteans were found in the egg masses of 26 out of the 74 crabs for a prevalence of 35%. The intensity (mean number of worms/ infected crab) was estimated to be 18 with a variance of 1–123 worms/infected crab. No nemerteans were observed either in the 19 Callinectes arcuatus from Golfo Dulce (southern Pacific coast) and the 10 Portunus asper from Herradura-Jaco (central Pacific coast). This nemertean is a member of the genus Carcinonemertes, which has been reported from the Caribbean coast of Panama. However, the encountered Carcinonemertes sp. is the first published finding and report from Costa Rica and Pacific Central America. PMID:25561848

  16. King Tide floods in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.

    2013-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of sea level rise present regional floods in some certain areas. The low-lying island countries are obviously the spots affected severely. Tuvalu, an atoll island country located in the south-west Pacific Ocean, is suffering the devastating effects of losing life, property, and intending migration caused by floods. They blame the regional flooding to King Tide, a term used but not clearly identified by Pacific islanders. In this study, we clarify what King Tide is first. By the tide gauge and topography data, we estimated the reasonable value of 3.2 m as the threshold of King Tide. This definition also fits to the statement by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of King Tide occurring once or twice a year. In addition, We cross validate the 19 yr data of tide gauge and satellite altimeter (1993-2012), the correlation coefficient indicates King Tide phenomenon is considerable connected to warm water mass. The 28 King Tide events revealed the fact that flooding can be referenced against spring tide levels, so can it be turned up by warm water mass. The warm water mass pushes up sea level; once spring tide, storm surge, or other climate variability overlaps it, the rising sea level might overflow and so has been called "King Tide" for the floods in Tuvalu. This study provides more understanding of the signals of King Tide and an island country case study of regional sea level rise.

  17. 'King George Island' Brushed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This mosaic was made from frames acquired by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during Spirit's 1,031 Martian day, or sol, on the red planet (Nov. 27, 2006). It shows a rock target called 'King George Island' after the target was brushed by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic covers approximately 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across and shows the granular nature of the rock exposure. The grains are typically about 1 millimeter (.04 inches) wide. Data from the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer provides evidence that they have an enhanced amount of the mineral hematite relative to surrounding soils.

  18. Characteristics of Yeasts Isolated from Pacific Crab Meat

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, M. W.; Spinelli, J.; Miyauchi, D.; Groninger, H.

    1965-01-01

    A total of 202 cultures of yeasts were isolated and characterized from king crab and Dungeness crab meat. A yeastlike organism, resembling Aureobasidium pullulans, and 15 different species distributed among the genera Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Torulopsis, Candida, and Trichosporon were represented. Nine of the species grew at 5 C or lower. Although two of the species grew at 37 C, none of the isolates had the characteristics of pathogenic species. Members of the Cryptococcus and Candida failed to grow at 37 C. Furthermore, species of the former genus were not pathogenic to mice. The pigmentation of the Rhodotorula cultures decreased in intensity as the incubation temperature was decreased. Biochemical activities of the different species were studied by use of triglycerides, lecithin, and proteins (casein, gelatin, and crab-meat protein) as substrates. Eight of the species could attack triglycerides; eight, lecithin; five, gelatin; one, casein; and one, crab protein. An organism, tentatively identified as Trichosporon sp., was very active in attacking each of the substrates tested and grew well at 0.5 C. PMID:5866045

  19. Meet EPA researcher Dawn King

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Research microbiologist Dawn King works in EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory where she identifies and assesses the health risk of microbial pathogens in water. This is her researchers at work profile.

  20. Celebrating Dr. King. Poetry Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Poetry that relates to the beliefs and actions of Martin Luther King, Jr. can be used to help students appreciate the civil rights leader's contributions, examine their own aspirations, and critically analyze poems. A reproducible poetry page is included. (IAH)

  1. Conversation with M King Hubbert

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The video presents Dr M King Hubbert, scholar and federal authority on fuel and energy, explaining the limits of the fossil fuel supply and the impact of coming energy problems on health care institutions.

  2. Lion King Surveys Homeland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows one octant of a larger panoramic image which has not yet been fully processed. The full panorama, dubbed 'Lion King' was obtained on sols 58 and 60 of the mission as the rover was perched at the lip of Eagle Crater, majestically looking down into its former home. It is the largest panorama yet obtained by either rover. The octant, which faces directly into the crater, shows features as small as a few millimeters across in the field near the rover arm, to features a few meters across or larger on the horizon.

    The full panoramic image was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. This enhanced color composite was assembled from the infrared (750 nanometer), green (530 nanometer), and violet (430 nanometer) filters. Additional lower elevation tiers were added relative to other panoramas to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic.

  3. Congratulations to Carey King

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Charles A. S.

    2012-03-01

    I first came across Carey King when, out of the blue, he invited me to a special session of the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (the largest and most prestigious US scientific meeting) where he was developing a special session on energy return on investment (EROI). At that meeting and since, I have found Carey to be a refreshing new colleague, extremely intelligent, very knowledgeable about many diverse aspects of energy and other things, able to take criticism and to dish it out, and very ambitious, which is mostly a good thing. He is becoming a leader in thinking about EROI and its implications, and I am delighted to see him honored by Environmental Research Letters. This is important because in the US, there is little insight about energy or, especially, its potential physical limitations except when gas prices increase. There is also little awareness of the very strong historical connection in both the US and the world between increased affluence and increased use of energy, especially petroleum. It is not understood by all that many of the economic problems we have now (such as the budgetary problems faced by most of our State governments, pension plans and universities) have substantial origin in the fact that oil and other energy production no longer increase reliably year after year, as they once did (Murphy and Hall 2011). Many economists have argued in the past that energy is not important because it constituted only 5 per cent or so of GDP, or because they believe that market forces and innovations will substitute for any shortage (e.g. Barnett and Morse 1963, Passell et al 1972, Solow 1974, Denison 1989). One problem with that view is that if you remove that five per cent the economy comes to a dead stop, as Cuba found out in 1989 when Russia removed its oil subsidy. Additionally if that five per cent goes up to 10 or 15 per cent, as it did in the early 1980s, and again in 2008, recession steps in (Murphy and

  4. A crab swarm at an ecological hotspot: patchiness and population density from AUV observations at a coastal, tropical seamount

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Walter; Starczak, Victoria; Govindarajan, Annette F.; Guzman, Héctor M.; Girdhar, Yogesh; Holleman, Rusty C.; Churchill, James; Singh, Hanumant; Ralston, David K.

    2016-01-01

    A research cruise to Hannibal Bank, a seamount and an ecological hotspot in the coastal eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off Panama, explored the zonation, biodiversity, and the ecological processes that contribute to the seamount’s elevated biomass. Here we describe the spatial structure of a benthic anomuran red crab population, using submarine video and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) photographs. High density aggregations and a swarm of red crabs were associated with a dense turbid layer 4–10 m above the bottom. The high density aggregations were constrained to 355–385 m water depth over the Northwest flank of the seamount, although the crabs also occurred at lower densities in shallower waters (∼280 m) and in another location of the seamount. The crab aggregations occurred in hypoxic water, with oxygen levels of 0.04 ml/l. Barcoding of Hannibal red crabs, and pelagic red crabs sampled in a mass stranding event in 2015 at a beach in San Diego, California, USA, revealed that the Panamanian and the Californian crabs are likely the same species, Pleuroncodes planipes, and these findings represent an extension of the southern endrange of this species. Measurements along a 1.6 km transect revealed three high density aggregations, with the highest density up to 78 crabs/m2, and that the crabs were patchily distributed. Crab density peaked in the middle of the patch, a density structure similar to that of swarming insects. PMID:27114859

  5. The “King's Man”

    PubMed Central

    Markesteyn, Peter H.

    1987-01-01

    The modern coroner is the heir of a long and honoured tradition with its roots in Anglo-Saxon England. The primary duty of the ancient “crowner” or “King's man” was to support the interests of the King of England by investigating violent deaths. The modern counterpart of this royal officer has a much broader range of duties in the interests of justice and the state. Not only do today's coroners act as “ombudsmen for the dead”, but they also are becoming increasingly involved in medico-legal investigations of service to the living. PMID:21263903

  6. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... greater than 65 ft (19.8 m) may fish for golden crab in this sub-zone, and a vessel with a documented... with a documented length overall greater than 65 ft (19.8 m) with a permit to fish for golden crab in... not authorized to fish. (3) Small-vessel sub-zone. Within the southern zone, a small-vessel...

  7. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... greater than 65 ft (19.8 m) may fish for golden crab in this sub-zone, and a vessel with a documented... with a documented length overall greater than 65 ft (19.8 m) with a permit to fish for golden crab in... not authorized to fish. (3) Small-vessel sub-zone. Within the southern zone, a small-vessel...

  8. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, January 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paul G.; And Others

    The document presents biographical material, bibliographies, and learning activities relating to Martin Luther King, Jr. The objective is to provide teachers with guidance in commemorating King's birthday. The document is presented in six sections. Section I consists of a copy of the Nebraska state law requiring celebration of King's birthday.…

  9. "Shiva Natavaja, King of Dancers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prabhu, Vas

    1987-01-01

    Offers an art lesson designed to introduce junior high school students to a Shiva sculpture and to Hindu symbolism. The lesson is based on a full-color photograph of a 500 year-old bronze sculpture entitled Shiva Nataraja, King of Dancers. (BR)

  10. Crab Cavities for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.; Carter, R.; Dexter, A.; Tahir, I.; Beard, C.; Dykes, M.; Goudket, P.; Kalinin, A.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Shulte, D.; Jones, Roger M.; Bellantoni, L.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Khabouline, T.; Latina, A.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favour a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the solution for ILC, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are fundamental issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.

  11. CRAB Cavity in CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.J.; Sen, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Beam collisions with a crossing angle at the interaction point are often necessary in colliders to reduce the effects of parasitic collisions which induce emittance growth and decrease beam lifetime. The crossing angle reduces the geometrical overlap of the beams and hence the luminosity. Crab cavity offer a promising way to compensate the crossing angle and to realize effective head-on collisions. Moreover, the crab crossing mitigates the synchro-betatron resonances due to the crossing angle. A crab cavity experiment in SPS is proposed as a proof of principle before deciding on a full crab-cavity implementation in the LHC. In this paper, we investigate the effects of a single crab cavity on beam dynamics in the SPS and life time.

  12. Bdellovibrios in Callinectus sapidus, the Blue Crab

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Jacqueline I.; Williams, Henry N.

    1992-01-01

    Bdellovibrios were recovered from the gill tissue of all of 31 crabs sampled and from all samples of epibiota obtained from the ventral shell surface of 15 crabs. The results suggest that the blue crab is a reservoir for bdellovibrios. The association with crabs may be an important factor in the ecology of the bdellovibrios. PMID:16348706

  13. Effects of claw autotomy on green crab (Carcinus maenas) feeding rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummon Flynn, Paula S.; Mellish, Cassandra L.; Pickering, Tyler R.; Quijón, Pedro A.

    2015-09-01

    The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) is a voracious non-indigenous predator and a threat to Atlantic Canada's shellfish industry. Its foraging ability, however, may be affected by the occurrence of injuries such as the loss of a cheliped (claw). Given that green crab claws are differentiated into a major crusher and a minor cutter, we argue that autotomy (the reflexive loss of a limb) affects feeding rates, and that this effect depends on which particular claw is lost. We examined the incidence of injuries in two green crab populations of the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence during July-October, 2012. Then we experimentally assessed the influence of the loss of each type of claw upon crab feeding rates over two size-classes of American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria). Field injury surveys showed that 12.4% of the green crabs collected were missing a claw (the cutter and/or crusher claw). Injury rates increased linearly with crab size, and were found to vary with location. Laboratory experiments showed that, compared to intact crabs, the loss of the crusher claw reduced oyster mortality rates by ~ 93-100%. The loss of the crusher also reduced feeding on small soft-shell clams but only temporarily. The loss of the cutter claw had little impact on green crab feeding rates on oysters and soft-shell clams of either size. Combined, these results suggest that the loss of a claw has an effect on the ability of green crabs to consume commercially important species but this effect depends on which claw is lost and which prey is targeted. It follows that injury rates should be taken into consideration when monitoring and forecasting the potential impacts of green crab populations, particularly on oyster beds.

  14. Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Nishiyama, Yuta; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    Based on the field observation of soldier crabs, we previously proposed a model for a swarm of soldier crabs. Here, we describe the interaction of coherent swarms in the simulation model, which is implemented in a logical gate. Because a swarm is generated by inherent perturbation, a swarm can be generated and maintained under highly perturbed conditions. Thus, the model reveals a robust logical gate rather than stable one. In addition, we show that the logical gate of swarms is also implemented by real soldier crabs (Mictyris guinotae).

  15. Novel Crab Cavity RF Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Sah, R.; Rimmer, B.; Wang, H.

    2011-03-01

    A 20-50 MV integrated transverse voltage is required for the Electron-Ion Collider. The most promising of the crab cavity designs that have been proposed in the last five years are the TEM type crab cavities because of the higher transverse impedance. The TEM design approach is extended here to a hybrid crab cavity that includes the input power coupler as an integral part of the design. A prototype was built with Phase I monies and tested at JLAB. The results reported on, and a system for achieving 20-50 MV is proposed.

  16. Levels of Cadmium in White and Brown Meat of Warty Crab (Eriphia verrucosa).

    PubMed

    Ariano, A; Voi, A Lo; D'Ambola, M; Marrone, R; Cacace, D; Severino, L

    2015-12-01

    European Union regulations that establish the maximum cadmium (Cd) levels for crab take into account only concentrations found in crab muscle (white meat), mainly from appendages; therefore, other organs and tissues (brown meat) are excluded. The objective of the present study was to evaluate Cd levels in both white and brown crab meat, in order to achieve a more complete assessment of health risk related to human consumption of warty crab. Microwave digestion and atomic absorption spectrometry were used to determine Cd concentrations in warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) samples collected from the southern Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy. Cd concentrations in all samples of white crab meat were found to be very low (below the limit of quantification), although brown crab meat showed significantly higher Cd concentrations (up to 5.629 mg/kg wet weight; mean value, 1.465 mg/kg). Thus, the consumption of brown meat, common among certain populations of the Mediterranean region, where whole crustaceans are traditionally eaten, substantially increased Cd intake, resulting in alarmingly high estimated weekly intake values.

  17. The Great Crab Nebula Superflare

    NASA Video Gallery

    There are strange goings-on in the Crab Nebula. On April 12, 2011, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected the most powerful in a series of gamma-ray flares occurring somewhere within the s...

  18. The Words of Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Today's Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Excerpts from speeches by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., are reprinted. Topics discussed include discrimination, the South, education, nonviolent resistance, poverty, economic opportunity, and world peace. (LH)

  19. The True Lion King of Africa: The Epic History of Sundiata, King of Old Mali.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterno, Domenica R.

    David Wisniewski's 1992 picture book version of the African epic of "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali" and the actual historical account of the 13th century Lion King, Sundiata, are both badly served by Disney's "The Lion King." Disney has been praised for using African animals as story characters; for using the African landscape as…

  20. Tidal-flow, circulation, and flushing characteristics of Kings Bay, Citrus County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammett, K.M.; Goodwin, C.R.; Sanders, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Kings Bay is an estuary on the gulf coast of peninsular Florida with a surface area of less than one square mile. It is a unique estuarine system with no significant inflowing rivers or streams. As much as 99 percent of the freshwater entering the bay originates from multiple spring vents at the bottom of the estuary. The circulation and flushing characteristics of Kings Bay were evaluated by applying SIMSYS2D, a two-dimensional numerical model. Field data were used to calibrate and verify the model. Lagrangian particle simulations were used to determine the circulation characteristics for three hydrologic conditions: low inflow, typical inflow, and low inflow with reduced friction from aquatic vegetation. Spring discharge transported the particles from Kings Bay through Crystal River and out of the model domain. Tidal effects added an oscillatory component to the particle paths. The mean particle residence time was 59 hours for low inflow with reduced friction; therefore, particle residence time is affected more by spring discharge than by bottom friction. Circulation patterns were virtually identical for the three simulated hydroloigc conditions. Simulated particles introduced in the southern part of Kings Bay traveled along the eastern side of Buzzard Island before entering Crystal River and existing the model domain. The flushing characteristics of Kings Bay for the three hydrodynamic conditions were determined by simulating the injection of conservative dye constituents. The average concentration of dye initially injected in Kings Bay decreased asymptotically because of spring discharge, and the tide caused some oscillation in the average dye concentration. Ninety-five percent of the injected dye exited Kings Bay and Crystal River with 94 hours for low inflow, 71 hours for typical inflow, and 94 hours for low inflow with reduced bottom friction. Simulation results indicate that all of the open waters of Kings Bay are flushed by the spring discharge. Reduced

  1. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  2. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  3. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  4. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  5. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  6. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  7. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  8. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  9. 40 CFR 408.70 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.70 Section 408.70 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.70 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section...

  10. 40 CFR 408.60 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab section processing subcategory. 408.60 Section 408.60 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.60 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan whole crab and crab...

  11. 9. KING STREET (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 59 (see 'Kongensgade ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. KING STREET (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 59 (see 'Kongensgade 59,' HABS No. VI-118) AND TOLDBODEN OLD CUSTOM HOUSE (SCALEHOUSE) - King Street Area Study, King Street, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  12. Ontogenetic change of body color patterns in laboratory-raised juveniles of six terrestrial hermit crab species.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Katsuyuki; Tsuru, Takuma; Sanda, Tetsuya; Fujikawa, Shunsuke; Dan, Shigeki; Kitada, Shuichi

    2017-01-30

    We examined the ontogenetic change of body color patterns in the laboratory-raised juveniles of six terrestrial hermit crab species, including Birgus latro, Coenobita brevimanus, C. cavipes, C. purpureus, C. rugosus, and C. violascens, which commonly occur in the southern islands, Japan. The body color patterns of coenobitid juveniles were species-specific. The diagnostic features of body color patterns enable identification of juveniles of coenobitid crab species in the wild, thereby helping to understand the precise habitats of each coenobitid species.

  13. Distortion of Crabbed Bunch Due to Electron Cloud and Global Crabbing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Cai, Y.; /SLAC

    2008-08-01

    Crab cavities may be used improve the luminosity in colliding beam colliders with crab crossing. In a global crab crossing correction, only one crab cavity is installed in each ring and the crab cavities generate a horizontally titled bunch oscillating around the ring. The electron cloud in positively charged rings may distort the crabbed bunch and cause the luminosity drop. This paper briefly estimates the distortion of positron bunch due to the electron cloud with global crab and estimates the effect in the KEKB and possible LHC upgrades.

  14. Diet analysis of Alaska Arctic snow crabs (Chionoecetes opilio) using stomach contents and δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divine, Lauren M.; Bluhm, Bodil A.; Mueter, Franz J.; Iken, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    We used stomach content and stable δ13C and δ15N isotope analyses to investigate male and female snow crab diets over a range of body sizes (30-130 mm carapace width) in five regions of the Pacific Arctic (southern and northern Chukchi Sea, western, central, and Canadian Beaufort Sea). Snow crab stomach contents from the southern Chukchi Sea were also compared to available prey biomass and abundance. Snow crabs consumed four main prey taxa: polychaetes, decapod crustaceans (crabs, amphipods), echinoderms (mainly ophiuroids), and mollusks (bivalves, gastropods). Both approaches revealed regional differences. Crab diets in the two Chukchi regions were similar to those in the western Beaufort (highest bivalve, amphipod, and crustacean consumption). The Canadian Beaufort region was most unique in prey composition and in stable isotope values. We also observed a trend of decreasing carbon stable isotopes in crabs from the Chukchi to those in the Canadian Beaufort, likely reflecting the increasing use of terrestrial carbon sources towards the eastern regions of the Beaufort Sea from Mackenzie River influx. Cannibalism on snow crabs was higher in the Chukchi regions relative to the Beaufort regions. We suggest that cannibalism may have an impact on recruitment in the Chukchi Sea via reduction of cohort strength after settlement to the benthos, as known from the Canadian Atlantic. Prey composition varied with crab size only in some size classes in the southern Chukchi and central Beaufort, while stable isotope results showed no size-dependent differences. Slightly although significantly higher mean carbon isotope values for males in the southern Chukchi may not be reflective of a gender-specific pattern but rather be driven by low sample size. Finally, the lack of prey selection relative to availability in crabs in the southern Chukchi suggests that crabs consume individual prey taxa in relative proportions to prey field abundances. The present study is the first to

  15. Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama (QTVR)

    This approximate true-color panorama, dubbed 'Lion King,' shows 'Eagle Crater' and the surrounding plains of Meridiani Planum. It was obtained by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sols 58 and 60 using infrared (750-nanometer), green (530-nanometer) and blue (430-nanometer) filters.

    This is the largest panorama obtained yet by either rover. It was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. Additional lower elevation tiers were added to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic.

    This panorama depicts a story of exploration including the rover's lander, a thorough examination of the outcrop, a study of the soils at the near-side of the lander, a successful exit from Eagle Crater and finally the rover's next desination, the large crater dubbed 'Endurance'.

  16. 75 FR 34307 - King Kamehameha Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8534 of June 10, 2010 King Kamehameha Day, 2010 By the President of the... King Kamehameha Day, we celebrate the history and heritage of the Aloha State, which has immeasurably... as we carry our Nation toward a brighter day. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of...

  17. 50 CFR Table 1 to Part 680 - Crab Rationalization (CR) Fisheries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EEZ with: (1) A northern boundary of 58°30′ N. lat., (2) A southern boundary of 54°36′ N. lat., and (3) A western boundary of 168° W. long. and including all waters of Bristol Bay. BSS Bering Sea Snow... Eastern Bering Sea Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) In waters of the EEZ with: (1) A western boundary...

  18. Monitoring The Crab Pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Swank, Jean (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The monitoring of the X-ray pulses from the Crab pulsar is still ongoing at the time of this writing, and we hope to be able to continue the campaign for the life of the XTE mission. We have established beyond all doubt that: (1) the X-ray main pulse leads the radio pulse by approximately 300 microseconds, (2) this phase lag is constant and not influenced by glitches, (3) this lag does not depend on X-ray energy, (4) the relative phase of the two X-ray pulses does not vary, and (5) the spectral indices of primary, secondary, and inter-pulse are distinct and constant. At this time we are investigating whether the radio timing ephemeris can be replaced by an x-ray ephemeris and whether any long-time timing ephemeris can be established. If so, it would enable use to study variations in pulse arrival times at a longer time scales. Such a study is easier in x-rays than at radio wavelengths since the dispersion measure plays no role. These results were reported at the 2000 HEAD Meeting in Honolulu, HI. Travel was paid partly out of this grant. The remainder was applied toward the acquisition of a laptop computer that allows independent and fast analysis of all monitoring observations.

  19. Are Crab nanoshots Schwinger sparks?

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbins, Albert; Yoo, Hojin

    2015-05-21

    The highest brightness temperature ever observed are from "nanoshots" from the Crab pulsar which we argue could be the signature of bursts of vacuum e± pair production. If so this would be the first time the astronomical Schwinger effect has been observed. These "Schwinger sparks" would be an intermittent but extremely powerful, ~103 L, 10 PeV e± accelerator in the heart of the Crab. These nanosecond duration sparks are generated in a volume less than 1 m3 and the existence of such sparks has implications for the small scale structure of the magnetic field of young pulsars such as the Crab. As a result, this mechanism may also play a role in producing other enigmatic bright short radio transients such as fast radio bursts.

  20. LHC crab-cavity aspects and strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga, R.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.

    2010-05-23

    The 3rd LHC Crab Cavity workshop (LHC-CC09) took place at CERN in October 2009. It reviewed the current status and identified a clear strategy towards a future crab-cavity implementation. Following the success of crab cavities in KEK-B and the strong potential for luminosity gain and leveling, CERN will pursue crab crossing for the LHC upgrade. We present a summary and outcome of the variousworkshop sessions which have led to the LHC crab-cavity strategy, covering topics like layout, cavity design, integration, machine protection, and a potential validation test in the SPS.

  1. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 680 - Crab Grade Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Grade Codes 6 Table 6 to Part 680..., Table 6 Table 6 to Part 680—Crab Grade Codes Grade/code Description 1 Standard or premium quality crab or crab sections. 2 Lower quality product, e.g., dirty shelled crab or a pack that is of...

  2. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 680 - Crab Grade Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab Grade Codes 6 Table 6 to Part 680..., Table 6 Table 6 to Part 680—Crab Grade Codes Grade/code Description 1 Standard or premium quality crab or crab sections. 2 Lower quality product, e.g., dirty shelled crab or a pack that is of...

  3. Emergency Response to Gold King Mine Release

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Description of August 5, 2015 release of contaminated waters from the Gold King Mine into Cement Creek and the Animas River, and the resulting emergency response remediation efforts, including monitoring of affected waterways.

  4. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    ScienceCinema

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David

    2016-07-12

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  5. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Dungeness crab. [Cancer magister dana

    SciTech Connect

    Pauley, G.B.; Armstrong, D.A.; Heun, T.W.

    1986-08-01

    The Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) is found off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and southern British Columbia, as well as in the estuarine waters of this geographic area. It is a shellfish highly prized and sought after by both commercialand sport fishermen. In Washington and Oregon, only male crabs may be retained by sport and commercial fishermen. Commercial crab catches are highly variable from year to year, but the catches from Washington and Oregon follow a very similar pattern. The highest sport catches take place on low tides ranging from -0.60 to -0.74 m. Dungeness crab go through a life cycle that involves several metamorphic stages: zoea, megalops, postlarval crab, and adult crab. Hatching success decreases as water temperature increases from 10 to 17/sup 0/C; the optimal temperature for larval crabs is between 10 and 14/sup 0/C. Salinity is not as important to egg development and hatching as temperature, but optimum hatching occurs at about 15 ppt.

  6. 50 CFR 622.247 - Landing golden crab intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.247 Landing golden crab intact. The... ashore. (a) A golden crab in or from the South Atlantic EEZ must be maintained in whole condition...

  7. 50 CFR 622.247 - Landing golden crab intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.247 Landing golden crab intact. The... ashore. (a) A golden crab in or from the South Atlantic EEZ must be maintained in whole condition...

  8. [King Jung-jo's medical philosophy].

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Kim, Dal Rae

    2009-12-01

    King Jungjo who introduced the advent of cultural renaissance of Chosun Dynasty as little been known about his work in medicine. With a wide knowledge in medicine, he was the only one among the kings who wrote a book on medicine, called "SueMinMyoJeon". In this paper, his perspective on medicine will be looked into based on "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty", "Seungjeongwon Ilgi", "Hong Je jun Se", "KukGoBoGam", "Ildkrok", "JeJungShinPyun", "SueMinMyoJeon" etc. King Jungo valued empiricism in the field of medicine. He deepened understandings in medicine while taking care of King Youngjo, the late king. And it led him to author "SueMinMyoJeon" himself, and further ordered the publications of "JeJungShinPyun" "MaGuaHeoiTong". These two books were conducted to include empirical cases of folklore remedy. King Jungjo's medical philosophy can be epitomized in filial piety and realization of people-serving politics, which are the essentials of Confucianism. His filial piety towards the late king, Youngjo and his mother is shown in his devotion when taking care of them. Especially the way he examined the differentiation of diseases and corresponding treatments is well described in "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty". "JeJungShinPyun" was also published and it came handy for folk villagers in times of medical needs. Later this book influenced "BangYakHaepPyun" by Hwang Do Yeon. King Jungjo emphasized pragmatism in spreading medical knowledges, thus removing the theoretical contents that are related to Taoism, especially the ones on alchemy from "DongEuiBoGam", when publishing "SueMinMyoJeon". Even the excerpts from "SoMun" were taken out, if not practical. King Jungjo, however, discussed the importance of healthy regimen and mentioned himself practicing it from the book "IlDeukLok", which seems to be the only book that derailed from the pragmatistic track. King Jungjo put emphasis on consistency between diagnosis and treatment. In diagnosing, Meridian pulse was taken

  9. Bacterial diseases of crabs: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, W

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial diseases of crabs are manifested as bacteremias caused by organisms such as Vibrio, Aeromonas, and a Rhodobacteriales-like organism or tissue and organ tropic organisms such as chitinoclastic bacteria, Rickettsia intracellular organisms, Chlamydia-like organism, and Spiroplasma. This paper provides general information about bacterial diseases of both marine and freshwater crabs. Some bacteria pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus occur commonly in blue crab haemolymph and should be paid much attention to because they may represent potential health hazards to human beings because they can cause serious diseases when the crab is consumed as raw sea food. With the development of aquaculture, new diseases associated with novel pathogens such as spiroplasmas and Rhodobacteriales-like organisms have appeared in commercially exploited crab species in recent years. Many potential approaches to control bacterial diseases of crab will be helpful and practicable in aquaculture.

  10. Hermit crabs, humans and crowded house markets.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A

    2002-12-01

    There is a complex and dynamic interrelationhip between hermit crabs, humans and the coastal environment. Hermit crab homes (shells) are often hard to come by, but humans are helping out by piling middens of shells and rubbish on beachers. Hermit crabs are useful to humans as fishing bait, pets and living wasted disposal systems, and so useful to other animals that they may even be hijacked.

  11. Final focus designs for crab waist colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomyagkov, A.; Levichev, E.; Piminov, P.

    2016-12-01

    The crab waist collision scheme promises significant luminosity gain. The successful upgrade of the DA Φ NE collider proved the principle of crab waist collision and increased luminosity 3 times. Therefore, several new projects try to implement the scheme. The paper reviews interaction region designs with the crab waist collision scheme for already existent collider DA Φ NE and SuperKEKB, presently undergoing commissioning, for the projects of SuperB in Italy, CTau in Novosibirsk and FCC-ee at CERN.

  12. Does the Crab Have a Shell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    We present deep images of a region around the Crab Nebula made with the VLA, utilizing new imaging and deconvolution algorithms in a search for a...the observed nebula. No radio emission was detected from an extended source outside the Crab Nebula . Our limits on surface brightness are sufficiently...a steepening of the spectral index along the boundary of the Crab Nebula itself, the signature of an outer shock. However, contrary to previous

  13. OSSE Observations of the Crab Pulsar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Crab nebula and pulsar (Leventhal, MacCallum, & Watts 1977; Ling et al. 1979; Strickman, Johnson, & Kurfess 1979; Ayre et al. 1983; Agrinier et al...emission from the Crab nebula , as well as detector background. The background portion was then subtracted from the entire light curve. The phase ranges we...detections c) References for previous upper limits d) Based on total Crab nebula plus pulsar spectrum e) Upper limits (3) f) Comments related to

  14. Dr. Max King: the sad life and early death of Mackenzie King's physician brother

    PubMed Central

    Gray, C

    1998-01-01

    While researching her best-selling biography, Mrs. King: The Life and Times of Isabel Mackenzie King, CMAJ contributing editor Charlotte Gray discovered a wealth of information about Dr. Dougal Macdougall (Max) King. Although he never became as famous as his older brother Mackenzie, Gray presents a convincing argument that Dr. Max King's life and early death speak volumes about medicine and the medical profession at the turn of the century. She also argues that Mackenzie King's own life would have been much different had his brother not died at the too young age of 42. Gray's book was nominated for the Viacom Award, which honours the best nonfiction book published annually in Canada. PMID:9580741

  15. The Crab pulsar at VHE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Roberta

    2017-03-01

    The last six years have witnessed major revisions of our knowledge about the Crab Pulsar. The consensus scenario for the origin of the high-energy pulsed emission has been challenged with the discovery of a very-high-energy power law tail extending up to 400 GeV, above the expected spectral cut off at a few GeV. Now, new measurements obtained by the MAGIC collaboration extend the energy spectrum of the Crab Pulsar even further, on the TeV regime. Above 400 GeV the pulsed emission comes mainly from the interpulse, which becomes more prominent with energy due to a harder spectral index. These findings require γ -ray production via inverse Compton scattering close to or beyond the light cylinder radius by an underlying particle population with Lorentz factors greater than 5 × 106. We will present those new results and discuss the implications in our current knowledge concerning pulsar environments.

  16. Kinging in the heartland; or, the power of marginality.

    PubMed

    Piontek, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Theorizations of the drag king phenomenon and definitions of "the Drag King" thus far have relied almost exclusively on Judith Halberstam's description of the drag king scenes in New York, London, and San Francisco. In order to expand the scope of the investigation of drag king culture and as an example of the range of drag kings and drag king acts that have developed across the U.S. and across the world, this article focuses on H.I.S. Kings, a group of women, who have been performing in Columbus, Ohio since 1996. By infusing drag with a dose of theory, which is always tempered by their outrageous sense of humor, H.I.S. Kings have developed what arguably is one of the most interesting varieties of kinging, an approach to the genre of the drag show that Halberstam's model cannot account for. Unlike kings in New York, for example, H.I.S. Kings frequently utilize the supposedly gay male form of camp in their performance of multiple masculinities and femininities, and they create innovative ensemble numbers that engage the racial and gender politics of drag. The example of H.I.S. Kings calls into question any theorization of the drag king phenomenon that ignores cultural developments in the heartland by focusing exclusively on cities traditionally considered the centers of queer culture.

  17. NASA KingAir #801 during takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA KingAir N801NA during takeoff. The Beechcraft Beech 200 Super KingAir aircraft N7NA, known as NASA 7, has been a support aircraft for many years, flying 'shuttle' missions to Ames Research Center. It once flew from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and back each day but now (2001) flies between the Dryden Flight Research Center and Ames. Dryden assumed the mission and aircraft in September 1996. A second Beechcraft Beech 200 Super King Air, N701NA, redesignated N801NA, transferred to Dryden on 3 Oct. 1997 and is used for research missions but substitutes for NASA 7 on shuttle missions when NASA 7 is not available.

  18. CHANGES IN THE CRAB PULSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Scientists are learning more about how pulsars work by studying a series of Hubble Space Telescope images of the heart of the Crab Nebula. The images, taken over a period of several months, show that the Crab is a far more dynamic object than previously understood. At the center of the nebula lies the Crab Pulsar. The pulsar is a tiny object by astronomical standards -- only about six miles across -- but has a mass greater than that of the Sun and rotates at a rate of 30 times a second. As the pulsar spins its intense magnetic field whips around, acting like a sling shot, accelerating subatomic particles and sending them hurtling them into space at close to the speed of light. The tiny pulsar and its wind are the powerhouse for the entire Crab Nebula, which is 10 light-years across -- a feat comparable to an object the size of a hydrogen atom illuminating a volume of space a kilometer across. The three pictures shown here, taken from the series of Hubble images, show dramatic changes in the appearance of the central regions of the nebula. These include wisp-like structures that move outward away from the pulsar at half the speed of light, as well as a mysterious 'halo' which remains stationary, but grows brighter then fainter over time. Also seen are the effects of two polar jets that move out along the rotation axis of the pulsar. The most dynamic feature seen -- a small knot that 'dances around' so much that astronomers have been calling it a 'sprite' -- is actually a shock front (where fast-moving material runs into slower-moving material)in one of these polar jets. The telescope captured the images with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 using a filter that passes light of wavelength around 550 nanometers, near the middle of the visible part of the spectrum. The Crab Nebula is located 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  19. VIEW OF OFFICE CREATED FOR MARTIN LUTHER KING JR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF OFFICE CREATED FOR MARTIN LUTHER KING JR IN 1957-58, LOOKING TOWARD THE REAR DOOR. THE DESK IS A PIECE OF THE ORIGINAL FURNITURE. - Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church, 454 Dexter Avenue, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  20. VIEW OF THE OFFICE CREATED FOR MARTIN LUTHER KING JR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE OFFICE CREATED FOR MARTIN LUTHER KING JR, LOOKING TOWARDS MAIN DOOR INTO SECRETARY'S OFFICE. - Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church, 454 Dexter Avenue, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  1. EFFECTS OF SALT MARSH ALTOSID EXPOSURE ON FEMALE GROWTH & PRODUCTION IN GULF SAND FIDDLER CRAB, UCA PANACEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Salt Marsh Altosid(R) Exposure on Female Growth and Reproduction in the Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab, Uca panacea (Abstract). Presented at the 62nd Annual Meeting of the Association of Southern Biologists, 4-7 July 2001, New Orleans, LA. 1 p.

