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Sample records for southern sudan implications

  1. Training traditional birth attendants in southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Haarsager, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Traditional birth attendants are currently the principal service providers to pregnant women in southern Sudan. A training program provides education to promote maternal and newborn health as well as birth preparedness and establishes mechanisms for supportive supervision.

  2. A study of health facilities: implications for reproductive health and HIV/AIDS programs in southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Mahua; Purdin, Susan; McGinn, Therese

    In October 2001, a pilot project to design strategies to reduce HIV/AIDS transmission and improve related reproductive health practices was initiated in southern Sudan. A health facility assessment was conducted in order to determine the type and scope of care given to clients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It was found that many health care practitioners did not have basic training in STI diagnosis and management, and no practitioner had training in the syndromic approach. Standardized drug kits received by public facilities did not provide enough STI drugs to serve the population. Private drug stores were the only facilities where condoms were available, though condoms were not sold to women who came to purchase them without their husbands. An adequately functioning health system will be difficult to achieve without ongoing training and supervision, adequate supplies and equipment, and proper rebuilding of infrastructure and systems, such as roads, communication, and education.

  3. Cholera outbreak--southern Sudan, 2007.

    PubMed

    2009-04-10

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, an acute infectious diarrheal disease that can result in death without appropriate therapy, depending on the severity of the disease. War, poverty, inadequate sanitation, and large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are major precursors to cholera outbreaks. In 2005, Southern Sudan ended its 22-year civil war with North Sudan; as a result, IDPs and refugees are returning to the south. During April--June 2007, investigators from the Southern Sudan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (SS-FELTP) and CDC investigated a cholera outbreak in the town of Juba, Southern Sudan. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that 3,157 persons were diagnosed with suspected cholera during January--June 2007, with 74 deaths resulting from the disease. An environmental investigation revealed suboptimal hygiene practices and a lack of water and sanitation infrastructure in Juba. A case-control study indicated that persons less likely to have cholera were more likely to have consumed hot meals containing meat during the outbreak. Contaminated food or water were not identified as possible sources of the cholera outbreak in Juba. However, this might be attributed to limitations of the study, including small sample size. Cholera can reach epidemic proportions if adequate control measures are not implemented early. Mass media campaigns are important for current and new residents in Juba to understand the importance of proper food handling, clean water, and optimal hygiene practices to prevent the spread of cholera.

  4. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury....532 Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for...

  5. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  6. Sudan.

    PubMed

    1985-08-01

    The Sudan's population characteristics, geographical features, history, political conditions, and foreign relations are profiled. The 1984 population of Sudan has been estimated at 21.1 million, with an estimated annual growth rate of 3.0%. Approximately 25% of the Sudanese population resides in urban areas. Major religions are Islam, indigenous beliefs (in southern Sudan), and Christianity. The official language is Arabic, although English and tribal languages are also spoken. Education is compulsory for 9 years, but the attendance rate is only 48%. The infant mortality rate is 118.0/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 47 years. 78.4% of the work force is engaged in agriculture, 9.8% in industry and commerce, and 6% in government. The estimated gross national product for 1981-83 was $27.36 billion, with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.7% in 1982-83. Per capit income was approximately $361 in 1982, with an average annual inflation rate of 20-30%. Sudan's population is composed of 2 distinct cultures, Arab and black African, and effective collaboration between them poses one of the nation's principal internal problems. The 5 northern regions cover almost 2/3 of Sudan and include most urban centers. Most of the 13 million Sudanese who live in this area are Arabic-speaking Muslims of several distinct tribal groups. The southern region has a population of about 5.5 million and a predominantly rural, subsistence economy. The south also contains many tribal groups and uses many more languages than the north. Sudan's primary resources are agricultural. Although the country is trying to diversify its cash crops, cotton and cottonseed account for more than 50% of export earnings. Another large export crop is gum arabic. Grain sorghum is the principal food crop, and wheat is grown for domestic consumption. Livestock production has vast potential and many animals, particularly camels and sheep, are exported to other Arab countries. The inadequate transportation

  7. Viewing the Reconstruction of Primary Schooling in Southern Sudan through Education Data, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, HyeJin; Moses, Kurt D.; Jang, Bosun; Wils, Annababette

    2011-01-01

    After one of the longest wars in the history of Africa, Southern Sudan accomplished one of the world's quickest education reconstruction programmes. Once the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in 2005, the international donor community and the government and people of Southern Sudan united under a common goal: to increase access to…

  8. Ticks infesting animals in the Sudan and Southern Sudan: past and current status.

    PubMed

    Elghali, Ahmed A; Hassan, Shawgi M

    2012-12-06

    In this review, we collate information about ticks identified in different parts of the Sudan and South Sudan since 1956 in order to identify gaps in tick prevalence and create a map of tick distribution. This will avail basic data for further research on ticks and policies for the control of tick-borne diseases. In this review, we discuss the situation in the Republic of South Sudan as well as Sudan. For this purpose we have divided Sudan into four regions, namely northern Sudan (Northern and River Nile states), central Sudan (Khartoum, Gazera, White Nile, Blue Nile and Sennar states), western Sudan (North and South Kordofan and North, South and West Darfour states) and eastern Sudan (Red Sea, Kassala and Gadarif states).

  9. Phylogenetic and ecologic perspectives of a monkeypox outbreak, southern Sudan, 2005.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Emerson, Ginny L; Carroll, Darin S; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yu; Reynolds, Mary G; Karem, Kevin L; Olson, Victoria A; Lash, R Ryan; Davidson, Whitni B; Smith, Scott K; Levine, Rebecca S; Regnery, Russell L; Sammons, Scott A; Frace, Michael A; Mutasim, Elmangory M; Karsani, Mubarak E M; Muntasir, Mohammed O; Babiker, Alimagboul A; Opoka, Langova; Chowdhary, Vipul; Damon, Inger K

    2013-02-01

    Identification of human monkeypox cases during 2005 in southern Sudan (now South Sudan) raised several questions about the natural history of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in Africa. The outbreak area, characterized by seasonally dry riverine grasslands, is not identified as environmentally suitable for MPXV transmission. We examined possible origins of this outbreak by performing phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences of MPXV isolates from the outbreak in Sudan and from differing localities. We also compared the environmental suitability of study localities for monkeypox transmission. Phylogenetically, the viruses isolated from Sudan outbreak specimens belong to a clade identified in the Congo Basin. This finding, added to the political instability of the area during the time of the outbreak, supports the hypothesis of importation by infected animals or humans entering Sudan from the Congo Basin, and person-to-person transmission of virus, rather than transmission of indigenous virus from infected animals to humans.

  10. Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

  11. Jebel Moya (Sudan): new dates from a mortuary complex at the southern Meroitic frontier

    PubMed Central

    Brass, Michael; Schwenniger, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new chronology for the burial complex at Jebel Moya, south-central Sudan. It reassesses the body of evidence from Sir Henry Wellcome's original 1911–1914 excavations in order to place the site within a firm chronological framework by: (a) applying an attribute-based approach to discern discrete pottery assemblages; and (b) applying initial OSL dates to facilitate the reliable dating of this site for the first time. Jebel Moya is re-interpreted as a burial complex situated on the southern periphery of the late Meroitic state, and its potential to serve as a chronological and cultural reference point for future studies in south-central and southern Sudan is outlined. PMID:25400300

  12. Collaborative evaluation and market research converge: an innovative model agricultural development program evaluation in Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, John M; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-11-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A partnership of local officials, agricultural development staff, and students worked with the outside team to craft a survey of agricultural traders working between northern Uganda and Southern Sudan the steps approach of a collaborative model. The goal was to create a market directory of use to producers, government officials and others interested in stimulating agricultural trade. The directory of agricultural producers and distributors served as an agricultural development and promotion tool as did the collaborative process itself.

  13. Risk factors for trachomatous trichiasis in children: cross-sectional household surveys in Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ngondi, Jeremiah; Reacher, Mark H; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Gatpan, Gideon; Becknell, Steven; Kur, Lucia; King, Jonathan; Callahan, Kelly; Emerson, Paul M

    2009-03-01

    We have previously documented blinding trachoma to be a serious public health problem in Southern Sudan, with an unusually high prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) among children. We aimed to investigate risk factors for TT in children in Southern Sudan. Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in 11 districts between 2001 and 2006, and eligible participants were examined for trachoma signs. Risk factors were assessed through interviews and observations. Using logistic regression, associations between TT in children and potential risk factors were investigated. In total, 11155 children aged 1-14 years from 3950 households were included in the analysis. Overall prevalence of TT was 1.5% (95% CI 1.1-2.1). Factors independently associated with increased odds of TT in children aged 1-14 years were: increasing age (P(trend)<0.001); female gender (odds ratio=1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.1); increasing proportion of children in the household with trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) (P(trend)=0.002); and increasing number of adults in the household with TT (P(trend)<0.001). Our study revealed risk factors for TT in children consistent with those previously reported for TT in adults. While the associations of TT in children with TI in siblings and TT in adult relatives merit further investigation, there is an urgent need for trachoma prevention interventions and trichiasis surgery services that are tailored to cater for young children in Southern Sudan.

  14. 76 FR 35507 - Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS... Waiver Determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS... determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis,...

  15. Guinea worm disease in Ayod, Upper Nile Province, southern Sudan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, J P; Mercer, A J; Gandubert, C; Morin, F

    1996-02-01

    Upper Nile Province is one of the four main endemic areas for Guinea worm disease in the Sudan. In December 1994, a survey was conducted in the village of Ayod where the disease is endemic, to investigate morbidity and local knowledge of transmission and prevention. Interviews were conducted in households selected by standard cluster sampling procedures and of the 759 people examined, 156 (20.6%) had Guinea worm lesions. Adjusted odds ratios were used to estimate the relative risk for people with different personal or household characteristics in a multivariate analysis. After controlling for the possible confounding effects of other study variables, having a filter in the household, gender, and lack of knowledge about transmission and about prevention, were not associated with lesions. Only two variables were significantly associated with Guinea worm disease: getting water from a source other than a well increased the risk by a factor of 2.3, and being aged 5 years or more increased the risk by a factor of 31.1. This study demonstrates the clear association between the source of water for drinking and Guinea worm disease found elsewhere. We suggest the provision of reliable sources of pure drinking water and health education are the most suitable long-term preventive measures. The Sudan now represents the greatest challenge to the goal of global eradication of Guinea worm disease, following the reduction in cases in Nigeria. The continuing civil war and insecurity in southern Sudan hinder the implementation of an effective water programme and other control measures, but the potential benefits through reduced incapacity and improved agricultural productivity are considerable.

  16. Interactions and Pastoralism Along the Southern and Southeastern Frontiers of the Meroitic State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Brass, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The Nilotic Meroitic state, in what is now the Sudan, existed from the late fourth century BC until the mid fourth century AD. It has come to be regarded in recent years as an African segmentary state with a prestige-goods economy, less centralised than, for example, Egypt, with direct control by the ruling family diminished outside the Shendi Reach (central Sudan). Outbound trade from its capital Meroe included ebony, elephants, gold, iron, ivory and ostrich feathers. Trade routes criss-crossed the desert and extended down the Nile river to Greco-Roman Egypt, as well as through Red Sea ports to several Middle Eastern destinations including Egypt. Using the southern and southeastern reaches of the Meroitic state as a case study, I argue that to conceptualise the frontier peripheries of early states as borders is to misunderstand their internal dynamics (movements of people, fluid social networks and regional exchange systems). Each region had its own distinctive form of power relations. Examining how communities in these frontier zones were constituted, inscribed their identities in the landscape and facilitated trade in relation to the core of the Meroitic state in the Shendi Reach draws attention to the fluidity and continual renegotiation of state-pastoral relations.

  17. The epidemiology of trachoma in Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile States, southern Sudan.

    PubMed Central

    Ngondi, Jeremiah; Onsarigo, Alice; Adamu, Liknaw; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Emerson, Paul; Zingeser, James

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Limited surveys and anecdotal data indicate that trachoma is endemic in the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile in southern Sudan. However, its magnitude and geographical distribution are largely unknown. We conducted surveys to ascertain the prevalence and geographical distribution of trachoma, and to identify targets for control interventions. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in nine sites in southern Sudan between September 2001 and June 2004. Two-stage random cluster sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. FINDINGS: A total of 17 016 persons were examined, a response rate of 86.1% of the enumerated population. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years was: TF=53.7% (95% confidence interval (CI)=52.1-55.3); TI=42.7% (95% CI=41.2-44.2); TF and/or TI=64.1% (95% CI=62.5-65.5). Prevalence of trichiasis (TT) in children aged less than 15 years was 1.2% (95% CI=0.9-1.4), while TT prevalence in persons aged 15 years and above was 9.2% (95% CI=8.6-9.9). Women were more likely to have trichiasis compared to men (odds ratio (OR)=1.57; 95% CI=1.34-1.84). Tentative extrapolation to the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile estimates that there is a backlog of 178,250 (lower and upper bounds=156,027-205,995) persons requiring surgery and the entire population, estimated to be over 3.9 million, is in need of the SAFE strategy to control blinding trachoma. CONCLUSION: Trachoma is a public health problem in all nine of the study sites surveyed. The unusually high prevalence of active trachoma and TT in children points to the severity of the problem. There is urgent need to implement trachoma control interventions in trachoma endemic regions of southern Sudan. PMID:16462982

  18. Ebola virus disease in southern Sudan: hospital dissemination and intrafamilial spread

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Roy C.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Zubeir, Osman A.

    1983-01-01

    Between 31 July and 6 October 1979, 34 cases of Ebola virus disease (22 of which were fatal) occurred among five families in a rural district of southern Sudan; the disease was introduced into four of the families from a local hospital. Chains of secondary spread within the family units, accounting for 29 cases resulted from direct physical contact with an infected person. Among all persons with such contact in the family setting, those who provided nursing care had a 5.1-fold increased risk of infection, emphasizing the importance of intimate contact in the spread of this disease. The absence of illness among persons who were exposed to cases in confined spaces, but without physical contact, confirmed previous impressions that there is no risk of airborne transmission. While the ecology of Ebola virus is unknown, the presence of anti-Ebola antibodies in the sera of 18% of persons who were unassociated with the outbreak suggests that the region is an endemic focus of Ebola virus activity. PMID:6370486

  19. Trachoma Rapid Assessments in Unity and Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal States, Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Emily; Kur, Lucia W.; Ndyaba, Aggrey; Lado, Mounir; Shafi, Juma; Kabare, Emmanuel; McClelland, R. Scott; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Trachoma is thought to be endemic over large parts of Southern Sudan, but empirical evidence is limited. While some areas east of the Nile have been identified as highly endemic, few trachoma surveys have been conducted in the remainder of the country. This study aimed to determine whether trachoma constitutes a problem to public health in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and Unity State, both located west of the Nile. Methods and Principal Findings Trachoma rapid assessments (TRA) were conducted between July and September 2009. Seven villages in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State and 13 villages in Unity State were surveyed; an average of 50 children (age 1–9 years) and 44 women (age 15 years and above) were examined per village. Samples for analysis using the APTIMA Combo-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were collected from participants with active trachoma in eight villages in Unity State. In Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, only three children with active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) and/or trachomatous inflammation intense (TI)) and two women with trichiasis (TT) were found, in two of the seven villages surveyed. In Unity State, trachoma was endemic in all thirteen villages surveyed; the proportion of children with active trachoma ranged from 33% to 75% between villages, while TF in children ranged from 16% to 44%. Between 4% to 51% of examined women showed signs of TT. Samples from active trachoma cases tested using the NAAT were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection for 46.6% of children and 19.0% of women. Conclusions Trachoma presents a major problem to public health Unity State, while the disease is of low priority in Northern-Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Implementation of a population-based prevalence survey is now required in Unity State to generate baseline prevalence data so that trachoma interventions can be initiated and monitored over time. PMID:20957205

  20. Integrated Surveys of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Southern Sudan: How Much Do They Cost and Can They Be Refined?

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Hanson, Kara; Robinson, Emily; Picon, Diana; Sabasio, Anthony; Mpakateni, Martin; Lado, Mounir; Moore, Stephen; Petty, Nora; Brooker, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasing emphasis on integrated control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) requires identification of co-endemic areas. Integrated surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF), schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection have been recommended for this purpose. Integrated survey designs inevitably involve balancing the costs of surveys against accuracy of classifying areas for treatment, so-called implementation units (IUs). This requires an understanding of the main cost drivers and of how operating procedures may affect both cost and accuracy of surveys. Here we report a detailed cost analysis of the first round of integrated NTD surveys in Southern Sudan. Methods and Findings Financial and economic costs were estimated from financial expenditure records and interviews with survey staff using an ingredients approach. The main outcome was cost per IU surveyed. Uncertain variables were subjected to univariate sensitivity analysis and the effects of modifying standard operating procedures were explored. The average economic cost per IU surveyed was USD 40,206 or USD 9,573, depending on the size of the IU. The major cost drivers were two key categories of recurrent costs: i) survey consumables, and ii) personnel. Conclusion The cost of integrated surveys in Southern Sudan could be reduced by surveying larger administrative areas for LF. If this approach was taken, the estimated economic cost of completing LF, schistosomiasis and STH mapping in Southern Sudan would amount to USD 1.6 million. The methodological detail and costing template provided here could be used to generate cost estimates in other settings and readily compare these to the present study, and may help budget for integrated and single NTDs surveys elsewhere. PMID:20644619

  1. They Own This: Mother Tongue Instruction for Indigenous Kuku Children in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laguarda, Ana Isabel; Woodward, Walter Pierce

    2013-01-01

    This article details a pilot program of mother tongue instruction in five primary schools for classes one through three, in Kajokeji County, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. The program was launched by teachers and volunteers with the support of the Jesuit Refugee Service, an international non-governmental organization. The research examines…

  2. The Research Process in a Multi-Level Mixed-Methods Case Study: International Organization Headquarters and Field Employee Perspectives of a Program in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eschenbacher, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the methods and data-collection process for a multi-level mixed-methods case study. Data for the study were gathered through phone interviews and electronic surveys from individuals working on the same educational program in Southern Sudan, though some were supporting the program from outside the country. The…

  3. Obstetric fistula in Southern Sudan: situational analysis and Key Informant Method to estimate prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstetric fistula is a severe condition which can have devastating consequences for a woman’s life. Despite a considerable literature, very little is known about its prevalence. This project was conducted to carry out a situational analysis of fistula services in South Sudan and to pilot test the Key Informant Method (KIM) to estimate the prevalence of fistula in a region of South Sudan. Methods Key stakeholder interviews, document reviews and fistula surgery record reviews were undertaken. A KIM survey was conducted in a district of Western Bahr-el-Ghazal in January 2012. One hundred sixty-six community-based distributors, traditional birth attendants and village midwives were trained as key informants to identify women with fistula in the community. Women identified were subsequently examined by an obstetrician and nurse to verify whether they had a fistula. Results There were limited fistula repair services in South Sudan. Approximately 50–80 women per year attend periodic campaigns, with around half having a fistula and receiving a repair. On average a further 5 women a year received fistula repair from hospital services. Ten women with potential fistula were identified via KIM; all confirmed by the obstetrician. Of these, three were from the survey area, which had 8,865 women of reproductive age (15–49 years). This gives a minimal estimated prevalence of at least 30 fistulas per 100,000 women of reproductive age (95% CI 10–100). Conclusions Routine fistula repair services available do not meet the population’s needs. The pilot study suggests that KIM can be used to identify women with fistula in the community. Data on fistula are generally poor; the KIM methodology we used in South Sudan yielded a lower fistula prevalence than estimates reported previously in the region. PMID:23497241

  4. The Transition to an Independent Southern Sudan: How Should the U.S. Military Posture to Influence and Deter Factors that May Cause Regional Instability?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    Military Posture to Influence and Deter Factors that May Cause Regional Instability? Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair Douglas E...prevent full engagement; however, the US is striving to make positive strategic influences in the region. In his recent paper, ―The United States of...THE TRANSITION TO AN INDEPENDENT SOUTHERN SUDAN: HOW SHOULD THE US MILITARY POSTURE TO INFLUENCE AND DETER FACTORS THAT MAY CAUSE REGIONAL

  5. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  6. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  7. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  8. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  9. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  10. 75 FR 75865 - Presidential Determination on Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... enables the United Nations to facilitate the referendum in Southern Sudan pursuant to the Comprehensive... Sudan Memorandum for the Secretary of State President of the Export-Import Bank of the United States By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States...

  11. The Birth of a New Nation: The Republic of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In early July, the country of Sudan, wracked by civil war since the 1980s, officially split into two separate nations, Sudan and South Sudan. Six months earlier, over a seven-day period, the people in southern Sudan had voted in a national referendum on whether to secede from the North. The voters had two choices: "Separation" or…

  12. Flood pulsing in the Sudd wetland: analysis of seasonal variations in 2 inundation and evapotranspiration in Southern Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Rebelo, L-M.; McCartney, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Located on the Bahr el Jebel in South Sudan, the Sudd is one of the largest floodplain wetlands in the world. Seasonal inundation drives the hydrologic, geomorphological, and ecological processes, and the annual flood pulse is essential to the functioning of the Sudd. Despite the importance of the flood pulse, various hydrological interventions are planned upstream of the Sudd to increase economic benefits and food security. These will not be without consequences, in particular for wetlands where the biological productivity, biodiversity, and human livelihoods are dependent on the flood pulse and both the costs and benefits need to be carefully evaluated. Many African countries still lack regional baseline information on the temporal extent, distribution, and characteristics of wetlands, making it hard to assess the consequences of development interventions. Because of political instability in Sudan and the inaccessible nature of the Sudd, recent measurements of flooding and seasonal dynamics are inadequate. Analyses of multitemporal and multisensor remote sensing datasets are presented in this paper, in order to investigate and characterize flood pulsing within the Sudd wetland over a 12-month period. Wetland area has been mapped along with dominant components of open water and flooded vegetation at five time periods over a single year. The total area of flooding (both rain and river fed) over the 12 months was 41 334 km2, with 9176 km2 of this constituting the permanent wetland. Mean annual total evaporation is shown to be higher and with narrower distribution of values from areas of open water (1718 mm) than from flooded vegetation (1641 mm). Although the exact figures require validation against ground-based measurements, the results highlight the relative differences in inundation patterns and evaporation across the Sudd.

  13. Clinical symptoms, treatment and outcome of highlands malaria in Eldoret (2420 m a.s.l.) and comparison to malaria in hyper-immune population in endemic region of Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Benca, J; Dubai, A; Sladeckova, V

    2007-11-01

    Malaria should not be present in altitudes more than 1,800 m a.s.l. However due to global warming, highlands malaria (HM) occurs up to 2,000 m. The purpose of this study is comparison of clinical picture and prognosis of HM and compare it to malaria in endemic region of southern Sudan (endemic malaria - EM) among hyper-immune population.

  14. Al Jazirah, Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

    The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. A climate trend analysis of Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Eilerts, Gary; Verdin, Jim; Rowland, Jim; Marshall, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Summer rains in western and southern Sudan have declined by 10-20 percent since the mid-1970s. Observed warming of more than 1 degree Celsius is equivalent to another 10-20 percent reduction in rainfall for crops. The warming and drying have impacted southern Darfur and areas around Juba. Rainfall declines west of Juba threaten southern Sudan's future food production prospects. In many cases, areas with changing climate are coincident with zones of substantial conflict, suggesting some degree of association; however, the contribution of climate change to these conflicts is not currently understood. Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a more variable climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Sudan over the next 20 years.

  16. Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equipment, transport in cold conditions and a nearby laboratory, which remains difficult in remote areas under these hot latitudes. Yet, simple measurement devices allow to know in a few minutes the water turbidity. Is turbidity an efficient tool to evaluate the drinkability of water when no bacteriological analyses are possible? The results proposed here are taken from three different studies whose purposes were to measure different physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of water used for human and/or animal consumption. One of the finalities was to propose a method, at lower cost, to evaluate the drinkability of water for consumption. Four case studies were chosen: the basin of the Doubegue River in Burkina Faso is a rural area of a developing country, where drinking water is taken from the alluvial aquifer close to the surface. Furthermore, the laundry is washed and the children play in running streams. Major expansion of the cultivated lands since 1980s has brought important soils losses, thus a chronicle contamination of surface water with suspended solids (Robert, 2012). The Mendoza and Tunuyán Rivers Basins in Argentina, an emerging country, have snow-glaciar regimes with naturally turbid waters. They supply drinking water to two towns, Mendoza and Tunuyán cities, respectively 1 million and 40,000 inhabitants. However, these two streams -whose watersheds are common- do not present the same managements: the Mendoza River has been equipped with large hydraulic infrastructures, moving the turbid waters into clear and erosive ones (Lavie, 2009), while the Tunuyán River

  17. Seismotectonic implications of sand blows in the southern Mississippi Embayment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, R.T.; Hill, A.A.; Larsen, D.; Holzer, T.; Forman, S.L.; Noce, T.; Gardner, C.; Morat, J.

    2007-01-01

    We explore seismically-induced sand blows from the southern Mississippi Embayment and their implications in resolving the question of near or distal epicentral source region. This was accomplished using aerial photography, field excavations, and cone penetration tests. Our analysis shows that three sand blow fields exhibit a distinct chronology of strong ground motion for the southern embayment: (1) The Ashley County, Arkansas sand blow field, near the Arkansas/Louisiana state border, experienced four Holocene sand venting episodes; (2) to the north, the Desha County field experienced at least three episodes of liquefaction; and (3) the Lincoln-Jefferson Counties field experienced at least one episode. Cone penetration tests (CPT) conducted in and between the sand blow fields suggest that the fields may not be distal liquefaction associated with New Madrid seismic zone earthquakes but rather are likely associated with strong earthquakes on local faults. This conclusion is consistent with the differences in timing of the southern embayment sand venting episodes and those in the New Madrid seismic zone. These results suggest that active tectonism and strong seismicity in intraplate North America may not be localized at isolated weak spots, but rather widespread on fault systems that are favorably oriented for slip in the contemporary stress field. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dialysis and transplantation in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Suliman, S M; Beliela, M H; Hamza, H

    1995-01-01

    In this report we present the current status of the renal replacement therapy in Sudan. Sudan is a large country with 30 million inhabitants. Peritoneal Dialysis was started in 1968, while hemodialysis was started in 1973. At present, there are only 16 hemodialysis machines serving 56 patients in two centers in Sudan. There are also 15 peritoneal dialysis beds for 70 intermittent peritoneal dialysis patients in three centers. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is not being practiced in Sudan. The first renal transplant was in 1974, and till now more than 30 transplants have been performed in two transplant centers. All the transplants have been from living donors. The scholars of Islam in Sudan oppose to donation from cadavers. There are 200 renal transplant patients being followed up in Sudan and the majority had their renal transplants abroad. We conclude that there is a tremendous shortage of renal services in Sudan. There are more efforts being made to improve these services.

  19. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard…

  20. UNICEF and the Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Nairobi (Kenya). Eastern Africa Regional Office.

    Coupled with poor infrastructure, vast distances, and harsh climatic conditions, the enormous physical obstacles in the Sudan (Africa's largest country) have combined to produce extremely serious problems for Sudanese children, who will soon constitute half of the 17 million people there. This booklet describes continuing projects implemented by…

  1. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  2. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  3. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  4. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  5. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  6. The Politics of Writing Tribal Identities in the Sudan: The Case of the Colonial Nuba Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Linguistics is implicated in the colonial project of the invention of "self-contained" "racial" and "tribal units" in the Sudan. This paper has two objectives. First, to historicise the notions of "language" in the postcolonial discourse of language planning in the Sudan by reviewing one of the significant…

  7. Vitamin A deficiency in the Sudan: a call for a surveillance system.

    PubMed

    el Bushra, H E

    1992-05-01

    This short review summarizes all the published and unpublished reports on vitamin A deficiency in the Sudan in the last four decades. Different local terms used by people to indicate vitamin A deficiency were enlisted. There is evidence that vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in eastern Sudan and among communities from western and southern Sudan living around Greater Khartoum, who were displaced from their homelands because of drought, famine conditions and civil unrest. There are reports indicative of vitamin A deficiency problem in the central and the far western provinces. There were no reports from the northern provinces. The need for a surveillance system was discussed.

  8. Atmospheric Teleconnections of Northern Hemisphere cooling to the Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes, and implications for Southern Ocean ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, John; Lee, Shih-Yu; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Tokos, Kathy

    2010-05-01

    Recent marine proxy studies, most notably by Anderson et al. (2009), show intensification of wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean during Heinrich events, and suggesting the possibility of robust atmospheric teleconnections from the Northern Hemisphere affecting the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude westerlies. We explore the latter hypothesis using simulations of an AGCM coupled to a reduced-gravity ocean, and with reference to current thinking regarding extratropical-tropical atmospheric dynamical linkages. When we simulate a Heinrich-like event in our model (by cooling the North Atlantic), we find a significant strengthening of the southern midlatitude westerlies, in particular during the austral winter (JJA), and in the South Pacific. The other pronounced climate change is a marked southward shift of the tropical rainbelt, indicating alteration of the Hadley circulation. Our analysis indicates that the teleconnection can be broken into two parts: first, the northern hemisphere cooling shifting the ITCZ southwards with a pronounced effect on the Hadley circulation (Lindzen and Hou 1988), and then the altered Hadley circulation in turn affecting the southern midlatitude westerlies through the former's control of the southern subtropical westerlies and subsequent effect on the eddy-driven midlatitude westerlies (Lee and Kim, 2003). The seasonal (JJA) and regional (South Pacific) preference of the teleconnection's effects can be explained in terms of the peculiarities of the regional atmospheric dynamics. As an aside, we also find that the growth or decay of the Laurentide ice sheet can also generate this type of north-south teleconnection, although the dynamics are somewhat different. With regards to possible implications for southern ocean ventilation and atmospheric CO2: we applied the wind changes we obtained in our AGCM 'Heinrich' simulation to a global biogeochemical model (the Minnesota Earth System Model for Ocean biogeochemistry), and found a ~20ppm

  9. Prevalence of Trachoma in Unity State, South Sudan: Results from a Large-Scale Population-Based Survey and Potential Implications for Further Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Tansy; Smith, Jennifer; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Kur, Lucia W.; Sabasio, Anthony; Finn, Timothy P.; Lado, Mounir; Haddad, Danny; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Large parts of South Sudan are thought to be trachoma-endemic but baseline data are limited. This study aimed to estimate prevalence for planning trachoma interventions in Unity State, to identify risk factors and to investigate the effect of different sampling approaches on study conclusions. Methods and Findings The survey area was defined as one domain of eight counties in Unity State. Across the area, 40 clusters (villages) were randomly selected proportional to the county population size in a population-based prevalence survey. The simplified grading scheme was used to classify clinical signs of trachoma. The unadjusted prevalence of trachoma inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1–9 years was 70.5% (95% CI: 68.6–72.3). After adjusting for age, sex, county and clustering of cases at household and village level the prevalence was 71.0% (95% CI: 69.9–72.1). The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in adults was 15.1% (95% CI: 13.4–17.0) and 13.5% (95% CI: 12.0–15.1) before and after adjustment, respectively. We estimate that 700,000 people (the entire population of Unity State) require antibiotic treatment and approximately 54,178 people require TT surgery. Risk factor analyses confirmed child-level associations with TF and highlighted that older adults living in poverty are at higher risk of TT. Conditional simulations, testing the alternatives of sampling 20 or 60 villages over the same area, indicated that sampling of only 20 villages would have provided an acceptable level of precision for state-level prevalence estimation to inform intervention decisions in this hyperendemic setting. Conclusion Trachoma poses an enormous burden on the population of Unity State. Comprehensive control is urgently required to avoid preventable blindness and should be initiated across the state now. In other parts of South Sudan suspected to be highly trachoma endemic, counties should be combined into larger survey areas to generate the

  10. Distance Teaching in the Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badri, Hagga Kashif

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the history, social climate, and country of Sudan as they relate to several educational projects. It is suggested that a satisfactory rate of development cannot be achieved while illiteracy remains at its present high level. (Author/JEG)

  11. Seismic Hazard Implication of the Seismotectonics of southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, Vunganai; Mulabisana, Thifelimbilu; Manzunzu, Brassnavy

    2014-05-01

    The work presented in this report / presentation was prepared as part of the requirements for the SIDA/IGCP Project 601 titled "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" as well as part of the seismic source characterisation of the GEM-Africa Seismic hazard study. An effort was made to compile information necessary to prepare a seismotectonic map of Africa which can then be used in carrying out a seismic hazard assessment of the continent or locations within the continent. Information on major faults, fault plane solutions, geophysical data as well as stress data has so far been collected and included in a database for the southern Africa region. Reports published by several experts contributed much to the collected information. The seismicity data used are part of the earthquake catalogue being prepared for the GEM-Africa project, which includes historical and instrumental records as collected from various sources. An effort has been made to characterise the identified major faults and through further analysis investigate their possible impact on the seismic hazard of southern Africa.

  12. Plasmodium falciparum population structure in Sudan post artemisinin-based combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Bakhiet, Amani M A; Abdel-Muhsin, Abdel-Muhsin A; Elzaki, Salah-Eldin G; Al-Hashami, Zainab; Albarwani, Hamida S; AlQamashoui, Badar A; Al-Hamidhi, Salama; Idris, Mohamed A; Elagib, Atif A; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Babiker, Hamza A

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, Sudan has stepped up malaria control backed by WHO, and this has resulted in significant reduction in parasite rate, malaria morbidity and mortality. The present study analyzed Plasmodium falciparum parasites in four geographical separated areas, to examine whether the success in malaria control following the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has disrupted the population structure and evolution of the parasite. We examined 319 P. falciparum isolates collected between October 2009 and October 2012 in four different areas in Sudan (Jazira [central Sudan], Southern Darfur [western Sudan], Upper Nile [southern Sudan] and Kasala [eastern Sudan]). Twelve microsatellites were analyzed for allelic diversity, multi-locus haplotype and inter-population differentiation. Level of diversity was compared to that detected for three of the above microsatellites among P. falciparum parasites in central and eastern Sudan in 1999, prior to introduction of ACT. Diversity at each locus (unbiased heterozygosity [H]) was high in all areas (Jazira, H=0.67), (Southern Darfur, H=0.71), (Upper Nile, H=0.71), and (Kasala, H=0.63). Microsatellites were distributed widely and private alleles, detected in a single population, were rare. The extent of diversity in the above sites was similar to that seen, in 1999, in central (Khartoum, H=0.73) and eastern Sudan (Gedaref, H=0.75). Significant Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between the microsatellites in all populations. Pairwise FST analysis revealed that parasites in the four areas could be considered as one population. However, the parasites in Sudan clustered away from parasites in West Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Despite marked reduction in malaria risk in Sudan, the extent of diversity and parasite genetic structure are indicative of a large population size. Further considerable reduction in transmission would be needed before fragmented sub-population can be seen. In addition, the large

  13. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Yadong leucogranites, southern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Zhengbin; Zhang, Zeming; Dong, Xin; Xiang, Hua; Ding, Huixia; Tian, Zuolin; Lei, Hengcong

    2016-07-01

    The leucogranites in the Higher Himalayan Sequence (HHS) provide a probe to elucidate the crustal melting of continental collisional orogen. An integrated geochemical and geochronological study of the Yadong leucogranites, southern Himalaya, shows that these rocks have relatively high SiO2 contents of 69.77 to 75.32 wt.% and alumina saturation index (A/CNK) of 1.09-1.40, typical of peraluminous granites. They show moderately fractionated REE patterns with negative Eu anomalies, and are characterized by enriched LILE (Rb and Cs) and depleted HFSE (Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta). LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating of ten samples yields crystallization ages ranging from 21.0 to 11.7 Ma. The zircons have variable εHf(t) values of - 26.3 to - 3.5 and corresponding Hf two-stage model ages of 2.77-1.33 Ga. The present study reveals that the muscovite-biotite leucogranites (2ML) have higher TiO2, MgO, CaO, Sr, Ba and Zr contents, lower Rb/Sr ratios than the tourmaline-muscovite leucogranites (TML). Zircon and monazite saturation thermometry results show that the melt temperatures (681-784 °C) of the 2ML are 20-80 °C higher than those (663-705 °C) of the TML. Combining with previous results, we propose that the TML were derived from the muscovite-dehydration melting, whereas the 2ML dominantly resulted from the biotite-dehydration melting during the prograde metamorphism of the pelitic and felsic granulites of the HHS. Therefore, the Himalayan leucogranites were probably formed during the subduction of the Indian crust following the India and Asia collision.

  14. Geophysical Identification and Geological Implications of the Southern Alaska Magnetic Trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Wilson, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The southern Alaska magnetic trough (SAMT) is one of the fundamental, crustal-scale, magnetic features of Alaska. It is readily recognized on 10 km upward-continued aeromagnetic maps of the state. The arcuate SAMT ranges from 30 to 100 km wide and extends in two separate segments along the southern Alaska margin for about 1200 km onshore (from near the Alaska/Canada border at about 60 degrees north latitude to the Bering Sea) and may continue an additional 500 km or more offshore (in the southern Bering Sea). The SAMT is bordered to the south by the southern Alaska magnetic high (SAMH) produced by strongly magnetic crust and to the north by a magnetically quiet zone that reflects weakly magnetic interior Alaska crust. Geophysically, the SAMT is more than just the north-side dipole low associated with the SAMH. Several modes of analysis, including examination of magnetic potential (pseudogravity) and profile modeling, indicate that the source of this magnetic trough is a discrete, crustal-scale body. Geologically, the western portion of the SAMT coincides to a large degree with collapsed Mesozoic Kahiltna flysch basin. This poster presents our geophysical evidence for the extent and geometry of this magnetic feature as well as initial geological synthesis and combined geologic/geophysical modeling to examine the implications of this feature for the broad scale tectonic framework of southern Alaska.

  15. Return of the Lost Boys to South Sudan: A Strategy to Building a Stronger South Sudan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    conflict South Sudan. Thus, it is stated in the South Sudan Development Plan (SSDP), 2011–2013 that “educated and skilled South Sudanese from the...during the conference with the USAID, Juba, South Sudan, June 15, 2009), www.gurtong.net (Accessed December 14, 2010). 11 South Sudan Development Plan ...you are married and have children, you have to consider them when making plans ,” he explained.44 Concerns about the welfare of nuclear family seem

  16. Agricultural fields, Khartoum, Sudan, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This herringbone pattern of irrigated agricultural fields near Khartoum, Sudan (14.5N, 33.5E) is very distinctive in both size and shape. The region contains thousands of these rectangular fields bounded by canals which carry water from both the White and Blue Nile Rivers. A crop rotation system is used so that some fields are in cotton, millit, sorghum or fallow to conserve moisture and control weeds and insects. See also STS049-96-003.

  17. Human Resources for Information Development in Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Cecile

    1992-01-01

    Describes the state of human resources development in Sudan's information industry. Training problems and the emigration of high level personnel are discussed, guidelines for human resource development are suggested, and national strategies to develop and retain Sudan's human resources are suggested. (EA)

  18. Language Situation in Post-War Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2010-01-01

    The theme behind this paper is to review the language policy and language planning in the Sudan, after the institutionalization of peace; by exploring the recent policy of political factions in the North and the South towards languages in post-war Sudan. This effort aims at encouraging non-Arabic speaking-ethnic-groups to accept the Arabic…

  19. Demanding strategic leadership. Sudan. The Hague Forum.

    PubMed

    Garang, G D

    1999-01-01

    The establishment of the Sudan National Population Council in the wake of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) showed strong political commitment to implementing the ICPD's program of action at the national level. Sudan has also participated in a number of regional and international meetings which recommended various ways of accelerating the implementation of the program of action. The successful implementation of Sudan's national population policy demands strategic leadership at various levels to ensure that the government, with the active participation of the civil society, work together to design, implement, coordinate, monitor, and evaluate population and development programs. However, the country's longstanding civil war and other manmade and natural disasters have caused ongoing population displacement and resettlement processes, impeding development efforts. Sudan's government is concentrating mainly upon ending the war and addressing its negative consequences upon population development before addressing any development plans and programs. The ICPD quantitative targets will be hard to reach in Sudan given current conditions.

  20. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. (a) The term Government of Sudan includes: (1) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including...

  1. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  2. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. The term Government of Sudan includes: (a) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including...

  3. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. (a) The term Government of Sudan includes: (1) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including...

  4. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  5. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. The term Government of Sudan includes: (a) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including...

  6. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  7. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. The term Government of Sudan includes: (a) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including...

  8. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  9. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  10. An assessment of the feasibility for oil substitution in the Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Perdikis, N.; Shibeika, M.H.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper attempts to assess the possibilities for oil substitution in the Sudan. The authors begin by analyzing the expected growth of energy demand between 1984 and 1990 basing their work on official reports and published statistics. They then turn to identifying the scope for oil use ratios at both the industry and industry subsector levels. The achieving of potential energy substitution is then examined in the light of available alternative technologies and fuel supplies. Finally they turn to discussing their findings' implications for public policy in the energy sector in the Sudan.

  11. Sudan challenges the sand dragon.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J

    1978-01-01

    Formerly productive areas have become wasteland as the desert advances in the Sudan. To understand how desertification is undermining the very survival of the Sahel, one ecosystem is reviewed in detail here: the gum arabic zone of Kordofan. After cotton, gum arabic is Sudan's largest export, worth from $14-26 million in recent years. In this zone the ecologically balanced cycle of gum gardens, fire, grain crops, and fallow is now breaking down; the 1968-1973 drought having in many areas delivered the final blow. Because of a growing population, the cultivation period is extended, and the soil becomes impoverished. Overgrazing in the fallow period, and the lopping of gum trees for firewood is producing a low return on the gum trees. Without this gum to harvest for cash, farmers must repeatedly replant their subsistence crops until the land becomes useless sand. The Sudanese have recognized the problem earlier than most, and a number of imaginative and practicable pilot projects are already in use: 1) waterpoint management; 2) construction of firebreaks; 3) land threatened by shifting dunes has been enclosed by stockproof fence and afforested with local trees; and 4) shelter belts have been planted around town perimeters where old gum tree stumps have started to sprout and the grass is reseeding itself. Out of these pilot projects, and with the advice of the U.N. Environment Program, the U.N. Development Program, and FAO, the Sudanese have developed a modest $26 million desert encroachment control and rehabilitation program (DECARP).

  12. Identification of two distinct fire regimes in Southern California: implications for economic impact and future change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yufang; Goulden, Michael L.; Faivre, Nicolas; Veraverbeke, Sander; Sun, Fengpeng; Hall, Alex; Hand, Michael S.; Hook, Simon; Randerson, James T.

    2015-09-01

    The area burned by Southern California wildfires has increased in recent decades, with implications for human health, infrastructure, and ecosystem management. Meteorology and fuel structure are universally recognized controllers of wildfire, but their relative importance, and hence the efficacy of abatement and suppression efforts, remains controversial. Southern California’s wildfires can be partitioned by meteorology: fires typically occur either during Santa Ana winds (SA fires) in October through April, or warm and dry periods in June through September (non-SA fires). Previous work has not quantitatively distinguished between these fire regimes when assessing economic impacts or climate change influence. Here we separate five decades of fire perimeters into those coinciding with and without SA winds. The two fire types contributed almost equally to burned area, yet SA fires were responsible for 80% of cumulative 1990-2009 economic losses (3.1 Billion). The damage disparity was driven by fire characteristics: SA fires spread three times faster, occurred closer to urban areas, and burned into areas with greater housing values. Non-SA fires were comparatively more sensitive to age-dependent fuels, often occurred in higher elevation forests, lasted for extended periods, and accounted for 70% of total suppression costs. An improved distinction of fire type has implications for future projections and management. The area burned in non-SA fires is projected to increase 77% (±43%) by the mid-21st century with warmer and drier summers, and the SA area burned is projected to increase 64% (±76%), underscoring the need to evaluate the allocation and effectiveness of suppression investments.

  13. Rift Valley fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Aradaib, Imadeldin E; Erickson, Bobbie R; Elageb, Rehab M; Khristova, Marina L; Carroll, Serena A; Elkhidir, Isam M; Karsany, Mubarak E; Karrar, Abdelrahim E; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Nichol, Stuart T

    2013-02-01

    To elucidate whether Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) diversity in Sudan resulted from multiple introductions or from acquired changes over time from 1 introduction event, we generated complete genome sequences from RVFV strains detected during the 2007 and 2010 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of small, medium, and large RNA segment sequences indicated several genetic RVFV variants were circulating in Sudan, which all grouped into Kenya-1 or Kenya-2 sublineages from the 2006-2008 eastern Africa epizootic. Bayesian analysis of sequence differences estimated that diversity among the 2007 and 2010 Sudan RVFV variants shared a most recent common ancestor circa 1996. The data suggest multiple introductions of RVFV into Sudan as part of sweeping epizootics from eastern Africa. The sequences indicate recent movement of RVFV and support the need for surveillance to recognize when and where RVFV circulates between epidemics, which can make data from prediction tools easier to interpret and preventive measures easier to direct toward high-risk areas.

  14. Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-19

    National Islamic Front ( NIF ) government, which ousted the democratically elected civilian government in 1989, pursued the war in Southern Sudan with...Front ( NIF ), agreed on a cabinet. At the core of the dispute was the distribution of key economic ministerial portfolios. The NCP insisted on keeping...central governments in Khartoum, albeit unsuccessfully. In the early 1990s, the National Islamic Front ( NIF ) government, which came to power in 1989

  15. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae): implications for developing aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Carter, Chris G; Westbury, Heath; Crear, Bradley; Simon, Cedric; Thomas, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The Southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasusedwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11), avoidance (6) and others (12). Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture.

  16. 75 FR 62069 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General..., Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan, to add specific... on awarding a contract to a contractor that conducts business in Sudan should be waived....

  17. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  18. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  19. 76 FR 68037 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. This rule adds... that conducts restricted business operations in Sudan. The rule also describes the consultation...

  20. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  1. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  2. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  3. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  4. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  5. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  6. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  7. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  8. Reconstructing atmospheric circulation over southern New Zealand: Establishment of modern westerly airflow 5500 years ago and implications for Southern Hemisphere Holocene climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, C. S. M.; Wilmshurst, J. M.; Jones, R. T.; Wood, J. R.; Palmer, J. G.; Hogg, A. G.; Fenwick, P.; Crowley, S. F.; Privat, K.; Thomas, Z.

    2017-03-01

    Late-twentieth century changes in the intensity and migration of Southern Hemisphere westerly winds have been implicated in spatially complex variability in atmospheric and ocean circulation, and ice-sheet dynamics, across the mid- to high-latitudes. A major uncertainty, however, is whether present day hemispheric-wide symmetrical airflow is representative of past behaviour. Here we report a multi-proxy study from Stewart Island and southern Fiordland, New Zealand (46-47°S) reconstructing Holocene changes at the northern limit of westerly airflow. Increased minerogenic input and a pronounced shift in cool-loving vegetation around 5500 years ago is consistent with the establishment of westerly airflow at this latitude in the southwest Pacific. In marked contrast, stronger winds are reported further south over the subantarctic Auckland (50°S) and Campbell (52°S) Islands from 8000 years ago. Intriguingly, reconstructions from the east Pacific suggest a weakening of core westerly airflow after 8500 years ago, but an expansion along the northern limits sometime after 5500 years ago. Our results suggest similar atmospheric circulation changes have been experienced in the Pacific since 5500 years ago, but indicate an expanded network of sites is needed to comprehensively test the driver(s) and impact(s) of Holocene mid-latitude westerly winds across the Southern Hemisphere.

  9. Structural and Sedimentological Development of Pahrump Basin, Southern Nevada with Implications for Seismic Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, J.; Taylor, W. J.; Luke, B.

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to (1) document potentially active faults and estimate possible earthquake magnitudes, (2) document and analyze sedimentation in a basin controlled by strike-slip and oblique faults, and (3) consider implications on regional development using Pahrump Valley, southern Nevada as a case study. The 2.5 million people living within the region would be significantly impacted by a major earthquake generated in the Valley. With an ever increasing population, the need for evaluation of seismic risk is becoming more important for land use planning in southern Nevada. Using data analysis of well logs, geophysical measurements, surface data from air photos, maps, and field observations, it is possible to document the 3D architecture of the basin-fill sediments and basin structure through abrupt changes in sedimentary facies. 3D modeling of the lithology and depositional environments of shallow basin fill improves the understanding of fault location, type, offset, and surface rupture length. Pahrump Valley is flanked by two documented Neogene (Quaternary) fault systems. The west side is dominated by the Stateline Fault zone, which is a continuous NW-striking right-lateral strike-slip fault zone extending 200 km from Mesquite Valley to Amargosa Valley, Nevada. In Pahrump Valley no fault scarp is present. The eastern side is bordered by the West Spring Mountains fault, which is a N-striking W-dipping normal fault with a right-lateral oblique component. The fault has a large scarp which is visible along the northeastern and east-central Valley border and smaller discontinuous scarps in the south. The 11-km-long central segment contains scarps up to 9.4 m high. On the basis of scarp profiles, the youngest event is estimated to be Pleistocene or early Holocene in age with a maximum fault displacement estimated at 1.8-2.0 m, which suggests an event of M 6.9. 3D basin models, derived from well log lithology, depict the locations of fault surfaces by

  10. The question of Sudan: a hydroeconomic optimization model for the Sudanese Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2014-10-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of a changing climate in East Africa pose myriad challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications within the region. At the same time, Sudan's water use options are constrained by tradeoffs between upstream irrigation developments and downstream hydropower facilities as well as by the country's commitments under existing or future transboundary water sharing agreements. Here, we present a model that can be applied to evaluate optimal allocation of surface water resources to irrigation and hydropower in the Sudanese portion of the Blue Nile. Hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to formulate an optimization model within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A sensitivity analysis is performed by testing model response to a range of economic conditions and to changes in the volume and timing of hydrologic flows. Results indicate that changing hydroclimate inputs have the capacity to greatly influence the productivity of Sudan's water resources infrastructure. Results also show that the economically optimal volume of water consumption, and thus the importance of existing treaty constraints, is sensitive to the perceived value of agriculture relative to electricity as well as to changing hydrological conditions.

  11. The question of Sudan: a hydro-economic optimization model for the Sudanese Blue Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of a changing climate in eastern Africa pose myriad challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications for the region. At the same time, Sudan's water use options are constrained by tradeoffs between upstream irrigation developments and downstream hydropower facilities as well as by the country's commitments under existing or future transboundary water sharing agreements. Here, we present a model that can be applied to evaluate optimal allocation of surface water resources to irrigation and hydropower in the Sudanese portion of the Blue Nile. Hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to formulate an optimization model within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A sensitivity analysis is performed by testing model response to a range of economic conditions and to changes in the volume and timing of hydrologic flows. Results indicate that changing hydroclimate inputs have the capacity to greatly influence the productivity of Sudan's water resource infrastructure. Results also show that the economically optimal volume of water consumption, and thus the importance of existing treaty constraints, is sensitive to the perceived value of agriculture relative to electricity as well as to changing hydrological conditions.

  12. The ethnic distribution of sickle cell disease in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Sabahelzain, Majdi Mohammed; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common inherited disorders of haemoglobin in Africa and it is expected that sickle cell trait varies in frequency in different areas in Sudan. An extensive literature search was carried out accessing the US National Library of Medicine, the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region resources, the Catalogue for Transmission Genetics in Arabs and papers and documents published in Sudan that included data on the prevalence of sickle cell anaemia and trait. Rates of SCA and trait varied in different areas in Sudan with the highest rates reported from Western and Eastern Sudan where one in every 123 children born in Messeryia tribe in Western Sudan is at risk of having SCD. High consanguinity rates and malaria endemicity are strong related factors with sickle cell gene in Sudan. This review will present what is known about the rates of sickle cell gene in different ethnic groups in Sudan.