    Adult Uca panacea were p...

  2. 76 FR 15275 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Golden Crab Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-BA83 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Golden Crab Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Control...

  3. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.; Burt, G.; Smith, J. D.A.; Rimmer, R.; Wang, H.; Delayen, J.; Calaga, R.

    2009-05-01

    In 2017 the LHC is envisioned to increase its luminosity via an upgrade. This upgrade is likely to require a large crossing angle hence a crab cavity is required to align the bunches prior to collision. There are two possible schemes for crab cavity implementation, global and local. In a global crab cavity the crab cavity is far from the IP and the bunch rotates back and forward as it traverses around the accelerator in a closed orbit. For this scheme a two-cell elliptical squashed cavity at 800 MHz is preferred. To avoid any potential beam instabilities all the parasitic modes of the cavities must be damped strongly, however crab cavities have lower order and same order modes in addition to the usual higher order modes and hence a novel damping scheme must be used to provide sufficient damping of these modes. In the local scheme two crab cavities are placed at each side of the IP two start and stop rotation of the bunches. This would require crab cavities much smaller transversely than in the global scheme but the frequency cannot be increased any higher due to the long bunch length of the LHC beam. This will require a novel compact crab cavity design. A superconducting version of a two rod coaxial deflecting cavity as a suitable design is proposed in this paper.

  4. Particle beam and crabbing and deflecting structure

    DOEpatents

    Delayen, Jean [Yorktown, VA

    2011-02-08

    A new type of structure for the deflection and crabbing of particle bunches in particle accelerators comprising a number of parallel transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-resonant) lines operating in opposite phase from each other. Such a structure is significantly more compact than conventional crabbing cavities operating the transverse magnetic TM mode, thus allowing low frequency designs.

  5. HUBBLE CAPTURES DYNAMICS OF CRAB NEBULA (color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images of the remnant of a tremendous stellar explosion is giving astronomers a remarkable look at the dynamic relationship between the tiny Crab Pulsar and the vast nebula that it powers. This colorful photo shows a ground-based image of the entire Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion witnessed over 900 years ago. The nebula, which is 10 light-years across, is located 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. The green, yellow and red filaments concentrated toward the edges of the nebula are remnants of the star that were ejected into space by the explosion. At the center of the Crab Nebula lies the Crab Pulsar -- the collapsed core of the exploded star. The Crab Pulsar is a rapidly rotating neutron star -- an object only about six miles across, but containing more mass than our Sun. As it rotates at a rate of 30 times per second the Crab Pulsar's powerful magnetic field sweeps around, accelerating particles, and whipping them out into the nebula at speeds close to that of light. The blue glow in the inner part of the nebula -- light emitted by energetic electrons as they spiral through the Crab's magnetic field -- is powered by the Crab Pulsar. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  6. Most Detailed Image of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This new Hubble image -- one among the largest ever produced with the Earth-orbiting observatory -- shows the most detailed view so far of the entire Crab Nebula ever made. The Crab is arguably the single most interesting object, as well as one of the most studied, in all of astronomy. The image is the largest image ever taken with Hubble's WFPC2 workhorse camera.

    The Crab Nebula is one of the most intricately structured and highly dynamical objects ever observed. The new Hubble image of the Crab was assembled from 24 individual exposures taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and is the highest resolution image of the entire Crab Nebula ever made.

  7. The Newest Monument: The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural…

  8. The Martin Luther King Library and Archives at the Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron; Kelley-Palmer, Gloria

    1994-01-01

    Describes the collection of the Martin Luther King Library and Archives and examines recent problems that have developed. Topics discussed include a lack of adequate funding and personnel; the lawsuit concerning papers given to Boston University by Dr. King; and an interview with Coretta Scott King. (LRW)

  9. 75 FR 3839 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King... opportunity to make America a better Nation,'' Dr. King said on the eve of his death. ``I may not get there... we have made great strides since the turbulent era of Dr. King's movement, his work and our...

  10. King Oedipus and the Problem Solving Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchardt, Donald A.

    An analysis of the problem solving process reveals at least three options: (1) finding the cause, (2) solving the problem, and (3) anticipating potential problems. These methods may be illustrated by examining "Oedipus Tyrannus," a play in which a king attempts to deal with a problem that appears to be beyond his ability to solve, and…

  11. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the…

  12. The King under the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, Ather

    2015-01-01

    In February 2013, the University of Leicester staged what The Guardian described as "The most extraordinary press conference ever held at any UK university." This was part of a media and communications campaign that brought worldwide attention to the discovery of King Richard III by the University's archaeologists. How do you manage a…

  13. Colorectal carcinoma that afflicted King Jehoram.

    PubMed

    Liubov Louba, Ben-Noun

    2004-12-01

    This research uses the tools of modern medical science to examine the ancient descriptions of the symptoms suffered by King Jehoram who was affected by some disease. The Biblical texts were examined, and passages relating to the disease that afflicted King Jehoram, who ruled in Jerusalem 843-851 B.C., were closely studied. We have not included any commentaries, but referred only to the words of the Bible exactly as written. The Passages ''...the Lord smote him in his bowels with an incurable disease in the process of time, after the end of two years, his bowels fell out by reason of his sickness: so he died of sore diseases'' indicate that the King suffered from some kind of disease which affected his bowels. Among the various diseases which may be associated with prolapse of the bowel, colorectal carcinoma is the most acceptable. It seems that the colorectal carcinoma was poorly differentiated, invaded perirectal adipose tissue, blood vessels, and/or lymphatic vessels, and/or perineural areas, was lymph node positive and reached the 4th stage with the spread of metastases to the distal organs. Viewed by a modern physician, the story of King Jehoram unfolds as possibly the earliest description of a patient afflicted by colorectal carcinoma.

  14. Tribute to Julie Taymor's Lion King Costumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mary C.; Beaty, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Julie Taymor's costumes and masks for the stage version of "The Lion King" were stunning in the way they combined the dual images of human and animal forms. Taymor visually incorporated the human form of a dancer into the simplified form of the animal character so both are equally visible. This visible duality of human form and animal…

  15. King County Division of Parks and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

    Presented are duplications of the responses given by the King County Division of Parks and Recreation (Seattle, Washington) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer, client…

  16. What brakes the Crab pulsar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čadež, A.; Zampieri, L.; Barbieri, C.; Calvani, M.; Naletto, G.; Barbieri, M.; Ponikvar, D.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Optical observations provide convincing evidence that the optical phase of the Crab pulsar follows the radio one closely. Since optical data do not depend on dispersion measure variations, they provide a robust and independent confirmation of the radio timing solution. Aims: The aim of this paper is to find a global mathematical description of Crab pulsar's phase as a function of time for the complete set of published Jodrell Bank radio ephemerides (JBE) in the period 1988-2014. Methods: We apply the mathematical techniques developed for analyzing optical observations to the analysis of JBE. We break the whole period into a series of episodes and express the phase of the pulsar in each episode as the sum of two analytical functions. The first function is the best-fitting local braking index law, and the second function represents small residuals from this law with an amplitude of only a few turns, which rapidly relaxes to the local braking index law. Results: From our analysis, we demonstrate that the power law index undergoes "instantaneous" changes at the time of observed jumps in rotational frequency (glitches). We find that the phase evolution of the Crab pulsar is dominated by a series of constant braking law episodes, with the braking index changing abruptly after each episode in the range of values between 2.1 and 2.6. Deviations from such a regular phase description behave as oscillations triggered by glitches and amount to fewer than 40 turns during the above period, in which the pulsar has made more than 2 × 1010 turns. Conclusions: Our analysis does not favor the explanation that glitches are connected to phenomena occurring in the interior of the pulsar. On the contrary, timing irregularities and changes in slow down rate seem to point to electromagnetic interaction of the pulsar with the surrounding environment.

  17. EDITORIAL: King of the elements? King of the elements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Throughout the history of science, carbon-based research has played a defining role in the development of a range of fundamental and technological fields. It was used in Avagadro's definition of the mole in the early 18th century, it provides the 'backbone' of molecules in organic compounds, and in the environmental debate currently raging in the press and international government discussions, the 'carbon footprint' has become the metric of our species' impact on our planet. Also in nanotechnology, with the discovery of various wonder materials, carbon is once again asserting its claim as king of the elements. Until the 1980s the only known forms of carbon were diamond, graphite and amorphous carbon, as in soot or charcoal. In 1985 Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley reported the existence of fullerenes, spherical structures comprising hexagonal carbon rings [1], work for which they won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1996 [2]. The discovery of fullerenes was followed in 1991 by Sumio Ijima with the discovery of rolled graphite sheets, the carbon nanotube [3]. The discovery of these novel carbon nanostructures inspired researchers in a range of fields, largely as a result of the extraordinary capacity for investigations of these structures to reveal ever more intriguing properties. One of the fascinating properties attributed to carbon nanotubes is their phenomenal strength, with a Young's modulus of single walled carbon nanotubes approaching a terapascal [4]. Ingenious methods of harnessing this strength have since been developed, including bucky paper, a term used to refer to a mat of randomly self-entangled carbon nanotubes. Steven Crannford and Markus Buehler have recently reported a novel computational technique for probing the mechanical properties of these structures and show that the Young's modulus of bucky paper can be tuned by manipulation of the carbon nanotube type and density [5]. The electrical properties of carbon nanotubes, which depend

  18. 50 CFR 680.4 - Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements for the Bristol Bay red king crab, Bering Sea snow crab, St. Matthew blue king crab, Eastern Aleutian Islands golden king crab, Western Aleutian Islands red king crab, and Pribilof red king and blue... holding regionally designated IFQ for Bristol Bay red king crab, Bering Sea snow crab, St. Matthew...

  19. 50 CFR 680.4 - Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements for the Bristol Bay red king crab, Bering Sea snow crab, St. Matthew blue king crab, Eastern Aleutian Islands golden king crab, Western Aleutian Islands red king crab, and Pribilof red king and blue... holding regionally designated IFQ for Bristol Bay red king crab, Bering Sea snow crab, St. Matthew...

  20. Feeding Habits And Natural Diet of the Intertidal Crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus: Opportunistic Browser or Selective Feeder?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannicci, S.; Gomei, M.; Boddi, B.; Vannini, M.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the feeding habits of the European intertidal crabPachygrapsus marmoratus . Since this species is widely distributed in southern Europe, four south-western European sites far apart from each other were selected: southern Portugal, central Portugal, central Tyrrhenian coast, Italy, and northern Adriatic coast, Istria. In summer, crabs were collected and the contents of their stomachs were assessed in the laboratory. In parallel, at each collection site the relative abundance of algae species and of sessile and slow-moving animals was assessed for comparison with the relative frequency of the same items in the P. marmoratus diet. The detailed analysis of its feeding habits showed that this species is omnivorous but that it cannot simply be considered an opportunistic feeder. In all populations, algal and animal diet components were almost equally abundant; thus these crabs actively regulate their feeding to cope with the dietary needs of their fast-moving, semi-terrestrial life-style. Descriptive and quantitative analyses showed that P. marmoratus has definite preferences for animal prey and algae. Limpets and mussels proved to be the commonest prey, followed by conspecific crabs. The highly preferred plant item was filamentous algae, although corticated macroalgae and articulated calcareous algae were also common in the diet. Cyanobacteria were preferred only at the Atlantic sites and crustose algae were represented only by Ralfsia sp., a species with high protein and lipid contents. Both univariate and multivariate statistical methods confirmed that the different populations of P. marmoratus were minimally influenced by the relative abundance of the food items within their environment and their diet composition was constant throughout the sampled area. In conclusion, the relative abundance of different ingested foods can best be explained by considering the diet of P. marmoratus to be related mainly to its population structure

  1. 75 FR 11134 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... crab, Norton Sound Red King Crab, Pribilof Island Red King Crab, Pribilof Island Blue King Crab, Saint Matthew Blue King Crab, Aleutian Island Golden King Crab. The Agenda is subject to change, and the latest... Council's Crab Plan Team (CPT). SUMMARY: The Crab Plan Team will meet in Seattle, WA. DATES: The...

  2. A large bubble around the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romani, Roger W.; Reach, William T.; Koo, Bon Chul; Heiles, Carl

    1990-01-01

    IRAS and 21 cm observations of the interstellar medium around the Crab nebula show evidence of a large bubble surrounded by a partial shell. If located at the canonical 2 kpc distance of the Crab pulsar, the shell is estimated to have a radius of about 90 pc and to contain about 50,000 solar masses of swept-up gas. The way in which interior conditions of this bubble can have important implications for observations of the Crab are described, and the fashion in which presupernova evolution of the pulsar progenitor has affected its local environment is described.

  3. Ultraviolet studies of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talavera, A.

    2017-03-01

    The Crab Nebula (Messier 1) is one of the most observed sources with the XMM-Newton space telescope of ESA. The Crab and its related pulsar are a calibration source for the on-board X-rays cameras. There are around 80 observations between 2000 and 2015. In this observations, the XMM-Newton Optical and UV Monitor (OM) has also been used. We present a preliminary study of the Crab using images obtained the OM UV filters at 291, 231 and 212 nm. Photometric data for the pulsar (PSR0531+21), created in the supernova event of AD 1054 origin of the nebula, are also presented

  4. Design of the ILC Crab Cavity System

    SciTech Connect

    Adolphsen, C.; Beard, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Burt, G.; Carter, R.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Dexter, A.; Dykes, M.; Edwards, H.; Goudket, P; Jenkins, R.; Jones, R.M.; Kalinin, A.; Khabiboulline, T.; Ko, K.; Latina, A.; Li, Z.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Ng, C.; /SLAC /Daresbury /Fermilab /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /CERN

    2007-08-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) has a 14 mrad crossing angle in order to aid extraction of spent bunches. As a result of the bunch shape at the interaction point, this crossing angle at the collision causes a large luminosity loss which can be recovered by rotating the bunches prior to collision using a crab cavity. The ILC baseline crab cavity is a 9-cell superconducting dipole cavity operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz. In this paper the design of the ILC crab cavity and its phase control system, as selected for the RDR in February 2007 is described in fuller detail.

  5. Crab Crossing Consideration for MEIC 2

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ahmed, Y.S. Derbenev, G.A. Krafft, Y. Zhang, A. Castilla, J.R. Delayen, S.D. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Crab crossing of colliding electron and ion beams is essential for accommodating the ultra high bunch repetition frequency in the conceptual design of MEIC – a high luminosity polarized electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab. The scheme eliminates parasitic beam-beam interactions and avoids luminosity reduction by restoring head-on collisions at interaction points. In this paper, we report simulation studies of beam dynamics with crab cavities for MEIC design. The detailed study involves full 3-D simulations of particle tracking through the various configurations of crab cavities for evaluating the performance. To gain insight, beam and RF dominated fields with other parametric studies will be presented in the paper.

  6. 78 FR 40696 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Crab Cost Recovery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Crab Cost Recovery AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab includes the Crab Rationalization (CR) Program, a limited access system that allocates BSAI Crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities....

  7. Psychological aftermath of the King's Cross fire.

    PubMed

    Rosser, R; Dewar, S; Thompson, J

    1991-01-01

    The King's Cross fire occurred at the end of the evening rush hour, on 18 November 1987. King's Cross station is within the department's health district and we felt a responsibility to respond to the psychological aftermath. The unique features of our intervention were the degree of inter agency coordination, the use of a systematic outreach and screening programme, the collection of psychotherapy outcome measures and the development of an ongoing clinic. The work represents a sustained attempt to assess the nature and prevalence of post-traumatic reactions and the most medically and economically effective form of intervention. In this paper we describe the way our team responded to the high level of psychological distress that we found, we present some preliminary results, outline two therapeutic trials, and refer to the longterm consequences for the work of our department.

  8. The Kings Cross fire: psychological reactions.

    PubMed

    Turner, S W; Thompson, J; Rosser, R M

    1995-07-01

    The psychological reactions of 50 survivors of the King's Cross fire, which hit London's underground railway system on the 18th day of November 1987, are described. Results are presented for the Impact of Event scale, the General Health Questionnaire (28-item version), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and a King's Cross Event Schedule. These are investigated in relation to (a) validity measures, (b) relationships between exposure and personality, and (c) spontaneous de-briefing. Two thirds of the sample had significant levels of psychological distress (meeting the "caseness" criterion on the GHQ). Both personality (neuroticism and L-scale) and degree of trauma exposure were related to subsequent reaction. Spontaneous debriefing was associated with subjective benefit. Transportation disasters present particular problems in relation to research and service delivery.

  9. High Connectivity among Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus) Populations in the Western South Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Kersanach, Ralf; Cortinhas, Maria Cristina Silva; Prata, Pedro Fernandes Sanmartin; Dumont, Luiz Felipe Cestari; Proietti, Maíra Carneiro; Maggioni, Rodrigo; D’Incao, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Population connectivity in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus was evaluated along 740 km of the Western South Atlantic coast. Blue crabs are the most exploited portunid in Brazil. Despite their economic importance, few studies report their ecology or population structure. Here we sampled four estuarine areas in southern Brazil during winter 2013 and summer 2014 in order to evaluate diversity, gene flow and structure of these populations. Nine microsatellite markers were evaluated for 213 adult crabs, with identification of seven polymorphic loci and 183 alleles. Pairwise FST values indicated low population structure ranging from -0.00023 to 0.01755. A Mantel test revealed that the geographic distance does not influence genetic (r = -0.48), and structure/migration rates confirmed this, showing that even the populations located at the opposite extremities of our covered region presented low FST and exchanged migrants. These findings show that there is a significant amount of gene flow between blue crab populations in South Brazil, likely influenced by local current dynamics that allow the transport of a high number of larvae between estuaries. Considering the elevated gene flow, the populations can be considered a single genetic stock. However, further information on population size and dynamics, as well as fishery demands and impacts at different regions, are necessary for harvest management purposes. PMID:27064977

  10. High Connectivity among Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus) Populations in the Western South Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Ana Luzia Figueiredo; Kersanach, Ralf; Cortinhas, Maria Cristina Silva; Prata, Pedro Fernandes Sanmartin; Dumont, Luiz Felipe Cestari; Proietti, Maíra Carneiro; Maggioni, Rodrigo; D'Incao, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Population connectivity in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus was evaluated along 740 km of the Western South Atlantic coast. Blue crabs are the most exploited portunid in Brazil. Despite their economic importance, few studies report their ecology or population structure. Here we sampled four estuarine areas in southern Brazil during winter 2013 and summer 2014 in order to evaluate diversity, gene flow and structure of these populations. Nine microsatellite markers were evaluated for 213 adult crabs, with identification of seven polymorphic loci and 183 alleles. Pairwise FST values indicated low population structure ranging from -0.00023 to 0.01755. A Mantel test revealed that the geographic distance does not influence genetic (r = -0.48), and structure/migration rates confirmed this, showing that even the populations located at the opposite extremities of our covered region presented low FST and exchanged migrants. These findings show that there is a significant amount of gene flow between blue crab populations in South Brazil, likely influenced by local current dynamics that allow the transport of a high number of larvae between estuaries. Considering the elevated gene flow, the populations can be considered a single genetic stock. However, further information on population size and dynamics, as well as fishery demands and impacts at different regions, are necessary for harvest management purposes.

  11. Metals in horseshoe crabs from Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Dixon, C; Shukla, T; Tsipoura, N; Jensen, H; Fitzgerald, M; Ramos, R; Gochfeld, M

    2003-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the eggs, leg muscle, and apodeme (carapace musculature) in horseshoe crabs ( Limulus polyphemus) from eight places on the New Jersey and Delaware sides of Delaware Bay to determine whether there were locational differences. Although there were locational differences, the differences were not great. Further, contaminant levels were generally low. The levels of contaminants found in horseshoe crabs were well below those known to cause adverse effects in the crabs themselves or in organisms that consume them or their eggs. Contaminant levels have generally declined in the eggs of horseshoe crabs from 1993 to 2001, suggesting that contaminants are not likely to be a problem for secondary consumers or a cause of their decline.

  12. Monitoring the Crab Nebula with LOFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    From 2008-2010, the Crab Nebula was found to decline by 7% in the 15-50 keV band, consistently in Fermi GBM, INTEGRAL IBIS, SPI, and JEMX, RXTE PCA, and Swift BAT. From 2001-2010, the 15-50 keV flux from the Crab Nebula typically varied by about 3.5% per year. Analysis of RXTE PCA data suggests possible spectral variations correlated with the flux variations. I will present estimates of the LOFT sensitivity to these variations. Prior to 2001 and since 2010, the observed flux variations have been much smaller. Monitoring the Crab with the LOFT WFM and LAD will provide precise measurements of flux variations in the Crab Nebula if it undergoes a similarly active episode.

  13. Why do fiddler crabs build chimneys?

    PubMed

    Slatyer, R A; Fok, E S Y; Hocking, R; Backwell, P R Y

    2008-12-23

    Chimneys are mud mounds built by fiddler crabs that encircle the entrance to their burrow. Their function in many species is unknown. In Uca capricornis, crabs of both sexes and all sizes build chimneys, but females do so disproportionately more often. There are no differences in the immediate physical or social environments between crabs with and without a chimney. Chimney owners spend less time feeding and more time underground than non-owners. We show experimentally that burrows with a chimney are less likely to be located by an intruder. It is possible that some crabs construct chimneys around their burrow to conceal the entrance and reduce the risk of losing it to an intruder.

  14. Wakefield Damping for the CLIC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Ambattu, P.K.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A.C.; Carter, R.G.; Khan, V.; Jones, R.M.; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC

    2011-12-01

    A crab cavity is required in the CLIC to allow effective head-on collision of bunches at the IP. A high operating frequency is preferred as the deflection voltage required for a given rotation angle and the RF phase tolerance for a crab cavity are inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The short bunch spacing of the CLIC scheme and the high sensitivity of the crab cavity to dipole kicks demand very high damping of the inter-bunch wakes, the major contributor to the luminosity loss of colliding bunches. This paper investigates the nature of the wakefields in the CLIC crab cavity and the possibility of using various damping schemes to suppress them effectively.

  15. Drag kings in the new wave: gender performance and participation.

    PubMed

    Surkan, Kim

    2002-01-01

    In an examination of Midwestern drag king performers and communities that have emerged since the study by Volcano and Halberstam of king cultures in London, New York, and San Francisco, this article considers traditional and alternative ways of "doing drag," both performative and participatory, as a means of interrogating the proximity of a "new wave" of king culture to academic theory. Tracing the evolution of drag king performance in the Twin Cities from the 1996 workshop by Diane Torr to the formation of two distinct king troupes in the late 1990s demonstrates a particular trajectory in kinging that reflects a new consciousness and enactment of gender theory through artistic praxis. Participation plays a key role in breaking down the distance between spectator and performer in venues such as the First International Drag King Extravaganza in Columbus, Ohio, and Melinda Hubman's art installation "Performing Masculinities: Take a Chance on Gender" in Minneapolis. By engaging the "audience" in drag, the Extravaganza "Science Fair" successfully referenced drag kings' shared history with early American freak shows in a clever and critical way. Moving beyond the contest framework of early king shows, new drag king troupes like Minneapolis' Dykes Do Drag are "mixing it up" in an attempt to complicate notions of butch/femme gender roles, sexuality, and drag stereotypes.

  16. Epidemiology of bitter crab disease (Hematodinium sp.) in snow crabs Chionoecetes opilio from Newfoundland, Canada.

    PubMed

    Shields, Jeffrey D; Taylor, David M; Sutton, Stephen G; O'Keefe, Paul G; Ings, Danny W; Pardy, Amanda L

    2005-05-20

    The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. causes a condition known as bitter crab disease (BCD) in snow crabs Chionoecetes opilio and Tanner crabs C. bairdi. As the name of the condition implies, crabs infected with BCD are unmarketable due to their bitter flavor. We surveyed the distribution of BCD in 3 regions within the snow crab fishery of Newfoundland from 1997 to 2003. Over time, the disease has become firmly established in Conception and Bonavista Bays and persists at low levels on the Avalon fishing grounds. An epizootic occurred within Bonavista and Conception Bays in 1999 and persisted in Conception Bay in 2000, reaching prevalences of over 2% to 9% in trapped and trawled male crabs and from 19 to 26% in trawled and trapped female crabs, respectively. Infections were highest in females and small males, i.e. the unfished and pre-recruit portions of the fishery. In a mortality study, all of the naturally infected crabs died and 50% of the experimentally inoculated crabs died. Patterns in the molting cycle and prevalence of infection indicate that transmission occurs during the post-molt condition, and that overt infections probably develop 2 to 4 mo later with mortalities occurring at least 3 to 4 mo thereafter. The hydrography of this bay may have contributed to the epizootic as infections were centered within the deeper confines of the bay. Analysis of various abiotic factors uncovered a significant positive association between prevalence, depth and mud/sand substrates; the nature of this relationship was not apparent but may be related to diet or alternate hosts. Lastly, given the increase in BCD in snow crabs in Newfoundland, we recommend that fishery management programs for Chionoecetes fisheries employ non-selective gear to monitor for Hematodinium infections in female and juvenile crabs because these under-sampled members of the population may forewarn of impending recruitment declines that might otherwise remain unexplained.

  17. Feeding performance of king Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amber R; Huber, Daniel R; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Motta, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    Feeding performance is an organism's ability to capture and handle prey. Although bite force is a commonly used metric of feeding performance, other factors such as bite pressure and strike speed are also likely to affect prey capture. Therefore, this study investigated static bite force, dynamic speeds, and predator and prey forces resulting from ram strikes, as well as bite pressure of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in order to examine their relative contributions to overall feeding performance. Theoretical posterior bite force ranged from 14.0-318.7 N. Ram speed, recorded with a rod and reel incorporated with a line counter and video camera, ranged from 3.3-15.8B L/s. Impact forces on the prey ranged from 0.1-1.9 N. Bite pressure, estimated using theoretical bite forces at three gape angles and tooth cross-sectional areas, ranged from 1.7-56.9 MPa. Mass-specific bite force for king mackerel is relatively low in comparison with other bony fishes and sharks, with relatively little impact force applied to the prey during the strike. This suggests that king mackerel rely on high velocity chases and high bite pressure generated via sharp, laterally compressed teeth to maximize feeding performance.

  18. The visual ecology of fiddler crabs.

    PubMed

    Zeil, Jochen; Hemmi, Jan M

    2006-01-01

    With their eyes on long vertical stalks, their panoramic visual field and their pronounced equatorial acute zone for vertical resolving power, the visual system of fiddler crabs is exquisitely tuned to the geometry of vision in the flat world of inter-tidal mudflats. The crabs live as burrow-centred grazers in dense, mixed-sex, mixed-age and mixed-species colonies, with the active space of an individual rarely exceeding 1 m(2). The full behavioural repertoire of fiddler crabs can thus be monitored over extended periods of time on a moment to moment basis together with the visual information they have available to guide their actions. These attributes make the crabs superb subjects for analysing visual tasks and the design of visual processing mechanisms under natural conditions, a prerequisite for understanding the evolution of visual systems. In this review we show, on the one hand, how deeply embedded fiddler crab vision is in the behavioural and the physical ecology of these animals and, on the other hand, how their behavioural options are constrained by their perceptual limitations. Studying vision in fiddler crabs reminds us that vision has a topography, that it is context-dependent and pragmatic and that there are perceptual limits to what animals can know and therefore care about.

  19. A New Reading of Shakespeare's King John.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, Peter D.

    1995-12-01

    Shakespeare wrote King John c.1594, six years after the defeat of the Spanish Armada, and ~ 50 years after publication of the Copernican heliocentric hypothesis. It is said to be the most unhistorical of the History Plays, ``anomalous'', ``puzzling'', and ``odd'', and as such it has engendered far more than the customary range of interpretive opinion. I suggest that the play alerts Elizabethans not just to military and political threats, but to a changing cosmic world view, all especially threatening as they arise in Catholic countries. (a) Personification characterizes the play. John personifies the old order, while Arthur and the Dauphin's armies personify the new. I suggest that Shakespeare decenters King John just as Copernicus decentered the world. (b) Hubert menaces Arthur's eyes for a whole scene (4.1), but the need for such cruelty is not explained and is especially odd as Arthur is already under sentence of death (3.3.65-66). This hitherto unexplained anomaly suggests that the old order fears what the new might see. (c) Eleanor's confession is made only to Heaven and to her son the King (1.1.42-43), yet by echoing and word play the Messenger from France later reveals to John that he is privy to it (4.2.119-124). This circumstance has not been questioned heretofore. I suggest that the Messenger is like the wily Hermes (Mercury), chief communicator of the gods and patron of the sciences; by revealing that he moves in the highest circles, he tells John that he speaks with an authority that transcends even that of a king. The message from on high presages more than political change; it warns of a new cosmic and religious world order (d) Most agree that John is a weak king, so Shakespeare must have suspected flaws in the old ways. He would have known that Tycho Brahe's new star of 1572, the comet of 1577, and the 1576 model of his compatriot Thomas Digges, were shattering old ideas. (e) The tensions of the play are not resolved because in 1594 the new order was

  20. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the king pigeon (Columba livia breed king).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Hua; He, Wen-Xiao; Xu, Tong

    2015-06-01

    The king pigeon is a breed of pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding primarily as a utility breed. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,221 bp with the base composition of 30.14% for A, 24.05% for T, 31.82% for C, and 13.99% for G and an A-T (54.22 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  1. Retention of crab larvae in a coastal null zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilburg, Charles E.; Dittel, Ana I.; Epifanio, Charles E.

    2007-05-01

    Alongshelf transport in the southern Middle Atlantic Bight is forced by buoyancy-driven currents originating in three large estuaries along the bight. These currents are strongest in the coastal ocean near the southern terminus of each estuary, while the analogous region on the northern side is characterized by weak subtidal flow. We used a combination of field observations and numerical modeling to test the hypothesis that these regions of weak subtidal flow are coastal null zones that serve as retention areas for larvae. The field study consisted of a four-day, shipboard investigation of the distribution of blue crab larvae ( Callinectes sapidus) near the mouth of Delaware Bay (˜39°N, 75°W) in late summer, 2004. Hydrographic surveys of the study site were conducted with a hull-mounted, surface-measuring system. Results showed a sharp boundary between the null zone and the buoyancy-driven current to the south. Blue crab larvae were collected in surface plankton tows along a 30-km transect that encompassed these two areas. Stations with higher densities of larvae were clustered in the null zone during both ebb and flood tides. A numerical model was used to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed distribution. Model results agreed with the field survey and showed that simulated larvae are aggregated in the null zone. The simulations also demonstrated that larvae spawned within the null zone have a much greater probability of settling in juvenile nursery habitat within the bay. The close agreement between field and model results provides consistent support for the hypothesis that coastal null zones associated with the buoyancy-driven circulation of large estuaries may allow retention of larvae in the vicinity of the natal spawning population.

  2. Ecological Assessment of Two Species of Potamonautid Freshwater Crabs from the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe, with Implications for Their Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Dalu, Tatenda; Sachikonye, Mwazvita T. B.; Froneman, William P.; Manungo, Kwanele I.; Bepe, Onias; Wasserman, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial ecology of freshwater crabs and their conservation status is largely understudied in Africa. An ecological assessment was conducted at 104 localities in 51 rivers and/or streams in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe whereby the distribution and abundances of freshwater crab species were mapped and the possible drivers of the observed trends in population structure explored. In addition, information on crab utilisation as a food resource by local communities was assessed via face to face interviews across the region. Finally, the conservation status of each species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria. Only two crab species Potamonautes mutareensis and Potamonautes unispinus were recorded within the region of study. Potamonautes mutareensis was largely restricted to less impacted environments in the high mountainous river system, whereas P. unispinus was found in low laying areas. In stretches of river where both species were found to co-occur, the species were never sampled from the same site, with P. mutareensis occurring in shallower, faster flowing environments and P. unispinus in deeper, slow flowing sites. Interview results revealed that the local communities, particularly in the southern part of the Eastern Highlands around the Chipinge area, had a considerable level of utilisation (55% of households) on the harvesting of crabs for household consumption during the non-agricultural season (May to September). Results from the IUCN Red List assessment indicate that both species should be considered as “Least Concern”. Threats to freshwater crabs in the Eastern Highlands, however, include widespread anthropogenic impacts such as habitat destruction associated with gold and diamond mining, inorganic and organic pollution and possibly exploitation for human consumption. The current study provides important information and insight towards the possible development of a freshwater crab conservation action plan within the region. PMID:26751064

  3. Installation Restoration Program. Stage 1. King Salmon Airport , King Salmon, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-29

    Salmon Age Distribution 11-6 2-2 Surface Water Flow Data 11-12 2-3 Climatic Data for King Salmon Air Force Station 11-21 3-1 Number of Analyses by...stock of migratory and resident sport and commercial game fish. The Naknek River drainage supports one of the largest sockeye salmon runs in the world...Between 1977 and 1981, the Naknek River system received an average annual return of 1.4 million sockeye salmon . Drain- age from the King Salmon

  4. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at King Salmon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is conducting preliminary environmental assessments at most of its present or former facilities in Alaska. Information about environmental conditions at King Salmon, Alaska are presented in this report. This report gives an overview of the geology, hydro- logy, and climate of the King Salmon area and describes general geohydrologic conditions. A thick alluvial aquifer underlies King Salmon and both ground water and surface water are plentiful in the area.

  5. Channel Response to Low-Elevation Desert Fire: The King Valley Fire of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Griffiths, Peter G.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Boyer, Diane E.

    2007-01-01

    In late September to early October 2005, a fire swept north from the Yuma Proving Grounds and into the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), traveling mainly along desert wash systems and low-relief alluvial fans. This fire burned 9,975 ha, moving through xeroriparian systems in washes as well as low-elevation desert ecosystems in King Valley, a major area of designated wilderness in the southern part of the Kofa NWR. Using satellite imagery, we determined that 9,255 ha of the Kofa NWR in King Valley burned. The fine-fuel loading for the fire was mostly a native forb (Plantago insularis), and the desert environment that was burned was mostly low-cover creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) scrub with scattered palo verde (Cercidium microphyllum). The wash environments had significant tree cover, including ironwood (Olneya tesota), blue palo verde (Cercidium floridum), desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), and/or smoke tree (Psorothamnus spinosa). This report presents monitoring data collected in June 2006 and January-February 2007 on the effects of this fire on channel morphology in King Valley.

  6. Perceptions of environmental changes and Lethargic crab disease among crab harvesters in a Brazilian coastal community

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) has caused significant mortalities in the population of Ucides cordatus crabs in the Mucuri estuary in Bahia State, Brazil, and has brought social and economic problems to many crab-harvesting communities that depend on this natural resource. The present work examined the perceptions of members of a Brazilian crab harvesting community concerning environmental changes and the Lethargic Crab Disease. Methods Field work was undertaken during the period between January and April/2009, with weekly or biweekly field excursions during which open and semi-structured interviews were held with local residents in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 23 individuals were interviewed, all of whom had at least 20 years of crab-collecting experience in the study region. Key-informants (more experienced crab harvesters) were selected among the interviewees using the "native specialist" criterion. Results According to the collectors, LCD reached the Mucuri mangroves between 2004 and 2005, decimating almost all crab population in the area, and in 2007, 2008 and 2009 high mortalities of U. cordatus were again observed as a result of recurrences of this disease in the region. In addition to LCD, crabs were also suffering great stock reductions due to habitat degradation caused by deforestation, landfills, sewage effluents, domestic and industrial wastes and the introduction of exotic fish in the Mucuri River estuary. The harvesting community was found to have significant ecological knowledge about the functioning of mangrove swamp ecology, the biology of crabs, and the mass mortality that directly affected the economy of this community, and this information was largely in accordance with scientific knowledge. Conclusions The study of traditional knowledge makes it possible to better understand human interactions with the environment and aids in the elaboration of appropriate strategies for natural resource conservation

  7. Goldie Brangman Remembers the Operation to Save Dr King.

    PubMed

    Koch, Evan; Brangman, Goldie

    2015-12-01

    In September 1958 the Rev Dr Martin Luther King Jr was stabbed and nearly assassinated. Surgeons at Harlem Hospital in New York City removed a 17.8-cm (7-in)-long letter opener from Dr King's chest. Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Goldie Brangman remembers this event because she participated in Dr King's anesthetic. This article correlates Brangman's memories with published accounts of the event. It also places the event within the context of the modern civil rights movement that Dr King led.

  8. Late Pleistocene vegetation of Kings Canyon, Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Kenneth

    1983-01-01

    Seven packrat midden samples make possible a comparison between the modern and late Pleistocene vegetation in Kings Canyon on the western side of the southern Sierra Nevada. One modern sample contains macrofossils and pollen derived from the present-day oak-chaparral vegetation. Macrofossils from the six late Pleistocene samples record a mixed coniferous forest dominated by the xerophytic conifers Juniperus occidentalis, Pinus cf. ponderosa, and P. monophylla. The pollen spectra of these Pleistocene middens are dominated by Pinus sp., Taxodiaceae-Cupressaceae-Taxaceae (TCT), and Artemisia sp. Mesophytic conifers are represented by low macrofossil concentrations. Sequoiadendron giganteum is represented by a few pollen grains in the full glacial. Edaphic control and snow dispersal are the most likely causes of these mixed assemblages. The dominant macrofossils record a more xeric plant community than those that now occur on similar substrates at higher elevations or latitudes in the Sierra Nevada. These assemblages suggest that late Wisconsin climates were cold with mean annual precipitation not necessarily greater than modern values. This conclusion supports a model of low summer ablation allowing for the persistence of the glaciers at higher elevations during the late Wisconsin. The records in these middens also suggest that S. giganteum grew at lower elevations along the western side of the range and that P. monophylla was more widely distributed in cismontane California during the Pleistocene.

  9. Analysis of metals in blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, from two Connecticut estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Jop, K.M.; Biever, R.C.; Hoberg, J.R.; Shepherd, S.P.

    1997-02-01

    Decisions involving the use and allocation of resources in the nation`s coastal and estuarine regions require reliable and continuous information about the status and trends of environmental quality in those areas. In recent years much attention has been focused on assessing environmental risks resulting from the manufacture, distribution, use and disposal of chemicals. Legislation and public concern have produced numerous regulations concerning the introduction of chemicals into surface waters which increase the potential for human exposure. There is considerable concern about the human health aspects of metal cycling especially in coastal and inland waters that are in proximity to large populations or industrial centers. Many of these compounds tend to remain in the ecosystem and eventually move from lower to higher trophic levels within the human food chain. Blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, are important members of the estuarine food chain due to high abundance and their multiple role as scavengers, predators and prey. Because of their omnivorous feeding characteristics and association with sediments, blue crabs are exposed and may potentially accumulate significant amount of pollutants above background seawater concentrations. This species represents one of the most valuable fishery resources in the southern states. According to Marcus and Mathews blue crabs ranked fifth in 1984 and fourth in 1985 behind shrimp, swordfish, oysters and hard clams in economic value, but first in total weight for both years in South Carolina. Although in Connecticut blue crabs are harvested mostly for personal consumption, their commercial value in other states makes the results from any environmental survey of great interest from the consideration of risk to human health. This study evaluated the level of contaminants in Blue crabs in the summer months by examining the concentration of selected metals in samples of muscle and hepatopancreas tissue. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Lack of adult novel northern lineages of invasive green crab Carcinus maenas along much of the northern US Atlantic coast

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Larissa M.; Nivison, Camilla L.; Ambrose, William G.; Dobbin, Rebecca; Locke, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduced over 200 yr ago to the east coast of North America, Carcinus maenas now ranges from New York to Newfoundland. In the 1980s, a secondary invasion of European lineages, termed northern haplotypes, occurred in Nova Scotia. Young-of-the-year sampled in 2007 revealed that northern haplotypes were present in low frequencies at several northwestern Atlantic sites as far south as New York; a model predicted an increase in their range and frequency over time. We collected samples in 2013 and 2014 to determine the haplotypes of adult crabs from New York to Nova Scotia. Six haplotypes, encompassing previously identified northern and southern haplotypes, 1 novel southern haplotype, and 1 Scandinavian haplotype, were identified in 275 crabs sampled at 11 sites. Northern haplotypes were only found in Nova Scotia, Beals Island (Maine), and Mount Desert Island (Maine) at a frequency of 60, 8, and 24%, respectively; remaining sites were predominantly composed of a previously identified southern haplotype. Northern haplotypes are limited in adult crabs to Mount Desert Island and north, indicating that the southern haplotype is selectively favored at some point during their life history, recruitment of northern larvae is limited south of Mount Desert Island, or entire year-classes post-2007 were lost. Our results do not support the predictions of an increase in the range and frequency of northern haplotypes, at least among adults, and indicate that a more complete knowledge of factors affecting C. maenas life stages is necessary to understand the current distribution of haplotypes. PMID:28127110

  11. Lack of adult novel northern lineages of invasive green crab Carcinus maenas along much of the northern US Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Williams, Larissa M; Nivison, Camilla L; Ambrose, William G; Dobbin, Rebecca; Locke, William L

    2015-01-01

    Introduced over 200 yr ago to the east coast of North America, Carcinus maenas now ranges from New York to Newfoundland. In the 1980s, a secondary invasion of European lineages, termed northern haplotypes, occurred in Nova Scotia. Young-of-the-year sampled in 2007 revealed that northern haplotypes were present in low frequencies at several northwestern Atlantic sites as far south as New York; a model predicted an increase in their range and frequency over time. We collected samples in 2013 and 2014 to determine the haplotypes of adult crabs from New York to Nova Scotia. Six haplotypes, encompassing previously identified northern and southern haplotypes, 1 novel southern haplotype, and 1 Scandinavian haplotype, were identified in 275 crabs sampled at 11 sites. Northern haplotypes were only found in Nova Scotia, Beals Island (Maine), and Mount Desert Island (Maine) at a frequency of 60, 8, and 24%, respectively; remaining sites were predominantly composed of a previously identified southern haplotype. Northern haplotypes are limited in adult crabs to Mount Desert Island and north, indicating that the southern haplotype is selectively favored at some point during their life history, recruitment of northern larvae is limited south of Mount Desert Island, or entire year-classes post-2007 were lost. Our results do not support the predictions of an increase in the range and frequency of northern haplotypes, at least among adults, and indicate that a more complete knowledge of factors affecting C. maenas life stages is necessary to understand the current distribution of haplotypes.

  12. Observations of the Crab Nebula with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    The Crab nebula and its associated pulsar have been the target of thousands of observations at all wavelengths over the years. Nevertheless, the system continues to provide new surprises and observational insights into its physical mechanisms. We shall discuss a number of new results we have obtained through Chandra observations. Results include highly detailed pulse-phase spectroscopy which poses challenges to our understanding of pulsar emission mechanisms, a new and precise look at the pulsar geometry, a study of the spatial and temporal variation(s) of the southern jet, and the results of a search for the site of the recently-discovered gamma ]ray flares. We have been using the Chandra X -Ray observatory to monitor the Crab on a monthly cadence since just after the 2010 September gamma ]ray flare. We were fortunate to trigger series of preplanned target of opportunity observations during the 2011 April flare.

  13. Sewage input reduces the consumption of Rhizophora mangle propagules by crabs in a subtropical mangrove system.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Frederike Ricarda; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Moens, Tom; da Cunha Lana, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive and play a major role in global carbon cycling. Their carbon accumulation can be influenced through the consumption of nutrient-poor leaves and propagules by herbivore crabs. Anthropogenic nutrient input from sewage contamination is widespread in these often naturally nutrient-limited ecosystems. We hypothesised that sewage-mediated nutrient input to mangrove stands of Paranaguá Bay (southern Brazil), would alter the nutrient sources available for crabs, e.g. through microphytobenthos increase, and that this would reflect in their feeding behaviour. We predicted that propagules of Rhizophora mangle in contaminated stands would experience lower grazing pressure from their two main local consumers (Ucides cordatus and Goniopsis cruentata). We compared herbivory rates on R. mangle propagules in sewage contaminated and uncontaminated mangrove stands. We found that herbivory rates were significantly lower in contaminated than uncontaminated forests, but this pattern could not be clearly attributed to increased nutrient availability.

  14. Upper Strawn (Desmoinesian) carbonte and clastic depositional environments, southeastern King County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, T.H. )

    1990-02-01

    The Pennsylvanian upper Strawn Group of southeastern King County, Texas, provides a unique setting to study interactions between coeval carbonate and clastic deposition during the Desmoinesian. One of the most perplexing problems is the relationship of massive Pennsylvanian platform carbonates to shallow-water terrigenous clastic sediments. Within the study area, carbonate facies were deposited along the northern edge of the Knox-Baylor trough on the Spur platform, and terrigenous clastics were carried toward the Midland basin through the Knox-Baylor trough. Based on the analysis of subsurface cores, five carbonate lithofacies and four clastic lithofacies were recognized in southeastern King County, Texas. The distribution and geometry of these lithofacies are related to variations in the rate of subsidence in the Knox-Baylor trough, Pennsylvanian tectonics, deltaic progradation, avulsion, and compaction. The platform carbonates within the northern region of southeastern King County record environments within the carbonate platform complex, including middle platform, outer platform, algal mound, and platform margin. The quartzarenitic sandstones within the southern region of southeastern King County occur in a variety of complex depositional geometries, including distributary-bar fingers, lobate deltas, and offshore bars. Cores of these sandstones represent mainly the uppermost portion of the various sandstone bodies. The upper Strawn Group provides an attractive area for exploration geology. Both carbonates and clastics provide excellent reservoirs from a depth of approximately 5,000-6,000 ft. Total production within the area is over 100 million bbl of oil since the early 1940s. Multiple pay zones within a 600-ft interval also provide an added incentive for exploration. Areas within and around the Knox-Baylor trough deserve a detailed study due to these relatively shallow, unexplored, multiple pay zones.

  15. A comparative study of genetic variation between Chinese mitten crab ericheir sinensis and Hepu mitten crab E. hepuensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangdong, Liu; Xiumei, Zhang; Tianxiang, Gao; Dong, Lou

    2002-10-01

    Horizonal starch gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the biochemical genetic structure of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis and Hepu mitten crab E. hepuensis. Sixteen putative enzyme-coding loci were examined for forty-nine chinese mitten crabs and thirty-eight Hepu mitten crabs. Nine loci, AAT-1 *, AAT-2 *, G3PDH *, GPI *, IDHP-1 *, IDHP-2 *, MDH-1 *, MDH-2 * and PGM *, are polymorphic in Chinese mitten crab, and seven, AAT-1 *, AAT-2 *, GPI *, IDHP-1 *, MDH-1 *, MDH-2 * and PGM *, are polymorphic in Hepu mitten crab. The proportion of polymorphic loci and the expected heterozygosity are 0.562 5 and 0.080 3 for Chinese mitten crab, and 0.437 5 and 0.075 4 for Hepu mitten crab. The Nei’s genetic distance between two species is 0.002 4.

  16. 50 CFR 680.6 - Crab economic data report (EDR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab economic data report (EDR). 680.6... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA General § 680.6 Crab economic data report (EDR). Persons participating in the CR crab fisheries...

  17. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab harvesting cooperatives. 680.21... ZONE OFF ALASKA Management Measures § 680.21 Crab harvesting cooperatives. This section governs the formation and operation of crab harvesting cooperatives. The regulations in this section apply only to...

  18. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab harvesting cooperatives. 680.21... ZONE OFF ALASKA Management Measures § 680.21 Crab harvesting cooperatives. This section governs the formation and operation of crab harvesting cooperatives. The regulations in this section apply only to...

  19. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crab harvesting cooperatives. 680.21... ZONE OFF ALASKA Management Measures § 680.21 Crab harvesting cooperatives. This section governs the formation and operation of crab harvesting cooperatives. The regulations in this section apply only to...

  20. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab harvesting cooperatives. 680.21... ZONE OFF ALASKA Management Measures § 680.21 Crab harvesting cooperatives. This section governs the formation and operation of crab harvesting cooperatives. The regulations in this section apply only to...

  1. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 680 - Crab Size Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Size Codes 5 Table 5 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION..., Table 5 Table 5 to Part 680—Crab Size Codes Size code Description 1 Standard or large sized crab or...

  2. The Radio Spectral Index of the Crab Nebula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-20

    We present the results of a new, comprehensive investigation of the radio spectral index of the Crab Nebula supernova remnant. New data at 74 MHz are...thermal material in the Crab Nebula’s filaments. Apart from some possible renewed acceleration occurring in the wisps, the dominant accelerator of relativistic electrons in the Crab Nebula is the pulsar itself.

  3. Growth of the Coconut Crab, Birgus latro, at Its Northernmost Range Estimated from Mark-Recapture Using Individual Identification Based on Carapace Grooving Patterns.

    PubMed

    Oka, Shin-Ichiro; Miyamoto, Kei; Matsuzaki, Shohei; Sato, Taku

    2015-06-01

    Although populations of the coconut crab, Birgus latro, have declined in the tropical Indo-Pacific region, insufficient knowledge exists for the management of this species. We investigated the growth of the northernmost coconut crab population, located at Ocean Expo Park, Okinawa, southern Japan, using a mark-recapture method based on the identification of individual carapace grooving patterns. Of the 485 crabs photographed (264 males, 221 females; 14.3-68.8 mm thoracic length [ThL]), 64 males and 62 females were recaptured (recapture rate 26%). The liberty period ranged from two to 2384 days. The annual data indicated that most crabs molted during winter, except for juveniles and crabs near the maximum size. Using the GROTAG program, the asymptotic ThL (L∞) was estimated as 80.72 and 49.89 mm for males and females, respectively. The Brody growth coefficient (K) was 0.063 for both sexes. The growth curves from these parameters showed that males grew larger than females because of a difference in growth speed. Longevity was estimated at approximately 50 years for both sexes. The growth data obtained in the present study, which are the most precise gathered for the coconut crab to date, can be compared with the results of studies performed in other regions.

  4. Prevalence and sources of Listeria monocytogenes in blue crab (Callinectus sapidus) meat and blue crab processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven blue crab processing plants were sampled to determine the prevalence and sources of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes for two years (2006-2007). A total of 488 raw crab, 624 crab meat, and 624 environmental samples were tested by molecular and culture-based standard methods. Presumptive Liste...

  5. Positive feedback fishery: Population consequences of `crab-tiling' on the green crab Carcinus maenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, E. V.; Thompson, R. C.; Coleman, R. A.; Attrill, M. J.

    2008-11-01

    Collection of marine invertebrates for use as fishing bait is a substantial activity in many parts of the world, often with unknown ecological consequences. As new fisheries develop, it is critical for environmental managers to have high quality ecological information regarding the potential impacts, in order to develop sound management strategies. Crab-tiling is a largely unregulated and un-researched fishery, which operates commercially in the south-west UK. The target species is the green crab Carcinus maenas. Those crabs which are pre-ecdysis and have a carapace width greater than 40 mm are collected to be sold to recreational anglers as bait. Collection involves laying artificial structures on intertidal sandflats and mudflats in estuaries. Crabs use these structures as refugia and are collected during low tide. However, the effect that this fishery has on populations of C. maenas is not known. The impact of crab-tiling on C. maenas population structure was determined by sampling crabs from tiled estuaries and non-tiled estuaries using baited drop-nets. A spatially and temporarily replicated, balanced design was used to compare crab abundance, sizes and sex ratios between estuaries. Typically, fisheries are associated with a reduction in the abundance of the target species. Crab-tiling, however, significantly increased C. maenas abundance. This was thought to be a result of the extra habitat in tiled estuaries, which probably provides protection from natural predators, such as birds and fish. Although crabs were more abundant in tiled estuaries than non-tiled estuaries, the overall percentage of reproductively active crabs in non-tiled estuaries was greater than in tiled estuaries. As with most exploited fisheries stocks, crabs in exploited (tiled) estuaries tended to be smaller, with a modal carapace width of 20-29 mm rather than 30-39 mm in non-tiled estuaries. The sex ratio of crabs however; was not significantly different between tiled and non

  6. Keeping the Dream Alive. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassells, Linda; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents activities for teaching elementary students about Dr. Martin Luther King's life, the civil rights movement, and King's accomplishments. Suggestions include shoebox dioramas, acronym games, oral histories, multicultural awareness activities, pledge cards, community service projects, special commemorative ceremonies, and a book of dreams.…

  7. Martin Luther King's Birthday--A Teacher Resource Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Dr. Martin Luther King's birthday has been made a legal holiday in New Jersey. NJEA believes his work in fighting the injustice of racial discrimination and for the civil rights of all people merits a special day of public recognition. Teachers are encouraged to refer to this guide, developed from a background of information about Dr. King and the…

  8. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Washington State Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, WA. Div. of Instructional Programs and Services.

    The Washington State Resource Guide on Martin Luther King, Jr., supplies a wide variety of materials for use with all grade levels in classroom and assembly presentations in public schools. The goal is for every child enrolled in Washington State schools to learn about Dr. King during the days of January 15 to January 17. Resolutions supporting an…

  9. Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent

    1995-01-01

    Presents a five-lesson, high school instructional unit on the ideas and activities of Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Includes student objectives, step-by-step instructional procedures, and discussion questions. Provides quotations by Thoreau and King. (CFR)

  10. 10. VIEW OF BRUSH ALONG KINGS CANYON ROAD WHICH WILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF BRUSH ALONG KINGS CANYON ROAD WHICH WILL BE REMOVED FOR 10 FEET ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE ROADWAY FOR A DISTANCE OF 50 FEET. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 1.45, FACING NORTH 100 EAST (10ø). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  11. Author! Author! The Gallant Children's Author: Dick King-Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of Dick King-Smith. Born on March 27, 1922 and raised in Gloucestershire, England, he grew up with animals of all kinds. King-Smith was a farmer for twenty years and then became a school teacher. He was also a soldier during wartime, a traveling salesman, shoe factory worker, and television presenter. He…

  12. Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Dream of Peaceful Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Della

    This biography for younger readers depicts the life of Martin Luther King, Jr., the Nobel Peace Prize winner who dedicated himself to the struggle for equal rights for African Americans while embracing the principle of nonviolent resistance. The book presents an overview of the civil rights movement and chronicles King's role as national leader…

  13. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    B. Hall,G. Burt,C. Lingwood,Robert Rimmer,Haipeng Wang; Hall, B.; Burt, G.; Lingwood, C.; Rimmer, Robert; Wang, Haipeng

    2010-05-01

    The planned luminosity upgrade to LHC is likely to necessitate a large crossing angle and a local crab crossing scheme. For this scheme crab cavities align bunches prior to collision. The scheme requires at least four such cavities, a pair on each beam line either side of the interaction point (IP). Upstream cavities initiate rotation and downstream cavities cancel rotation. Cancellation is usually done at a location where the optics has re-aligned the bunch. The beam line separation near the IP necessitates a more compact design than is possible with elliptical cavities such as those used at KEK. The reduction in size must be achieved without an increase in the operational frequency to maintain compatibility with the long bunch length of the LHC. This paper proposes a suitable superconducting variant of a four rod coaxial deflecting cavity (to be phased as a crab cavity), and presents analytical models and simulations of suitable designs.

  14. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    B. Hall, G. Burt, C. Lingwood, R. Rimmer, H. Wang

    2010-05-23

    The planned luminosity upgrade to LHC is likely to necessitate a large crossing angle and a local crab crossing scheme. For this scheme crab cavities align bunches prior to collision. The scheme requires at least four such cavities, a pair on each beam line either side of the interaction point (IP). Upstream cavities initiate rotation and downstream cavities cancel rotation. Cancellation is usually done at a location where the optics has re-aligned the bunch. The beam line separation near the IP necessitates a more compact design than is possible with elliptical cavities such as those used at KEK. The reduction in size must be achieved without an increase in the operational frequency to maintain compatibility with the long bunch length of the LHC. This paper proposes a suitable superconducting variant of a four rod coaxial deflecting cavity (to be phased as a crab cavity), and presents analytical models and simulations of suitable designs.

  15. Spontaneous alternation and locomotor activity in three species of marine crabs: green crab (Carcinus maenas), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and fiddler crab (Uca pugnax).

    PubMed

    Balcı, Fuat; Ramey-Balcı, Patricia A; Ruamps, Perrine

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous alternation refers to the tendency of organisms to explore places that they have least recently visited. Our previous work showed that alternation performance of Carcinus maenas (invasive European green crab) was significantly higher than Callinectes sapidus (native blue crab), and chance level performance (Ramey, P. A., Teichman, E., Oleksiak, J., & Balcı, F. [2009]. Spontaneous alternation in marine crabs: Invasive versus native species. Behavioural Processes, 82, 51-55.). In the current study, we first tested the robustness of these findings in the absence of visual cues, longer test durations, and wider maze dimensions. These manipulations enabled us to determine whether these two crab species relied on the visual cues provided during the spontaneous alternation task in our prior work, and allowed for better characterization of their exploratory activity in the maze. Our original findings were reproduced in the present study under these new task conditions, suggesting no role for visual cues during alternation, and emphasizing the robustness and generalizability of the corresponding interspecies differences in alternation performance. We also tested whether the lower alternation performance of C. sapidus also applied to another native crab species, Uca pugnax (fiddler crab). Spontaneous alternation performance of U. pugnax was significantly lower than C. maenas but indistinguishable from C. sapidus. Finally, we examined whether the potentially higher inherent risk-sensitivity of C. sapidus could have contributed to their lower alternation performance by testing C. maenas in the presence of a larger natural predator (stressor). Higher risk sensitivity presumably induced by the stressor led to locomotor activity patterns that better resembled those of C. sapidus, however the resultant reduction in alternation performance was not statistically significant.

  16. Distortion of Crabbed Bunch Due to the Electron Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2008-05-28

    In order to improve the luminosity, two crab cavities have been installed in KEKB HER and LER [1]. Since there is only one crab cavity in each ring, the crab cavity generates a horizontally titled bunch along the whole ring. The achieved specific luminosity with crabbed bunch is higher, but it is not as high as that from beam-beam simulation [2]. One of the suspicions is the electron cloud. The electron cloud in LER (positron beam) may distort the crabbed bunch and cause the luminosity drop. This note briefly estimates the bunch shape distortion due to the electron cloud in KEKB LER.

  17. The crabs that live where hot and cold collide.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Andrew R

    2015-07-01

    The distribution of Kiwa tyleri with the large male individual in the high-temperature flow (right hand side - fluid flow indicated by shimmering water) and the mixed sex assemblage (left). Note the heavy coat of epibiotic bacteria (grey colouring) on the individual in the hottest section of the vent, as expected from being closest to the sulphide needed to sustain the epibiotic bacteria that this species harvests for its food. Image courtesy of Dr. L. Marsh (Credit: NERC ChEsSo Consortium). In Focus: Marsh, L., Copley, J.T., Tyler, P.A. & Thatje, S. (2015) In hot and cold water: differential life-history traits are key to success in contrasting thermal deep-sea environments. Journal of Animal Ecology, 84, 898-913. Southern Ocean hydrothermal vents juxtapose two extremes - intense food-poor cold and scalding food-rich oases. At these vents, Marsh et al. (2015) found a community of Kiwa (Yeti) crabs that separated themselves along this gradient with the largest males sitting in hot, food-rich waters, while smaller males and females co-occur in an intermediate zone of warmth. However, as their eggs start to develop, females embark away from the vent to the food-poor yet stable cold of the Southern Ocean. This species has found an intriguing way to balance foraging risk and population persistence at the interface of hot and cold.

  18. Green crab (Carcinus maenas) foraging efficiency reduced by fast flows.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elizabeth M; Smee, Delbert L; Trussell, Geoffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Predators can strongly influence prey populations and the structure and function of ecosystems, but these effects can be modified by environmental stress. For example, fluid velocity and turbulence can alter the impact of predators by limiting their environmental range and altering their foraging ability. We investigated how hydrodynamics affected the foraging behavior of the green crab (Carcinus maenas), which is invading marine habitats throughout the world. High flow velocities are known to reduce green crab predation rates and our study sought to identify the mechanisms by which flow affects green crabs. We performed a series of experiments with green crabs to determine: 1) if their ability to find prey was altered by flow in the field, 2) how flow velocity influenced their foraging efficiency, and 3) how flow velocity affected their handling time of prey. In a field study, we caught significantly fewer crabs in baited traps at sites with fast versus slow flows even though crabs were more abundant in high flow areas. This finding suggests that higher velocity flows impair the ability of green crabs to locate prey. In laboratory flume assays, green crabs foraged less efficiently when flow velocity was increased. Moreover, green crabs required significantly more time to consume prey in high velocity flows. Our data indicate that flow can impose significant chemosensory and physical constraints on green crabs. Hence, hydrodynamics may strongly influence the role that green crabs and other predators play in rocky intertidal communities.

  19. Green Crab (Carcinus maenas) Foraging Efficiency Reduced by Fast Flows

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth M.; Smee, Delbert L.; Trussell, Geoffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Predators can strongly influence prey populations and the structure and function of ecosystems, but these effects can be modified by environmental stress. For example, fluid velocity and turbulence can alter the impact of predators by limiting their environmental range and altering their foraging ability. We investigated how hydrodynamics affected the foraging behavior of the green crab (Carcinus maenas), which is invading marine habitats throughout the world. High flow velocities are known to reduce green crab predation rates and our study sought to identify the mechanisms by which flow affects green crabs. We performed a series of experiments with green crabs to determine: 1) if their ability to find prey was altered by flow in the field, 2) how flow velocity influenced their foraging efficiency, and 3) how flow velocity affected their handling time of prey. In a field study, we caught significantly fewer crabs in baited traps at sites with fast versus slow flows even though crabs were more abundant in high flow areas. This finding suggests that higher velocity flows impair the ability of green crabs to locate prey. In laboratory flume assays, green crabs foraged less efficiently when flow velocity was increased. Moreover, green crabs required significantly more time to consume prey in high velocity flows. Our data indicate that flow can impose significant chemosensory and physical constraints on green crabs. Hence, hydrodynamics may strongly influence the role that green crabs and other predators play in rocky intertidal communities. PMID:21687742

  20. Modeling Crabbing Dynamics in an Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Castilla, Alejandro; Morozov, Vasiliy S.; Satogata, Todd J.; Delayen, Jean R.

    2015-09-01

    A local crabbing scheme requires π/2 (mod π) horizontal betatron phase advances from an interaction point (IP) to the crab cavities on each side of it. However, realistic phase advances generated by sets of quadrupoles, or Final Focusing Blocks (FFB), between the crab cavities located in the expanded beam regions and the IP differ slightly from π/2. To understand the effect of crabbing on the beam dynamics in this case, a simple model of the optics of the Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) including local crabbing was developed using linear matrices and then studied numerically over multiple turns (1000 passes) of both electron and proton bunches. The same model was applied to both local and global crabbing schemes to determine the linear-order dynamical effects of the synchro-betatron coupling induced by crabbing.

  1. Evolution of metabolomics profile of crab paste during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daian; Ye, Yangfang; Chen, Juanjuan; Yan, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    Crab paste is regularly consumed by people in the coastal area of China. The fermentation time plays a key role on the quality of crab paste. Here, we investigated the dynamic evolution of metabolite profile of crab paste during fermentation by combined use of NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. Our results showed that crab paste quality was significantly affected by fermentation. The quality change was manifested in the decline of lactate, betaine, taurine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, trigonelline, inosine, adenosine diphosphate, and 2-pyridinemethanol, and in the fluctuation of a range of amino acids as well as in the accumulation of glutamate, sucrose, formate, acetate, trimethylamine, and hypoxanthine. Trimethylamine production and its increased level with fermentation could be considered as a freshness index of crab paste. These results contribute to quality assessment of crab paste and confirm the metabolomics technique as a useful tool to provide important information on the crab paste quality.

  2. Southern California Disasters II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Heather; Todoroff, Amber L.; LeBoeuf, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) has multiple programs in place which primarily utilize Landsat imagery to produce burn severity indices for aiding wildfire damage assessment and mitigation. These indices provide widely-used wildfire damage assessment tools to decision makers. When the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is launched in 2022, the sensor's hyperspectral resolution will support new methods for assessing natural disaster impacts on ecosystems, including wildfire damage to forests. This project used simulated HyspIRI data to study three southern California fires: Aspen, French, and King. Burn severity indices were calculated from the data and the results were quantitatively compared to the comparable USFS products currently in use. The final results from this project illustrate how HyspIRI data may be used in the future to enhance assessment of fire-damaged areas and provide additional monitoring tools for decision support to the USFS and other land management agencies.

  3. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest). Brown Rock Crab, Red Rock Crab, and Yellow Crab

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    distinguished by a slender abdomen and Two other large Cancer species, the Dungeness crab mature females by a broad abdomen that is often hirsute (C. magister...crab lives almost exclusively on animals often remained in one location for scveral days. sandy substrata; consequently the "rock crab" designation is... animals McConaugha, J.R. 1985. Nutrition and larval growth. of the Pacific coast. Dover Publications, New York. Pages 127-154 in A.M. Wenner, ed

  4. 50 CFR 648.263 - Red crab possession and landing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., transport, land, sell, trade, or barter, up to 500 lb (226.8 kg) of red crab, or its equivalent in weight as... restrictions. (a) Vessels issued limited access red crab permits. (1) (2) Conversion to whole crab weight. (i... recovery rate is 64 percent of a whole red crab, which is equal to the weight of red crab half...

  5. 50 CFR 648.263 - Red crab possession and landing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., transport, land, sell, trade, or barter, up to 500 lb (226.8 kg) of red crab, or its equivalent in weight as... restrictions. (a) Vessels issued limited access red crab permits. (1) (2) Conversion to whole crab weight. (i... recovery rate is 64 percent of a whole red crab, which is equal to the weight of red crab half...

  6. From the microworld to King Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvivier, Damien; Wautelet, Michel

    2006-09-01

    The microworld inspires and fascinates many people. The behaviour of small animals in that miniature world differs from that of 'large' ones in the macroworld. For some people, the capacities of small animals are nearly miraculous. If we could imitate these small beings, our capabilities would increase many times over. Unfortunately, this is not reality. The behaviour of small animals is not miraculous. It is the aim of this paper to show why this is the case by taking into account so-called scaling laws, which allow us to deal with some science-fiction stories. These same scaling laws are used to study the morphology of the giant fictional animal King Kong.

  7. Cell scientist to watch - Megan King.

    PubMed

    2016-12-15

    Megan king received her BA in biochemistry from Brandeis University and then pursued a PhD degree in Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics at the University of Pennsylvania working in the group of Mark Lemmon. For her postdoctoral training, Megan chose the laboratory of Günter Blobel at the Rockefeller University in New York. Since starting her own group at the Cell Biology Department at Yale School of Medicine in 2009, Megan was named a Searle Scholar and her work has been recognised with the NIH Director's New Innovator Award in 2011. She is now an Associate professor for Cell Biology and her research focuses on chromatin dynamics, nuclear mechanics and live-cell assay development.

  8. Oil & War: Revisiting M. King Hubbert's predictions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    Oil is, unlike almost any other natural resource on earth, not only finite but also irreversibly consumed. At the same time worldwide data shows that at least at present and for the foreseeable future oil consumption rate is directly proportional to the national standard of living. In 1956 and again in 1962, M. King Hubbert predicted, using a simple model based on the logistic equation, that oil production in the lower 48 United States will follow a bell shaped curve with a production peak around the year 1971 and a production level of ~ 3 billion barrels per year, followed by a rapid decline. While his model approach was ridiculed at the time production data to date reveals a remarkable agreement with this prediction: US oil production did peak in 1971 at a level of 3.2.10 barrels a day and has been declining ever since. M. King Hubbert similarly estimated also the future of oil production worldwide - predicting peak production sometime between 1995-2010 (now!) at a level of 25 to 35 billion barrels per year. Current worldwide production is ~ 27 billion barrels per year. Thus because about half of the oil in earth has already been discovered, the world is destined to face more and bigger conflicts over the control of global supplies. Although many economists and political scientists tend to dismiss the significance of Hubbert's thinking about the finiteness of recoverable oil as well as the consequent implications, it appears that without careful management these conflicts could turn into wars much bigger than in Kuwait in 1991 or in Iraq in 2003. It is therefore imperative for us as earth scientist to try to educate the public and our leaders about the basic geological reality of finite fossil energy resources, and the serious consequences of this fact.

  9. Ocean acidification impairs crab foraging behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Luke F.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Piehler, Michael F.; Westfield, Isaac; Ries, Justin B.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic elevation of atmospheric CO2 is driving global-scale ocean acidification, which consequently influences calcification rates of many marine invertebrates and potentially alters their susceptibility to predation. Ocean acidification may also impair an organism's ability to process environmental and biological cues. These counteracting impacts make it challenging to predict how acidification will alter species interactions and community structure. To examine effects of acidification on consumptive and behavioural interactions between mud crabs (Panopeus herbstii) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica), oysters were reared with and without caged crabs for 71 days at three pCO2 levels. During subsequent predation trials, acidification reduced prey consumption, handling time and duration of unsuccessful predation attempt. These negative effects of ocean acidification on crab foraging behaviour more than offset any benefit to crabs resulting from a reduction in the net rate of oyster calcification. These findings reveal that efforts to evaluate how acidification will alter marine food webs should include quantifying impacts on both calcification rates and animal behaviour. PMID:26108629

  10. Ocean acidification impairs crab foraging behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Luke F; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Piehler, Michael F; Westfield, Isaac; Ries, Justin B

    2015-07-07

    Anthropogenic elevation of atmospheric CO2 is driving global-scale ocean acidification, which consequently influences calcification rates of many marine invertebrates and potentially alters their susceptibility to predation. Ocean acidification may also impair an organism's ability to process environmental and biological cues. These counteracting impacts make it challenging to predict how acidification will alter species interactions and community structure. To examine effects of acidification on consumptive and behavioural interactions between mud crabs (Panopeus herbstii) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica), oysters were reared with and without caged crabs for 71 days at three pCO2 levels. During subsequent predation trials, acidification reduced prey consumption, handling time and duration of unsuccessful predation attempt. These negative effects of ocean acidification on crab foraging behaviour more than offset any benefit to crabs resulting from a reduction in the net rate of oyster calcification. These findings reveal that efforts to evaluate how acidification will alter marine food webs should include quantifying impacts on both calcification rates and animal behaviour.

  11. A HYPERSPECTRAL VIEW OF THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Charlebois, M.; Drissen, L.; Bernier, A.-P.; Grandmont, F.; Binette, L. E-mail: ldrissen@phy.ulaval.c

    2010-05-15

    We have obtained spatially resolved spectra of the Crab nebula in the spectral ranges 450-520 nm and 650-680 nm, encompassing the H{beta}, [O III] {lambda}4959, {lambda}5007, H{alpha}, [N II] {lambda}6548, {lambda}6584, and [S II] {lambda}6717, {lambda}6731 emission lines, with the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer SpIOMM at the Observatoire du Mont-Megantic's 1.6 m telescope. We first compare our data with published observations obtained either from a Fabry-Perot interferometer or from a long-slit spectrograph. Using a spectral deconvolution technique similar to the one developed by Cadez et al., we identify and resolve multiple emission lines separated by large Doppler shifts and contained within the rapidly expanding filamentary structure of the Crab. This allows us to measure important line ratios, such as [N II]/H{alpha}, [S II]/H{alpha}, and [S II] {lambda}6717 /[S II] {lambda}6731 of individual filaments, providing a new insight on the SE-NW asymmetry in the Crab. From our analysis of the spatial distribution of the electronic density and of the respective shocked versus photoionized gas components, we deduce that the skin-less NW region must have evolved faster than the rest of the nebula. Assuming a very simple expansion model for the ejecta material, our data provide us with a complete tridimensional view of the Crab.