  13. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    A large outbreak of haemorrhagic fever (subsequently named Ebola haemorrhagic fever) occurred in southern Sudan between June and November 1976. There was a total of 284 cases; 67 in the source town of Nzara, 213 in Maridi, 3 in Tembura, and 1 in Juba. The outbreak in Nzara appears to have originated in the workers of a cotton factory. The disease in Maridi was amplified by transmission in a large, active hospital. Transmission of the disease required close contact with an acute case and was usually associated with the act of nursing a patient. The incubation period was between 7 and 14 days. Although the link was not well established, it appears that Nzara could have been the source of infection for a similar outbreak in the Bumba Zone of Zaire. In this outbreak Ebola haemorrhagic fever was a unique clinical disease with a high mortality rate (53% overall) and a prolonged recovery period in those who survived. Beginning with an influenza-like syndrome, including fever, headache, and joint and muscle pains, the disease soon caused diarrhoea (81%), vomiting (59%), chest pain (83%), pain and dryness of the throat (63%), and rash (52%). Haemorrhagic manifestations were common (71%), being present in half of the recovered cases and in almost all the fatal cases. Two post mortems were carried out on patients in November 1976. The histopathological findings resembled those of an acute viral infection and although the features were characteristic they were not exclusively diagnostic. They closely resembled the features described in Marburg virus infection, with focal eosinophilic necrosis in the liver and destruction of lymphocytes and their replacement by plasma cells. One case had evidence of renal tubular necrosis. Two strains of Ebola virus were isolated from acute phase sera collected from acutely ill patients in Maridi hospital during the investigation in November 1976. Antibodies to Ebola virus were detected by immunofluorescence in 42 of 48 patients in Maridi who

  14. Not just about sunburn--the ozone hole's profound effect on climate has significant implications for Southern Hemisphere ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sharon A; Erickson, David J

    2015-02-01

    Climate scientists have concluded that stratospheric ozone depletion has been a major driver of Southern Hemisphere climate processes since about 1980. The implications of these observed and modelled changes in climate are likely to be far more pervasive for both terrestrial and marine ecosystems than the increase in ultraviolet-B radiation due to ozone depletion; however, they have been largely overlooked in the biological literature. Here, we synthesize the current understanding of how ozone depletion has impacted Southern Hemisphere climate and highlight the relatively few documented impacts on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Reviewing the climate literature, we present examples of how ozone depletion changes atmospheric and oceanic circulation, with an emphasis on how these alterations in the physical climate system affect Southern Hemisphere weather, especially over the summer season (December-February). These potentially include increased incidence of extreme events, resulting in costly floods, drought, wildfires and serious environmental damage. The ecosystem impacts documented so far include changes to growth rates of South American and New Zealand trees, decreased growth of Antarctic mosses and changing biodiversity in Antarctic lakes. The objective of this synthesis was to stimulate the ecological community to look beyond ultraviolet-B radiation when considering the impacts of ozone depletion. Such widespread changes in Southern Hemisphere climate are likely to have had as much or more impact on natural ecosystems and food production over the past few decades, than the increased ultraviolet radiation due to ozone depletion.

  15. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. Material and Methods This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Results Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Conclusions Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan. PMID:24422031

  16. Avalonian crustal controls on basin evolution: implications for the Mesozoic basins of the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the Southern North Sea Basin's (SNSB) Pre-Permian basement due to a lack of outcrop and cores. The nature and structure of the East Avalonian crust and lithosphere remain even less constrained in the absence of deep seismic (refraction) lines. However, various studies have hinted at the importance of the Reactivation of the Early Carboniferous fault network during each consecutive Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic phase, demonstrating the key role of weak zones from the Early Carboniferous structural grain in partitioning of structural deformation and vertical basin motions at various scales. Although the older basin history and the basement attract increasing attention, the Pre-Permian tectonics of the SNSB remains little studied with most attention focused on the Permian and younger history. The strong dispersal of existing constraints requires a comprehensive study from Denmark to the UK, i.e. the East Avalonian microplate, bordered by the Variscan Rheïc suture, the Atlantic and Baltica. Based on an extensive literature study and the reinterpretation of publicly available data, linking constraints from the crust and mantle to stratigraphic-sedimentological information, we complement the map of Early Carboniferous rifting of East Avalonia and propose a new tectonic scenario. From the reinterpretation of the boundary between Avalonia and Baltica we propose a new outline for the Avalonian microplate with implications for the tectonics of the North German Basin. Furthermore, we highlight the nature and extent of the major crustal/lithospheric domains with contrasting structural behaviour and the major boundaries that separate them. Results shed light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric that are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints

  17. Sudan dyes: are they dangerous for human health?

    PubMed

    Fonovich, Teresa M

    2013-07-01

    Azo and diazo compounds include Sudan dyes, which were widely used in industry. Although they are not permitted in food, they had been found contaminating different food products and their presence is investigated regularly (since 2003) in these products. Sudan III, as well as Sudan Black B, was included in different laboratory techniques for tissue ceroid and lipofucsin analysis and blood-cell staining. Also, Sudan Black B has been recently included in in vivo evaluations in human beings (through oral intake), and Sudan III is still allowed in cosmetics. These azo dyes were metabolized to possible carcinogenic colorless amines, both in the liver of mammalians and by the micro flora present in human skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Both human and laboratory animal cytochrome P450s (CYPs) were able to oxidize Sudan I, whereas Sudan III modified CYP activities. In vitro genotoxic effects were reported for Sudan I, and some DNA adducts formed through exposure to its metabolites were identified. Sudan I was also found to be carcinogenic in the rat, but not in the mouse. The aim of the present review is to put together the most relevant information concerning Sudan dye uses and toxicity to provide some tools for the identification of the risk they represent for human health.

  18. Mapping the potential risk of mycetoma infection in Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling.

    PubMed

    Samy, Abdallah M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Peterson, A Townsend

    2014-10-01

    In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM). For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease.

  19. Rehabilitation of the expanded programme on immunization in Sudan following a poliomyelitis outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    ElZein, H. A.; Birmingham, M. E.; Karrar, Z. A.; Elhassan, A. A.; Omer, A.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993 a large outbreak of paralytic poliomyelitis occurred in Sudan as a result of an accumulation of large numbers of susceptible children that was accelerated by faltering immunization services. The extent of the outbreak led to the rapid rehabilitation of Sudan's Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI); the government began financing vaccine purchase, operational aspects of EPI were decentralized, vaccine delivery was changed from a mobile to a fixed-site strategy, a solar cold chain network was installed, inservice training was resuscitated, and social mobilization was enhanced. National immunization days (NIDs) for poliomyelitis eradication were conducted throughout the country, including the southern states during a cease fire in areas of conflict. Measles immunization coverage was increased by offering measles vaccine during the second round of NIDs and subsequently through routine immunization services. Supplemental tetanus toxoid immunization of women of child-bearing age began in three provinces at high risk for neonatal tetanus. From 1994 to 1996 reported immunization coverage increased and the incidence of all EPI target diseases fell. Trends in coverage, disease incidence, financing, and the implementation of WHO-recommended disease-control strategies suggest that more sustainable immunization services have been re-established in Sudan. PMID:9803584

  20. The emerging European immigration regime: some reflections on implications for southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Baldwin-edwards, M

    1997-12-01

    "Immigration is one of the more controversial areas in the history of European integration. Whilst northern European countries have been constructing elaborate compromises in the European Union (EU) Treaties and in the Schengen group, southern European countries have been trying to construct their own immigration policies. Little attention has been paid in the literature to the relationship between these two phenomena: it is suggested here that southern countries have found it expedient to fit in with EU and Schengen arrangements, even though these appear impossible to implement. This contradiction is seen as intrinsic to the overall relations of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece to the EU."

  1. Tectonic implications of the microearthquake seismicity and fault plane solutions in southern Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grange, F.; Hatzfeld, D.; Cunningham, P.; Molnar, P.; Roecker, S. W.; Suarez, G.; Rodrigues, A.; Ocola, L.

    1984-01-01

    Because the contortion in the seismic zone in southern Peru is aligned approximately parallel to the direction of relative plate motion, rather than perpendicular to the coast of Peru, the position of the contortion need not migrate with respect to the overriding South American plate as the Nazca plate subducts beneath it, and the flow in the surrounding asthenosphere could be in a steady state. In addition, the position of the contortion defines the northern boundary of the volcanic arc in southern Peru. The inference that a wedge of asthenospheric material must overlie the downgoing slab for subduction-related volcanism to occur is thereby strengthened.

  2. Retrospective measles outbreak investigation: Sudan, 2004.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Fátima; Musa, Nisreen; El Tayeb, El Sayed Ahmed; Haithami, Salah; Dabbagh, Alya; Mahoney, Frank; Nandy, Robin; Cairns, Lisa

    2006-10-01

    Recent population-based studies of measles incidence and deaths in Sudan are not available. To determine the epidemiology and case-fatality rate (CFR) of measles, we conducted a retrospective outbreak investigation in two states in northern Sudan. Of 1144 case-patients identified, 92% were <15 years; 48.6% were vaccinated; and 62% received vitamin A before illness. Ten measles-associated deaths were identified (CFR 0.9%; 95% confidence interval 0.16-1.91). CFR determined by this investigation is lower than expected for the region but remains 10 times higher than that in developed countries. Measles control should be strengthened by improving vaccine coverage, measles surveillance and case-management.

  3. An Adaptive Security Construct: Insurgency in Sudan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    feb01. pdf (accessed August 10, 2007). 11 Theodore S. Dagne, Library of Congress, and Congressional Research Service, "Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and...concept was later adapted for urban guerrilla conflict. See also Carlos Marighella, “Minimanual do guerrilheiro urbano ,” translated by Robert Moss...as a lack of infrastructure and transportation means worked in favor of the “bush-fighting” insurgents.106 Conventional operations grew increasingly

  4. Lagrangian tracing of Sahelian Sudan moisture sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Tjernström, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The Sahelian Sudan is an arid to semiarid region that depends on the seasonal rainfall as the main source of water, but its rainfall has large interannual variability. Such dry regions usually have their main moisture sources elsewhere; thus, the rainfall variability is directly related to the moisture transport. This study seeks to identify source regions of water vapor for Sahelian Sudan during the monsoon period, from July to September. We have used the Lagrangian trajectory model FLEXPART driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis for the time period 1998 to 2008. The results show that most of the air masses that reach this region during the monsoon period have their major origins over the Arabian Peninsula, Central Africa, or are associated with the tropical easterly jet. Flow associated with Intertropical Convergence Zone contributes almost half of the total precipitated water; most of it comes from Central Africa. This suggests that moisture recycling is the major contributor, compared to Oceanic sources. The flows from the northeast (Arabian Peninsula and north Asia) and east (Horn of Africa and north Indian Ocean) contribute about one third of the precipitated water. The rest of precipitated water comes from the Mediterranean, subtropical Atlantic, and western Sahel, all with smaller contribution. Our results also indicate that different subregions of Sahelian Sudan have different moisture sources. Such result needs to be taken into account in seasonal forecasting practices.

  5. Dissertation Citations in Organismal Biology at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale: Implications for Collection Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabe, Jonathan; Imre, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    We report on a citation analysis of Ph.D. dissertations in plant biology and zoology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale, undertaken to test the common assumption that scientists favor current research to such an extent that journal backfiles can be de-emphasized in academic library collections. Results demonstrate otherwise. The study is…

  6. Southern Foresters' Perceptions of Climate Change: Implications for Educational Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boby, Leslie; Hubbard, William; Megalos, Mark; Morris, Hilary L. C.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of foresters' perceptions of climate change is important for developing effective educational programs on adaptive forest management. We surveyed 1,398 foresters in the southern United States regarding their perceptions of climate change, observations and concerns about climatic and forest conditions, and knowledge of and interest…

  7. The Separation of Southern Sudan: A Possible American Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-11

    four basic levels of national interest. This is a concept based on Donald Snow and Dennis Drew’s interpretation of Donald Nuechterlein’s ’ national...and the impact is negligible?8 Snow and Drew conclude that combat forces should only be committed when the nation’s interests involve survival or are...James W ani Igga, succinctly summmized the general view of UNMIS when he compared the peacekeeping body to "a leopard without teetl1. Once the sheep

  8. Present-day shortening in Southern Haiti from GPS measurements and implications for seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symithe, Steeve; Calais, Eric

    2016-06-01

    The ~ 3 M inhabitant capital region of Haiti, severely affected by the devastating January 12, 2010, M7.0 earthquake, continues to expand at a fast rate. Accurate characterization of regional earthquake sources is key to inform urban development and construction practices through improved regional seismic hazard estimates. Here we use a recently updated Global Positioning System (GPS) data set to show that seismogenic strain accumulation in southern Haiti involves an overlooked component of shortening on a south-dipping reverse fault along the southern edge of the Cul-de-Sac basin, in addition to the well-known component of left-lateral strike-slip motion. This tectonic model implies that ground shaking may be twice that expected if the major fault was purely strike-slip, as assumed in the current seismic hazard map for the region.

  9. Age and origin of cold climate landforms from the Eastern Cape Drakensberg, southern Africa: palaeoclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Stephanie C.; Barrows, Timothy T.; Fifield, L. Keith

    2014-05-01

    Reliable dating is crucial for resolving the nature and timing of cold events in southern Africa and the associated cold climate landforms produced. Evidence for glaciation has been proposed for the Eastern Cape Drakensberg, based on the identification of moraines that were presumed to be of last glacial maximum age. Temperature depressions of 10-17°C have been proposed for this region, based on the presence of these moraines (Lewis and Illgner, 2001) and the identification of a relict rock glacier. Such large temperature depressions are, however, unsupported by other palaeoclimatic proxies in southern Africa. Debate regarding the occurrence of glaciation in southern Africa has been ongoing for several decades. There is good evidence for small-scale glaciation during the last glacial cycle in Lesotho, at elevations exceeding 3000 m a.s.l., but these sites are more than 1000 m higher in elevation than those identified in the Eastern Cape, and suggest a temperature depression of only ~6°C and a change to a winter dominated precipitation regime during the last glacial cycle. This paper presents preliminary cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages for the Eastern Cape 'moraines' and a periglacial blockstream in this region. We discuss potential alternative interpretations for the formation of the landforms and suggest that glaciers were absent in the Eastern Cape Drakensberg during the last glacial period. However, there is widespread evidence for periglacial activity down to an elevation of ~1700 m a.s.l., as illustrated by extensive blockstreams, stone garlands and solifluction deposits. These periglacial deposits suggest that the climate was much colder (~6ºC) during the last glacial cycle, in keeping with other proxy records, but not cold enough to initiate or sustain glaciers at low elevations. References Lewis C. A., Illgner, P. M., 2001. Late Quaternary glaciation in Southern Africa: moraine ridges and glacial deposits at Mount Enterprise in the Drakensberg of the

  10. Glacial-interglacial variability in diatom abundance and valve size: Implications for Southern Ocean paleoceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Abhilash; Mohan, Rahul; Manoj, M. C.; Thamban, Meloth

    2015-10-01

    Antarctic sea ice extent along with Southern Ocean biological productivity varied considerably during glacial-interglacial periods, and both are known to have played a considerable role in regulating atmospheric CO2 variations in the past. Here we present data on diatom absolute abundance (valves/g of sediment) and size over the past ~ 42 ka B.P. and how they link to glacial-interglacial changes in Antarctic sea ice extent, Southern Ocean frontal systems, and aeolian dust flux. Our records of sea ice and permanent open ocean zone diatom abundances suggest a shift in the Antarctic winter sea ice limit and Polar Front respectively up to the modern-day Polar Frontal Zone during marine isotopic stages (MIS) 2 and late MIS 3. In addition to glacial shifts in the Polar Front, diatom assemblages also recorded a plausible northward shifts in Polar Front during few intervals of MIS 1. Glacial periods north of the Polar Front in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean were characterized by higher total diatom abundance, larger Fragilariopsis kerguelensis apical length, and Thalassiosira lentiginosa radius. This is probably a consequence of (1) a northward expansion of the opal belt, a region characterized by high production and export of biogenic silica; (2) an increase in terrigenous input, via erosion of Crozet Islands; and (3) the alleviation of iron deficit by high input of Fe-bearing dust. The larger and highly silicified diatoms such as F. kerguelensis and T. lentiginosa may have mainly contributed in transporting biogenic silica and organic carbon to the seabed for the last 42 ka, in the northern Polar Frontal Zone of the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean.

  11. Forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize: Implications for migrant land birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruce, J.P.; Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.; Sader, S.A.; Doyle, Jamie K.; Schelhas, John

    1993-01-01

    Central America offers a suite of neotropical habitats vital to overwintering migrant land birds. The recent decline of many forest dwelling avian migrants is believed to be related in part to neotropical deforestation and land use change. However, spatio-temporal trends in neotropical habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use are largely unknown. Such information is needed to assess the impact of agriculture conversion on migrant land birds. In response, the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Maine began a cooperative study in 1988 which applies remote sensing and field surveys to determine current habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use. Study sites include areas in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala and southern Mexico. Visual assessment of Landsat TM imagery indicates southern Belize forests are fragmented by various agricultural systems. Shifting agriculture is predominant in some areas, while permanent agriculture (citrus and mixed animal crops) is the primary system in others. This poster focuses on efforts to monitor forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize using remote sensing, field surveys and GIS techniques. Procedures and avian migrant use of habitat are summarized.