  12. The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB)

    SciTech Connect

    Spiga, D.; Cinquilli, M.; Servoli, L.; Lacaprara, S.; Fanzago, F.; Dorigo, A.; Merlo, M.; Farina, F.; Fanfani, A.; Codispoti, G.; Bacchi, W.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U /CERN /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Trieste /Fermilab

    2008-01-22

    The CMS experiment will produce several Pbytes of data every year, to be distributed over many computing centers geographically distributed in different countries. Analysis of this data will be also performed in a distributed way, using grid infrastructure. CRAB (CMS Remote Analysis Builder) is a specific tool, designed and developed by the CMS collaboration, that allows a transparent access to distributed data to end physicist. Very limited knowledge of underlying technicalities are required to the user. CRAB interacts with the local user environment, the CMS Data Management services and with the Grid middleware. It is able to use WLCG, gLite and OSG middleware. CRAB has been in production and in routine use by end-users since Spring 2004. It has been extensively used in studies to prepare the Physics Technical Design Report (PTDR) and in the analysis of reconstructed event samples generated during the Computing Software and Analysis Challenge (CSA06). This involved generating thousands of jobs per day at peak rates. In this paper we discuss the current implementation of CRAB, the experience with using it in production and the plans to improve it in the immediate future.

  13. Search for excess showers from Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirov, I. N.; Stamenov, J. N.; Ushev, S. Z.; Janminchev, V. D.; Aseikin, V. S.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Nikolskaja, N. M.; Yakovlev, V. I.; Morozov, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    The arrival directions of muon poor showers registrated in the Tien Shan experiment during an effective running time about I,8.IO(4)h were analyzed. It is shown that there is a significant excess of these showers coming the direction of Crab Nebula.

  14. Corneal laceration caused by river crab

    PubMed Central

    Vinuthinee, Naidu; Azreen-Redzal, Anuar; Juanarita, Jaafar; Zunaina, Embong

    2015-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy presented with right eye pain associated with tearing and photophobia of 1-day duration. He gave a history of playing with a river crab when suddenly the crab clamped his fingers. He attempted to fling the crab off, but the crab flew and hit his right eye. Ocular examination revealed a right eye corneal ulcer with clumps of fibrin located beneath the corneal ulcer and 1.6 mm level of hypopyon. At presentation, the Seidel test was negative, with a deep anterior chamber. Culture from the corneal scrapping specimen grew Citrobacter diversus and Proteus vulgaris, and the boy was treated with topical gentamicin and ceftazidime eyedrops. Fibrin clumps beneath the corneal ulcer subsequently dislodged, and revealed a full-thickness corneal laceration wound with a positive Seidel test and shallow anterior chamber. The patient underwent emergency corneal toileting and suturing. Postoperatively, he was treated with oral ciprofloxacin 250 mg 12-hourly for 1 week, topical gentamicin, ceftazidime, and dexamethasone eyedrops for 4 weeks. Right eye vision improved to 6/9 and 6/6 with pinhole at the 2-week follow-up following corneal suture removal. PMID:25678769

  15. HUBBLE CAPTURES DYNAMICS OF CRAB NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images of the remnant of a tremendous stellar explosion is giving astronomers a remarkable look at the dynamic relationship between the tiny Crab Pulsar and the vast nebula that it powers. This picture shows a Hubble Space Telescope image of the inner parts of the Crab. The pulsar itself is visible as the left of the pair of stars near the center of the frame. Surrounding the pulsar is a complex of sharp knots and wisp-like features. This image is one of a sequence of Hubble images taken over the course of several months. This sequence shows that the inner part of the Crab Nebula is far more dynamic than previously understood. The Crab literally 'changes it stripes' every few days as these wisps stream away from the pulsar at half the speed of light. The Hubble Space Telescope photo was taken Nov. 5, 1995 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 at a wavelength of around 550 nanometers, in the middle of the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  16. Power coupler for the ILC crab cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; Jenkins, R.; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.A.; Bellantoni, Leo; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The ILC crab cavity will require the design of an appropriate power coupler. The beam-loading in dipole mode cavities is considerably more variable than accelerating cavities, hence simulations have been performed to establish the required external Q. Simulations of a suitable coupler were then performed and were verified using a normal conducting prototype with variable coupler tips.

  17. A Hyperspectral View of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlebois, M.; Drissen, L.; Bernier, A.-P.; Grandmont, F.; Binette, L.

    2010-05-01

    We have obtained spatially resolved spectra of the Crab nebula in the spectral ranges 450-520 nm and 650-680 nm, encompassing the Hβ, [O III] λ4959, λ5007, Hα, [N II] λ6548, λ6584, and [S II] λ6717, λ6731 emission lines, with the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer SpIOMM at the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic's 1.6 m telescope. We first compare our data with published observations obtained either from a Fabry-Perot interferometer or from a long-slit spectrograph. Using a spectral deconvolution technique similar to the one developed by Čadež et al., we identify and resolve multiple emission lines separated by large Doppler shifts and contained within the rapidly expanding filamentary structure of the Crab. This allows us to measure important line ratios, such as [N II]/Hα, [S II]/Hα, and [S II] λ6717 /[S II] λ6731 of individual filaments, providing a new insight on the SE-NW asymmetry in the Crab. From our analysis of the spatial distribution of the electronic density and of the respective shocked versus photoionized gas components, we deduce that the skin-less NW region must have evolved faster than the rest of the nebula. Assuming a very simple expansion model for the ejecta material, our data provide us with a complete tridimensional view of the Crab.

  18. Spiralothelphusa gibberosa, a new freshwater crab (Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from Thrissur district, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Pati, S K; Devi, A R Sudha

    2015-05-27

    A new species of freshwater crab, Spiralothelphusa gibberosa n. sp. is described from rice fields near Kizhoor in Thrissur district of Kerala in southern India. The new species is easily differentiated from its congeners by its first male pleopod (G1), which has a long, less strongly twisted terminal segment and distal portion of subterminal segment in addition to a setose hump on the outer margin of the non-twisted portion. Key to the species of the genus Spiralothelphusa Bott, 1968, is provided. We recognized S. wuellerstorfi (Heller, 1862), as a new record to Maharashtra based on specimens wrongly identified as S. hydrodroma (Herbst, 1794), by Pati & Sharma (2014).

  19. New Results from an Old Friend: The Crab Nebula and its Pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    The Crab nebula and its associated pulsar have been the target of thousands of observations at all wavelengths over the years. Nevertheless, the system continues to provide new surprises and observational insights into its physical mechanisms. We shall discuss a number of new results we have obtained through Chandra observations. Results include highly detailed pulse-phase spectroscopy which poses challenges to our understanding of pulsar emission mechanisms, a new and precise look at the pulsar geometry, the results of a search for the site of the recently-discovered gamma-ray flares, and a study of the spatial and temporal variation(s) of the southern jet.

  20. Health evaluation of western arctic King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Cheryl A.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Powell, Abby N.

    2010-01-01

    The western arctic population of King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis) has declined by >50% in recent years. A health assessment was conducted for adult King Eiders breeding on the north slope of Alaska, USA, to evaluate body condition (n=90, 2002–2006) and baseline biochemical and hematologic values (n=20–30, 2005–2006). Body condition for males and females was excellent. Total protein, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and globulin were significantly higher in females than in males, likely because of differences in reproductive physiology. These baseline health data can be used to promote conservation of King Eiders and other closely related species of concern.

  1. Burrow surveillance in fiddler crabs. I. Description of behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hemmi, Jan M; Zeil, J

    2003-11-01

    When defending resources, animals need to reliably detect and identify potential competitors. Animals that live at high population densities would be expected to be efficient in this aspect of resource defence since the time lost in false alarms could be substantial and the failure of identifying a competitor could be very costly. How does an animal decide whether another animal is or is not a threat to a resource or a territory? Fiddler crabs [Uca vomeris (McNeill)] operate from burrows that they guard and defend vigorously against other crabs. The crabs live in dense populations, with many animals inhabiting one square metre of mudflat. We describe here the behavioural responses of foraging crabs to repeated presentations of small crab-like dummies approaching their burrows. We explore the relationship between the probability and the timing of burrow defence responses, the crab's behavioural state, and the visual appearance and direction of approach of the dummies. We find that the probability of response of resident crabs is independent of the relative position of crab and dummy but is strongly affected by the dummy's position and movement direction relative to the crab's burrow. The critical stimuli are the dummy's distance from the crab's burrow and whether the dummy is moving towards the burrow or not. The response distance (dummy-burrow distance) increases with the crab's own distance from the burrow, indicating that the crabs modify their assessment of threat depending on their own distance away from the burrow. Differences in dummy size and brightness do not affect the probability or the timing of the response. We discuss these results in the context of fiddler crab social life and, in a companion paper, identify the visual and non-visual cues involved in burrow defence.

  2. 2. Photocopy of photograph (from Moses King, Philadelphia and Notable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (from Moses King, Philadelphia and Notable Philadelphians , 1902, p. 260) OBLIQUE VIEW, SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) AND EAST(SIDE) ELEVATIONS - Old U.S. Mint, Chestnut & Juniper Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Mental disorder that afflicted King David the Great.

    PubMed

    Ben-Noun, Liubov

    2004-12-01

    This research uses the tools of modern medical science to study ancient descriptions of the symptoms suffered by King David. Biblical texts were examined, with a close study of verses relating to the mental disorder that afflicted King David, the second and greatest King of Israel, who ruled more than 3525 years ago. We include no commentaries, but refer only to the words of the Bible exactly as written. Evaluation of the passages referring to King David indicated that he was afflicted by some mental disorder, and among the many possibilities major depression, dysthymia and minor depression are the most likely. Of these diagnoses, major depression seems the most acceptable. This report suggests that the roots of contemporary psychiatry can be traced back to Biblical times.

  4. 78 FR 5247 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... equality. They braved billy clubs and bomb threats, dogs and fire hoses. For their courage and sacrifice... the full equality and opportunity guaranteed by our founding documents. Today, Dr. King's...

  5. 3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT ROOM (WHERE MARTIN LUTHER KING MADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT ROOM (WHERE MARTIN LUTHER KING MADE PLANS FOR HIS MOVEMENT) - Penn School Historic District, Arnett House, SC Route 37, 1 mile South of Frogmore, St. Helena Island, Frogmore, Beaufort County, SC

  6. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  7. EPA Releases Internal Report on Gold King Mine Response

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released the findings of an internal review of the agency's response to the Gold King Mine incident. Led by five EPA personnel from multiple EPA regions and Headquarters, the reviewer

  8. Ghost fishing activity in derelict blue crab traps in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Julie A; Alford, Amy B

    2014-02-15

    Derelict crab traps impact the coastal ecosystem through continued catch of target species and species of conservation, economic, or recreational importance. During volunteer-supported crab trap cleanups in 2012 and 2013, we quantified ghost fishing activity in derelict crab traps in coastal Louisiana through a citizen scientist program. Volunteers removed 3607 derelict traps during these events, and over 65% of traps analyzed by citizen scientists were actively ghost fishing. Additionally, volunteers identified 19 species enmeshed in derelict traps, including a combination of fresh and saltwater species. We also detected a significant difference in the number of blue crab in actively ghost fishing derelict traps across removal locations with estimated catches varying between 2.4 and 3.5 crabs/trap. Our instantaneous estimates of ghost fishing activity are greater than those previously thought in Louisiana, further justifying current derelict crab trap prevention and removal extension and outreach programs in Louisiana and throughout the Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Accumulation and depuration of pectenotoxins in brown crab Cancer pagurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaoxin

    2009-06-01

    Pectenotoxins (PTXs) are a group of marine algal toxins. In this study, the accumulation and depuration of pectenotoxins in brown crab Cancer pagurus were investigated. Crabs were fed with toxic blue mussels Mytilus edulis for 21 days and then depurated for 42 days. Toxins were extracted with methanol from the digestive glands of contaminated crabs, uncontaminated crabs (control group) and from blue mussels for comparison. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The concentrations of PTX-2, PTX-2 SA, 7- epi-PTX-2 SA, and PTX-12 were analyzed in two batches of toxic blue mussels and the crabs. A one-compartment model was applied to describe the depuration of PTXs. The half-life of PTXs was estimated to be 6-7.5 days. After depuration for 42 days, the amount of PTXs measured in the crab digestive glands was less than 1 μg/kg.

  10. Predatory blue crabs induce stronger nonconsumptive effects in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica than scavenging blue crabs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Miranda M.; Smee, Delbert L.

    2017-01-01

    By influencing critical prey traits such as foraging or habitat selection, predators can affect entire ecosystems, but the nature of cues that trigger prey reactions to predators are not well understood. Predators may scavenge to supplement their energetic needs and scavenging frequency may vary among individuals within a species due to preferences and prey availability. Yet prey reactions to consumers that are primarily scavengers versus those that are active foragers have not been investigated, even though variation in prey reactions to scavengers or predators might influence cascading nonconsumptive effects in food webs. Oysters Crassostrea virginica react to crab predators by growing stronger shells. We exposed oysters to exudates from crabs fed live oysters or fed aged oyster tissue to simulate scavenging, and to controls without crab cues. Oysters grew stronger shells when exposed to either crab exudate, but their shells were significantly stronger when crabs were fed live oysters. The stronger response to predators than scavengers could be due to inherent differences in diet cues representative of reduced risk in the presence of scavengers or to degradation of conspecific alarm cues in aged treatments, which may mask risk from potential predators subsisting by scavenging. PMID:28265512

  11. Status of LHC crab activity simulations and beam studies

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga,R.; Assman, R.; Barranco, J.; Barranco, J.; Calaga, R.; Caspers, F.; Ciapala, E.; De-Maria, R.; Koutchouk, J. P.; Linnecar, T.; Metral, E.; Morita, A.; Solyak, N.; Sun, Y.; Tomas, R.; Tuckmantel, J.; Weiler, T.; Zimmermann, F.

    2009-05-04

    The LHC crab cavity program is advancing rapidly towards a first prototype which is anticipated to be tested during the early stages of the LHC phase I upgrade and commissioning. The general project status and some aspects related to crab optics, collimation, aperture constraints, impedances, noise effects. beam transparency and machine protection critical for a safe and robust operation of LHC beams with crab cavities are addressed here.

  12. Natural cholinesterase inhibitors from Myristica cinnamomea King.

    PubMed

    Abdul Wahab, Siti Mariam; Sivasothy, Yasodha; Liew, Sook Yee; Litaudon, Marc; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-08-01

    A new acylphenol, malabaricone E (1) together with the known malabaricones A-C (2-4), maingayones A and B (5 and 6) and maingayic acid B (7) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruits of Myristica cinnamomea King. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Compounds 3 (1.84±0.19 and 1.76±0.21μM, respectively) and 4 (1.94±0.27 and 2.80±0.49μM, respectively) were identified as dual inhibitors, with almost equal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibiting potentials. The Lineweaver-Burk plots of compounds 3 and 4 indicated that they were mixed-mode inhibitors. Based on the molecular docking studies, compounds 3 and 4 interacted with the peripheral anionic site (PAS), the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole of the AChE. As for the BChE, while compound 3 interacted with the PAS, the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole, compound 4 only interacted with the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole.

  13. A 150-million-year-old crab larva and its implications for the early rise of brachyuran crabs.

    PubMed

    Haug, Joachim T; Martin, Joel W; Haug, Carolin

    2015-03-09

    True crabs (Brachyura) are the most successful group of decapod crustaceans. This success is most likely coupled to their life history, including two specialised larval forms, zoea and megalopa. The group is comparably young, starting to diversify only about 100 million years ago (mya), with a dramatic increase in species richness beginning approximately 50 mya. Early evolution of crabs is still very incompletely known. Here, we report a fossil crab larva, 150 mya, documented with up-to-date imaging techniques. It is only the second find of any fossil crab larva, but the first complete one, the first megalopa, and the oldest one (other fossil ca. 110 mya). Despite its age, the new fossil possesses a very modern morphology, being indistinguishable from many extant crab larvae. Hence, modern morphologies must have been present significantly earlier than formerly anticipated. We briefly discuss the impact of this find on our understanding of early crab evolution.

  14. Crab Crossing Schemes and Studies for Electron Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ahmed, Y. Derbenev, V. Morozov, A. Castilla, G.A. Krafft, B. Yunn, Y. Zhang, J.R. Delayen

    2011-09-01

    This report shows our progress in crab crossing consideration for future electron-ion collider envisioned at JLab. In this design phase, we are evaluating two crabbing schemes viz., the deflecting and dispersive. The mathematical formulations and lattice design for these schemes are discussed in this paper. Numerical simulations involving particle tracking through a realistic deflecting RF cavity and optics illustrate the desired crab tilt of 25 mrad for 1.35 MV. Evolution of beam propagation are shown which provides the physical insight of the crabbing phenomenon.

  15. Prevalence, characterization and sources of Listeria monocytogenes in blue crab (Callinectus sapidus) meat and blue crab processing plants.

    PubMed

    Pagadala, Sivaranjani; Parveen, Salina; Rippen, Thomas; Luchansky, John B; Call, Jeffrey E; Tamplin, Mark L; Porto-Fett, Anna C S

    2012-09-01

    Seven blue crab processing plants were sampled to determine the prevalence and sources of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes for two years (2006-2007). A total of 488 raw crabs, 624 cooked crab meat (crab meat) and 624 environmental samples were tested by standard methods. Presumptive Listeria spp. were isolated from 19.5% of raw crabs, 10.8% of crab meat, and 69.5% of environmental samples. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 4.5% of raw crabs, 0.2% of crab meat, and 2.1% of environmental samples. Ninety-seven percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the ten antibiotics tested. Eight different serotypes were found among 76 L. monocytogenes isolates tested with the most common being 4b, 1/2b and 1/2a. Automated EcoRI ribotyping differentiated 11 ribotypes among the 106 L. monocytogenes isolates. Based on ribotyping analysis, the distribution of the ribotypes in each processing plant had a unique contamination pattern. A total of 92 ApaI and 88 AscI pulsotypes among the 106 L. monocytogenes isolates were found and distinct pulsotypes were observed in raw crab, crab meat and environmental samples. Ribotypes and serotypes recovered from crab processing plants included subtypes that have been associated with listeriosis cases in other food outbreaks. Our findings suggest that molecular methods may provide critical information about sources of L. monocytogenes in crab processing plants and will augment efforts to improve food safety control strategies such as targeting specific sources of contamination and use of aggressive detergents prior to sanitizing.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in lichens and mosses from King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Yogui, G T; Sericano, J L

    2008-11-01

    Lichens and mosses are considered good indicators of atmospheric pollution as they absorb contaminants directly from the air. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are man-made chemicals used as flame retardants in materials such as plastics, textiles, electronic circuitry and furnishing foam. Few studies have investigated PBDEs in the southern hemisphere including Antarctica. This paper presents the first evaluation of PBDEs in lichens (Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra) and mosses (Sanionia uncinata) collected at King George Island, maritime Antarctica. PBDEs were detected at low levels in all lichen and moss samples. On average, the levels of PBDEs in mosses (818 pg g(-1) dry weight; 101 ng g(-1) lipid) were significantly higher than in lichens (168 pg g(-1) dry weight; 9.11 ng g(-1) lipid). This difference is most likely due to the differing mechanisms of PBDEs uptake from the atmosphere which are controlled by a number of chemical, environmental and plant variables. Contaminant concentrations were not statistically different at sites close to and distant from human facilities. Long-range atmospheric transport is believed to be the primary source of PBDEs to King George Island. The pattern of congeners in plants resembles those found in commercial mixtures of Penta-BDE. In addition, the presence of BDE-183 in lichens and mosses suggests that other technical formulations (e.g., Octa-BDE and Deca-BDE) have reached Antarctica. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Antarctic vegetation as a sink for anthropogenic organic pollutants.

  17. King penguin demography since the last glaciation inferred from genome-wide data

    PubMed Central

    Trucchi, Emiliano; Gratton, Paolo; Whittington, Jason D.; Cristofari, Robin; Le Maho, Yvon; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Le Bohec, Céline

    2014-01-01

    How natural climate cycles, such as past glacial/interglacial patterns, have shaped species distributions at the high-latitude regions of the Southern Hemisphere is still largely unclear. Here, we show how the post-glacial warming following the Last Glacial Maximum (ca 18 000 years ago), allowed the (re)colonization of the fragmented sub-Antarctic habitat by an upper-level marine predator, the king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus. Using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing and standard mitochondrial data, we tested the behaviour of subsets of anonymous nuclear loci in inferring past demography through coalescent-based and allele frequency spectrum analyses. Our results show that the king penguin population breeding on Crozet archipelago steeply increased in size, closely following the Holocene warming recorded in the Epica Dome C ice core. The following population growth can be explained by a threshold model in which the ecological requirements of this species (year-round ice-free habitat for breeding and access to a major source of food such as the Antarctic Polar Front) were met on Crozet soon after the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic transition. PMID:24920481

  18. King penguin demography since the last glaciation inferred from genome-wide data.

    PubMed

    Trucchi, Emiliano; Gratton, Paolo; Whittington, Jason D; Cristofari, Robin; Le Maho, Yvon; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Le Bohec, Céline

    2014-07-22

    How natural climate cycles, such as past glacial/interglacial patterns, have shaped species distributions at the high-latitude regions of the Southern Hemisphere is still largely unclear. Here, we show how the post-glacial warming following the Last Glacial Maximum (ca 18 000 years ago), allowed the (re)colonization of the fragmented sub-Antarctic habitat by an upper-level marine predator, the king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus. Using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing and standard mitochondrial data, we tested the behaviour of subsets of anonymous nuclear loci in inferring past demography through coalescent-based and allele frequency spectrum analyses. Our results show that the king penguin population breeding on Crozet archipelago steeply increased in size, closely following the Holocene warming recorded in the Epica Dome C ice core. The following population growth can be explained by a threshold model in which the ecological requirements of this species (year-round ice-free habitat for breeding and access to a major source of food such as the Antarctic Polar Front) were met on Crozet soon after the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic transition.

  19. Ohanin, a novel protein from king cobra venom: its cDNA and genomic organization.

    PubMed

    Pung, Yuh Fen; Kumar, Sanjeed Vijaya; Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Fry, Bryan G; Kumar, Prakash P; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2006-04-26

    Ohanin, from king cobra venom, is a novel protein which induces hypolocomotion and hyperalgesia in mice [Pung, Y.F., Wong, P.T.H., Kumar, P.P., Hodgson W.C., Kini, R.M., 2005. Ohanin, a novel protein from king cobra venom induces hypolocomotion and hyperalgesia in mice. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 13137-13147.]. It is weakly similar to PRY-SPRY domains (B30.2-like domain). Here we report the complete cDNA and genomic organization of ohanin. Interestingly, cDNA sequence does not show significant sequence similarity to any known sequences, including those of B30.2-like domain-containing proteins. Its full-length cDNA sequence of 1558 bp encodes for prepro-ohanin with a propeptide segment at the C-terminal. Ohanin is the first member of a new subfamily of proteins containing B30.2-like domain with short N-terminal segment. We named this subfamily as vespryns. There are two mRNA subtypes differing in their 5'-untranslated regions. Southern hybridization study shows that ohanin is encoded by a single gene. Its genomic sequence is 7086 bp with five exons and four introns, and the two types of mRNAs are generated by alternative splicing of exon 2. Our results indicate that ohanin and vespryns may have evolved from the same ancestral gene as B30.2 domain.

  20. Compact Superconducting Crabbing and Deflecting Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    De Silva, Payagalage Subashini Uddika

    2012-09-01

    Recently, new geometries for superconducting crabbing and deflecting cavities have been developed that have significantly improved properties over those the standard TM{sub 110} cavities. They are smaller, have low surface fields, high shunt impedance and, more importantly for some of them, no lower-order-mode with a well-separated fundamental mode. This talk will present the status of the development of these cavities.

  1. Pulsating Radio Sources near the Crab Nebula.

    PubMed

    Staelin, D H; Reifenstein, E C

    1968-12-27

    Two new pulsating radio sources, designated NP 0527 and NP 0532, were found near the Crab Nebula and could be coincident with it. Both sources are sporadic, and no periodicities are evident. The pulse dispersions indicate that 1.58 +/- 0.03 and 1.74 +/- 0.02 x 10(20) electrons per square centimeter lie in the direction of NP 0527 and NP 0532, respectively.

  2. Multiband observations of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassilchtchikov, A. M.; Bykov, A. M.; Castelletti, G. M.; Dubner, G. M.; Kargaltsev, O. Yu; Pavlov, G. G.

    2017-01-01

    Results of simultaneous imaging of the Crab Nebula in the radio (JVLA), optical (HST), and X-ray (Chandra) bands are presented. The images show a variety of small-scale structures, including wisps mainly located to the north-west of the pulsar and knots forming a ring-like structure associated with the termination shock of the pulsar wind. The locations of the structures in different bands do not coincide with each other.

  3. Status of the ILC Crab Cavity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.; Bellantoni, L.; Grimm, T.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2011-10-20

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will require two dipole cavities to 'crab' the electron and positron bunches prior to their collision. It is proposed to use two 9 cell SCRF dipole cavities operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz, with a transverse gradient of 3.8MV/m in order to provide the required transverse kick. Extensive numerical modelling of this cavity and its couplers has been performed. Aluminium prototypes have been manufactured and tested to measure the RF properties of the cavity and couplers. In addition single cell niobium prototypes have been manufactured and tested in a vertical cryostat. The International Collider (ILC) [1] collides bunches of electrons and positrons at a crossing angle of 14 mrad. The angle between these bunches causes a loss in luminosity due to geometric effects [2]. The luminosity lost from this geometric effect can be recovered by rotating the bunches into alignment prior to collision. One possible method of rotating the bunches is to use a crab cavity [3]. A crab cavity is a transverse defecting cavity, where the phase of the cavity is such that the head and tail of the bunch receive equal and opposite kicks. As the bunches are only 500 nm wide in the horizontal plane, the cavity phase must be strictly controlled to avoid the bunch centre being deflected too much. In order to keep the phase stability within the required limits it is required that the cavity be superconducting to avoid thermal effects in both the cavity and its RF source. At the location of the crab cavity in the ILC there is only 23 cm separation between the centre of the cavity and the extraction line, hence the cavity must be small enough to fit in this space. This, along with the difficulty of making high frequency SRF components, set the frequency of the cavity to 3.9 GHz.

  4. CMS distributed data analysis with CRAB3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascheroni, M.; Balcas, J.; Belforte, S.; Bockelman, B. P.; Hernandez, J. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Konstantinov, P. B.; Silva, J. M. D.; Ali, M. A. B. M.; Melo, A. M.; Riahi, H.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Yusli, M. N. B.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A. E.; Vaandering, E.

    2015-12-01

    The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB) is a distributed workflow management tool which facilitates analysis tasks by isolating users from the technical details of the Grid infrastructure. Throughout LHC Run 1, CRAB has been successfully employed by an average of 350 distinct users each week executing about 200,000 jobs per day. CRAB has been significantly upgraded in order to face the new challenges posed by LHC Run 2. Components of the new system include 1) a lightweight client, 2) a central primary server which communicates with the clients through a REST interface, 3) secondary servers which manage user analysis tasks and submit jobs to the CMS resource provisioning system, and 4) a central service to asynchronously move user data from temporary storage in the execution site to the desired storage location. The new system improves the robustness, scalability and sustainability of the service. Here we provide an overview of the new system, operation, and user support, report on its current status, and identify lessons learned from the commissioning phase and production roll-out.

  5. CRAB: Distributed analysis tool for CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Leonardo; CMS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    CMS has a distributed computing model, based on a hierarchy of tiered regional computing centers and adopts a data driven model for the end user analysis. This model foresees that jobs are submitted to the analysis resources where data are hosted. The increasing complexity of the whole computing infrastructure makes the simple analysis work flow more and more complicated for the end user. CMS has developed and deployed a dedicated tool named CRAB (CMS Remote Analysis Builder) in order to guarantee the physicists an efficient access to the distributed data whilst hiding the underlying complexity. This tool is used by CMS to enable the running of physics analysis jobs in a transparent manner over data distributed across sites. It factorizes out the interaction with the underlying batch farms, grid infrastructure and CMS data management tools, allowing the user to deal only with a simple and intuitive interface. We present the CRAB architecture, as well as the current status and lessons learnt in deploying this tool for use by the CMS collaboration. We also present the future development of the CRAB system.

  6. CMS distributed data analysis with CRAB3

    SciTech Connect

    Mascheroni, M.; Balcas, J.; Belforte, S.; Bockelman, B. P.; Hernandez, J. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Konstantinov, P. B.; Silva, J. M. D.; Ali, M. A. B. M.; Melo, A. M.; Riahi, H.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Yusli, M. N. B.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A. E.; Vaandering, E.

    2015-12-23

    The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB) is a distributed workflow management tool which facilitates analysis tasks by isolating users from the technical details of the Grid infrastructure. Throughout LHC Run 1, CRAB has been successfully employed by an average of 350 distinct users each week executing about 200,000 jobs per day.CRAB has been significantly upgraded in order to face the new challenges posed by LHC Run 2. Components of the new system include 1) a lightweight client, 2) a central primary server which communicates with the clients through a REST interface, 3) secondary servers which manage user analysis tasks and submit jobs to the CMS resource provisioning system, and 4) a central service to asynchronously move user data from temporary storage in the execution site to the desired storage location. Furthermore, the new system improves the robustness, scalability and sustainability of the service.Here we provide an overview of the new system, operation, and user support, report on its current status, and identify lessons learned from the commissioning phase and production roll-out.

  7. CMS distributed data analysis with CRAB3

    DOE PAGES

    Mascheroni, M.; Balcas, J.; Belforte, S.; ...

    2015-12-23

    The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB) is a distributed workflow management tool which facilitates analysis tasks by isolating users from the technical details of the Grid infrastructure. Throughout LHC Run 1, CRAB has been successfully employed by an average of 350 distinct users each week executing about 200,000 jobs per day.CRAB has been significantly upgraded in order to face the new challenges posed by LHC Run 2. Components of the new system include 1) a lightweight client, 2) a central primary server which communicates with the clients through a REST interface, 3) secondary servers which manage user analysis tasks andmore » submit jobs to the CMS resource provisioning system, and 4) a central service to asynchronously move user data from temporary storage in the execution site to the desired storage location. Furthermore, the new system improves the robustness, scalability and sustainability of the service.Here we provide an overview of the new system, operation, and user support, report on its current status, and identify lessons learned from the commissioning phase and production roll-out.« less

  8. The inner knot of the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Komissarov, Serguei S.; Porth, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    We model the inner knot of the Crab nebula as a synchrotron emission coming from the non-spherical MHD termination shock of relativistic pulsar wind. The post-shock flow is mildly relativistic; as a result the Doppler beaming has a strong impact on the shock appearance. The model can reproduce the knot location, size, elongation, brightness distribution, luminosity and polarization provided the effective magnetization of the section of the pulsar wind producing the knot is low, σ ≤ 1. In the striped wind model, this implies that the striped zone is rather wide, with the magnetic inclination angle of the Crab pulsar ≥45°; this agrees with the previous model-dependent estimate based on the gamma-ray emission of the pulsar. We conclude that the tiny knot is indeed a bright spot on the surface of a quasi-stationary magnetic relativistic shock and that this shock is a site of efficient particle acceleration. On the other hand, the deduced low magnetization of the knot plasma implies that this is an unlikely site for the Crab's gamma-ray flares, if they are related to the fast relativistic magnetic reconnection events.

  9. The Porcelain Crab Transcriptome and PCAD, the Porcelain Crab Microarray and Sequence Database

    SciTech Connect

    Tagmount, Abderrahmane; Wang, Mei; Lindquist, Erika; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Teranishi, Kristen S.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Wong, Mike; Stillman, Jonathon H.

    2010-01-27

    Background: With the emergence of a completed genome sequence of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia pulex, construction of genomic-scale sequence databases for additional crustacean sequences are important for comparative genomics and annotation. Porcelain crabs, genus Petrolisthes, have been powerful crustacean models for environmental and evolutionary physiology with respect to thermal adaptation and understanding responses of marine organisms to climate change. Here, we present a large-scale EST sequencing and cDNA microarray database project for the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Methodology/Principal Findings: A set of ~;;30K unique sequences (UniSeqs) representing ~;;19K clusters were generated from ~;;98K high quality ESTs from a set of tissue specific non-normalized and mixed-tissue normalized cDNA libraries from the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Homology for each UniSeq was assessed using BLAST, InterProScan, GO and KEGG database searches. Approximately 66percent of the UniSeqs had homology in at least one of the databases. All EST and UniSeq sequences along with annotation results and coordinated cDNA microarray datasets have been made publicly accessible at the Porcelain Crab Array Database (PCAD), a feature-enriched version of the Stanford and Longhorn Array Databases.Conclusions/Significance: The EST project presented here represents the third largest sequencing effort for any crustacean, and the largest effort for any crab species. Our assembly and clustering results suggest that our porcelain crab EST data set is equally diverse to the much larger EST set generated in the Daphnia pulex genome sequencing project, and thus will be an important resource to the Daphnia research community. Our homology results support the pancrustacea hypothesis and suggest that Malacostraca may be ancestral to Branchiopoda and Hexapoda. Our results also suggest that our cDNA microarrays cover as much of the transcriptome as can reasonably be captured in

  10. Fishery induces sperm depletion and reduction in male reproductive potential for crab species under male-biased harvest strategy.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Luis Miguel; Rosas, Yenifer; Fuentes, Juan Pablo; Riveros, Marcela Paz; Chaparro, Oscar Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Sperm depletion in males can occur when polygynous species are intensively exploited under a male-biased management strategy. In fisheries involving crabs species, the effects of this type of management on the reproductive potential is far from being understood. This study tests whether male-biased management of the principal Chilean crab fishery is able to affect the potential capacity of Metacarcinus edwardsii males to transfer sperm to females. Five localities in southern Chile, recording contrasting crab fishery landing, were selected to assess the potential of sperm depletion triggered by fishery. Seasonally, male crabs from each locality were obtained. Dry weight and histological condition of vasa deferentia and the Vaso-Somatic Index (VSI) were determined in order to use them as proxies for sperm depletion and male reproductive condition. A manipulative experiment was performed in the laboratory to estimate vasa deferentia weight and VSI from just-mated males in order to obtain a reference point for the potential effects of the fishery on sperm reserves. Sperm storage capacity is significantly affected by fisheries; during the mating season vasa deferentia from localities with low fishery intensity were heavier than those from high intensity fisheries, and these differences were even more evident in large males. Histological section showed that this disparity in vasa deferentia weight was explained principally by differences in the quantity of spermatophores rather than other seminal material. VSI was always higher in males from localities with low fishery intensity. Males from localities with high fishery intensity showed little capacity to recover sperm reserves and the VSI of these males remained below the values of the just-mated males. Detriment in the capacity of males to transfer sperm is the first step to sperm limitation in an exploited population, thus detection of sperm depletion can be an alert to introduce changes in the current management of

  11. Fishery Induces Sperm Depletion and Reduction in Male Reproductive Potential for Crab Species under Male-Biased Harvest Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Luis Miguel; Rosas, Yenifer; Fuentes, Juan Pablo; Riveros, Marcela Paz; Chaparro, Oscar Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Sperm depletion in males can occur when polygynous species are intensively exploited under a male-biased management strategy. In fisheries involving crabs species, the effects of this type of management on the reproductive potential is far from being understood. This study tests whether male-biased management of the principal Chilean crab fishery is able to affect the potential capacity of Metacarcinus edwardsii males to transfer sperm to females. Five localities in southern Chile, recording contrasting crab fishery landing, were selected to assess the potential of sperm depletion triggered by fishery. Seasonally, male crabs from each locality were obtained. Dry weight and histological condition of vasa deferentia and the Vaso-Somatic Index (VSI) were determined in order to use them as proxies for sperm depletion and male reproductive condition. A manipulative experiment was performed in the laboratory to estimate vasa deferentia weight and VSI from just-mated males in order to obtain a reference point for the potential effects of the fishery on sperm reserves. Sperm storage capacity is significantly affected by fisheries; during the mating season vasa deferentia from localities with low fishery intensity were heavier than those from high intensity fisheries, and these differences were even more evident in large males. Histological section showed that this disparity in vasa deferentia weight was explained principally by differences in the quantity of spermatophores rather than other seminal material. VSI was always higher in males from localities with low fishery intensity. Males from localities with high fishery intensity showed little capacity to recover sperm reserves and the VSI of these males remained below the values of the just-mated males. Detriment in the capacity of males to transfer sperm is the first step to sperm limitation in an exploited population, thus detection of sperm depletion can be an alert to introduce changes in the current management of

  12. Burrow surveillance in fiddler crabs. II. The sensory cues.

    PubMed

    Hemmi, Jan M; Zeil, J

    2003-11-01

    Using crab-like dummies, we have shown previously that fiddler crabs [Uca vomeris (McNeill)] defend their burrows against intruders in a burrow-centred frame of reference. The crabs respond whenever an intruder approaches to within a certain distance of the burrow entrance, and this distance is independent of the approach direction. We show here that the crabs combine information from the path integration system on the location of their invisible burrow and visual information on the retinal position of an intruder to make this allocentric judgement. Excluding all alternative visual cues, we propose that the crabs employ a small set of matched visual filters to determine the relationship between a crab-like object and the invisible burrow. To account for the constantly varying distance between the crabs and their burrows, the state of the path integrator may select the appropriate one of these retinal 'warning zones'. We have shown before that burrow-owning fiddler crabs are extremely responsive to potential burrow snatchers, which we simulated with crab-like dummies moving across the substratum towards the burrow of residents. The crab's decision to respond to these dummies depends mainly on the spatial arrangement between itself, its burrow and the approaching dummy. The most important factor predicting response probability is the dummy's distance from the crab's burrow: the crabs are more likely to respond the closer the dummy approaches the burrow. The dummy-burrow distance not only determines the overall response probability but also the timing of burrow defence responses (i.e. when the crabs decide to react). Most interestingly, this response distance is independent of the dummy's direction of approach to the burrow. In addition, the crabs respond earlier to a dummy approaching their burrow if they themselves are further away from it, indicating that knowledge of their own distance from the burrow has an influence on their decision to respond. These results

  13. Water resources of King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Donald; Bingham, J.W.; Madison, R.J.; Williams, R.

    1968-01-01

    Although the total supply of water in King County is large, water problems are inevitable because of the large and rapidly expanding population. The county contains a third of the 3 million people in Washington, most of the population being concentrated in the Seattle metropolitan area. King County includes parts of two major physiographic features: the western area is part of the Puget Sound Lowland, and the eastern area is part of the Cascade Range. In these two areas, the terrain, weather, and natural resources (including water) contrast markedly. Average annual precipitation in the county is about 80 inches, ranging from about 30 inches near Puget Sound to more than 150 inches in parts of the Cascades. Annual evapotranspiration is estimated to range from 15 to 24 inches. Average annual runoff ranges from about 15 inches in the lowlands to more than 100 inches in the mountains. Most of the streamflow is in the major basins of the county--the Green-Duwamish, Lake Washington, and Snoqualmie basins. The largest of these is the Snoqualmie River basin (693 square miles), where average annual runoff during the period 1931-60 was about 79 inches. During the same period, annual runoff in the Lake Washington basin ( 607 square miles) averaged about 32 inches, and in the Green-Duwamish River basin (483 square miles), about 46 inches. Seasonal runoff is generally characterized by several high-flow periods in the winter, medium flows in the spring, and sustained low flows in the summer and fall. When floods occur in the county they come almost exclusively between October and March. The threat of flood damage is greatest on the flood plaits of the larger rivers, but in the Green-Duwamish Valley the threat was greatly reduced with the completion of Howard A. Hanson Dam in 1962. In the Snoqualmie River basin, where no such dam exists, the potential damage from a major flood increases each year as additional land is developed in the Snoqualmie Valley. 0nly moderate amounts of

  14. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus.

    PubMed

    Zotti, Maurizio; Coco, Laura Del; Pascali, Sandra Angelica De; Migoni, Danilo; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-02-01

    The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. In the blue crab, protein content was significantly lower than in the other two species, while its carbon content resulted lower than that characterizing only the warty crab. Among micro-elements, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, and Pb showed extremely low concentrations and negligible among-species differences. Significant inter-specific differences were observed for Na, Sr, V, Ba, Cd and Zn; in particular, cadmium and zinc were characterized in the blue crab by concentrations significantly lower than in the other two species. The analysis of the available literature on the three species indicated a general lack of comparable information on their elemental composition. The need to implement extended elemental fingerprinting techniques for shellfish quality assessment is discussed, in view of other complementary profiling methods such as NMR-based metabolomics.

  15. C. Judson King of UC Berkeley

    SciTech Connect

    Prausnitz, John

    2005-06-01

    In the middle of the UC Berkeley campus, next to the Main Library, South Hall is the last surviving building from the original campus, founded about 135 years ago. A tiny tree-shaded appendix to this venerated classical building houses Berkeley's Center for Studies in Higher Education, directed by C. Judson King, former Provost and Senior Vice President--Academic Affairs of the ten-campus University of California and long-time Professor of Chemical Engineering at Berkeley. Jud came to Berkeley in 1963 as assistant professor of chemical engineering, following receipt of a doctor's degree from MIT and a subsequent short appointment as director of the MIT chemical engineering practice school station at what was then Esso (now Exxon) in New Jersey. His undergraduate degree is from Yale. Starting with his MIT doctoral dissertation on gas absorption, Jud has devoted much of his professional career to separation processes. His teaching and research activities have been primarily concerned with separation of mixtures with emphasis on liquid-liquid extraction and drying. As a consultant to Procter and Gamble, he contributed to the technology of making instant coffee. His life-long activities in hiking and camping stimulated Jud's interest in the manufacture of freeze-dried foods (e.g. turkey meat) to minimize the weight of his hiking back-pack. Jud is internationally known not only for his many research publications but even more, for his acclaimed textbook ''Separation Processses'' (McGraw-Hill, second edition 1980) that is used in standard chemical engineering courses in the US and abroad.

  16. Tagliamento, the king of Alpine rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbriani, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    The Tagliamento river is usually described as the king of the Alpine rivers because it is an extraordinary example of braided gravel-bed river in Europe. It flows in Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region in north-eastern Italy. It has preserved its original ecosystem which has never been changed significantly by irresponsible human interference. Therefore, vegetated islands and braid bars, due to the typical network of channels the river creates, have always been an uncontaminated natural habitat for a wide variety of species of flora and fauna. The Pinzano Bridge, near San Daniele del Friuli, collapsed on 4th November 1966 because of an overflow of water from Tagliamento. From that time, lowlands territorial authorities would like to build retention basins to prevent the river from floodings. A study about the bio-geological survey carried out from a Manzini High School project, chiefly aims to study this ecosystem, which combines the dynamic nature of the Tagliamento with the biodiversity of the whole area where it flows. In the previous years, some classes were involved in this school project. After visiting the river area and taking several photographs of it, the students had the opportunity to reflect upon the devastating environmental impact which the construction of retention basins would cause. They illustrated and analyzed both the solutions offered by some local governors and the objections raised by the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). In the near future, other students will continue studying the Tagliamento river so as to be able to appreciate one of the local rarities nature offers, in the hope that the unique geomorphological features of this site of undoubted scientific interest could be kept intact for a very long time.

  17. 50 CFR Table 16 to Part 679 - Area Codes and Descriptions for Use With State of Alaska ADF&G Commercial Operator's Annual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Shrimp Outer Cook Inlet Shrimp Dungeness Crab King Crab Tanner Crab Miscellaneous Shellfish Salmon HH H H...) (K) GroundfishHerring King Crab Salmon Shrimp Dungeness Crab Tanner Crab Miscellaneous Shellfish KK K... 04.100 Prince William Sound (E) GroundfishHerring Shrimp Dungeness Crab King Crab Tanner...

  18. 50 CFR Table 16 to Part 679 - Area Codes and Descriptions for Use With State of Alaska ADF&G Commercial Operator's Annual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Shrimp Outer Cook Inlet Shrimp Dungeness Crab King Crab Tanner Crab Miscellaneous Shellfish Salmon HH H H...) (K) GroundfishHerring King Crab Salmon Shrimp Dungeness Crab Tanner Crab Miscellaneous Shellfish KK K... 04.100 Prince William Sound (E) GroundfishHerring Shrimp Dungeness Crab King Crab Tanner...

  19. 50 CFR Table 16 to Part 679 - Area Codes and Descriptions for Use With State of Alaska ADF&G Commercial Operator's Annual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shrimp Outer Cook Inlet Shrimp Dungeness Crab King Crab Tanner Crab Miscellaneous Shellfish Salmon HH H H...) (K) GroundfishHerring King Crab Salmon Shrimp Dungeness Crab Tanner Crab Miscellaneous Shellfish KK K... 04.100 Prince William Sound (E) GroundfishHerring Shrimp Dungeness Crab King Crab Tanner...

  20. Combined influence of meso-scale circulation and bathymetry on the foraging behaviour of a diving predator, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Annette; Trathan, Philip N.; Edmonston, Johnnie G.; Bost, Charles-André

    2016-02-01

    Investigating the responses of marine predators to environmental features is of key importance for understanding their foraging behaviour and reproductive success. In this study we examined the foraging behaviour of king penguins breeding at Kerguelen (southern Indian Ocean) in relation to oceanographic and bathymetric features within their foraging ambit. We used ARGOS and Global Positioning System tracking together with Time-Depth-Temperature-Recorders (TDR) to follow the at-sea movements of incubating and brooding king penguins. Combining the penguin behaviour with oceanographic data at the surface through satellite data and at depth through in-situ recordings by the TDRs enabled us to explore how these predators adjusted their horizontal and vertical foraging movements in response to their physical environment. Relating the observed behaviour and oceanographic patterns to local bathymetry lead to a comprehensive picture of the combined influence of bathymetry and meso-scale circulation on the foraging behaviour of king penguins. During both breeding stages king penguins foraged in the area to the south-east of Kerguelen, where they explored an influx of cold waters of southern origin interacting with the Kerguelen Plateau bathymetry. Foraging in the Polar Front and at the thermocline was associated with high prey capture rates. However, foraging trip orientation and water mass utilization suggested that bathymetrically entrained cold-water features provided the most favourable foraging locations. Our study explicitly reports the exploration of bathymetry-related oceanographic features by foraging king penguins. It confirms the presence of Areas of Ecological Significance for marine predators on the Kerguelen Plateau, and suggests the importance of further areas related to the cold-water flow along the shelf break of the Kerguelen Plateau.

  1. Experimental infections of Orchitophrya stellarum (Scuticociliata) in American blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and fiddler crabs (Uca minax).

    PubMed

    Miller, Terrence L; Small, Hamish J; Peemoeller, Bhae-Jin; Gibbs, David A; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2013-11-01

    Outbreaks of an unidentified ciliate have occurred on several occasions in blue crabs from Chesapeake Bay held during winter months in flow-through systems. The parasite was initially thought to be Mesanophrys chesapeakensis, but molecular analysis identified it as Orchitophyra stellarum, a facultative parasite of sea stars (Asteroidea). We investigated the host-parasite association of O. stellarum in the blue crab host. Crabs were inoculated with the ciliate, or they were held in bath exposures after experimentally induced autotomy of limbs in order to determine potential mechanisms for infection. Crabs inoculated with the ciliate, or exposed to it after experimental autotomy, rapidly developed fatal infections. Crabs that were not experimentally injured, but were exposed to the ciliate, rarely developed infections; thus, indicating that the parasite requires a wound or break in the cuticle as a portal of entry. For comparative purposes, fiddler crabs, Uca minax, were inoculated with the ciliate in a dose-titration experiment. Low doses of the ciliate (10 per crab) were sometimes able to establish infections, but high intensity infections developed quickly at doses over 500 ciliates per crab. Chemotaxis studies were initiated to determine if the ciliate preferentially selected blue crab serum (BCS) over other nutrient sources. Cultures grown on medium with BCS or fetal bovine serum showed some conditioning in their selection for different media, but the outcome in choice experiments indicated that the ciliate was attracted to BCS and not seawater. Our findings indicate that O. stellarum is a facultative parasite of blue crabs. It can cause infections in exposed crabs at 10-15°C, but it requires a portal of entry for successful host invasion, and it may find injured hosts using chemotaxis.

  2. Multilocus Phylogeny of the Afrotropical Freshwater Crab Fauna Reveals Historical Drainage Connectivity and Transoceanic Dispersal Since the Eocene.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Savel R; Phiri, Ethel E; Klaus, Sebastian; Albrecht, Christian; Cumberlidge, Neil

    2015-07-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction, divergence time estimations and ancestral range estimation were undertaken for 66% of the Afrotropical freshwater crab fauna (Potamonautidae) based on four partial DNA loci (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome oxidase one [COI], and histone 3). The present study represents the most comprehensive taxonomic sampling of any freshwater crab family globally, and explores the impact of paleodrainage interconnectivity on cladogenesis among freshwater crabs. Phylogenetic analyses of the total evidence data using maximum-likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian inference (BI) produced a robust statistically well-supported tree topology that reaffirmed the monophyly of the Afrotropical freshwater crab fauna. The estimated divergence times suggest that the Afrotropical Potamonautidae diverged during the Eocene. Cladogenesis within and among several genera occurred predominantly during the Miocene, which was associated with major tectonic and climatic ameliorations throughout the region. Paleodrainage connectivity was observed with specimens from the Nilo-Sudan and East African coast proving to be sister to specimens from the Upper Guinea Forests in West Africa. In addition, we observed strong sister taxon affinity between specimens from East Africa and the Congo basin, including specimens from Lake Tanganyika, while the southern African fauna was retrieved as sister to the Angolan taxa. Within the East African clade we observed two independent transoceanic dispersal events, one to the Seychelles Archipelago and a second to Madagascar, while we observe a single transoceanic dispersal event from West Africa to São Tomé. The ancestral area estimation suggested a West African/East African ancestral range for the family with multiple dispersal events between southern Africa and East Africa, and between East Africa and Central Africa The taxonomic implications of our results are discussed in light of the widespread paraphyly evident among a

  3. 50 CFR 680.6 - Crab economic data report (EDR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crab economic data report (EDR). 680.6... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA General § 680.6 Crab economic data report (EDR). (a) Requirements. (1) Any owner or leaseholder of...

  4. X-Ray Spectral Evolution of the Crab Pulse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, A. K.; Pravdo, S. H.; Angelini, L.

    1997-01-01

    The Crab Pulsar was observed with the X-ray detectors on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) on May 2, 1996. The large area, high time resolution, extended energy range, and moderate energy resolution of the RXTE instruments provided an unprecedented measurement of the Crab pulsar spectrum as it evolved in phase across the 33 msec pulse.

  5. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 680 - Crab Species Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Species Code 2 Table 2 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION..., Table 2 Table 2 to Part 680—Crab Species Code Species code Common name Scientific name 900...

  6. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 680 - Crab Process Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Process Codes 4 Table 4 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION..., Table 4 Table 4 to Part 680—Crab Process Codes Process code Description 0 Other (specify). 1 Fresh....

  7. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 680 - Crab Grade Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Grade Codes 6 Table 6 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION..., Table 6 Table 6 to Part 680—Crab Grade Codes Grade/code Description 1 Standard or premium quality...

  8. Land crabs as key drivers in tropical coastal forest recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, E.S.; Krauss, K.W.; Green, P.T.; O'Dowd, D. J.; Sherman, P.M.; Smith, T. J.

    2009-01-01

    Plant populations are regulated by a diverse assortment of abiotic and biotic factors that influence seed dispersal and viability, and seedling establishment and growth at the microsite. Rarely does one animal guild exert as significant an influence on different plant assemblages as land crabs. We review three tropical coastal ecosystems-mangroves, island maritime forests, and mainland coastal terrestrial forests-where land crabs directly influence forest composition by limiting tree establishment and recruitment. Land crabs differentially prey on seeds, propagules and seedlings along nutrient, chemical and physical environmental gradients. In all of these ecosystems, but especially mangroves, abiotic gradients are well studied, strong and influence plant species distributions. However, we suggest that crab predation has primacy over many of these environmental factors by acting as the first limiting factor of tropical tree recruitment to drive the potential structural and compositional organisation of coastal forests. We show that the influence of crabs varies relative to tidal gradient, shoreline distance, canopy position, time, season, tree species and fruiting periodicity. Crabs also facilitate forest growth and development through such activities as excavation of burrows, creation of soil mounds, aeration of soils, removal of leaf litter into burrows and creation of carbon-rich soil microhabitats. For all three systems, land crabs influence the distribution, density and size-class structure of tree populations. Indeed, crabs are among the major drivers of tree recruitment in tropical coastal forest ecosystems, and their conservation should be included in management plans of these forests. ?? 2009 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  9. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crab harvesting cooperatives. 680.21 Section 680.21 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... IFQ permit issued to the crab harvesting cooperative for the current fishing season. (2) Transfer...

  10. 50 CFR 680.6 - Crab economic data report (EDR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crab economic data report (EDR). 680.6... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA General § 680.6 Crab economic data report (EDR). (a) Requirements. (1) Any owner or leaseholder of...

  11. Enhanced gamma-ray activity from the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, R.; Ciprini, S.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary LAT analysis indicates enhanced gamma-ray activity from the Crab nebula. The daily-averaged gamma-ray emission (E > 100 MeV) from the direction of the Crab Nebula has surpassed 4.0 x 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1 five times in the last 12 days.

  12. Crabbed Waist Collisions in DAFNE and Super-B Design

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.O.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, C.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Cosenza /SLAC /Frascati

    2011-11-02

    The new idea of increasing the luminosity of a collider with crab waist collisions and first experimental results from the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF, Frascati, using this concept are presented. Consequences for the design of future factories will be discussed. An outlook to the performance reach with crab waist collisions is given, with emphasis on future B Factories.

  13. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 680 - Crab Size Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Size Codes 5 Table 5 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 680—Crab...

  14. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 680 - Crab Size Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crab Size Codes 5 Table 5 to Part 680 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 680—Crab...

  15. Mitigating by-catch of diamondback terrapins in crab pots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Kristen M.; Crowder, Larry B.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic by-catch of diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) pots is a concern for terrapin conservation along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Despite the availability of by-catch reduction devices (BRDs) for crab pots, adoption of BRDs has not been mandated and by-catch of terrapins continues. We conducted experimental fishing studies in North Carolina's year-round blue crab fishery from 2000 to 2004 to evaluate the ability of various BRDs to reduce terrapin by-catch without a concomitant reduction in the catch of blue crabs. In 4,822 crab pot days fished, we recorded only 21 terrapin captures. Estimated capture rates were 0.003 terrapins/pot per day in hard crab experimental fishing and 0.008 terrapins/pot per day in peeler experimental fishing. All terrapin captures occurred from April to mid-May within 321.4 m of the shoreline. Longer soak times produced more dead terrapins, with 4 live and 4 dead during hard crab experimental fishing and 11 live and 2 dead during peeler experimental fishing. The 4.0-cm BRDs in fall and 4.5-cm and 5.0-cm BRDs in spring reduced the catch of legal-sized male hard crabs by 26.6%, 21.2%, and 5.7%, respectively. Only the 5.0-cm BRDs did not significantly affect the catch of legal-sized hard male crabs. However, BRDs had no measurable effect on catch of target crabs in the peeler crab fishery. Our results identify 3 complementary and economically feasible tools for blue crab fishery managers to exclude terrapins from commercially fished crab pots in North Carolina: 1) gear modifications (e.g., BRDs); 2) distance-to-shore restrictions; and 3) time-of-year regulations. These measures combined could provide a reduction in terrapin by-catch of up to 95% without a significant reduction in target crab catch.

  16. Crabs in Labs: The Shore Crab (Carcinus maenas) as Teaching Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogarth, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    The shore crab (Carcinus maenas) is an excellent subject for school study, both in the field and the laboratory. It is easily collected and maintained and can be used for a wide range of investigations. Some background details are given and possible areas of investigation suggested. (Author)

  17. SMALL ANGLE CRAB COMPENSATION FOR LHC IR UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    CALAGA,R.; DORDA, U.; OHMI, D.; OIDE, K.; TOMAS, R.; ZIMMERMANN, F.

    2007-06-25

    A small angle (< 1 mrad) crab scheme is an attractive option for the LHC luminosity upgrade to recover the geometric luminosity loss from the finite crossing angle [I]. The luminosity loss increases steeply to unacceptable levels as the IP beta function is reduced below its nominal value (see Fig. 1 in Ref. [2]). The crab compensation in the LHC can be accomplished using only two sets of deflecting RF cavities, placed in collision-free straight sections of the LHC to nullify the effective crossing angles at IPI & IP5. We also explore a 400 MHz superconducting cavity design and discuss the pertinent RF challenges. We present IR optics configurations with low-angle crab crossing, study the beam-beam performance and proton-beam emittance growth in the presence of crab compensation, lattice errors, and crab RF noise sources.

  18. The Cherenkov Telescope array on-site integral sensitivity: observing the Crab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioretti, Valentina; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Schüssler, Fabian

    2016-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the future large observatory in the very high energy (VHE) domain. Operating from 20 GeV to 300 TeV, it will be composed of tens of Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) displaced in a large area of a few square kilometers in both the southern and northern hemispheres. Thanks to the wide energy coverage and the tremendous boost in effective area (10 times better than the current IACTs), for the first time a VHE observatory will be able to detect transient phenomena in short exposures. The CTA/DATA On-Site Analysis (OSA) is the system devoted to the development of dedicated pipelines and algorithms to be used at the CTA site for the reconstruction, data quality monitoring, science monitoring and realtime science alerting during observations. The minimum exposure required to issue a science alert is not a general requirement of the observatory but is a function of the astrophysical object under study, because the ability to detect a given source is determined by the integral sensitivity which, in addition to the CTA Monte Carlo simulations, providing the energy-dependent instrument response (e.g. the effective area and the background rate), requires the spectral distribution of the science target. The OSA integral sensitivity is computed here for the most studied source at Gamma-rays, the Crab Nebula, for a set of exposures ranging from 1000 seconds to 50 hours, using the full CTA Southern array. The reason for the Crab Nebula selection as the first example of OSA integral sensitivity is twofold: (i) this source is characterized by a broad spectrum covering the entire CTA energy range; (ii) it represents, at the time of writing, the standard candle in VHE and it is often used as unit for the IACTs sensitivity. The effect of different Crab Nebula emission models on the CTA integral sensitivity is evaluated, to emphasize the need for representative spectra of the CTA science targets in the evaluation of the OSA use cases. Using

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from Blue Crab Meat (Callinectus sapidus) and Blue Crab Processing Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram positive, intracellular food borne pathogen which causes a severe disease called listeriosis in high risk groups. However, there is limited information about the prevalence and sources of L. monocytogenes in blue crab and blue crab processing plants in Maryland. The...

  20. Naval submarine base Kings Bay and Bangor soil evaluations.

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Joseph; Patteson, Raymond; Wesenberg, Donald L.; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2004-08-01

    This report provides soil evaluation and characterization testing for the submarine bases at Kings Bay, Georgia, and Bangor, Washington, using triaxial testing at high confining pressures with different moisture contents. In general, the samples from the Bangor and Kings Bay sites appeared to be stronger than a previously used reference soil. Assuming the samples of the material were representative of the material found at the sites, they should be adequate for use in the planned construction. Since soils can vary greatly over even a small site, a soil specification for the construction contractor would be needed to insure that soil variations found at the site would meet or exceed the requirements. A suggested specification for the Bangor and Kings Bay soils was presented based on information gathered from references plus data obtained from this study, which could be used as a basis for design by the construction contractor.

  1. Chitin extraction from crab shells by Bacillus bacteria. Biological activities of fermented crab supernatants.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Sawssen; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Younes, Islem; Jellouli, Kemel; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-08-01

    Crab shells waste were fermented using six protease-producing Bacillus species (Bacillus subtilis A26, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus pumilus A1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6, Bacillus licheniformis NH1 and Bacillus cereus BG1) for the production of chitin and fermented-crab supernatants (FCSs). In medium containing only crab shells, the highest demineralization DM was obtained with B. licheniformis NH1 (83±0.5%) and B. pumilus A1 (80±0.6%), while the highest deproteinization (DP) was achieved with A1 (94±1%) followed by NH1 (90±1.5%) strains. Cultures conducted in medium containing crab shells waste supplemented with 5% (w/v) glucose, were found to remarkably promote demineralization efficiency, and enhance slightly deproteinization rates. FTIR spectra of chitins showed the characteristics bands of α-chitin. FCSs showed varying degrees of antioxidant activities which were in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01). In fact, FCS produced by B. amyloliquefaciens An6 exhibited the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging activity (92% at 4 mg/ml), while the lowest hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (60% at 4 mg/ml) was obtained with B. subtilis A26 hydrolysates. However, the highest reducing power (OD700nm=2 at 0.5 mg/ml) was obtained by B.amyloliquefaciens An6 hydrolysates. These results suggest that crab hydrolysates are good sources of natural antioxidants. Further, FCSs were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  2. Switching skeletons: hydrostatic support in molting crabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Jennifer R A.; Kier, William M.; Walker, I. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal support systems are essential for support, movement, muscular antagonism, and locomotion. Crustaceans shed their rigid exoskeleton at each molt yet are still capable of forceful movement. We hypothesize that the soft water-inflated body of newly molted crabs may rely on a hydrostatic skeleton, similar to that of worms and polyps. We measured internal hydrostatic pressure and the force exerted during claw adduction and observed a strong correlation between force and hydrostatic pressure, consistent with hydrostatic skeletal support. This alternation between the two basic skeletal types may be widespread among arthropods.

  3. Effects of pesticides on crab cheliped regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Costlow, J.D. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The mud crab cheliped regeneration bioassay has proven to be a sensitive and reliable bioassay in studies of the potential sublethal effects of pesticides, including teratogenesis, spontaneous autotomy, and duration of the various stages of development. The assay has also been demonstated to be a useful indication of mortality associated with the impact of these chemicals of anthropogenic origin during the megalopal and early postlarval stages of development. Four pesticides were tested here using the cheliped regeneration bioassay technique. Although carbofuran is approximately 5--6 times more toxic than methomyl, both compounds yield very similar results in terms of sublethal effects.

  4. Element Masses in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, Adam R.; Katz, Andrea M.; Satterfield, Timothy J.; Vanderveer, Steven J.; MacAlpine, Gordon M.

    2016-10-01

    Using our previously published element abundance or mass-fraction distributions in the Crab Nebula, we derived actual mass distributions and estimates for overall nebular masses of hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. As with the previous work, computations were carried out for photoionization models involving constant hydrogen density and also constant nuclear density. In addition, employing new flux measurements for [Ni ii] λ7378, along with combined photoionization models and analytic computations, a nickel abundance distribution was mapped and a nebular stable nickel mass estimate was derived.

  5. King's theory of goal attainment: exploring functional status.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Billy A

    2015-04-01

    Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment provides a schema for nurses interested in functional status. However, the lack of a uniform definition for functional status has hindered development of a concise understanding of this phenomenon. Functional status is particularly important to nurses who are concerned with the safety and wellbeing of clients. With healthcare's increased focus on client-family-centered care it is important to develop innovative approaches for evaluating functional status that incorporate the client-family perspective. King's focus on mutual decision-making is an underutilized resource that can provide great insight into the study and understanding of functional status.

  6. Eosinophilic diseases in two Cavalier King Charles spaniels.

    PubMed

    German, A J; Holden, D J; Hall, E J; Day, M J

    2002-12-01

    This report describes the clinical presentation of two Cavalier King Charles spaniels with different eosinophilic diseases. The first case presented with dyspnoea and a non-productive cough, and investigations demonstrated eosinophilic bronchopneumonopathy. The second dog was referred for the investigation of haemorrhagic vomiting and diarrhoea and was eventually diagnosed with eosinophilic enteritis. Both dogs had concurrent eosinophilic stomatitis, and both responded completely to immunosuppressive glucocorticoid therapy. This report is the first to describe the concurrence of eosinophilic stomatitis and systemic eosinophilic disease in Cavalier King Charles spaniels, and suggest that this breed may be predisposed to eosinophilic syndromes.

  7. Dragon-Kings, Black-Swans and Prediction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, D.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme fluctuations or events are often associated with power law statistics. Indeed, it is a popular belief that "wild randomness'' is deeply associated with distributions with power law tails characterized by small exponents. In other words, power law tails are often seen as the epitome of extreme events (the "Black Swan'' story). Here, we document in very different systems that there is life beyond power law tails: power laws can be superseded by "dragon-kings'', monster events that occur beyond (or changing) the power law tail. Dragon-kings reveal hidden mechanisms that are only transiently active and that amplify the normal fluctuations (often described by the power laws of the normal regime). The goal of this lecture is to catalyze the interest of the community of geophysicists across all fields of geosciences so that the "invisible gorilla" fallacy may be avoided. Our own research illustrates that new statistics or representation of data are often necessary to identify dragon-kings, with strategies guided by the underlying mechanisms. Paradoxically, the monsters may be ignored or hidden by the use of inappropriate analysis or statistical tools that amount to cut a mamooth in small pieces, so as to lead to the incorrect belief that only mice exist. In order to stimulate further research, we will document and discuss the dragon-king phenomenon on the statistics of financial losses, economic geography, hydrodynamic turbulence, mechanical ruptures, avalanches in complex heterogeneous media, earthquakes, and epileptic seizures. The special status of dragon-kings open a new research program on their predictability, based on the fact that they belong to a different class of their own and express specific mechanisms amplifying the normal dynamics via positive feedbacks. We will present evidence of these claims for the predictions of material rupture, financial crashes and epileptic seizures. As a bonus, a few remarks will be offered at the end on how the dragon-king

  8. 76 FR 38452 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “King Amenemhet II”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``King Amenemhet II'' SUMMARY: Notice..., I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``King Amenemhet II,''...

  9. Abundance, Health and Status of Sand Crabs at Ocean Beach, San Francisco: Comparisons From two Summers, 2003 and 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad-Saydah, A.; MacCormack, D.; Velarde, M.; Masters, D.; Walton, M.

    2004-12-01

    Interns from the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco monitored Pacific mole crabs, Emerita analoga, commonly known as sand crabs, at Ocean Beach, San Francisco for the second consecutive summer. Comparisons from two data sets revealed trends in crab abundance, size and location. Changes in abundance and location may have been related to water temperature and predation. Dissections of random crabs from all gender classes allowed inspection of parasitism on the crabs. The dissections revealed increased numbers of parasites in larger crabs (especially females with eggs) and in crabs collected later in the summer season. Crab parasitism may be connected to population changes of species predating the sand crabs.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls in blue crabs from South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.M.; Mathews, T.D.

    1987-11-01

    Blue crabs are important members of the estuarine food web due to their numbers and their multiple roles as scavengers, predators and prey. Because of their omnivorous feeding characteristics, wide distribution an close association with bottom sediments, the potential exists for blue crabs to bioaccumulate pollutants residing in those sediments as has been shown for fiddler crabs. It follows that human health risk upon consumption of such crabs and biomagnification through the food web become primary concerns. During the spring of 1985, commercial crab fishermen in Beaufort County, South Carolina contacted the South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department (SCWMRD) concerning their perceptions of significantly declining catch rates in the Campbell Creek-Whale Branch area. Using knowledge of previously documented elevated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels in the sediments of the upper portion of Campbell Creek, the SCWMRD initiated analysis of crab tissue from the area to ascertain the body burdens of PCBs. Initial screening results indicated potentially significant levels of PCBs in blue crabs at which time, SCWMRD contacted the SC Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) for more intensive study and definition of the situation. The work reported here was conducted between June and October 1985.

  11. Symbiotic crabs maintain coral health by clearing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Hannah L.; Holbrook, Sally J.; Schmitt, Russell J.; Brooks, Andrew J.

    2006-11-01

    Stony corals are the foundation of coral reef ecosystems and form associations with other reef species. Many of these associations may be ecologically important and play a role in maintaining the health and diversity of reef systems, rendering it critical to understand the influence of symbiotic organisms in mediating responses to perturbation. This study demonstrates the importance of an association with trapeziid crabs in reducing adverse effects of sediments deposited on corals. In a field experiment, mortality rates of two species of branching corals were significantly lowered by the presence of crabs. All outplanted corals with crabs survived whereas 45-80% of corals without crabs died within a month. For surviving corals that lacked crabs, growth was slower and tissue bleaching and sediment load were higher. Laboratory experiments revealed that corals with crabs shed substantially more of the sediments deposited on coral surfaces, but also that crabs were most effective at removing grain sizes that were most damaging to coral tissues. The mechanism underlying this symbiotic relationship has not been recognized previously, and its role in maintaining coral health is likely to become even more critical as reefs worldwide experience increasing sedimentation.

  12. Mangrove crabs as ecosystem engineers; with emphasis on sediment processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Erik

    2008-02-01

    The benthic fauna in mangrove forests is usually dominated by burrowing sesarmid (Grapsidae) and fiddler crabs (Ocypodidae). They are herbivores that retain, bury, macerate and ingest litter and microalgal mats. Most species within these two groups actively dig and maintain burrows in the sediment as a refuge from predation and environmental extremes. Based on the current knowledge on the biology and ecology of these crabs, it seems obvious that their activities have considerable impact on ecosystem functioning. However, no convincing conceptual framework has yet been defined into which the role of these crabs can be identified and characterized. The attributes by which these abundant animals affect the microbial and biogeochemical functional diversity fit well into the concept of ecosystem engineering. The conceptualization of mangrove benthic communities within this framework is distinguished and documented by examples provided from the most recent literature on mangrove ecosystem functioning. It appears that the features and processes driving the engineering effects on distribution and activity of associated organisms operate differently for sesarmid and fiddler crabs. The most obvious and well-documented difference between engineering effects of the two types of crab seems to be associated with foraging. More attention must be devoted in the future to elucidate engineering aspects related to crab burrows in mangrove environments. Particularly comparative work on the burrow-dwelling life styles of the two types of crab is needed.

  13. 78 FR 38313 - Kings River Conservation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kings River Conservation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On June 3, 2013, the Kings River... study the feasibility of the Gould Weir Hydroelectric Project, to be located on the Kings River,...

  14. Let Freedom Ring: The Life & Legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, and read a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech. After studying Dr. King's use of imagery and allusion, students create original poetic phrases about freedom and…

  15. The Inaccuracies in the Reprintings of Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosmajian, Haig

    1982-01-01

    Identifies the additions, deletions, and changes in the reprinted versions of King's classic speech. (Serves both as a warning that published speeches cannot be depended upon to preserve the original text and as a source of reference for teachers using Dr. King.s speech in classroom study.) (PD)

  16. Henry David Thoreau, Martin Luther King Jr., and the American Tradition of Protest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. fundamentally altered the tradition of protest and reform. Compares and contrasts the role of each man in U.S. social and constitutional history. Concludes that while Thoreau lacked the broad influence of King, his writings influenced both King and Mohandas Gandhi. (CFR)

  17. 50 CFR 622.371 - Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vessel permits for king mackerel. 622.371 Section 622.371 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Atlantic) § 622.371 Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. (a) No applications for additional commercial vessel permits for king mackerel will be accepted. Existing...

  18. 50 CFR 622.371 - Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vessel permits for king mackerel. 622.371 Section 622.371 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Atlantic) § 622.371 Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. (a) No applications for additional commercial vessel permits for king mackerel will be accepted. Existing...

  19. Ugiuvangmiut Quliapyuit = King Island Tales. Eskimo History and Legends from Bering Strait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lawrence D., Ed.