  12. Implications of Sea Ice on Southern Ocean Microseisms Detected by a Seismic Array in West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Martin J.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Winberry, J. Paul; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Euler, Garrett G.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYThe proximity of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean storms coupled with seasonal variation in sea ice make Antarctica ideal for the study of microseism sources. We explore frequency-dependent beamforming results using a short-duration, 60 km aperture, broadband seismic array located on the Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica. Locations of single-frequency microseism (13-16 s period) generation are in regions where the continental shelf is ice-free, consistent with previous studies, and show Rayleigh wave sources remaining at consistent back azimuths throughout the duration of the array. Beamforming analysis of daily noise correlations shows that long-period double-frequency microseisms (9-11 s) consist predominantly of Rayleigh waves excited by storms in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean. Modelling of source locations based on wave-wave interaction provides a good fit to our data at these periods. We show that short-period double-frequency microseisms (5-7 s) in Antarctica consist of crustal phase Lg and body waves. Lg arrivals propagate through regions of continental crust and our data show that the Lg energy is generated when storm systems interact with the sea ice-free continental shelf during austral summers. Ultra-short-period (0.3-2 s) microseismic body waves back project to regions that correlate with oceanic storm systems in both the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> and Northern Hemispheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-415.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-415.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payments involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-415.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-415.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payments involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED457702.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED457702.pdf"><span>The Dinka of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: Family Traditions in Transition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Singleton, Kate</p> <p></p> <p>This paper examines the core values of the Dinka tribe of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, focusing on the most prominent aspects of their family life. The paper also examines how the Dinka family is changing in the face of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>'s civil war and modernization. It concludes with suggestions for new directions that social work can take to facilitate the transition of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-415.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-415.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payments involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-415.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-415.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payments involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&pg=4&id=EJ718942','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&pg=4&id=EJ718942"><span>Education in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: The Privileging of an Islamic Discourse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Breidlid, Anders</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the educational discourse in the part of the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> administered by the Government of the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. It first analyses the value system upon which the Sudanese education is based by focusing on the nature of Islamism. Such a discussion is necessary because the dominant discourse is a discourse where power and Islamic theocracy…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-415.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-415.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119...71P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119...71P"><span>Three-dimensional lithospheric electrical structure of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Granulite Terrain, India and its tectonic <span class="hlt">implications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patro, Prasanta K.; Sarma, S. V. S.; Naganjaneyulu, K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>crustal as well as the upper mantle lithospheric electrical structure of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Granulite Terrain (SGT) is evaluated, using the magnetotelluric (MT) data from two parallel traverses: one is an ~ 500 km long N-S trending traverse across SGT and another a 200 km long traverse. Data space Occam 3-D inversion was used to invert the MT data. The electrical characterization of lithospheric structure in SGT shows basically a highly resistive (several thousands of Ohm meters) upper crustal layer overlying a moderately resistive (a few hundred Ohm meters) lower crustal layer which in turn is underlain by the upper mantle lithosphere whose resistivity shows significant changes along the traverse. The highly resistive upper crustal layer is interspersed with four major conductive features with three of them cutting across the crustal column, bringing out a well-defined crustal block structure in SGT with individual highly resistive blocks showing correspondence to the geologically demarcated Salem, Madurai, and Trivandrum blocks. The 3-D model also brought out a well-defined major crustal conductor located in the northern half of the Madurai block. The electrical characteristics of this south dipping conductor and its close spatial correlation with two of the major structural elements, viz., Karur-Oddanchatram-Kodaikanal Shear Zone and Karur-Kamban-Painavu-Trichur Shear Zone, suggest that this conductive feature is closely linked to the subduction-collision tectonic processes in the SGT, and it is inferred that the Archean Dharwar craton/neoproterozoic SGT terrain boundary lies south of the Palghat-Cauvery shear zone. The results also showed that the Achankovil shear zone is characterized by a well-defined north dipping conductive feature. The resistive block adjoining this conductor on the <span class="hlt">southern</span> side, representing the Trivandrum block, is shown to be downthrown along this north dipping crustal conductor relative to the Madurai block, suggesting a northward movement</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1075212.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1075212.pdf"><span>Reasons behind the Failure of Teaching <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Practical Integrated National English (SPINE 5) in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hamad, Mona M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>According to the development of English language learning and curriculum design, English language series became a very important issue that affects education globally and in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. In specific, this study reports reasons behind the failure of teaching SPINE 5 (which is one of SPINE series) from the teachers' point of view. In Bahry Locality in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-522.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-522.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... residing in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-522.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-522.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... residing in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-06/pdf/2013-02620.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-06/pdf/2013-02620.pdf"><span>78 FR 8360 - Addition of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to the Restricted Destinations List</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-02-06</p> <p>... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 110 RIN 3150-AJ21 Addition of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to the Restricted Destinations List AGENCY...) is amending its export and import regulations by adding South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to the list of restricted... Equipment and Material,'' with regard to U.S. Government law and policy on South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-522.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-522.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... residing in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-522.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-522.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... residing in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-522.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-522.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... residing in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Icar..210..693R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Icar..210..693R"><span>Compositional heterogeneity of Asteroid 4 Vesta’s <span class="hlt">southern</span> hemisphere: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the Dawn mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reddy, Vishnu; Gaffey, Michael J.; Kelley, Michael S.; Nathues, Andreas; Li, Jian-Yang; Yarbrough, Robert</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>High signal-to-noise, rotationally-resolved spectra of Asteroid 4 Vesta's <span class="hlt">southern</span> hemisphere from the 2007 opposition were used to constrain its compositional and mineralogical variations. The spectra were rotationally-phased using closely timed HST observations of Vesta by Li et al. (Li, J.-Y., McFadden, L.A., Thomas, P.C., Mutchler, M.J., Parker, J.Wm., Young, E.F., Russell, C.T., Sykes, M.V., Schmidt, B.E. [2010]. Icarus 208, 238-251). The average surface of Vesta's <span class="hlt">southern</span> hemisphere is analogous to a howardite or polymict eucrite assemblage similar to the northern hemisphere, although the band parameters are distinctly shifted towards the diogenite zone on the Band-Band plot. A few distinct compositional units were detected and they might be related to albedo features detected by Hubble Space Telescope (Li et al., 2010). We have identified two compositionally distinct regions overlaying the background surface. The first unit is a polymict eucrite and/or low-Ca eucrite compositional unit at 143° longitude that border the eucrite zone on the Band-Band plot and the second is a diogenite unit at 159°. While we did not detect any distinct olivine units as suggested by Gaffey (Gaffey, M.J. [1997]. Icarus 127, 130-157), we cannot rule out the possibility of smaller olivine-rich units that are below the detection limit of the instrumentation we used. Based on the analysis and the limitations of the data, we do not suggest that Vesta's surface is olivine-free. Mean pyroxene chemistry estimates for both hemispheres broadly agree with one another (to within one-sigma) with the northern hemisphere ferrosilite (Fs) and wollastonite (Wo) values being slightly higher than <span class="hlt">southern</span> hemisphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011QSRv...30.2002A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011QSRv...30.2002A"><span><span class="hlt">Southern</span> dispersal and Palaeoecological <span class="hlt">implications</span> of woolly rhinoceros ( Coelodonta antiquitatis): review of the Iberian occurrences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Álvarez-Lao, Diego J.; García, Nuria</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Cold-adapted large mammal populations spread southward during the coldest and driest phases of the Late Pleistocene reaching the Iberian Peninsula. Presence of woolly rhinoceros ( Coelodonta antiquitatis) can be identified from 23 Iberian sites, which is compiled and analyzed herein, and the fossil specimens from seven of these sites are described here for first time. Morphological and biometrical analyses demonstrate that the Iberian woolly rhinoceros did not significantly differ from individuals of other European populations, but represent the westernmost part of a continuous Eurasian belt of distribution. The first presence of woolly rhino in the Iberian Peninsula has been identified during the late Middle Pleistocene and early Late Pleistocene. However, the highest abundance of this species is recorded during MIS 3 and 2. The latest Iberian occurrences can be dated around 20 ka BP. The presence of woolly rhinoceros in the Iberian Peninsula correlates with periods of extreme dry and cold climatic conditions documented in Iberian terrestrial and marine sediment sequences. From a palaeobiogeographic point of view, the maximum <span class="hlt">southern</span> spread of C. antiquitatis on the Iberian Peninsula was registered during the late Middle Pleistocene or early Late Pleistocene, reaching the latitude of Madrid (about 40°N). Subsequently, during MIS 3 and 2, all Iberian finds were restricted to the Northern regions of Iberia (Cantabrian area and Catalonia). The <span class="hlt">southern</span> expansion of C. antiquitatis during the Late Pleistocene in the Iberian Peninsula reached similar latitudes to other Eurasian regions. The ecological composition of fossil assemblages with presence of woolly rhinoceros was statistically analyzed. Results show that temperate ungulate species are predominant at Iberian assemblages, resulting in a particular mixture of temperate and cold elements different of the typical Eurasian cold-adapted faunal associations. This particular situation suggests two possible</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4997S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4997S"><span>Lagrangian tracing of Sahelian <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> moisture sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Tjernström, Michael</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Sahelian <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, 10° to 16°N, is an arid to semi-arid zone that separates the Saharan to the north and the wet Savannah to the south. The region is characterized by, relatively, limited water resources, and hence has a high dependency on the annual rainfall. According to the latest IPCC report, regions that have such limited water resources are highly vulnerable to the ongoing climate change and variability. Taking into account that the agriculture is the main economical activity, the variability in annual rainfall is of direct soci-economical relevance. Similar to the rest of the African Sahel, the rainy season, June through September, across Sahelian <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> is connected to the annual march of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). However, there still a limited understanding of the actual sources of moisture that supplies this region with water vapor during the rainy season. Broadly speaking, the Atlantic, the Congo rain forest, the Read Sea and the Indian Ocean are the main potential sources. In this study we use Lagrangian tracing technique to indentify the sources of moisture of Sahelian <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> and attempt quantifying their contribution to the total annual moisture convergence. For this we utilized output from the Lagrangian trajectory model FLEXPART driven by the meteorological fields from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecast ERA-interim for period of ten years 2000 to 2009. We trace back, for ten days each mass element to indentify the source region. The models also accounts for precipitation and moisture uptakes through the course of the transport of the air parcel from source to destination. Identifying the sources of moisture is of great importance, and can help in two connected directions. First, identifying sources of moisture will help in understanding the variability and will provide insight about the drought causes and mechanisms. Second, revealing the moisture sources would enhance ongoing efforts in seasonal forecasting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Geo....12..619N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Geo....12..619N"><span>Tectonic control of Triassic sedimentation in <span class="hlt">southern</span> New Brunswick: Local and regional <span class="hlt">implications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nadon, G. C.; Middleton, G. V.</p> <p>1984-10-01</p> <p>Both regional and local tectonics controlled the sediment distribution in the Fundy half-graben during the Triassic. Locally, alluvial fans built out into the basin from the western boundary fault along what is now the south shore of New Brunswick. The alluvial fan red beds of the Honeycomb Point Formation are covered by fluvial conglomerates of the Quaco Formation, which in turn are buried by a resurgence of alluvial fan deposition represented by the Echo Cove Formation. Pollen recovered from the upper part of the Echo Cove Formation indicates that, regionally, the system of Triassic-Jurassic grabens along the eastern seaboard is composed of two separate graben systems; one stretching from South Carolina to Connecticut, the other from the Gulf of Maine to the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Grand Banks. Initial graben formation began at the <span class="hlt">southern</span> end of each system, followed by successive grabens opening toward the north. The areal distribution of both graben systems appears to have been controlled by four large transform-fault systems from the Middle Triassic through the Jurassic. The age and overall distribution of sediments within the Fundy Basin confirm the existence of a hot spot along the Kelvin Seamount chain and refines determination of the position and timing of the initial rifting that led to the formation of the present Atlantic Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1016473','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1016473"><span>Spatial genetic structure and regional demography in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> torrent salamander: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for conservation and management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Southern</span> torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for <span class="hlt">Southern</span> torrent salamanders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028960','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028960"><span>Phylogeography and spatial genetic structure of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> torrent salamander: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for conservation and management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Miller, M.P.; Haig, S.M.; Wagner, R.S.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Southern</span> torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for <span class="hlt">Southern</span> torrent salamanders. ?? The American Genetic Association. 2006. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002DSRII..49.1881P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002DSRII..49.1881P"><span>Salp/krill interactions in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean: spatial segregation and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the carbon flux</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pakhomov, E. A.; Froneman, P. W.; Perissinotto, R.</p> <p></p> <p>Available data on the spatial distribution and feeding ecophysiology of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, and the tunicate, Salpa thompsoni, in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean are summarized in this study. Antarctic krill and salps generally display pronounced spatial segregation at all spatial scales. This appears to be the result of a clear biotopical separation of these key species in the Antarctic pelagic food web. Krill and salps are found in different water masses or water mass modifications, which are separated by primary or secondary frontal features. On the small-scale (<100 km), Antarctic krill and salps are usually restricted to the specific water parcels, or are well segregated vertically. Krill and salp grazing rates estimated using the in situ gut fluorescence technique are among the highest recorded in the Antarctic pelagic food web. Although krill and salps at times may remove the entire daily primary production, generally their grazing impact is moderate (⩽50% of primary production). The regional ecological consequences of years of high salp densities may be dramatic. If the warming trend, which is observed around the Antarctic Peninsula and in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean, continues, salps may become a more prominent player in the trophic structure of the Antarctic marine ecosystem. This likely would be coupled with a dramatic decrease in krill productivity, because of a parallel decrease in the spatial extension of the krill biotope. The high Antarctic regions, particularly the Marginal Ice Zone, have, however, effective physiological mechanisms that may provide protection against the salp invasion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025156','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025156"><span>Hyperpycnal sediment discharge from semiarid <span class="hlt">southern</span> California rivers: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for coastal sediment budgets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Warrick, J.A.; Milliman, John D.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Southern</span> California rivers discharge hyperpycnal (river density greater than ocean density) concentrations of suspended sediment (>40 g/L, according to buoyancy theory) during flood events, mostly during El Nin??o-<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Oscillation (ENSO) conditions. Because hyperpycnal river discharge commonly occurs during brief periods (hours to occasionally days), mean daily flow statistics often do not reveal the magnitude of these events. Hyperpycnal events are particularly important in rivers draining the Transverse Range and account for 75% of the cumulative sediment load discharged by the Santa Clara River over the past 50 yr. These events are highly pulsed, totaling only ??? 30 days (??? 0.15% of the total 50 yr period). Observations of the fate of sediment discharge, although rare, are consistent with hyperpycnal river dynamics and the high likelihood of turbidity currents during these events. We suggest that much of the sediment load initially bypasses the littoral circulation cells and is directly deposited on the adjacent continental shelf, thus potentially representing a loss of immediate beach sand supply. During particularly exceptional events (>100 yr recurrence intervals), flood underflows may extend past the shelf and escape to offshore basins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24278134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24278134"><span>Humpback whale song on the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean feeding grounds: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for cultural transmission.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garland, Ellen C; Gedamke, Jason; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Noad, Michael J; Garrigue, Claire; Gales, Nick</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Male humpback whales produce a long, complex, and stereotyped song on low-latitude breeding grounds; they also sing while migrating to and from these locations, and occasionally in high-latitude summer feeding areas. All males in a population sing the current version of the constantly evolving display and, within an ocean basin, populations sing similar songs; however, this sharing can be complex. In the western and central South Pacific region there is repeated cultural transmission of song types from eastern Australia to other populations eastward. Song sharing is hypothesized to occur through several possible mechanisms. Here, we present the first example of feeding ground song from the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean Antarctic Area V and compare it to song from the two closest breeding populations. The early 2010 song contained at least four distinct themes; these matched four themes from the eastern Australian 2009 song, and the same four themes from the New Caledonian 2010 song recorded later in the year. This provides evidence for at least one of the hypothesized mechanisms of song transmission between these two populations, singing while on shared summer feeding grounds. In addition, the feeding grounds may provide a point of acoustic contact to allow the rapid horizontal cultural transmission of song within the western and central South Pacific region and the wider <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25929961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25929961"><span>Epidemiological Trends for HIV in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Africa: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Reaching the Elimination Targets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Brian G; Gouws, Eleanor; Somse, Pierre; Mmelesi, Mpho; Lwamba, Chibwe; Chikoko, Trouble; Fazito, Erika; Turay, Mohamed; Kiwango, Eva; Chikukwa, Pepukai; Damisoni, Henry; Gboun, Michael</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Southern</span> Africa is the region worst affected by HIV in the world and accounts for one third of the global burden of HIV. Achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target by 2020 and ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 depend on success in this region. We review epidemiological trends in each country in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa with respect to the prevalence, incidence, mortality, coverage of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and TB notification rates, to better understand progress in controlling HIV and TB and to determine what needs to be done to reach the UNAIDS targets. Significant progress has been made in controlling HIV. In all countries in the region, the prevalence of HIV in people not on ART, the incidence of HIV, AIDS-related mortality and, in most countries, TB notification rates, are falling. In some countries, the risk of infection began to fall before biomedical interventions such as ART became widely available as a result of effective prevention measures or people's awareness of, and response to, the epidemic but the reasons for these declines remain uncertain. Some countries have achieved better levels of ART coverage than others, but all are in a position to reach the 2020 and 2030 targets if they accelerate the roll-out of ART and of targeted prevention efforts. Achieving the HIV treatment targets will further reduce the incidence of HIV-related TB, but efforts to control TB in HIV-negative people must be improved and strengthened.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25920224','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25920224"><span>Anthocyanins of Hibiscus sabdiffera calyces from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cahliková, Lucie; Ali, Badreldin H; Havliková, Lucie; Ločárek, Mirek; Siatka, Tomáš; Opletal, Lubomir; Blunden, Gerald</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Extracts of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa are widely used in folk medicine to combat many illnesses. The active constituents of the extracts have been shown on several occasions to be anthocyanins. In our current studies the biological activities of an extract of H. sabdariffa calyces purchased in Oman, but grown in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, are being compared with those of the anthocyanins isolated from them, and, for this, the anthocyanin profile of the extract needed to be ascertained. Although several anthocyanins were detected by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS, delphinidin-3-sambubioside (major) and cyanidin-3-sambubioside were predominant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA258661','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA258661"><span>Area Handbook Series: <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: A Country Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-06-01</p> <p>Khartoum average 15’C in January and have dropped as low as 6°C after the passing of a cool front in winter. The haboob , a violent dust storm, can occur...information on the sources of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>’s arms can be found in Forecast International/DMS Market Intelligence Report: Middle East and Africa. Reports by two...information from The Miliary Balance, 1991-1992, London, 1991, 119; and Forecast International/DMS Market Intelligence Report, Middle East andAfti- ca</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3748487','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3748487"><span>Dracunculiasis Eradication: And Now, South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Weiss, Adam; Withers Jr., P. Craig; Eberhard, Mark L.; Roy, Sharon L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the status of the global Dracunculiasis Eradication Program as of the end of 2012. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) has been eliminated from 17 of 21 countries where it was endemic in 1986, when an estimated 3.5 million cases occurred worldwide. Only 542 cases were reported from four countries in 2012, and 103 villages still had indigenous transmission. Most remaining cases were reported from the new Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, whereas Chad, Ethiopia, and Mali each reported 10 cases or less. Political instability and insecurity in Mali may become the main obstacles to interrupting dracunculiasis transmission forever. PMID:23843492</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8245943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8245943"><span>Intradomiciliary behavior of Anopheles albimanus on the coastal plain of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Mexico: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for malaria control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bown, D N; Rodriguez, M H; Arredondo-Jimenez, J I; Loyola, E G; Rodriguez, M C</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>The postfeeding indoor resting behavior of Anopheles albimanus in experimental houses in <span class="hlt">southern</span> México was investigated by using a mark-recapture procedure. The majority of mosquitoes rested inside houses after taking a blood meal indoors. There was a higher landing frequency on interior surfaces other than walls and roofs; however, mosquitoes rested for longer periods on these 2 surfaces. Successive landings on walls after short flights showed that mosquitoes gradually increased their mean landing height from 1.0 to 1.4 m. Similarly, mosquitoes resting at the base of inner roofs had a successive landing height range of about 0.5 m. Based on these observations and the potential for reduction of nearly 50% in the quantity of insecticide used and the time needed to apply it, village-scale studies involving the selective spraying of a 1-m-wide swath of insecticide on walls and on roofs are recommended in this area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T51G3006R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T51G3006R"><span>Mantle Flow <span class="hlt">Implications</span> across Easter and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Africa from Shear Wave Splitting Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramirez, C.; Nyblade, A.; Bagley, B. C.; Mulibo, G. D.; Tugume, F.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D.; van der Meijde, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In this study, we present new shear wave splitting results from broadband seismic stations in Botswana and Namibia, and combine them with previous results from stations in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Angola to further examine the pattern of seismic anisotropy across <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa. The new results come from stations in northern Namibia and Botswana, which help to fill in large gaps in data coverage. Our preliminary results show that fast polarization directions overall trend in a NE orientation. The most noticeable measurements that deviate from this pattern are located around the Archean Tanzania Craton in eastern Africa. The general NE pattern of fast polarization directions is attributed to mantle flow linked to the African superplume. Smaller scale variations from this general direction can be explained by shape anisotropy in the lithosphere in magmatic regions in the East African rift system and to fossil anisotropy in the Precambrian lithosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC51A0679G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC51A0679G"><span>Downscaled Climate Change Projections for the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Colorado Plateau: Variability and <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Vegetation Changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garfin, G. M.; Eischeid, J. K.; Cole, K. L.; Ironside, K.; Cobb, N. S.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Recent and rapid forest mortality in western North America and associated changes in fire frequency and area burned are among the chief concerns of ecosystem managers. These examples of climate change surprises demonstrate nonlinear and threshold ecosystem responses to increased temperatures and severe drought. A consistent management request from climate change adaptation workshops held during the last four years in the southwest U.S. is for region-specific estimates of climate and vegetation change, in order to provide guidance for management of federal and state forest, range, and riparian preserves and land holdings. Partly in response to these concerns, and partly in the interest of improving knowledge of potential ecosystem changes and their relationships with observed changes and changes demonstrated in the paleoecological record, we developed a set of integrated climate and ecosystem analyses. We selected five of twenty-two GCMs from the PCMDI archive of IPCC AR4 model runs, based on their approximations of observed critical seasonality for vegetation in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Colorado Plateau (domain: 35°- 38°N, 114°-107°W), centered on the Four Corners states. We used three key seasons in our analysis, winter (November-March), pre-monsoon (May-June), and monsoon (July- September). Projections of monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation from our five-model ensemble indicate steadily increasing temperatures in our region of interest during the twenty-first century. By 2050, the ensemble projects increases of 3.0°C during May and June, months critical for drought stress and tree mortality, and 4.5-5.0°C by 2090. Projected temperature changes for months during the heart of winter (December and January) are on the order of 2.5°C by 2050 and 3.0°C by 2090; such changes are likely to affect snow hydrology in middle to low elevations in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Colorado Plateau. Summer temperature increases are on the order of 2.5°C (2050) and 4.0°C (2090). The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816739M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816739M"><span>Topographyc metrics in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> sector of the Marche foothills: <span class="hlt">implication</span> for active tectonic analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Materazzi, Marco; Aringoli, Domenico; Carducci, Tamara; Cavitolo, Paolo; Farabollini, Piero; Giacopetti, Marco; Pambianchi, Gilberto; Tondi, Emanuele; Troiani, Francesco</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Quantitative geomorphic analysis can be provided a useful contribution to the study of recent tectonics. Some parameters, that quantify the channels morphology, as the Stream Length-Gradient (SL) Index (Hack, 1973) and the Steepness (Ks) Index (Flint, 1974), are generally used to detect anomalies on the expected concave-up equilibrium stream-profile, which can result in local abrupt changes in stream gradient (i.e., knickpoints) and/or broad convexities on stream long-profiles extending for tens of kilometres (i.e., knickzones). The main goal of this work is the study of the morphological and morphometrical features in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> sector of the Marche Region, with the aim to gain new knowledge on the influences of rock resistance and rock uplift on the fluvial and topographic system. The investigated area is situated in central Italy and it extends from the axial zone of the Umbria-Marche Apennines to the Adriatic Sea, including the <span class="hlt">southern</span> sector of the Marche Region and belongs to the foredeep domain of the Apennines orogenic system, which has affected by tectonic activity up to very recent times. The rheology of outcropping deposits doesn't allow the strain to be easily recorded at the outcrop scale. The analyses have been aimed at to test the sensitivity of both SL and Ks for evaluating active crustal deformations, acting at different wavelengths on land surface, within a low tectonically active thrust-and-fold belt. Additional purpose was the understanding of the pattern of regional differential crustal activity in the topographic arrangement of the study area In this research project two sets of analysis were conducted. References Hack J.T. 1973. Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index. Journal of Research of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1, 421-429. Flint J.J. 1974. Stream gradient as a function of order, magnitude and discharge. Water Resources Research, 10, 969-973.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5120000','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5120000"><span>The rebirth of cardiac surgery in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Elnur, Elamin Elawad</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Cardiac surgery is nowadays an integral part of a complete national health service. Methods In this paper the rebirth of cardiac surgery in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> from 1998 till 2007 is given by means of a literature search, personal interviews and searching hospital records. Results A summary of the initial birth of these services in 1959 till its demise in 1993 is first mentioned to set the stage for the subsequent period of sustainable growth. The surgical workforce and the surgical workload in the latter period is documented and showed that in the period from 1998 to 2007 2,868 open heart operations were done in three centers in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. All these centers are based in Khartoum but they cater for all the country. It is estimated that (with the addition of two centers after the study period) the service provided would need to be quadrupled (by doubling the number of centers to 10 and increasing their capacity so as to cater for the whole country). The case mix of operations done is predominantly valvular comprising 63.2% of the total followed by congenital cardiac cases at 22.8% and then ischaemic at 11.9%. Conclusions The results imply that a big effort has to be done in the primary healthcare sector to try and eradicate rheumatic heart disease which is the main cause of the valvular lesions. PMID:27904841</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1225/pdf/ofr2014-1225.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1225/pdf/ofr2014-1225.pdf"><span>Ecological <span class="hlt">implications</span> of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Snyder, James R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>, laurel wilt disease also kills other native trees that are members of the laurel family, including swamp bay (Persea palustris), silk bay (Persea borbonia var. humilis), and sassafras (Sassafras albidum), as well as the economically important cultivated avocado (Persea americana) (Fraedrich and others, 2008). This paper is concerned primarily with swamp bay, an important component of Everglades tree islands.The spread of the redbay ambrosia beetle and its fungal symbiont has been very rapid, exceeding model predictions (Koch and Smith, 2008); by 2011, laurel wilt disease was found from the <span class="hlt">southern</span> coastal plain of North Carolina to <span class="hlt">southern</span> peninsular Florida. The first redbay ambrosia beetle was trapped in Miami-Dade County in March 2010, and laurel wilt disease was discovered in swamp bays in February 2011 and in commercial avocado groves about a year later (Kendra and others, 2013). By 2013, laurel wilt disease was seen in swamp bays throughout the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Everglades in Everglades National Park, Big Cypress National Preserve, and Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) 3A and 3B (Rodgers and others, 2014).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSM.T31B..09D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSM.T31B..09D"><span><span class="hlt">Implications</span> of Stratigraphic and Structural Data from the Bitter Spring Region, <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donatelle, A.; Goeden, J.; Hannon, M.; Hickson, T.; Holter, S.; Johnson, T.; Lamb, M.; Lindberg, J.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Deposition of the Tertiary Horse Spring Formation (HSF) in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Nevada has been used to infer varying styles of extensional and strike-slip basin formation. Beard (1996) proposes an initial large contiguous basin of Rainbow Gardens age (ca. 26-18 Ma) that is subsequently broken up into sub-basins during Thumb time (16-14 Ma). A key locality to test this hypothesis is near the <span class="hlt">southern</span> end of East and West Longwell Ridges, on the Bitter Spring USGS 1:24000 quadrangle (BSQ). However, the stratigraphic framework in this area is poorly defined. The BSQ is located west of the Overton arm of Lake Mead near the junction of the Las Vegas Valley Shear Zone and the Lake Mead Fault System. By mapping a portion of the quadrangle at 1:5000 scale, measuring detailed sections, and collecting ash samples from key localities, we investigated the structural and sedimentary framework of the area and have begun to clarify the stratigraphic relationships between members of the HSF. Faults fall into three categories: one set strikes north and dips moderately to the west; another strikes east-northeast and dips shallowly to the northwest; and the last strikes north and dips to the east. Many of these faults show an oblique sense of movement and may be related to movement on the White Basin (WBF) and Rodgers Spring Faults (Bohannon, 1983). A distinctive resistant limestone caps gypsiferous and clastic units on both sides of the north-south trending WBF. To the west of the WBF, this limestone is mapped as the Bitter Ridge Limestone Member of the HSF, whereas to the east it is mapped as the Thumb Member by Beard (unpub) and as the Rainbow Gardens Member by Bohannon (1983). We suspect that these limestones may be correlative; geochemical and petrographic fingerprinting of numerous ashes from our sections should allow correlation of these units across the WBF. In addition, sections from the east side of the WBF spaced over 1.5 km show conglomerate at the base, overlain by a sequence of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T24B..03C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T24B..03C"><span>Detrital Thermochronology of the Indus-Yarlung suture zone and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the tectonic and surface evolution of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tibet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carrapa, B.; Hassim, F.; Kapp, P. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Detrital thermochronology has the unique potential to resolve the timing of source cooling associated with magmatic, tectonic and surface processes. Correct interpretation of the detrital signature requires a multi-dating approach involving chronometers sensitive to different temperatures and processes. A multi-dating study of modern river sands from <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tibet reveals distinct cooling signals that provide significant information about tectonic and erosional evolution of the Indus-Yarlung suture (IYS) after the India-Asia collision with <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the Cenozoic topographic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Modern sands from tributaries of the Yarlung River provide an opportunity to broadly sample source rocks exposed within the suture zone, including the Gangdese batholith, Xigaze forearc, Cenozoic basins, and Tethyan Himalayan rocks, and to investigate their regional geochemical signatures. Samples from rivers along the IYS in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tibet, between Xigaze and Mt. Kailas, were analyzed for detrital geochronology and low-temperature thermochronology. Comparison between ages recorded in the source and the detrital signature indicates that both the ages and their proportions directly reflect the ages and relative areas of source rocks in the catchment basins. Apatite fission track ages show two main cooling signals at 22-18 Ma and 12 Ma, which are consistent with accelerated exhumation of the Gangdese batholith and Oligo-Miocene Kailas basin and indicate significant regional exhumation of the IYS during the Miocene. Regional exhumation recorded throughout the IYS is likely the combined product of active Miocene tectonics and erosion of a paleo-Yarlung River. Efficient incision and evacuation of material from the IYS zone by a paleo-Yarlung River during the Miocene suggests a significantly different paleoenvironment than that which exists today. Miocene capture of the Yarlung River by the Brahmaputra River may have enhanced erosion in the IYS zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.190...37S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.190...37S"><span>The crustal structure of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Baffin Bay: <span class="hlt">implications</span> from a seismic refraction experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suckro, Sonja K.; Gohl, Karsten; Funck, Thomas; Heyde, Ingo; Ehrhardt, Axel; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Gerlings, Joanna; Damm, Volkmar; Jokat, Wilfried</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Baffin Bay represents the northern extension of the extinct rift system in the Labrador Sea. While the extent of oceanic crust and magnetic spreading anomalies are well constrained in the Labrador Sea, no magnetic spreading anomalies have yet been identified in Baffin Bay. Thus, the nature and evolution of the Baffin Bay crust remain uncertain. To clearly characterize the crust in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Baffin Bay, 42 ocean bottom seismographs were deployed along a 710-km-long seismic refraction line, from Baffin Island to Greenland. Multichannel seismic reflection, gravity and magnetic anomaly data were recorded along the same transect. Using forward modelling and inversion of observed traveltimes from dense airgun shots, a P-wave velocity model was obtained. The detailed morphology of the basement was constrained using the seismic reflection data. A 2-D density model supports and complements the P-wave modelling. Sediments of up to 6 km in thickness with P-wave velocities of 1.8-4.0 km s-1 are imaged in the centre of Baffin Bay. Oceanic crust underlies at least 305 km of the profile. The oceanic crust is 7.5 km thick on average and is modelled as three layers. Oceanic layer 2 ranges in P-wave velocity from 4.8 to 6.4 km s-1 and is divided into basalts and dykes. Oceanic layer 3 displays P-wave velocities of 6.4-7.2 km s-1. The Greenland continental crust is up to 25 km thick along the line and divided into an upper, middle and lower crust with P-wave velocities from 5.3 to 7.0 km s-1. The upper and middle continental crust thin over a 120-km-wide continent-ocean transition zone. We classify this margin as a volcanic continental margin as seaward dipping reflectors are imaged from the seismic reflection data and mafic intrusions in the lower crust can be inferred from the seismic refraction data. The profile did not reach continental crust on the Baffin Island margin, which implies a transition zone of 150 km length at most. The new information on the extent of oceanic crust is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH31A1876B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH31A1876B"><span>Modeling Fire Emissions across Central and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Italy: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Land and Fire Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Spano, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Fires play a relevant role in the global and regional carbon cycle, representing a remarkable source of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG) that influence atmosphere budgets and climate. In addition, the wildfire increase projected in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Europe due to climate change (CC) and concurrent exacerbation of extreme weather conditions could also lead to a significant rise in GHG. Recently, in the context of the Italian National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (SNAC), several approaches were identified as valuable tools to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires, in order to reduce landscape susceptibility and to contribute to the efforts of carbon emission mitigation proposed within the Kyoto protocol. Active forest and fuel management (such as prescribed burning, fuel reduction and removal, weed and flammable shrub control, creation of fuel discontinuity) is recognised to be a key element to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires. Despite this, overall there is a lack of studies about the effectiveness of fire emission mitigation strategies. The current work aims to analyse the potential of a combination of fuel management practices in mitigating emissions from forest fires and evaluate valuable and viable options across Central and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Italy. These objectives were achieved throughout a retrospective application of an integrated approach combining a fire emission model (FOFEM - First Order Fire Effect Model) with spatially explicit, comprehensive, and accurate fire, vegetation and weather data for the period 2004-2012. Furthermore, a number of silvicultural techniques were combined to develop several fuel management scenarios and then tested to evaluate their potential in mitigating fire emissions.The preliminary results showed the crucial role of appropriate fuel, fire behavior, and weather data to reduce bias in quantifying the source and the composition of fire emissions and to attain reasonable estimations. Also, the current</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26748948','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26748948"><span>Dental microwear of sympatric rodent species sampled across habitats in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for environmental influence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burgman, Jenny H E; Leichliter, Jennifer; Avenant, Nico L; Ungar, Peter S</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Dental microwear textures have proven to be a valuable tool for reconstructing the diets of a wide assortment of fossil vertebrates. Nevertheless, some studies have recently questioned the efficacy of this approach, suggesting that aspects of habitat unrelated to food preference, especially environmental grit load, might have a confounding effect on microwear patterning that obscures the diet signal. Here we evaluate this hypothesis by examining microwear textures of 3 extant sympatric rodent species that vary in diet breadth and are found in a variety of habitat types: Mastomys coucha, Micaelamys namaquensis and Rhabdomys pumilio. We sample each of these species from 3 distinct environmental settings in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa that differ in rainfall and vegetative cover: Nama-Karoo shrublands (semi-desert) and Dry Highveld grasslands in the Free State Province of South Africa, and Afromontane (wet) grasslands in the highlands of Lesotho. While differences between habitat types are evident for some of the species, inconsistency in the pattern suggests that the microwear signal is driven by variation in foods eaten rather than grit-level per se. It is clear that, at least for species and habitats sampled in the current study, environmental grit load does not swamp diet-related microwear signatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7807076','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7807076"><span>Intradomicillary pre- and postfeeding behavior of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Mexico: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for malaria control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Casas, M; Bown, D N; Rodríguez, M H</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>The intradomicillary pre- and postfeed resting behavior of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis was studied in an experimental house in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Mexico. During resting periods (both pre-/postfeed) mosquitos had greater contact (landings) with the inner roof than with the walls and other surfaces. A comparison of mean landing frequency and overall resting time (pre-/postfeed) showed that a greater periodic and prolonged contact occurred prefeed, probably as a result of disturbed activity associated with host movements. Pre-/postfeed resting patterns on walls were limited to a 0.6-0.5-m-wide band, nearly 1 m from the floor, and to a narrower band on the roof, 0.3-0.2 m wide, approximately 2.3 m from the floor, respectively. We calculated that with a band width of 0.8 m on the walls and another band 0.8 m wide on the roof, 87.2% of the mosquitoes had at least one contact with either the wall, the roof, or with both surfaces, along with an overall mean resting time (pre-/postfeed) of 8.1 min/landing. These findings suggest that a high potential for control can be achieved by spraying preferred wall and roof resting sites in this region where the intradomicillary application of residual insecticide is the primary malaria control measure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21741757','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21741757"><span>Landscape--wildfire interactions in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Europe: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for landscape management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moreira, Francisco; Viedma, Olga; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Curt, Thomas; Koutsias, Nikos; Rigolot, Eric; Barbati, Anna; Corona, Piermaria; Vaz, Pedro; Xanthopoulos, Gavriil; Mouillot, Florent; Bilgili, Ertugrul</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Every year approximately half a million hectares of land are burned by wildfires in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Europe, causing large ecological and socio-economic impacts. Climate and land use changes in the last decades have increased fire risk and danger. In this paper we review the available scientific knowledge on the relationships between landscape and wildfires in the Mediterranean region, with a focus on its application for defining landscape management guidelines and policies that could be adopted in order to promote landscapes with lower fire hazard. The main findings are that (1) socio-economic drivers have favoured land cover changes contributing to increasing fire hazard in the last decades, (2) large wildfires are becoming more frequent, (3) increased fire frequency is promoting homogeneous landscapes covered by fire-prone shrublands; (4) landscape planning to reduce fuel loads may be successful only if fire weather conditions are not extreme. The challenges to address these problems and the policy and landscape management responses that should be adopted are discussed, along with major knowledge gaps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3537304','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3537304"><span>Short Communication: New HIV Infections at <span class="hlt">Southern</span> New England Academic Institutions: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Prevention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kazi, Shahzeb; Rana, Amaad; Blazar, Ilyse; Dejong, Colette C.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Huard, Thomas K.; Carleton, Kim; Gillani, Fizza; Alexander, Nicole; Parillo, Zoanne; Flanigan, Timothy P.; Kantor, Rami</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Abstract New HIV infections among younger men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are escalating. Data on HIV infections in college students are limited. In 2010, three MSM college students presented to our clinic with primary HIV infection (PHI) in a single month. To determine the number of college students among new HIV diagnoses, we reviewed clinical characteristics and molecular epidemiology of HIV-diagnosed individuals from January to December 2010 at the largest HIV clinic in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> New England. PHI was defined as acute HIV infection or seroconversion within the last 6 months. Of 66 individuals diagnosed with HIV in 2010, 62% were MSM and 17% were academic students (12% college or university, 5% other). Seventy-three percent of students were MSM. Compared to nonstudents, students were more likely to be younger (24 versus 39 years), born in the United States (91% versus 56%), have another sexually transmitted disease (45% versus 11%), and present with PHI (73% versus 16%, all p-values<0.05). Thirty percent of individuals formed eight transmission clusters including four students. MSM were more likely to be part of clusters. Department of Health contact tracing of cluster participants allowed further identification of epidemiological linkages. Given these high rates of PHI in recently diagnosed students, institutions of higher education should be aware of acute HIV presentation and the need for rapid diagnosis. Prevention strategies should focus on younger MSM, specifically college-age students who may be at increased risk of HIV infection. PMID:22724920</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4277706','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4277706"><span>Clinical and Pharmacogenomic <span class="hlt">Implications</span> of Genetic Variation in a <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ethiopian Population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Aseffa, Abraham; Hailu, Elena; Finan, Chris; Davey, Gail</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Africa is home to genetically diverse human populations. We compared the genetic structure of the Wolaita ethnic population from <span class="hlt">southern</span> Ethiopia (WETH, n=120) with HapMap populations using genome-wide variants. We investigated allele frequencies of 443 clinically and pharmacogenomically relevant genetic variants in WETH compared to HapMap populations. We found that WETH were genetically most similar to the Kenya Maasai and least similar to the Japanese in HapMap. Variant alleles associated with increased risk of adverse reactions to drugs used for treating tuberculosis (rs1799929 and rs1495741 in NAT2), thromboembolism (rs7294, rs9923231 and rs9934438 in VKORC1), and HIV/AIDS and solid tumors (rs2242046 in SLC28A1) had significantly higher frequencies in WETH compared to African ancestry HapMap populations. Our results illustrate that clinically relevant pharmacogenomic loci display allele frequency differences among African populations. We conclude that drug dosage guidelines for important global health diseases should be validated in genetically diverse African populations. PMID:25069476</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21892925','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21892925"><span>Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Portugal: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for conservation and science.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ceríaco, Luis M P; Marques, Mariana P; Madeira, Natália C; Vila-Viçosa, Carlos M; Mendes, Paula</p> <p>2011-09-05</p> <p>Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3842309','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3842309"><span>A New Oviraptorosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> China and Its Paleoecological <span class="hlt">Implications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lü, Junchang; Yi, Laiping; Zhong, Hui; Wei, Xuefang</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A new oviraptorosaur Nankangia jiangxiensis gen. et sp. nov. is described on the basis of a partial postcranial skeleton with a partial lower jaw collected from the Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou, in Jiangxi Province of <span class="hlt">southern</span> China. The new taxon is diagnosed by: (1) a mandibular symphysis that is not turned down; (2) neural spines of the cranial caudal vertebrae that are wider transversely than anteroposteriorly, forming a large posterior fossa with rugose central areas; (3) a femoral neck extending at an angle of about 90 to the shaft; and (4) a ratio of femur to tibia length of 0.95. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Nankangia as basal to the oviraptorid Yulong, but more derived than Caenagnathus, which also has a mandibular symphysis that is not turned down. The coexistence of Nankangia jiangxiensis, Ganzhousaurus nankangensis, Jiangxisaurus ganzhouensis, an unnamed oviraptorid from Nanxiong Basin and Banji long suggests that they occupied distinct ecological niches. Nankangia may have been more herbivorous than carnivorous. PMID:24312233</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3180245','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3180245"><span>Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Portugal: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for conservation and science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved. PMID:21892925</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011E%26PSL.309..166B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011E%26PSL.309..166B"><span>Crustal tomographic imaging and geodynamic <span class="hlt">implications</span> toward south of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Granulite Terrain (SGT), India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Behera, Laxmidhar</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The crustal structure toward <span class="hlt">southern</span> part of SGT is poorly defined leaving an opportunity to understand the tectonic and geodynamic evolution of this high-grade granulite terrain surrounded by major shear and tectonically disturbed zones like Achankovil Shear Zone (AKSZ) and Palghat Cauvery Shear Zone (PCSZ). To develop a geologically plausible crustal tectonic model depicting major structural elements, a comprehensive tomographic image was derived using deep-seismic-sounding data corroborated by Bouguer gravity modeling, coincident-reflection-seismic, heat-flow and available geological/geochronological informations along the N-S trending Vattalkundu-Kanyakumari geotransect. The final tectonic model represents large compositional changes of subsurface rocks accompanied by velocity heterogeneities with crustal thinning (44-36 km) and Moho upwarping from north to south. This study also reveals and successfully imaged anomalous zone of exhumation near AKSZ having transpression of exhumed rocks at mid-to-lower crustal level (20-30 km) with significant underplating and mantle upwelling forming a complex metamorphic province. The presence of shear zones with high-grade charnockite massifs in the upper-crust exposed in several places reveal large scale exhumation of granulites during the Pan-African rifting (~ 550 Ma) and provide important insights of plume-continental lithosphere interaction with reconstruction of the Gondwanaland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geomo.251...77S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geomo.251...77S"><span>River channel adjustments in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Italy over the past 150 years and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for channel recovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scorpio, Vittoria; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Giano, Salvatore I.; Pisano, Luca; Robustelli, Gaetano; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Schiattarella, Marcello</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs along with topographic and geomorphological surveys are used to assess evolutionary trends and key control factors of channel adjustments for five major rivers in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Italy (the Trigno, Biferno, Volturno, Sinni and Crati rivers) to support assessment of channel recovery and river restoration. Three distinct phases of channel adjustment are identified over the past 150 years primarily driven by human disturbances. Firstly, slight channel widening dominated from the last decades of the nineteenth century to the 1950s. Secondly, from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s, altered sediment fluxes induced by in-channel mining and channel works brought about moderate to very intense incision (up to 6-7 m) accompanied by strong channel narrowing (up to 96%) and changes in channel configuration from multi-threaded to single-threaded patterns. Thirdly, the period from around 2000 to 2015 has been characterized by channel stabilization and local widening. Evolutionary trajectories of the rivers studied are quite similar to those reconstructed for other Italian rivers, particularly regarding the second phase of channel adjustments and ongoing transitions towards channel recovery in some reaches. Analyses of river dynamics, recovery potential and connectivity with sediment sources of the study reaches, framed in their catchment context, can be used as part of a wider interdisciplinary approach that views effective river restoration alongside sustainable and risk-reduced river management.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12657324','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12657324"><span>Paralytic toxins in three new gastropod (Olividae) species <span class="hlt">implicated</span> in food poisoning in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Taiwan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hwang, Pai-An; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Lu, Ya-Hui; Hwang, Deng-Fwu</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>The toxins in the new gastropods Oliva miniacea, O. mustelina and O. nirasei <span class="hlt">implicated</span> in a food paralytic poisoning incident in South Taiwan in February 2002 were studied. It was found that the three species of gastropods contained moderate amounts of toxin in edible portion only, and the highest toxicity score was 18 MU/g for O. miniacea, 10 MU/g for O. mustelina, and 27 MU/g for O. nirasei. The toxin was partially purified from the toxic specimens of each species by ultrafiltration using a YM-1 membrane, followed by chromatography on Bio-Gel P-2 column. Analyses by HPLC, GC-MS and LC-MS showed that the toxin from O. miniacea, O. nirasei and O. mustelina contained TTX, and related compounds 4-epi TTX and anhydro-TTX. The paralytic shellfish poisons were not found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466000','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466000"><span>Identifying potential sources of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie</p> <p>2015-04-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2710258','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2710258"><span>Floristic Relationships Among Vegetation Types of New Zealand and the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Andes: Similarities and Biogeographic <span class="hlt">Implications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ezcurra, Cecilia; Baccalá, Nora; Wardle, Peter</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims Similarities between the floras of geographically comparable regions of New Zealand (NZ) and the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Andes (SA) have interested biologists for over 150 years. The present work selects vegetation types that are physiognomically similar between the two regions, compares their floristic composition, assesses the environmental factors that characterize these matching vegetation types, and determines whether phylogenetic groups of ancestral versus modern origin are represented in different proportions in their floras, in the context of their biogeographic history. Methods Floristic relationships based on 369 genera of ten vegetation types present in both regions were investigated with correspondence analysis (CA) and ascending hierarchical clustering (AHC). The resulting ordination and classification were related to the environmental characteristics of the different vegetation types. The proportions of different phylogenetic groups between the regions (NZ, SA) were also compared, and between forest and non-forest communities. Key Results Floristic similarities between NZ and SA tend to increase from forest to non-forest vegetation, and are highest in coastal vegetation and bog. The floras of NZ and SA also differ in their phylogenetic origin, NZ being characterized by an ‘excess’ of genera of basal origin, especially in forests. Conclusions The relatively low similarities between forests of SA and NZ are related to the former being largely of in situ South American and Gondwanan origin, whereas the latter have been mostly reconstituted though transoceanic dispersal of propagules since the Oligocene. The greater similarities among non-forest plant communities of the two regions result from varied dispersal routes, including relatively recent transoceanic dispersal for coastal vegetation, possible dispersal via a still-vegetated Antarctica especially for bog plants, and independent immigration from Northern Hemisphere sources for many genera</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033835','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033835"><span>Variability of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> California wave climate and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for sediment transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Xu, J. P.; Noble, M.A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We analyzed wave and wind data from 18 buoys in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> California Bight to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of the regional wave climate. Point Conception shelters most of the Bight from being directly impacted by North Pacific weather. The wave height inside the sheltered zone and to the east of the Channel Islands is less than half the wave height in the open ocean to the west. Within the sheltered Bight, storm waves (by proxy of being greater than the 95th percentile wave height for more than 6 hours) are mainly from the west, but long period swells (Tp >15 seconds) are mainly from the south-southwest. There are on average two to four storms during each winter month (November-March) and fewer than two storms per month for the rest of the year. The Channel Islands selectively block the westerly swells and make the wave climate in the Santa Barbara Channel different from the rest of the sheltered Bight. A statistically significant wave-height minimum exists in the area offshore Dana Point and Oceanside. The multiyear (2-23 years) wave-data records from all 18 buoys show negligible temporal trend, positive or negative. Like the wave climate, the long-term probability of sediment transport on the continental shelves of the Bight displays large difference between the sheltered and open-ocean (near Point Conception) sites. The return period of incipient sediment motion on the sheltered shelf breaks (one to five months) is at least two orders of magnitude longer than that on the Point Conception shelf break (0.6 day). Similar to the spatial distribution of wave heights, there is a systematic return-period maximum on the shelf off Dana Point and Oceanside. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034483','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034483"><span>Stratigraphy of the Younger Dryas Chronozone and paleoenvironmental <span class="hlt">implications</span>: Central and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Great Plains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Holliday, V.T.; Meltzer, D.J.; Mandel, R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Great Plains of the United States was the setting for some of the earliest research in North America into patterns and changes in the character of late Pleistocene environments and their effects on contemporary human populations. Many localities in the region have well-stratified records of terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene human (Paleoindian) activity and past environments. These have proven important in debates over the character of the Younger Dryas Chronozone (YDC; 11,000-10,000 14C BP; 12,900-11,700 cal BP) in the continental interior. This paper reviews the lithostratigraphic record of the YDC on the Central and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Great Plains and summarizes paleobiological records (largely isotopic). The goal is to determine if there is any uniformity in the timing, character, direction and/or magnitude of changes in depositional environments or broader geomorphic systems before, during or after the YDC in order to address the question of the character of environments through this time. The stratigraphic records of the late Pleistocene to early Holocene transition, and in particular, the stratigraphic records of the YDC vary through time and space. The data clearly show that a host of geomorphic processes produced the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene stratigraphic records of the Great Plains. Moreover, the YDC is not necessarily manifest as a distinct lithostratigraphic or biostratigraphic entity in these different types of deposits and soils. The various geomorphic systems of the Great Plains did not behave synchronously in response to any common climate driver. These stratigraphic records reflect local environmental conditions and probably a complex response to the reorganization of mid-latitude climates in the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC42B..08D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC42B..08D"><span>The Impact of Fire on Energy Balance in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> African Savanna Ecosystems: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> of Climate Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dintwe, K.; Okin, G. S.; Saha, M.; Scanlon, T. M.; D'Odorico, P.; De Sales, F.; Xue, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Savannas are the most fire prone ecosystems in the world accounting for more than 75% of annual global fires. Wildfires in savannas consume large quantities of biomass releasing CO2 and aerosols while leaving ash and char residues. The residues form black-grey patches on the soil surface, and together with newly exposed bare soil patches, they play a significant role in altering surface reflectance and vegetation condition. We investigated the impact of fire on savanna albedo and vegetation greenness (from Enhanced Vegetation Index, EVI) from 2000-2014 using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) for Africa south of the Equator. Preliminary results indicate that more mesic savannas near the Equator have the highest fire frequencies, with fire frequency generally decreasing with aridity. Immediately after fires, the average change in albedo and EVI is -5% and -10%, respectively, with the magnitude of the change increasing with aridity. The time for albedo to recover to values similar to unburned areas varied by latitude, with more mesic savannas recovering much faster (24 days vs. 65 days for dry savannas). The time for vegetation condition to recover did not vary strongly by latitude (about 65 days). The upward shortwave energy in burnt areas in mesic savannas is 53 W m-2 compared to 95 W m-2 for unburnt areas, indicating a positive forcing of about 42 W m-2 associated with mesic savanna fires locally. Approximately 7% of the (primarily savanna) land in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa burns each year, suggesting an overall forcing in Africa south of the Equator of ~1-2 W m-2 associated with savanna fires. This large forcing indicates clearly the important interplay between ecosystem processes (fire) and climate (radiative forcing) in this region. With changing climate, this region is expected to become significantly drier, suggesting that the forcing due to fire might decrease in the coming decades and indicating that fire-induced albedo changes potentially</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Icar..242..329E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Icar..242..329E"><span>Landscape formation at the Deuteronilus contact in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Isidis Planitia, Mars: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for an Isidis Sea?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erkeling, G.; Reiss, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Ivanov, M. A.; Hauber, E.; Bernhardt, H.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Two of the most widely studied landforms that are associated with a putative ocean that filled the northern hemisphere of Mars are (1) the Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF), plain units that cover a larger portion of the northern lowlands of Mars, and (2) a candidate paleoshoreline, e.g., the Deuteronilus contact, which represents the outer margin of the VBF. The VBF and the Deuteronilus contact are interpreted to result from a short-lived Late Hesperian ocean that readily froze and sublimated. Similar landforms are also present in the impact basin of Isidis Planitia and suggest formation processes comparable to those that formed the VBF and the Deuteronilus contact in the northern lowlands. Our study of the Deuteronilus contact in Isidis revealed geologic evidence that possibly supports the existence of a Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian Isidis Sea. For example, numerous valleys that are incised into the plains of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Isidis basin rim between 82°/90°E and 3°/6°N and trend a few tens of kilometers to the north following the general topographic gradient toward the center of Isidis Planitia. A few of them reach the Deuteronilus contact and continue as sinuous ridges in the Isidis Interior Plains (IIP). Based on our findings we conclude that the geologic setting along the Deuteronilus contact, including the valleys and ridges is a result of (1) Late Hesperian short-term fluvial activity, (2) a Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian short-lived Isidis Sea that readily froze, (3) subglacial drainage and esker formation, and (4) subsequent sublimation of the proposed Isidis ice sheet. Although the fluvio-glacial model we introduce in our manuscript cannot fully explain the geologic setting, possible alternative formation models, including relief inversion and fluvio-volcanic scenarios are even less capable in explaining the observed geologic setting along the Deuteronilus contact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035386','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035386"><span>The geophysical character of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Alaska-<span class="hlt">Implications</span> for crustal evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Wilson, F.H.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">southern</span> Alaska continental margin has undergone a long and complicated history of plate convergence, subduction, accretion, and margin-parallel displacements. The crustal character of this continental margin is discernible through combined analysis of aeromagnetic and gravity data with key constraints from previous seismic interpretation. Regional magnetic data are particularly useful in defining broad geophysical domains. One of these domains, the south Alaska magnetic high, is the focus of this study. It is an intense and continuous magnetic high up to 200 km wide and ∼1500 km long extending from the Canadian border in the Wrangell Mountains west and southwest through Cook Inlet to the Bering Sea shelf. Crustal thickness beneath the south Alaska magnetic high is commonly 40–50 km. Gravity analysis indicates that the south Alaska magnetic high crust is dense. The south Alaska magnetic high spatially coincides with the Peninsular and Wrangellia terranes. The thick, dense, and magnetic character of this domain requires significant amounts of mafic rocks at intermediate to deep crustal levels. In Wrangellia these mafic rocks are likely to have been emplaced during Middle and (or) Late Triassic Nikolai Greenstone volcanism. In the Peninsular terrane, the most extensive period of mafic magmatism now known was associated with the Early Jurassic Talkeetna Formation volcanic arc. Thus the thick, dense, and magnetic character of the south Alaska magnetic high crust apparently developed as the response to mafic magmatism in both extensional (Wrangellia) and subduction-related arc (Peninsular terrane) settings. The south Alaska magnetic high is therefore a composite crustal feature. At least in Wrangellia, the crust was probably of average thickness (30 km) or greater prior to Triassic mafic magmatism. Up to 20 km (40%) of its present thickness may be due to the addition of Triassic mafic magmas. Throughout the south Alaska magnetic high, significant crustal growth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27680005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27680005"><span>Health <span class="hlt">implications</span> of atmospheric aerosols from asbestos-bearing road pavements traditionally used in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Godoi, Ricardo H M; Gonçalves, Sérgio J; Sayama, Célia; Polezer, Gabriela; Reis Neto, José M; Alföldy, Bálint; Van Grieken, René; Riedi, Carlos A; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Godoi, Ana F L; Bencs, László</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Serpentine and amphibole asbestos occur naturally in certain geologic settings worldwide, most commonly in association with ultramafic rocks, along associated faults. Ultramafic rocks have been used in Piên County, <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Brazil for decades for the purpose of road paving in rural and urban areas, but without the awareness of their adverse environmental and health impact. The aim of this study was the chemical characterization of aerosols re-suspended in two rural roads of Piên, paved with ultramafic rocks and to estimate the pulmonary deposition of asbestos aerosols. Bulk aerosol samples were analyzed by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction analysis, in order to characterize elemental composition and crystallinity. Single-particle compositions of aerosols were analyzed by computer-controlled electron-probe microanalysis, indicating the presence of a few percentages of serpentine and amphibole. Given the chemical composition and size distribution of aerosol particles, the deposition efficiency of chrysotile, a sub-group of serpentine, in two principal segments of the human respiratory system was estimated using a lung deposition model. As an important finding, almost half of the inhaled particles were calculated to be deposited in the respiratory system. Asbestos depositions were significant (∼25 %) in the lower airways, even though the selected breathing conditions (rest situation, nose breathing) implied the lowest rate of respiratory deposition. Considering the fraction of inhalable suspended chrysotile near local roads, and the long-term exposure of humans to these aerosols, chrysotile may represent a hazard, regarding more frequent development of lung cancer in the population of the exposed region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287225','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287225"><span>Dissolved Organic Carbon 14C in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Nevada Groundwater and <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Groundwater Travel Times</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hershey, Ronald L.; Fereday, Wyall; Thomas, James M</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) carbon-14 (<sup>14</sup>C) ages must be corrected for complex chemical and physical reactions and processes that change the amount of <sup>14</sup>C in groundwater as it flows from recharge to downgradient areas. Because of these reactions, DIC <sup>14</sup>C can produce unrealistically old ages and long groundwater travel times that may, or may not, agree with travel times estimated by other methods. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) <sup>14</sup>C ages are often younger than DIC <sup>14</sup>C ages because there are few chemical reactions or physical processes that change the amount of DOC <sup>14</sup>C in groundwater. However, there are several issues that create uncertainty in DOC <sup>14</sup>C groundwater ages including limited knowledge of the initial (A<sub>0</sub>) DOC <sup>14</sup>C in groundwater recharge and potential changes in DOC composition as water moves through an aquifer. This study examines these issues by quantifying A<sub>0</sub> DOC <sup>14</sup>C in recharge areas of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Nevada groundwater flow systems and by evaluating changes in DOC composition as water flows from recharge areas to downgradient areas. The effect of these processes on DOC <sup>14</sup>C groundwater ages is evaluated and DOC and DIC <sup>14</sup>C ages are then compared along several <span class="hlt">southern</span> Nevada groundwater flow paths. Twenty-seven groundwater samples were collected from springs and wells in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Nevada in upgradient, midgradient, and downgradient locations. DOC <sup>14</sup>C for upgradient samples ranged from 96 to 120 percent modern carbon (pmc) with an average of 106 pmc, verifying modern DOC <sup>14</sup>C ages in recharge areas, which decreases uncertainty in DOC <sup>14</sup>C A<sub>0</sub> values, groundwater ages, and travel times. The HPLC spectra of groundwater along a flow path in the Spring Mountains show the same general pattern indicating that the DOC compound composition does not change along this flow path</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AeoRe..20..169L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AeoRe..20..169L"><span>Geochemical characterization of a Holocene aeolian profile in the Zhongba area (<span class="hlt">southern</span> Tibet, China) and its paleoclimatic <span class="hlt">implications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Tuoyu; Wu, Yongqiu; Du, Shisong; Huang, Wenmin; Hao, Chengzhi; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Mei; Fu, Tianyang</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The Zhongba area lies in the valley of the Maquan River in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tibet, where there are both strong modern aeolian activities and ancient aeolian sand sediments. A Holocene aeolian sand and paleosol profile in the Zhongba area was selected for study and termed (Zhuzhu (ZZ) profile). The chronology of the ZZ profile was established by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating. Based on the grain size and geochemical elements of the ZZ profile, the geochemical characterization was analyzed, the Holocene aeolian activity processes were reconstructed in the study area, and the paleoclimatic <span class="hlt">implications</span> were discussed. The major elements and the chemical indicators are highly correlated with different grain-sizes in the ZZ profile. The evolutionary sequence of the aeolian activities and the paleoclimate in Holocene reveal four stages: before 7.3 ka BP, the climate was warm and wet with weak winds when the sand paleosol developed; at 7.3-3.8 ka BP, the climate turned dry, with strong aeolian activities; at 3.8-0.7 ka BP, the climate became wetter and the winds weakened when the silt paleosol developed; and since 0.7 ka BP, it was cold and dry with strong aeolian activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023529','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023529"><span>Genetic variation in insecticide tolerance in a population of <span class="hlt">southern</span> leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala): <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for amphibian conservation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bridges, C.M.; Semlitsch, R.D.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Currently, conservation efforts are devoted to determining the extent and the causes of the decline of many amphibian species worldwide. Human impacts frequently degrade amphibian habitat and have been <span class="hlt">implicated</span> in many declines. Because genetic variance is critical in determining the persistence of a species in a changing environment, we examined the amount of genetic variability present in a single population for tolerance to an environmental stressor. We examined the amount of genetic variability among full- and half-sib families in a single population of <span class="hlt">southern</span> leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) with respect to their tolerance to lethal concentrations of the agricultural chemical, carbaryl. Analysis of time-to-death data indicated significant differences among full-sib families and suggests a large amount of variability present in the responses to this environmental stressor. Significant differences in responses among half-sib families indicated that there is additive genetic variance. These data suggest that this population may have the ability to adapt to environmental stressors. It is possible that declines of amphibian populations in the western United States may be attributed to low genetic variability resulting from limited migration among populations and small population sizes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5129350','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5129350"><span>Care-Seeking for Diarrhoea in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Malawi: Attitudes, Practices and <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Diarrhoea Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Masangwi, Salule; Ferguson, Neil; Grimason, Anthony; Morse, Tracy; Kazembe, Lawrence</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper examined care-seeking behaviour and its associated risk factors when a family member had diarrhoea. Data was obtained from a survey conducted in Chikwawa, a district in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Malawi. Chikwawa is faced with a number of environmental and socioeconomic problems and currently diarrhoea morbidity in the district is estimated at 24.4%, statistically higher than the national average of 17%. Using hierarchically built data from a survey of 1403 households nested within 33 communities, a series of two level binary logistic regression models with Bayesian estimation were used to determine predictors of care-seeking behaviour. The results show that 68% of mothers used oral rehydration solutions (ORS) the last time a child in their family had diarrhoea. However, when asked on the action they take when a member of their household has diarrhoea two thirds of the mothers said they visit a health facility. Most respondents (73%) mentioned distance and transport costs as the main obstacles to accessing their nearest health facility and the same proportion of respondents mentioned prolonged waiting time and absence of health workers as the main obstacles encountered at the health facilities. The main predictor variables when a member of the family had diarrhoea were maternal age, distance to the nearest health facility, school level, and relative wealth, household diarrhoea endemicity, and household size while the main predictor variables when a child had diarrhoea were existence of a village health committee (VHC), distance to the nearest health facility, and maternal age. Most households use ORS for the treatment of diarrhoea and village health committees and health surveillance assistants (HSAs) are important factors in this choice of treatment. Health education messages on the use and efficacy of ORS to ensure proper and prescribed handling are important. There is need for a comprehensive concept addressing several dimensions of management and proper coordination</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715529N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715529N"><span><span class="hlt">Southern</span> hemisphere sand furrows: spatial patterning and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the cryo-venting process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nash, Ciaran; Bourke, Mary</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Carbon dioxide is an important volatile on Mars. Seasonally, atmospheric CO2 condenses as ice on to the Martian surface and sublimates during the spring. Links have been made between a suite of observed surface features and the sublimation of surface CO2 ice; these include spider-like araneiform, gullies, and fans. Sand furrows are one such feature; suggested to form due to the erosive action of pressurised CO2 gas as it escapes through cracks in surficial ice (i.e. cryo-venting, Bourke, 2013). There are significant and important differences between the North and South Hemispheres, particularly in the seasonal CO2 deposits. Previous investigations into the formation and distribution of sand furrows on Mars have concentrated solely on the northern hemisphere. We present a study of furrows in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> hemisphere which has yielded new data on their distribution and spatial patterning as well as providing insights into the cryo-venting process. A total of 221 dune sites were surveyed over the three Martian years' of available HiRISE data to establish the overall distribution of sand furrows. A more detailed study was carried out at eight sites using data from Mars Year 30. These sites represent a latitudinal sample of dunefields located between 40°S to 72°S. Surficial CO2 ice thickness was estimated using the Mars Climate Database (Millour et al., 2014). Our data show that sand furrows are significantly less numerous in the study region than in the northern hemisphere where data show they occur in 95% of surveyed sites. We found a strong correlation between latitude and furrow distribution. As one progresses polewards from 40°S, furrows become more numerous until 68°S. Furrows were not detected south of 72°S. Carbon dioxide ice thickness has been highlighted as a potentially important factor controlling furrow distribution in the northern hemisphere (Bourke and McGaley-Towle, 2014). Results from our investigation suggest there is a feedback mechanism between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817891K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817891K"><span>Varena suite in the crystalline crust of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Lithuania: <span class="hlt">implication</span> to the genesis and mineralization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kirkliauskaite, Vaida; Motuza, Gediminas; Skipityte, Raminta</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Keywords: Lithuania, Proterozoic, Varena suite, rare earth elements, metasomatosis. Crystalline crust in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Lithuania is covered by 200-500 m thick sedimentary cover and is investigated by potential field mapping and drilling. It is composed by amphibolites (metabasalts), biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneisses (metapsammites and porphyry metadacite and metaandesite) of Orosirian period. Each lithology is predominant in alternating bands extended NNE-SSW. Supracrustals are metamorphosed on the level of amphibolite facies and migmatized. Intrusive rocks are represented by coeval rare bodies of gabbro, peridotite and widespread Calymmian granitic plutons. Varena suite comprises olivine, enstatite, diopside, olivine-magnetite, magnetite, apatite-bearing, and presumably also dolomite rocks. They form integrated bodies few sq. km large, concentrated in the ˜300 km2area extended in N-S direction.Bodies of particular rocks from Varena suite fixed in the boreholes are few tenths up to few hundred meters thick, except apatite-bearing rocks, forming decimeter up to meter scale lenses and veins. Rocks of Varena suite are affected by strong metasomatic alteration. Olivine is substituted by serpentine, and phlogopite, pyroxenes with amphibols (hornblende, actinolite, tremolite, rarely richterite). The country rocks (amphibolites, metaporphyres) also affected by alkaline (mainly sodic) metasomatosis manifested by formation of scapolite, albite, clynopyroxene (often sodic), phlogopite, carbonates. The mineralization of REE (up to 2759-3100 ppm of La and Ce respectively), Th, U, P hosted by monazite, apatite, allanite is spatially related to the Varena suite and some metasomatized supracrustals. The views on the genesis of Varena suite are contradicting. By various authors they are regarded as skarns, presuming metasomatic origin, as layered intrusions or products of alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism. In this presentation the genetic model is reviewed based on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024218','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024218"><span>Spatial and temporal deformation along the northern San Jacinto fault, <span class="hlt">southern</span> California: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for slip rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kendrick, K.J.; Morton, D.M.; Wells, S.G.; Simpson, R.W.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The San Timoteo badlands is an area of uplift and erosional dissection that has formed as a result of late Quaternary uplift along a restraining bend in the San Jacinto fault, of the San Andreas fault system in <span class="hlt">southern</span> California. This bend currently is located in a region where late Quaternary deposits and associated surfaces have formed in lower San Timoteo Canyon. We have used morphometric analysis of these surfaces, in conjunction with computer modeling of deformational patterns along the San Jacinto fault, to reconstruct spatial and temporal variations in uplift along the bend. Morphometric techniques used include envelope/subenvelope mapping, a gradient-length index along channels, and denudation values. Age control is determined using a combination of thermoluminescence (TL) and near infrared optical simulation luminescence dating (IROSL) and correlation of soil-development indices. These approaches are combined with an elastic half-space model used to determine the deformation associated with the fault bend. The region of modeled uplift has a similar distribution as that determined by morphometric techniques. Luminescence dates and soil-correlation age estimates generally agree. Based on soil development, surfaces within the study area were stabilized at approximately 300-700 ka for Q3, 43-67 ka for Q2, and 27.5-67 ka for Q1. Luminescence ages (both TL and IROSL) for the formation of the younger two surfaces are 58 to 94 ka for Q2 and 37 to 62 ka for Q1 (ages reported to 1?? uncertainty). Periods of uplift were determined for the surfaces in the study area, resulting in approximate uplift rates of 0.34 to 0.84 m/ka for the past 100 ka and 0.13 to 1.00 m/ka for the past 66 ka. Comparison of these rates of uplift to those generated by the model support a higher rate of lateral slip along the San Jacinto fault than commonly assumed (greater than 20 mm/yr, as compared to 8-12 mm/yr commonly cited). This higher slip rate supports the proposal that a greater</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70106161','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70106161"><span>A sediment budget for the <span class="hlt">southern</span> reach in San Francisco Bay, CA: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for habitat restoration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Shellenbarger, Gregory; Wright, Scott A.; Schoellhamer, David H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is overseeing the restoration of about 6000 ha of former commercial salt-evaporation ponds to tidal marsh and managed wetlands in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> reach of San Francisco Bay (SFB). As a result of regional groundwater overdrafts prior to the 1970s, parts of the project area have subsided below sea-level and will require between 29 and 45 million m3 of sediment to raise the surface of the subsided areas to elevations appropriate for tidal marsh colonization and development. Therefore, a sufficient sediment supply to the far south SFB subembayment is a critical variable for achieving restoration goals. Although both major tributaries to far south SFB have been seasonally gaged for sediment since 2004, the sediment flux at the Dumbarton Narrows, the bayward boundary of far south SFB, has not been quantified until recently. Using daily suspended-sediment flux data from the gages on Guadalupe River and Coyote Creek, combined with continuous suspended-sediment flux data at Dumbarton Narrows, we computed a sediment budget for far south SFB during Water Years 2009–2011. A Monte Carlo approach was used to quantify the uncertainty of the flux estimates. The sediment flux past Dumbarton Narrows from the north dominates the input to the subembayment. However, environmental conditions in the spring can dramatically influence the direction of springtime flux, which appears to be a dominant influence on the net annual flux. It is estimated that up to several millennia may be required for natural tributary sediments to fill the accommodation space of the subsided former salt ponds, whereas supply from the rest of the bay could fill the space in several centuries. Uncertainty in the measurement of sediment flux is large, in part because small suspended-sediment concentration differences between flood and ebb tides can lead to large differences in total mass exchange. Using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the random error associated with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15935655','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15935655"><span>Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610288P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610288P"><span>Reconstructing Younger Dryas plateau icefields in the Tweedsmuir Hills, <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Uplands, Scotland: Style, dynamics and palaeo-climatic <span class="hlt">implications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pearce, Danni; Rea, Brice; Bradwell, Tom; Barr, Iestyn; Small, David; McDougall, Des</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In Britain, the glacial geomorphological record has been widely utilised to infer palaeo-glacier geometries and ice dynamics, with much of this work focusing on the Scottish Highlands during the Last Glacial Interglacial Transition (LGIT), in particular the Younger Dryas (YD; c. 12.9 - 11.7 ka BP). The <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Uplands represents the largest upland area south of the Highlands but has received limited research attention over the last century. The Tweedsmuir Hills are located in the central <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Uplands, which form an area of dissected plateau approximately 320 km2. Early research in the 1800s identified moraines thought to be associated with the YD. However, the majority of previous work has focussed on isolated valleys and ignored the potential for plateau icefield glaciation, which has significant <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the understanding of ice dynamics and geometries. Recent numerical modelling experiments covering the period 38 - 10.4 ka BP (Hubbard et al., 2008 cf. E109B8 and E102b2) have predicted a significant body of ice for the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Uplands at the onset of and throughout the YD, which cannot be verified at present due to a lack of empirical data. This research aims to provide the first systematic geomorphological mapping and Lateglacial climate reconstruction for the Tweedsmuir Hills. The results of air-photo interpretation and field mapping, which utilised a morphostratigraphic approach, have demonstrated a more extensive glaciation than previously mapped, reflecting more closely the Hubbard et al. (2009) modelled extent than earlier research. This consists of two separate icefields over the <span class="hlt">southern</span> and northern Tweedsmuir Hills covering an area c. 45 km2 and 25 km2 respectively with Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs) calculated to have ranged from c.419 m to 634 m. For both icefields ELAs of individual outlets reflect topographic controls rather than steep precipitation gradients similar to those derived for other icefields in Scotland (e.g., the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23304909','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23304909"><span>Iodized salt consumption in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: present status and future directions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Bani, Ibrahim Ahmed</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Control Programme in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> adopted salt iodization as the long-term strategy in 1994. In 2000, it was found that less than 1% of households were using adequately-iodized salt. The objectives of this study were to: (i) study the coverage and variation of different geographical regions of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> regarding access to and use of iodized salt, (ii) explore the possible factors which influence the use of iodized salt, (iii) develop recommendations to help in the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategy in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. This paper is based on the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Household Health Survey (SHHS) dataset. A total sample of 24,507 households was surveyed, and 18,786 cooking salt samples were tested for iodine levels with rapid salt-testing kits. Nationally, the percentage of households using adequately-iodized salt increased from less than 1% in 2000 to 14.4%, with wide variations between states. Access to iodized salt ranged from 96.9% in Central Equatoria to 0.4% in Gezira state. Population coverage with iodized salt in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> remains very low. The awareness and political support for USI programme is very weak. National legislation banning the sale of non-iodized salt does not exist. Utilization of the already-existing laws, like the National Standardization and Metrology Law (2008), to develop a compulsory national salt specification, will accelerate the USI in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED495403.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED495403.pdf"><span>Islands of Education: Schooling, Civil War and the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Sudanese (1983-2004)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sommers, Marc</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Victims of warfare, famine, slavery, and isolation, the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Sudanese are one of the most undereducated populations in the world. Since the inception of formal education in <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> a century ago, schooling has largely consisted of island-like entities surrounded by oceans of educational emptiness. Islands of Education is the first book…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17940949','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17940949"><span>Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever during an outbreak in Yambio, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, 2004.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Onyango, Clayton O; Opoka, Martin L; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Formenty, Pierre; Ahmed, Abdullahi; Tukei, Peter M; Sang, Rosemary C; Ofula, Victor O; Konongoi, Samson L; Coldren, Rodney L; Grein, Thomas; Legros, Dominique; Bell, Mike; De Cock, Kevin M; Bellini, William J; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E</p> <p>2007-11-15</p> <p>Between the months of April and June 2004, an Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak was reported in Yambio county, <span class="hlt">southern</span> <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Blood samples were collected from a total of 36 patients with suspected EHF and were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G and M antibodies, antigen ELISA, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of a segment of the Ebolavirus (EBOV) polymerase gene. A total of 13 patients were confirmed to be infected with EBOV. In addition, 4 fatal cases were classified as probable cases, because no samples were collected. Another 12 patients were confirmed to have acute measles infection during the same period that EBOV was circulating. Genetic analysis of PCR-positive samples indicated that the virus was similar to but distinct from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> EBOV Maleo 1979. In response, case management, social mobilization, and follow-up of contacts were set up as means of surveillance. The outbreak was declared to be over on 7 August 2004.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H41K1406S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H41K1406S"><span>Determining the effect of climate change and development on water resources management in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The effects of development and the uncertainty of climate change in East Africa provide a myriad of challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. The construction of the Grand renaissance dam (GRD), as well as the unknown trajectory of precipitation trends in the Ethiopian highlands may greatly affect the countries that rely on the Nile. <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>'s huge irrigation potential and dams that feed multiple current irrigation schemes as well as its location within the basin means that <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>'s water management decisions may reverberate and have social, economic and political <span class="hlt">implications</span> within the east African sub-region. Here, we apply a suite of state-of-the-art hydrology and climate analysis tools to evaluate the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>'s optimal hydropower and irrigation development pathways to hydrologic variability and climate change. Present day hydrologic conditions are derived from a gridded implementation of the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) that includes representation of typical irrigation practices in the region. Noah is implemented using the NASA Land Information System (LIS), and draws forcing data from a combination of reanalysis and satellite meteorological products. Additional satellite inputs are used to provide a constraint on Noah evapotranspiration estimates and to acquire parameters such as crop water requirements that are crucial in determining yield and agricultural production. Future climate conditions are projected using statistical downscaling techniques trained to historical meteorological records and projected forward using inputs from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulation database. These climatic and hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to drive an optimization model developed within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). By using output and results from climate, hydrologic and optimization models this research aims to show how these models can be integrated to aid decision</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5720037','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5720037"><span>Development of sedimentary cycles on the east Sahara craton since Silurian time (northwest <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>/southwest Egypt)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wycisk, P. )</p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>The sedimentary succession of southwest Egypt and northwest <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, formerly called the Nubia(n) Sandstone, has been subdivided into a number of formations. The predominantly fluvial sediments which characterize Silurian to Upper Cretaceous strata of this region were repeatedly interrupted by marine transgressions that rapidly progressed toward the south since Ordovician time. Thin, shallow marine sequences of different ages can be traced for more than 1,000 km within the studied area. The development of the sedimentary cycles will be pointed out by surface and subsurface data along a cross section from the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Dakhla basin in the north to the Misaha trough and Abyad basin in the south.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22915330','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22915330"><span>Kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotope variation on a latitudinal transect in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Australia: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brookman, Tom H; Ambrose, Stanley H</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Tooth enamel apatite carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of modern kangaroos (Macropus spp.) collected on a 900-km latitudinal transect spanning a C(3)-C(4) transition zone were analysed to create a reference set for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Australia. The carbon isotope composition of enamel carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C(3) and C(4) vegetation, and its oxygen isotope composition reflects that of ingested water. Tooth enamel forms incrementally, recording dietary and environmental changes during mineralisation. Analyses show only weak correlations between climate records and latitudinal changes in δ(13)C and δ(18)O. No species achieved the δ(13)C values (~-1.0 ‰) expected for 100 % C(4) grazing diets; kangaroos at low latitudes that are classified as feeding primarily on C(4) grasses (grazers) have δ(13)C of up to -3.5 ‰. In these areas, δ(13)C below -12 ‰ suggests a 100 % C(3) grass and/or leafy plant (browse) diet while animals from higher latitude have lower δ(13)C. Animals from semi-arid areas have δ(18)O of 34-40 ‰, while grazers from temperate areas have lower values (~28-30 ‰). Three patterns with <span class="hlt">implications</span> for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction emerge: (1) all species in semi-arid areas regularly browse to supplement limited grass resources; (2) all species within an environmental zone have similar carbon and oxygen isotope compositions, meaning data from different kangaroo species can be pooled for palaeoenvironmental investigations; (3) relatively small regional environmental differences can be distinguished when δ(13)C and δ(18)O data are used together. These data demonstrate that diet-isotope and climate-isotope relationships should be evaluated in modern ecosystems before application to the regional fossil record.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.V42B..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.V42B..07H"><span><span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Hazards Maps of Identification, Routing, and Initiation of ca. 2 ka Lahars at Misti Volcano, <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Peru</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harpel, C. J.; de Silva, S.; Scott, W. E.; Salas, G.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>About 2 ka a subplinian eruption at Misti volcano produced extensive volcaniclastic deposits. Our work to make a volcanic-hazard map based on these deposits illustrates some of the complications that arise from genetic interpretations, flow routing, and initiation processes. Earlier workers identified the deposits as pyroclastic flow deposits and evaluated the hazards accordingly (e.g. Thouret et al., 1999; 2001). However, abundant evidence indicates that they are lahar deposits. Needless to say, hazards <span class="hlt">implications</span> of these different modes of emplacement are such that correct interpretation of the genesis of deposits is a critical first step in hazard assessment. Detailed field mapping shows that the most voluminous lahars were shed onto the <span class="hlt">southern</span> portion of the ring plain of the volcano. Many of these lahars were channelized into narrow canyons (quebradas) in the ring plain, but, in several instances, lahars filled quebradas, overtopped interfluves and spilled into adjacent quebradas. As a result several quebradas not containing large lahars at their heads had voluminous lahars at their lower reaches. Accurate modeling and portrayal of potential lahar hazards must include an assessment of such diversions and be able to accommodate this behavior. Field mapping of deposits of past lahars can help to identify potential diversion points. Initiation processes of the lahars are not yet definitively understood, but the volume of deposits requires a voluminous source of water. Several lines of evidence point to interaction of hot pyroclasts with snow or ice as the initiation mechanism, but rain may also be involved. Currently, the volcano is in an arid climate, rarely has voluminous snow, and does not have permanent ice. Therefore, the 2 ka lahar deposits may not be a relevant analogue for the assessment of modern lahar hazards. When using mapping and modeling to make a lahar hazards assessment and map, it is critical to correctly identify the origin of deposits</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25500572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25500572"><span>Exploitation and recovery of a sea urchin predator has <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the resilience of <span class="hlt">southern</span> California kelp forests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamilton, Scott L; Caselle, Jennifer E</p> <p>2015-01-22</p> <p>Size-structured predator-prey interactions can be altered by the history of exploitation, if that exploitation is itself size-selective. For example, selective harvesting of larger sized predators can release prey populations in cases where only large individuals are capable of consuming a particular prey species. In this study, we examined how the history of exploitation and recovery (inside marine reserves and due to fisheries management) of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has affected size-structured interactions with sea urchin prey in <span class="hlt">southern</span> California. We show that fishing changes size structure by reducing sizes and alters life histories of sheephead, while management measures that lessen or remove fishing impacts (e.g. marine reserves, effort restrictions) reverse these effects and result in increases in density, size and biomass. We show that predation on sea urchins is size-dependent, such that the diet of larger sheephead is composed of more and larger sized urchins than the diet of smaller fish. These results have <span class="hlt">implications</span> for kelp forest resilience, because urchins can overgraze kelp in the absence of top-down control. From surveys in a network of marine reserves, we report negative relationships between the abundance of sheephead and urchins and the abundance of urchins and fleshy macroalgae (including giant kelp), indicating the potential for cascading indirect positive effects of top predators on the abundance of primary producers. Management measures such as increased minimum size limits and marine reserves may serve to restore historical trophic roles of key predators and thereby enhance the resilience of marine ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286036','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286036"><span>Exploitation and recovery of a sea urchin predator has <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the resilience of <span class="hlt">southern</span> California kelp forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hamilton, Scott L.; Caselle, Jennifer E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Size-structured predator–prey interactions can be altered by the history of exploitation, if that exploitation is itself size-selective. For example, selective harvesting of larger sized predators can release prey populations in cases where only large individuals are capable of consuming a particular prey species. In this study, we examined how the history of exploitation and recovery (inside marine reserves and due to fisheries management) of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has affected size-structured interactions with sea urchin prey in <span class="hlt">southern</span> California. We show that fishing changes size structure by reducing sizes and alters life histories of sheephead, while management measures that lessen or remove fishing impacts (e.g. marine reserves, effort restrictions) reverse these effects and result in increases in density, size and biomass. We show that predation on sea urchins is size-dependent, such that the diet of larger sheephead is composed of more and larger sized urchins than the diet of smaller fish. These results have <span class="hlt">implications</span> for kelp forest resilience, because urchins can overgraze kelp in the absence of top-down control. From surveys in a network of marine reserves, we report negative relationships between the abundance of sheephead and urchins and the abundance of urchins and fleshy macroalgae (including giant kelp), indicating the potential for cascading indirect positive effects of top predators on the abundance of primary producers. Management measures such as increased minimum size limits and marine reserves may serve to restore historical trophic roles of key predators and thereby enhance the resilience of marine ecosystems. PMID:25500572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGeo...76...25B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGeo...76...25B"><span>Late Quaternary tectonics in the inner Northern Apennines (Siena Basin, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tuscany, Italy) and their seismotectonic <span class="hlt">implication</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brogi, Andrea; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Martini, Ivan; Picozzi, Matteo; Sandrelli, Fabio</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Defining the most recent Quaternary tectonics represents a challenging task for neotectonic, palaeoseismological and seismotectonic studies. This paper focuses on an integrated approach to reconstructing the latest Quaternary deformation affecting the northern part of the Siena Basin (inner Northern Apennines, i.e., <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tuscany, Italy) near the town of Siena, and to discuss the seismological <span class="hlt">implications</span>. Field work and structural and stratigraphic analyses, coupled with the interpretation of reflection seismic lines, have been combined to define the geometry, kinematics and age of mesoscopic to map-scale faults which have affected the mainly Quaternary continental and Pliocene marine deposits. The resulting dataset describes a tectonic setting characterized by coeval SW- and NW-trending transtensional and normal faults, respectively, dissecting alluvial sediments younger than 23.9 ± 0.23 ka. Seismic interpretation sheds light on the geometrical setting of the faults at deeper levels, down to 1-2 km, and provides support for the presence of a wide brittle shear zone defined by conjugated fault segments, locally giving rise to an asymmetrical negative flower-like structure. Faults and their damage zones have controlled (and still control) the discharge of gas vents (mainly CO2 and H2S) and hydrothermal circulation (which deposits travertine) since at least 23.216 ± 0.124 ka. The resulting complete data set provides support for our description of the Neogene-Quaternary tectonics which were active until the late Quaternary, providing additional information about the seismotectonic framework of an area characterized by low seismicity and generally low-magnitude earthquakes (M < 4), but having experienced significant seismic events over the last few centuries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-205.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-205.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title3-vol1-other-id201.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title3-vol1-other-id201.pdf"><span>3 CFR - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... United Nations Mission in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Consistent With Section 2005 of the American Servicemembers... Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Consistent With Section... members of the U.S. Armed Forces participating in the United Nations Mission in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> are...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-205.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-205.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-532.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-532.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... the Specified Areas of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title3-vol1-other-id200.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title3-vol1-other-id200.pdf"><span>3 CFR - Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> To Receive Defense Articles and...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961... Eligibility of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign Assistance Act... services to the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> will strengthen the security of the United States and promote...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-209.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-209.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... transactions involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>... relating to transportation of cargo to or from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-209.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-209.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... transactions involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>... relating to transportation of cargo to or from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title3-vol1-other-id267.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title3-vol1-other-id267.pdf"><span>3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> and, pursuant to the International...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-209.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-209.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... transactions involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>... relating to transportation of cargo to or from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-205.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-205.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-209.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-209.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... transactions involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>... relating to transportation of cargo to or from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-11-02/pdf/2010-27876.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-11-02/pdf/2010-27876.pdf"><span>75 FR 67585 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-11-02</p> <p>... Notice of November 1, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> #0; #0; #0... National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, pursuant to the International Emergency...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title3-vol1-other-id244.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title3-vol1-other-id244.pdf"><span>3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of October 30, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> and, pursuant to the International...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-209.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-209.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... transactions involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>... relating to transportation of cargo to or from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title3-vol1-other-id262.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title3-vol1-other-id262.pdf"><span>3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of October 27, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, pursuant to the International...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-532.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-532.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... the Specified Areas of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-532.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-532.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... the Specified Areas of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title3-vol1-other-id241.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title3-vol1-other-id241.pdf"><span>3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 1, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, pursuant to the International...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-205.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-205.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-205.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-205.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-02/pdf/2012-27035.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-02/pdf/2012-27035.pdf"><span>77 FR 66357 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-11-02</p> <p>... With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No... ] Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-01/pdf/2013-26413.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-01/pdf/2013-26413.pdf"><span>78 FR 65865 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>... With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... ] Notice of October 30, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title3-vol1-other-id267.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title3-vol1-other-id267.pdf"><span>3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 1, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, pursuant to the International...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12319535','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12319535"><span>Female genital mutilation in Kenya and <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Female genital mutilation is still practiced in 28 African countries despite international calls for its abolishment. A 1991 survey of 1365 14-year-old girls undertaken by a nongovernmental organization in Kenya revealed that 90% had suffered mutilation ranging from the least mutilating form, "sunna" to excision to infibulation. Most of the procedures had taken place when the girls were aged 10-14 years as part of a ritual where the same unsterile knife was used on several girls. Whereas 65% of respondents stated that they approved of female genital mutilation, a little more than a third would abolish the practice. In <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, a 1989-90 Demographic and Health Survey of 5860 ever married women aged 15-49 included a number of questions related to female genital mutilation. 89% of respondents were mutilated, and 82% of these had suffered infibulation. This prevalence rate showed a decrease from the 96% level recorded in 1977-78. Among younger women, the incidence of sunna is increasing. Most of these procedures were performed by medical workers such as trained midwives or traditional birth attendants. 79% of the respondents favored continuation of the procedure, but women with a secondary-level education and urban women showed strong opposition. Most women cite tradition as the reason for their approval, and almost half of the women who disapprove cite medical complications. This survey provided the necessary data to implement a policy of eradication of this harmful practice through increasing women's education and provoking open discussion about the procedure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-537.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-537.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>..., and services to or from the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.537 Section 538.537 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.537 Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>... transshipment of goods, technology, and services through <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to or from the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-537.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-537.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>..., and services to or from the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.537 Section 538.537 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.537 Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>... transshipment of goods, technology, and services through <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to or from the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-537.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-537.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>..., and services to or from the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.537 Section 538.537 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.537 Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>... transshipment of goods, technology, and services through <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to or from the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V23B3102H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V23B3102H"><span>Morphological Analysis of Apo Volcanic Complex in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Mindanao, Philippines: <span class="hlt">implications</span> on volcano-tectonic evolution of different volcanic units</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herrero, T. M. L.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Lagmay, A. M. A.; Eco, R. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Apo Volcanic Complex (AVC) is one of the largest volcanic centers in the Philippines, located in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> island of Mindanao. It is composed of four edifices and several smaller cones. The youngest volcanic unit, the Apo Dome, is the highest elevation in the Philippines. This unit is classified as potentially active, whereas other units, Talomo, Sibulan and Kitubod, are inactive. The study gives insight to the construction and deformation history of the volcanic units and imparts foresight to subsequent events that can affect populated areas. A morphological analysis integrating high-resolution digital terrain models and public domain satellite data and images was done to recognize and discriminate volcanic units and characterize volcano-tectonic features and processes. Morphological domains were defined based on surface textures, slope variation, degrees and controls of erosion, and lineament density and direction. This establishes the relative ages and extent of volcanic units as well as the volcano-tectonic evolution of the complex. Six edifice building events were recognized, two of which form the elevated base of Apo dome. The geodynamic setting of the region is imprinted in the volcanic units as five morphostructural lineaments. They reveal the changes in maximum regional stress through time such as the N-S extension found across the whole volcanic complex displaying the current stress regime. This has <span class="hlt">implications</span> on the locality and propagation of geothermal activity, magma ascent, and edifice collapses. One main result of the compounded effects of inherited structures and current stress regime is the Sandawa Collapse Zone. This is a large valley formed by several collapses where NE-SW fractures propagate and the increasing lateral spreading by debuttressing continue to eat away the highest peak. The AVC is surrounded by the major metropolitan area of Davao City to the east and the cities of Kidapawan and Digos to the west and south, respectively</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=150384&keyword=Biosphere+AND+2&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78719276&CFTOKEN=91248599','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=150384&keyword=Biosphere+AND+2&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78719276&CFTOKEN=91248599"><span>VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM VEGETATION IN <span class="hlt">SOUTHERN</span> YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA: EMISSION RATES AND SOME POTENTIAL REGIONAL <span class="hlt">IMPLICATIONS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVO...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3393610','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3393610"><span>Anaemia among adults in Kassala, Eastern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background The increased heterogeneity in the distribution of social and biological risk factors makes the epidemiology of anaemia a real challenge. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kassala, Eastern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> during the period of January — March 2011 to investigate the prevalence and predictors of anaemia among adults (> 15 years old). Findings Out of 646, 234 (36.2%) adults had anaemia; 68 (10.5%); 129 (20.0%) and 37 (5.7%) had mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. In logistic regression analyses, age (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.9–1, P = 0.7), rural vs. urban residency (OR = 0.9, CI = 0.7–1.3, P = 0.9), female vs. male gender (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1.1, P = 0.3), educational level ≥ secondary level vs. < secondary level (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.6–1.6, P = 0.8) and Hudandawa vs. non-Hudandawa ethnicity (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1, P = 0.1) were not associated with anaemia. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of anaemia in this setting, anaemia affected adults regardless to their age, sex and educational level. Therefore, anaemia is needed to be screened for routinely and supplements have to be employed in this setting. PMID:22537662</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25816316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25816316"><span>Mycetoma in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: an update from the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; El Hassan, Ahmed M; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>This communication reports on the Mycetoma Research Centre of the University of Khartoum, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> experience on 6,792 patients seen during the period 1991-2014.The patients were predominately young (64% under 30 years old) males (76%). The majority (68%) were from the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> mycetoma belt and 28% were students. Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma was the most common type (70%). In 66% of the patients the duration of the disease was less than five years, and 81% gave a history of sinuses discharging mostly black grains (78%). History of trauma at the mycetoma site was reported in 20%. Local pain was reported in 27% of the patients, and only 12% had a family history of mycetoma. The study showed that 57% of the patients had previous surgical excisions and recurrence, and only 4% received previous medical treatment for mycetoma. Other concomitant medical diseases were reported in 4% of the patients. The foot (76%) and hand (8%) were the most commonly affected sites. Less frequently affected sites were the leg and knee (7%), thigh (2%), buttock (2%) and arm and forearm (1%). Rare sites included the chest wall, head and neck, back, abdominal wall, perineum, oral cavity, tongue and eye. Multiple sites mycetoma was recorded in 135 (2%) of cases. At presentation, 37% of patients had massive lesions, 79% had sinuses, 8% had local hyper-hydrosis at the mycetoma lesion, 11% had regional lymphadenopathy, while 6% had dilated tortuous veins proximal to the mycetoma lesions. The diagnosis of mycetoma was established by combined imaging techniques and cytological, histopathological, serological tests and grain culture. Patients with actinomycetoma received a combination of antimicrobial agents, while eumycetoma patients received antifungal agents combined with various surgical excisions. Surgical excisions in the form of wide local excision, debridement or amputation were done in 807 patients, and of them 248 patients (30.7%) had postoperative recurrence. Different types of amputations</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4376889','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4376889"><span>Mycetoma in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: An Update from the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, EL Sheikh; Hassan, Ahmed M. EL; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This communication reports on the Mycetoma Research Centre of the University of Khartoum, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> experience on 6,792 patients seen during the period 1991–2014.The patients were predominately young (64% under 30 years old) males (76%). The majority (68%) were from the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> mycetoma belt and 28% were students. Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma was the most common type (70%). In 66% of the patients the duration of the disease was less than five years, and 81% gave a history of sinuses discharging mostly black grains (78%). History of trauma at the mycetoma site was reported in 20%. Local pain was reported in 27% of the patients, and only 12% had a family history of mycetoma. The study showed that 57% of the patients had previous surgical excisions and recurrence, and only 4% received previous medical treatment for mycetoma. Other concomitant medical diseases were reported in 4% of the patients. The foot (76%) and hand (8%) were the most commonly affected sites. Less frequently affected sites were the leg and knee (7%), thigh (2%), buttock (2%) and arm and forearm (1%). Rare sites included the chest wall, head and neck, back, abdominal wall, perineum, oral cavity, tongue and eye. Multiple sites mycetoma was recorded in 135 (2%) of cases. At presentation, 37% of patients had massive lesions, 79% had sinuses, 8% had local hyper-hydrosis at the mycetoma lesion, 11% had regional lymphadenopathy, while 6% had dilated tortuous veins proximal to the mycetoma lesions. The diagnosis of mycetoma was established by combined imaging techniques and cytological, histopathological, serological tests and grain culture. Patients with actinomycetoma received a combination of antimicrobial agents, while eumycetoma patients received antifungal agents combined with various surgical excisions. Surgical excisions in the form of wide local excision, debridement or amputation were done in 807 patients, and of them 248 patients (30.7%) had postoperative recurrence. Different types of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=go&pg=6&id=EJ995213','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=go&pg=6&id=EJ995213"><span>The Role of Education in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>'s Civil War</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Breidlid, Anders</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=239767','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=239767"><span>New sources of grain mold resistance among accessions from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Fifty-nine sorghum accessions from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> were evaluated in replicated plots at Isabela, Puerto Rico, for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum, one of the causal agents of grain mold. The environmental conditions during this study, especially at and after physiological maturity were optimal for gra...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&pg=3&id=EJ901502','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&pg=3&id=EJ901502"><span>Sudanese Images of the Other: Education and Conflict in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Breidlid, Anders</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Education can contribute to peace and reconciliation as well as to conflict and strife. The complex, often contradictory role of education in conflict is explored in this article in relation to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. The focus of the article is the North-South conflict, bearing in mind that other, "minor" wars and military clashes in both the North and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&pg=3&id=EJ886901','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&pg=3&id=EJ886901"><span>Child Prodigy in Astronomy: A Biographical Study from the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Khaleefa, Omar</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Although many studies have been conducted in the West regarding child prodigies, no such studies have taken place in indigenous Arab cultures--particularly not in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. The present study attempts to bridge the existing gap in this area by focusing on a Sudanese child prodigy with extraordinary inclination towards astronomy. It is a qualitative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7013641','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7013641"><span>Tertiary age for upper Nubian sandstone formation, central <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Prasad, G.; Lejal-Nicol, A.; Vaudois-Mieja, N.</p> <p>1986-02-01</p> <p>In central and northern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, oil exploration is now active in the basins containing sediments of the Nubian Sandstone Formation. On the evidence of planned pipeline construction, significant volumes of oil appear to have been discovered in southwestern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. A newly discovered flora from the upper Nubian Sandstone Formation near Khartoum in central <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> is Tertiary in age. The flora is well preserved, and comprises leaves, flowers, and fruits, many not yet described. At the generic level, they are comparable to forms that are known fro the Eocene to Miocene. Aquatic plants indicate a lacustrine paleoenvironment; humid tropical forests thrived on the lakeshores. The Nubian Sandstone Formation of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> had been considered to be entirely of Cretaceous age; this new flora shifts the upper boundary into the Tertiary. The Tertiary Hudi Chert, found in scattered outcrops in the region of Atbara, was considered to overlie the Nubian Sandstone Formation. The authors suggest that the Hudi Chert is partly age equivalent to the Tertiary upper Nubian Sandstone at Jebel Mudaha.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19962640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19962640"><span>Unsafe abortion and abortion care in Khartoum, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kinaro, Joyce; Ali, Tag Elsir Mohamed; Schlangen, Rhonda; Mack, Jessica</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Unsafe abortion in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> results in significant morbidity and mortality. This study of treatment for complications of unsafe abortion in five hospitals in Khartoum, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, included a review of hospital records and a survey of 726 patients seeking abortion-related care from 27 October 2007 to 31 January 2008, an interview of a provider of post-abortion care and focus group discussions with community leaders. Findings demonstrate enormous unmet need for safe abortion services. Abortion is legally restricted in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to circumstances where the woman's life is at risk or in cases of rape. Post-abortion care is not easily accessible. In a country struggling with poverty, internal displacement, rural dwelling, and a dearth of trained doctors, mid-level providers are not allowed to provide post-abortion care or prescribe contraception. The vast majority of the 726 abortion patients in the five hospitals were treated with dilatation and curettage (D&C), and only 12.3% were discharged with a contraceptive method. Some women waited long hours before treatment was provided; 14.5% of them had to wait for 5-8 hours and 7.3% for 9-12 hours. Mid-level providers should be trained in safe abortion care and post-abortion care to make these services accessible to a wider community in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Guidelines should be developed on quality of care and should mandate the use of manual vacuum aspiration or misoprostol for medical abortion instead of D&C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V31E0973S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V31E0973S"><span>Geochemical Characteristics of Volcanic Rocks from the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Okinawa Trough and its <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Tectono-magmatic Evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shinjo, R.; Hokakubo, S.; Haraguchi, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Woodhead, J.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The Okinawa Trough is a site of ongoing backarc rifting behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system. Recent intensive surveys, including submersible dives, at the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Okinawa Trough (SOT) have revealed details of bathymetric, geological, and geophysical features. Here, we present the petrological and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rocks collected during these cruises, and discuss its relation to the evolutionary stage of rifting. Based on bathymetirc and magmatic features, SOT can be divided into two (i.e., eastern and western) segments with non-transform offset at ˜ 123.5° E. The eastern segment represents a well-developed rift system with E-W-trending central graben and separated NE-SW-trending volcanic front; these two features merge at ˜ 125° E. In contrast, the western segment is in the incipient rifting stage; rift axis exists close to 100 km contour of the Wadati-Benioff zone. The most notable feature is the presence of 'abnormal' volcanic chain (Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail, CBVT), which trends NE-SW and is obviously oblique to the axial trend. All rocks are subalkaline, but range from basalt to rhyolite; dacite-rhyolite are dominant in the eastern volcanic front and CBVT. Basalts from both segments are low-K tholeiites; they have high abundance of LILEs relative to HFSEs, negative Nb anomalies on MORB-normalized diagrams, and range of 143Nd/144Nd (0.5128-0.5129) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7034-0.7048). Pb isotope systematics indicate 206Pb/204Pb=18.398-18.582, 207Pb/204Pb=15.594-15.652 and 208Pb/204Pb=38.570-38.912, clearly above the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line. These elemental and isotopic variations are compatible with derivation from Indian Ocean MORB-like mantle with strong overprint of subduction components from the slab. There is clear difference among more felsic rocks between two segments. At similar silica contents, most of felsic rocks from the western segment, including CBVT rhyolites, have higher LILE contents, 87Sr/86Sr and 208Pb/204Pb</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26506023','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26506023"><span>The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its <span class="hlt">implications</span> for coral population connectivity in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Arabian Gulf.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A</p> <p>2016-04-30</p> <p>Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15263069','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15263069"><span><span class="hlt">Southern</span> Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for paleoseismic and paleo-El Nino-<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Oscillation records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keefer, David K; Moseley, Michael E</p> <p>2004-07-27</p> <p>In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great <span class="hlt">southern</span> Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2-8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term "shattered landscape" to describe the severity of these effects. Long-term consequences of this landscape shattering are inferred to include increased runoff and sediment transport during postearthquake rainstorms. This inference was confirmed during the first minor postearthquake rainstorm there, which occurred in June and July of 2002. Greater amounts of rainfall in this desert region have historically been associated with El Niño events. Previous studies of an unusual paleoflood deposit in this region have concluded that it is the product of El Niño-generated precipitation falling on seismically disturbed landscapes. The effects of the 2001 earthquake and 2002 rainstorm support that conclusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026873','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026873"><span><span class="hlt">Southern</span> Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for paleoseismic and paleo-El Nino-<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Oscillation records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great <span class="hlt">southern</span> Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2-8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term "shattered landscape" to describe the severity of these effects. Long-term consequences of this landscape shattering are inferred to include increased runoff and sediment transport during postearthquake rainstorms. This inference was confirmed during the first minor postearthquake rainstorm there, which occurred in June and July of 2002. Greater amounts of rainfall in this desert region have historically been associated with El Nin??o events. Previous studies of an unusual paleoflood deposit in this region have concluded that it is the product of El Nin??o-generated precipitation falling on seismically disturbed landscapes. The effects of the 2001 earthquake and 2002 rainstorm support that conclusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=491987','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=491987"><span><span class="hlt">Southern</span> Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for paleoseismic and paleo-El Niño–<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Oscillation records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great <span class="hlt">southern</span> Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2–8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term “shattered landscape” to describe the severity of these effects. Long-term consequences of this landscape shattering are inferred to include increased runoff and sediment transport during postearthquake rainstorms. This inference was confirmed during the first minor postearthquake rainstorm there, which occurred in June and July of 2002. Greater amounts of rainfall in this desert region have historically been associated with El Niño events. Previous studies of an unusual paleoflood deposit in this region have concluded that it is the product of El Niño-generated precipitation falling on seismically disturbed landscapes. The effects of the 2001 earthquake and 2002 rainstorm support that conclusion. PMID:15263069</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=266299&keyword=sea+AND+ice&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90776144&CFTOKEN=93351670','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=266299&keyword=sea+AND+ice&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90776144&CFTOKEN=93351670"><span>Late Holocene Marsh Expansion in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> San Francisco Bay, California: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the Use of Historic Baselines as Restoration Targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Currently, the largest tidal wetlands restoration project on the US Pacific Coast is being planned and implemented in <span class="hlt">southern</span> San Francisco Bay; however, knowledge of baseline conditions of salt marsh extent in the region prior to European settlement is limited. Here, analysis o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1499M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1499M"><span>New chronology for the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Kalahari Group sediments - <span class="hlt">implications</span> for sediment-cycle dynamics and basin development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matmon, Ari; Hidy, Alan; Vainer, Shlomy; Crouvi, Onn; Fink, David; Erel, Yigal; Aster Team; Horwitz, Liora; Chazan, Michael</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Kalahari Group sediments accumulated in the Kalahari basin, which started forming during the breakup of Gondwana in the early Cretaceous. These sediments cover an extensive part of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa and form a low-relief landscape. Current models assume that the Kalahari Group accumulated throughout the entire Cenozoic. However, chronology has been restricted to early-middle Cenozoic biostratigraphic correlations and to OSL dating of only the past ~300 ka. We present a new chronological framework that reveals a dynamic nature of sedimentation in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Kalahari. Cosmogenic burial ages obtained from a 55 m section of Kalahari Group sediments from the Mamatwan Mine, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Kalahari, indicate that the majority of deposition at this location occurred rapidly at 1-1.2 Ma. This Pleistocene sequence overlies the Archaean basement, forming a significant hiatus that permits the possibility of many Phanerozoic cycles of deposition and erosion no longer preserved in the sedimentary record. Our data also establish the existence of a shallow early-middle Pleistocene water body that persisted for >450 ka prior to this rapid period of deposition and suggesting an Okavango-like environment. Evidence from neighboring archaeological excavations in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa suggests an association of high-density hominin occupation with this water body.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26115116','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26115116"><span>Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and <span class="hlt">Implication</span> to Soil Erosion in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in <span class="hlt">southern</span> China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in <span class="hlt">southern</span> China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05). The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in <span class="hlt">southern</span> China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in <span class="hlt">southern</span> China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4482633','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4482633"><span>Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and <span class="hlt">Implication</span> to Soil Erosion in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in <span class="hlt">southern</span> China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in <span class="hlt">southern</span> China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05). The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in <span class="hlt">southern</span> China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in <span class="hlt">southern</span> China and highlights the important role of China’s afforestation program. PMID:26115116</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24637272','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24637272"><span>Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dyes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zakerhamidi, M S; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh; Shamkhali, A N</p> <p>2014-06-05</p> <p>Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dyes (<span class="hlt">Sudan</span>III, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>IV and <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dyes in polar and low-polar solvents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.......136M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.......136M"><span>An integrated geophysical survey of Kilbourne Hole, <span class="hlt">southern</span> New Mexico: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for near surface exploration of Mars and the Moon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maksim, Nisa</p> <p></p> <p>Features such as the Home Plate plateau on Mars, a suspected remnant of an ancient phreatomagmatic eruption, can reveal important information about paleohydrologic conditions. The eruption intensity of a phreatomagmatic volcano is controlled mainly by the quantity of water and magma, the internal geometry of the volcano, and the depth of the interaction zone between magma and water. In order to understand the paleohydrologic conditions at the time of eruption, we must understand all the factors that influenced the phreatomagmatic event. I conducted an integrated geophysical survey, which are magnetic and gravity surveys, and a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys at Kilbourne Hole, a phreatomagmatic crater in <span class="hlt">southern</span> New Mexico. These investigations serve an analog paleo-hydrogeological study that could be conducted on Mars and the Moon with an <span class="hlt">implication</span> for planetary exploration. These geophysical surveys are designed to delineate the internal structure of a phreatomagmatic volcano and to define the volumes and masses of volcanic dikes and excavation unit, the depth of feeder dikes, and impacted velocity of the volcanic blocks. For the gravity and magnetic surveys at Kilbourne Hole, I collected data at a total of 171 gravity survey stations and 166 magnetics survey stations. A 2D gravity and magnetic inverse model was developed jointly to map the body of the magma intrusions and the internal structure of Kilbourne Hole. A total of 6 GPR surveys lines were also completed at Kilbourne Hole to image and to define locations of pyroclastic deposits, volcanic sags and blocks, the sizes distribution of volcanic blocks, and the impact velocity of the volcanic blocks. Using the size distribution and impact velocity of volcanic blocks from our GPR data, I derived the initial gas expansion velocity and the time duration of the gas expansion phase of the Kilbourne Hole eruption. These obtained parameters (volumes, masses, and depths of the feeder dikes and the excavation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22458224','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22458224"><span>Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Brazil wetlands: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maltchik, Leonardo; Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt; Stenert, Cristina; Rolon, Ana Silvia</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (approximately 280 000km2), and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera) in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from different ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4873802','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4873802"><span>Growth responses of Ulva prolifera to inorganic and organic nutrients: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for macroalgal blooms in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow Sea, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Yongyu; Han, Xiurong; Shi, Xiaoyong; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The marine macrophyte Ulva prolifera is the dominant green-tide-forming seaweed in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow Sea, China. Here we assessed, in the laboratory, the growth rate and nutrient uptake responses of U. prolifera to different nutrient treatments. The growth rates were enhanced in incubations with added organic and inorganic nitrogen [i.e. nitrate (NO3−), ammonium (NH4+), urea and glycine] and phosphorus [i.e. phosphate (PO43−), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P)], relative to the control. The relative growth rates of U. prolifera were higher when enriched with dissolved organic nitrogen (urea and glycine) and phosphorus (ATP and G-6-P) than inorganic nitrogen (NO3− and NH4+) and phosphorus (PO43−). In contrast, the affinity was higher for inorganic than organic nutrients. Field data in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow Sea showed significant inverse correlations between macroalgal biomass and dissolved organic nutrients. Our laboratory and field results indicated that organic nutrients such as urea, glycine and ATP, may contribute to the development of macroalgal blooms in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow Sea. PMID:27199215</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...626498L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...626498L"><span>Growth responses of Ulva prolifera to inorganic and organic nutrients: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for macroalgal blooms in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow Sea, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Yongyu; Han, Xiurong; Shi, Xiaoyong; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The marine macrophyte Ulva prolifera is the dominant green-tide-forming seaweed in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow Sea, China. Here we assessed, in the laboratory, the growth rate and nutrient uptake responses of U. prolifera to different nutrient treatments. The growth rates were enhanced in incubations with added organic and inorganic nitrogen [i.e. nitrate (NO3‑), ammonium (NH4+), urea and glycine] and phosphorus [i.e. phosphate (PO43‑), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P)], relative to the control. The relative growth rates of U. prolifera were higher when enriched with dissolved organic nitrogen (urea and glycine) and phosphorus (ATP and G-6-P) than inorganic nitrogen (NO3‑ and NH4+) and phosphorus (PO43‑). In contrast, the affinity was higher for inorganic than organic nutrients. Field data in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow Sea showed significant inverse correlations between macroalgal biomass and dissolved organic nutrients. Our laboratory and field results indicated that organic nutrients such as urea, glycine and ATP, may contribute to the development of macroalgal blooms in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yellow Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JAfES...6..823S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JAfES...6..823S"><span>A gravity and magnetic traverse from Port <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to Abu Hamad, NE <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sadig, Abdel Ati; Almond, David C.; Ahmed, Farouk</p> <p></p> <p>Gravity and magnetic measurements were recorded while making a geotraverse from the Red Sea at Port <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to the River Nile at Abu Hamad. Much of the region is poorly known geologically and the geophysical interpretations have been constrained by new observations along and near to the traverse line. There are close correlations between gravity, magnetics and many of the major geological features of the region. Western, central and eastern blocks can be distinguished on the basis of combined geology and geophysics. The largely metasedimentary western block shows flat geophysical profiles, whereas the batholith which composes most of the central block shows minor anomalities related to its inhomogenous primary composition and to zones of later N-S shearing. The eastern block is composed largely of low-grade metavolcanic rocks but has a local basement of higher grade rocks, and there are numerous intrusions of granite and gabbro, with ophiolitic lenses within the NE-trending Nakasib shear zone. The strong geophysical anomalies over the Nakasib zone are in keeping with interpretation of this zone as a reworked oceanic suture. Other strong anomalies relate to the presence of basic intrusions and the distribution of basic basement rocks. The regional gravity profile is similar to those measured elsewhere on the flanks of the Red Sea and reflects thinning of the lithosppheric units as the Red Sea axis is approached.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10206264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10206264"><span>Towards a kala azar risk map for <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thomson, M C; Elnaiem, D A; Ashford, R W; Connor, S J</p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Recent epidermics of this disease in <span class="hlt">southern</span> and eastern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24766082','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24766082"><span>Occurrence of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I in paprika fruits caused by agricultural environmental contamination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lian, Yunhe; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Wu, Naiying; Lu, Qingguo; Han, Wenjie; Tie, Xiaowei</p> <p>2014-05-07</p> <p>Current research has demonstrated the presence of sub parts per billion levels of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dye in paprika fruits during the vegetation process, which is difficult to understand on the basis of the conventional concept of cross-contamination or malicious addition. Detailed surveys on <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dyes I-IV in paprika fruits, soils, and agronomic materials used from seven fields of Xinjiang (China) were conducted to investigate the natural contamination. Results revealed that <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dyes II-IV were never detected and that <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I existed in almost all samples except for the mulching film and irrigation water. The higher total amount of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I in soils, pesticides, and fertilizers compared to coated seeds indicated the combination of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I-contaminated soils and application of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I-containing agronomic materials constitutes a major source of 0.18-2.52 μg/kg levels of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I in fruits during the growth period. The study offers a more reasonable explanation for the previously observed <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I in paprika fruits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPP21D..02M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPP21D..02M"><span>Vertical Water Mass Structure of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean Inferred From Neodymium Isotopes: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Organic Carbon Burial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, E. E.; Scher, H. D.