    The collection of native tales from King Island, Alaska, contains tales told originally in Inupiaq Eskimo by seven native elders. Introductory sections provide background information on the storytellers, King Island Village and its people, traditional life there, and the language of the King Islanders. The 25 tales are divided into groups:…

  20. OBSERVATIONS OF THE CRAB NEBULA'S ASYMMETRICAL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Loll, A. M.; Desch, S. J.; Scowen, P. A.; Foy, J. P.

    2013-03-10

    We present the first Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 imaging survey of the entire Crab Nebula, in the filters F502N ([O III] emission), F673N ([S II]), F631N ([O I]), and F547M (continuum). We use our mosaics to characterize the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and its three-dimensional structure, the ionizational structure in the filaments forming at its periphery, the speed of the shock driven by the PWN into surrounding ejecta (by inferring the cooling rates behind the shock), and the morphology and ionizational structure of the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) fingers. We quantify a number of asymmetries between the northwest (NW) and southeast (SE) quadrants of the Crab Nebula. The lack of observed filaments in the NW, and our observations of the spatial extent of [O III] emission lead us to conclude that cooling rates are slower, and therefore the shock speeds are greater, in the NW quadrant of the nebula, compared with the SE. We conclude that R-T fingers are longer, more ionizationally stratified, and apparently more massive in the NW than in the SE, and the R-T instability appears more fully developed in the NW.

  1. Territorial battles between fiddler crab species

    PubMed Central

    Backwell, P. R. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Many species worldwide are impacted by habitat loss. This may result in increased competition both within species and between species. Many studies have demonstrated that when two previously non-overlapping species are forced to compete over a resource, one species is likely to become dominant over the other. This study explores the impact a larger species of fiddler crab (Tabuca elegans—previously known as Uca elegans) has when invading an area previously used solely by a smaller species (Austruca mjoebergi—previously known as Uca mjoebergi). Here we show that, while there are some detrimental effects of living next to a heterospecific, they are relatively minor. New heterospecific neighbours fight more regularly with resident crabs, but each fight is no longer or more escalated than those between the resident and a new conspecific male. The residents are not specifically targeted by intruding heterospecifics, thus, given the large advantage of having a heterospecific neighbour in terms of lowered competition for females, the overall impact of species mixing is probably not as negative as might have been predicted. PMID:28280560

  2. Territorial battles between fiddler crab species.

    PubMed

    Clark, H L; Backwell, P R Y

    2017-01-01

    Many species worldwide are impacted by habitat loss. This may result in increased competition both within species and between species. Many studies have demonstrated that when two previously non-overlapping species are forced to compete over a resource, one species is likely to become dominant over the other. This study explores the impact a larger species of fiddler crab (Tabuca elegans-previously known as Uca elegans) has when invading an area previously used solely by a smaller species (Austruca mjoebergi-previously known as Uca mjoebergi). Here we show that, while there are some detrimental effects of living next to a heterospecific, they are relatively minor. New heterospecific neighbours fight more regularly with resident crabs, but each fight is no longer or more escalated than those between the resident and a new conspecific male. The residents are not specifically targeted by intruding heterospecifics, thus, given the large advantage of having a heterospecific neighbour in terms of lowered competition for females, the overall impact of species mixing is probably not as negative as might have been predicted.

  3. Melatonin and locomotor activity in the fiddler crab Uca pugilator.

    PubMed

    Tilden, Andrea R; Shanahan, J Kearney; Khilji, Zahra S; Owen, Jeffrey G; Sterio, Thomas W; Thurston, Kristy T

    2003-05-01

    The influence of melatonin on locomotor activity levels was measured in the fiddler crab Uca pugilator. First, activity in untreated, laboratory-acclimated crabs was measured over 48 hours in a 12L:12D photoperiod; this study showed a nocturnal increase in activity. In eyestalk-ablated crabs, overall activity was significantly reduced, and no significant activity pattern occurred. Next, crabs were injected with melatonin or saline (controls) at various times during the 12L:12D photoperiod (0900h, 1200h, and twice at 2100h; each trial was separated by 3-4 days) and monitored for 3 hr post-injection. Control crabs had low activity during early photophase, high at mid-photophase, increasing activity during the first scotophase trial, and decreasing activity during the second scotophase trial. Melatonin had no significant influence on activity when injected during the early-photophase activity trough or early-scotophase activity decline, but significantly increased activity when injected during the mid-photophase activity peak and early-scotophase activity incline. Next, crabs were injected during an early scotophase activity trough and monitored throughout the twelve-hour scotophase. Melatonin did not increase activity until the mid-scotophase activity increase, approximately 6 hours later, showing that the pharmacological dosage persisted in the crabs' systems and had later effects during the incline and peak of activity but not the trough. Eyestalk-ablated crabs were injected with melatonin or saline during early photo- and scotophase. Melatonin significantly increased activity in the photophase but not the scotophase trial, indicating that the responsiveness to melatonin continues following eyestalk removal, but the timing may not match that of intact crabs. Melatonin may be involved in the transmission of environmental timing information from the eyestalks to locomotor centers in U. pugilator.

  4. Population dynamics of king eiders breeding in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, Rebecca L.; Powell, Abby N.

    2012-01-01

    The North American population of king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) has declined by more than 50% since the late 1970s for unknown reasons. King eiders spend most of their lives in remote areas, forcing managers to make regulatory and conservation decisions based on very little information. We incorporated available published estimates of vital rates with new estimates to build a female, stage-based matrix population model for king eiders and examine the processes underlying population dynamics of king eiders breeding at 2 sites, Teshekpuk and Kuparuk, on the coastal plain of northern Alaska and wintering around the Bering Sea (2001–2010). We predicted a decreasing population (λ = 0.981, 95% CI: 0.978–0.985), and that population growth was most sensitive to changes in adult female survival (sensitivity = 0.92). Low duckling survival may be a bottleneck to productivity (variation in ducking survival accounted for 66% of retrospective variation in λ). Adult survival was high (0.94) and invariant (σ = 0.0002, 95% CI: 0.0000–0.0007); however, catastrophic events could have a major impact and we need to consider how to mitigate and manage threats to adult survival. A hypothetical oil spill affecting breeding females in a primary spring staging area resulted in a severe population decline; although, transient population dynamics were relatively stable. However, if no catastrophic events occur, the more variable reproductive parameters (duckling and nest survival) may be more responsive to management actions.

  5. 40. GARRET TRUSS DETAIL. The south queen post (called 'king ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. GARRET TRUSS DETAIL. The south queen post (called 'king post' in the 1755 account for scantling for the Greater Meeting House) of the third truss from the east end. Note the numerals for assembling the truss members and the plaster marks from the 1755 Monthly Meeting Room. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Gold King Mine Release New Mexico Response Activities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (August 8, 2015) EPA Region 6 deployed a federal on-scene coordinator from its emergency response team and scientific technicians under contract to EPA to assist the state in preparations for the potential impacts from the Gold King Mine re

  7. A Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Curriculum: Playing the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Sydney Gurewitz

    1988-01-01

    Discusses curriculum for young children centered around the beliefs and teachings of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. His works are interpreted in a human rights context in which children find their voice in the peaceable resolution of everyday conflicts. Describes the Child of the Day program. (Author/RWB)

  8. Dr. Martin Luther King: A Unit for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Kelli

    1986-01-01

    Presents a unit consisting of 4 lessons which focus on Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s childhood, his adult life and family, his civil rights work, and the national holiday which commemorates his birthday. Each lesson features specific objectives, learning activities, and instructional guidelines for the teacher. (TRS)

  9. Lest We Forget: Tribute to Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Rudy

    1983-01-01

    The civil rights accomplishments and precepts of Dr. King are reviewed and parallels are drawn to the present problems of public education. It is argued that a belief such as his, in people of good will, must be reawakened to force the schools to be passionate and compassionate institutions. (Author/CM)

  10. Refining King and Baxter Magolda's Model of Intercultural Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Rosemary J.; Shim, Woojeong; King, Patricia M.; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined 110 intercultural experiences from 82 students attending six colleges and universities to explore how students' interpretations of their intercultural experiences reflected their developmental capacities for intercultural maturity. Our analysis of students' experiences confirmed as well as refined and expanded King and Baxter…

  11. 76 FR 3819 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... seeds of hope for a day when all people might claim ``the riches of freedom and the security of justice... all backgrounds in a noble quest for freedom and basic civil rights. Inspired by Dr. King's legacy... true equal opportunity and equal rights. We must face the challenges of today with the same...

  12. EPA Statement on Colorado data from Gold King Mine Release

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DURANGO, CO - To assess the impacts of the release at the Gold King Mine near Silverton, Colorado, water quality samples were collected at numerous intervals beginning on Aug. 5, 2015. Samples were taken prior to the plume's arrival to establish a b

  13. Skull Size and Intelligence, and King Robert Bruce's IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Bastin, Mark E.; Barrow, Geoffrey W. S.; Reid, Louise M.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.

    2007-01-01

    An estimate of someone's IQ is a potentially informative personal datum. This study examines the association between external skull measurements and IQ scores, and uses the resulting regression equation to provide an estimate of the IQ of King Robert I of Scotland (Robert Bruce, 1274-1329). Participants were 48 relatively healthy Caucasian men…

  14. Avermectin induced inflammation damage in king pigeon brain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Jie; Sun, Bao-Hong; Qu, Jian Ping; Xu, Shiwen; Li, Shu

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effect of Avermectin (AVM) on inflammation damage in king pigeon brain, eighty two-month-old American king pigeons were randomly divided into four groups, and were fed with either commercial diet or AVM-supplemented diet containing 20 mg kg(-1)diet, 40 mg kg(-1)diet, and 60 mg kg(-1)diet AVM for 30, 60 and 90 d, respectively. Then, the expression level of inflammatory factors (iNOS, PTGEs, NF-κB), histological damage, and ultra-structural damage were examined. It showed that AVM caused higher expressions (P<0.05) of iNOS, PTGEs, NF-κB with disorganized histological and ultra-structural structures in cerebrum, cerebellum, and optic lobe. Meanwhile, inflammatory and histopathological damage were induced by AVM in king pigeon brains. In addition, the main targeted organelle in nervous system was mitochondria, which indicated that mitochondria may be relevant to the process of inflammation induced by AVM. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to study the toxic effect of AVM on inflammatory damage in king pigeon. Thus, the information presented in this study is believed to be helpful in supplementing data for further AVM toxicity study.

  15. Search for variables in the open cluster King 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Netopil, M.; Rode-Paunzen, M.; Bozic, H.

    2015-06-01

    We present the time series analysis of CCD photometry from the 1 m telescope at the Hvar Observatory (Croatia) for 54 stars in the area of the young open clusters King 12. We found no new variable but list upper detection limits.

  16. Predoctoral dental implant education at King Abdulaziz University

    PubMed Central

    Aljohani, Hind Ahmed; AlGhamdi, Ali Saad Thafeed

    2009-01-01

    Objective In June 2008, a survey of freshly graduated dental students of King Abdulaziz University Jeddah was conducted to evaluate the extent of their exposure to oral implantology and their knowledge of some basic principles of dental implant treatment. Materials and methods Multiple-choice questionnaires were given to the fresh graduate dental students of King Abdulaziz University Jeddah to answer. Sixty-six students responded out of 86, yielding a response rate of 76.7%. Results Majority of the students (78.8%) thought that they did not have enough lectures about dental implants and all of them thought that they did not have enough training in dental implant. Most of the students were not familiar with different dental implant systems (61.1%), designs (60.6%) or sizes (74.2%). Majority of the students were lacking the knowledge about basic principles of dental implant treatment. At King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, implant dentistry is taught to the students in the form of implant-related lectures incorporated into their periodontic, oral surgery and prosthodontic courses with one or two lectures given on dental implant in each course. Conclusion There is an urgent need to develop a well-structured implant course that includes didactic, laboratory, preclinical and clinical components at the undergraduate curriculum of King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry. PMID:23960472

  17. Effects of Underwater Turbine Noise on Crab Larval Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Pine, Matthew K; Jeffs, Andrew G; Radford, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    The development of marine tidal turbines has advanced at a rapid rate over the last decade but with little detailed understanding of the potential noise impacts on invertebrates. Previous research has shown that underwater reef noise plays an important role in mediating metamorphosis in many larval crabs and fishes. New research suggests that underwater estuarine noise may also mediate metamorphosis in estuarine crab larvae and that the noise emitted from underwater tidal and sea-based wind turbines may significantly influence larval metamorphosis in estuarine crabs.

  18. CEPC partial double ring scheme and crab-waist parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dou; Gao, Jie; Su, Feng; Zhang, Yuan; Zhai, Jiyuan; Wang, Yiwei; Bai, Sha; Geng, Huiping; Bian, Tianjian; Cui, Xiaohao; Wang, Na; Duan, Zhe; Guo, Yuanyuan; Qin, Qing

    2016-11-01

    In order to avoid the pretzel orbit, CEPC is proposed to use partial double ring scheme in CDR. In this paper, a general method of how to make an consistent machine parameter design of CEPC with crab-waist by using analytical expression of maximum beam-beam tune shift and beamstrahlung beam lifetime started from given IP vertical beta, beam power and other technical limitations were developed. FFS with crab sextupoles will be developed and the arc lattice will be redesigned to acheive the lower emittance for crab-waist scheme.

  19. Effects of OsteoKing on osteoporotic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lifen; Wu, Haiying; Yu, Shan; Zhao, Hongbin; Xue, Lanjie; Xu, Ming; Shen, Zhiqiang; Hu, Min

    2015-07-01

    Heng-Gu-Gu-Shang-Yu-He-Ji, also known as OsteoKing, is used as a herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of bone disease, including femoral head necrosis and osteoarthritis. However, whether OsteoKing has anti-osteoporotic properties has remained to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of OsteoKing on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rabbits. Female New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into an ovariectomized (OVX) group and a sham-surgery group. The rabbits in the OVX group were subjected to an ovariectomy, while the rabbits in the sham group were subjected to the removal of an area of fat near the two ovaries. Bone mineral density, mechanical properties, serum biochemical parameters and micro-architecture were examined at 150 days post-OVX to characterize the experimental animal model. Once the osteoporotic rabbit model had been established, the rabbits in the OVX group were divided into the following groups: Model group, nilestriol group and 300 and 600 mg/kg OsteoKing groups, containing 16 rabbits in each group. OsteoKing and nilestriol were administered orally. The bone mineral density, mechanical properties, serum biochemical parameters, histology and micro-architecture were examined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric analysis, mechanical assessments, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, histopathological evaluation and micro-computerized tomography examination following 60 days and 120 days of treatment, respectively. Treatment with OsteoKing led to an elevation in the bone mineral density of the vertebra and serum phosphorus levels, reduced serum concentrations of osteocalcin, procollagen type I N-terminal peptide, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen, improved mechanical properties (maximum load, stiffness and energy absorption capacity), and micro-architecture of the lumbar vertebra in the OVX osteoporotic rabbit model

  20. Patterns in connectivity and retention of simulated Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) larvae in the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richar, Jonathan I.; Kruse, Gordon H.; Curchitser, Enrique; Hermann, Albert J.

    2015-11-01

    The eastern Bering Sea (EBS) population of Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) has exhibited high variability in recruitment to the commercially exploited stock since the late 1970s. Concurrently, apparent shifts in crab distribution have also been observed. Larval advection patterns and associated local retention offer a potential mechanism for these observations. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was used to simulate larval Tanner crab advection patterns over 1978-2004 based on larval hatching sites inferred from the distributions of reproductive females sampled during annual National Marine Fisheries Service trawl surveys. Connectivity among EBS subregions was examined by comparing start and end float locations after 60 days of simulated drift. High levels of retention (>50% of floats) were observed in the majority of source subregions, and contributed significantly to the total number of endpoints in each region. Patterns in advection and resultant interregional connectivity were variable, with strongest sustained connectivity occurring along shelf, within individual domains. Increased settlement potential in the outer domain and southern middle domain after 1990 is consistent with an observed geographic shift in fishery productivity. Apparent reliance of Bristol Bay on local larval retention validates recent spatial fishery management to conserve this area as a subpopulation.

  1. Eocene activity on the Western Sierra Fault System and its role incising Kings Canyon, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Francis J.; Farley, Kenneth A.; Saleeby, Jason; Clark, Marin

    2016-04-01

    Combining new and published apatite (U-Th)/He and apatite 4He/3He data from along the Kings River canyon, California we rediscover a west-down normal fault on the western slope of the southern Sierra Nevada, one of a series of scarps initially described by Hake (1928) which we call the Western Sierra Fault System. Integrating field observations with apatite (U-Th)/He data, we infer a single fault trace 30 km long, and constrain the vertical offset across this fault to be roughly a kilometer. Thermal modeling of apatite 4He/3He data documents a pulse of footwall cooling near the fault and upstream in the footwall at circa 45-40 Ma, which we infer to be the timing of a kilometer-scale incision pulse resulting from the fault activity. In the context of published data from the subsurface of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys, our data from the Western Sierra Fault System suggests an Eocene tectonic regime dominated by low-to-moderate magnitude extension, surface uplift, and internal structural deformation of the southern Sierra Nevada and proximal Great Valley forearc.

  2. Fat King Penguins Are Less Steady on Their Feet.

    PubMed

    Willener, Astrid S T; Handrich, Yves; Halsey, Lewis G; Strike, Siobhán

    2016-01-01

    Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin's walking gait changes with variations in body mass. We investigated this by walking king penguins on a treadmill while instrumented with an acceleration data logger. The stride frequency, dynamic body acceleration (DBA) and posture of fat (pre-fasting; 13.2 kg) and slim (post fasting; 11 kg) king penguins were assessed while they walked at the same speed (1.4 km/h) on a treadmill. Paired statistical tests indicated no evidence for a difference in dynamic body acceleration or stride frequency between the two body masses however there was substantially less variability in both leaning angle and the leaning amplitude of the body when the birds were slimmer. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the slimmer birds exhibited a decrease in waddling amplitude. We suggest the increase in variability of both leaning angle and amplitude, as well as a possibly greater variability in the waddling amplitude, is likely to result from the frontal fat accumulation when the birds are heavier, which may move the centre of mass anteriorly, resulting in a less stable upright posture. This study is the first to use accelerometry to better understand the gait of a species within a specific ecological context: the considerable body mass change exhibited by king penguins.

  3. Fat King Penguins Are Less Steady on Their Feet

    PubMed Central

    Willener, Astrid S. T.; Handrich, Yves; Halsey, Lewis G.; Strike, Siobhán

    2016-01-01

    Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin’s walking gait changes with variations in body mass. We investigated this by walking king penguins on a treadmill while instrumented with an acceleration data logger. The stride frequency, dynamic body acceleration (DBA) and posture of fat (pre-fasting; 13.2 kg) and slim (post fasting; 11 kg) king penguins were assessed while they walked at the same speed (1.4km/h) on a treadmill. Paired statistical tests indicated no evidence for a difference in dynamic body acceleration or stride frequency between the two body masses however there was substantially less variability in both leaning angle and the leaning amplitude of the body when the birds were slimmer. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the slimmer birds exhibited a decrease in waddling amplitude. We suggest the increase in variability of both leaning angle and amplitude, as well as a possibly greater variability in the waddling amplitude, is likely to result from the frontal fat accumulation when the birds are heavier, which may move the centre of mass anteriorly, resulting in a less stable upright posture. This study is the first to use accelerometry to better understand the gait of a species within a specific ecological context: the considerable body mass change exhibited by king penguins. PMID:26886216

  4. Seasonal variation of energy metabolism in ghost crab Ocypode quadrata at Siriú Beach (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Anapaula Sommer; Nunes do Amaral, Ana Paula; Ribarcki, Fabiana Pinto; Fraga da Silveira, Eliane; Périco, Eduardo

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the seasonal variations of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787) on a sandy beach in the southern region of Brazil. Crabs and hemolymph samples were collected monthly in the field. Hepatopancreas, gills, gonads and claw muscles were used for glycogen determination. In males, blood glucose levels increased in the summer and in the winter. The glycogen values increased significantly in the hepatopancreas in the winter, but remained constant in the muscle, gonads and gills. In females, hemolymph glucose levels, glycogen values in the hepatopancreas and in the gills remained constant throughout the year; however, muscular glycogen increased in the spring and gonad glycogen decreased in the summer. Hemolymph triglyceride levels of males and females and total cholesterol of males decreased significantly in the spring. In females, a significant increase of total cholesterol levels was found in the winter. The findings suggest that in O. quadrata lipids seem to be an important reserve of energy used during reproduction, both in males and females, while glycogen may be used during periods of intense activity or fasting.

  5. Population structure and reproductive biology of the fiddler crab Uca inversa (Hoffman, 1874) (Brachyura: Ocypodidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litulo, Carlos

    2005-05-01

    The population structure and reproductive biology of Uca inversa (Hoffman) were studied in Mozambique for the first time. Crabs were randomly sampled on monthly basis during low tide periods from January to December 2002 at Costa do Sol mangrove, Maputo Bay, southern Mozambique. A total of 1131 crabs was obtained, of which 518 (45.8%) were males, 322 non-ovigerous females (29.3%) and 281 (24.8%) ovigerous females, respectively. The present population presents non-normal size frequency distributions, with males reaching greater size than females. The overall sex ratio (M:F) (1:0.84) was significantly different from the 1:1 ratio. Ovigerous females were present throughout the year and the embryonic development showed synchrony with the gonadosomatic index, in which females carrying eggs close to hatching were more abundant when the gonadosomatic index reached minimum values in the population. Egg number increases with female size. Juvenile recruitment was also continuous with high proportion of young recruits being recorded in winter, probably due to the high reproductive activity displayed in summer. U. inversa exhibits a rapid embryonic cycle accompanied by a rapid larval development and settlement in the study area.

  6. A measurement of the gamma-ray spectrum from the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarazo, Juan Fernando

    CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope located at the Solar 2 facility in the Southern California Mojave desert. It uses an array of 168 heliostats and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes to detect Cherenkov radiation produced by air showers. CACTUS incorporates fast electronics together with novel techniques of time projection imaging and pattern triggering, thus improving upon the first generation sampling ACTs. Multiplexing of PMTS and heliostats allow us to collect up to 300 independent samples of a Cherenkov light front-wave. With the capability of detecting gamma rays with energies from 50 GeV up, CACTUS is poised to provide insight into very exciting new physics. In particular, measuring the Crab nebula spectrum in the energy range between 20 to 200 GeV, will allow us to define an appropriate model for the Inverse Compton lump, together with constraints on model parameters. A full analysis of the data set collected during the winter of 2005 provided us with a Crab nebula spectrum that starts under 100 GeV and goes up to a few TeV. Implications of this will be talked about.

  7. Comparison of automated BAX polymerase chain reaction and standard culture methods for detection of Listeria monocyogenes in blue crab meat (Callinectus sapidus) and blue crab processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the BAX Polymerase Chain Reaction method (BAX PCR) with the Standard Culture Method (SCM) for detection of L. monocytogenes in blue crab meat and crab processing plants. The aim of this study was to address this data gap. Raw crabs, finished products and environmental sponge samp...

  8. Evolutionary history of true crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) and the origin of freshwater crabs.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Schubart, Christoph D; Ahyong, Shane T; Lai, Joelle C Y; Au, Eugene Y C; Chan, Tin-Yam; Ng, Peter K L; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-05-01

    Crabs of the infra-order Brachyura are one of the most diverse groups of crustaceans with approximately 7,000 described species in 98 families, occurring in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. The relationships among the brachyuran families are poorly understood due to the high morphological complexity of the group. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive phylogeny of Brachyura to date using sequence data of six nuclear protein-coding genes and two mitochondrial rRNA genes from more than 140 species belonging to 58 families. The gene tree confirms that the "Podotremata," are paraphyletic. Within the monophyletic Eubrachyura, the reciprocal monophyly of the two subsections, Heterotremata and Thoracotremata, is supported. Monophyly of many superfamilies, however, is not recovered, indicating the prevalence of morphological convergence and the need for further taxonomic studies. Freshwater crabs were derived early in the evolution of Eubrachyura and are shown to have at least two independent origins. Bayesian relaxed molecular methods estimate that freshwater crabs separated from their closest marine sister taxa ~135 Ma, that is, after the break up of Pangaea (∼200 Ma) and that a Gondwanan origin of these freshwater representatives is untenable. Most extant families and superfamilies arose during the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary.

  9. Effects of urban wastewater on crab and mollusc assemblages in equatorial and subtropical mangroves of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannicci, Stefano; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Fratini, Sara; Litulo, Carlos; Macia, Adriano; Mrabu, Elisha J.; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Paula, José

    2009-09-01

    Mangrove forests are known to accomplish crucial ecosystem functions and services. They are nursery areas for fish, prawns and crabs, which provide coastal communities with a variety of food, timber and chemicals, and protect coasts from catastrophic events, such as tsunamis. Recently, a novel ecological service has been proposed for mangrove systems, namely natural wastewater treatment wetlands. This hypothesis was based on experimental data collected mainly in Chinese mangrove systems, which proved that mangrove soils were efficient in absorbing nutrients. Moreover, sewage loading seemed harmless to both plants and benthic communities in these systems. However, before promoting the use of natural mangroves as pollution buffers, or constructed mangrove wetlands as sewage treatment facilities, more data are needed on their overall tolerance to organic loading. Differences in macrobenthos patterns were thus investigated between peri-urban mangroves and sites not affected by sewage disposal in East Africa. We assessed differences in epifaunal assemblages, comprising crabs and molluscs, employing multivariate ACI unbalanced analyses to compare peri-urban mangrove swamps with those characteristic of non-urban mangroves with similar ecological traits. The sampling design was spatially nested, replicates being assessed at equatorial (southern Kenya) and subtropical (southern Mozambique) sites. The results manifested a consistent increase in crab biomass at the peri-urban sites in both Kenya and Mozambique. Moreover, the peri-urban systems were richer than the non-urban mangroves, both in terms of fiddler crabs ( Uca spp.) which feed on benthic microalgae and bacteria, and sesarmids, such as Perisesarma guttatum and Neosarmatium meinerti, which feed on both substratum and leaf litter. The abundance of gastropods, in contrast, decreased significantly, especially in Kenya, mainly due to the disappearance of the mud whelk Terebralia palustris. The results thus indicate that

  10. Upper Strawn (Desmoinesian) carbonate and clastic depositional environments, SE King County, TX

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, T.H. )

    1990-05-01

    The Pennsylvanian upper Strawn Group of southeast King County, Texas, provides a unique setting to study interactions between coeval carbonate and clastic deposition during the Desmoinesian. One of the most perplexing problems is the relationship of massive Pennsylvanian platform carbonates to shallow-water marine and deltaic sediments. Within the study area carbonate facies were deposited along the northern edge of the Knox-Baylor trough on the Spur platform, and terrigenous clastics were carried toward the Midland basin through the Knox-Baylor trough. Based on the analysis of subsurface cores, five carbonate lithofacies and four clastic lithofacies were recognized in southeast King County, Texas. The distribution and geometry of these lithofacies are related to variations in the rate of subsidence in the Knox-Baylor trough, Pennsylvanian tectonics, deltaic progradation, avulsion and compaction. The platform carbonates within the northern region record environments within the carbonate platform complex, including middle platform, outer platform, algal mound, and platform margin. The quartzarenitic sandstones within the southern region occur in a variety of complex depositional geometries, including distributary bar fingers, lobate deltas, and offshore bars. The upper Strawn Group provides an attractive area for exploration geology. Both carbonates and clastics provide excellent reservoirs from a depth of approximately 5,000 to 6,000 ft. Total production since the early 1940s, within the area is over 100,000,000 bbl of oil. Multiple pay zones within a 600-ft interval also provide an added incentive for exploration. Areas within and around the Knox-Baylor trough deserve additional study due to these relatively shallow, unexplored, multiple pay zones.

  11. Overlapping Ballistic Ejecta Fields: Separating Distinct Blasts at Kings Bowl, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, C.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Hughes, S. S.; Sears, D. W. G.; Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Haberle, C. W.; Sears, H.; Elphic, R. C.; Kobayashi, L.; Garry, W. B.; Neish, C.; Karunatillake, S.; Button, N.; Purcell, S.; Mallonee, H.; Ostler, B.

    2015-12-01

    Kings Bowl is a ~2200ka pit crater created by a phreatic blast along a volcanic fissure in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), Idaho. The main crater measures approximately 80m in length, 30m in width, and 30m in depth, with smaller pits located nearby on the Great Rift fissure, and has been targeted by the FINESSE team as a possible analogue for Cyane Fossae, Mars. The phreatic eruption is believed to have occurred due to the interaction of groundwater with lava draining back into the fissure following a lava lake high stand, erupting already solidified basalt from this and previous ERSP lava flows. The contemporaneous draw back of the lava with the explosions may conceal some smaller possible blast pits as more lava drained into the newly formed pits. Ballistic ejecta from the blasts occur on both sides of the fissure. To the east, the ballistic blocks are mantled by fine tephra mixed with eolian dust, the result of a westerly wind during the explosions. We use differential GPS to map the distribution of ballistic blocks on the west side of the fissure, recording position, percent vesiculation, and the length of 3 mutually perpendicular axes for each block >20cm along multiple transects parallel to the fissure. From the several hundred blocks recorded, we have been able to separate the ballistic field into several distinct blast deposits on the basis of size distributions and block concentration. The smaller pits identified from the ballistic fields correspond broadly to the northern and southern limits of the tephra/dust field east of the fissure. Soil formation and bioturbation of the tephra by sagebrush have obliterated any tephrostratigraphy that could have been linked to individual blasts. The ballistic block patterns at Kings Bowl may be used to identify distinct ejecta groups in high-resolution imagery of Mars or other planetary bodies.

  12. Map Showing Limits of Tahoe Glaciation in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, James Gregory; Mack, Gregory S.

    2008-01-01

    The latest periods of extensive ice cover in the Sierra Nevada include the Tahoe glaciation followed by the Tioga glaciation, and evidence for these ice ages is widespread in the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks area. However, the timing of the advances and retreats of the glaciers during the periods of glaciation continues to be a matter of debate. A compilation of existing work (Clark and others, 2003) defines the Tioga glaciation at 14-25 thousand years ago and splits the Tahoe glaciation into two stages that range from 42-50 and 140-200 thousand years ago. The extent of the Tahoe ice mass shown in the map area is considered to represent the younger Tahoe stage, 42-50 thousand years ago. Evidence of glaciations older than the Tahoe is limited in the southern Sierra Nevada. After the Tioga glaciation, only minor events with considerably less ice cover occurred. The Tioga glaciation was slightly less extensive than the Tahoe glaciation, and each covered about half of the area of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. The Tahoe glaciers extended 500-1,000 ft lower and 0.5-1.2 mi farther down valleys. Evidence for the Tahoe glacial limits is not as robust as that for Tioga, but the extent of the Tahoe ice is mapped because it covered a larger area and the ice did leave prominent moraines (piles of sediment and boulders deposited by glaciers as they melted at their margins) lower on the east front of the range. Current Sierra redwood (Sequoiadendron giganteum) groves occur in a belt on the west side of the Sierra Nevada, generally west of the area of Tahoe glaciation.

  13. 78 FR 21914 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... reviews for Snow Crab, Tanner Crab, Saint Matthew Blue King Crab, Bristol Bay Red King Crab (BBRKC). See... Fishery Management Council's (Council) Bering Sea Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Plan Team (CPT) will meet... Overfishing level (OFL) for 4 BSAI crab stocks--Aleutian Island Golden King Crab (AIGCK), Norton Sound...

  14. CLIC Crab Cavity Design Optimisation for Maximum Luminosity

    SciTech Connect

    Dexter, A.C.; Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.K.; Dolgashev, V.; Jones, R.; /Manchester U.

    2012-04-25

    The bunch size and crossing angle planned for CERN's compact linear collider CLIC dictate that crab cavities on opposing linacs will be needed to rotate bunches of particles into alignment at the interaction point if the desired luminosity is to be achieved. Wakefield effects, RF phase errors between crab cavities on opposing linacs and unpredictable beam loading can each act to reduce luminosity below that anticipated for bunches colliding in perfect alignment. Unlike acceleration cavities, which are normally optimised for gradient, crab cavities must be optimised primarily for luminosity. Accepting the crab cavity technology choice of a 12 GHz, normal conducting, travelling wave structure as explained in the text, this paper develops an analytical approach to optimise cell number and iris diameter.

  15. Domoic acid excretion in dungeness crabs, razor clams and mussels.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Irvin R; Skillman, Ann; Woodruff, Dana

    2008-07-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxic amino acid produced by several marine algal species of the Pseudo-nitzschia (PN) genus. We studied the elimination of DA from hemolymph after intravascular (IV) injection in razor clams (Siliqua patula), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). Crabs were also injected with two other organic acids, dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and kainic acid (KA). For IV dosing, hemolymph was repetitively sampled and DA concentrations measured by HPLC-UV. Toxicokinetic analysis of DA in crabs suggested most of the injected dose remained within hemolymph compartment with little extravascular distribution. This observation is in sharp contrast to results obtained from clams and mussels which exhibited similarly large apparent volumes of distribution despite large differences in overall clearance. These findings suggest fundamentally different storage and elimination processes are occurring for DA between bivalves and crabs.

  16. Crab cavities: Past, present, and future of a challenging device

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q.

    2015-05-03

    In two-ring facilities operating with a crossing-angle collision scheme, luminosity can be limited due to an incomplete overlapping of the colliding bunches. Crab cavities then are introduced to restore head-on collisions by providing the destined opposite deflection to the head and tail of the bunch. An increase in luminosity was demonstrated at KEKB with global crab-crossing, while the Large Hardron Collider (LHC) at CERN currently is designing local crab crossing for the Hi-Lumi upgrade. Future colliders may investigate both approaches. In this paper, we review the challenges in the technology, and the implementation of crab cavities, while discussing experience in earlier colliders, ongoing R&D, and proposed implementations for future facilities, such as HiLumi-LHC, CERN’s compact linear collider (CLIC), the international linear collider (ILC), and the electron-ion collider under design at BNL (eRHIC).

  17. EVOLUTION OF THE CRAB NEBULA IN A LOW ENERGY SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Haifeng; Chevalier, Roger A. E-mail: rac5x@virginia.edu

    2015-06-20

    The nature of the supernova leading to the Crab Nebula has long been controversial because of the low energy that is present in the observed nebula. One possibility is that there is significant energy in extended fast material around the Crab but searches for such material have not led to detections. An electron capture supernova model can plausibly account for the low energy and the observed abundances in the Crab. Here, we examine the evolution of the Crab pulsar wind nebula inside a freely expanding supernova and find that the observed properties are most consistent with a low energy event. Both the velocity and radius of the shell material, and the amount of gas swept up by the pulsar wind point to a low explosion energy (∼10{sup 50} erg). We do not favor a model in which circumstellar interaction powers the supernova luminosity near maximum light because the required mass would limit the freely expanding ejecta.

  18. The surprising Crab pulsar and its nebula: a review.

    PubMed

    Bühler, R; Blandford, R

    2014-06-01

    The Crab nebula and its pulsar (referred to together as 'the Crab') have historically played a central role in astrophysics. True to this legacy, several unique discoveries have been made recently. The Crab was found to emit gamma-ray pulsations up to energies of 400 GeV, beyond what was previously expected from pulsars. Strong gamma-ray flares, of durations of a few days, were discovered from within the nebula, while the source was previously expected to be stable in flux on these time scales. Here we review these intriguing and suggestive developments. In this context we give an overview of the observational properties of the Crab and our current understanding of pulsars and their nebulae.

  19. Evolution of the Crab Nebula in a Low Energy Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haifeng; Chevalier, Roger A.