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Neodymium isotope records from the Atlantic sector of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean have documented first order changes in ocean circulation, such as Pacific throughflow following the early opening of Drake Passage, initiation of deep water export from the North Atlantic, and intensification of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). These studies have shed light on changes in deep water circulation and production areas, however the impact of these changes on the vertical structure of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean is has not been explored. We investigated the middle Eocene to early Miocene sections of three vertically and horizontally offset Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) sites in the Atlantic sector of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean (ODP Sites 689 (upper Maud Rise; paleodepth 1500 m), 690 (lower Maud Rise; paleodepth 2200 m), and 1090 (Agulhas Ridge; paleodepth 3700). Nd isotope records were generated from fossil fish teeth covering the interval from 45 to 25 Ma. Our goal was to investigate changes in the vertical water mass structure of the Atlantic sector of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean. The vertical water mass structure of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean has been influenced by the development of the ACC, which is believed to have exerted an important control on the relationship between opal deposition and organic carbon burial in this region. Thus, this work is relevant for assessing the mechanisms thought to be responsible for the draw down of atmospheric carbon dioxide, an important factor in global climate change over this interval. During the middle Eocene, around 42 Ma, the ɛNd gradient between intermediate and deep waters in the Atlantic sector was about 1 ɛNd unit. ɛNd values at Maud Rise were -9.2 and - 9.5 (Sites 689 and 690 respectively), while ɛNd values at Agulhas Ridge were -8.5. Between 41 and 35 Ma ɛNd values at all three locations became more radiogenic as Pacific seawater entered the Atlantic following the early opening of Drake Passage. Agulhas Ridge ɛNd values increased to -6, and values at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24445199','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24445199"><span>Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>From 2006 to 2012, the South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3945682','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3945682"><span>Logistics of Guinea Worm Disease Eradication in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jones, Alexander H.; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P. Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>From 2006 to 2012, the South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical–logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12425088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12425088"><span>Tylenchida associated with different crops in Sennar State (<span class="hlt">Sudan</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elbadri, G A; Bert, W; Geraert, E</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A study was done on the taxonomy and morphology of plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) found in Sennar State (<span class="hlt">Sudan</span>). Sixty samples of different crops were collected in the sugarcane area. Thirty samples originated from soil around the roots of Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) from different ratoons and thirty samples were collected from other crops (Mangifera indica; Citrus limon; Citrus aurantifolia; Citrus paradisi; Citrus sinensis, Phoenix dactylifera, Musa sapentium; Cassia italica, Capsicum annuum, Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum sudanensis, Gossypium barbadense, Ficus nitida, Khaya senegalensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, Azardichta indica, Cajanus cajana, Caltropsis spp. and Liguster ovalifolium). Seven species belonging to seven different genera of Tylenchida were identified: Paratrophurus lobatus, Scutellonema clathricaudatum, Hoplolaimus aegypti and Filenchus cylindricus. Helicotylenchus plumariae, Pratylenchus thornei and Malenchus andrassyi are new records for <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. These seven species were compared with the descriptions given in the literature and differences and variations were discussed. Additional morphological data were described by means of SEM microscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JHyd..155..103W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JHyd..155..103W"><span>The fault pattern in the northern Negev and <span class="hlt">southern</span> Coastal Plain of Israel and its hydrogeological <span class="hlt">implications</span> for groundwater flow in the Judea Group aquifer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weinberger, G.; Rosenthal, E.</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>On the basis of a broadly expanding data base, the hydrogeological properties of the Judea Group sequence in the northern Negev and <span class="hlt">southern</span> Coastal Plain of Israel have been reassessed. The updated subsurface model is based on data derived from water- and oil-wells and on recent large-scale geophysical investigations. A new regional pattern of the reassessed geological through the subsurface of the study area has been revealed. In view of the reassessed geological and hydrological subsurface setting, it appears that the Judea Group aquifer should not be regarded as one continuous and undisturbed hydrological unit; owing to the occurrence of regional faults, its subaquifers are locally interconnected. These subaquifers, which contain mainly high-quality water, are juxtaposed, as a result of faulting, against Kurnub Group sandstones containing brackish paleowater. The latter Group is faulted against late Jurassic formations containing highly saline groundwater. In the Beer Sheva area, the Judea Group aquifer is vertically displaced against the Senonian and Eocene Mt. Scopus and Avdat Groups, which also contain brackish and saline water. In the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Coastal Plain, major faults locally dissect also the Pleistocene Kurkar Group, facilitating inflow of Mg-rich groundwater deriving from Judea Group dolomites. The new geological evidence and its hydrogeological <span class="hlt">implications</span> provide new solutions for previously unexplained salinization phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513464I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513464I"><span>Sea-Level Rise <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Coastal Protection from <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p> planning and restoration projects will require a major undertaking by national governments and international institutions. Joint research projects between international organizations such as: USA research centers ( USGS, NOAA, Corps of Engineers), EU sponsored project groups, EU coastal marine centers as well as other world wide coastal research institutes (CoRI, Alexandria) are encouraged to advance the state of the art on managing coasts to adapt to sea level rise employing cost-effective coastal protection technologies. References 1.Williams, S.J.,"Sea-Level Rise <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Coastal Regions", Journal of Coastal Research, Vol. 63, 2013. 2.Ismail, N.,Wiegel, R., "Sustainable Solutions for Coastal Zone Management of Lowland and River Delta Coastlines", Proc. International Conference- Littoral 2012, Ostende, Belgium, November 27-29, 2012. 3.Ismail, N., Iskander, M., and El-Sayed, W. "Assessment of Coastal Flooding at <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Mediterranean with Global Outlook for Lowland Coastal Zones", Proc. International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ASCE, July 1-6, 2012, Santander, Spain. 4.Moser, S. C., Williams,J.S., and Boesch, D. F., " Wicked Challenges at Land's End: Managing Coastal Vulnerability Under Climate Change'', Annual. Review of Environmental Resources, 37:51-78, 2012.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3783288','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3783288"><span>Nasopharyngeal Cancer in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: Epidemiology, Clinical and Histological Characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Abdullah, Nazik E.; Adam, Ameera A.M.; Khalifa, Eman H.; EL Hassan, Lamyaa A.M.; Ibrahim, M.E.; Hamad, K.M.; El Hassan, A.M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: To study the epidemiology, clinical features, staging, etiology and pathology of nasopharyngeal cancer in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Study design: This is a retrospective study. Setting: Ear, Nose and Throat Department Khartoum Teaching Hospital, Khartoum City, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Subjects and methods: Patients suspected to have nasopharyngeal cancer were assessed during the period March 2004 to May 2010. Data from confirmed cases was obtained; it included clinical and epidemiological information. Results: Three hundred and eighty five cases were studied. Bimodal age distribution of the disease was noted with two peaks, one at 15–19 years and one at 50–54 years. The male to female ratio was 2.6:1 and a distinct geographical distribution of the disease was noted, with clustering of cases in the towns of Dilling, Kadogli and the surrounding rural area of the Nuba Mountains. These areas in the Western States were reported to be of high background radiation due to naturally produced radioactive uranium. The Nuba tribe headed the list among other tribes, demonstrating a clear ethnic predilection. Sixty-eight cases presented at stage IV. There was a predominance of Type II (15.58%) and Type III (65.97%). Patients were treated by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Conclusions: NPC is an important form of cancer in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Some tribes are significantly more affected than others. Patients present with advanced disease. Environmental and genetic factors need further studies. Screening at risk populations that aim at early diagnosis and management of patients is recommended. PMID:24179400</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3516068','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3516068"><span>Malaria Risk Mapping for Control in the Republic of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Noor, Abdisalan M.; ElMardi, Khalid A.; Abdelgader, Tarig M.; Patil, Anand P.; Amine, Ahmed A. A.; Bakhiet, Sahar; Mukhtar, Maowia M.; Snow, Robert W.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Evidence shows that malaria risk maps are rarely tailored to address national control program ambitions. Here, we generate a malaria risk map adapted for malaria control in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Community Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) data from 2000 to 2010 were assembled and were standardized to 2–10 years of age (PfPR2–10). Space-time Bayesian geostatistical methods were used to generate a map of malaria risk for 2010. Surfaces of aridity, urbanization, irrigation schemes, and refugee camps were combined with the PfPR2–10 map to tailor the epidemiological stratification for appropriate intervention design. In 2010, a majority of the geographical area of the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> had risk of < 1% PfPR2–10. Areas of meso- and hyperendemic risk were located in the south. About 80% of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>'s population in 2011 was in the areas in the desert, urban centers, or where risk was < 1% PfPR2–10. Aggregated data suggest reducing risks in some high transmission areas since the 1960s. PMID:23033400</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021554','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021554"><span>Paleomagnetism of an east-west transect across the Cascade arc in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Washington: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for regional tectonism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hagstrum, J.T.; Swanson, D.A.; Evarts, R.C.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Paleomagnetic data from a transect across the Cascade arc in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Washington were collected to test models of vertical axis rotations for this part of the Pacific Northwest and to provide information on the tectonic history of the St. Helens seismic zone. The 75 site-mean directions are divided into three groups based on isotopic, fission track, and stratigraphic ages. Group 1 consists of samples from rocks deposited between 39 and 30 Ma and shows a mean clockwise vertical axis rotation of 34?? ?? 13??, group 2 consists of samples from rocks deposited be-tween 30 and 24 Ma and shows a mean clockwise rotation of 17?? ?? 11??, and group 3 consists of samples from rocks between 24 and 16 Ma and shows a mean clockwise rotation of 20?? ?? 12??. Although these three values of rotation are statistically indistinguishable at the 95% confidence level, we interpret them in combination with other data to indicate differential rotation across the St. Helens seismic zone (SHZ). The available paleomagnetic data for Eocene-Oligocene rocks west of the seismic zone show clockwise vertical axis rotations of 30?? ?? 8?? and 35?? ?? 9?? consistent with the value for group 1. The rotational values for groups 2 and 3 and the intrusive suite of Kidd Creek (13 Ma), despite their different ages, have similar values east of the SHZ. Comparing these groups of data east and west of the seismic zone indicates a differential rotation of 10?? ?? 3?? across it. In addition, the rates of rotation in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Washington are similar to those for rocks in the western Cascades of Oregon and indicate that rotational deformation of Miocene age extends northward into <span class="hlt">southern</span> Washington and eastward into the axis of the arc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22235194','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22235194"><span>The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> ocean and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for biogeography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rogers, Alex D; Tyler, Paul A; Connelly, Douglas P; Copley, Jon T; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D; Pearce, David A; Polunin, Nicholas V C; German, Christopher R; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H; Alker, Belinda J; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J J; Graham, Alastair G C; Green, Darryl R H; Hawkes, Jeffrey A; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D K; Roterman, Christopher N; Sweeting, Christopher J; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP11D..01W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP11D..01W"><span>Coastal lake sediments from the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Cape, South Africa - <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for sea level and climate variations during the Holocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wündsch, M.; Haberzettl, T.; Kirsten, K. L.; Meschner, S.; Frenzel, P.; Baade, J.; Daut, G.; Mäusbacher, R.; Kasper, T.; Quick, L. J.; Meadows, M. E.; Zabel, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Within the RAIN project (Regional Archives for Integrated iNvestigations) interdisciplinary investigations on climate evolution and environmental change in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa during the Late Quaternary are being conducted. For this purpose, spatial and temporal variations of the three major rainfall zones covering South Africa (winter-, summer- and year-round rainfall zone) are studied using both marine and terrestrial archives. Here we present results inferred from sediment records from lakes Groenvlei and Eilandvlei located on the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Cape coast within the year-round rainfall zone. From Eilandvlei, a brackish lake that is connected to the Indian Ocean via an estuary, a 30.5 m sediment core was recovered. Reservoir-corrected radiocarbon ages reveal a continuous sedimentation and a maximum age of about 8,900 cal BP. This ultra-high-resolution record of environmental change during the Holocene represents a unique discovery for entire <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa. Geochemical data reveal different phases of marine and terrestrial sediment deposition throughout the covered time span. Hence, this record reflects changes in sea level, but also variations in terrestrial sediment transport and thus changing climatic conditions. The sediment core from Groenvlei, which today is isolated from the Indian Ocean, covers the past 4,200 cal BP. Sediments from this lake are predominantly composed of autochthonous carbonates. Mineralogical investigations reveal alternating deposition of calcite and aragonite/dolomite, pointing to variable Mg/Ca ratios and thus variations in lake water salinity. These changes can be linked to sea level variations as well as to changes in the precipitation/evaporation balance, and hence climate. Based on these results, the Groenvlei record reveals a decreasing marine influence and a trend from generally drier to wetter conditions within the last 4,200 yrs. Moreover, several layers of enhanced allochtonous input were detected in this record, which can be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T33E..02C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T33E..02C"><span>Interseismic Strain Accumulation in the Imperial Valley and <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Triggering of Large Earthquakes in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.; Sandwell, D. T.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>From February, 2008 to March, 2009, we performed three rapid-static Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys of 115 geodetic monuments stretching from the United States-Mexico border into the Coachella Valley using the method of instantaneous positioning. The monuments are located in key areas near the Imperial, Superstition Hills, San Jacinto, San Andreas and Brawley Faults with nominal baselines generally less than 10 km. We perform a bicubic spline interpolation on the crustal motion vectors from the campaign measurements and 1005 continuous GPS monuments in western North America and solve for the velocity gradient tensor to look at the maximum shear strain, dilatation and rotation rates in the Imperial Valley. We then compare our computed strain field to that computed using the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> California Earthquake Center Crustal Motion Map 3.0, which extends through 2003 and includes 840 measurements. We show that there is an interseismic strain transient that corresponds to an increase in the maximum shear strain rate of 0.7 μstrain/yr near Obsidian Buttes since 2003 along a fault referred to as the Obsidian Buttes Fault (OBF). A strong subsidence signal of 27 mm/yr and a left-lateral increase of 10 mm/yr are centered along the OBF. Changes in the dilatation and rotation rates confirm the increase in left-lateral motion, as well as infer a strong increase in spreading rate in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Salton Sea. The increase in spreading rate has caused an accelerated slip rate along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> San Andreas near Durmid Hill as evidenced by continuous GPS, which has the potential for earthquake triggering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3250512','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3250512"><span>The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean and <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Biogeography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rogers, Alex D.; Tyler, Paul A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jon T.; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D.; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A.; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearce, David A.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; German, Christopher R.; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Alker, Belinda J.; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A.; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J. J.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D. K.; Roterman, Christopher N.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JGRB..108.2516L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JGRB..108.2516L"><span>Paleomagnetic results from the Cambrian and Ordovician sediments of Bornholm (Denmark) and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Sweden and paleogeographical <span class="hlt">implications</span> for Baltica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lewandowski, Marek; Abrahamsen, Niels</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>If apparent polar wander paths (APWP) cross, the question arises how to prove the older magnetization to be primary and not just a younger overprint. This problem is typically met in areas affected by percolating mineralizing fluids and/or heating due to a younger regional igneous activity. The Permian magnetic overprint is the classical example. Earlier paleomagnetic studies over the Lowermost Cambrian Nekso Sandstone Fm (NSF) of Bornholm (Denmark) yielded a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) similar to the Permian directions for Baltica. Since a possible reason could be a chemical overprint, we checked whether this phenomenon did take place on a regional scale. Some samples therefore were collected from other Lower Cambrian clastics of Bornholm and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Scandinavia. In result we show that the well-grouped and stable ChRM of the NSF contrasts with fairly chaotic, soft, and badly preserved magnetizations of the Balka, Hardeberga, Mickwitzia, and Lingulid sandstones of Bornholm and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Sweden, thus not indicating widespread paleomagnetic overprint. We demonstrate that the ChRM of the NSF is most probably of syndepositional/early diagenetic origin and its similarity to the Permian direction for Baltica is only casual. We propose a normal polarity and a near-equatorial position on the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Hemisphere for Baltica in the early Cambrian time, as well as a more complicated trend of the APWP for this paleocontinent than envisaged by other authors. Paleomagnetic results from the Arenigian limestones of the Laesaa Formation (Bornholm) that yield excellently defined but most probably only secondary components are also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14750714','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14750714"><span>PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in albatross from the North Pacific and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Oceans: levels, patterns, and toxicological <span class="hlt">implications</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tanabe, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Ono, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki</p> <p>2004-01-15</p> <p>Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) were determined in five albatross species collected from the North Pacific and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Oceans to assess the north-south differences in residue levels, accumulation patterns, and toxic potential. Black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean contained higher levels of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs than albatrosses from the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean, indicating that emission sources of these contaminants were predominant in the northern hemisphere. Residue levels in albatrosses from the remote North Pacific Ocean far from the point source of pollution were comparable to or higher than those in terrestrial and coastal birds from contaminated areas in developed nations, suggesting the specific exposure and accumulation of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in albatross. The long life span and ingestion of plastic resin pellets by albatrosses could be the plausible explanations for the elevated accumulation of persistent and lipophilic contaminants including PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in these birds. Relative proportions of PCDFs and coplanar PCBs in albatross were higher than those observed in birds inhabiting terrestrial and coastal areas, suggesting that these toxic chemicals may have higher transportability by air and water than PCDDs. Congener patterns of PCDD/Fs in albatross showed less variability as compared to those in terrestrial species, indicating that contamination patterns of PCDD/Fs were similar within the open ocean environment. Contributions of PCDD/Fs to total TEQs in albatrosses from the open ocean were generally lower than those in terrestrial birds, suggesting different toxic potency of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs on animals inhabiting open ocean and terrestrial environment. Whereas albatrosses from <span class="hlt">southern</span> oceans retained lower TEQ concentrations, possible adverse effects of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5628R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5628R"><span>Lithosphere structure in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Madagascar from receiver function and ambient noise correlation: <span class="hlt">implication</span> for the crustal evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rindraharisaona, Elisa J.; Tilmann, Frederik; Yuan, Xiaohui; Rümpker, Georg; Reiss, Miriam</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Madagascar was part of Gondwanaland, sandwiched between India and Africa. The assembly during the Pan-African orogeny has left its mark on the Malagasy basement in the form of metamorphic and mineral belts and shear zones, which occupy the eastern two third of Madagascar. The western third is characterized by Triassic to Jurassic sedimentary basin formation. The main objective of our work is to determine to which extent the recent episodes and shear zones reactivation have modified the lithosphere structure in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Madagascar. The data used come from a temporary seismic array operated in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Madagascar between 2011 and 2014 and two permanent stations in the study areas. We investigated the lithosphere structure in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Madagascar by analyzing receiver functions with the H-k stacking and common conversion point stacking methods; extracting the Rayleigh wave group velocities from the ambient noise; and jointly inverting the receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. Results show that (1) The sedimentary thickness changes from 10 km (West) to 3 km (East) in the Morondava basin, where the crust is thin (between 23 and 30 km) and vp/vs ratio is relatively high (from 1.73 to 1.85); (2)In the Proterozoic terrane, the Moho depth ranges from 33 to 38 km and vp/vs ratio varies between 1.72 and 1.82; (3) The Archean basement has a thick crust (between 38 and 43 km) and a low vp/vs ratio (1.67-1.77); (4) A mafic lower crust (vs>3.9 km/s) of 2-22 km thick is observed in the Archean basements. Our interpretation is that the shear zone reactivation after the separation combined with the crustal extension has delaminated the mafic lower crust in the Proterozoic crust and resulted in the current felsic-to-intermediate lower crustal type; and the Archean crust appears to be largely unmodified by Cenozoic tectonism.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890060486&hterms=Peridotite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPeridotite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890060486&hterms=Peridotite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPeridotite"><span>Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope systematics of <span class="hlt">southern</span> African peridotite xenoliths - <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the chemical evolution of subcontinental mantle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R. W.; Shirey, S. B.; Boyd, F. R.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Isotope analyses of Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb elements were caried out on twelve peridotite xenoliths from the Jagersfontein, Letseng-la-terae, Thaba Patsoa, Mothae, and Premier kimberlites of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa, to investigate the timing and the nature of melt extraction from the continental lithosphere and its relation to the continent formation and stabilization. The distinct Os and Pb isotopic characteristics found in these samples suggested that both the low- and the high-temperature peridotites reside in an ancient stable lithospheric 'keel' to the craton that has been isolated from chemical exchange with the sublithospheric mantle for time periods in excess of 2 Ga.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol1-sec25-702.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol1-sec25-702.pdf"><span>48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol1-sec25-702.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol1-sec25-702.pdf"><span>48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol1-sec25-702.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol1-sec25-702.pdf"><span>48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol1-sec25-702.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol1-sec25-702.pdf"><span>48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol1-sec25-702.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol1-sec25-702.pdf"><span>48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.8373P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.8373P"><span>N Isotopes in Nile Sediments (ethiopia, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Padoan, M.; Villa, I. M.; Garzanti, E.; Galbusera, M.; Quistini, S.; Peruta, L.; El Kammar, A.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>, values vary from 0.51240-0.51242 for tributaries draining basement rocks only (e.g., Gash, wadi Guba) to 0.51275-0.51280 for tributaries draining mostly basaltic rocks (Atbara); tributaries draining both record mixed signals (e.g., 0.51259; Beles). Nd ratios for Atbara sediments correspond closely with signatures of volcanic source rocks (0.51271-0.51298; Pik et al., 1999), revealing involvement of various mantle and crustal components in petrogenesis of flood basalts. Corresponding Nd model ages (tDM) cluster around 0.84 Ga for the mostly volcanic-derived Blue Nile, Atbara, and Main Nile muds, range 1.2 - 1.5 Ga for tributaries draining Ethiopian basement rocks, and reach as high as 2.4 Ga for the Bahr Ez Zeraf. The different Nd isotopic signal between mud and sand samples is closely controlled by mineralogical composition, Nd and other REE being chiefly contributed by ultradense minerals (e.g., monazite), and consequently concentrated in the finest size fractions of each sample (Garzanti et al., 2008). FREYDIER, R., MICHARD, A., DE LANGE G., THOMSON, J., 2001. Nd isotopic composition of Eastern Mediterranean sediments: tracers of the Nile influence during sapropel S1 formation. Mar. Geol., 177, 45-62. GARZANTI, E., ANDÒ, S., VEZZOLI, G., ABDEL MEGID, A.A., EL KAMMAR, A., 2006. Petrology of Nile River sands (Ethiopian and <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>): Sediment budgets and erosion patterns. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 252, 327-341. GARZANTI, E., ANDÒ, S., VEZZOLI, G., 2008. Settling-equivalence of detrital minerals and grain-size dependence of sediment composition. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 273, 138-151. HARLAVAN Y., GARZANTI, E., PADOAN, M., EL KAMMAR, A. Geochemical characterization of Nile River sands; Rare earth elements, Pb and Sr isotopes of the fine fraction. In preparation. KROM, M.D., CLIFF, R.A., EIJSINK, L.M., HERUT, B., CHESTER, R., 1999a. The characterisation of Saharan dusts and Nile particulate matter in surface sediments from the Levantine basin using Sr isotopes. Mar. Geol</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA601549','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA601549"><span>Cultural Considerations for Security Cooperation Operations in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: Understanding the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>identified to accomplish the mission of AFRICOM in its fact sheet , three of those objectives can only be realized through security cooperation. Those...papayas, bananas , sweet potatoes, sunflowers, cotton, sesame, cassava, beans, peanuts, cattle, and sheep. Trade: Major trading partner--<span class="hlt">Sudan</span>...2010, 11. 2 President, National Security Strategy 2010, 3. 3 United States Africa Command, Fact Sheet : United States Africa Command: U.S</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044168','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044168"><span>Late Pleistocene and Holocene uplift history of Cyprus: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for active tectonics along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> margin of the Anatolian microplate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Harrison, R.W.; Tsiolakis, E.; Stone, B.D.; Lord, A.; McGeehin, J.P.; Mahan, S.A.; Chirico, P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The nature of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> margin of the Anatolian microplate during the Neogene is complex, controversial and fundamental in understanding active plate-margin tectonics and natural hazards in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our investigation provides new insights into the Late Pleistocene uplift history of Cyprus and the Troodos Ophiolite. We provide isotopic (14C) and radiogenic (luminescence) dates of outcropping marine sediments in eastern Cyprus that identify periods of deposition during marine isotope stages (MIS) 3, 4, 5 and 6. Past sea-levels indicated by these deposits are c. 95±25 m higher in elevation than estimates of worldwide eustatic sea-level. An uplift rate of c. 1.8 mm/year and possibly as much as c. 4.1 mm/year in the past c. 26–40 ka is indicated. Holocene marine deposits also occur at elevations higher than those expected for past SL and suggest uplift rates of c. 1.2–2.1 mm/year. MIS-3 marine deposits that crop out in <span class="hlt">southern</span> and western Cyprus indicate uniform island-wide uplift. We propose a model of tectonic wedging at a plate-bounding restraining bend as a mechanism for Late Pleistocene to Holocene uplift of Cyprus; uplift is accommodated by deformation and seismicity along the margins of the Troodos Ophiolite and re-activation of its low-angle, basal shear zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4488358','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4488358"><span><span class="hlt">Implications</span> of Nubian-Like Core Reduction Systems in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Africa for the Identification of Early Modern Human Dispersals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Phillips, Natasha</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Lithic technologies have been used to trace dispersals of early human populations within and beyond Africa. Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups. Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations. Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence. The timing and spatial distribution of their appearance in <span class="hlt">southern</span> and northern Africa implies technological convergence, rather than diffusion or dispersal. While lithic technologies can be a critical guide to human population flux, their utility in tracing early human dispersals at large spatial and temporal scales with stone artefact types remains questionable. PMID:26125972</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12568803','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12568803"><span>Vertical stratification of fatty acids in the blubber of <span class="hlt">southern</span> elephant seals (Mirounga leonina): <span class="hlt">implications</span> for diet analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Best, Narelle J; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Hindell, Mark A; Nichols, Peter D</p> <p>2003-02-01</p> <p>Fatty acid signature analysis (FASA) is a powerful ecological tool that uses essential fatty acids (FA) from the tissues of animals to indicate aspects of diet. However, the presence of vertical stratification in FA distribution throughout blubber complicates the application of FASA to marine mammals. Blubber biopsy samples were collected from adult female <span class="hlt">southern</span> elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) from Macquarie Island (n=11), and blubber cores were divided into inner and outer sections to determine the degree to which the blubber layer was stratified in FA composition, we found 19 FA from both blubber layers in greater than trace amounts (>0.5%). The inner and outer blubber layers could be separated using principal components analysis based on the relative proportion of FA in each layer. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were also observed in significantly higher proportions in the inner blubber layer. Due to the degree of FA stratification in <span class="hlt">southern</span> elephant seals, we concur with other marine mammal studies that sampling only the outer blubber layer will result in a loss of recently accumulated information regarding diet structure (as indicated by 'surplus' PUFA from the diet). This finding suggests that differential mobilization/deposition of certain FA may result in a modified signature from prey to predator. Thus, sampling animals to recover the inner blubber layer is important for studies attempting to describe aspects of marine mammal diet. This can be achieved in animals such as pinnipeds where the whole blubber layer can be readily sampled.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26125972','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26125972"><span><span class="hlt">Implications</span> of Nubian-Like Core Reduction Systems in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Africa for the Identification of Early Modern Human Dispersals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Will, Manuel; Mackay, Alex; Phillips, Natasha</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Lithic technologies have been used to trace dispersals of early human populations within and beyond Africa. Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups. Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations. Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence. The timing and spatial distribution of their appearance in <span class="hlt">southern</span> and northern Africa implies technological convergence, rather than diffusion or dispersal. While lithic technologies can be a critical guide to human population flux, their utility in tracing early human dispersals at large spatial and temporal scales with stone artefact types remains questionable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5465994','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5465994"><span>Thrust faults of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Diamond Mountains, central Nevada: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for hydrocarbons in Diamond Valley and at Yucca Mountain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>French, D.E.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>Overmature Mississippian hydrocarbon source rocks in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Diamond Mountains have been interpreted to be a klippe overlying less mature source rocks and represented as an analogy to similar conditions near Yucca Mountain (Chamberlain, 1991). Geologic evidence indicates an alternative interpretation. Paleogeologic mapping indicates the presence of a thrust fault, referred to here as the Moritz Nager Thrust Fault, with Devonian rocks emplaced over Permian to Mississippian strata folded into an upright to overturned syncline, and that the overmature rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in the footwall of this thrust. The upper plate has been eroded from most of the Diamond Mountains but remnants are present at the head of Moritz Nager Canyon and at Sentinel Mountain. Devonian rocks of the upper plate comprised the earliest landslide megabreccia. Later, megabreccias of Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks of the overturned syncline of the lower plate were deposited. By this interpretation the maturity of lower-plate source rocks in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Diamond Mountains, which have been increased by tectonic burial, is not indicative of conditions in Diamond Valley, adjacent to the west, where upper-plate source rocks might be present in generating conditions. The interpretation that overmature source rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in a lower plate rather than in a klippe means that this area is an inappropriate model for the Eleana Range near Yucca Mountain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-506.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-506.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, importations under the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-508.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-508.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of obligations to persons within the United States...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to persons or accounts...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-208.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-208.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... credits or loans to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> is prohibited....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-208.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-208.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... credits or loans to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> is prohibited....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-208.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-208.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... credits or loans to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> is prohibited....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-508.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-508.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of obligations to persons within the United States...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to persons or accounts...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-208.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-208.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... credits or loans to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> is prohibited....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-506.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-506.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, importations under the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-208.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-208.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... credits or loans to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> is prohibited....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-508.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-508.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of obligations to persons within the United States...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to persons or accounts...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-506.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-506.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, importations under the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-508.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-508.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of obligations to persons within the United States...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to persons or accounts...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-506.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-506.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, importations under the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-508.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-508.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of obligations to persons within the United States...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to persons or accounts...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-506.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-506.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, importations under the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.204..599G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.204..599G"><span>Glacial geomorphology of the Torres del Paine region (<span class="hlt">southern</span> Patagonia): <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for glaciation, deglaciation and paleolake history</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García, Juan-Luis; Hall, Brenda L.; Kaplan, Michael R.; Vega, Rodrigo M.; Strelin, Jorge A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The processes affecting paleoclimate variability and Pleistocene glacial landscape development in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> mid-latitudes remain poorly understood, in part because of the scarcity of comprehensive, well-studied records. Glacial landforms are invaluable for reconstructing past ice-sheet, climate, and associated environmental changes along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Andes, but there are significant spatial and temporal gaps in existing data. In this paper, we present new geomorphic and sedimentologic analyses, including surficial maps, for the Torres del Paine region (51°S, 73°W), <span class="hlt">southern</span> South America. Our findings provide a new framework for understanding changes in the regional glacier history and Pleistocene landscape development. Glacial extent during the local last glacial maximum (LGM) remains unknown but new chronological data supported by geomorphic evidence afford evidence for a larger ice sheet at Torres del Paine than previously assumed. Deglaciation from the local LGM was underway by 17,400 ± 200 (1σ) cal. yr. BP. As opposed to previous suggestions, we have found that most of the moraines fringing the lakes in the Torres del Paine national park were deposited during a late-glacial expansion that occurred between 14,100 and 12,500 cal. yr. BP. Late-glacial advances also have been documented recently for the Última Esperanza and Lago Argentino basins to the south and north of Torres del Paine, respectively, suggesting an overall regional ice response to a climate signal. The Tehuelche paleolake accompanied each of the ice-sheet fluctuations in Torres del Paine. New data document at least three main phases of this paleolake, which drained eastward to the Atlantic Ocean, while the Andes gaps were blocked with ice. During the late phase of glacial lake formation, when water levels reached 125-155 m a.s.l., the lake likely merged with paleolake Consuelo in the Última Esperanza area at the end of the last glaciation. Lake Tehuelche in Torres del Paine had drained</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeoJI.151..632M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeoJI.151..632M"><span>Crustal velocity model along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Cuban margin: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the tectonic regime at an active plate boundary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moreno, Bladimir; Grandison, Margaret; Atakan, Kuvvet</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>A new 1-D velocity model along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Cuban margin has been determined using local earthquake data, which are the result of the merged Cuban and Jamaican catalogues. Simultaneous inversion using joint-hypocentre determination was applied to solve the coupled hypocentre-velocity model problem. We obtained a seven-layer model with an average Moho interface at 20 km. The average velocity was found to be 7.6 km s-1 on the top of the crust-mantle transition zone and 6.9 km s-1 in the basaltic layer of the crust. The improvement in the earthquake locations allowed us for the first time to use local seismicity to characterize the activity on local faults and the stress regime in the area. For this purpose, 34 earthquake focal mechanisms were determined along the eastern segments of the Oriente Fault. These solutions are consistent with the known left-lateral strike-slip motion along this major structure as well as with the stress regime of two local structures: (1) the Cabo Cruz Basin and (2) the Santiago deformed belt. The first structure is dominated by normal faults with minor strike-slip components and the second by reverse faults. The shallow seismicity in the Cabo Cruz Basin is associated with fault planes trending N55°-58°E and dipping 38°-45° to the north. The Santiago deformed belt, on the other hand, exhibits diverse fault plane orientations. These local structures account for most of the earthquake activity along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Cuban margin. Deep seismicity observed in the Santiago deformed belt, supported by focal mechanisms, suggests underthrusting of the Gonave Microplate beneath the Cuban Block in this area. The principal stress orientations obtained from stress inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms suggest a thrust faulting regime along the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Cuban margin. We obtained a nearly horizontal σ1 and nearly vertical σ3, which indicates active compressional deformation along the major Oriente transcurrent fault in agreement with the dominant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031806','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031806"><span>Evidence for and <span class="hlt">implications</span> of sedimentary diapirism and mud volcanism in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Utopia highland-lowland boundary plain, Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Skinner, J.A.; Tanaka, K.L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Several types of spatially associated landforms in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Utopia Planitia highland-lowland boundary (HLB) plain appear to have resulted from localized geologic activity, including (1) fractured rises, (2) elliptical mounds, (3) pitted cones with emanating lobate materials, and (4) isolated and coalesced cavi (depressions). Stratigraphic analysis indicates these features are Hesperian or younger and may be associated with resurfacing that preferentially destroyed smaller (< 8 ?? km diameter) impact craters. Based on landform geomorphologies and spatial distributions, the documented features do not appear to be specifically related to igneous or periglacial processes or the back-wasting and erosion of the HLB scarp. We propose that these features are genetically related to and formed by sedimentary (mud) diapirs that ascended from zones of regionally confined, poorly consolidated, and mechanically weak material. We note morphologic similarities between the mounds and pitted cones of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Utopia boundary plain and terrestrial mud volcanoes in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan. These analogs provide a context for understanding the geological environments and processes that supported mud diapir-related modification of the HLB. In <span class="hlt">southern</span> Utopia, mud diapirs near the Elysium volcanic edifice may have resulted in laccolith-like intrusions that produced the fractured rises, while in the central boundary plain mud diapirs could have extruded to form pitted cones, mounds, and lobate flows, perhaps related to compressional stresses that account for wrinkle ridges. The removal of material a few kilometers deep by diapiric processes may have resulted in subsidence and deformation of surface materials to form widespread cavi. Collectively, these inferences suggest that sedimentary diapirism and mud volcanism as well as related surface deformations could have been the dominant Hesperian mechanisms that altered the regional boundary plain. We discuss a model in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Icar..186...41S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Icar..186...41S"><span>Evidence for and <span class="hlt">implications</span> of sedimentary diapirism and mud volcanism in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Utopia highland lowland boundary plain, Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Skinner, James A.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Several types of spatially associated landforms in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Utopia Planitia highland-lowland boundary (HLB) plain appear to have resulted from localized geologic activity, including (1) fractured rises, (2) elliptical mounds, (3) pitted cones with emanating lobate materials, and (4) isolated and coalesced cavi (depressions). Stratigraphic analysis indicates these features are Hesperian or younger and may be associated with resurfacing that preferentially destroyed smaller ( <8 km diameter) impact craters. Based on landform geomorphologies and spatial distributions, the documented features do not appear to be specifically related to igneous or periglacial processes or the back-wasting and erosion of the HLB scarp. We propose that these features are genetically related to and formed by sedimentary (mud) diapirs that ascended from zones of regionally confined, poorly consolidated, and mechanically weak material. We note morphologic similarities between the mounds and pitted cones of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Utopia boundary plain and terrestrial mud volcanoes in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan. These analogs provide a context for understanding the geological environments and processes that supported mud diapir-related modification of the HLB. In <span class="hlt">southern</span> Utopia, mud diapirs near the Elysium volcanic edifice may have resulted in laccolith-like intrusions that produced the fractured rises, while in the central boundary plain mud diapirs could have extruded to form pitted cones, mounds, and lobate flows, perhaps related to compressional stresses that account for wrinkle ridges. The removal of material a few kilometers deep by diapiric processes may have resulted in subsidence and deformation of surface materials to form widespread cavi. Collectively, these inferences suggest that sedimentary diapirism and mud volcanism as well as related surface deformations could have been the dominant Hesperian mechanisms that altered the regional boundary plain. We discuss a model in which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4080M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4080M"><span>Transpressional segment boundaries in strike-slip fault systems offshore <span class="hlt">southern</span> California: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for fluid expulsion and cold seep habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maloney, Jillian M.; Grupe, Benjamin M.; Pasulka, Alexis L.; Dawson, Katherine S.; Case, David H.; Frieder, Christina A.; Levin, Lisa A.; Driscoll, Neal W.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The importance of tectonics and fluid flow in controlling cold seep habitats has long been appreciated at convergent margins but remains poorly understood in strike-slip systems. Here we present geophysical, geochemical, and biological data from an active methane seep offshore from Del Mar, California, in the inner California borderlands (ICB). The location of this seep appears controlled by localized transpression associated with a step in the San Diego Trough fault zone and provides an opportunity to examine the interplay between fluid expulsion and restraining step overs along strike-slip fault systems. These segment boundaries may have important controls on seep locations in the ICB and other margins characterized by strike-slip faulting (e.g., Greece, Sea of Marmara, and Caribbean). The strike-slip fault systems offshore <span class="hlt">southern</span> California appear to have a limited distribution of seep sites compared to a wider distribution at convergent plate boundaries, which may influence seep habitat diversity and connectivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MinPe.110..845P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MinPe.110..845P"><span>Origin of REE-rich ferrocarbonatites in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Siberia (Russia): <span class="hlt">implications</span> based on melt and fluid inclusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prokopyev, Ilya R.; Borisenko, Alexander S.; Borovikov, Andrey A.; Pavlova, Galina G.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Fe-rich carbonatites with a mineral assemblage of ankerite-calcite or siderite are widespread in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Siberia, Russia. The siderite carbonatites are associated with F-Ba-Sr-REE mineralization and have a 40Ar/39Ar age of 117.2 ± 1.3 Ma. Melt and fluid inclusions suggest that the carbonatites formed from volatile-rich alkali- and chloride-bearing carbonate melts. Ankerite-calcite carbonatites formed from carbonatite melt at a temperature of more than 790 °C. The ferrocarbonatites (the second phase of carbonatite intrusion) formed from a sulfate-carbonate-chloride fluid phase (brine-melt) at >650 °C and ≥360 MPa. The brine-melt fluid phase had high concentrations of Fe and LREEs. A subsequent hydrothermal overprint contributed to the formation of economically important barite-Sr-fluorite-REE mineralization in polymict siderite breccia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......197G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......197G"><span>Analysis of energy-saving potential in residential buildings in Xiamen City and its policy <span class="hlt">implications</span> for <span class="hlt">southern</span> China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Fei</p> <p></p> <p>The buildings sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world. Residential buildings consume about three-quarters of the final energy in the buildings sector. Promoting residential energy savings is in consequence critical for addressing many energy-use-related environmental challenges, such as climate change and air pollution. Given China's robust economic growth and fast urbanization, it is now a critical time to develop policy interventions on residential energy use in the nation. With this as a background, this dissertation explores effective policy intervention opportunities in <span class="hlt">southern</span> China through analyzing the residential energy-saving potential, using the city of Xiamen as a case study. Four types of residential energy-saving potential are analyzed: technical potential, economic potential, maximum achievable potential (MAP), and possible achievable potential (PAP). Of these, the first two types are characterized as static theoretical evaluation, while the last two represent dynamic evaluation within a certain time horizon. The achievable potential analyses are rarely seen in existing literature. The analytical results reveal that there exists a significant technical potential for residential energy savings of about 20.9-24.9% in the city of Xiamen. Of the technical potential, about two-thirds to four-fifths are cost-effective from the government or society perspective. The cost-effectiveness is evaluated by comparing the "Levelized Cost of Conserved Energy (LCOCE)" of available advanced technical measures with the "Actual Cost" of conserved energy. The "Actual Cost" of energy is defined by adding the environmental externalities costs and hidden government subsidies over the retail prices of energy. The achievable potential analyses are particularly based on two key realistic factors: 1) the gradual ramping-up adoption process of advanced technical measures; and 2) individuals' adoption-decision making on them. For implementing the achievable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19908134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19908134"><span>Newcastle disease outbreaks in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> from 2003 to 2006 were caused by viruses of genotype 5d.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hassan, Wegdan; Khair, Sobhi Ahmed Mohamed; Mochotlhoane, Bontsi; Abolnik, Celia</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>Newcastle disease (ND) is a serious neurological and respiratory disease of poultry that affects all types of birds but has traditionally not caused symptoms in wild aquatic birds, the natural hosts. In the late 1990s, a new genotype, viz. 5d that is pathogenic to all types of birds, including waterfowl, arose in China and has since spread from East Asia into parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene of isolates obtained from outbreaks of ND in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> and found that all contemporary strains isolated between 2003 and 2006 were of genotype 5d, containing the virulent fusion protein cleavage site (F0) motif (112)RRQKRF(117). Introduction via a Middle Eastern trade partner is likely to be the source of infection since phylogenetic analysis excluded the possibility of introduction from western and <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17564250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17564250"><span><span class="hlt">Implications</span> of the genetic epidemiology of globin haplotypes linked to the sickle cell gene in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Iran.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rahimi, Zohreh; Merat, Ahmad; Gerard, Nathalie; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Nagel, Ronald L</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>To determine the origin of sickle cell mutation in different ethnic groups living in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Iran, we studied the haplotype background of the betaS and betaA genes in subjects from the provinces of Fars, Khuzestan, Bushehr, Hormozgan, and Kerman and from the islands of Khark and Qeshm. beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes were determined using the PCR-RFLP technique. Detection of -alpha 3.7 deletion and beta-thalassemia mutations were defined by PCR and reverse dot blot techniques, respectively. The framework of the beta-globin gene was determined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. We found that the betaS mutation in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Iran is associated with multiple mutational events. Most of the patients were from two ethnic groups: Farsi speakers (presumably Persian in origin) from Fars province and patients of Arab origin from Khuzestan province. In both ethnic groups the Arab-Indian haplotype was the most prevalent. The frequencies of the Arab-Indian and African haplotypes in sickle cell anemia patients from the provinces of Fars and Khuzestan were similar. Among betaA chromosomes the Bantu A2 haplotype was the most prevalent. The decrease in alpha-globin production in SS patients and AS individuals appeared to be related to the reduction in mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin. The Arab-Indian haplotype gene flow into this region of Iran can be traced to the Sassanian Empire. It is likely that the influx of betaS genes linked to the Benin and Bantu haplotypes, of African origin, must have occurred during the Arab slave trade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025048','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025048"><span>Peleolakes and impact basins in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Arabia Terra, including Meridiani Planum: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the formation of hematite deposits on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Newsom, Horton E.; Barber, C.A.; Hare, T.M.; Schelble, R.T.; Sutherland, V.A.; Feldman, W.C.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The hematite deposit in Meridiani Planum was selected for a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing site because water could be involved in the formation of hematite, and water is a key ingredient in the search for life. Our discovery of a chain of paleolake basins and channels along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> margin of the hematite deposits in Meridiani Planum with the presence of the strongest hematite signature adjacent to a paleolake basin, supports the possible role of water in the formation of the hematite and the deposition of other layered materials in the region. The hematite may have formed by direct precipitation from lake water, as coatings precipitated from groundwater, or by oxidation of preexisting iron oxide minerals. The paleolake basins were fed by an extensive channel system, originating from an area larger than Texas and located south of the Schiaparelli impact basin. On the basis of stratigraphic relationships, the formation of channels in the region occurred over much of Mars' history, from before the layered materials in Meridiani Planum were deposited until recently. The location of the paleolake basins and channels is connected with the impact cratering history of the region. The earliest structure identified in this study is an ancient circular multiringed basin (800-1600 km diameter) that underlies the entire Meridiani Planum region. The MER landing site is located on the buried northern rim of a later 150 km diameter crater. This crater is partially filled with layered deposits that contained a paleolake in its <span class="hlt">southern</span> portion. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3541385','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3541385"><span>Determinants of Persistence and Tolerance of Carnivores on Namibian Ranches: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Conservation on <span class="hlt">Southern</span> African Private Lands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Havemann, Carl Peter; Lines, Robin; Palazy, Lucille; Price, Aaron Ernest; Retief, Tarryn Anne; Rhebergen, Tiemen; Van der Waal, Cornelis</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Changing land use patterns in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), leopards (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea) were widely distributed on Namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) had a narrower distribution, and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and lions (Panthera leo) are largely limited to areas near source populations. Farmers were most tolerant of leopards and least tolerant of lions, wild dogs and spotted hyaenas. Several factors relating to land use correlated consistently with carnivore-presence and landowner tolerance. Carnivores were more commonly present and/or tolerated where; wildlife diversity and biomass were higher; income from wildlife was higher; income from livestock was lower; livestock biomass was lower; in conservancies; game fencing was absent; and financial losses from livestock depredation were lower. Efforts to create conditions whereby the costs associated with carnivores are lowest, and which confer financial value to them are likely to be the most effective means of promoting carnivore conservation. Such conditions are achieved where land owners pool land to create conservancies where livestock are replaced with wildlife (or where livestock husbandry is improved) and where wildlife generates a significant proportion of ranch income. Additional measures, such as promoting improved livestock husbandry and educational outreach efforts may also help achieve coexistence with carnivores. Our findings provide insights into conditions more conducive to the persistence of and tolerance towards large carnivores might be increased on private (and even communal) lands in Namibia, elsewhere in <span class="hlt">southern</span> and East Africa and other parts of the world where</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3831494','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3831494"><span>Increased dry-season length over <span class="hlt">southern</span> Amazonia in recent decades and its <span class="hlt">implication</span> for future climate projection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fu, Rong; Yin, Lei; Li, Wenhong; Arias, Paola A.; Dickinson, Robert E.; Huang, Lei; Chakraborty, Sudip; Fernandes, Katia; Liebmann, Brant; Fisher, Rosie; Myneni, Ranga B.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We have observed that the dry-season length (DSL) has increased over <span class="hlt">southern</span> Amazonia since 1979, primarily owing to a delay of its ending dates (dry-season end, DSE), and is accompanied by a prolonged fire season. A poleward shift of the subtropical jet over South America and an increase of local convective inhibition energy in austral winter (June–August) seem to cause the delay of the DSE in austral spring (September–November). These changes cannot be simply linked to the variability of the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Although they show some resemblance to the effects of anthropogenic forcings reported in the literature, we cannot attribute them to this cause because of inadequate representation of these processes in the global climate models that were presented in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report. These models significantly underestimate the variability of the DSE and DSL and their controlling processes. Such biases imply that the future change of the DSE and DSL may be underestimated by the climate projections provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report models. Although it is not clear whether the observed increase of the DSL will continue in the future, were it to continue at half the rate of that observed, the long DSL and fire season that contributed to the 2005 drought would become the new norm by the late 21st century. The large uncertainty shown in this study highlights the need for a focused effort to better understand and simulate these changes over <span class="hlt">southern</span> Amazonia. PMID:24145443</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4224531','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4224531"><span>Historical land-use and landscape change in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Sweden and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for present and future biodiversity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cui, Qiao-Yu; Gaillard, Marie-José; Lemdahl, Geoffrey; Stenberg, Li; Sugita, Shinya; Zernova, Ganna</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The two major aims of this study are (1) To test the performance of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) to quantify past landscape changes using historical maps and related written sources, and (2) to use the LRA and map reconstructions for a better understanding of the origin of landscape diversity and the recent loss of species diversity. <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Sweden, hemiboreal vegetation zone. The LRA was applied on pollen records from three small bogs for four time windows between AD 1700 and 2010. The LRA estimates of % cover for woodland/forest, grassland, wetland, and cultivated land were compared with those extracted from historical maps within 3-km radius around each bog. Map-extracted land-use categories and pollen-based LRA estimates (in % cover) of the same land-use categories show a reasonable agreement in several cases; when they do not agree, the assumptions used in the data (maps)-model (LRA) comparison are a better explanation of the discrepancies between the two than possible biases of the LRA modeling approach. Both the LRA reconstructions and the historical maps reveal between-site differences in landscape characteristics through time, but they demonstrate comparable, profound transformations of the regional and local landscapes over time and space due to the agrarian reforms in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Sweden during the 18th and 19th centuries. The LRA was found to be the most reasonable approach so far to reconstruct quantitatively past landscape changes from fossil pollen data. The existing landscape diversity in the region at the beginning of the 18th century had its origin in the long-term regional and local vegetation and land-use history over millennia. Agrarian reforms since the 18th century resulted in a dramatic loss of landscape diversity and evenness in both time and space over the last two centuries leading to a similarly dramatic loss of species (e.g., beetles). PMID:25478148</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024277','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024277"><span><span class="hlt">Implications</span> of water supply for indigenous Americans during Holocene ardity phases on the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> High Plains, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wood, W.W.; Stokes, S.; Rich, J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Springs in the 40 to 50 large lake basins (>15 km2) on the <span class="hlt">southern</span> portion of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> High Plains (SHP) were active during periods of aridity in the Holocene when there may have been human habitation of the area. Eolian erosion of the lake floors and lunette accretion occurred as groundwater levels declined in response to decreased groundwater recharge. The declining lake floor associated with eolian erosion allowed groundwater evaporative discharge to continue, thus maintaining a groundwater gradient toward the lake. This hydrologic condition was favorable for a relatively continuous spring discharge to the lake, independent of the elevation of the lake floor. To evaluate the postulated dynamic equilibrium critical to this conclusion, 17 optically stimulated ages were determined from a 17.7-m deep core of a lunette adjacent to Double Lakes, Texas (33??13???15???N, 101??54???08???W). The core yielded sediment accumulation dates of 11,500 ?? 1100, 6500 ?? 700, and 4900 ?? 500 yr B.P., corresponding broadly with periods of aridity known from other evidence. Based on analysis of this lunette, it is concluded that springs in Double Lakes basin probably existed throughout the Holocene with discharges similar to those observed historically. We assumed that similar dynamic equilibrium existed in the other large lake basins in the SHP and that these springs could have provided a continuous source of water for indigenous peoples during periods of prolonged aridity. The dynamic equilibrium that is proposed in this study is applicable not only to other arid and semiarid geographic areas with wind-erodible material but also over different geologic times. ?? 2002 University of Washington.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23326333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23326333"><span>Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for conservation on <span class="hlt">Southern</span> African private lands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Havemann, Carl Peter; Lines, Robin; Palazy, Lucille; Price, Aaron Ernest; Retief, Tarryn Anne; Rhebergen, Tiemen; Van der Waal, Cornelis</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Changing land use patterns in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), leopards (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea) were widely distributed on Namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) had a narrower distribution, and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and lions (Panthera leo) are largely limited to areas near source populations. Farmers were most tolerant of leopards and least tolerant of lions, wild dogs and spotted hyaenas. Several factors relating to land use correlated consistently with carnivore-presence and landowner tolerance. Carnivores were more commonly present and/or tolerated where; wildlife diversity and biomass were higher; income from wildlife was higher; income from livestock was lower; livestock biomass was lower; in conservancies; game fencing was absent; and financial losses from livestock depredation were lower. Efforts to create conditions whereby the costs associated with carnivores are lowest, and which confer financial value to them are likely to be the most effective means of promoting carnivore conservation. Such conditions are achieved where land owners pool land to create conservancies where livestock are replaced with wildlife (or where livestock husbandry is improved) and where wildlife generates a significant proportion of ranch income. Additional measures, such as promoting improved livestock husbandry and educational outreach efforts may also help achieve coexistence with carnivores. Our findings provide insights into conditions more conducive to the persistence of and tolerance towards large carnivores might be increased on private (and even communal) lands in Namibia, elsewhere in <span class="hlt">southern</span> and East Africa and other parts of the world where</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24145443','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24145443"><span>Increased dry-season length over <span class="hlt">southern</span> Amazonia in recent decades and its <span class="hlt">implication</span> for future climate projection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fu, Rong; Yin, Lei; Li, Wenhong; Arias, Paola A; Dickinson, Robert E; Huang, Lei; Chakraborty, Sudip; Fernandes, Katia; Liebmann, Brant; Fisher, Rosie; Myneni, Ranga B</p> <p>2013-11-05</p> <p>We have observed that the dry-season length (DSL) has increased over <span class="hlt">southern</span> Amazonia since 1979, primarily owing to a delay of its ending dates (dry-season end, DSE), and is accompanied by a prolonged fire season. A poleward shift of the subtropical jet over South America and an increase of local convective inhibition energy in austral winter (June-August) seem to cause the delay of the DSE in austral spring (September-November). These changes cannot be simply linked to the variability of the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Although they show some resemblance to the effects of anthropogenic forcings reported in the literature, we cannot attribute them to this cause because of inadequate representation of these processes in the global climate models that were presented in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report. These models significantly underestimate the variability of the DSE and DSL and their controlling processes. Such biases imply that the future change of the DSE and DSL may be underestimated by the climate projections provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report models. Although it is not clear whether the observed increase of the DSL will continue in the future, were it to continue at half the rate of that observed, the long DSL and fire season that contributed to the 2005 drought would become the new norm by the late 21st century. The large uncertainty shown in this study highlights the need for a focused effort to better understand and simulate these changes over <span class="hlt">southern</span> Amazonia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=serious+AND+gaming&pg=5&id=EJ996791','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=serious+AND+gaming&pg=5&id=EJ996791"><span>Games, Social Simulations, and Data--Integration for Policy Decisions: The "<span class="hlt">Sudan</span>" Game</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Landwehr, Peter; Spraragen, Marc; Ranganathan, Balki; Carley, Kathleen M.; Zyda, Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the authors discuss the development of the "<span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Game," an interactive model of the country in the time period leading up to the Sudanese referendum on the secession of the South. While many simulations are designed to educate about their subjects, the "<span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Game" is intended to be a prototype for policy…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=violent&pg=6&id=EJ1045678','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=violent&pg=6&id=EJ1045678"><span>The Birth of a Nation Is Only the Beginning: The Travails of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Totten, Samuel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Just three years since it broke away from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, the new country of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> is embroiled in a violent civil war. This article examines what went wrong and why, by discussing the incredible difficulty of building a new nation from scratch following years of conflict, war, suspicion, and great expectations. How this tragedy will end is anyone's…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&id=EJ1125592','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&id=EJ1125592"><span>Teaching the Violent Past in Secondary Schools in Newly Independent South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Skårås, Merethe; Breidlid, Anders</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article analyses the teaching and learning of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> history from 1955--2005 in secondary schools in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> with a specific focus on national unity. The article draws on two periods of focused ethnography, from September to December 2014 and July to September 2015, including classroom observation and interviews with teachers,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-204.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title31-vol3-sec538-204.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Except as...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-02/pdf/2011-28620.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-02/pdf/2011-28620.pdf"><span>76 FR 68053 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-11-02</p> <p>... With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No... ] Notice of November 1, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-204.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title31-vol3-sec538-204.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Except as...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-13/pdf/2013-05827.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-13/pdf/2013-05827.pdf"><span>78 FR 16028 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-13</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, and I hereby waive this restriction....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-204.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title31-vol3-sec538-204.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Except as...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-204.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title31-vol3-sec538-204.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Except as...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-204.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title31-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title31-vol3-sec538-204.pdf"><span>31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Except as...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Surrogate&pg=4&id=EJ812115','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Surrogate&pg=4&id=EJ812115"><span>The Lost Boys of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with Family Members</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The "Lost Boys of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED378448.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED378448.pdf"><span>Overcoming Structural Adjustment Policies in Africa: Strategies for Vocational Education and Training in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Washi, Sidiga; Pitamber, Sunita</p> <p></p> <p>Most developing countries have been debt ridden since the mid-1970s. This continuing debt burden has resulted in increasing prices and inflation, growing unemployment, and daily life difficulties. This problem has been acute for the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> received help from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1978 and negotiated new credit terms. By…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811255S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811255S"><span>Evaluation of anisotropy in physical/mechanical properties of metabasalts from Gadag (<span class="hlt">Southern</span> India) - <span class="hlt">implications</span> for vein emplacement and gold mineralization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Satheesan Vishnu, C.; Mamtani, Manish A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>. This anisotropy of strength is a proof of the difference in physical property of the metabasalts with respect to magnetic foliation. This is also manifested in the result of P-wave velocity measurements, which is lower perpendicular (˜5000 m/s) to foliation than parallel (˜5700 m/s) to it. These results imply that the foliation developed during D1/D2 regional deformation dilated during D3 and resulted in emplacement of quartz veins, some of which are gold bearing. References: Mondal, T.K., Mamtani, M.A. (2013). 3-D Mohr circle construction using vein orientation data from Gadag (<span class="hlt">southern</span> India) - <span class="hlt">implications</span> to recognize fluid pressure fluctuation. Journal of Structural Geology 56, 45-56. Mondal, T.K., Mamtani, M.A. (2014). Fabric analysis in massive rocks of the Gadag region (<span class="hlt">southern</span> India) - <span class="hlt">implications</span> to decipher time relationship between regional deformation and gold mineralization. Tectonophysics 629, 238-249. Vishnu, C.S., Mamtani, M.A., Basu, A. (2010). AMS, ultrasonic P-wave velocity and rock strength analysis in quartzites devoid of mesoscopic foliations - <span class="hlt">implications</span> for rock mechanics studies. Tectonophysics 494, 191-200.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Geomo.122...99D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Geomo.122...99D"><span>Controls on fan depositional processes in the schist ranges of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Alps, New Zealand, and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for debris-flow hazard assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Scally, F. A.; Owens, I. F.; Louis, J.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Sixteen morphometric and vegetation cover variables associated with 32 debris-flow and 28 fluvial fans and their basins in the schist ranges of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Alps of New Zealand are examined. The results show statistically significant differences in the area, length, planimetric shape, relief ratio, Melton's ruggedness ( R), and forest and total vegetation cover between debris-flow and fluvial basins, and in the apex and toe elevations, area, and upper and average axial gradients between debris-flow and fluvial fans. All of these variables except the apex and toe elevations of the fans reflect differences between debris-flow and fluvial processes and environmental controls on them. Discriminant analysis indicates that the relief ratio and Melton's R of the basin and upper and average gradients of the fan axis are able to correctly classify debris-flow and fluvial fans, with almost equally good results obtained by employing only a pair of variables: either basin relief ratio and upper fan gradient or basin Melton's R and basin shape. The lower thresholds at debris-flow sites and upper thresholds at fluvial sites for the relief ratio and Melton's R of the basin and upper and average gradients of the fan are identified, and these as well as the mean values of these variables show significant differences from fans in nearby sedimentary ranges of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Alps with important <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the assessment of debris-flow hazard on fans. Fan gradient is found to be closely associated with basin size (area and length) at debris-flow sites, but with basin ruggedness (relief ratio) at fluvial sites. Both fan types show a weak association between their size and the size of the contributing basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.1759G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.1759G"><span>Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional <span class="hlt">implications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad</p> <p></p> <p>Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 μg C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 μg-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJEaS.tmp...80F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJEaS.tmp...80F"><span>First field identification of the Cuonadong dome in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tibet: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for EW extension of the North Himalayan gneiss dome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fu, Jiangang; Li, Guangming; Wang, Genhou; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Linkui; Dong, Suiliang; Liang, Wei</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Cuonadong dome exposes in east-<span class="hlt">southern</span> margin of the North Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD), which is reported first time in this study. The Cuonadong dome is located at the <span class="hlt">southern</span> part of the Zhaxikang ore concentration area, which is divided into three tectono-lithostratigraphic units by two curved faults around the dome geometry from upper to lower (or from outer to inner): the upper unit, middle unit and lower unit, and the outer fault is Nading fault, while the inner fault is Jisong fault. The Cuonadong dome is a magmatic orthogneiss and leucogranite mantled by orthogneiss and metasedimentary rocks, which in turn are overlain by Jurassic metasedimentary and sedimentary rocks. The grades of metamorphism and structural deformation increase towards the core, which is correspondence with the Ridang Formation low-metamorphic schist, tourmaline granitic-biotite gneiss, garnet-mica gneiss and mylonitic quartz-mica gneiss. The Cuonadong dome preserves evidences for four major deformational events: firstly top-to-S thrust (D1), early approximately N-S extensional deformation (D2), main approximately E-W extensional deformation (D3), and late collapse structural deformation (D4) around the core of the Cuonadong dome, which are consistent to three groups lineation: approximately N-S-trending lineation including L1 and L2, E-W trending L3, and L4 with plunging towards outside of the dome, respectively. The formation of the Cuonadong dome was probably resulted from the main E-W extensional deformation which is a result of eastward flow of middle or lower crust from beneath Tibet accommodated by northward oblique underthrusting of Indian crust beneath Tibet. The establishment of the Cuonadong dome enhanced the E-W extension of the NHGD, which is further divided into two structural dome zones according to the different extensional directions: approximately N-S extensional North Himalayan gneiss domes (NS-NHGD) and E-W extensional North Himalayan gneiss domes (EW</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Litho.268..260W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Litho.268..260W"><span>Early Cretaceous bimodal volcanic rocks in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Lhasa terrane, south Tibet: Age, petrogenesis and tectonic <span class="hlt">implications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Chao; Ding, Lin; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Zhang, Li-Yun; Yue, Ya-Hui</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Limited geochronological and geochemical data from Early Cretaceous igneous rocks of the Gangdese Belt have resulted in a dispute regarding the subduction history of Neo-Tethyan Ocean. To approach this issue, we performed detailed in-situ zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic, whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic analyses on Late Mesozoic volcanic rocks exposed in the Liqiongda area, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Lhasa terrane. These volcanic rocks are calc-alkaline series, dominated by basalts, basaltic andesites, and subordinate rhyolites, with a bimodal suite. The LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating results of the basaltic andesites and rhyolites indicate that these volcanic rocks erupted during the Early Cretaceous (137-130 Ma). The basaltic rocks are high-alumina (average > 17 wt.%), enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs), and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs), showing subduction-related characteristics. They display highly positive zircon εHf(t) values (+ 10.0 to + 16.3) and whole-rock εNd(t) values (+ 5.38 to + 7.47). The silicic suite is characterized by low Al2O3 (< 15.4 wt.%), Mg# (< 40), and TiO2 (< 0.3 wt.%) abundances; enriched and variable concentrations of LILEs and REEs; and strongly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.08-0.19), as well as depleted Hf isotopic compositions (εHf(t) = + 4.9 to + 16.4) and Nd isotopic compositions (εNd(t) = + 5.26 to + 6.71). Consequently, we envision a process of basaltic magmas similar to that of MORB extracted from a source metasomatized by slab-derived components for the petrogenesis of mafic rocks, whereas the subsequent mafic magma underplating triggered partial melting of the juvenile crust to generate acidic magma. Our results confirm the presence of Early Cretaceous volcanism in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Lhasa terrane. Combined with the distribution of the contemporary magmatism, deformation style, and sedimentary characteristics in the Lhasa terrane, we favor the suggestion that the Neo</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.130..139Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.130..139Y"><span>Ultrahigh-temperature metagabbros from Wynad: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Paleoproterozoic hot orogen in the Moyar Suture Zone, <span class="hlt">southern</span> India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yano, Minami; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.; Yang, Qiong-Yan; Shaji, E.; Takamura, Yusuke</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The Wynad region is located along the confluence of the Mercara and Moyar Suture Zones in <span class="hlt">southern</span> India which mark major zones of amalgamation of microcontinental blocks during Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic. Here we report garnet- and clinopyroxene-bearing metagabbros from this region and present petrological, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic data. The prograde, peak, and retrograde mineral assemblages of the metagabbro are garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + ilmenite + hornblende + quartz, garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + ilmenite, and garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + ilmenite + hornblende + orthopyroxene, respectively. The geochemical data showing nearly flat or slightly depressed LREE and constant HREE patterns, with the absence of negative Nb anomaly in primitive mantle-normalized plots suggest N-MORB affinity for the protolith, indicating remnants of oceanic lithosphere accreted during the subduction-collision event associated with the microblock amalgamation. The metamorphic conditions of the rock were estimated using phase equilibria modeling in the system NCFMASHTO which yield P-T conditions of >960 °C and >12.8 kbar, suggesting high-pressure and ultrahigh-temperature conditions. The prograde P-T conditions are inferred as 7.8-8.3 kbar at 600 °C and 10.6-11.8 kbar at 900 °C, whereas the retrograde P-T conditions computed based on hornblende- and orthopyroxene-bearing mineral assemblages show <660 °C and <10.4 kbar. A hairpin-type clockwise P-T path is inferred from the P-T phase equilibria modeling, suggesting rapid heating and cooling in the lower crustal level. This P-T path is in contrast to those reported from other meta-mafic rocks in <span class="hlt">southern</span> India. The absence of any decompression texture involving garnet also supports near-isobaric cooling of the rock. Our zircon U-Pb data suggest Neoarchean (2.51 Ga) magmatism and Early Paleoproterozoic (2.36-2.22 Ga) high-grade metamorphism. Zircon Lu-Hf data indicate that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...511490L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...511490L"><span>A New Oviraptorid Dinosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> China and Its Paleobiogeographical <span class="hlt">Implications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Xu, Li; Chang, Huali; Shang, Yuhua; Liu, Di; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, <span class="hlt">southern</span> China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26133245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26133245"><span>A New Oviraptorid Dinosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> China and Its Paleobiogeographical <span class="hlt">Implications</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Xu, Li; Chang, Huali; Shang, Yuhua; Liu, Di; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi</p> <p>2015-07-02</p> <p>The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, <span class="hlt">southern</span> China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012QuRes..77...96B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012QuRes..77...96B"><span>Last glacial-interglacial environments in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Rocky Mountains, USA and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for Younger Dryas-age human occupation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Briles, Christy E.; Whitlock, Cathy; Meltzer, David J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The last glacial-interglacial transition (LGIT; 19-9 ka) was characterized by rapid climate changes and significant ecosystem reorganizations worldwide. In western Colorado, one of the coldest locations in the continental US today, mountain environments during the late-glacial period are poorly known. Yet, archaeological evidence from the Mountaineer site (2625 m elev.) indicates that Folsom-age Paleoindians were over-wintering in the Gunnison Basin during the Younger Dryas Chronozone (YDC; 12.9-11.7 ka). To determine the vegetation and fire history during the LGIT, and possible explanations for occupation during a period thought to be harsher than today, a 17-ka-old sediment core from Lily Pond (3208 m elev.) was analyzed for pollen and charcoal and compared with other high-resolution records from the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Rocky Mountains. Widespread tundra and Picea parkland and low fire activity in the cold wet late-glacial period transitioned to open subalpine forest and increased fire activity in the Bølling-Allerød period as conditions became warmer and drier. During the YDC, greater winter snowpack than today and prolonged wet springs likely expanded subalpine forest to lower elevations than today, providing construction material and fuel for the early inhabitants. In the early to middle Holocene, arid conditions resulted in xerophytic vegetation and frequent fire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4619479','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4619479"><span>Presence of Zea luxurians (Durieu and Ascherson) Bird in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Brazil: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the Conservation of Wild Relatives of Maize</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Records of the occurrence of wild relatives of maize in South American lowlands are unprecedented, especially in sympatric coexistence with landraces. This fact is relevant, because regions of occurrence of wild relatives of cultivated plants should be a priority for conservation, even if they do not correspond to the center of origin of the species. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the wild relatives of maize in the Far West of Santa Catarina, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Brazil. Therefore, phenotypic characterization was performed for five populations, based on 22 morphological traits deemed as fundamental for classifying the species of the genus Zea, and validated through the characterization of chromosomal knobs of two populations. The occurrence and distribution of teosinte populations were described through semi-structured interviews applied to a sample of 305 farmers. A total of 136 teosinte populations were identified; 75% of them occur spontaneously, 17% are cultivated populations, and 8% occur both ways, for the same farm. Populations that were characterized morphologically had trapezoidal fruits mostly, upright tassel branch (4–18), non-prominent main branch and glabrous glumes, with two protruding outer ribs and 8 inner ribs, on average. Cytogenetic analysis identified 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes (2n = 20) with 26 knobs, located in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The similarity of these results with the information reported in the literature indicates that the five populations of wild relatives of maize in this region of Santa Catarina belong to the botanical species Zea luxurians. PMID:26488577</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAfES.123..258O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAfES.123..258O"><span>Sedimentary and petrofacies analyses of the Amasiri Sandstone, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Benue Trough, Nigeria: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for depositional environment and tectonic provenance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okoro, A. U.; Igwe, E. O.; Nwajide, C. S.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>This study was undertaken to determine the depositional environment, provenance and tectonic setting for the Turonian Amasiri Sandstone, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Benue Trough, Nigeria, using lithofacies analysis and re-appraisal of petrography of the sandstones. Local stratigraphy and field relationships show a thick succession of shales alternating with elongate/parallel sandstone ridges extending eastwards from Akpoha to Amasiri through Itigidi and Ugep to Apiapum areas. Lithofacies analysis reveals 9 lithofacies suggestive of storm (mass flow) and tidal shelf processes. These include dark grey to black laminated shale/silty mudstones, bioturbated mudstones, coquinoid limestones, very fine-grained bioturbated sandstones with shell hash/debris in places and limestone rip-up clasts, massive and chaotic sandy conglomerate with rip - up clasts, fine to medium-grained, parallel laminated sandstone, hummocky cross-stratified, massive, medium to coarse-grained sandstones, medium to very coarse-grained, planar cross-bedded sandstone, with clay-draped foresets and Ophiomorpha burrows, and coarse-grained trough cross-bedded sandstone. Petrofacies analysis identifies the sandstones as feldspathic and arkosic arenites. Ternary plot of framework mineralogy indicates derivation from an uplifted continental block related to the nearby Oban Massif and Cameroon Basement Complex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JAfES..57...96K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JAfES..57...96K"><span>The discovery of late Quaternary basalt on Mount Bambouto: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for recent widespread volcanic activity in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Cameroon Line</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kagou Dongmo, Armand; Nkouathio, David; Pouclet, André; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Wandji, Pierre; Nono, Alexandre; Guillou, Hervé</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>At the north-eastern flank of Mount Bambouto, a lateral cone, the Totap volcano, is dated at 0.480 ± 0.014 Ma, which corresponds to the most recent activity of this area. The lava is a basanite similar to the older basanites of Mount Bambouto. Two new datations of the lavas of the substratum are 11.75 ± 0.25 Ma, and 21.12 ± 0.45 Ma. A synthetic revision of the volcanic story of Mount Bambouto is proposed as follows. The first stage, ca. 21 Ma, corresponds to the building of the initial basaltic shield volcano. The second stage, from 18.5 to 15.3 Ma, is marked by the collapse of the caldera linked to the pouring out of ignimbritic rhyolites and trachytes. The third stage, from 15 to 4.5 Ma, renews with basaltic effusive activity, together with post-caldera extrusions of trachytes and phonolites. The 0.5 Ma Totap activity could be a fourth stage. In the recent Quaternary, a number of basaltic activities, similar to that of the Totap volcano, are encountered elsewhere in the Cameroon Line, from Mount Oku to Mount Cameroon. The very long-live activity at Mount Bambouto and the volcanic time-space distribution in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Cameroon Line are linked to the working of a hotline.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1260/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1260/report.pdf"><span>Geophysical interpretation of the gneiss terrane of northern Washington and <span class="hlt">southern</span> British Columbia, and its <span class="hlt">implications</span> for uranium exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cady, John W.; Fox, Kenneth F.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The Omineca crystalline belt of northeastern Washington and <span class="hlt">southern</span> British Columbia has a regional Bouguer gravity high, and individual gneiss domes within the terrane are marked by local gravity highs. Models of crustal structure that satisfy the limited available seismic-refraction data and explain the gravity high over the gneiss terrane permit the hypothesis that the core metamorphic complexes are the surface expression of a zone of dense infrastructure that makes up the upper 20 km (kilometers) of the crust within the crystalline belt. The Omineca crystalline belt is characterized regionally by low aeromagnetic relief. The gneiss domes and biotite- and biotite-muscovite granites are generally marked by low magnetic relief, whereas hornblende-biotite granites often cause magnetic highs. Exceptional magnetic highs mark zones of magnetic rock within the biotite- and biotite-muscovite granites and the gneiss domes; these areas are worthy of study, both to determine the origin and disposition of the magnetite and to explore the possible existence of uraniferous magnetite deposits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.202..533K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.202..533K"><span>Crustal structure of Precambrian terranes in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> African subcontinent with <span class="hlt">implications</span> for secular variation in crustal genesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kachingwe, Marsella; Nyblade, Andrew; Julià, Jordi</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>New estimates of crustal thickness, Poisson's ratio and crustal shear wave velocity have been obtained for 39 stations in Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia by modelling P-wave receiver functions using the H-κ stacking method and jointly inverting the receiver functions with Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocities. These estimates, combined with similar results from previous studies, have been examined for secular trends in Precambrian crustal structure within the <span class="hlt">southern</span> African subcontinent. In both Archean and Proterozoic terranes we find similar Moho depths [38-39 ± 3 km SD (standard deviation)], crustal Poisson's ratio (0.26 ± 0.01 SD), mean crustal shear wave velocity (3.7 ± 0.1 km s-1 SD), and amounts of heterogeneity in the thickness of the mafic lower crust, as defined by shear wave velocities ≥4.0 km s-1. In addition, the amount of variability in these crustal parameters is similar within each individual age grouping as between age groupings. Thus, the results provide little evidence for secular variation in Precambrian crustal structure, including between Meso- and Neoarchean crust. This finding suggests that (1) continental crustal has been generated by similar processes since the Mesoarchean or (2) plate tectonic processes have reworked and modified the crust through time, erasing variations in structure resulting from crustal genesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..275..114B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..275..114B"><span>Deposits of the most recent eruption in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Mono Craters, California: Description, interpretation and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for regional marker tephras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bursik, Marcus; Sieh, Kerry; Meltzner, Aron</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The penultimate eruption in the Mono Craters, Mono County, CA, USA, occurred in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> section of the volcanic chain, and is herein named the South Mono eruption. The South Mono eruption occurred in 594-648cal A.D., and its products consist of widespread Plinian and phreatomagmatic fall, surge and pyroclastic flow deposits. The explosive deposits can be broken into Basal, Orange-Brown (surge dominated) and Upper subunits. The eruptive phase represented by the Upper beds was the most intense and voluminous, dispersing tephra over a wide region of eastern CA and western NV. South Coulee was the only effusive product of the eruption, and comprises the vast majority of the c. 0.4 cu km dense-rock equivalent (DRE) volume. The tephra overlies the deposits of Wilson Butte to the south, and is correlated herein with Wood's Tephra 2, and Walker Lake and Turupah Flats regional marker tephra layers. Other dates for these regional tephras may be the result of dating ash redeposited in debris flow events following fire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23843988','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23843988"><span>Paleoecological and taphonomic <span class="hlt">implications</span> of insect-damaged pleistocene vertebrate remains from Rancho La Brea, <span class="hlt">southern</span> California.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holden, Anna R; Harris, John M; Timm, Robert M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The La Brea Tar Pits, the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality, offers unsurpassed insights into <span class="hlt">southern</span> California's past environments. Recent studies at Rancho La Brea document that insects serve as sensitive and valuable paleoecological and taphonomic indicators. Of the thousands of fossil bird and mammal bones recovered from the Tar Pits, insect trace damage is thus far almost exclusively confined to the foot bones of large herbivores, especially bison, camel, and horse species. Our laboratory experiments with dermestid and tenebrionid beetles establish that the larvae of both consume bone, producing different characteristic feeding traces and providing the first documentation that tenebrionids consume bone. The presence of carcass-exploiting insects in the Rancho La Brea biota provides insight into the taphonomy of the asphaltic bone masses and the environmental conditions under which they accumulated. The succession of dermestids, tenebrionids, and indeterminate traces on many of the foot elements, combined with the climate restrictions and life cycles of these insects, indicate that carcasses could remain unsubmerged for at least 17-20 weeks, thus providing the most reliable estimate to date. Attribution of these traces also suggests that the asphaltic fossils only accumulated during warmer intervals of the Late Pleistocene. Forensic studies need to reevaluate the role of tenebrionids in carcass decomposition and other additional insects that modify bone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26488577','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26488577"><span>Presence of Zea luxurians (Durieu and Ascherson) Bird in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Brazil: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the Conservation of Wild Relatives of Maize.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silva, Natália Carolina de Almeida; Vidal, Rafael; Costa, Flaviane Malaquias; Vaio, Magdalena; Ogliari, Juliana Bernardi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Records of the occurrence of wild relatives of maize in South American lowlands are unprecedented, especially in sympatric coexistence with landraces. This fact is relevant, because regions of occurrence of wild relatives of cultivated plants should be a priority for conservation, even if they do not correspond to the center of origin of the species. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the wild relatives of maize in the Far West of Santa Catarina, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Brazil. Therefore, phenotypic characterization was performed for five populations, based on 22 morphological traits deemed as fundamental for classifying the species of the genus Zea, and validated through the characterization of chromosomal knobs of two populations. The occurrence and distribution of teosinte populations were described through semi-structured interviews applied to a sample of 305 farmers. A total of 136 teosinte populations were identified; 75% of them occur spontaneously, 17% are cultivated populations, and 8% occur both ways, for the same farm. Populations that were characterized morphologically had trapezoidal fruits mostly, upright tassel branch (4-18), non-prominent main branch and glabrous glumes, with two protruding outer ribs and 8 inner ribs, on average. Cytogenetic analysis identified 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes (2n = 20) with 26 knobs, located in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The similarity of these results with the information reported in the literature indicates that the five populations of wild relatives of maize in this region of Santa Catarina belong to the botanical species Zea luxurians.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..523..624S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..523..624S"><span>Recent and old groundwater in the Niebla-Posadas regional aquifer (<span class="hlt">southern</span> Spain): <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for its management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I.; Soler, Albert; Custodio, Emilio; Baquero, Juan Carlos</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Niebla-Posadas (NP) aquifer in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Spain is one of the main groundwater sources for the lower Guadalquivir Valley, a semiarid region supporting an important population, agriculture and industry. To contribute to the understanding of this aquifer the assessment of sustainable use of groundwater, the residence time of groundwater in the NP aquifer has been estimated using 3H, 14C and 36Cl. Along the flow paths, recharged groundwater mixes with NaCl-type waters and undergoes calcite dissolution and is further modified by cation exchange (Ca-Na). Consequently, the water loses most of its calcium and the residual δ13CDIC in the groundwater is isotopically enriched. Further modifications take place along the flow path in deeper zones, where depleted δ13CDIC values are overprinted due to SO42- and iron oxide reduction, triggered by the presence of organic matter. Dating with 3H, 14C and 36Cl has allowed the differentiation of several zones: recharge zone (<0.06 ky), intermediate zone (0.06-20 ky), deep zone 1 (20-30 ky), and deep zone 2 (>30 ky). An apparent link between the tectonic structure and the groundwater residence time zonation can be established. Regional faults clearly separates deep zone 1 from the distinctly older age (>30 ky) deep zone 2. From the estimated residence times, two groundwater areas of different behavior can be differentiated within the aquifer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4489096','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4489096"><span>A New Oviraptorid Dinosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> China and Its Paleobiogeographical <span class="hlt">Implications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Xu, Li; Chang, Huali; Shang, Yuhua; Liu, Di; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, <span class="hlt">southern</span> China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time. PMID:26133245</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3700975','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3700975"><span>Paleoecological and Taphonomic <span class="hlt">Implications</span> of Insect-Damaged Pleistocene Vertebrate Remains from Rancho La Brea, <span class="hlt">Southern</span> California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Holden, Anna R.; Harris, John M.; Timm, Robert M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The La Brea Tar Pits, the world’s richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality, offers unsurpassed insights into <span class="hlt">southern</span> California’s past environments. Recent studies at Rancho La Brea document that insects serve as sensitive and valuable paleoecological and taphonomic indicators. Of the thousands of fossil bird and mammal bones recovered from the Tar Pits, insect trace damage is thus far almost exclusively confined to the foot bones of large herbivores, especially bison, camel, and horse species. Our laboratory experiments with dermestid and tenebrionid beetles establish that the larvae of both consume bone, producing different characteristic feeding traces and providing the first documentation that tenebrionids consume bone. The presence of carcass-exploiting insects in the Rancho La Brea biota provides insight into the taphonomy of the asphaltic bone masses and the environmental conditions under which they accumulated. The succession of dermestids, tenebrionids, and indeterminate traces on many of the foot elements, combined with the climate restrictions and life cycles of these insects, indicate that carcasses could remain unsubmerged for at least 17–20 weeks, thus providing the most reliable estimate to date. Attribution of these traces also suggests that the asphaltic fossils only accumulated during warmer intervals of the Late Pleistocene. Forensic studies need to reevaluate the role of tenebrionids in carcass decomposition and other additional insects that modify bone. PMID:23843988</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27898178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27898178"><span>Pre-rain green-up is ubiquitous across <span class="hlt">southern</span> tropical Africa: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for temporal niche separation and model representation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryan, Casey M; Williams, Mathew; Grace, John; Woollen, Emily; Lehmann, Caroline E R</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Tree phenology mediates land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange and is a determinant of ecosystem structure and function. In the dry tropics, including African savannas, many trees grow new leaves during the dry season - weeks or months before the rains typically start. This syndrome of pre-rain green-up has long been recognized at small scales, but the high spatial and interspecific variability in leaf phenology has precluded regional generalizations. We used remote sensing data to show that this precocious phenology is ubiquitous across the woodlands and savannas of <span class="hlt">southern</span> tropical Africa. In 70% of the study area, green-up preceded rain onset by > 20 d (42% > 40 d). All the main vegetation formations exhibited pre-rain green-up, by as much as 53 ± 18 d (in the wet miombo). Green-up showed low interannual variability (SD between years = 11 d), and high spatial variability (> 100 d). These results are consistent with a high degree of local phenological adaptation, and an insolation trigger of green-up. Tree-tree competition and niche separation may explain the ubiquity of this precocious phenology. The ubiquity of pre-rain green-up described here challenges existing model representations and suggests resistance (but not necessarily resilience) to the delay in rain onset predicted under climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000927','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000927"><span>Interaction of ambient conditions and fecal coliform bacteria in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Lake Michigan beach waters: Monitoring program <span class="hlt">implications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith Becker; Gerovac, Paul J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Excessive fecal coliform bacteria in public swimming waters can potentially threaten visitor health. Fecal coliform bacteria (1984-1989) and Escherichia coli (1990-1995) density were monitored weekly at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore beaches for 12 summers, and park officials closed swimming areas when fecal coliform density exceeded the state water quality criteria (400 CFU fecal coliforms/ 100 ml; 235 CFU E. coli/100 ml water). Due to a 24-hour incubation in the fecal coliform and E. coli assays, beaches were closed the day after collection of high fecal coliform. Our analysis suggests that it is not possible to predict one day's fecal coliform count based on the previous day's results in waters taken from <span class="hlt">southern</span> Lake Michigan beaches. Dispersal and deposition of bacteria were not uniform among sites or across time apparently due to interactions among environmental variables including rainfall, wind direction, water temperature, and bacteria source. Rainfall combined with northwest winds increased bacteria concentrations. Escherichia coli followed a seasonal trend with similar fluctuations in density among beaches. We suggest that the current beach monitoring protocol is inadequate for predicting fecal coliform density at the time of beach closure, and, subsequently, its use for ensuring visitor safety remains questionable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22745597','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22745597"><span>The Extent and Nature of Fluidity in Typologies of Female Sex Work in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> India: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for HIV Prevention Programs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jain, Anrudh K; Saggurti, Niranjan</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>These authors examine the nature and extent of fluidity in defining the typology of female sex work based on the place of solicitation or place of sex or both places together, and whether sex workers belonging to a particular typology are at increased risk of HIV in <span class="hlt">southern</span> India. Data are drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted during 2007-2008 among mobile female sex workers (N = 5301) in four Indian states. Findings from this study address an important policy issue: Should programmatic prevention interventions be spread to cover all places of sex work or be focused on a few places that cover a large majority of sex workers? Results indicate that most female sex workers, including those who are usually hard to reach such as those who are mobile or who use homes for soliciting clients or sex, can be reached programmatically multiple times by concentrating on a smaller number of categories, such as street-, lodge-, and brothel-based sex workers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2257B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2257B"><span>Plio-Pleistocene vegetation response on orbitally forced climatic cycles in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Europe - <span class="hlt">implications</span> for early human environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bruch, Angela; Bertini, Adele</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The pace and causes of the early human colonization, in one or several migratory waves from Africa in new environments of the Eurasian continent during the Early Pleistocene, are still a matter of debate. However, climate change is considered a major driving factor of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. In fact directly or indirectly by its severe influence on vegetation, physiography of landscape, and animal distribution, climate modulates the availability of resources. Plant fossils usually are rare or even absent at hominin sites. Thus, direct evidence on local vegetation and environment is generally missing. Independent from such localities, pollen profiles from the Mediterranean realm show the response of regional vegetation on global climate changes and cyclicity, with distinct spatial and temporal differences. Furthermore, plant fossils provide proxies for climate quantification that can be compared to the global signal, and add data to understanding the regional differentiation of Mediterranean environments. In this presentation we will discuss various palaeobotanical data from <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Europe to assess Early Pleistocene climate and vegetation in time and space as part of the environment during the first expansions of early humans out of Africa.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5129092','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5129092"><span>Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kane, Sumit; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W.; Kok, Maryse</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background In South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender. Results Women across all age groups report that they have little choice but to meet the childbearing demands of husbands and their families. Women, both young and old, and also elders, are frustrated about how men and society are letting them down and how they are left to bear the reproductive burden. The poverty and chronic insecurity in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> mean that many men have few sources of pride and achievement; conformity and complicity with the hegemonic practices accord both security and a sense of belonging and privilege to men, often at the expense of women's reproductive health. Conclusions Inequalities in the domestic, social, and economic spheres intersect to create social situations wherein Fertit women's agency in the reproductive realm is constrained. In South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, as long as economic and social opportunities for women remain restricted, and as long as insecurity and uncertainty remain, many women will have little choice but to resort to having many children to safeguard their fragile present and future. Unless structural measures are taken to address these inequalities, there is a risk of both a widening of existing health inequalities and the emergence of new inequalities. PMID:27900934</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2555224','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2555224"><span>Preliminary field trials of acrolein in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ferguson, Frederick F.; Dawood, Ismail K.; Blondeau, René</p> <p>1965-01-01</p> <p>Field trials of acrolein for the simultaneous control of aquatic weeds and snails were conducted in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Phytotoxicity studies at 25 and 50 ppm showed minor or no damage to furrow-irrigated crops, but flood irrigation of vegetable seedlings at 15 ppm was toxic. Effective downstream carriage of acrolein was demonstrated for a distance of 1.6 km at a concentration of 25 ppm. Planorbid snails (Bulinus and Biomphalaria) were almost completely eliminated (98-99% kills). All submersed aquatic weeds were destroyed. PMID:14310912</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ADDI&pg=4&id=EJ508731','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ADDI&pg=4&id=EJ508731"><span>Review of SISA Student Dissertations on Library and Information Systems and Services in Eastern and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Africa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chowdhury, G. G.; Tadesse, Taye T.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Analyzes student dissertations at the School of Information Studies for Africa (SISA) at Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia) in order to present an overview of the library and information systems and services available in seven eastern and <span class="hlt">southern</span> African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. (Author/LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16232037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16232037"><span>Internet accessibility and usage among urban adolescents in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> California: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for web-based health research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Ping; Unger, Jennifer B; Palmer, Paula H; Gallaher, Peggy; Chou, Chih-Ping; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Sussman, Steve; Johnson, C Anderson</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>The World Wide Web (WWW) poses a distinct capability to offer interventions tailored to the individual's characteristics. To fine tune the tailoring process, studies are needed to explore how Internet accessibility and usage are related to demographic, psychosocial, behavioral, and other health related characteristics. This study was based on a cross-sectional survey conducted on 2373 7th grade students of various ethnic groups in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> California. Measures of Internet use included Internet use at school or at home, Email use, chat-room use, and Internet favoring. Logistic regressions were conducted to assess the associations between Internet uses with selected demographic, psychosocial, behavioral variables and self-reported health statuses. The proportion of students who could access the Internet at school or home was 90% and 40%, separately. Nearly all (99%) of the respondents could access the Internet either at school or at home. Higher SES and Asian ethnicity were associated with higher internet use. Among those who could access the Internet and after adjusting for the selected demographic and psychosocial variables, depression was positively related with chat-room use and using the Internet longer than 1 hour per day at home, and hostility was positively related with Internet favoring (All ORs = 1.2 for +1 STD, p < 0.05). Less parental monitoring and more unsupervised time were positively related to email use, chat-room use, and at home Internet use (ORs for +1 STD ranged from 1.2 to 2.0, all p < 0.05), but not related to at school Internet use. Substance use was positively related to email use, chat-room use, and at home Internet use (OR for "used" vs. "not used" ranged from 1.2 to 4.0, p < 0.05). Self-reported health problems were associated with higher levels of Internet use at home but lower levels of Internet use at school. More physical activity was related to more email use (OR = 1.3 for +1 STD), chat room use (OR = 1.2 for +1 STD), and at school</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5369799','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5369799"><span>Geochemical studies of hotspot volcanism in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Pacific and its <span class="hlt">implications</span> for mantle structure and dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cheng, Q.C.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation dedicates to geochemical investigations of hotspot volcanism in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Pacific, by means of detailed, combined major, trace element and isotope studies of individual islands and island/seamount chains. Chapter 2 describes Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic studies of the whole Louisville Seamount Chain (LSC), to investigate long term evolution of hotspot source. Leaching experiments were conducted to study seawater alteration effects on both Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. Chapter 3 studies the Easter Island-Seamount Chain (EISC). Results from this study are most consistent with a hotspot origin for the EISC. Chapter 4 involves detailed geochemical studies of Tahiti, including Teahitia and Mehetia, from Society Islands. Both major and trace element compositions change systematically with time, indicating a progressive decrease in both the extent of partial melting and the amount of plume component. Isotope data are well correlated on the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr vs. {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd diagram, suggesting mixing between two distinct end-members. Secular isotopic variation pattern records volcanic activities on Tahiti, which links geochemical characteristics to mantle processes of hotspot volcanism. A mantle blob model is preferred for island formation. Most existing OIB isotopic data can be explained by mixing of a small amount of sediments with MORB-like sources. These findings provide further geochemical evidence for a subducted slab origin of OIB sources. Chapter 5 synthesizes the author's own data and those from the literature, to evaluate mantle heterogeneities, origin and evolution of hotspot sources, and mantle structure and dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036216','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036216"><span>Hillslope response to knickpoint migration in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Appalachians: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the evolution of post-orogenic landscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wegmann, S.F.G.; Franke, K.L.; Hughes, S.; Lewis, R.Q.; Lyons, N.; Paris, P.; Ross, K.; Bauer, J.B.; Witt, A.C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">southern</span> Appalachians represent a landscape characterized by locally high topographic relief, steep slopes, and frequent mass movement in the absence of significant tectonic forcing for at least the last 200 Ma. The fundamental processes responsible for landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape remain enigmatic. The non-glaciated Cullasaja River basin of south-western North Carolina, with uniform lithology, frequent debris flows, and the availability of high-resolution airborne lidar DEMs, is an ideal natural setting to study landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape through the lens of hillslope-channel coupling. This investigation is limited to channels with upslope contributing areas >2.7 km2, a conservative estimate of the transition from fluvial to debris-flow dominated channel processes. Values of normalized hypsometry, hypsometric integral, and mean slope vs elevation are used for 14 tributary basins and the Cullasaja basin as a whole to characterize landscape evolution following upstream knickpoint migration. Results highlight the existence of a transient spatial relationship between knickpoints present along the fluvial network of the Cullasaja basin and adjacent hillslopes. Metrics of topography (relief, slope gradient) and hillslope activity (landslide frequency) exhibit significant downstream increases below the current position of major knickpoints. The transient effect of knickpoint-driven channel incision on basin hillslopes is captured by measuring the relief, mean slope steepness, and mass movement frequency of tributary basins and comparing these results with the distance from major knickpoints along the Cullasaja River. A conceptual model of area-elevation and slope distributions is presented that may be representative of post-orogenic landscape evolution in analogous geologic settings. Importantly, the model explains how knickpoint migration and channel- hillslope coupling is an important factor in tectonically-inactive (i</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.690...97W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.690...97W"><span>Reservoir leakage along concentric faults in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> North Sea: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the deployment of CCS and EOR techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ward, Nicholas I. P.; Alves, Tiago M.; Blenkinsop, Tom G.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>High-quality 3D seismic and borehole data in the Broad Fourteens Basin, <span class="hlt">Southern</span> North Sea, is used to investigate newly recognised concentric faults formed in salt-withdrawal basins flanking reactivated salt structures. Throw-depth and throw-distance plots were used to understand the growth histories of individual faults. As a result, three families of concentric faults are identified: a) intra-seal faults within a salt-withdrawal basin, b) faults connecting the seal and the reservoir on the crest of an inverted anticline, c) raft-bounding faults propagating into reservoir units. They have moved obliquely and show normal throws, even though they formed during a period of regional compression. Faults in the salt-withdrawal basin and on the inverted anticline are highly segmented, increasing the chances of compartmentalisation or localised fluid flow through fault linkages. Slip tendency analysis was carried out on the distinct fault families to compare the likelihood of slip along a fault at different pore fluid pressures and within different lithologies. Our results show that sections of the faults are optimally oriented with regards to maximum horizontal stresses (σHmax), increasing the slip tendency. The identified faults cut through a variety of lithologies, allowing different values of pore fluid pressures to build up before faults reactivate. Within the Vlieland Sandstones, pore fluid pressures of 30 MPa are not sufficient to reactivate pre-existing faults, whereas in the deeper Posidonia Shales faults might reactivate at pore fluid pressures of 25 MPa. Fluid flow features preferentially occur near fault segments close to failure. Heterogeneity in slip tendency along concentric faults, and high degrees of fault segmentation, present serious hazards when injecting CO2 into the subsurface. This study stresses the importance of high-quality 3D seismic data and the need to evaluate individual fault systems when investigating potential reservoirs for carbon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23941395','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23941395"><span>Predicted <span class="hlt">implications</span> of using percentage weight gain as single discharge criterion in management of acute malnutrition in rural <span class="hlt">southern</span> Ethiopia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Forsén, Emmanuel; Tadesse, Elazar; Berhane, Yemane; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is increasingly used in identifying and admitting children with acute malnutrition for treatment. It is easy to use because it does not involve height assessment, but its use calls for alternative discharge criteria. This study examined how use of percentage weight gain as discharge criterion would affect the nutritional status of children admitted into a community-based management programme for acute malnutrition in rural <span class="hlt">southern</span> Ethiopia. Non-oedematous children (n = 631) aged 6-59 months and having a MUAC of <125 mm were studied. By simulation, 10%, 15% and 20% weight was added to admission weight and their nutritional status by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) was determined at each target. Moderate and severe wasting according to World Health Organization WHZ definitions was used as outcome. Applying the most commonly recommended target of 15% weight gain resulted in 9% of children with admission MUAC <115 mm still being moderately or severely wasted at theoretical discharge. In children with admission MUAC 115-124 mm, 10% of weight gain was sufficient to generate a similar result. Children failing to recover were the ones with the poorest nutritional status at admission. Increasing the percentage weight gain targets in the two groups to 20% and 15%, respectively, would largely resolve wasting but likely lead to increased programme costs by keeping already recovered children in the programme. Further research is needed on appropriate discharge procedures in programmes using MUAC for screening and admission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V53E3160D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V53E3160D"><span>Diagenetic Patterns of the Cretaceous Baseline Sandstone, <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Nevada: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Controls on Iron-Oxide Cementation and Coloration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duncan, C. J.; Chan, M. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Cretaceous Baseline Sandstone of the Sevier foreland basin deposits in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Nevada exhibits intense diagenetic iron-oxide coloration and bleaching, and contains abundant cemented masses. The Baseline Formation is ~1 km thick with three alluvial to fluvial members: the basal White (Kbw) Member, overlain by coeval Red (Kbr) and Overton Conglomerate (Kbo) Members. Iron-oxide diagenetic features occur in two broad classes: 1) bedding parallel coloration facies of diffuse to banded red, pink, purple, white, to yellow colors; and 2) concretionary facies of heavily cemented horizons, pods/lenses, spherical to spheroidal concretions, boxworks, pipes, and irregular concretion forms. A distinctive geometry is the occurrence of large (~1 m diameter) spherical "beach ball" concretions within the Kbr. Preliminary mapping of diagenetic features shows that concretionary facies are more common within a ~125 m interval near the bottom of Kbw, and within the lower ~125 m of Kbr. Intense coloration changes are present throughout Kbw but occur only in the lowermost ~150 m of Kbr. In the Kbw, concretionary forms commonly occur in stratigraphic intervals of fine-grained sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone lithologies, whereas cemented masses are much less common in stratigraphic intervals composed of medium-grained sandstone and conglomerate lithologies. Additionally, both Kbw and Kbr Members exhibit rare examples of wood fragments in the center of iron-oxide concretions, suggesting the importance of organics as nucleation sites for precipitation. The distribution of complex and overprinted diagenetic patterns indicates nested scales of processes involving iron-oxide dissolution, mobilization, and precipitation. Overall stratigraphic architecture influenced formation-scale patterns, but specific lithologies and textures influenced the type and distribution of diagenetic facies at outcrop scales, and organic content encouraged cementation at grain-scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990070927&hterms=gnc&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgnc','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990070927&hterms=gnc&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgnc"><span>Climatic <span class="hlt">Implications</span> of the Observed Temperature Dependence of the Liquid Water Path of Low Clouds in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Great Plains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>DelGenio, Anthony D.; Wolf, Audrey B.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Satellite observations of low-level clouds have challenged the assumption that adiabatic liquid water content combined with constant physical thickness will lead to a negative cloud optics feedback in a decadal climate change. We explore the reasons for the satellite results using four years of surface remote sensing data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Great Plains of the United States. We find that low cloud liquid water path is approximately invariant with temperature in winter but decreases strongly with temperature in summer, consistent with the satellite inferences at this latitude. This behavior occurs because liquid water content shows no detectable temperature dependence while cloud physical thickness decreases with warming. Thinning of clouds with warming is observed on seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal time scales; it is most obvious in the warm sectors of baroclinic waves. Although cloud top is observed to slightly descend with warming, the primary cause of thinning is the ascent of cloud base due to the reduction in surface relative humidity and the concomitant increase in the lifting condensation level of surface air. Low cloud liquid water path is not observed to be a continuous function of temperature. Rather, the behavior we observe is best explained as a transition in the frequency of occurrence of different boundary layer types: At cold temperatures, a mixture of stratified and convective boundary layers is observed, leading to a broad distribution of liquid water path values, while at warm temperatures, only convective boundary layers with small liquid water paths, some of them decoupled, are observed. Our results, combined with the earlier satellite inferences, imply that the commonly quoted 1.50 C lower limit for the equilibrium global climate sensitivity to a doubling of CO2, which is based on models with near-adiabatic liquid water behavior and constant physical thickness</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5263214','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5263214"><span>Compositional diversity of Late Cenozoic basalts in a transect across the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Washington Cascades: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for subduction zone magmatism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Leeman, W.P. ); Smith, D.R. ); Hildreth, W. ); Palacz, Z.; Rogers, N. )</p> <p>1990-11-10</p> <p>Major volcanoes of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Washington Cascades (SWC) include the large quaternary stratovolcanoes of Mount St. Helens (MSH) and Mount Adams (MA) and the Indian Heaven (IH) and Simcoe Mountain (SIM) volcanic fields. There are significant differences among these volcanic centers in terms of their composition and evolutionary history. The authors conclude that subducted fluids and sediments do not play an essential role in producing these magmas. Rather, they infer that they formed by variable degree melting of a mixed mantle source consisting mainly of heterogeneously distributed OIB and mid-ocean ridge basalt source domains. Relatively minor occurrences of high field strength element (HFSE) depleted arclike basalts may reflect the presence of a small proportion of slab-metasomatized subarc mantle. The juxtaposition of such different mantle domains within the lithospheric mantle is viewed as a consequence of (1) tectonic mixing associated with accretion of oceanic and island arc terranes along the Pacific margin of North America prior to Neogene time, and possibly (2) a seaward jump in the locus of subduction at about 40 Ma. The Cascades arc is unusual in that the subducting oceanic plate is very young and hot. They suggest that slab dehydration outboard of the volcanic front resulted in a diminished role of aqueous fluids in generating or subsequently modifying SWC magmas compared to the situation at most convergent margins. Furthermore, with low fluid flux conditions, basalt generation is presumably triggered by other processes that increase the temperature of the mantle wedge (e.g., convective mantle flow, shear heating, etc.).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.4585S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.4585S"><span>Late Cenozoic tephrostratigraphy offshore the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Central American Volcanic Arc: 2. <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for magma production rates and subduction erosion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schindlbeck, J. C.; Kutterolf, S.; Freundt, A.; Straub, S. M.; Vannucchi, P.; Alvarado, G. E.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Pacific drill sites offshore Central America provide the unique opportunity to study the evolution of large explosive volcanism and the geotectonic evolution of the continental margin back into the Neogene. The temporal distribution of tephra layers established by tephrochonostratigraphy in Part 1 indicates a nearly continuous highly explosive eruption record for the Costa Rican and the Nicaraguan volcanic arc within the last 8 Myr. The widely distributed marine tephra layers comprise the major fraction of the respective erupted tephra volumes and masses thus providing insights into regional and temporal variations of large-magnitude explosive eruptions along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). We observe three pulses of enhanced explosive volcanism between 0 and 1 Ma at the Cordillera Central, between 1 and 2 Ma at the Guanacaste and at >3 Ma at the Western Nicaragua segments. Averaged over the long-term the minimum erupted magma flux (per unit arc length) is ˜0.017 g/ms. Tephra ages, constrained by Ar-Ar dating and by correlation with dated terrestrial tephras, yield time-variable accumulation rates of the intercalated pelagic sediments with four prominent phases of peak sedimentation rates that relate to tectonic processes of subduction erosion. The peak rate at >2.3 Ma near Osa particularly relates to initial Cocos Ridge subduction which began at 2.91 ± 0.23 Ma as inferred by the 1.5 Myr delayed appearance of the OIB geochemical signal in tephras from Barva volcano at 1.42 Ma. Subsequent tectonic re-arrangements probably involved crustal extension on the Guanacaste segment that favored the 2-1 Ma period of unusually massive rhyolite production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25898308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25898308"><span>Occurrence of organophosphorus flame retardants in indoor dust in multiple microenvironments of <span class="hlt">southern</span> China and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for human exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>He, Chun-Tao; Zheng, Jing; Qiao, Lin; Chen, She-Jun; Yang, Jun-Zhi; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) are important alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs), but information on their contamination of the environment in China is rare. We examined the occurrence of 12 OPFRs in indoor dust in four microenvironments of <span class="hlt">southern</span> China, including a rural electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, a rural non-e-waste area, urban homes, and urban college dormitory rooms. The OPFR concentrations (with a median of 25.0 μg g(-1)) were highest in the e-waste area, and the concentrations in other three areas were lower and comparable (7.48-11.0 μg g(-1)). The levels of OPFRs in the present study were generally relatively lower than the levels of OPFRs found in Europe, Canada, and Japan because BFRs are still widely used as the major FRs in China. The composition profile of OPFRs in the e-waste area was dominated by tricresyl phosphate (TCP) (accounting for 40.7%, on average), while tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) was the most abundant OPFR (64.4%) in the urban areas (homes and college dormitories). These two distribution patterns represent two OPFR sources (i.e., emissions from past e-waste and from current household products and building materials). The difference in the OPFR profiles in the rural area relative to the OPFR profiles in the urban and e-waste areas suggests that the occurrence of OPFRs is due mainly to emissions from characteristic household products in rural homes. Although human exposures to all the OPFRs were under the reference doses, the health risk for residents in the e-waste area is a concern, considering the poor sanitary conditions in this area and exposure from other sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESuD....4..567L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESuD....4..567L"><span>Morphological properties of tunnel valleys of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for their formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Livingstone, Stephen J.; Clark, Chris D.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Tunnel valleys have been widely reported on the bed of former ice sheets and are considered an important expression of subglacial meltwater drainage. Although known to have been cut by erosive meltwater flow, the water source and development of channels has been widely debated; ranging between outburst flood events through to gradually occurring channel propagation. We have mapped and analysed the spatial pattern and morphometry of tunnel valleys and associated glacial landforms along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> sector of the former Laurentide Ice Sheet from high-resolution digital elevation models. Around 2000 tunnel valleys have been mapped, revealing an organised pattern of sub-parallel, semi-regularly spaced valleys that form in distinctive clusters. The tunnel valleys are typically < 20 km long, and 0.5-3 km wide, although their width varies considerably down-valley. They preferentially terminate at moraines, which suggests that formation is time dependent; while we also observe some tunnel valleys that have grown headwards out of hill-hole pairs. Analysis of cross-cutting relationships between tunnel valleys, moraines and outwash fans permits reconstruction of channel development in relation to the retreating ice margin. This palaeo-drainage reconstruction demonstrates incremental growth of most valleys, with some used repeatedly or for long periods, during deglaciation, while others were abandoned shortly after their formation. Our data and interpretation support gradual (rather than a single-event) formation of most tunnel valleys with secondary contributions from flood drainage of subglacial and or supraglacially stored water down individual tunnel valleys. The distribution and morphology of tunnel valleys is shown to be sensitive to regional factors such as basal thermal regime, ice and bed topography, timing and climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034382','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034382"><span>Controls on large landslide distribution and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the geomorphic evolution of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> interior Columbia River basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Safran, E.B.; Anderson, S.W.; Mills-Novoa, M.; House, P.K.; Ely, L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Large landslides (>0.1 km2) are important agents of geomorphic change. While most common in rugged mountain ranges, large landslides can also be widespread in relatively low-relief (several 100 m) terrain, where their distribution has been relatively little studied. A fuller understanding of the role of large landslides in landscape evolution requires addressing this gap, since the distribution of large landslides may affect broad regions through interactions with channel processes, and since the dominant controls on landslide distribution might be expected to vary with tectonic setting. We documented >400 landslides between 0.1 and ~40 km2 across ~140,000 km2 of eastern Oregon, in the semiarid, <span class="hlt">southern</span> interior Columbia River basin. The mapped landslides cluster in a NW-SE-trending band that is 50-100 km wide. Landslides predominantly occur where even modest local relief (~100 m) exists near key contacts between weak sedimentary or volcaniclastic rock and coherent cap rock. Fault density exerts no control on landslide distribution, while ~10% of mapped landslides cluster within 3-10 km of mapped fold axes. Landslide occurrence is curtailed to the NE by thick packages of coherent basalt and to the SW by limited local relief. Our results suggest that future mass movements will localize in areas stratigraphically preconditioned for landsliding by a geologic history of fluviolacustrine and volcaniclastic sedimentation and episodic capping by coherent lava flows. In such areas, episodic landsliding may persist for hundreds of thousands of years or more, producing valley wall slopes of ~7??-13?? and impacting local channels with an evolving array of mass movement styles. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Tectp.463..130M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Tectp.463..130M"><span>Recent seismicity and crustal stress field in the Lucanian Apennines and surrounding areas (<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Italy): Seismotectonic <span class="hlt">implications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maggi, C.; Frepoli, A.; Cimini, G. B.; Console, R.; Chiappini, M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We analyzed the instrumental seismicity of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Italy in the area including the Lucanian Apennines and Bradano foredeep, making use of the most recent seismological data base available so far. P- and S-wave arrival times, recorded by the Italian National Seismic Network (RSNC) operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), were re-picked along with those of the SAPTEX temporary array deployed in the region in the period 2001-2004. For some events located in the upper Val d'Agri, we also used data from the Eni-Agip oil company seismic network. We examined the seismicity occurred during the period between 2001 and 2006, considering 514 events with magnitudes M ≥ 2.0. We computed the VP/ VS ratio obtaining a value of 1.83 and we carried out an analysis for the one-dimensional (1D) velocity model that approximates the seismic structure of the study area. Earthquakes were relocated and, for well- recorded events, we also computed 108 fault plane solutions. Finally, using 58 solutions, the most constrained, we computed regional stress field in the study area. Earthquake distribution shows three main seismic regions: the westernmost (Lucanian Apennines) characterized by high background seismicity, mostly with shallow hypocenters, the easternmost below the Bradano foredeep and the Murge with deeper and more scattered seismicity, and finally the more isolated and sparse seismicity localized in the Sila Range and in the offshore area along the northeastern Calabrian coast. Focal mechanisms computed in this work are in large part normal and strike-slip solutions and their tensional axes ( T-axes) have a generalized NE-SW orientation. The denser station coverage allowed us to improve hypocenters determination compared to those obtained by using only RSNC data, for a better characterization of the crustal and subcrustal seismicity in the study area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T53A..04C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T53A..04C"><span><span class="hlt">Implications</span> of topographic relief on the brittle-to-plastic boundary beneath the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Central Range, Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cavallotti, C. J.; Lewis, J. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The result of the ongoing arc-continent collision between the Eurasian (EU) and Philippine Sea (PSP) plates, Taiwan is an important tool in understanding the real time mechanics of the mountain building process. We show an apparent gap in seismicity beneath Taiwan's <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Central Range that may represent the presence of a volume of rock lacking the shear strength required to record brittle processes. A spatially accurate 3D map was created, utilizing data recorded for over 8000 seismic events beneath Taiwan and the surrounding area, and shows an elongate aseismic volume trending northeast southwest generally parallel to the topographic grain of the island. Published P-wave data shows an area nearly coincident with the aseismic zone with lower velocities at depths of 7.5km in the west to nearly 40km in the east which suggests a difference in density (and rheology) from the surrounding, seismically active, areas. Strain inversions assuming a micropolar model for crustal deformation suggest systematic changes in strain tensor geometry from east to west across the hypothesized density boundary. Preliminary results indicate that seismogenic strain along the western margin of the aseismic zone accommodates crustal thinning with stretching oblique to the orogen. In contrast, on the east side of the aseismic zone we see crustal thickening with minimum stretching (shortening) subparallel to PSP-EU motion. The profound change in strain geometry suggests that the asiesmic zone is a partially ductile volume of rock caused by interactions of the EU and PSP beneath Taiwan. We hypothesize that if the rheology contrast is sufficient, higher spatial resolution inversions may reveal that events near the seismic/aseismic interface exhibit Andersonian-like behavior wherein one principal strain axis would lie orthogonal at any given point to a surface mapped to this boundary. Alternatively, if the contrast is smaller the inverted strain geometries may vary systematically and provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tecto..34.1979P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tecto..34.1979P"><span>High-pressure metamorphism in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> New England Orogen: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for long-lived accretionary orogenesis in eastern Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, G.; Offler, R.; Rubatto, D.; Phillips, D.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>New geochemical, metamorphic, and isotopic data are presented from high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> New England Orogen (eastern Australia). Conventional and optimal thermobarometry are augmented by U-Pb zircon and 40Ar/39Ar phengite dating to define pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) histories for the rocks. The P-T-t histories are compared with competing geodynamic models for the Tasmanides, which can be summarized as (i) a retreating orogen model, the Tasmanides formed above a continuous, west dipping, and eastward retreating subduction zone, and (ii) a punctuated orogen model, the Tasmanides formed by several arc accretion, subduction flip, and/or transference events. Whereas both scenarios are potentially supported by the new data, an overlap between the timing of metamorphic recrystallization and key stages of Tasmanides evolution favors a relationship between a single, long-lived subduction zone and the formation, exhumation, and exposure of the high-pressure rocks. By comparison with the retreating orogen model, the following links with the P-T-t histories emerge: (i) exhumation and underplating of oceanic eclogite during the Delamerian Orogeny, (ii) recrystallization of underplated and exhuming high-pressure rocks at amphibolite facies conditions coeval with a period of rollback, and (iii) selective recrystallization of high-pressure rocks at blueschist facies conditions, reflecting metamorphism in a cooled subduction zone. The retreating orogen model can also account for the anomalous location of the Cambrian-Ordovician high-pressure rocks in the Devonian-Carboniferous New England Orogen, where sequential rollback cycles detached and translated parts of the leading edge of the overriding plate to the next, younger orogenic cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1686K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1686K"><span>Paleoclimatic <span class="hlt">implications</span> of fossil shoreline deposits in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> basin and range province during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kowler, A. L.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Paleolake shoreline deposits throughout the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Basin and Range (SBAR) signify past intervals of steady-state climatic conditions occuring during the late Pleistocene slightly before, as well as after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~23-19 Ka). Unfortunately, a lack of knowledge about the age of fossil shoreline deposits—due to C-14 related uncertainties and incomplete dating of shorelines—has resulted in a large gap in our knowledge about past climatic and surface hydrologic conditions in the SBAR. Several studies collectively reveal multiple lake level oscillations during the LGM and last part of the Pleistocene, with reasonably well dated shoreline deposits existing for only four paleolakes: one in central New Mexico (Estancia), two in southwestern New Mexico (Playas and Cloverdale), and one in southeastern Arizona (Cochise). In summary, there is evidence for a pre-LGM high-stand at Cochise (>26 Ka), LGM high-stands at Estancia and Cloverdale (>20-16 Ka), deglacial age high-stands at Playas and Cochise (16-13 Ka), and latest Pleistocene-early Holocene still stands of as yet undetermined elevation at Playas and Estancia (13-9K). Further, the absence of high-stands from 11-10 Ka suggests that the Younger Dryas climatic reversal—which is detected in the stable O isotopic composition of speleothems from Cave-of-the-Bells in southeastern Arizona—was marked there by a decrease in mean annual air temperature without a significant increase in precipitation. Alternatively, if a return to glacial precipitation levels did occur, then it was for an interval so short that sedimentological evidence was not preserved. This presentation will cover the afore mentioned chronologies, along with discussion about associated atmospheric circulation patterns in the SBAR and across western North America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAESc..36..209S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAESc..36..209S"><span>Spinel + quartz assemblage in granulites from the Achankovil Shear Zone, <span class="hlt">southern</span> India: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shimizu, Hisako; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>We report the finding of equilibrium spinel + quartz assemblage enclosed within garnet in garnet-orthopyroxene-cordierite granulites from Pakkandom within the Achankovil Shear Zone, a region which is considered as the trace of an accretionary suture in recent tectonic models on <span class="hlt">southern</span> India. The spinel + quartz bearing granulites are composed of poikiloblastic garnet and subidioblastic orthopyroxene in the matrix of quartz, plagioclase, biotite, cordierite, and Fe-Ti oxides. Garnet contains numerous inclusions of sillimanite and biotite as well as spinel and quartz. The spinel in direct contact with quartz has moderate XMg (= Mg/(Fe 2+ + Mg) = 0.44-0.47), and is Zn and Fe 3+ poor ( XZn = Zn/(Fe 2+ + Mg + Zn) = 0.027-0.036, Fe 3+/(Fe 2+ + Fe 3+) = 0.12-0.17). Spinel is also present in the matrix surrounded by magnetite, but the matrix spinel contains more Zn( XZn = 0.067-0.072) and does not show any contact relationship with quartz. Such Zn- and Fe 3+-poor spinel in direct contact with quartz has been regarded as a diagnostic evidence of ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism. The high-temperature stability of the spinel + quartz is also supported by the results of geothermobarometric calculation of garnet-orthopyroxene assemblages that provides robust evidence for peak UHT metamorphism at 920-980 °C and 8-10 kbar, which was further confirmed by Al-in-Opx and magnetite-ilmenite geothermometers (900-950 °C and ˜1000 °C, respectively). The peak UHT event was followed by decompression down to 4.0-4.2 kbar and 640-670 °C toward the stability of cordierite along a clockwise P-T path. Similar spinel + quartz assemblage enclosed in poikiloblastic garnet has also been reported from the Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone system, the trace of a major suture zone within the Gondwana amalgam with evidence for prograde high-pressure ( P up to 20 kbar) metamorphism followed by UHT event. The fine-grained spinel + quartz may thus indicate decompression from higher pressure</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.1359H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.1359H"><span>Average Stress Drops of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> California Earthquakes in the Context of Crustal Geophysics: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Fault Zone Healing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hauksson, Egill</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>To understand how fault healing processes affect earthquake stress drops, we search for a possible dependency of stress drops on crustal conditions and geophysical parameters. We reanalyze the stress drop values of ~60,000 earthquakes in <span class="hlt">southern</span> California which were originally determined by Shearer et al. J Geophys Res 111:B06303, (2006) using a spectral method. We modify the dataset to include only stress drops that are derived from at least 10 spectra and with corner frequencies between 3 and 30 Hz, and correct the rupture velocity for increasing S-wave speed with depth. We see no dependence of stress drop on moment magnitude or depth, except for a small, poorly determined increase from 15 to 25 km. We use six crustal geophysics parameters to search for obvious correlations that may explain changes in the mean values of the stress drops: (1) crustal thickness, (2) isostatic gravity, (3) heat flow, (4) shear strain rate, (5) crustal stress regime, and (6) style of faulting. None of the variables reduce the scatter but most can explain up to 10-20 % variations in the mean stress drops. The geographical distribution of the grouped mean stress drops includes very high stress drops near Ridgecrest, eastern California, as well as near fault jogs within the San Andreas Fault system. Low stress drops dominate in trans-tensional regions. Heat flow and GPS-based shear strain rate estimates have the largest influence on stress drop variations. In the range of low to medium heat flow, the stress drops increase with increasing heat flow. In contrast, at high heat flow in thin crust, the stress drops decrease systematically with increasing heat flow. Increasing shear strain rate systematically correlates with decreasing stress drops. The crustal stress regime and style of faulting also influence the stress drops as demonstrated by lower stress drops for north-northeast trending principal horizontal stress and in areas of dip-slip faulting. The mean variations in stress drops</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033092','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033092"><span>Origin of the Lyme Dome and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the timing of multiple Alleghanian deformational and intrusive events in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Connecticut</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Walsh, G.J.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Wintsch, R.P.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Geologic mapping, structural analysis, and geochronology in the area of the Lyme dome, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Connecticut provides constraints on the origin of the rocks in the core of the dome, the absolute timing of the principal deformational and thermal events attributed to Alleghanian orogenesis, and the processes that generated the dome. Detrital zircon geochronology in combination with ages on intrusive rocks brackets the deposition of quartzite in the core of the dome sometime between ca. 925 and 620 Ma. Granite and granodiorite intruded the Neoproteorozic metasedimentary rocks in the core of the dome at ca. 620 to 610 Ma. Four major early Permian events associated with the Alleghanian orogeny affected the rocks in the Lyme dome area. Syn-tectonic migmatization and widespread penetrative deformation (D1, ca. 300 - 290 Ma) included emplacement of alaskite at 290 ?? 4 Ma during regional foliation development and aluminosilicate-orthoclase metamorphic conditions. Rocks of the Avalon terrane may have wedged between Gander cover rocks and Gander basement in the core of the Lyme during D1. Limited structural evidence for diapiric uplift of the Lyme dome indicates that diapirism started late in D1 and was completed by D2 (ca. 290 - 280 Ma) when horizontal WNW contractional stresses dominated over vertical stresses. Second sillimanite metamorphism continued and syn-tectonic D2 granite pegmatite (288 ?? 4 Ma) and the Joshua Rock Granite Gniess (284 ?? 3 Ma) intruded at this time. North-northwest extension during D3 (ca. 280 - 275 Ma) led to granitic pegmatite intrusion along S3 cleavage planes and in extensional zones in boudin necks during hydraulic failure and decompression melting. Intrusion of a Westerly Granite dike at 275 ?? 