    2015-06-01

    The nature of the supernova leading to the Crab Nebula has long been controversial because of the low energy that is present in the observed nebula. One possibility is that there is significant energy in extended fast material around the Crab but searches for such material have not led to detections. An electron capture supernova model can plausibly account for the low energy and the observed abundances in the Crab. Here, we examine the evolution of the Crab pulsar wind nebula inside a freely expanding supernova and find that the observed properties are most consistent with a low energy event. Both the velocity and radius of the shell material, and the amount of gas swept up by the pulsar wind point to a low explosion energy (∼1050 erg). We do not favor a model in which circumstellar interaction powers the supernova luminosity near maximum light because the required mass would limit the freely expanding ejecta.

  20. The Crab Nebula: A Flickering X-ray Candle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Crab Nebula, created by a supernova seen nearly a thousand years ago, is one of the sky's most famous "star wrecks." For decades, most astronomers have regarded it as the steadiest beacon at X-...

  1. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in human blood in relation to consumption of crabs from a contaminated Fjord area in Norway.

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, H R; Alexander, J; Rossland, O J; Planting, S; Løvik, M; Gaarder, P I; Gdynia, W; Bjerve, K S; Becher, G

    1996-01-01

    Consumption of fish and shellfish from contaminated areas may be an important source of human exposure to persistent organohalogen compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). We determined concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs and 19 PCB congeners in whole blood samples from three groups of men, 40-54 years of age, with different consumption levels of crabs from a fjord area in southern Norway polluted with organochlorine compounds from a magnesium production plant. A significant increase of many PCDD/PCDF congeners was found in the blood when comparing the referents, moderate-, and high-intake groups. The greatest difference was observed for several of the PCDFs that are characteristic for the contamination of the marine biota of the fjord. PCBs, in general, play a minor role in the contamination of the fjord by the magnesium production process, except for the highly chlorinated congeners such as PCB-209. Nevertheless, almost all PCBs increased from the referents to the high-intake group. However, the relative concentrations of several highly chlorinated PCBs (particularly PCB-209) in blood are unexpectedly low compared to their abundance in crabs, indicating low uptake of these congeners. The exposure to PCDDs/PCDFs from crab consumption calculated from individual body burdens of these compounds were in good agreement with the intake estimated from previously measured concentrations in crabs, reported fishing sites, and consumption. Almost all subjects in the high-intake group exceeded the tolerable weekly intake of 35 pg TEQ/kg body weight/week proposed by a Nordic Expert Group. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8841762

  2. Design of Superconducting Parallel Bar Deflecting and Crabbing rf Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Delayen, Haipeng Wang

    2009-05-01

    A new concept for a deflecting and crabbing rf structure based on half-wave resonant lines was introduced recently*. It offers significant advantages to existing designs and, because of it compactness, allows low frequency operation. This concept has been further refined and optimized for superconducting implementation. Results of this optimization and application to a 400 MHz crabbing cavity and a 499 MHz deflecting cavity are presented.

  3. Human Progress Never Rolls in on Wheels of Inevitability: Biographies of Martin Luther King, Jr., in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemek, Francis E.

    1990-01-01

    Presents resources for teaching about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Outlines criteria for selecting biographies for children and young adults. Identifies problems in certain biographies of King, and recommends high quality biographies of King. Discusses exercises for integrating themes from King's life into the classroom. (RW)

  4. Lincoln Co. Scrap Metal, Crab Orchard, Kentucky

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The City of Crab Orchard, KY (population less than 1,000) received a $200,000 EPA Brownfields cleanup grant in 2010 to cleanup up the Lincoln County ScrapMetal property. The site, a former scrap metal recycler and general junkyard, was located in the middle of downtown. The city has experienced a dramatic decline in growth over the past few years. The abandoned two-acre site is located in the city’s center, directly across the street from City Hall. It is the largest property on Main Street. The property was an eyesore, and posed potential health risks to area residents, and deterred investment. Its blighted status did little to help the commercial and private properties that surround it. The site was also home to a dilapidated building that once served as the Odd Fellows meeting hall.

  5. Crab pulsar timing 1982-87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyne, A. G.; Pritchard, R. S.; Smith, F. G.

    1988-08-01

    Observations of the arrival times of pulses from the pulsar in the Crab Nebula over a six-year interval are presented. The data are intended to permit the investigation of the interior of the neutron star through the study of glitches and timing noise and to provide an ephemeris for high-energy observations. The first and second frequency derivatives provide a value for the braking index of n = 2.509 + or - 0.001, which is consistent with previous observations. The third frequency derivative can now be determined over an 18-yr span and is as expected for this braking index. The predominant deviations from a simple slow-down model form a sinusoid with a period of 20 months, attributable to an oscillation of the bulk of the neutron superfluid in the pulsar. One conspicuous glitch occurred in August, 1986 and the subsequent recovery was studied from only one hour after the event.

  6. The Crab-like supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Frederick D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of Galactic and extragalactic SNRs suspected of having neutron central stars are reviewed, with an emphasis on Einstein X-ray observations. Sections are devoted to the Crab Nebula and its twin SNR 0540-69.3, SNR with observationally well determined and indistinct central X-ray nebulae, SNR with weak and strong unresolved internal X-ray sources, binary systems, and the relationship between X-ray and radio luminosity and pulsar energy loss. Consideration is given to radio pulsars, SNR with filled-center X-ray emission attributed to thermal processes, radio plerions and composite SNRs, MSH 15-56, and SNRs in the LMC. Extensive contour maps, sample optical images, and tables of numerical data are included.

  7. Visual motion processing subserving behavior in crabs.

    PubMed

    Tomsic, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Motion vision originated during the Cambrian explosion more than 500 million years ago, likely triggered by the race for earliest detection between preys and predators. To successfully evade a predator's attack a prey must react quickly and reliably, which imposes a common constrain to the implementation of escape responses among different species. Thus, neural circuits subserving fast escape responses are usually straightforward and contain giant neurons. This review summarizes knowledge about a small group of motion-sensitive giant neurons thought to be central in guiding the escape performance of crabs to visual stimuli. The flexibility of the escape behavior contrasts with the stiffness of the optomotor response, indicating a task-dependent early segregation of visual pathways.

  8. OSSE observations of the Crab pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulmer, M. P.; Matz, S. M.; Cameron, R. A.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Grove, J. E.; Johnson, W. N.; Jung, G. V.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Leising, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) observations of the Crab pulsar. The pulsar energy spectra and light curves are in general agreement with previous observations, validating the OSSE pulsar data acquisition modes and data analysis algorithms. The data suggest that the spectrum of the pulsar varies throughout the light curve. The 'interpulse' region has a slightly flatter spectrum in the approx. 60 to 250 keV region and a slightly steeper spectrum at higher energies than the two main pulses. No evidence was found for any lines in the spectra with a typical sensitivity of about 10(exp -4) photons/sq cm/s.

  9. Final Report for "Compact Crab Cavity Design"

    SciTech Connect

    Smithe, David N

    2012-11-08

    The goal of this project is to provide an innovative, new crab cavity design relevant to the MEIC. Through this work, we will provide comprehensive modeling of this new cavity design, including electromagnetic, thermal, and microphonic effects. One most likely candidate configuration is the design put forward by JLab and Lancaster University, UK, researchers known as the four-rod configuration. In the Phase I, Tech-X Corporation researchers performed analysis and design optimization and iteration, utilizing their state-of-the art time-domain particle-in-cell software, on a 400 MHz design for the LHC by JLab and Lancaster University, UK, researchers known as the four-rod design.

  10. Dusty globules in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenman, T.; Gahm, G. F.; Elfgren, E.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Dust grains are widespread in the Crab Nebula. A number of small, dusty globules, are visible as dark spots against the background of continuous synchrotron emission in optical images. Aims: Our aim is to catalogue such dusty globules and investigate their properties. Methods: From existing broad-band images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, we located 92 globules, for which we derived positions, dimensions, orientations, extinctions, masses, proper motions, and their distributions. Results: The globules have mean radii ranging from 400 to 2000 AU and are not resolved in current infrared images of the nebula. The extinction law for dust grains in these globules matches a normal interstellar extinction law. Derived masses of dust range from 1 to 60 × 10-6M⊙, and the total mass contained in globules constitute a fraction of approximately 2% or less of the total dust content of the nebula. The globules are spread over the outer part of the nebula, and a fraction of them coincide in position with emission filaments, where we find elongated globules that are aligned with these filaments. Only 10% of the globules are coincident in position with the numerous H2-emitting knots found in previous studies. All globules move outwards from the centre with transversal velocities of 60 to 1600 km s-1, along with the general expansion of the remnant. We discuss various hypotheses for the formation of globules in the Crab Nebula. Based on observations collected with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  11. Burrowing and foraging activity of marsh crabs under different ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    New England salt marshes are susceptible to degradation and habitat loss as a result of increased periods of inundation as sea levels rise. Increased inundation may exacerbate marsh degradation that can result from crab burrowing and foraging. Most studies to date have focused on how crab burrowing and foraging can impact the dominant low marsh plant species, Spartina alterniflora. Here we used a mesocosm experiment to examine the relationship of foraging and burrowing activity in two dominant New England crab species, Sesarma reticulatum and Uca pugilator, and the combined effect of inundation, on the dominant high marsh plant species Spartina patens using a 3 × 2 factorial design with three crab treatments (Sesarma, Uca, control) at two levels of inundation (low, high). Plants were labeled with a nitrogen (N) stable isotope tracer to estimate plant consumption by the two crab species. At both levels of inundation, we found that S. reticulatum had a significant negative impact on both above- and below-ground biomass by physically clipping and uprooting the plants, whereas U. pugilator had no significant impact. Low inundation treatments for both crab species had significantly greater aboveground biomass than high inundation. Stable N isotope tracer levels were roughly the same for both S. reticulatum and U. pugilator tissue, suggesting that the impact of S. reticulatum on S. patens was not through consumption of the plants. Overall, our results suggest the pot

  12. Commercially Important Meroplankton of the Lower Chesapeake Bay and Proposed Norfolk Disposal Site. I. Blue Crabs, Rock Crabs and Oysters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    and 7 (k) ............ .. 25 5 Abundance (#/m3 ) of Crassostrea virginica from oblique tows (153 u mesh) at the Bay mouth Stations: east of the...f - -f -) - - - - -n -i -) .- -.- Information accumulated over the past seven decades indicates that larvae of Crassostrea virginica migrate in...O7Wcommercial importance such as oysters ( Crassostrea vir_.inica), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and possibly, the rock crab (Cancer irroratus). A

  13. Fiddler crabs (Uca spp.) as model hosts for laboratory infections of Hematodinium perezi.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Patricia A; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2017-02-01

    The parasitic dinoflagellate, Hematodinium perezi, negatively impacts the commercially important blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. The parasite is a host generalist, but it has not been reported from littoral fiddler crabs living within a few meters of habitat known to harbor infected blue crabs. In the first study, populations of three species of fiddler crab were screened for natural infections. The infection status of field-collected and lab-inoculated crabs was determined by screening fresh hemolymph with a 0.3% neutral red solution. Fiddler crabs were collected by hand in an area adjacent to where infected blue crabs were commonly collected. None of the 431 fiddlers had natural infections. In two separate studies, three species of fiddler crabs, Uca minax, U. pugnax, and U. pugilator, were evaluated for their susceptibility to H. perezi via inoculation of trophic stages. Uca minax inoculated with 10,000 cells of H. perezi were monitored for progression of the parasite. During hemolymph screenings of disease progression, filamentous trophonts, ameboid trophonts, and clump colonies were observed, indicative of active infections. In the second study, the minimum infective dose in U. minax was investigated. Fiddler crabs were inoculated with 0, 100, 1000, or 10,000 cells per crab. The minimum dose was determined to be approximately 1000 ameboid trophonts per crab. All three species of fiddler crab were susceptible to H. perezi via inoculation. The parasite was serially transferred from fiddler crabs to blue crabs without loss of infectivity. Survival studies indicated similar progression patterns to those observed in blue crabs. Based on our results fiddler crabs can serve as a laboratory model for investigating H. perezi infections and may be useful for comparative studies with blue crabs.

  14. Avian cholera in Southern Great Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) from Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leotta, G.A.; Rivas, M.; Chinen, I.; Vigo, G.B.; Moredo, F.A.; Coria, N.; Wolcott, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    A southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus) was found dead at Potter Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland, Antarctica. The adult male was discovered approximately 48 hr after death. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were compatible with avian cholera and the bacterium Pasteurella multocida subsp. gallicida, serotype A1 was isolated from lung, heart, liver, pericardial sac, and air sacs. In addition, Escherichia coli was isolated from pericardial sac and air sacs. This is the first known report of avian cholera in a southern giant petrel in Antarctica.

  15. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9–10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy. PMID:27257681

  16. 11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW FROM JUST AFT OF THE KING POST IN THE FOC'S'LE OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. FIRE EXTINGUISHER IS MOUNTED ON STUB OF FOREMAST. OBJECT AT LOWER LEFT IS A FOLDING MESS TABLE. LADDER LEADS TO DECK. CABINET AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED SINK FOR CLEAN-UP AND COOKING. A SMALL CHINA SINK AT RIGHT CENTER SERVED FOR PERSONAL CLEAN-UP AND SHAVING. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  17. Restoring fire to wilderness: Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manley, Jeffrey; Keifer, MaryBeth; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Kaage, William

    2001-01-01

    Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, established in 1890, consist of 863,741 acres (349,551 ha) of Sierra Nevada foothills, mid-elevation conifer forest, and high-elevation alpine environment. The parks contain 36 giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) groves, including the largest known tree, the General Sherman. Ninety-four percent of the parklands is in designated or proposed wilderness (fig. 1), with conditions resembling roadless areas in national forests.

  18. Morphology of the caudal fossa in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Gonzalez, Sofia; Olby, Natasha J; McCullough, Susan; Pease, Anthony P; Broadstone, Richard; Osborne, Jason A

    2009-01-01

    Chiari malformations and syringohydromyelia are an important disease complex in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. Although abnormalities in caudal fossa morphology are considered major contributors to the development of this disease, limited information exists on the range of morphologies in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and on the relationship of these to clinically evident disease. Sixty-four Cavalier King Charles Spaniels were studied. Each underwent a neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and brain. T2-weighted sagittal images were used to determine both the morphologic characteristics and volume of the caudal fossa in each dog. This volume was also analyzed as a percentage of total cranial cavity volume. Each attribute was correlated with neurological grade and presence of syringohydromyelia. Fifteen dogs had neurologic signs, and 59 had morphologic abnormalities of the craniocervical junction. While 27 dogs had syringohydromyelia, 13 of these were clinically normal. Cerebellar herniation and occipital dysplasia were common findings but were not associated with syringohydromyelia. Dorsal compressive lesions were noted at the first and second cervical vertebral junction. Factors associated with the presence of neurologic signs included syringohydromyelia and the ratio of caudal fossa/total cranial cavity volume; dogs with signs had significantly larger syringohydromyelia than asymptomatic dogs. Caudal fossa size was not associated with syringohydromyelia. A positive association was identified between foramen magnum size and length of cerebellar herniation. The prevalence of craniocervical junction abnormalities is high in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. While several factors are associated with neurologic signs, occipital hypoplasia appears to be the most important factor.

  19. KINGS RIVER, RANCHERIA, AGNEW, AND OAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Longwell, Warren D.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the Kings River, Rancheria, Agnew, and Oat Mountain Roadless Areas, California were found to have several areas with probable mineral-resource potential for tungsten in tactite, and one area with probable mineral-resource potential for lode gold in quartz veins. The extreme relief and inaccessibility in most of the roadless areas make exploration and mining very difficult. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of energy resources.

  20. Toward Inclusive Understandings of Marriage in an Early Childhood Classroom: Negotiating (Un)readiness, Community, and Vulnerability through a Critical Reading of "King and King"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Dana Frantz; Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    This collaborative classroom research study examines the ways in which preschoolers made sense of same-sex marriage through a critical reading of the book "King and King" by De Haan and Nijland. Acknowledging the importance of community in doing critical and political work, this article details the ways in which a preschool teacher and a…

  1. Use of morphometric measurements to differentiate between species and sex of king and clapper rails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Marie; King, S.L.; Travis, S.E.; Linscombe, J.

    2009-01-01

    King Rails (Rallus elegans) and Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris) are large, secretive waterbirds whose ranges overlap in brackish marshes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. King and Clapper Rails are difficult to separate by physical appearance and there is currently no reliable method to distinguish between the two species. Here, the relative effectiveness of using discriminant analysis of morphometric measurements to identify and sex King and Clapper Rails was examined. Mean measurements of wing, tarsus, and weight were different between male King and Clapper Rails and between female King and Clapper Rails. However, for all measurements except culmen, male Clapper Rails and female King Rails were not different. Discriminate analysis of morphometric measurements revealed that wing, tarsus, and culmen measurements differentiated between King and Clapper Rails, but cross-validation results for male Clapper Rails were only 73%. Male King Rails were larger than female King Rails for all morphometric measurements and male Clapper Rails were larger than female Clapper Rails for all morphometric measurements except for the tail. Wing and tarsus measurements differentiated between male and female King Rails and wing, tarsus, and culmen measurements differentiated between male and female Clapper Rails.

  2. Ultraviolet reflecting photonic microstructures in the King Penguin beak

    PubMed Central

    Dresp, Birgitta; Jouventin, Pierre; Langley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    King and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus and Aptenodytes forsteri) are the only species of marine birds so far known to reflect ultraviolet (UV) light from their beaks. Unlike humans, most birds perceive UV light and several species communicate using the near UV spectrum. Indeed, UV reflectance in addition to the colour of songbird feathers has been recognized as an important signal when choosing a mate. The king penguin is endowed with several highly coloured ornaments, notably its beak horn and breast and auricular plumage, but only its beak reflects UV, a property considered to influence its sexual attraction. Because no avian UV-reflecting pigments have yet been identified, the origin of such reflections is probably structural. In an attempt to identify the structures that give rise to UV reflectance, we combined reflectance spectrophotometry and morphological analysis by both light and electron microscopy, after experimental removal of surface layers of the beak horn. Here, we characterize for the first time a multilayer reflector photonic microstructure that produces the UV reflections in the king penguin beak. PMID:17148195

  3. STS-57 Earth observation of King Sound in northwest Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Earth observation taken aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, is of King Sound in northwest Australia. Roebuck Bay with the city of Broom on its northern shore is south of King Sound. Sediment in the sound is deposited by the Fitzroy River, which is the major body draining the Kimberley Plateau about 200 miles to the west. The extent of the tidal flats around the Sound is indicated by the large white areas covered with a salty residue. According to NASA scientists studying the STS-57 Earth photos, northwest wind gusts are ruffling areas of the water's surface at the mouth of King Sound and in neighboring Collier Bay. Therefore the water is less reflective and dark. The higher reflectance on the brightest areas is caused by biological oils floating on the surface and reducing the capillary wave action. The scientists point out that the oils take the forms of the currents and eddies in the picture. These eddies indicate that the water offshore is moving at a different speed

  4. Strategies for nest-site selection by king eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, R.L.; Powell, A.N.; Suydam, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nest site selection is a critical component of reproduction and has presumably evolved in relation to predation, local resources, and microclimate. We investigated nest-site choice by king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) on the coastal plain of northern Alaska, USA, 2003-2005. We hypothesized that nest-site selection is driven by predator avoidance and that a variety of strategies including concealment, seclusion, and conspecific or inter-specific nest defense might lead to improved nesting success. We systematically searched wetland basins for king eider nests and measured habitat and social variables at nests (n = 212) and random locations (n = 493). King eiders made use of both secluded and concealed breeding strategies; logistic regression models revealed that females selected nests close to water, on islands, and in areas with high willow (Salix spp.) cover but did not select sites near conspecific or glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) nests. The most effective nest-placement strategy may vary depending on density and types of nest predators; seclusion is likely a mammalian-predator avoidance tactic whereas concealment may provide protection from avian predators. We recommend that managers in northern Alaska attempt to maintain wetland basins with islands and complex shorelines to provide potential nest sites in the vicinity of water. ?? The Wildlife Society.

  5. Levels of toxic metals in marine organisms collected from Southern California coastal waters.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, B A; Fay, R C; Walter, R L; Willis, R D; Gutknecht, W F

    1975-01-01

    Emission of toxic trace metals into southern California coastal waters has resulted in the extensive accumulation of the elements within marine sediments. The current study was undertaken to evaluate concentrations of trace metals in bottom-dwelling marine fauna collected from two sampling areas. Analyses carried out on muscle samples of the dover sole (Microstomus pacificus) and the crab (Cancer anthonyi) by proton-induced x-ray emission analysis showed considerable concentrations of arsenic and selenium. Samples of gonads, digestive gland, and muscle from the crab Mursia gaudichaudii analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy showed elemental concentrations in muscle similar to the crab Cancer anthonyi and much higher metal levels in gonad and digestive gland. These findings suggest the need for further studies concerning the relationship between emission of metals into the marine environment and their abundance in marine fauna. PMID:1227863

  6. Maine belowground marsh destruction from the European green crab documented by computer-aided tomography

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive European green crab (Carcinus maenus) populations have exploded with devastating losses to Maine’s intertidal resources including soft-shell clams, eelgrass beds, and salt marshes. This project quantified the green crab abundance in three different marsh locations ...

  7. Shell use: an adaptation for emigration from the sea by the coconut crab.

    PubMed

    Reese, E S

    1968-07-26

    The coconut crab. Birgus latro (L.) emigrates from the sea during the postlarval glaucothoe stage. Glaucothoes show ancestral hermit crab behavior of living in empty gastropod shells which protect them during this vulnerable time.

  8. Genome Sequence Analysis of CsRV1: A Pathogenic Reovirus that Infects the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus Across Its Trans-Hemispheric Range

    PubMed Central

    Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R.; Warg, Janet V.; Neill, John D.; Killian, Mary L.; Vinagre, Anapaula S.; Brown, Shanai; Almeida, Andréa Santos e; Schott, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896, which is a commercially important trophic link in coastal ecosystems of the western Atlantic, is infected in both North and South America by C. sapidus Reovirus 1 (CsRV1), a double stranded RNA virus. The 12 genome segments of a North American strain of CsRV1 were sequenced using Ion Torrent technology. Putative functions could be assigned for 3 of the 13 proteins encoded in the genome, based on their similarity to proteins encoded in other reovirus genomes. Comparison of the CsRV1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) sequence to genomes of other crab-infecting reoviruses shows that it is similar to the mud crab reovirus found in Scylla serrata and WX-2012 in Eriocheir sinensis, Chinese mitten crab, and supports the idea that there is a distinct “Crabreo” genus, different from Seadornavirus and Cardoreovirus, the two closest genera in the Reoviridae. A region of 98% nucleotide sequence identity between CsRV1 and the only available sequence of the P virus of Macropipus depurator suggests that these two viruses may be closely related. An 860 nucleotide region of the CsRV1 RdRP gene was amplified and sequenced from 15 infected crabs collected from across the geographic range of C. sapidus. Pairwise analysis of predicted protein sequences shows that CsRV1 strains in Brazil can be distinguished from those in North America based on conserved residues in this gene. The sequencing, annotation, and preliminary population metrics of the genome of CsRV1 should facilitate additional studies in diverse disciplines, including structure-function relationships of reovirus proteins, investigations into the evolution of the Reoviridae, and biogeographic research on the connectivity of C. sapidus populations across the Northern and Southern hemispheres. PMID:26904003

  9. Genome Sequence Analysis of CsRV1: A Pathogenic Reovirus that Infects the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus Across Its Trans-Hemispheric Range.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Emily M; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R; Warg, Janet V; Neill, John D; Killian, Mary L; Vinagre, Anapaula S; Brown, Shanai; Almeida, Andréa Santos E; Schott, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896, which is a commercially important trophic link in coastal ecosystems of the western Atlantic, is infected in both North and South America by C. sapidus Reovirus 1 (CsRV1), a double stranded RNA virus. The 12 genome segments of a North American strain of CsRV1 were sequenced using Ion Torrent technology. Putative functions could be assigned for 3 of the 13 proteins encoded in the genome, based on their similarity to proteins encoded in other reovirus genomes. Comparison of the CsRV1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) sequence to genomes of other crab-infecting reoviruses shows that it is similar to the mud crab reovirus found in Scylla serrata and WX-2012 in Eriocheir sinensis, Chinese mitten crab, and supports the idea that there is a distinct "Crabreo" genus, different from Seadornavirus and Cardoreovirus, the two closest genera in the Reoviridae. A region of 98% nucleotide sequence identity between CsRV1 and the only available sequence of the P virus of Macropipus depurator suggests that these two viruses may be closely related. An 860 nucleotide region of the CsRV1 RdRP gene was amplified and sequenced from 15 infected crabs collected from across the geographic range of C. sapidus. Pairwise analysis of predicted protein sequences shows that CsRV1 strains in Brazil can be distinguished from those in North America based on conserved residues in this gene. The sequencing, annotation, and preliminary population metrics of the genome of CsRV1 should facilitate additional studies in diverse disciplines, including structure-function relationships of reovirus proteins, investigations into the evolution of the Reoviridae, and biogeographic research on the connectivity of C. sapidus populations across the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

  10. Location of volatile odor sources by ghost crabOcypode quadrata (Fabricius).

    PubMed

    Wellins, C A; Rittschof, D; Wachowiak, M

    1989-04-01

    The ghost crab,Ocypode quadrata, was tested in the field for its ability to locate sources of volatile cues. The pure compound skatole, 3-methylindole, was a potent attractant. Crabs also located sources of complex odors such as dead fish,Lutjanus campechanus, dead mole crabs,Emerita talpoida; and peeled bananas. Ghost crabs possess concealed and reduced antennules that may not be the primary olfactory organs. Chemosensory hairs borne on the dactyls may be the primary detection system.

  11. Design and prototyping of HL-LHC double quarter wave crab cavities for SPS test

    SciTech Connect

    Verdu-Andres, S.; Skaritka, J.; Wu, Q.; Xiao, B.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Alberty, L.; Artoos, K.; Calaga, R.; Capatina, O.; Capelli, T.; Carra, F.; Leuxe, R.; Kuder, N.; Zanoni, C.; Li, Z.; Ratti, A.

    2015-05-03

    The LHC high luminosity project envisages the use of the crabbing technique for increasing and levelling the LHC luminosity. Double Quarter Wave (DQW) resonators are compact cavities especially designed to meet the technical and performance requirements for LHC beam crabbing. Two DQW crab cavities are under fabrication and will be tested with beam in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN by 2017. This paper describes the design and prototyping of the DQW crab cavities for the SPS test.

  12. Characterization of the Crab Pulsar's Timing Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. M.; Finger, M. H.; Wilson, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a power spectral analysis of the Crab pulsar's timing noise, mainly using radio measurements from Jodrell Bank taken over the period 1982-1989, an interval bounded by sparse data sampling and a large glitch. The power spectral analysis is complicated by nonuniform data sampling and the presence of a steep red power spectrum that can distort power spectra measurement by causing severe power 'leakage'. We develop a simple windowing method for computing red noise power spectra of uniformly sampled data sets and test it on Monte Carlo generated sample realizations of red power-law noise. We generalize time-domain methods of generating power-law red noise with even integer spectral indices to the case of noninteger spectral indices. The Jodrell Bank pulse phase residuals are dense and smooth enough that an interpolation onto a uniform time series is possible. A windowed power spectrum is computed revealing a periodic or nearly periodic component with a period of 568 +/- 10 days and a l/f(exp 3) power-law noise component in pulse phase with a noise strength S(sub infinity)=(1.24 +/- 0.067) x 10(exp 16) cycles(exp 2)/sec(exp 2) over the analysis frequency range f=0.003- 0.1 cycles/day. This result deviates from past analyses which characterized the pulse phase timing residuals as either l/f(sub 4) power-law noise or a quasiperiodic process. The analysis was checked using the Deeter polynomial method of power spectrum estimation that was developed for the case of nonuniform sampling, but has lower spectral resolution. The timing noise is consistent with a torque noise spectrum rising with analysis frequency as f implying blue torque noise, a result not predicted by current models of pulsar timing noise. If the periodic or nearly periodic component is due to a binary companion, we find a mass function f(M) = (6.8 +/- 2.4) x 10(exp -16) solar mass and a companion mass, M(sub c) is greater than or equal to 3.2 solar mass assuming a Crab pulsar mass of 1.4 solar

  13. 50 CFR 648.263 - Red crab possession and landing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.263 Red crab possession and landing...-processing prohibition. No person may fully process at sea, possess, or land, fully-processed red crab. (5... Management Unit. (2) Full-processing prohibition. No person may fully process at sea, possess, or land,...

  14. 50 CFR 648.263 - Red crab possession and landing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.263 Red crab possession and landing...-processing prohibition. No person may fully process at sea, possess, or land, fully-processed red crab. (5... Management Unit. (2) Full-processing prohibition. No person may fully process at sea, possess, or land,...

  15. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 50 CFR Table 3a to Part 680 - Crab Delivery Condition Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Delivery Condition Codes 3a Table 3a... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3a Table 3a to Part 680—Crab Delivery Condition Codes Code Description 01 Whole crab, live. 79 Deadloss....

  17. 50 CFR Table 3a to Part 680 - Crab Delivery Condition Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crab Delivery Condition Codes 3a Table 3a... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3a Table 3a to Part 680—Crab Delivery Condition Codes Code Description 01 Whole crab, live. 79 Deadloss....

  18. 50 CFR 648.262 - Accountability measures for red crab limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accountability measures for red crab... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.262 Accountability measures for red crab limited access vessels. (a) Closure authority. NMFS shall close the EEZ to...

  19. 50 CFR 648.262 - Accountability measures for red crab limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accountability measures for red crab... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.262 Accountability measures for red crab limited access vessels. (a) Closure authority. NMFS shall close the EEZ to...

  20. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 50 CFR Table 3a to Part 680 - Crab Delivery Condition Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crab Delivery Condition Codes 3a Table 3a... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 680, Table 3a Table 3a to Part 680—Crab Delivery Condition Codes Code Description 01 Whole crab, live. 79 Deadloss....

  2. 50 CFR 648.262 - Accountability measures for red crab limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accountability measures for red crab... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.262 Accountability measures for red crab limited access vessels. (a) Closure authority. NMFS shall close the EEZ to...

  3. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section 408.50 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 76 FR 25545 - Safety Zone; Blue Crab Festival Fireworks Display, Little River, Little River, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Crab Festival Fireworks Display... Carolina during the Blue Crab Festival Fireworks Display on Friday, ] May 13, 2011. The safety zone is... this rule because the Coast Guard did not receive notice of the Blue Crab Festival Fireworks...

  7. 40 CFR 408.20 - Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conventional blue crab processing subcategory. 408.20 Section 408.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.20 Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  8. 40 CFR 408.20 - Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conventional blue crab processing subcategory. 408.20 Section 408.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.20 Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  9. 40 CFR 408.30 - Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. 408.30 Section 408.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.30 Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  10. 40 CFR 408.30 - Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. 408.30 Section 408.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.30 Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  11. 40 CFR 408.30 - Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. 408.30 Section 408.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.30 Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  12. 40 CFR 408.20 - Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conventional blue crab processing subcategory. 408.20 Section 408.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.20 Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  13. 40 CFR 408.20 - Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conventional blue crab processing subcategory. 408.20 Section 408.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.20 Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  14. 40 CFR 408.30 - Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. 408.30 Section 408.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.30 Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  15. 40 CFR 408.20 - Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conventional blue crab processing subcategory. 408.20 Section 408.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.20 Applicability; description of the conventional blue crab processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  16. 40 CFR 408.30 - Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. 408.30 Section 408.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.30 Applicability; description of the mechanized blue crab processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  17. Patterns of activity expressed by juvenile horseshoe crabs.

    PubMed

    Dubofsky, E A; Simpson, S D; Chabot, Christopher C; Watson, Winsor H

    2013-09-01

    Adult American horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, possess endogenous circadian and circatidal clocks controlling visual sensitivity and locomotion, respectively. The goal of this study was to determine the types of activity rhythms expressed by juvenile horseshoe crabs (n = 24) when exposed to a 14:10 light/dark cycle (LD) for 10 days, followed by 10 days of constant darkness (DD). Horseshoe crab activity was recorded with a digital time-lapse video system that used an infrared-sensitive camera so animals could be monitored at night. In LD, 15 animals expressed daily patterns of activity, 6 displayed a circatidal pattern, and the remaining 3 were arrhythmic. Of the 15 animals with daily patterns of locomotion, 7 had a significant preference (P < 0.05) for diurnal activity and 3 for nocturnal activity; the remainder did not express a significant preference for day or night activity. In DD, 13 horseshoe crabs expressed circatidal rhythms and 8 maintained a pattern of about 24 h. Although these results suggest the presence of a circadian clock influencing circatidal patterns of locomotion, these apparent circadian rhythms may actually represent the expression of just one of the two bouts of activity driven by the putative circalunidian clocks that control their tidal rhythms. Overall, these results indicate that, like adults, juvenile horseshoe crabs express both daily and tidal patterns of activity and that at least one, and maybe both, of these patterns is driven by endogenous clocks.

  18. Predicting habitat associations of five intertidal crab species among estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeiren, Peter; Sheaves, Marcus

    2014-08-01

    Intertidal crab assemblages that are active on the sediment surface of tropical estuaries during tidal exposure play an important role in many fundamental ecosystem processes. Consequently, they are critical contributors to a wide range of estuarine goods and services. However, a lack of understanding of their spatial organization within a large landscape context prevents the inclusion of intertidal crabs into generally applicable ecological models and management applications. We investigated spatial distribution patterns of intertidal crabs within and among eight dry tropical estuaries spread across a 160 km stretch of coast in North East Queensland, Australia. Habitat associations were modelled for five species based on photographic sampling in 40-80 sites per estuarine up- and downstream component: Uca seismella occurred in sites with little structure, bordered by low intertidal vegetation; Macrophthalmus japonicus occupied flat muddy sites with no structure or vegetation; Metopograpsus frontalis and Metopograpsus latifrons occupied sites covered with structure in more than 10% and 25% respectively. Finally, both Metopograpsus spp. and Metopograpsus thukuhar occupied rock walls. Habitat associations were predictable among estuaries with moderate to high sensitivity and low percentages of false positives indicating that simple, physical factors were adequate to explain the spatial distribution pattern of intertidal crabs. Results provide a necessary first step in developing generally applicable understanding of the fundamental mechanisms driving spatial niche organization of intertidal crabs within a landscape context.

  19. ELEMENT DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Satterfield, Timothy J.; Katz, Andrea M.; Sibley, Adam R.; MacAlpine, Gordon M.; Uomoto, Alan

    2012-07-15

    Images of the Crab Nebula have been obtained through custom interference filters that transmit emission from the expanding supernova remnant in He II {lambda}4686, H{beta}, He I {lambda}5876, [O I] {lambda}{lambda}6300, 6364, [N II] {lambda}{lambda}6548, 6583, [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6716, 6731, [S III] {lambda}9069, and [C I] {lambda}{lambda}9823, 9850. We present both raw and flux-calibrated emission-line images. Arrays of 19,440 photoionization models, with extensive input abundance ranges, were matched pixel by pixel to the calibrated data in order to derive corresponding element abundance or mass-fraction distributions for helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. These maps show distinctive structure, and they illustrate regions of gas in which various stages of nucleosynthesis have apparently occurred, including the CNO cycle, helium burning, carbon burning, and oxygen burning. It is hoped that the calibrated observations and chemical abundance distribution maps will be useful for developing a better understanding of the precursor star evolution and the supernova explosive process.

  20. Unpulsed Optical Emission from the Crab Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, A.; Shearer, A.; Beskin, G. M.

    2000-05-01

    Based on observations of the Crab pulsar using the TRIFFID high-speed imaging photometer in the UBV bands using the Special Astrophysical Observatory's 6 m telescope in the Russian Caucasus, we report the detection of pronounced emission during the so-called off phase of emission. Following de-extinction, this unpulsed component of emission is shown to be consistent with a power law with an exponent of α=-0.60+/-0.37, the uncertainty being dominated by the error associated with the independent CCD photometry used to reference the TRIFFID data. This suggests a steeper power-law form than that reported elsewhere in the literature for the total integrated spectrum, which is essentially flat with α~0.1, although the difference in this case is only significant at the <=2 σ level. Deeper reference integrated and TRIFFID phase-resolved photometry, in these bands in conjunction with further observations in the UV and R region, would constrain this fit further. Based on observations using the 6 m telescope at the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Nizhnii Arkhyz, Russia.