4 Ma suggests that D3 extension was active, and perhaps concluding, by ca. 275 Ma. Late randomly oriented but gently dipping pegmatite dikes record a final stage of intrusion during D4 (ca. 275 - 260 Ma), and a switch from NNW extension to vertical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T41A2870J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T41A2870J"><span>Character and <span class="hlt">Implications</span> of a Newly Identified Creeping Strand of the San Andreas fault NE of Salton Sea, <span class="hlt">Southern</span> California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janecke, S. U.; Markowski, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The overdue earthquake on the Coachella section, San Andreas fault (SAF), the model ShakeOut earthquake, and the conflict between cross-fault models involving the Extra fault array and mapped shortening in the Durmid Hill area motivate new analyses at the <span class="hlt">southern</span> SAF tip. Geologic mapping, LiDAR, seismic reflection, magnetic and gravity datasets, and aerial photography confirm the existence of the East Shoreline strand (ESS) of the SAF southwest of the main trace of the SAF. We mapped the 15 km long ESS, in a band northeast side of the Salton Sea. Other data suggest that the ESS continues N to the latitude of the Mecca Hills, and is >35 km long. The ESS cuts and folds upper Holocene beds and appears to creep, based on discovery of large NW-striking cracks in modern beach deposits. The two traces of the SAF are parallel and ~0.5 to ~2.5 km apart. Groups of east, SE, and ENE-striking strike-slip cross-faults connect the master dextral faults of the SAF. There are few sinistral-normal faults that could be part of the Extra fault array. The 1-km wide ESS contains short, discontinuous traces of NW-striking dextral-oblique faults. These en-echelon faults bound steeply dipping Pleistocene beds, cut out section, parallel tight NW-trending folds, and produced growth folds. Beds commonly dip toward the ESS on both sides, in accord with persistent NE-SW shortening across the ESS. The dispersed fault-fold structural style of the ESS is due to decollements in faulted mud-rich Pliocene to Holocene sediment and ramps and flats along the strike-slip faults. A sheared ladder-like geometric model of the two master dextral strands of the SAF and their intervening cross-faults, best explains the field relationships and geophysical datasets. Contraction across >40 km2 of the southernmost SAF zone in the Durmid Hills suggest that interaction of active structures in the SAF zone may inhibit the nucleation of large earthquakes in this region. The ESS may cross the northern Coachella</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T53B2699G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T53B2699G"><span>Vertical fault mapping within the Gutingkeng Formation of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Taiwan: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for sub-aerial mud diapir tectonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gourley, J. R.; Lee, Y.; Ching, K.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Vertical faults were mapped around the periphery of the mudstone-rich Plio-Pleistocene Gutingkeng Formation (Gtk) in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Taiwan. The faults are manifested as black colored, penetrating shear bands that intersect bedding planes of the Gtk (shear band dips range from 60 - 90 degrees; shear band thicknesses range from several centimeters to several meters). Thin (1-2cm), friable calcite veins were found locally within the shear bands and often contain weakly developed slickensides. Where available, the sense of shear of these faults show consistent interior upward motion of the Gtk. The Chishan Fault is the southeastern bounding structure of the Gtk and where exposed, near-vertical shear bands were observed with a normal sense of shear (west-side-up). In addition, three exploratory cores drilled in 2010 along the western edge of the hanging wall of the Chishan Fault did not intersect the fault or the Gtk after nearly 200 meters of drilling. This suggests that the main Chishan Fault may not be a typical top-to-the-west reverse fault as previously mapped and does not fit the typical fold and thrust geometry that is prevalent in the western foothills of Taiwan. Instead, we interpret the collective field evidence to suggest that the Chishan Fault is a near vertical structure that is accommodating uplift of the Gtk, similar to mechanism by which sub-aqueous mud diapirs grow. A chain of mud diapirs is located off the southeastern coast of Taiwan and the Gtk may be the onshore extension of this chain. The sub-aerial mud diapir hypothesis is further supported by recent leveling data collected across the Gtk that shows the largest vertical uplift in the region to be centered within the Gtk. Finally, observations at the western end of the Highway 3 tunnel through the Chishan fault and overlying Wushan Formation indicate that there is recent west side (footwall) uplift along the Chishan Fault. The vertical faults mapped within the Gtk are significant for they may provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP21B3545L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP21B3545L"><span>Constraining the age of Liuqu Conglomerate, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tibet: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for tectonic evolution of the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, G.; Sandiford, M.; Kohn, B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>, F.Y., and Jansa, L., 2010, Provenance of the Liuqu Conglomerate in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tibet: A Paleogene erosional record of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen: Sedimentary Geology, v. 231, p. 74-84, doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2010.09.004.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GML....34..215B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GML....34..215B"><span>Geophysical exploration of an active pockmark field in the Bay of Concarneau, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Brittany, and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for resident suspension feeders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baltzer, Agnès; Ehrhold, Axel; Rigolet, Carinne; Souron, Aurélie; Cordier, Céline; Clouet, Hélène; Dubois, Stanislas F.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>About a decade ago, a large field of pockmarks (individual features up to 30 m in diameter and <2 m deep) was discovered in water depths of 15-40 m in the Bay of Concarneau in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Brittany along the French Atlantic coast, covering an overall area of 36 km2 and characterised by unusually high pockmark densities in places reaching 2,500 per square kilometre. As revealed by geophysical swath and subbottom profile data ground-truthed by sediment cores collected during two campaigns in 2005 and 2009, the confines of the pockmark field show a spectacular spatial association with those of a vast expanse of tube mats formed by a benthic community of the suspension-feeding amphipod Haploops nirae. The present study complements those findings with subbottom chirp profiles, seabed sonar imagery and ultrasonic backscatter data from the water column acquired in April 2011. Results show that pockmark distribution is influenced by the thickness of Holocene deposits covering an Oligocene palaeo-valley system. Two groups of pockmarks were identified: (1) a group of large (>10 m diameter), more widely scattered pockmarks deeply rooted (up to 8 ms two-way travel time, TWTT) in the Holocene palaeo-valley infills, and (2) a group of smaller, more densely spaced pockmarks shallowly rooted (up to 2 ms TWTT) in interfluve deposits. Pockmark pore water analyses revealed high methane concentrations peaking at ca. 400 μl/l at 22 and 30 cm core depth in silty sediments immediately above Haploops-bearing layers. Water column data indicate acoustic plumes above pockmarks, implying ongoing pockmark activity. Pockmark gas and/or fluid expulsion resulting in increased turbidity (resuspension of, amongst others, freshly settled phytoplankton) could at least partly account for the strong spatial association with the phytoplankton-feeding H. nirae in the Bay of Concarneau, exacerbating impacts of anthropogenically induced eutrophication and growing offshore trawling activities. Tidally driven</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JAESc..14..245S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JAESc..14..245S"><span>Calc-silicate assemblages from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, <span class="hlt">southern</span> India: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for pressure-temperature-fluid histories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Satish-Kumar, M.; Santosh, M.; Harley, S. L.; Yoshida, M.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper reports several new localities of wollastonite- and scapolite-bearing calc-silicate assemblages from the granulite-facies supracrustal Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), <span class="hlt">southern</span> India. Based on mineralogy, these calc-silicate rocks are classified into four types: Type I, lacking wollastonite and grossular; Type II, wollastonite-bearing but grossular-absent; Type III, wollastonite- and grossular-bearing; and Type IV, dolomitic marbles. Detailed petrographic studies reveal a variety of reaction textures overprinting the polygonal granoblastic peak metamorphic assemblages in these rocks. The Type II calc-silicate rocks preserve reaction textures, including meionite breaking down to anorthite-calcite-quartz, wollastonite breaking down to calcite-quartz and meionite-quartz symplectites after K-feldspar and wollastonite. Type III calc-silicate rocks have porphyroblastic and coronal grossular. Grossular-quartz coronas separating wollastonite and anorthite and the development of grossular within the anorthite-calcite-quartz pseudomorphs of meionite form important retrograde reaction textures in this type. In Type IV dolomitic marble assemblages, meionite forming in grain boundaries of calcite and feldspars, forsterite rimmed by diopside-dolomite and the formation of grossular in feldspar-rich zones are the important textures. Calculated partial petrogenetic grids in the CaOAl 2O 3SiO 2CO 2 system are used to deduce the pressure-temperature-fluid evolution of the calc-silicate rocks. The Type II assemblages provide CO 2 activity estimates of > 0.5, with a peak metamorphic temperature of about 790°C. Initial cooling followed by later CO 2 influx can be deduced from reaction modelling in these calc-silicate rocks. Type III assemblages are characterized by internal fluid buffering throughout their tectonic history. The formation of coronal grossular indicates an initial cooling from peak metamorphic temperatures of about 830°C deduced from vapour</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3285H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3285H"><span>A temporary pond in the Early Cretaceous of <span class="hlt">southern</span> England: palaeoclimatic <span class="hlt">implications</span> of nonmarine "Purbeck-Wealden" ostracod faunas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horne, D. J.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p> Group in <span class="hlt">southern</span> England. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 68, 1-18, 2 pls. Nye, E., Feist-Burkhardt, S., Horne, D. J., Ross, A. J. & Whittaker, J. E. (2008) The palaeoenvironment associated with a partial Iguanodon skeleton from the Upper Weald Clay (Barremian, Early Cretaceous) at Smokejacks Brickworks (Ockley, Surrey, UK), based on palynomorphs and ostracods. Cretaceous Research, 29, 417-444.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3730188','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3730188"><span>Factors Associated with HIV/AIDS in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mohamed, Badreldin Abdelrhman; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. To assess participants' knowledge about HIV/AIDS and to identify the factors associated with HIV/AIDS in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Methods. Observational cross-sectional study carried out at Omdurman National Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> covered 870 participants. Sociodemographic data as well as information related to sexual behavior were collected. Results. Most of the respondents were knowledgeable about the true transmission modes for AIDS virus. Very few respondents knew someone infected with AIDS (4.5%), died of AIDS (8.1%), accepted to live with someone infected with AIDS (4.7%) or to work with someone infected with AIDS (2.1%). Regarding sexual behavior, 96.5% had reported their first sexual experience between 20 and 30 years, with 85.7% reporting one or two partners, and only 1.8% reported using condom. Multivariate logistic regression showed that circumcision, religion, marital status, age at first sex, number of sexual partners, education level, and misconception of knowledge are the main risk factors associated with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion. Our results showed that a number of diversity risk factors were associated with HIV/AIDS. It is unlikely that a holistic approach will be found to immediately change sexual-risk-relating behavior. Interventions including sustained educational programs, promotion of condom, and encouragement of voluntary testing and active involvement of the country's political and religious leaders will be needed to alleviate this problem. PMID:23957014</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25141293','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25141293"><span>Seasonal variation and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in eastern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ali, A A; Adam, G K; Abdallah, T M</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in eastern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, in the period between January 2008 and December 2010. The medical files of women attending at Kassala hospital, eastern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> with hypertension, with or without proteinuria were retrospectively retrieved. The data of patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were compared with a similar number of controls that were normotensive and non-proteinuric. During the study period, there were 9,578 deliveries; 153 patients had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, yielding an incidence rate of 1.6%. Of all cases and controls (306), there were 183 (59.8%) deliveries in winter, 84 (27.5%) in summer and 39 (12.7%) in autumn. The highest rate of pre-eclampsia was in winter (1.1%) (CI = 1.1-2.7, OR = 1.7, p = 0.004) and the lowest rate was in autumn (0.2%) (CI = 0.4-1.8, OR = 0.8, p = 0.758.). Our study revealed significant association between the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the winter season (103 (67.3%) vs 80 (52.3%), p = 0.001). Thus, more attention in the winter season might reduce the morbidity and mortality of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6185385','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6185385"><span>Oil exploration in nonmarine rift basins of interior <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schull, T.J.</p> <p>1984-04-01</p> <p>In early 1975 Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc. commenced a major petroleum exploration effort in previously unexplored interior <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. With the complete cooperation of the Sudanese Government, Chevron has acquired a vast amount of geologic and geophysical data during the past 9 years. These data include extensive aeromagnetic and gravity surveys, 25,000 mi (40,200 km) of seismic data, and the results of 66 wells. This information has defined several large rift basins which are now recognized as a major part of the Central African rift system. The sedimentary basins of interior <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> are characterized by thick Cretaceous and Tertiary nonmarine clastic sequences. Over 35,000 ft (10,600 m) of sediment have been deposited in the deepest trough, and extensive basinal areas are underlain by more than 20,000 ft (6100 m) of sediment. The depositional sequence includes thick lacustrine shales and claystones, flood plain claystones, and lacustrine, fluvial, and alluvial sandstones and conglomerates. Those lacustrine claystones which were deposited in an anoxic environment provide oil-prone source rocks. Reservoir sandstones have been found in a wide variety of nonmarine sandstone facies. The extensional tectonism which formed these basins began in the Early Cretaceous. Movement along major fault trends continued intermittently into the Miocene. This deformation resulted in a complex structural history which led to the formation of several deep fault-bounded troughs, major interbasin high trends, and complex basin flanks. This tectonism has created a wide variety of structures, many of which have become effective hydrocarbon traps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24439848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24439848"><span>Molecular detection of equine trypanosomes in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salim, Bashir; Bakheit, Mohammed Ahmed; Sugimoto, Chihiro</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Equine trypanosomosis (ET) is a protozoan disease affecting equines in many parts of the world. We examined 509 samples collected from geographically distinct regions in eastern, central and western <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to estimate the endemicity of ET using the generic ITS1-PCR diagnostic methods. Results revealed that horses and donkeys were infected by Trypanosoma brucei subgroup, Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma simiae and Trypanosoma congolense. The prevalence of Trypanosoma spp. was higher in horses (12.7%, n=393) than in donkeys (3.4%, n=116). The highest prevalence was observed in South Darfur State (19.3%, n=202), followed by Kassala State (15.1%, n=86), Gadaref State (3.7%, n=82), and Khartoum State (2.6%, n=76). No trypanosomes were detected in the 63 samples collected from North Kurdofan State. We report for the first time the presence of T. simiae and T. congolense in horses in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. This study should alert veterinary services, authorized bodies to take action toward ET by undertaking countrywide epidemiological studies of the disease and adopting control strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5359530','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5359530"><span>Statistical Methods for Predicting Malaria Incidences Using Data from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Awadalla, Khidir E.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Malaria is the leading cause of illness and death in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. The entire population is at risk of malaria epidemics with a very high burden on government and population. The usefulness of forecasting methods in predicting the number of future incidences is needed to motivate the development of a system that can predict future incidences. The objective of this paper is to develop applicable and understood time series models and to find out what method can provide better performance to predict future incidences level. We used monthly incidence data collected from five states in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> with unstable malaria transmission. We test four methods of the forecast: (1) autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA); (2) exponential smoothing; (3) transformation model; and (4) moving average. The result showed that transformation method performed significantly better than the other methods for Gadaref, Gazira, North Kordofan, and Northern, while the moving average model performed significantly better for Khartoum. Future research should combine a number of different and dissimilar methods of time series to improve forecast accuracy with the ultimate aim of developing a simple and useful model for producing reasonably reliable forecasts of the malaria incidence in the study area. PMID:28367352</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23242678','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23242678"><span>A climate distribution model of malaria transmission in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Musa, Mohammed I; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Hashim, Nor R; Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Malaria remains a major health problem in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. With a population exceeding 39 million, there are around 7.5 million cases and 35,000 deaths every year. The predicted distribution of malaria derived from climate factors such as maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity was compared with the actual number of malaria cases in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> for the period 2004 to 2010. The predictive calculations were done by fuzzy logic suitability (FLS) applied to the numerical distribution of malaria transmission based on the life cycle characteristics of the Anopheles mosquito accounting for the impact of climate factors on malaria transmission. This information is visualized as a series of maps (presented in video format) using a geographical information systems (GIS) approach. The climate factors were found to be suitable for malaria transmission in the period of May to October, whereas the actual case rates of malaria were high from June to November indicating a positive correlation. While comparisons between the prediction model for June and the case rate model for July did not show a high degree of association (18%), the results later in the year were better, reaching the highest level (55%) for October prediction and November case rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T11A4529D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T11A4529D"><span>Tectono-thermal History of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Nenana Basin, Interior Alaska: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Conventional and Unconventional Hydrocarbon Exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dixit, N. C.; Hanks, C. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Tertiary Nenana basin of Interior Alaska is currently the focus of both new oil exploration and coalbed methane exploitation and is being evaluated as a potential CO2sequestration site. The basin first formed as a Late Paleocene extensional rift with the deposition of oil and gas-prone, coal-bearing non-marine sediments with excellent source potential. Basin inversion during the Early Eocene-Early Oligocene times resulted in folding and erosion of higher stratigraphic levels, forming excellent structural and stratigraphic traps. Initiation of active faulting on its eastern margin in the middle Oligocene caused slow tectonic subsidence that resulted in the deposition of reservoir and seal rocks of the Usibelli Group. Onset of rapid tectonic subsidence in Pliocene that continues to the present-day has provided significant pressure and temperature gradient for the source rocks. Apatite fission-track and vitrinite reflectance data reveals two major paleo-thermal episodes: Late Paleocene to Early Eocene (60 Ma to 54.8 Ma) and Late Miocene to present-day (7 Ma to present). These episodes of maximum paleotemperatures have <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the evolution of source rock maturity within the basin. In this study, we are also investigating the potential for coalbed methane production from the Late Paleocene coals via injection of CO2. Our preliminary analyses demonstrate that 150 MMSCF of methane could be produced while 33000 tonnes of CO2 per injection well (base case of ~9 years) can be sequestered in the vicinity of existing infrastructure. However, these volumes of sequestered CO2and coal bed methane recovery are estimates and are sensitive to the reservoir's geomechanical and flow properties. Keywords: extensional rift, seismic, subsidence, thermal history, fission track, vitrinite reflectance, coal bed methane, Nenana basin, CO2 sequestration</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616946S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616946S"><span>Minerals and trace elements in silcretes of the Sado basin (Alentejo, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Portugal) and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for silcrete formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sauer, Daniela; Kullmann, Sarah; Zarei, Mehdi; Stahr, Karl</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Soils in the eastern part of the Sado basin (<span class="hlt">southern</span> Portugal) are often characterized by massive cementations caused by silica. The thickness and massive character of these silcretes led to the hypothesis that accumulation of silica took place not only vertically within a soil profile, but also by enrichment through lateral water and element flow into the Sado basin. The aims of the study reported here were: 1) to characterize the cementing agent with regard to its mineralogy; 2) to test the hypothesis that silification was enhanced through lateral silica transport from the adjacent Alto Alentejo into the Sado basin. Aim 1) was achieved by scratching silica coatings from ped surfaces of the silicified soil horizons and cleaning them manually in the lab under a binocular microscope. After careful smashing with a mortar, density separation by sodium polytungstate solution was applied to remove any remaining mineral grains from the silica samples. The cleaned silica samples were then subjected to XRD and SEM in combination with EDS. Aim 2) was attained by using trace element contents of predominant rock types of the Alto Alentejo and of the silcretes in the Sado basin for identifying lateral pathways of water and silica in the landscape. Ten rock samples from the assumed source area of silica were combusted by fusion melt, and their contents of Ba, Co, Cs, Nb, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were analyzed by ICP-MS. The same elements were analyzed in NaOH extracts of the cemented soil horizons in the Sado basin. The X-ray diagrams of the silica coatings show the expected broad hump of amorphous silica. In addition, quartz, kaolinite, and surprisingly high amounts of halloysite are identified, the latter reflecting conditions of intensive weathering and pedogenesis during the formation of the silica coatings. This intensive soil formation and hence silification most likely took place during Pliocene. Greater age is impossible, because the silification took place in Pliocene</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26974266','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26974266"><span>Low Seroprevalence Indicates Vulnerability of Eastern and Central <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to Infection with Chikungunya Virus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adam, Awadalkareem; Seidahmed, Osama M E; Weber, Christopher; Schnierle, Barbara; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Reiche, Sven; Jassoy, Christian</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Outbreaks of infections with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have previously been reported from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> but the prevalence in the general population is unknown. We investigated the seroprevalence of CHIKV infection in 379 serum samples from patients with fever in the outpatient clinics of three hospitals in eastern and central <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. The seroprevalence was 1.8%, indicating that CHIKV infections are rare in these parts of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. As the vector Aedes aegypti is endemic in this area, the population is at risk for a CHIKV epidemic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA600740','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA600740"><span>Assessment of the Government of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>’s Potential for Survival as an Independent Nation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-25</p> <p>AUTHOR: Major Michael Hyde AY 10-11 Approved: 1::::~_,_~~~Ř-’"""-"~~:::e:_----zJ"------;-- Dme : ________ ~~~~~~-=~HL- Executive Summary Title...became the dominant force in the region. 5 <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> People’s Liberation Army/Movement At the beginning of the Second Civil War in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, a rebel group...over the North on most regional issues but also sees the south as a moderating force in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.48 Any instability in the North or South puts their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5741942','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5741942"><span><span class="hlt">Sudan</span> General Petroleum Corporation: a study of the evolution of its organization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ali, A.E.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>This study is of an exploratory nature, with the purpose of investigating the evolution of the organization, macro and micro, of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> General Petroleum Corporation (SGPC) and how it relates to government strategy toward the petroleum sector. The study addresses the following questions: what changes took place in the organization of SGPC for the period 1900-1983. What changes took place in the government strategy toward the petroleum industry for the corresponding period. How did the changes in SGPC organization relate to the changes in government strategy. What generalizations can be made about the relationship between government strategy toward the petroleum industry and the structure of state petroleum enterprises in developing countries. What are the <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the future organizational structure of SGPC and its relationships to external entities. The study shows that the organization of SGPC, macro and micro, tends to change in response to the changes in government strategy toward the petroleum sector. Certain political and economic factors shaped the government strategy, which in turn influenced the structure of SGPC. The SGPC organization, in its most complex form in 1983, is the result of the concatenation of several basic strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26558990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26558990"><span>Staining histological lung sections with <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Black B or <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> III for automated identification of alveolar epithelial type II cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schneider, Jan Philipp; Pedersen, Lars; Mühlfeld, Christian; Ochs, Matthias</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells produce, store and secrete pulmonary surfactant and serve as progenitor cells for the alveolar epithelium. They are thus an interesting target in wide fields of pulmonary research. Stereological methods allow their quantification based on measurements on histological sections. A proper AE2 cell quantification, however, requires a method of tissue processing that results in little tissue shrinkage during processing. It was recently shown that a primary fixation with a mixture of glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde, postfixation with osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate and embedding in glycol methacrylate fulfills this requirement. However, a proper quantification, furthermore, requires a secure identification of the cells under the microscope. Classical approaches using routine stainings, high magnifications and systematic uniform random sampling can result in a tedious counting procedure. In this article we show that <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Black B and <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> III staining in combination with the previously described "low shrinkage method" of tissue processing result in good staining of lamellar bodies of AE2 cells (their storing organelles of surfactant) and thus provide a good signal of AE2 cells, which allows their easy and secure identification even at rather low magnifications. We further show that this signal enables automated detection of AE2 cells by image analysis, which should make this method a suitable staining method for the recently developed and more efficient proportionator sampling.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28321790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28321790"><span>Peste des petits ruminants infection in domestic ruminants in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Intisar, K S; Ali, Y H; Haj, M A; Sahar, M A T; Shaza, M M; Baraa, A M; Ishag, O M; Nouri, Y M; Taha, K M; Nada, E M; Ahmed, A M; Khalafalla, A I; Libeau, G; Diallo, A</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The existence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in domestic ruminants and camels in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> during 2008-2012 was investigated. Lung tissues and serum samples were randomly collected from sheep, goats, cattle, and camels at different areas of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. A total of 12,384 serum samples were collected from clinically healthy 7413 sheep, 1988 camels, 1501 cattle, 1459 goats, and 23 gazelles at different areas in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. They were examined for PPR antibodies using competitive ELISA (cELISA). The overall detected seroprevalence of PPR in tested sera was 49.4%; seroprevalence values within species were 67.1, 48.2, 25.8, 2.1, and 21.7% in sheep, goat, cattle, camels, and gazelles, respectively. The highest seroprevalence (68.1%) was observed in sera collected from Darfur states, then the central states (54.3%). A total of 1276 lung tissue samples (623 sheep, 324 cattle, 220 camels, and 109 goats) were collected. The majority of lung samples were collected from clinically healthy animals that showed lesions on PM in slaughterhouses (95%) and during PPR outbreaks; samples were tested for PPR antigen using immunocapture ELISA (IcELISA). PPR antigen was detected in 233 out of the 1276 tested samples (18.3%). Positive results were observed in samples collected from clinically healthy and diseased animals. The observed prevalence values in each species were 33.6, 21.1, 15.4, and 12.3% in camel, goat, sheep, and cattle, respectively. PPR antigen was detected in samples from different areas; however, the highest prevalence (63.9%) was found in samples collected from the eastern states, then Khartoum state (28%). Trials for virus isolation were done in different cell cultures. Out of 30 IcELISA-positive samples inoculated in primary bovine and ovine kidney cells, Vero cells, the PPR virus was successfully isolated from 15 (eight sheep, five camels, and two goats) samples in the three cell culture types. Using RT-PCR, PPRV nucleic acid was detected in all 25 IcELISA-positive tested</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25988442','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25988442"><span>Molecular Detection of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum Collected from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakao, Ryo; Qiu, Yongjin; Salim, Bashir; Hassan, Shawgi Mohamed; Sugimoto, Chihiro</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Despite the increasing awareness of the importance of emerging vector-borne diseases, human tick-borne diseases, particularly rickettsial infections, are overlooked, especially in the countries such as <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> with limited resources to perform molecular-based surveys. This study aimed at detection and genetic characterization of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. The samples were first screened for the presence of rickettsial agents by gltA real-time PCR and subsequently characterized by gltA and ompA PCR and size-based multispacer typing. The results demonstrated the wide distribution of Rickettsia africae and/or closely related species across <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. The results of this report highlight the need for careful consideration of rickettsial infections in patients with nonmalarial febrile illness in this country. Nationwide surveillance on ticks associated with human rickettsial infections in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> is warranted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22683362','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22683362"><span>Nairobi fly (Paederus) dermatitis in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: a case report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iserson, Kenneth V; Walton, Emily K</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>A 28-year-old nursing student working in Juba, South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, suddenly developed a rash over her mid-right clavicle. Beginning as a 10-cm-diameter erythematous patch with an irregular border, within 24 hours it had developed an increasingly gray, necrotic center, appearing similar to a burn. The patient was seen by 2 local physicians without a diagnosis being made. Ultimately, it was diagnosed as being caused by the toxic hemolymph, pederin, from the Nairobi fly (Paederus). The rash usually affects body parts not covered by clothing; healing time ranges from 7 to 28 days, usually with permanent skin discoloration. Preventive measures include typical antivector precautions, including bed nets, long-sleeve clothing, and avoiding fluorescent lights. If the beetles are found on the skin, brushing them off, rather than crushing them, avoids producing dermatitis. Treatment includes rapidly washing the affected area, applying cold, wet compresses, and possibly treating with antibiotics, steroids, and antihistamines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.U31A..04G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.U31A..04G"><span>The Impact of Conflict on Forests in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gorsevski, V.; Kasischke, E. S.; Dempewolf, J.; Loboda, T. V.; Geores, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The impacts of armed conflict on ecosystems are complex and difficult to assess due to restricted access to affected areas making satellite remote sensing a useful tool for studying direct and indirect effects of conflict on the landscape. The Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> together with the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) in Northern Uganda share a boundary and encompass a biologically diverse montane ecosystem. This study used satellite data combined with general human population trends to examine the impact of armed conflict and its outcome on similar forest ecosystems both during and after hostilities. A Disturbance Index (DI) was used to investigate the location and extent of forest cover loss and gain in three areas for two key time periods. Results indicate that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the ICFR. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by some gains in forest cover. Discussions with local inhabitants confirmed these findings and provided further insights into the underlying causes impacting forest cover and wildlife. South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> is the latest nation to join the Global Environment Facility (GEF). While the GEF does not explicitly address conflict, many of the projects it supports occur in conflict and post-conflict zones with wide-ranging repercussions for both people and the environment. In an effort to assess best practices for working in conflict and post-conflict areas, the GEF Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) will undertake an analysis of GEF-funded projects over the last two decades to identify where the GEF has promoted cooperation between groups and states, and/or made a positive contribution toward conflict avoidance resulting in shared environmental benefits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1137V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1137V"><span>New insights into the origin of the subduction component in Late Oligocene magmatism in the Ronda peridotite (<span class="hlt">southern</span> Spain): geodynamic <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the western Mediterranean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Marchesi, Claudio; Bosch, Delphine; Hidas, Károly; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p> Oligocene subduction-related magmatism in the Ronda peridotite, and its <span class="hlt">implications</span> for geodynamic models of the western Mediterranean in the Cenozoic. REFERENCES Garrido, C. J., F. Gueydan, G. Booth-Rea, J. Precigout, K. Hidas, J. A. Padrón-Navarta, and Marchesi C. . (2011) Garnet lherzolite and garnet-spinel mylonite in the Ronda peridotite: Vestiges of Oligocene backarc mantle lithospheric extension in the western Mediterranean, Geology, 39(10), 927-930. Hidas, K., Booth-Rea, G, Garrido, C. J., Martínez-Martínez, J. M., Padrón-Navarta, J. A., Konc, Z., Giaconia, F., Frets, E., and Marchesi, C. (2013) . Backarc basin inversion and subcontinental mantle emplacement in the crust: kilometre-scale folding and shearing at the base of the proto-Alborán lithospheric mantle (Betic Cordillera, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Spain): Journal of the Geological Society, London. Marchesi, C., Garrido, C. J., Bosch, D., Bodinier, J.-L., Hidas, K., Padrón-Navarta, J. A., and Gervilla, F. (2012) A Late Oligocene Suprasubduction Setting in the Westernmost Mediterranean Revealed by Intrusive Pyroxenite Dikes in the Ronda Peridotite (<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Spain): The Journal of Geology, 120 (2), 237-247.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/625793','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/625793"><span>Studies on the livestock of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Darfur, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. V. Notes on camels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilson, R T</p> <p>1978-02-01</p> <p>Observations on camels have been made over two separate periods of about 18 months each. Information is provided on population structure and on type, with particular reference to weight and shoulder height. A growth curve has been derived, formulae for estimating weight from girth provided, and a mean population weight has been calculated. Details of live and slaughter weight and dressing percentages of 60 camels are given. The weights and percentages of empty body weight and of edible and nonedible parts are presented. Some notes are made of the unusual method of slaughter. The role of camels in transport and draught is discussed. Camels used for ploughing and for pressing oil from local crops produce more power than other domestic animals doing similar work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&pg=5&id=ED514506','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&pg=5&id=ED514506"><span>International Aid as Informal Educator: Exploring Political Attitudes and Engagement in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pagen, Christine Mary</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Scholarship has isolated internal economic conditions and political institutions as essential factors in political development and democracy-building, this research suggests that external influences are at play. During times of civil war and post-conflict reconstruction, governmental and socioeconomic structures are likely weak or nonexistent, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED509234.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED509234.pdf"><span>Education in Emergencies and Early Reconstruction: UNICEF Interventions in Colombia, Liberia, and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beleli, Ozsel; Chang, Victoria; Feigelson, Michael J.; Kopel-Bailey, Jules A.; Maak, Sheila A.; Mnookin, Jacob P.; Nguyen, Thu H.; Salazar, Mariana; Sinderbrand, Joy E.; Tafoya, Simon N.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Broad access to quality, child-friendly education in emergencies is a critical component of early reconstruction and development. As a class of graduate students at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, our goal is to make a modest contribution to the field of education in emergencies by working…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T51G3009F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T51G3009F"><span>Mapping Extensional Structures in the Makgadikgadi Pans, Botswana with remote sensing and aeromagnetic data: <span class="hlt">Implication</span> for the continuation of the East African Rift System in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fetkovich, E. J.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Atekwana, E. A.; Katumwehe, A. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We used Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and aeromagnetic data to map extensional structures in the Makgadikgadi Pans in northeastern Botswana. These pans are a major morphological feature in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Africa characterized by the presence of low lying and flat topography with the highest elevation of 945 m. This topography was a result of multiple filling and desiccation of paleo-lakes that accompanied alternation of wetter and dryer climate during the Late Quaternary period. The objective of our study was to map the extent and distribution of normal faults using their morphological expression and magnetic signature, and examine their relationship with paleo-shorelines of the pans. We: (1) Created a hill shade relief map from the SRTM DEM; (2) Extracted regional NW-SE trending topographic profiles across the pans; (3) Constructed displacement profiles for major normal faults; and (4) Created tilt derivative images from the aeromagnetic data. We found that: (1) The northeastern part of the pan is dissected by three morphologically-defined NE-trending normal faults. The along strike continuity of these faults is in the range of 75 and 170 km and they are spaced at ~30 km apart from each other. (2) The topographic profiles suggest that the exposed minimum vertical displacement (EMVD), defined by poorly developed escarpments, is in the range of 0 m and 49 m. (3) The displacement profiles of the faults is characterized by maximum EMVD in the middle of the faults and that it decays towards the fault tips. These faults are also apparent in the aeromagnetic maps where they seem to displace E-W trending Karoo-age dikes. (4) At least the outer paleo-shoreline of the pans is modified by the NE-trending faults. This suggests that the faults are younger than the paleo-shorelines, which is suggested to have been developed between 500 and 100 ka. Traditionally, the southwestern extension of the East African Rift System has been assigned to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-14/pdf/2013-27293.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-14/pdf/2013-27293.pdf"><span>78 FR 68499 - In the Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-<span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Also Known as...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-14</p> <p>... Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-<span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Also Known as Ansaru Aso Known as Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Also Known as Vanguards for the Protection of Muslims in Black Africa Also Known as JAMBS Also Known as Jama'atu Ansaril Muslimina Fi Biladis <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> as a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-14/pdf/2013-27301.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-14/pdf/2013-27301.pdf"><span>78 FR 68500 - In the Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-<span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Also Known as...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-14</p> <p>... Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-<span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Also Known as Ansaru Also Known as Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Also Known as Vanguards for the Protection of Muslims in Black Africa Also Known as JAMBS Also Known as Jama'atu Ansaril Muslimina Fi Biladis <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> as a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27288976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27288976"><span>Hydrological, socio-economic and reservoir alterations of Er Roseires Dam in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alrajoula, Mohammad Taher; Al Zayed, Islam Sabry; Elagib, Nadir Ahmed; Hamdi, Moshrik R</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Er Roseires Dam plays a key role in controlling the Blue Nile flow in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. This study explores the influence of the dam on the hydrological regimes, which in turn have <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the ecosystem. The Range of Variability Approach (RVA) - based on a set of 32 indicators - was applied over the period 1965 to 2014 to establish a safe range of river flow. Moreover, remotely-sensed data of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to analyse the spatio-temporal variation of the dam's reservoir area over the period 2000-2014. Significant influence on the dry-season hydrological indicators is expressed by high negative hydrological alteration of the range from -47% to -100%, but the dam contributes positively through flow regulation during the flood season. Impounding water procedure and fluctuation of water flow caused by the dam are found to induce significant alterations. Releasing less water during the dry season and more gradual impounding process, which are not expected to affect the power generation or irrigation practices, are recommended for better ecological restoration. The total surface area of the reservoir has changed post the implementation of the dam heightening project. Since 2012, the lake surface area has expanded by 250%. Relationships between the lake size and the head have been developed to help in the monitoring of the hydrological conditions and, accordingly, in managing the dam operation. A field survey showed that the dam plays a positive social role as the reservoir supports local activities, such as fishery, farming, and collection of wood and fruits. But increased humidity and health problems have also been noted. The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) would have a direct effect on Er Roseires Dam and the river flow downstream. High level of coordination among the riparian countries is recommended for better river water management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27664653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27664653"><span><span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dyes in adulterated saffron (Crocus sativus L.): Identification and quantification by (1)H NMR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto</p> <p>2017-02-15</p> <p>Saffron, the dried red stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is considered as one of the most expensive spices worldwide, and as such, it is prone to adulteration. This study introduces an NMR-based approach to identify and determine the adulteration of saffron with <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I-IV dyes. A complete (1)H and (13)C resonance assignment for <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I-IV, achieved by two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments, is reported for the first time. Specific different proton signals for the identification of each <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dye in adulterated saffron can be utilised for quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR), a well-established method for quantitative analysis. The quantification of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> III, as a paradigm, was performed in varying levels (0.14-7.1g/kg) by considering the NMR signal occurring at 8.064ppm. The high linearity, accuracy and rapidity of investigation enable high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy to be used for evaluation of saffron adulteration with <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dyes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&pg=2&id=ED545430','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&pg=2&id=ED545430"><span>The Relationship between Leadership Style and Motivation among Faculty Members in Two Public Universities in the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Malok, Malok N.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership style and motivation among faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of the South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. The researcher examined this issue by surveying and interviewing faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, a total of 67 for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA590375','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA590375"><span>The Role of the Government in Perpetrating Genocide: A Comparative Analysis of 1994 Rwanda Genocide and 2003 <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Genocide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-06-13</p> <p>GENOCIDE : A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF 1994 RWANDA GENOCIDE AND 2003 <span class="hlt">SUDAN</span> GENOCIDE A...of the 1994 Rwanda Genocide and 2003 <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Genocide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...examples of governments responsible for perpetrating genocide . The extremist ethnic Hutu government planned and executed the 1994 Rwanda genocide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24139620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24139620"><span>Cystic echinococcosis in Mundari tribe-members of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stewart, Barclay T; Jacob, Joseph; Finn, Timothy; Lado, Mounir; Napoleon, Robert; Brooker, Simon; Sidhu, Paul S; Kolaczinski, Jan</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Many neglected tropical diseases, including the zoonotic disease cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis), are endemic to East Africa. However, their geographical distribution is heterogenous and incompletely characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if Mundari pastoralists harbor endemic human hydatidosis. The survey was conducted in cattle camps randomly selected from accessible sites provided by officials in Terekeka, South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Following informed consent, a questionnaire collected demographic data and hydatid exposure risk. A systematic sonographic abdominal exam was performed using General Electric's LOGIQ Book XP with a 3C-RS 2-5 MHz curvilinear transducer. Six hundred and ten individuals were screened from 13 camps. Four infections were identified, all in women. The prevalence of abdominal hydatid disease in the Mundari tribe-members in cattle camps was 0·7% and all individuals reporting at least one high-risk exposure to hydatid disease. Cystic echinococcosis is endemic among Mundari pastoralists; however, it would appear to be less endemic than in neighboring tribes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17713194','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17713194"><span>[<span class="hlt">Sudan</span> and other illegal dyes--food adulteration].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gajda, Joanna; Switka, Agnieszka; Kuźma, Katarzyna; Jarecka, Jolanta</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>As foodstuffs adulterated by illegal dyes, such as <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I, II, III IIV, para-Red, have appeared on the European Union market, the emergency measures to eliminate this problem have been taken. The illegal dyes are added to dried, ground chilli, curry, curcuma and to palm oil. These products are imported from countries outside the E.U. The adulteration concerns also ready to eat products which contain the ingredients mentioned above. Apart from the adulteration, the presence of illegal dyes in foodstuffs can be a threat to consumer's health. In 2003-2005 three Commission Decisions on emergency measures regarding some products which can contain illegal dyes were published. Since May 2003 to March 2006, 651 notifications on food adulteration by illegal dyes were sent to the RASFF system. As a result of the taken measures, the number of notifications have decreased. The possibility of food adulteration by illegal dyes different from the ones which are used now are considered. This is the reason why the continuation of food control and cooperation between official control authorities and food producers are necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5342313','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5342313"><span>Economic development and the allocation of petroleum products in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cain, M. ); Yousif, M.A.R. )</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The Sudanese economy has been characterized in recent years by severe energy shortages which have affected all economic activity. More than 94% of the commercial energy is imported and the level of such imports is seriously limited by the current foreign exchange crisis. However, the problem is not just one of foreign exchange; there is also the problem of utilization of resources to avoid bottleneck problems of supply. The allocation of petroleum products in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> has had a severe effect on all aspects of economic life. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem and to build a model to optimize the distribution of petroleum products in order to achieve at least a minimal supply in all regions. A large linear programming model has been developed and the solution indicates that current facilities should be able to satisfy 96% of the 1986 demand, about 30% more than the actual supply. Furthermore, with a little investment in storage facilities and extra trucks, the supply could satisfy total demand in the immediate future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESuD....3..223O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESuD....3..223O"><span>Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (<span class="hlt">Sudan</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Omer, A. Y. A.; Ali, Y. S. A.; Roelvink, J. A.; Dastgheib, A.; Paron, P.; Crosato, A.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Roseires Reservoir, located on the Blue Nile River in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, is the first trap to the sediments coming from the vast upper river catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir has already lost more than one-third of its storage capacity due to sedimentation in the last four decades. Appropriate management of the eroded soils in the upper basin could mitigate this problem. In order to do that, the areas providing the highest sediment volumes to the river have to be identified, since they should have priority with respect to the application of erosion control practices. This requires studying the sedimentation record inside Roseires Reservoir in order to assess when and how much sediment is deposited and to identify its source. This paper deals with the identification of deposition time and soil stratification inside the reservoir, based on historical bathymetric data, numerical modelling and newly acquired soil data. The remoteness of the study area and the extreme climate result in coring campaigns being expensive and difficult. Therefore, these activities need to be optimised and coring locations selected beforehand. This was done by combining bathymetric data and the results of a depth-averaged morphodynamic model recording the vertical stratification in sediment deposits. The model allowed for recognising the areas that are potentially subject to neither net erosion nor bar migration during the lifespan of the reservoir. Verification of these results was carried out by analysing sediment stratification from the data collected during the subsequent field campaign.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24980486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24980486"><span>Correlation of measles and dengue infection in Kassala, Eastern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abdalla, Tajeldin M; Karsany, Mubarak S; Ali, AbdelAziem A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Using the clinical case definition adopted by the World Health Organization, a total of 275 suspected cases of measles were enrolled in this study during January-March 2012 in Kassala Teaching Hospital, Eastern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Various clinical manifestations (fever, headache, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, skin rash, vomiting, diarrhoea, convulsion, and hemorrhagic manifestations) were reported among these patients. Blood was withdrawn from the first 64 (23.3%) patients. Two samples were hemolyzed and only 60 samples (21.8%) were investigated for measles and dengue IgM antibodies. Antibodies for measles, dengue, and co-infection were detected in the plasma of 12 (20%), seven (11.7%), and 10 (16.7%) samples, respectively. Although there was no significant difference in age, residence, occupation, and vaccination status among the different groups, a high proportion of male patients (P = 0.011), severe cases (P = 0.004), and death ((P = 0.001) were reported among co-infected cases.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6025793','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6025793"><span>Rift basins of interior <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: petroleum exploration and discovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schull, T.J.</p> <p>1988-10-01</p> <p>The sedimentary basins of interior <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> are characterized by thick nonmarine clastic sequences of Jurassic(.)-Cretaceous and Tertiary age. Over 45,000 ft (13,716 m) of sediment was deposited in the deepest trough and extensive basinal areas are underlain by more than 20,000 ft (6096 m) of sedimentary rocks. The depositional sequences include thick lacustrine shales and claystones, flood plain claystones, and lacustrine, fluvial, and alluvial sandstones and conglomerates. Those lacustrine claystones deposited in a suboxic environment provide good oil-prone source rocks. Reservoir sandstones have been found in a wide variety of nonmarine sandstone facies. The extensional tectonism that formed these basins began in the Jurassic(.)-Early Cretaceous. Movement along major fault trends continued intermittently into the Miocene. This deformation resulted in a complex structural history that led to the formation of several deep fault-bounded troughs, major interbasinal highs, and complex basin flanks. This tectonism has created a wide variety of structures, many of which have become effective hydrocarbon traps. During the past eight years, several important oil discoveries have been made. Significant accumulations have been delineated in the Heglig and Unity areas, where estimated recoverable reserves are 250-300 million bbl of oil. 14 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23394124','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23394124"><span>Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: proposed recommendations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chanda, Emmanuel; Doggale, Constantino; Pasquale, Harriet; Azairwe, Robert; Baba, Samson; Mnzava, Abraham</p> <p>2013-02-08</p> <p>Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> (RSS) has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as the frontline intervention with other interventions recommended only when technical and institutional capacity is available. In 2006, a draft integrated vector management (IVM) strategic plan 2007-2012 was developed but never implemented, resulting in minimal coordination, implementation and coverage of malaria vector control tools including their inherent impact. To address this challenge, the vector control team of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) is being strengthened. With the objective of building national capacity and technical collaboration for effective implementation of the IVM strategy, a national malaria vector control conference was held from 15-17th October 2012 in Juba. A range of NMCP partners, state ministries, acadaemia, private sector, national and international non-governmental organizations, including regional and global policymakers attended the meeting. The conference represented a major milestone and made recommendations revolving around the five key elements of the IVM approach. The meeting endorsed that vector control efforts in RSS be augmented with other interventions within the confines of the IVM strategy as a national approach, with strong adherence to its key elements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4783543','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4783543"><span>Epidemiology of Substance Use among University Students in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Osman, Tarig; Victor, Cathrine; Abdulmoneim, Alaa; Mohammed, Hala; Abdalla, Fatima; Ahmed, Asma; Ali, Eiman; Mohammed, Wael</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background. Youth populations are vulnerable to substance use particularly in developing countries where circumstances may be favorable for it. There is no published data on substance use among the youth in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> other than on tobacco use. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, circumstances, and factors associated with substance use. Methods. An institution-based survey was conducted on a sample of 500 students. Data was collected using a questionnaire designed by the WHO for student drug surveys and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Results. The overall prevalence of substance use is 31%. The current prevalence of tobacco, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamines, tranquilizers, inhalants, opiates, cocaine, and heroin use was 13.7%, 4.9%, 2.7%, 2.4%, 3.2%, 1%, 1.2%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. Curiosity (33.1%) was the main reason for initiation of substance use. The main adverse effects reported were health problems (19.7%) and theft (19.7%). Peers (40.9%) were the prime source of substance use. On multivariate analysis, male sex was the principle predictor for substance use (AOR: 5.55; 95% CI: 3.38, 9.17). Conclusion. Strategies to control substance use should encompass the role of the university and parents in observing and providing education to improve awareness of substances and their consequences. PMID:27006856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22185535','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22185535"><span>Epidemiology of anaemia among pregnant women in Geizera, central <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abdelgadir, M A; Khalid, A R; Ashmaig, A L; Ibrahim, A R M; Ahmed, A-Aziz M; Adam, I</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted between August and September 2010 at the antenatal care clinic of the Araba Waeshreen Hospital (Geizera), central <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Sociodemographic, medical, obstetric and use of pica information were gathered. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Haemoglobin levels were measured and blood films and stools were examined for malaria and schistosomiasis. Out of the 292 women, 119 (40.8%) had anaemia (HB < 11 g/dl); eight (2.7%) had severe anaemia (HB < 7 g/dl). One patient had a positive blood film for malaria. A total of 38 (13.0%) out of the 292 pregnant women had S. mansoni infections. While age, parity, gestational age, education, occupation, interpregnancy interval and BMI were not associated with anaemia, pica (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0-2.9, p = 0.02) and S. mansoni infections (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2-6.7, p = 0.01) were significantly associated with anaemia using univariate and multivariate analyses. The high prevalence of anaemia among these women needs to be controlled through preventive measurement of S. mansoni infections and health education to prevent practising pica.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3795322','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3795322"><span>Respiratory symptoms and occupational bronchitis in chromite ore miners, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ballal, S G</p> <p>1986-10-01</p> <p>Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis was determined in a group of 122 subjects (77 exposed miners, 18 partially exposed, 27 controls) working at chromite ore mines in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. The mean ages (+/- s.d.) of the three groups were 36.4 (+/- 7.8), 35.2 (+/- 6.8) and 34.6 (+/- 7.5) years respectively. Methods included a respiratory symptoms questionnaire based on the British Medical Research Council (MRC 1976) questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, determination of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC%. The majority (66%) of the exposed subjects were non-smokers (NS) and 20 (77%) of the 'ever-smokers' (current and ex-smokers) were smokers of less than 15 cigarettes day-1. Respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, dyspnoea) were more frequent among the miners and so was chronic bronchitis. The prevalence of the latter was 26% among the miners compared to 11% and 7% among the partially exposed and the controls respectively. These differences could not be accounted for by cigarette smoking. Sixty-five per cent of the miners diagnosed as having asthma, chronic bronchitis or both were non-smokers. Although the values for the FEV1/FVC% remained normal or near the lower limits of the normal range, the mean value was significantly lower among the miners. It was concluded that the mine dust was the prime cause of the respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis among the miners.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12179109','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12179109"><span>Women's experiences in the armed conflict situation in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The negative impact of war is apparent at various levels of the Sudanese society. Economic, social, and political instability is occurring on a large scale and the most vulnerable groups are women and children. This report aimed to document women's human rights violations in the ongoing armed conflict situation in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, with the emphasis on rape; investigate the forms of violence against women in a situation of armed conflict; present testimonies of women survivors; and use the document for advocacy. A total of 20 testimonies were obtained, which clearly indicated that rape is a systematic practice in areas of conflict regardless of whether the Sudanese People's Liberation Army, the Khartoum government, or bandit groups that take advantage of the chaos, have attacked civilians. In view of this, regional agencies should show more seriousness in finding solutions for the war, and perpetrators of rape should be brought to justice so as to change the perception of rape as an unfortunate but inevitable side effect of war.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23879081','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23879081"><span>Ocular disorders among schoolchildren in Khartoum State, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rushood, A A; Azmat, S; Shariq, M; Khamis, A; Lakho, K A; Jadoon, M Z; Sial, N; Rushood, A A; Kamil, E A</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>From December 2005 to June 2007, a total screening of all 1418 government primary schools in Khartoum State, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, was performed to estimate ocular problems among children aged 6-15 years. We screened 671,119 children (56.7% males) for significant refractive error and other eye ailments. Ocular problems were found in 20,321 (3.03%) children. The 3 localities with highest ocular pathology were Karary (26.2%), Ummbada (21.0%) and Jabal Awlia (15.7%). The overall prevalence of refractive error was 2.19%. Myopia was found in 10,064 (1.50%) children while 4661 (0.70%) were hyperopic. Other ocular problems included vernal keratoconjunctivitis, vitamin A deficiency, microbial conjunctivitis, strabismus and corneal opacity. Only 288 (0.04%) children were diagnosed with active trachoma: 86.5% of these were from Ummbada locality, on the periphery ofthe State, where transportation facilities are poor and poverty is widespread. Overall, 99% of the eye ailments identified are either treatable or preventable. To reduce these and to achieve the goals of Vision 2020, an effective and efficient school health programme is needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2393503','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2393503"><span>Agricultural pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality in central <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Taha, T. E.; Gray, R. H.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Hospital- and community-based studies were conducted in central <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> to investigate the association between pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality. The cases were 197 stillbirths in the hospital and 36 perinatal deaths in the community; the controls were 812 liveborn, normal-birth-weight infants in the hospital, and 1505 liveborn infants who survived for the first 7 days after birth in the community. The odds ratio (OR) of perinatal death associated with pesticide exposure was estimated using multiple logistic regression. There was a consistent and significant association between pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality in the hospital (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-2.8) and the community populations (adjusted OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.4). The OR was significantly higher among women engaged in farming (3.6; 95% CI: 1.6-8.0), but not among women in nonfarming occupations (1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.3). The estimated attributable risks of perinatal death owing to pesticide exposure were 22.6% for hospital stillbirths and 15.7% for community perinatal deaths; but among women engaged in farming in the hospital population the attributable risks were substantially higher (34.5%). PMID:8324850</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27262957','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27262957"><span>Molecular identification of different Theileria and Babesia species infecting sheep in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El Imam, Ahmed H; Hassan, Shawgi M; Gameel, Ahmed A; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Taha, Khalid M; Oosthuizen, Marinda C</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The epidemiological aspects of sheep piroplasmosis in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> are poorly studied, and further investigations using sensitive and precise techniques are required. In this study, the Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to detect and simultaneously differentiate between Theileria and Babesia species. DNA was extracted from blood collected on filter paper (n=219) from apparently healthy sheep from six different geographical localities in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Results indicated that Theileria ovis (88.6%), T. separata (20.1%), T. lestoquardi (16.4%) and T. annulata (16.4%) DNA could be detected in the blood samples. Single and mixed Theileria infections were detected in 74 (33.8%) and 124 (56.6%) respectively and T. ovis being the most prevalent species in the country. T. ovis and T. separata were reported for the first time in sheep in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22715761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22715761"><span>[Rapid determination of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dyes adulterated in natural paprika red by FTIR].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wei-wei; Liu, Ling-ling; Wu, Yan-wen; Ouyang, Jie; Sun, Su-qin</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>How to rapidly determine synthesized pigments or dyes adulterated in natural pigments is a difficult problem for food analysts. Natural paprika red is widely used in foods because of its coloration and pharmaceutical effect, but it is sometimes adulterated with <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dyes for its poor stability under light or heat treatment. In the present paper, the macro-fingerprint characteristic of infrared spectroscopy was utilized to identify <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dyes adulterated in paprika red. The strong peaks at 1 621, 1 500 and 751 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra and at the fingerprint region of 753, 684 and 496 cm(-1) in the secondary deriative FTIR spectra were remarkable characteristics for <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dyes adulterated in paprika red, of which the limit of determination was about 1%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23623648','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23623648"><span>Towards global Guinea worm eradication in 2015: the experience of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Awofeso, Niyi</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>For centuries, the Guinea worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis) has caused disabling misery, infecting people who drink stagnant water contaminated with the worm's larvae. In 2012, there were 542 cases of Guinea worm reported globally, of which 521 (96.1%) were reported in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Protracted civil wars, an inadequate workforce, neglect of potable water provision programs, suboptimal Guinea worm surveillance and case containment, and fragmented health systems account for many of the structural and operational factors encumbering South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>'s Guinea worm eradication efforts. This article reviews the impacts of six established Guinea worm control strategies in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: (1) surveillance to determine actual caseload distribution and trends in response to control measures; (2) educating community members from whom worms are emerging to avoid immersing affected parts in sources of drinking water; (3) filtering potentially contaminated drinking water using cloth filters or filtered drinking straws; (4) treating potentially contaminated surface water with the copepod larvicide temephos (Abate); (5) providing safe drinking water from boreholes or hand-dug wells; and (6) containment of transmission through voluntary isolation of each patient to prevent contamination of drinking water sources, provision of first aid, and manual extraction of the worm. Surveillance, community education, potable water provision, and case containment remain weak facets of the program. Abate pesticide is not a viable option for Guinea worm control in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. In light of current case detection and containment trends, as well as capacity building efforts for Guinea worm eradication, South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> is more likely to eradicate Guinea worm by 2020, rather than by 2015. The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>'s Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17955981','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17955981"><span>Direct method for determination of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I in FD&C Yellow No. 6 and D&C Orange No. 4 by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petigara, Bhakti R; Scher, Alan L</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed to determine parts-per-million and higher levels of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> 1, 1-(phenylazo)-2-naphthalenol, in the disulfo monoazo color additive FD&C Yellow No. 6 and in a related monosulfo monoazo color additive, D&C Orange No. 4. <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I, the corresponding unsulfonated monoazo dye, is a known impurity in these color additives. The color additives are dissolved in water and methanol, and the filtered solutions are directly chromatographed, without extraction or concentration, by using gradient elution at 0.25 mL/min. Calibrations from peak areas at 485 nm were linear. At a 99% confidence level, the limits of determination were 0.008 microg <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I/mL (0.4 ppm) in FD&C Yellow No. 6 and 0.011 microg <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I/mL (0.00011%) in D&C Orange No. 4. The confidence intervals were 0.202 +/- 0.002 microg <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I/mL (10.1 +/- 0.1 ppm) near the specification level for <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I in FD&C Yellow No. 6 and 20.0 +/- 0.2 microg <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I/mL (0.200 +/- 0.002%) near the highest concentration of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I found in D&C Orange No. 4. A survey was conducted to determine <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I in 28 samples of FD&C Yellow No. 6 from 17 international manufacturers over 3 years, and in a pharmacology-tested sample. These samples were found to contain undetected levels (16 samples), 0.5-9.7 ppm <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I (0.01-0.194 microg <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I/mL in analyzed solutions; 11 samples including the pharmacology sample), and > or =10 ppm <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I (> or = 0.2 microg <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I/mL; 2 samples). Analyses of 21 samples of D&C Orange No. 4 from 8 international manufacturers over 4 years found <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I at undetected levels (8 samples), 0.0005 to < 0.005% <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I (0.05 to < 0.5 microg <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I/mL in analyzed solutions; 3 samples, including a pharmacology batch), 0.005 to <0.05% <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I (0.5 to <5 microg <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I/mL; 9 samples), and 0.18% <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I (18 microg <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I/mL; 1 sample).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25102032','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25102032"><span>Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax isolates from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, Madagascar, French Guiana and Armenia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Menegon, Michela; Durand, Patrick; Menard, Didier; Legrand, Eric; Picot, Stéphane; Nour, Bakri; Davidyants, Vladimir; Santi, Flavia; Severini, Carlo</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Polymorphic genetic markers and especially microsatellite analysis can be used to investigate multiple aspects of the biology of Plasmodium species. In the current study, we characterized 7 polymorphic microsatellites in a total of 281 Plasmodium vivax isolates to determine the genetic diversity and population structure of P. vivax populations from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, Madagascar, French Guiana, and Armenia. All four parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-32 alleles per locus. Mean genetic diversity values was 0.83, 0.79, 0.78 and 0.67 for Madagascar, French Guiana, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, and Armenia, respectively. Significant genetic differentiation between all four populations was observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25356640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25356640"><span>A new model for management of mycetoma in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; El Hassan, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh; Alshambaty, Yassir; Hashim, Ahmed; Hago, Ali; Zijlstra, Eduard E</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Patients with mycetoma usually present late with advanced disease, which is attributed to lack of medical and health facilities in endemic areas, poor health education and low socio-economic status. With this background, an integrated patient management model at the village level was designed to address the various problems associated with mycetoma. The model was launched in an endemic village in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, between 2010 and 2013. This model is described in a prospective, descriptive, community-based study, aimed to collect epidemiological, ecological, and clinical data and to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in order to design effective and efficient management measures. In this study, the prevalence of mycetoma was 14.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. The patients were farmers, housewives and children of low socio-economic status, and no obvious risk group was detected. All had surgery performed in a mobile surgical unit in the village which encouraged patients to present early with small early lesion leading to a good clinical outcome. The close contact with the Acacia tree thorns, animals and animal dung, walking bare footed and practising poor hygiene may all have contributed to the development of mycetoma in the village. Knowledge of mycetoma was poor in 96.3% of the study population, 70% had appropriate attitudes and beliefs towards interaction with mycetoma patients and treatment methods, and 49% used satisfactory or good practices in the management of mycetoma. Knowledge and practices on mycetoma were found to be significantly associated with age. Based on the KAP and epidemiological data, several health education sessions were conducted in the village for different target groups. The integrated management approach adopted in this study is unique and appeared successful and seems suitable as an immediate intervention. While for the longer term, establishment of local health facilities with trained health staff remains a priority.