  1. Dishonest signalling in a fiddler crab.

    PubMed

    Backwell, P R; Christy, J H; Telford, S R; Jennions, M D; Passmore, N I

    2000-04-07

    Animal communication theory predicts that low-frequency cheating should be common in generally honest signalling systems. However, perhaps because cheats are designed to go undetected, there are few examples of dishonest signals in natural populations. Here we present what we believe is the first example of a dishonest signal which is used commonly by males to attract mates and fight sexual rivals. After losing their large claw male fiddler crabs (Uca annulipes) grow a new one which has less mass, is a less effective weapon and costs less to use in signalling than an equivalent-length claw of the original form. Males with original claws do not differentially fight males with regenerated claws even though they are likely to win. Regenerated claws effectively bluff fighting ability and deter potential opponents before they fight. During mate searching, females do not discriminate against males with low-mass, regenerated claws, indicating that they are deceived as to the true costs males pay to produce sexual signals. Up to 44% of males in natural populations have regenerated claws, a level unanticipated by current signalling theory. The apparent rarity of cheating may be an artefact of the usual difficulty of detecting cheats and dishonesty may be quite common.

  2. 76 FR 2438 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Kings, Queens, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Early Renaissance France'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to... the exhibition ``Kings, Queens, and Courtiers: Art in Early Renaissance France'' imported from...

  3. The hometowns of malaria patients admitted to King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2003-01-01

    We report the data on the hometowns of malaria patients admitted to King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, between 1997 and 2001. A total of 162 patients was identified. Of these, 62 lived in Bangkok; all presented with a history of travelling to endemic areas in rural Thailand. Among the other 100 patients who did not live in Bangkok, 15, 6, 10, 12, 21 and 19 were from the northern, southern, western, eastern, northeastern and central regions, respectively. All of these cases were referred or moved from the endemic area and admitted to the hospital. The remaining 17 cases were foreigners, 10 migrant workers (all from Asia) and 7 travelers (2 from Asia and 5 from Europe). According to this study, there were four main groups of patients admitted to the tertiary hospital in Bangkok: a) people in Bangkok exposed to malaria when travelling to an endemic area, b) people who were infected in their hometown in an endemic area and referred or moved to the hospital, c) migrant workers from nearby countries, who bring malaria from endemic areas in their countries, and d) naïve cases, such as the travelers from Western countries, who exposed to malaria while travelling in Thailand.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants and stable isotopes in pinnipeds from King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Cipro, Caio V Z; Bustamante, Paco; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2012-12-01

    In the present work, fat, skin, liver and muscle samples from Leptonychotes weddellii (Weddell seal, n=2 individuals), Lobodon carcinophagus (crabeater seal, n=2), Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic fur seal, n=3) and Mirounga leonina (southern elephant seal, n=1) were collected from King George Island, Antarctica, and analysed for POPs (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and PBDEs) and stable isotopes (δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N in all tissues but fat). PBDEs could be found in only one sample (L. weddellii fat). Generally, PCBs (from 74 to 523 ng g⁻¹ lw), DDTs (from 14 to 168 ng g⁻¹ lw) and chlordanes (from 9 to 78 ng g⁻¹ lw) were the prevailing compounds. Results showed a clear stratification in accordance with ecological data. Nonetheless, stable isotope analyses provide a deeper insight into fluctuations due to migrations and nutritional stress. Correlation between δ(15)N and pollutants suggests, to some degree, a considerable ability to metabolize and/or excrete the majority of them.

  5. 75 FR 49420 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In... (TAC) and corresponding fleet days-at-sea (DAS) allocation for the Atlantic deep- sea red crab fishery... the implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep- Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan...

  6. 76 FR 43658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2011/2012 crab fishing year so...

  7. [Study on the toxicity of horseshoe crabs in mice].

    PubMed

    Liao, Y; Li, X

    2000-05-30

    In order to study the toxicity of horseshoe crabs(tachypleus tridentatus and carcinoscorpius rotundicauda) in the sea of China, the extracts of tissues from tachypleus tridentatus and carcinoscorpius rotundicauda were injected into the abdominal cavity of mice for testing their poisoning effects. The results showed that the toxicity of carcinoscorpius rotundicauda was much higher than that of tachypleus tridentatus. The length of time from the injection to the death was much shorter for Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda than that for tachypleus tridentatus. The signs before death for Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda poisoning were restless, jumping and spasm but that for Tachypleus tridentatus was lethargy. The toxicity of adult horseshoe crabs was much higher than that of young horseshoe crabs.

  8. The surprising Crab pulsar and its nebula: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, R.; Blandford, R.

    2014-06-01

    The Crab nebula and its pulsar (referred to together as ‘the Crab’) have historically played a central role in astrophysics. True to this legacy, several unique discoveries have been made recently. The Crab was found to emit gamma-ray pulsations up to energies of 400 GeV, beyond what was previously expected from pulsars. Strong gamma-ray flares, of durations of a few days, were discovered from within the nebula, while the source was previously expected to be stable in flux on these time scales. Here we review these intriguing and suggestive developments. In this context we give an overview of the observational properties of the Crab and our current understanding of pulsars and their nebulae.

  9. Chandra Observations of the Crab: A Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Recently there have been two important findings concerning the Crab both of which are highlighted in this workshop. One finding was the discovery, using the AGILE and Fermi satellites, of gamma-ray flares from the direction of the Crab Nebula. The other finding was the variability, up to 7%, with time scales of the order of a year of the integrated hard X-ray emission. We have been using the Chandra X-Ray observatory to monitor the Crab on a monthly cadence since just after the 2010 September gamma-ray flare. We were also fortunate to trigger series of preplanned target of opportunity observations during the 2011 April flare. Our monitoring observations are on-going and will extend, at a minimum until the fall of 2012. We present an update and overview of these observations.

  10. Double lethal coconut crab (Birgus latro L.) poisoning.

    PubMed

    Maillaud, C; Lefebvre, S; Sebat, C; Barguil, Y; Cabalion, P; Cheze, M; Hnawia, E; Nour, M; Durand, F

    2010-01-01

    We report a double lethal coconut crab Birgus latro L. poisoning in New Caledonia. Both patients died after showing gastro-intestinal symptoms, major bradycardia with marked low blood pressure, and finally asystolia. Both had significative hyperkaliemia, suggesting a digitaline-like substance intoxication. Traditional knowledge in the Loyalty Islands relates coconut crab toxicity to the consumption of the Cerbera manghas fruit by the crustacean. Elsewhere previous descriptions of human poisoning with the kernel of fruits of trees belonging to the genus Cerbera, known to contain cardiotoxic cardenolides, appear to be very similar to our cases. Cardenolides assays were performed on patient's serum samples, fruit kernel and on the crustacean guts, which lead us to suppose these two fatal cases were the result of a neriifolin intoxication, this toxin having been transmitted through the coconut crab.

  11. Associational resistance protects mangrove leaves from crab herbivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Amy A.; Bell, Susan S.; Dawes, Clinton J.

    2012-05-01

    While associational defenses have been well documented in many plant and algal ecosystems, this study is the first to document associational resistance in mangroves. Mangrove tree crab (Aratus pisonii) density and herbivory on three life-stages of the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were documented in pure red versus mixed-species and predominantly non-red mangrove stands containing black (Avicennia germinans) and white (Laguncularia racemosa) mangroves in 1999-2000 in Tampa Bay, Florida. This study first established that R. mangle is the focal species in the context of associational resistance because it is damaged more than either of the other mangrove species. Next, it was hypothesized that crab density and leaf damage on R. mangle would be lower when in mixed-species and predominantly non-red versus red mangrove stands. A non-significant trend suggested that crab density varies among stands, and crab damage on R. mangle leaves was significantly lower in mixed-species and non-red stands. Mechanisms to explain associational resistance were examined. Positive Pearson correlations between the percent of adult R. mangle in a stand and both crab density and R. mangle leaf damage provided support for the resource concentration hypothesis. Limited support was found for the attractant-decoy hypothesis because the total amount of damaged leaves of all mangrove species combined typically differed among stands, suggesting that crabs were not shifting to alternative mangrove species to offset reduced availability of R. mangle leaves. Finally, while R. mangle seedlings were shorter in non-red stands compared to others, intra-specific differences in R. mangle leaf chemistry and sclerophylly among stands failed to explain associational patterns. These combined results argue for the need for additional experiments to elucidate mechanisms responsible for defensive plant associations in mangrove ecosystems and to determine whether such associations could be of use in mangrove

  12. Habitat selection and energetics of the fiddler crab ( Uca tangeri)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaassen, Marcel; Ens, Bruno J.

    We tried to unravel the possible links between the skewed predation risk in Uca tangeri (where large individuals are more at risk from avian predators) and size-dependent changes in the physiology and habitat choice of this fiddler crab species. Over a transect running from low to high in the tidal zone of a beach in Mauritania, the temperature profile at various depths in the substrate, the water-table level of seep water, salt concentration of seep water, depth of the aerobic level, operative temperatures on the surface, and size distribution of crabs were assessed. In addition, resting metabolic rates, Q 10 and thermal and starvation tolerances were estimated. Going from low to high in the tidal zone, crab size and burrow depth increased. At the preferred burrowing depth, microclimatological conditions appeared to be equally favourable at all sites. At the surface, conditions were more favourable low in the tidal zone, where also food availability is sufficient to enable small crabs to forage in the vicinity of their burrows. Large crabs have higher energy requirements and are thereby forced to forage in flocks low in the tidal zone where food is probably more abundant. Low in the tidal zone, digging deeply is impossible as the aerobic layer is rather thin. Large crabs prefer living high in the tidal zone as (1) deep burrows ensure better protection against predators, (2) more time is available for digging holes and (3) the substrate is better suited for reproduction. Energy reserves in late summer ensured an average of 34 days of survival. It is argued that the allotment of energy to growth must be considerable even in reproducing animals; the rewards of growth being the disproportional increase in reproductive output with size.

  13. Nematodes Infect, But Do Not Manipulate Digging By, Sand Crabs, Lepidopa benedicti

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Meera; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    We examined sand crabs (Lepidopa benedicti) for endoparasites, and found the only parasite consistently infecting the studied population were small nematodes. Because many nematodes have complex life cycles involving multiple hosts, often strongly manipulating their hosts, we hypothesized that nematodes alter the behavior of their sand crab hosts. We predicted that more heavily infected crabs would spend more time above sand than less heavily infected crabs. Our data indicate infection by nematodes was not correlated with duration of time crabs spent above sand. We also suggest that organisms living in sandy beaches may benefit from relatively low parasite loads due to the low diversity of species in the habitat. PMID:24916475

  14. Outliers and Extremes: Dragon-Kings or Dragon-Fools?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D. J.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysics seems full of monsters like Victor Hugo's Court of Miracles and monstrous extremes have been statistically considered as outliers with respect to more normal events. However, a characteristic magnitude separating abnormal events from normal ones would be at odd with the generic scaling behaviour of nonlinear systems, contrary to "fat tailed" probability distributions and self-organized criticality. More precisely, it can be shown [1] how the apparent monsters could be mere manifestations of a singular measure mishandled as a regular measure. Monstrous fluctuations are the rule, not outliers and they are more frequent than usually thought up to the point that (theoretical) statistical moments can easily be infinite. The empirical estimates of the latter are erratic and diverge with sample size. The corresponding physics is that intense small scale events cannot be smoothed out by upscaling. However, based on a few examples, it has also been argued [2] that one should consider "genuine" outliers of fat tailed distributions so monstrous that they can be called "dragon-kings". We critically analyse these arguments, e.g. finite sample size and statistical estimates of the largest events, multifractal phase transition vs. more classical phase transition. We emphasize the fact that dragon-kings are not needed in order that the largest events become predictable. This is rather reminiscent of the Feast of Fools picturesquely described by Victor Hugo. [1] D. Schertzer, I. Tchiguirinskaia, S. Lovejoy et P. Hubert (2010): No monsters, no miracles: in nonlinear sciences hydrology is not an outlier! Hydrological Sciences Journal, 55 (6) 965 - 979. [2] D. Sornette (2009): Dragon-Kings, Black Swans and the Prediction of Crises. International Journal of Terraspace Science and Engineering 1(3), 1-17.

  15. Martin Luther King, Jr., General Hospital and, Community Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, M. Moss

    1973-01-01

    Community involvement is not just one facet of the new Martin Luther King, Jr., General Hospital's existence. It is the mainstream from which all other activities flow. In addition to meeting the conventional needs of a conventional hospital staff with the core collection of texts and journals, this library goes one step further. It acts as a resource for its community health workers, dietitians, and nurses in their various outreach programs. It serves as a stimulus for the high school or community college student who may be curious about a health career. It also finds time to provide reading material for its patients. PMID:4725343

  16. STUDIES ON SOME PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROFILES OF SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA. King

    PubMed Central

    Arumugasamy, K.; Latha, K.V.; kumar, N.H. Sathish

    2004-01-01

    The aerial parts and seeds of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) are used in exotic medicine systems. In the present study, a preliminary phytochemical and few pharmacological profiles were under taken. The physical constans, extractive and ash values were examined. The presence of secondary metabolites in the aerial parts and seeds showed that Swietenia macrophylla is a good source of active principles. TLC studies were done by treating dry treating dry powder of Swietenia macrophylla with various acids, iodine and ferric chloride solution and UV and Visible light. PMID:22557161

  17. Dermatophilus chelonae in a king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah).

    PubMed

    Wellehan, James F X; Turenne, Christine; Heard, Darryl J; Detrisac, Carol J; O'Kelley, Jeffrey J

    2004-12-01

    A mass was removed from the left flank of a 10-yr-old male king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and histologic examination revealed granulomatous dermatitis with intralesional gram-positive cocci and filamentous bacteria. Fourteen months later, a histologically similar subcutaneous mass was removed from a different site. One year later, a large subcutaneous mass at the first surgical site was removed, and histopathologic examination revealed multiloculated granulomas with intralesional gram-positive cocci. An organism was cultured and identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Dermatophilus chelonae. After a course of antibiotic therapy, no further lesions were seen for 5 mo.

  18. Martin Luther King, Jr., General Hospital and community involvement.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, M M

    1973-07-01

    Community involvement is not just one facet of the new Martin Luther King, Jr., General Hospital's existence. It is the mainstream from which all other activities flow. In addition to meeting the conventional needs of a conventional hospital staff with the core collection of texts and journals, this library goes one step further. It acts as a resource for its community health workers, dietitians, and nurses in their various outreach programs. It serves as a stimulus for the high school or community college student who may be curious about a health career. It also finds time to provide reading material for its patients.

  19. INSIGHT AGONISTES: A READING OF SOPHOCLES'S OEDIPUS THE KING.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Eugene J

    2015-07-01

    In this reading of Sophocles's Oedipus the King, the author suggests that insight can be thought of as the main protagonist of the tragedy. He personifies this depiction of insight, calling it Insight Agonistes, as if it were the sole conflicted character on the stage, albeit masquerading at times as several other characters, including gods, sphinxes, and oracles. This psychoanalytic reading of the text lends itself to an analogy between psychoanalytic process and Sophocles's tragic hero. The author views insight as always transgressing against, always at war with a conservative, societal, or intrapsychic chorus of structured elements. A clinical vignette is presented to illustrate this view of insight.

  20. A potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Myristica cinnamomea King.

    PubMed

    Sivasothy, Yasodha; Loo, Kong Yong; Leong, Kok Hoong; Litaudon, Marc; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-02-01

    A dimeric acylphenol and a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor, giganteone D (IC50 5.05μM), was isolated and characterized from the bark of Myristica cinnamomea King. The bark also yielded an acylphenol with an unprecedented skeleton for which the name cinnamomeone A (IC50 358.80μM) was proposed. Their structures were established by means of NMR and MS spectrometric analyses. The Lineweaver-Burk plot of giganteone D indicated that it was a mixed-type inhibitor. This is the first report on the α-glucosidase inhibiting potential of acylphenols.

  1. Observations of Crab Nebula and pulsar with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Ozlem

    The Crab Nebula, the standard candle in very-high-energy (VHE) astronomy, is one of the most studied sources in all of astronomy. It is scientifically important to measure the energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula close to the inverse Compton peak or above 10 TeV where a deviation from the power law, seen at energies between 300 GeV and ˜5 TeV, may occur. Additionally, it is important to search for pulsed emission from the Crab Pulsar at energies beyond 10 GeV which is the upper limit of the EGRET detection of pulsed emission. Since current models predict a cut-off in the pulsed emission between 10 and 100 GeV, measurements at energies close to this range may help to discriminate between them. With these motivations, the Crab has been observed during the 2-, 3-, and 4-telescope phases of the commissioning of the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). The energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula between 350 GeV and 6 TeV is constructed from these data sets. A simple power law, dNdE = (3.19 +/- 0.07stat +/- 0.70 sys) x 10-7 E1TeV 2.40+/-0.03 stat+/-0.17sys TeV-1m-2s-1 , is found to give the best fit to the data obtained with the full 4-telescope array of VERITAS. Furthermore, a periodic modulation is searched for in the gamma-ray emission above 100 GeV at the Crab Pulsar period of 33 ms. The Crab data set from the 2006--2008 VERITAS observations did not show any significant pulsed excess, so an upper limit on the pulsed emission from the Crab Pulsar is obtained. This upper limit constrains the cutoff energy of the spectrum to be less than 50 GeV, assuming that the differential energy spectrum of the pulsed emission has an exponential cutoff.

  2. Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope observations of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Gregory S.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Cheng, Kwang P.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gull, Theodore P.; Hintzen, Paul; Isensee, Joan E.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Roberts, Morton S.

    1992-01-01

    We obtained ultraviolet images of the Crab Nebula with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope during the Astro-1 Space Shuttle mission in 1990 December. The UV continuum morphology of the Crab is generally similar to that in the optical region, but the wispy structures are less conspicuous in the UV and X-ray. UV line emission from the thermal filaments is not strong. UV spectral index maps with a resolution of 10 arcsecs show a significant gradient across the nebula, with the outer parts being redder, as expected from synchrotron losses. The location of the bluest synchrotron continuum does not coincide with the pulsar.

  3. Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope observations of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessy, Gregory S.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Cheng, Kwang P.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gull, Theodore R.; Hintzen, Paul; Isensee, Joan E.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Smith, Eric P.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1992-08-01

    We obtained ultraviolet images of the Crab Nebula with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope during the Astro-1 Space Shuttle mission in 1990 December. The UV continuum morphology of the Crab is generally similar to that in the optical region, but the wispy structures are less conspicuous in the UV and X-ray. UV line emission from the thermal filaments is not strong. UV spectral index maps with a resolution of 10 arcsecs show a significant gradient across the nebula, with the outer parts being redder, as expected from synchrotron losses. The location of the bluest synchrotron continuum does not coincide with the pulsar.

  4. 77 FR 53179 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... includes: Final stock assessments and harvest specifications for Eastern Bering Sea (EBS) snow crab, Tanner crab, Saint Matthew blue king crab, Pribilof Islands blue king crab, Pribilof Islands red king crab and... Management Council's (NPFMC) Crab Plan Team (CPT) will meet in Seattle, WA. DATES: The meeting will be...

  5. 76 FR 22081 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... crab, Tanner crab, BBRKC, Pribilof Island Red King Crab, Pribilof Island Blue King Crab, and Saint Matthew Blue King Crab. Final assessments (including Overfishing Fishing Limits and Acceptable Biological... Fishery Management Council's (NPFMC) Crab Plan Team (CPT) will meet in Juneau, AK. DATES: The meeting...

  6. Southern Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schueler, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses results of a Green Index, published by the Institute for Southern Studies, that ranks the 50 states on the basis of 256 environmental indicators. Explores how and why the deep South states are all at the bottom of the list. A vignette provides a comparison between state hazardous waste generation and spending on waste management. (MCO)

  7. Species Diversity and Abundance of Marine Crabs (Portunidae: Decapoda) from a Collapsible Crab Trap Fishery at Kung Krabaen Bay, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kunsook, Chutapa; Dumrongrojwatthana, Pongchai

    2017-01-01

    The diversity and abundance of marine crabs from a collapsible crab trap fishery at Kung Krabaen Bay, Gulf of Thailand, were observed from August 2012 to June 2013 using 10 sampling stations. The results showed that there were seven families, 11 genera and 17 species (two anomuran and 15 brachyuran crabs). The two anomuran species were Clibanarius virescens (1,710 individuals) and Clibanarius infraspinatus (558 individuals). For brachyuran crabs, Portunidae was the most common family, including 10 species. The dominant species of brachyuran crabs included Thalamita crenata (897 individuals), Portunus pelagicus (806 individuals), Charybdis affinis (344 individuals), Scylla sp. (201 individuals), and Charybdis anisodon (100 individuals). The abundance of crabs was affected by the habitat type. Anomuran crabs had the highest abundance in Halodule pinifolia seagrass beds, whilst brachyurans had the highest abundance in Enhalus acoroides seagrass beds. The dominant brachyuran species were found in pelagic areas near the bay mouth, such as P. pelagicus, P. sanguinolentus, C. feriatus, C. helleri, C. natator, C. affinis, and M. hardwickii. Lastly, reforested mangroves were important habitats for Scylla tranquebarica and C. anisodon. Seasonal and physical factors influenced the abundance of some crabs, for example, the abundance of C. virescens was correlated with temperature, and the abundance of T. crenata was correlated with transparency depth. Our results revealed that Kung Krabaen Bay serves as the home to many marine crab species; however, our results also revealed that 49% of the harvested crabs (2,308 out of 4,694 individuals) were simply discarded and subsequently died. Moreover, our research noted that eight non-target species will become target species in the near future. Therefore, research on the reproductive biology of some marine crabs and an improved understanding of the importance of marine crabs by local fishermen are necessary to prevent biodiversity

  8. Species Diversity and Abundance of Marine Crabs (Portunidae: Decapoda) from a Collapsible Crab Trap Fishery at Kung Krabaen Bay, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunsook, Chutapa; Dumrongrojwatthana, Pongchai

    2017-01-01

    The diversity and abundance of marine crabs from a collapsible crab trap fishery at Kung Krabaen Bay, Gulf of Thailand, were observed from August 2012 to June 2013 using 10 sampling stations. The results showed that there were seven families, 11 genera and 17 species (two anomuran and 15 brachyuran crabs). The two anomuran species were Clibanarius virescens (1,710 individuals) and Clibanarius infraspinatus (558 individuals). For brachyuran crabs, Portunidae was the most common family, including 10 species. The dominant species of brachyuran crabs included Thalamita crenata (897 individuals), Portunus pelagicus (806 individuals), Charybdis affinis (344 individuals), Scylla sp. (201 individuals), and Charybdis anisodon (100 individuals). The abundance of crabs was affected by the habitat type. Anomuran crabs had the highest abundance in Halodule pinifolia seagrass beds, whilst brachyurans had the highest abundance in Enhalus acoroides seagrass beds. The dominant brachyuran species were found in pelagic areas near the bay mouth, such as P. pelagicus, P. sanguinolentus, C. feriatus, C. helleri, C. natator, C. affinis, and M. hardwickii. Lastly, reforested mangroves were important habitats for Scylla tranquebarica and C. anisodon. Seasonal and physical factors influenced the abundance of some crabs, for example, the abundance of C. virescens was correlated with temperature, and the abundance of T. crenata was correlated with transparency depth. Our results revealed that Kung Krabaen Bay serves as the home to many marine crab species; however, our results also revealed that 49% of the harvested crabs (2,308 out of 4,694 individuals) were simply discarded and subsequently died. Moreover, our research noted that eight non-target species will become target species in the near future. Therefore, research on the reproductive biology of some marine crabs and an improved understanding of the importance of marine crabs by local fishermen are necessary to prevent biodiversity

  9. Phylogeography and population history of the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous).

    PubMed

    Tchaicka, Ligia; Eizirik, Eduardo; De Oliveira, Tadeu G; Cândido, José Flávio; Freitas, Thales R O

    2007-02-01

    The crab-eating fox is a medium-sized Neotropical canid with generalist habits and a broad distribution in South America. We have investigated its genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history across most of its geographic range by analysing 512 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, 615 bp of the mtDNA cytochrome b gene and 1573 total nucleotides from three different nuclear fragments. MtDNA data revealed a strong phylogeographic partition between northeastern Brazil and other portions of the species' distribution, with complete separation between southern and northern components of the Atlantic Forest. We estimated that the two groups diverged from each other c. 400,000-600,000 years ago, and have had contrasting population histories. A recent demographic expansion was inferred for the southern group, while northern populations seem to have had a longer history of large population size. Nuclear sequence data did not support this north-south pattern of subdivision, likely due at least in part to secondary male-mediated historical gene flow, inferred from multilocus coalescent-based analyses. We have compared the inferred phylogeographic patterns to those observed for other Neotropical vertebrates, and report evidence for a major north-south demographic discontinuity that seems to have marked the history of the Atlantic Forest biota.

  10. The complete mitogenome of the hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda, Brachyura) and comparison with brachyuran crabs.

    PubMed

    Ki, Jang-Seu; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda: Brachyura) obtained from the hydrothermal vents off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan, which extend from the deep sea Okinawa Trench. The mitogenome of X. testudinatus was 15,796 bp in length and contained the same 37 genes (e.g. 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 13 PCGs) found in other metazoan mitogenomes. Analysis of the structural mt gene order in X. testudinatus revealed that the 13 PCGs, excluding a translocation of ND6-Cyt b cluster, were similarly ordered when compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern; however the tRNAs were severely rearranged. Phylogenetic analysis of decapod mitogenomes showed that the molecular taxonomy of the vent crab was in accordance with its morphological systematics. Together, these findings suggest that the vent crab studied here has little mitochondrial genetic variation when compared with morphologically defined conspecifics from other marine habitats.

  11. The use of artificial crabs for testing predatory behavior and health in the octopus.

    PubMed

    Amodio, Piero; Andrews, Paul; Salemme, Marinella; Ponte, Giovanna; Fiorito, Graziano

    2014-01-01

    The willingness of the cephalopod mollusc Octopus vulgaris to attack a live crab is traditionally used as a method to assess the overall health and welfare of octopuses in the laboratory. This method requires placing a crab in the home tank of an animal, measuring the time (latency) taken for the octopus to initiate an attack and withdrawing the crab immediately prior to capture. The same crab is commonly used to assess multiple octopuses as part of daily welfare assessment. Growing concern for the welfare of crustaceans and a review of all laboratory practices for the care and welfare of cephalopods following the inclusion of this taxon in 2010/63/EU prompted a study of the utility of an artificial crab to replace a live crab in the assessment of octopus health. On consecutive days O. vulgaris (N=21) were presented with a live, a dead or an artificial crab, and the latency to attack measured. Despite differences in the predatory performance towards the three different crab alternatives, octopuses readily attacked the artificial (and the dead) crab, showing that they can generalize and respond appropriately towards artificial prey. Researchers should consider using an artificial crab to replace the use of a live crab as part of the routine health assessment of O. vulgaris.

  12. Boxer crabs induce asexual reproduction of their associated sea anemones by splitting and intraspecific theft

    PubMed Central

    Karplus, Ilan; Achituv, Yair

    2017-01-01

    Crabs of the genus Lybia have the remarkable habit of holding a sea anemone in each of their claws. This partnership appears to be obligate, at least on the part of the crab. The present study focuses on Lybia leptochelis from the Red Sea holding anemones of the genus Alicia (family Aliciidae). These anemones have not been found free living, only in association with L. leptochelis. In an attempt to understand how the crabs acquire them, we conducted a series of behavioral experiments and molecular analyses. Laboratory observations showed that the removal of one anemone from a crab induces a “splitting” behavior, whereby the crab tears the remaining anemone into two similar parts, resulting in a complete anemone in each claw after regeneration. Furthermore, when two crabs, one holding anemones and one lacking them, are confronted, the crabs fight, almost always leading to the “theft” of a complete anemone or anemone fragment by the crab without them. Following this, crabs “split” their lone anemone into two. Individuals of Alicia sp. removed from freshly collected L. leptochelis were used for DNA analysis. By employing AFLP (Fluorescence Amplified Fragments Length Polymorphism) it was shown that each pair of anemones from a given crab is genetically identical. Furthermore, there is genetic identity between most pairs of anemone held by different crabs, with the others showing slight genetic differences. This is a unique case in which one animal induces asexual reproduction of another, consequently also affecting its genetic diversity. PMID:28168117

  13. Boxer crabs induce asexual reproduction of their associated sea anemones by splitting and intraspecific theft.

    PubMed

    Schnytzer, Yisrael; Giman, Yaniv; Karplus, Ilan; Achituv, Yair

    2017-01-01

    Crabs of the genus Lybia have the remarkable habit of holding a sea anemone in each of their claws. This partnership appears to be obligate, at least on the part of the crab. The present study focuses on Lybia leptochelis from the Red Sea holding anemones of the genus Alicia (family Aliciidae). These anemones have not been found free living, only in association with L. leptochelis. In an attempt to understand how the crabs acquire them, we conducted a series of behavioral experiments and molecular analyses. Laboratory observations showed that the removal of one anemone from a crab induces a "splitting" behavior, whereby the crab tears the remaining anemone into two similar parts, resulting in a complete anemone in each claw after regeneration. Furthermore, when two crabs, one holding anemones and one lacking them, are confronted, the crabs fight, almost always leading to the "theft" of a complete anemone or anemone fragment by the crab without them. Following this, crabs "split" their lone anemone into two. Individuals of Alicia sp. removed from freshly collected L. leptochelis were used for DNA analysis. By employing AFLP (Fluorescence Amplified Fragments Length Polymorphism) it was shown that each pair of anemones from a given crab is genetically identical. Furthermore, there is genetic identity between most pairs of anemone held by different crabs, with the others showing slight genetic differences. This is a unique case in which one animal induces asexual reproduction of another, consequently also affecting its genetic diversity.

  14. Adaptations to Hydrothermal Vent Life in Kiwa tyleri, a New Species of Yeti Crab from the East Scotia Ridge, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Thatje, Sven; Marsh, Leigh; Roterman, Christopher Nicolai; Mavrogordato, Mark N; Linse, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal vents in the Southern Ocean are the physiologically most isolated chemosynthetic environments known. Here, we describe Kiwa tyleri sp. nov., the first species of yeti crab known from the Southern Ocean. Kiwa tyleri belongs to the family Kiwaidae and is the visually dominant macrofauna of two known vent sites situated on the northern and southern segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR). The species is known to depend on primary productivity by chemosynthetic bacteria and resides at the warm-eurythermal vent environment for most of its life; its short-range distribution away from vents (few metres) is physiologically constrained by the stable, cold waters of the surrounding Southern Ocean. Kiwa tylerihas been shown to present differential life history adaptations in response to this contrasting thermal environment. Morphological adaptations specific to life in warm-eurythermal waters, as found on - or in close proximity of - vent chimneys, are discussed in comparison with adaptations seen in the other two known members of the family (K. hirsuta, K. puravida), which show a preference for low temperature chemosynthetic environments.

  15. Eocene paleosols of King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinola, Diogo; Portes, Raquel; Schaefer, Carlos; Kühn, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Red layers between lava flows on King George Island, Maritime Antarctica, were formed during the Eocene, which was one of the warmest periods on Earth in the Cenozoic. Our hypothesis is that these red layers are paleosols formed in periods of little or no volcanic activity. Therefore, our main objective was to identify the main pedogenic properties and features to distinguish these from diagenetic features formed after the lava emplacement. Additionally, we compared our results with volcanic soils formed under different climates to find the best present analogue. The macromorphological features indicate a pedogenic origin, because of the occurrence of well-defined horizons based on colour and structure. Micromorphological analyses showed that most important pedogenic features are the presence of biological channels, plant residues, anisotropic b-fabric, neoformed and illuvial clay and distinct soil microstructure. Although the paleosols are not strongly weathered, the geochemical data also support the pedogenic origin despite of diagenetic features as the partial induration of the profiles and zeolites filling nearly all voids in the horizons in contact with the overlying lava flow, indicating circulation of hydrothermal fluids. The macromorphological and micromorphological features of these paleosols are similar to the soils formed under seasonal climates. Thus, these paleosol features do not correspond to the other proxies (e.g. sediment, plant fossils), which indicate a wet, non-seasonal climate, as in Valdivian Forest, Chile, during the Eocene in King George Island

  16. King penguins can detect two odours associated with conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Gregory B; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on olfaction in penguins have focused on their use of odours while foraging. It has been proposed for some seabirds that an olfactory landscape shaped by odours coming from feeding areas exists. Islands and colonies, however, may also contribute to the olfactory landscape and may act as an orienting map. To test sensitivities to a colony scent we studied whether King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) could detect the smell of sand, feathers or feces by holding presentations beneath their beaks while they naturally slept on the beach. Penguins had a significantly greater response to the feathers and feces presentations than to sand. Although only a first step in exploring a broader role of olfaction in this species, our results raise the possibility of olfaction being used by King penguins in three potential ways: (1) locating the colony from the water or the shore, (2) finding the rendezvous zone within the colony where a chick or partner may be found, or (3) recognizing individuals by scent, as in Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

  17. BOREAS AFM-2 Wyoming King Air 1994 Aircraft Sounding Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Robert D.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS AFM-2 team used the University of Wyoming King Air aircraft during IFCs 1, 2, and 3 in 1994 to collected pass-by-pass fluxes (and many other statistics) for the large number of level (constant altitude), straight-line passes used in a variety of flight patterns over the SSA and NSA and areas along the transect between these study areas. The data described here form a second set, namely soundings that were incorporated into nearly every research flight by the King Air in 1994. These soundings generally went from near the surface to above the inversion layer. Most were flown immediately after takeoff or immediately after finishing the last flux pattern of that particular day's flights. The parameters that were measured include wind direction, wind speed, west wind component (u), south wind component (v), static pressure, air dry bulb temperature, potential temperature, dewpoint, temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and CO2 concentration. Data on the aircraft's location, attitude, and altitude during data collection are also provided. These data are stored in tabular ASCH files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  18. Range-wide wetland associations of the King Rail: A multi-scale approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glisson, Wesley J.; Conway, Courtney J.; Nadeau, Christopher P.; Borgmann, Kathi L.; Laxson, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    King Rail populations have declined and identifying wetland features that influence King Rail occupancy can help prevent further population declines. We integrated continent-wide marsh bird survey data with spatial wetland data from the National Wetland Inventory (NWI) to examine wetland features that influenced King Rail occupancy throughout the species’ range. We analyzed wetland data at 7 spatial scales to examine the scale(s) at which 68 wetland features were most strongly related to King Rail occupancy. Occupancy was most strongly associated with estuarine features and brackish and tidal saltwater regimes. King Rail occupancy was positively associated with emergent and scrub-shrub wetlands and negatively associated with forested wetlands. The best spatial scale for assessing King Rail occupancy differed among wetland features; we could not identify one spatial scale (among all wetland features) that best explained variation in occupancy. Future research on King Rail habitat that includes multiple spatial scales is more likely to identify the suite of features that influence occupancy. Our results indicate that NWI data may be useful for predicting occupancy based on broad habitat features across the King Rail’s range, which may help inform management decisions for this and other wetland-dependent birds.

  19. 75 FR 57478 - Accreditation and Approval of King Laboratories, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of King Laboratories, Inc., as a.... ACTION: Notice of accreditation and approval of King Laboratories, Inc., as a commercial gauger and laboratory. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 19 CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13,...

  20. 75 FR 3245 - Accreditation and Approval of King Laboratories, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of King Laboratories, Inc., as a.... ACTION: Notice of accreditation and approval of King Laboratories, Inc., as a commercial gauger and laboratory. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 19 CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13,...