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817625W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817625W"><span>The Holocene Geoarchaeology of the Desert Nile in Northern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Spencer, Neal; Welsby, Derek; Dalton, Matthew; Hay, Sophie; Hardy, Andrew</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Invited Paper Forty years ago Colin Renfrew declared that "every archaeological problem starts as a problem in geoarchaeology" (Renfrew, 1976 p. 2). With this assertion in mind, this paper draws upon the findings from field research in two sectors of the Nile Valley of Northern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dedicated to the exploration of human-environment interactions during the middle and late Holocene. This part of the Nile corridor contains a rich cultural record and an exceptionally well preserved Holocene fluvial archive. A distinctive feature of these records is the variety of evidence for interaction between desert and river over a range of spatial and temporal scales. This interaction presented both challenges and opportunities for its ancient inhabitants. This paper will present evidence for large-scale landscape changes driven by shifts in global climate. It will also show how we have integrated the archaeological and geological records in the Northern Dongola Reach and at Amara West - where long-term field projects led by archaeologists from the British Museum have recognised the importance of a sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research to achieve a fully integrated geoarchaeological approach across a range of scales. The former project is a large-scale landscape survey with multiple sites across an 80 km reach of the Nile whilst the latter has a strong focus on a single New Kingdom town site and changes in its environmental setting. By combining multiple archaeological and geological datasets - and pioneering the use of OSL dating and strontium isotope analysis in the Desert Nile - we have developed a new understanding of human responses to Holocene climate and landscape change in this region. Renfrew, C. (1976) Archaeology and the earth sciences. In: D.A. Davidson and M.I. Shackley (eds) Geoarchaeology: Earth Science and the Past, Duckworth, London, 1-5.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20480392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20480392"><span>Bacteriological quality of drinking water in Nyala, South Darfur, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abdelrahman, Amira Ahmed; Eltahir, Yassir Mohammed</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial contaminations in drinking water in Nyala city, South Darfur, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> with special reference to the internally displaced people camps (IDPs). Two hundred and forty water samples from different sites and sources including bore holes, hand pumps, dug wells, water points, water reservoir and household storage containers were collected in 2009. The most probable number method was used to detect and count the total coliform, faecal coliform and faecal enterococci. Results revealed that the three indicators bacteria were abundant in all sources except water points. Percentages of the three indicators bacteria count above the permissible limits for drinking water in all samples were 46.4% total coliform, 45.2% faecal coliform and 25.4% faecal enterococci whereas the highest count of the indicators bacteria observed was 1,600 U/100 ml water. Enteric bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli (22.5%), Enterococcus faecalis (20.42%), Klebsiella (15.00%), Citrobacter (2.1%) and Enterobacter (3.33%). The highest contamination of water sources was observed in household storage containers (20%) followed by boreholes (11.25%), reservoirs (6.24%), hand pumps (5.42%) and dug wells (2.49%). Contamination varied from season to season with the highest level in autumn (18.33%) followed by winter (13.75%) and summer (13.32%), respectively. All sources of water in IDP camps except water points were contaminated. Data suggested the importance of greater attention for household contamination, environmental sanitation control and the raise of awareness about water contamination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785110','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785110"><span>Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Iberian Peninsula: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the evolutionary history of freshwater fish of the genus Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perea, Silvia; Cobo-Simon, Marta; Doadrio, Ignacio</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Southern</span> Iberian freshwater ecosystems located at the border between the European and African plates represent a tectonically complex region spanning several geological ages, from the uplifting of the Betic Mountains in the Serravalian-Tortonian periods to the present. This area has also been subjected to the influence of changing climate conditions since the Middle-Upper Pliocene when seasonal weather patterns were established. Consequently, the ichthyofauna of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Iberia is an interesting model system for analyzing the influence of Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events on its evolutionary history. The cyprinids Squalius malacitanus and Squalius pyrenaicus are allopatrically distributed in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Iberia and their evolutionary history may have been defined by Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events. We analyzed MT-CYB (510 specimens) and RAG1 (140 specimens) genes of both species to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to estimate divergence times and ancestral distribution ranges of the species and their populations. We also assessed their levels of genetic structure and diversity as well as the amount of gene flow between populations. To investigate recent paleogeographical and climatic factors in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Iberia, we modeled changes-through-time in sea level from the LGM to the present. Phylogenetic, geographic and population structure analyses revealed two well-supported species (S. malacitanus and S. pyrenaicus) in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Iberia and two subclades (Atlantic and Mediterranean) within S. malacitanus. The origin of S. malacitanus and the separation of its Atlantic and Mediterranean populations occurred during the Serravalian-Tortonian and Miocene-Pliocene periods, respectively. These divergence events occurred in the Middle Pliocene and Pleistocene in S. pyrenaicus. In both species, Atlantic basins possessed populations with higher genetic diversity than Mediterranean, which may be explained by the Janda Lagoon. The isolation of S. malacitanus was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4232199','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4232199"><span>Gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11 – 17 years) in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> and South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Atari, Dominic Odwa</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Tobacco use is one of the leading and preventable causes of global morbidities and premature mortalities. The study explores gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11-17years) in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> and South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Methods The study utilized the national Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected in 2005 for <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> (4,277 unweighted; 131,631 weighted). Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the dependent (tobacco use status) and independent variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the key factors which influence tobacco consumption among adolescents in the 2 <span class="hlt">Sudans</span> for ever cigarette users, current cigarette users, and users of noncigarette tobacco products. Results There were significant gender differences in the prevalence of ever cigarette users (21.8%; male=13.1%, female=6.5%, p<0.05) and current cigarette users (6.9%; male=4.9%, female = 1.3%, p<0.05) but not among users of noncigarette tobacco products (14.7%; male=6.8%, female=6.1%). Adolescent tobacco use was significantly associated with availability of monthly income or allowance, exposure to tobacco industry promotions, and tobacco-use behavior of familial relations. Knowledge about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke was related with decreased likelihood of tobacco use. Conclusion School programs that focus on health messages alone may not work for the adolescent population. Legislations that ban all types of tobacco advertisements, promotions, and sponsorships among adolescents are needed in the 2 countries. PMID:25404978</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27366765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27366765"><span>Association of tomato leaf curl <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> virus with leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Yasir, Muhammad; El-Kafrawy, Sherif Ali; Abbas, Ayman T; Mousa, Magdi Ali Ahmed; Bakhashwain, Ahmed A</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Tomato is an important vegetable crop and its production is adversely affected by leaf curl disease caused by begomovirus. Leaf curl disease is a serious concern for tomato crops caused by begomovirus in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tomato leaf curl disease has been shown to be mainly caused either by tomato leaf curl <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> virus or tomato yellow leaf curl virus as well as tomato leaf curl Oman virus. Many tomato plants infected with monopartite begomoviruses were also found to harbor a symptom enhancing betasatellites. Here we report the association of tomato leaf curl <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> virus causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The complete genome sequence analysis showed highest (99.9 %) identity with tomato leaf curl <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> virus causing leaf curl disease in Arabian Peninsula. In phylogenetic relationships analysis, the identified virus formed closest cluster with tomato leaf curl <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> virus. In recombination analysis study, the major parent was identified as tomato leaf curl <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> virus. Findings of this study strongly supports the associated virus is a variant of tomato leaf curl <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> virus causing disease in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, Yemen and Arabian Peninsula. The betasatellites sequence analysis showed highest identity (99.8 %) with tomato leaf curl betasatellites-Amaranthus-Jeddah. The phylogenetic analysis result based on betasatellites formed closed cluster with tomato yellow leaf curl Oman betasatellites. The importance of these findings and occurrence of begomovirus in new geographic regions causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T33D2439S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T33D2439S"><span>Using apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry to resolve regional unroofing patterns across the interior of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> African Plateau and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for mantle dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stanley, J. R.; Flowers, R. M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">southern</span> African Plateau is a long wavelength physiographic feature characterized by elevated Archean and Proterozoic cratonic lithosphere surrounded by a horseshoe shaped "Great Escarpment" which drops to the coastal plane. The average elevation of the plateau interior is ~1 km, ~0.5 km higher than average cratons. Unlike other major continental plateaus, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Africa is surrounded by divergent margins which formed during the Jurassic breakup of Gondwana. The mechanisms for plateau uplift are intensely debated and include mantle drivers such as shallow convection or dynamic topography related to the <span class="hlt">southern</span> African superplume. Constraining the timing and patterns of uplift can help to differentiate these competing explanations for the high topography. Thermochronological studies can yield critical information regarding unroofing histories to help decipher the timing and causes of plateau elevation gain. Previous studies using apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronology mostly focused on transects across <span class="hlt">southern</span> portions of the Great Escarpment. However, despite its importance for resolving large-scale unroofing patterns, there is limited thermochronological information from the plateau interior. This is in part because the temperature sensitivity of the AFT system may be somewhat higher than that required to tightly resolve the lower magnitudes of unroofing in the plateau interior relative to the coastal plain. The (U-Th)/He system in apatite (AHe) is particularly well-suited to this problem because its sensitivity to temperatures as low as ~30°C allows unroofing events in the upper 1-2 km of crust to be detected. Here we present the first AHe dataset from a broad swath across the interior of the plateau from northern South Africa and Botswana. New AHe data for eight Proterozoic diabase samples yield Cretaceous dates that display an interesting bimodal distribution of data. These results suggest at least 1.5 km of unroofing across this portion of the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAfES.118..301Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAfES.118..301Q"><span>Hydrocarbon potential evaluation of the source rocks from the Abu Gabra Formation in the Sufyan Sag, Muglad Basin, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiao, Jinqi; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Ying; Wu, Kangjun; Zhao, Yuanyuan</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The Sufyan Sag is one of the low-exploration areas in the Muglad Basin (<span class="hlt">Sudan</span>), and hydrocarbon potential evaluation of source rocks is the basis for its further exploration. The Abu Gabra Formation consisting of three members (AG3, AG2 and AG1 from bottom to top) was thought to be the main source rock formation, but detailed studies on its petroleum geology and geochemical characteristics are still insufficient. Through systematic analysis on distribution, organic matter abundance, organic matter type, organic matter maturity and characteristics of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion of the source rocks from the Abu Gabra Formation, the main source rock members were determined and the petroleum resource extent was estimated in the study area. The results show that dark mudstones are the thickest in the AG2 member while the thinnest in the AG1 member, and the thickness of the AG3 dark mudstone is not small either. The AG3 member have developed good-excellent source rock mainly with Type I kerogen. In the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Sub-sag, the AG3 source rock began to generate hydrocarbons in the middle period of Bentiu. In the early period of Darfur, it reached the hydrocarbon generation and expulsion peak. It is in late mature stage currently. The AG2 member developed good-excellent source rock mainly with Types II1 and I kerogen, and has lower organic matter abundance than the AG3 member. In the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Sub-sag, the AG2 source rock began to generate hydrocarbons in the late period of Bentiu. In the late period of Darfur, it reached the peak of hydrocarbon generation and its expulsion. It is in middle mature stage currently. The AG1 member developed fair-good source rock mainly with Types II and III kerogen. Throughout the geological evolution history, the AG1 source rock has no effective hydrocarbon generation or expulsion processes. Combined with basin modeling results, we have concluded that the AG3 and AG2 members are the main source rock layers and the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Sub-sag is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AtmEn..39.2553C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AtmEn..39.2553C"><span>The curious case of the date of introduction of leaded fuel to Australia: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the history of <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Hemisphere atmospheric lead pollution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cook, D. E.; Gale, S. J.</p> <p></p> <p>By comparison with the Northern Hemisphere, the history of atmospheric lead pollution in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Hemisphere is still poorly understood. Until recently, the main source of atmospheric lead fallout in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Hemisphere was tetraethyl lead from motor fuel and for most of the 20th century the most important single source of this pollutant was Australia. Yet there is little agreement over when leaded fuel made its first appearance in Australia. Reported dates range from the early 1920s to the late 1940s. A study of oil company advertisements and reports in motoring and oil company journals shows that leaded petrol first became available in Australia in August 1932. This date is important both for the reconstruction of lead pollution histories and in the use of lead stratigraphies to determine chronology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1293H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1293H"><span>Evolution of seismicity near the southernmost terminus of the San Andreas Fault: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> of recent earthquake clusters for earthquake risk in <span class="hlt">southern</span> California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hauksson, Egill; Meier, Men-Andrin; Ross, Zachary E.; Jones, Lucile M.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Three earthquake clusters that occurred in the direct vicinity of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> terminus of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) in 2001, 2009, and 2016 raised significant concern regarding possible triggering of a major earthquake on the <span class="hlt">southern</span> SAF, which has not ruptured in more than 320 years. These clusters of small and moderate earthquakes with M ≤ 4.8 added to an increase in seismicity rate in the northern Brawley seismic zone that began after the 1979 Mw 6.5 Imperial Valley earthquake, in contrast to the quiet from 1932 to 1979. The clusters so far triggered neither small nor large events on the SAF. The mostly negative Coulomb stress changes they imparted on the SAF may have reduced the likelihood that the events would initiate rupture on the SAF, although large magnitude earthquake triggering is poorly understood. The relatively rapid spatial and temporal migration rates within the clusters imply aseismic creep as a possible driver rather than fluid migration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol2-sec52-225-20.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title48-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title48-vol2-sec52-225-20.pdf"><span>48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>-Certification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>..., personnel, products, services, personal property, real property, or any other apparatus of business or... conducted under such authorization; (3) Consist of providing goods or services to marginalized populations of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>; (4) Consist of providing goods or services to an internationally recognized...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=postconflict&id=ED515394','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=postconflict&id=ED515394"><span>Civic Education and Peacebuilding: Examples from Iraq and <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Special Report 254</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Levine, Daniel H.; Bishai, Linda S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Between 2006 and 2010, the United States Institute of Peace developed several civic education programs for Iraq and <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> as part of broader efforts to promote postconflict stability and development and help prevent a return to violence. This report describes those programs after first examining the conceptual bases for civic education and how…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=postconflict&pg=2&id=EJ1061431','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=postconflict&pg=2&id=EJ1061431"><span>South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: Stakeholders' Views of Technical and Vocational Education and Training and a Framework for Action</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Atari, Dominic Odwa; McKague, Kevin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, recently emerging from the longest civil war in contemporary African history, has set goals towards post-conflict reconstruction in many areas of social services. However, the educational infrastructure continues to struggle, and many stakeholders in government and international and local organisations are not…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26174820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26174820"><span>Genetic Diversity of Schistosoma haematobium Eggs Isolated from Human Urine in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quan, Juan-Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Mohamed, Abdoelohab Saed; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Lee, Jin-Su; Hong, Sung-Tae; Yong, Tai-Soon; Cha, Guang-Ho; Lee, Young-Ha</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The genetic diversity of Schistosoma haematobium remains largely unstudied in comparison to that of Schistosoma mansoni. To characterize the extent of genetic diversity in S. haematobium among its definitive host (humans), we collected S. haematobium eggs from the urine of 73 infected schoolchildren at 5 primary schools in White Nile State, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, and then performed a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker ITS2 by PCR-RFLP analysis. Among 73 S. haematobium egg-positive cases, 13 were selected based on the presence of the S. haematobium satellite markers A4 and B2 in their genomic DNA, and used for RFLP analysis. The 13 samples were subjected to an RFLP analysis of the S. haematobium ITS2 region; however, there was no variation in size among the fragments. Compared to the ITS2 sequences obtained for S. haematobium from Kenya, the nucleotide sequences of the ITS2 regions of S. haematobium from 4 areas in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> were consistent with those from Kenya (> 99%). In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that most of the S. haematobium population in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> consists of a pan-African S. haematobium genotype; however, we also report the discovery of Kenyan strain inflow into White Nile, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol2-sec52-225-20.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title48-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title48-vol2-sec52-225-20.pdf"><span>48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>-Certification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... Restricted Business Operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>-Certification. 52.225-20 Section 52.225-20 Federal Acquisition... Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(d), insert the following provision: Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&id=EJ952889','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&id=EJ952889"><span>The Sociolinguistics of Nationalism in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: The Politicisation of Arabic and the Arabicisation of Politics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Abdelhay, Ashraf; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree; Mugaddam, Abdel Rahim</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This monograph describes the historiography of language ideologies that led to the politicisation of Arabic and the Arabicisation of politics in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, starting from British colonial rule until the Comprehensive Peace Agreement that was a precursor to the separation of the South as an independent state. The monograph shows that the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol2-sec52-225-20.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title48-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title48-vol2-sec52-225-20.pdf"><span>48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>-Certification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... Restricted Business Operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>-Certification. 52.225-20 Section 52.225-20 Federal Acquisition... Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(d), insert the following provision: Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol2-sec52-225-20.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title48-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title48-vol2-sec52-225-20.pdf"><span>48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>-Certification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... Restricted Business Operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>-Certification. 52.225-20 Section 52.225-20 Federal Acquisition... Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(d), insert the following provision: Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&pg=2&id=EJ916274','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&pg=2&id=EJ916274"><span>The Naivasha Language Policy: The Language of Politics and the Politics of Language in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree Bullock</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> in an attempt to explore how political discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&pg=3&id=EJ965642','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&pg=3&id=EJ965642"><span>Reaching out and Partnering in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> through Integrated Community-Oriented Teaching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Abdelrahman, Samira; Al Fadil, Sumaia</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Community-university partnerships, if they are to be successful, must be firmly grounded in the context in which they take place. This paper describes the ways in which the University of Gezira in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> from its very beginning was built on an understanding of rural communities. The university's Faculty of Medicine built its training around…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6976201','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6976201"><span>Geologic assessment of the fossil energy and geothermal potential of the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Setlow, L.W.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>This preliminary report provides geological input to the consideration of appropriate activities that can enhance the exploration and development of fossil-fuel and possible geothermal energy resources of the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, and is based on study of available literature in early 1982. 59 references, 16 figures, 7 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol2-sec52-225-20.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title48-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title48-vol2-sec52-225-20.pdf"><span>48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>-Certification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... Restricted Business Operations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>-Certification. 52.225-20 Section 52.225-20 Federal Acquisition... Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(d), insert the following provision: Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&id=EJ956821','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sudan&id=EJ956821"><span>A Basic Hybrid Library Support Model to Distance Learners in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Abdelrahman, Omer Hassan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Distance learning has flourished in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> during the last two decades; more and more higher education institutions offer distance learning programmes to off-campus students. Like on-campus students, distance learners should have access to appropriate library and information support services. They also have specific needs for library and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4510678','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4510678"><span>Genetic Diversity of Schistosoma haematobium Eggs Isolated from Human Urine in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Quan, Juan-Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Mohamed, Abdoelohab Saed; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Lee, Jin-Su; Hong, Sung-Tae; Yong, Tai-Soon; Cha, Guang-Ho; Lee, Young-Ha</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The genetic diversity of Schistosoma haematobium remains largely unstudied in comparison to that of Schistosoma mansoni. To characterize the extent of genetic diversity in S. haematobium among its definitive host (humans), we collected S. haematobium eggs from the urine of 73 infected schoolchildren at 5 primary schools in White Nile State, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, and then performed a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker ITS2 by PCR-RFLP analysis. Among 73 S. haematobium egg-positive cases, 13 were selected based on the presence of the S. haematobium satellite markers A4 and B2 in their genomic DNA, and used for RFLP analysis. The 13 samples were subjected to an RFLP analysis of the S. haematobium ITS2 region; however, there was no variation in size among the fragments. Compared to the ITS2 sequences obtained for S. haematobium from Kenya, the nucleotide sequences of the ITS2 regions of S. haematobium from 4 areas in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> were consistent with those from Kenya (> 99%). In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that most of the S. haematobium population in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> consists of a pan-African S. haematobium genotype; however, we also report the discovery of Kenyan strain inflow into White Nile, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. PMID:26174820</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4880069','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4880069"><span>Population-Level Effect of Cholera Vaccine on Displaced Populations, South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, 2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; West, Haley; Ciglenecki, Iza; Helderman, Trina; Wamala, Joseph Francis; Vázquez, Olimpia de la Rosa; Perea, William; Sack, David A.; Legros, Dominique; Martin, Stephen; Lessler, Justin; Luquero, Francisco J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Following mass population displacements in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, preventive cholera vaccination campaigns were conducted in displaced persons camps before a 2014 cholera outbreak. We compare cholera transmission in vaccinated and unvaccinated areas and show vaccination likely halted transmission within vaccinated areas, illustrating the potential for oral cholera vaccine to stop cholera transmission in vulnerable populations. PMID:27192187</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED055831.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED055831.pdf"><span>Situation Reports--Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, Tunisia, and U.S.A.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).</p> <p></p> <p>Data relating to population and family planning in eight countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, Tunisia, and the United States of America. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/910302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/910302"><span>Trypanosomiasis:goats as a possible reservoir of Trypanosoma congolense in the Republic of the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mahmoud, M M; Elmalik, K H</p> <p>1977-08-01</p> <p>Experimental Trypanosoma congolense infections of goats and calves were compared. Goats developed a chronic form of trypanosomiasis, often recovering spontaneously from a strain which caused an acute fatal disease in calves. Goats may be important in the maintenace of T. congolense in nature in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1101213.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1101213.pdf"><span>E-Learning <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, Formal Learning for Out-of-School Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stubbé, Hester; Badri, Aiman; Telford, Rebecca; van der Hulst, Anja; van Joolingen, Wouter</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>E-Learning <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> (ELS) is a custom-built computer/tablet game that provides alternative learning opportunities to Sudanese children who are excluded from education. Unique in ELS is that children can learn mathematics, in their own remote village, without a teacher. This research study assessed the effectiveness of ELS in two pilots through a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED562555.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED562555.pdf"><span>Examining the Contemporary Status of an Education System: The Case of the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Banraba, Boboya James Edimond</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper attempts to examine the contemporary status of an education system. The paper takes the case of the Republic of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. The key issues the paper will examine are the education enrollment and completion rates while paying particular attention to inequalities in both access and quality among racial or ethnic groups, males and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5131248','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5131248"><span>Molecular Evidence of High Proportion of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Infection in White Nile Area in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Suliman, Makarim M. Adam; Hamad, Bushra M.; Albasheer, Musab M. Ali; Elhadi, Maytha; Elobied, Maha</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Plasmodium falciparum is a predominant malaria species that infects humans in the African continent. A recent WHO report estimated 95% and 5% of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria cases, respectively, in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. However many laboratory reports from different areas in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> indicated otherwise. In order to verify, we selected four hundred suspected malaria cases from Aljabalain area located in the White Nile state, central <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, and diagnosed them with quality insured microscopy and species-specific nested PCR. Our results indicated that the proportion of P. vivax infections among suspected malaria cases was high. We found that on average 20% and 36.5% of malaria infections in both study areas were caused by P. vivax using both microscopy and PCR, respectively. This change in pattern is likely due to the recent demographic changes and high rate of immigration from neighbouring countries in the recent years. This is the first extensive clinical study of its kind that shows rising trend in P. vivax malaria cases in White Nile area, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. PMID:27980861</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17349002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17349002"><span>Sub-regional integration in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: the key to food security and recovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>D'Silva, Brian; Tecosky, Olivia</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> has created a new opportunity for peace. Approaches to food security must now be reoriented based on the agro-ecological diversity in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. WFP is in a unique position to catalyse an approach to food security that meets immediate needs and contributes to long-term recovery, in collaboration with the Government of National Unity (GNU) and the Government of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> (GOSS). Aggregate food production in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> has increased in the past decade. At sub-regional levels, however, many areas remain food insecure. Major research must be undertaken to identify optimum levels of food production and barriers to access to food at sub-regional levels as a first step towards linking deficit areas with areas of surplus. Initiatives must also be undertaken to facilitate increased integration between sub-regions. Increased sub-regional linkages could ensure more efficient delivery of food in the short term as well as recovery and economic growth in the long term.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Marriage+AND+age&pg=5&id=EJ357827','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Marriage+AND+age&pg=5&id=EJ357827"><span>Socioeconomic and Institutional Correlates of Family Formation: Khartoum, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, 1945-75.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Abdelrahman, A. I.; Morgan, S. Philip</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Examined socioeconomic and institutional correlates of marriage timing in Khartoum, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Found that age at marriage rose sharply across later study cohorts. Living with husband's parents after marriage and marrying endogamously were both associated with sharply reduced ages at marriage. Increase in marriage age appeared to be recent, rapid, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1079741.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1079741.pdf"><span>Research On: Motivation to Learn English among College Students in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Humaida, Ibrahim Abdelrahim Ibrahim</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This research was conducted to achieve the following objectives: to examine motivation to learn English language among students of faculty of arts, Islamic University-<span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, to find out if there were significant statistical differences on motivation scores related to both student level and age. To pursue these objectives, the researcher used the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-24/pdf/2012-1545.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-24/pdf/2012-1545.pdf"><span>77 FR 3369 - Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> To Receive Defense Articles and...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-24</p> <p>... the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of... South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> will strengthen the security of the United States and promote world peace. You...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5084485','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5084485"><span>Exploring clinical pharmacists' perception of their impact on healthcare in Khartoum State, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Salim, Anas Mustafa Ahmed; Elhada, Arwa Hassan Ahmed; Elgizoli, Bashir</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective: The principal aim of this study was to explore the self-perception of clinical pharmacists of their impact on healthcare in Khartoum State, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, how they think doctors perceive their impact, exploring the obstacles that clinical pharmacists are facing, and identifying what clinical pharmacists recommend for a better clinical pharmacy practice in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Methods: This was an exploratory cross-sectional study that employed a qualitative method. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of 26 clinical pharmacists working in 14 governmental hospitals in Khartoum State, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, in March 2016. Each interview was recorded, transcribed, and coded into themes. Thematic analysis was carried out. Findings: The study revealed different themes regarding clinical pharmacists' perception of their impact on healthcare. The majority believed that they made an improvement in healthcare but not to the level they aspire to. Participants expressed that junior doctors and nurses had a better acceptance of clinical pharmacists' interventions compared to senior doctors. The main obstacles that clinical pharmacists were facing were their limited number, lack of support from health authorities, lack of training and educational program, lack of job descriptions, lack of specific area in patient files for clinical pharmacist intervention, and low salaries. Most participants showed dissatisfaction with the syllabus of the master of clinical pharmacy they studied. Conclusion: The study revealed that clinical pharmacists were looking for a better contribution in healthcare in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. This can be achieved by solving the problems identified in this study. PMID:27843964</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24625370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24625370"><span>Fluorescent nanomicelles for selective detection of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dye in Pluronic F127 aqueous media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ye, Xinliang; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui; Wang, Xiaohui; Huang, Fei</p> <p>2014-04-09</p> <p>Novel self-assembled water-soluble nanomicelles that contain fluorescent conjugated polymers (poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) or poly[2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-alt-4,4'-phenylether] (PF-PE)) have been obtained and used as the highly sensitive/selective platform for <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> dye detection. The Fluorescent nanomicelles exhibited a highly selective fluorescence quenching by the prohibited food additive <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I, while not for the natural pigments: Capsanthin and Beta-carotene, due to the more suitable matching of the LUMOs (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) of the conjugated polymers with that of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I molecules. The Stern-Volmer constants (K(SV)) of PF-PE/F127 and PFO/F127 for <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I were 1,040,480 and 665,000 M(-1), respectively, which were more than 100 times higher than those of the same conjugated polymers in the orgainc solvents. The significantly enhanced sensitivity was due to the collective effect of the F127 micelles to both chromophore and analyte, through which the fluorophone-analyte binding interaction is significantly strengthened and efficient photoinduced charge transfer occurs. The as-proposed materials and approach may be potentially applied in the real-time food safety screening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26402715','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26402715"><span>Risk Factors for Sustained Cholera Transmission, Juba County, South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, 2014.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ujjiga, Thomas T A; Wamala, Joseph F; Mogga, Juma J H; Othwonh, Thabo O; Mutonga, David; Kone-Coulibaly, Asta; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Mpairwe, Allan M; Abdinasir, Abubaker; Abdi, Mohamed A; Yoti, Zabulon; Olushayo, Olu; Nyimol, Pinyi; Lul, Riek; Lako, Richard L; Rumunu, John</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for the 2014 cholera outbreak in Juba County, South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Illness was associated with traveling or eating away from home; treating drinking water and receiving oral cholera vaccination were protective. Oral cholera vaccination should be used to complement cholera prevention efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED417860.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED417860.pdf"><span>Resilience and Culture/Ethnicity Examples from <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, Namibia, and Armenia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Grotberg, Edith H.</p> <p></p> <p>This study examined cultural/ethnic similarities and differences in ways to promote resilience in children identified in the International Resilience Research Project (IRRP), focusing on <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, Namibia, and Armenia. Child resilience was assessed through the child's responses to a hypothetical situation in which a child is teased and frightened by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691708','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691708"><span>Feasibility of health systems strengthening in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: a qualitative study of international practitioner perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jones, Abigail; Legido-Quigley, Helena</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective To explore the feasibility of health systems strengthening from the perspective of international healthcare implementers and donors in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Design A qualitative interview study, with thematic analysis using the WHO health system building blocks framework. Setting South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Participants 17 health system practitioners, working for international agencies in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, were purposively sampled for their knowledge and experiences of health systems strengthening, services delivery, health policy and politics in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Results Participants universally reported the health workforce as insufficient and of low capacity and service delivery as poor, while access to medicines was restricted by governmental lack of commitment in undertaking procurement and supply. However, progress was clear in improved county health department governance, health management information system functionality, increased health worker salary harmonisation and strengthened financial management. Conclusions Resurgent conflict and political tensions have negatively impacted all health system components and maintaining or continuing health system strengthening has become extremely challenging. A coordinated approach to balancing humanitarian need particularly in conflict-affected areas, with longer term development is required so as not to lose improvements gained. PMID:26700280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019515','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019515"><span>Gravity anomalies, Quaternary vents, and Quaternary faults in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Cascade Range, Oregon and California: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for arc and backarc evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Blakely, R.J.; Christiansen, R.L.; Guffanti, M.; Wells, R.E.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Clynne, M.A.; Smith, James G.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Isostatic residual gravity anomalies in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Cascade Range of northern California and <span class="hlt">southern</span> Oregon are spatially correlated with broad zones of Quaternary magmatism as reflected by the total volume of Quaternary volcanic products, the distribution of Quaternary vents, and the anomalously low teleseismic P wave velocities in the upper 30 km of crust. The orientation of Quaternary faults also appears to be related to gravity anomalies and volcanism in this area, trending generally north-south within the magmatic regions and northwest-southeast as they enter the neighboring amagmatic zones to the north and south. The relationship between gravity anomalies, vent density, and fault orientations may indicate in a broad sense the strength of the middle and upper crust. The <span class="hlt">southern</span> Cascade Range occupies a transition zone where horizontal stress is transferred from the northwest-southeast dextral shear of the Walker Lane belt to the east-west extension characteristic of the Cascade arc in central Oregon. Faulting along north-south strikes in the volcanically active areas indicates the east-west extensional stresses in thermally weakened crust, whereas northwest faulting between the volcanically active areas reflects the northwest trending, right lateral shear strain of the Walker Lane belt. The segmentation of the arc reflected in Quaternary magmatism may be caused by differential extension behind crustal blocks of the forearc rotating clockwise with respect to North America. In this view the volcanic centers at Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake volcano, and Lassen Peak in northern California are situated along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> parts of the trailing edges of two distinct segments of the forearc where additional extension is implied by their differential clockwise rotation. U.S. copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JGR...10222513B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JGR...10222513B"><span>Gravity anomalies, Quaternary vents, and Quaternary faults in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Cascade Range, Oregon and California: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for arc and backarc evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blakely, Richard J.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Guffanti, Marianne; Wells, Ray E.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Muffler, L. J. Patrick; Clynne, Michael A.; Smith, James G.</p> <p>1997-10-01</p> <p>Isostatic residual gravity anomalies in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Cascade Range of northern California and <span class="hlt">southern</span> Oregon are spatially correlated with broad zones of Quaternary magmatism as reflected by the total volume of Quaternary volcanic products, the distribution of Quaternary vents, and the anomalously low teleseismic P wave velocities in the upper 30 km of crust. The orientation of Quaternary faults also appears to be related to gravity anomalies and volcanism in this area, trending generally north-south within the magmatic regions and northwest-southeast as they enter the neighboring amagmatic zones to the north and south. The relationship between gravity anomalies, vent density, and fault orientations may indicate in a broad sense the strength of the middle and upper crust. The <span class="hlt">southern</span> Cascade Range occupies a transition zone where horizontal stress is transferred from the northwest-southeast dextral shear of the Walker Lane belt to the east-west extension characteristic of the Cascade arc in central Oregon. Faulting along north-south strikes in the volcanically active areas indicates the east-west extensional stresses in thermally weakened crust, whereas northwest faulting between the volcanically active areas reflects the northwest trending, right lateral shear strain of the Walker Lane belt. The segmentation of the arc reflected in Quaternary magmatism may be caused by differential extension behind crustal blocks of the forearc rotating clockwise with respect to North America. In this view the volcanic centers at Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake volcano, and Lassen Peak in northern California are situated along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> parts of the trailing edges of two distinct segments of the forearc where additional extension is implied by their differential clockwise rotation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T21B4595H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T21B4595H"><span>Detrital Geochemical Fingerprints of Rivers Along <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Tibet and Nepal: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Erosion of the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone and the Himalayas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hassim, M. F. B.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Kapp, P. A.; Gehrels, G. E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Our detrital geochemical study of modern sand collected from tributaries of the Yarlung River in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tibet and the Kali Gandaki River and its tributaries in Nepal shed light on the ages and exhumation histories of source rocks within the Indus-Yarlung Suture (IYS) zone and the Himalayas. Seven sand samples from rivers along the suture zone in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tibet between Xigatze to the east and Mt. Kailas to the west were collected for detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and Apatite Fission Track (AFT) thermochronologic analyses. Zircon U-Pb ages for all rivers range between 15 and 3568 Ma. Rivers draining the northern side of the suture zone mainly yield ages between 40 and 60 Ma, similar to the age of the Gangdese magmatic arc. Samples from rivers draining the <span class="hlt">southern</span> side of the suture zone record a Tethyan Himalayan signal characterized by age clusters at 500 Ma and 1050 Ma. Our results indicate that the ages and proportion of U-Pb zircons ages of downstream samples from tributaries of the Yarlung River directly reflect source area ages and relative area of source rock exposure in the catchment basin. Significant age components at 37 - 40 Ma, 47 - 50 Ma, 55 - 58 Ma and 94 - 97 Ma reflect episodicity in Gangdese arc magmatism. Our AFT ages show two main signals at 23-18 Ma and 12 Ma, which are in agreement with accelerated exhumation of the Gangdese batholith during these time intervals. The 23 - 18 Ma signal partly overlaps with deposition of the Kailas Formation along the suture zone and may be related to exhumation due to upper plate extension in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tibet in response to Indian slab rollback and/or break-off events. Detrital thermochronology of four sand samples from the Kali Gandaki River and some of its tributaries in Nepal is underway and will provide constraints on the timing of erosion of the central Nepal Himalaya.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC31A1005Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC31A1005Y"><span>Influence of pre-seasonal conditions on late wet season arrival and its <span class="hlt">implications</span> to predictive understanding of the droughts over <span class="hlt">southern</span> Amazonia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yin, L.; Fu, R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Our recent analysis suggests that the increase of drought severity in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Amazon during recent decades is mainly contributed by a delaying of wet season onset and resulted shortening of the wet season. Using a suite of observations, we found that a delay of wet season onset is significantly correlated with anomalous pre-seasonal conditions. In particular, a poleward shift of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> hemispheric subtropical jet, and an increase of convective inhibition energy (CINE) during the three months prior to the wet season onset date appear to be significantly correlated with the subsequently delay of wet season onset. Canonical correlation analysis suggests that this correlation between the pre-seasonal large-scale circulation and near surface atmosphere thermodynamic condition is relatively insensitive to the data and parameters we choose to represent the subtropical jets. We will discuss physical mechanisms of this observed correlation between pre-seasonal climate conditions and delay of wet season onsets and potential of using this correlation as a predicting factor in determining the likelihood of delaying in wet season onset over <span class="hlt">southern</span> Amazonia. We will also evaluate whether this relationship is adequately represented in climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2637704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2637704"><span>Family planning in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: a pilot project success story.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>el Tom, A R; Lauro, D; Farah, A A; McNamara, R; Ali Ahmed, E F</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>In 1980, the Department of Community Medicine of the University of Khartoum designed an operations research project to test the possibility of getting village midwives to be involved in the delivery of maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP) services. From 1981-1983 the project was implemented by the University of Khartoum in cooperation with the Ministry of Health. The project area covered 100 km. It encompassed a largely agrarian population of 93,000 in 90 villages north of Khartoum along the banks of the Nile. The focus was on training and supervising village midwives. Information was provided on contraceptives for birth spacing, distribution of oral contraceptives, and referral for other methods. Also provided to midwives was information for mothers on oral rehydration therapy for children with diarrhea, and distribution of oral rehydration solution packets. Nutrition education was given midwives with emphasis on breastfeeding and weaning procedures. Information was also supplied about vaccination for children under 5 years of age (in collaboration with the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Expanded Program on Immunization). The project was expensive, particularly regarding incentive payments for supervisors and midwives. The project had a very good start, but when incentive payments were withdrawn, it almost collapsed. At first, what midwives could do to provide maternal and child health services was targeted, but as the project went on, there was more concern for involvement of midwives in broader rural health delivery. The project area was a conservative, Islamic one. An extension area was selected 5 hours travelling time from Khartoum in Shendi District of Nile Province. The project was begun in 60 villages of 75,000 inhabitants. The land stretched for 120 km along both banks of the Nile. In the extension area, a small fee (US$.025) was charged per cycle, half going to the midwives, and half towards the health teams' expenses. 21 health zones were created, and a health</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5344115','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5344115"><span>Text messaging app improves disease surveillance in rural South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buesseler, Heather M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background In South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, remote health facilities face challenges in submitting weekly surveillance reports for epidemic-prone diseases due to long distances and difficult terrain health workers must cover to hand-deliver paper reports. Not only are patients unable to access care while health workers are away, identification of and timely response to an infectious disease outbreak is hampered. Methods Data journey mapping with stakeholders was conducted in three counties in Eastern Equatoria State to inform an appropriate mHealth solution. A short message service (SMS) application was selected because it did not require internet connection and only needed minimal equipment investments. The SMS app was designed using open source Android software due to low set-up and maintenance costs. Health facility staffs use personal phones to send an SMS in a predetermined format to the County Health Department (CHD) Android phone base. CHD staff review data; once verified, CHD exports the data to existing health information system software for onward submission to the State Ministry of Health (SMOH). To engender perceived value and incentive use, health workers must use personal airtime to send the SMS; they receive a bonus if they submit reports on time. For long-term sustainability of the system, CHDs have incorporated system maintenance costs into their monthly budgets. Results Eighty-nine health workers and 21 CHD staff were trained to use the SMS app. They found the innovation interesting and easy to use. All three counties increased on-time submissions upon introduction of the app. The predefined SMS template is important for data accuracy. Availability of a dedicated CHD staff and mobile network coverage in the most remote areas present ongoing challenges to timely report submissions in some counties. CHDs declare the SMS app has revolutionized weekly disease surveillance reporting in their counties. Eastern Equatoria SMOH has requested scale up of this app to all</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4364A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4364A"><span>Magnetic Prospection at the Archaeological Site of Jebel Barkal, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ali, Mohamed A. Mohamed; Goldmann, Thomas; Wolf, Pawel; Wützler, Ronny; Goldmann, Lukas; Hobbs, Richard; Kendall, Timothy</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>One of most important archaeological sites in northern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> is Jebel Barkal, an isolated sandstone butte, which became the chief cult center of the ancient Sudanese kingdom of Kush (ca. 800 BC-400 AD). Located on the western edge of the modern town of Karima, just downstream from the Nile's fourth cataract, Jebel Barkal is the site of numerous ruined palaces, temples, and pyramids. In 2006 and 2007, we carried out a magnetic survey of about 3.5 hectares of the temple area using an Overhauser magnetometer GSM 19. Our objective was to prospect some of the unexcavated areas of the site to try to image the sub-soil remains, and our resulting map clearly shows a number of magnetic anomalies of mud-brick, fired brick and stone-block walls belonging to different ancient buildings. Our initial magnetic results successfully revealed one corner of the wall of the early Meroitic palace B 100, which had been "lost" after its excavation in 1916, since it buried by later excavation debris before it had been precisely located on any site map. Prospection in the same area also revealed other (earlier?) massive mud walls of unknown function and character. A second area we chose for examination was that in front of the Great Amun Temple (B 500). Here we found two or three small rectangular anomalies that suggested a series of small chapels built at right angles to the paved way leading into the Great Temple; the layout was identical to chapels in front of the Great Amun Temple at Meroe. Another magnetic anomaly in front of B 500 seemed to be a predictable type of stepped podium, well-known from other Kushite temples. A third area we chose to examine was that northeast of B 500. Here we found the clear outline of a multi-chambered building (B 1700) parallel to the Great Temple, which appeared to have all the characteristics of a smaller temple fronted by a pylon. Far less clear were the complex magnetic anomalies we found northeast of B 1700. These appeared to belong to a series of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27160900','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27160900"><span>Antibody Treatment of Ebola and <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Virus Infection via a Uniquely Exposed Epitope within the Glycoprotein Receptor-Binding Site.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Howell, Katie A; Qiu, Xiangguo; Brannan, Jennifer M; Bryan, Christopher; Davidson, Edgar; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Wec, Anna Z; Shulenin, Sergey; Biggins, Julia E; Douglas, Robin; Enterlein, Sven G; Turner, Hannah L; Pallesen, Jesper; Murin, Charles D; He, Shihua; Kroeker, Andrea; Vu, Hong; Herbert, Andrew S; Fusco, Marnie L; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K; Lai, Jonathan R; Keck, Zhen-Yong; Foung, Steven K H; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Zeitlin, Larry; Ward, Andrew B; Chandran, Kartik; Doranz, Benjamin J; Kobinger, Gary P; Dye, John M; Aman, M Javad</p> <p>2016-05-17</p> <p>Previous efforts to identify cross-neutralizing antibodies to the receptor-binding site (RBS) of ebolavirus glycoproteins have been unsuccessful, largely because the RBS is occluded on the viral surface. We report a monoclonal antibody (FVM04) that targets a uniquely exposed epitope within the RBS; cross-neutralizes Ebola (EBOV), <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> (SUDV), and, to a lesser extent, Bundibugyo viruses; and shows protection against EBOV and SUDV in mice and guinea pigs. The antibody cocktail ZMapp™ is remarkably effective against EBOV (Zaire) but does not cross-neutralize other ebolaviruses. By replacing one of the ZMapp™ components with FVM04, we retained the anti-EBOV efficacy while extending the breadth of protection to SUDV, thereby generating a cross-protective antibody cocktail. In addition, we report several mutations at the base of the ebolavirus glycoprotein that enhance the binding of FVM04 and other cross-reactive antibodies. These findings have important <span class="hlt">implications</span> for pan-ebolavirus vaccine development and defining broadly protective antibody cocktails.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616983S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616983S"><span>Late Holocene Environmental Change at Amara West: A New Kingdom Town on the Desert Nile in Northern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spencer, Neal; Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Dalton, Matthew</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Amara West is a well-preserved town of the late New Kingdom downstream of Sai Island in Northern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. The town has being identified as the seat of the pharaonic administration of Kush (Upper Nubia) in the Ramesside Period (c. 1306-1070 BC). This region fell under Egyptian control after about 1500 BC. The modern Nile (flowing eastwards in this reach) lies to the south of the town and a well preserved palaeochannel lies immediately to the north. Following the Egypt Exploration Society excavations of 1938-39 and 1947-48, it was argued that the ancient town was once located upon an island in the Nile. Renewed archaeological excavations allied to geomorphological work on the ancient river environment are attempting to establish the nature of the local and regional landscape before, during, and after the occupation of the town. This paper presents new OSL and radiocarbon dates on the sedimentary fill from the palaeochannel system to establish when the channel system ceased to flow on a permanent basis. Micromorphological work on the sedimentary records within the town provide additional insights into the nature of the local environment during the period of occupation. We discuss the <span class="hlt">implications</span> of the new palaeoenvironmental data for our understanding of Amara West and we set out the wider significance of these new geoarchaeological data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3658891','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3658891"><span>Disability associated with exposure to traumatic events: results from a cross-sectional community survey in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background There is a general lack of knowledge regarding disability and especially factors that are associated with disability in low-income countries. We aimed to study the overall and gender-specific prevalence of disability, and the association between exposure to traumatic events and disability in a post-conflict setting. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional community based study of four Greater Bahr el Ghazal States, South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> (n = 1200). The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) was applied to investigate exposure to trauma events. Disability was measured using the Washington Group Short Measurement Set on Disability, which is an activity-based scale derived from the WHO’s International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health. Results The estimated prevalence of disability (with severe difficulty) was 3.6% and 13.4% for disability with moderate difficulties. No gender differences were found in disability prevalence. Almost all participants reported exposure to at least one war-related traumatic event. The result of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that, for both men and women, exposure to traumatic events, older age and living in a polygamous marriage increased the likelihood of having a disability. Conclusions The finding of association between traumatic experience and disability underlines the precariousness of the human rights situation for individuals with disability in low-income countries. It also has possible <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the construction of disability services and for the provision of health services to individuals exposed to traumatic events. PMID:23672785</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3816306','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3816306"><span>Malaria control in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, 2006–2013: strategies, progress and challenges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> has borne the brunt of years of chronic warfare and probably has the highest malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa. However, effective malaria control in post-conflict settings is hampered by a multiplicity of challenges. This manuscript reports on the strategies, progress and challenges of malaria control in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> and serves as an example epitome for programmes operating in similar environments and provides a window for leveraging resources. Case description To evaluate progress and challenges of the national malaria control programme an in-depth appraisal was undertaken according to the World Health Organization standard procedures for malaria programme performance review. Methodical analysis of published and unpublished documents on malaria control in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> was conducted. To ensure completeness, findings of internal thematic desk assessments were triangulated in the field and updated by external review teams. Discussion and evaluation South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> has strived to make progress in implementing the WHO recommended malaria control interventions as set out in the 2006–2013 National Malaria Strategic Plan. The country has faced enormous programmatic constraints including infrastructure, human and financial resource and a weak health system compounded by an increasing number of refugees, returnees and internally displaced people. The findings present a platform on which to tailor an evidence-based 2014–2018 national malaria strategic plan for the country and a unique opportunity for providing a model for countries in a post-conflict situation. Conclusions The prospects for effective malaria control and elimination are huge in South <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Nevertheless, strengthened coordination, infrastructure and human resource capacity, monitoring and evaluation are required. To achieve all this, allocation of adequate local funding would be critical. PMID:24160336</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4949947','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4949947"><span>Henry Solomon Wellcome: A philanthropist and a pioneer sponsor of medical research in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Henry Solomon Wellcome, the famous drug manufacturer had a fascinating association with the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Besides supporting tropical medicine research in this country, he established an extensive project in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> that aimed at combining archeological excavations, philanthropy and social reform. This article is an archives-based account on this side of Wellcome’s association with the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. The article starts with Wellcome’s early years in the American Midwest and the evolution of his career and his rise as a world-renowned drug manufacturer. After the battle of Omdurman, Wellcome visited <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> in 1900 – 1901 where he offered to support the establishment of the research laboratories which later came to be known as the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum. He then became directly involved in the planning and running of extensive archeological excavations in the central <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. This project served as a field in which Wellcome found an outlet for his philanthropy. More than 4000 labourers were employed in Jebel Moya. Professional archeologists and anatomists were recruited by Wellcome to supervise the work, and all the requirements in terms of equipment were catered for. Wellcome devised a Savings Bank System whereby part of the earnings of each labourer were saved to him till the end of the season. He also introduced one of his innovations: aerial photography using box kite which was used for the first time in archeology. Wellcome made it a rule that no applicant should be turned away. The Camp Commandant had to find suitable work for each applicant, including the handicapped who were assigned to appropriate jobs like mending baskets or cutting grass for building huts. Wellcome’s welfare work had a significant impact on the local inhabitants of Jebel Moya. Henry Solomon Wellcome, 1906. Oil painting by Hugh Goldwin Riviere. Credit: Wellcome Library PMID:27493379</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4764686','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4764686"><span>Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chaabna, Karima; Kouyoumjian, Silva P.; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objectives To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Djibouti, Somalia, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, and Yemen. Methods Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five. Results We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%–1.9%), 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%–1.9%) and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%–2.6%), respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%–0.4%) in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients), pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%–28.2%) in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men), pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%–4.9%) in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%–0.8%) in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. Conclusion National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown. PMID:26900839</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..148...54B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..148...54B"><span>A cosmogenic 10Be chronology for the local last glacial maximum and termination in the Cordillera Oriental, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Peruvian Andes: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the tropical role in global climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bromley, Gordon R. M.; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Hall, Brenda L.; Rademaker, Kurt M.; Putnam, Aaron E.; Todd, Claire E.; Hegland, Matthew; Winckler, Gisela; Jackson, Margaret S.; Strand, Peter D.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Resolving patterns of tropical climate variability during and since the last glacial maximum (LGM) is fundamental to assessing the role of the tropics in global change, both on ice-age and sub-millennial timescales. Here, we present a10Be moraine chronology from the Cordillera Carabaya (14.3°S), a sub-range of the Cordillera Oriental in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Peru, covering the LGM and the first half of the last glacial termination. Additionally, we recalculate existing 10Be ages using a new tropical high-altitude production rate in order to put our record into broader spatial context. Our results indicate that glaciers deposited a series of moraines during marine isotope stage 2, broadly synchronous with global glacier maxima, but that maximum glacier extent may have occurred prior to stage 2. Thereafter, atmospheric warming drove widespread deglaciation of the Cordillera Carabaya. A subsequent glacier resurgence culminated at ∼16,100 yrs, followed by a second period of glacier recession. Together, the observed deglaciation corresponds to Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1: ∼18,000-14,600 yrs), during which pluvial lakes on the adjacent Peruvian-Bolivian altiplano rose to their highest levels of the late Pleistocene as a consequence of southward displacement of the inter-tropical convergence zone and intensification of the South American summer monsoon. Deglaciation in the Cordillera Carabaya also coincided with the retreat of higher-latitude mountain glaciers in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Hemisphere. Our findings suggest that HS1 was characterised by atmospheric warming and indicate that deglaciation of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Peruvian Andes was driven by rising temperatures, despite increased precipitation. Recalculated 10Be data from other tropical Andean sites support this model. Finally, we suggest that the broadly uniform response during the LGM and termination of the glaciers examined here involved equatorial Pacific sea-surface temperature anomalies and propose a framework for testing the viability</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Tecto..33..824D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Tecto..33..824D"><span>Paleocene-Eocene foreland basin evolution in the Himalaya of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tibet and Nepal: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the age of initial India-Asia collision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DeCelles, P. G.; Kapp, P.; Gehrels, G. E.; Ding, L.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Siliciclastic sedimentary rocks derived from the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Lhasa terrane, sitting depositionally upon rocks of the northern Indian passive continental margin, provide an estimate of the age of initial contact between the continental parts of the Indian and Asian plates. We report sedimentological, sedimentary petrological, and geochronological data from Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene strata in the Sangdanlin section, located along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> flank of the Indus-Yarlung suture zone in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tibet. This is probably the most proximal, and therefore the oldest, record of the India-Asia collision. These strata were deposited by high-density turbidity currents (or concentrated density flows) and suspension settling of pelagic biogenic debris in a deep-marine setting. An abrupt change from quartz-arenitic to feldspatholithic sandstone compositions marks the transition from Indian to Asian sediment provenance. The abrupt compositional change is accompanied by changes in U-Pb ages of detrital zircons diagnostic of a sediment provenance reversal, from Indian to Asian sources. The timing of the transition is bracketed between ~60 Ma and 58.5 ± 0.6 Ma by detrital zircon U-Pb ages and zircon U-Pb ages from a tuffaceous bed in the upper part of the section. In the context of a palinspastically restored regional paleogeographic framework, data from the Sangdanlin section combined with previously published data from the northern Tethyan Himalaya and the frontal Nepalese Lesser Himalaya and Subhimalaya suggest that a flexural wave migrated ~1300 km southward across what is now the Himalayan thrust belt from Paleocene time to the present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T51H..04H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T51H..04H"><span>Exploring the Brittle-Ductile Transition at the Base of the Seismogenic Zone of the Crust in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> California: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Crustal Rheology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hauksson, E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We use 35 years of <span class="hlt">southern</span> California waveform relocated seismicity and refined focal mechanisms to analyze the heterogeneity in seismicity in the context of geophysical crustal properties. First, we analyze the spatial heterogeneity in the seismogenic thickness across <span class="hlt">southern</span> California. To determine the seismogenic thickness, we calculate the statistical properties of seismicity iso-surfaces near major faults as well as across <span class="hlt">southern</span> California: 1) 5% shallow depth (D5%); 2) mean and median focal depths; 3) the D95% and D99% focal depths at the bottom of the seismogenic zone; 4) b-values; and 5) changes in the state of stress. Almost no seismicity occurs at shallow depths between ~1 and ~3 km which is likely caused by the predominance of velocity strengthening friction. As confining pressure increases with depth within the seismogenic zone, the rate of seismicity changes because the macroscopic behavior of crustal rocks becomes more ductile. At the base the seismogenic zone, where ductile behavior and velocity strengthening co-exist, the rate of decay of seismicity reflects changes in thickness of the brittle-ductile transition zone. Second, to image the rheology of the brittle-ductile transition, we also analyze focal mechanisms of adjacent earthquakes that may exhibit a decrease in the internal friction angle as pressure increases with depth, near the bottom of the seismogenic zone. We search for such a weak zone in the lower crust using the horizontal moment tensor element of focal mechanisms to map decreasing horizontal shear tractions at the base of the seismogenic zone, especially beneath major Principal Slip Zones (PSZs). We interpret our results in the context of the previously determined regional velocity structure, crustal thickness, proximity to major PSZs as well as geophysical parameters of the crust such as heat flow and tectonic strain rate. The new interpretation provides an image of the seismogenic thickness and brittle-transition zone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23275975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23275975"><span>Organochlorine contaminants in blubber from stranded marine mammals collected from the Northern Oregon and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Washington coasts: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for re-introducing California Condors, Gymnogyps californianus, in Oregon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gundersen, Deke T; Duffield, Deborah A; Randall, Tina; Wintle, Nate; D'Alessandro, Dalin N; Rice, James M; Shepherdson, David</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Re-introduction of California Condors into Oregon is currently being considered, but there are concerns about the safety of potential food sources of this species. Condors are opportunistic feeders and a largely available food source for this species will be stranded marine mammal carcasses. We analyzed 37 blubber samples from 7 different marine mammal species collected from the Oregon and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Washington coasts for 18 organochlorine (OC) pesticides and 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) was the most prevalent OC contaminant, making up more than 58 % of the total OC concentration measured. There were no significant differences in OC content between species or sexes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SedG..216...29B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SedG..216...29B"><span>Record of Cenozoic sedimentation from the Amanos Mountains, <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Turkey: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the inception and evolution of the Arabia-Eurasia continental collision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boulton, Sarah J.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The sedimentary succession of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Amanos Mountains, bordering the eastern margin of the Karasu Rift in south central Turkey, provides a record of environmental change from the Eocene (Lutetian) to the Upper Miocene (Tortonian) that charts the final evolution of the northern margin of the Arabian plate prior to and during continental collision. Eocene shallow-marine carbonates (Hacıdağı Formation) are interpreted as the youngest unit of the Arabian passive margin succession deposited on a northwards facing carbonate ramp. Subsequent deformation and uplift took place during the Oligocene represented by folding of the Eocene and older strata. This is interpreted to be the result of initial continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. Unconformably overlying the Eocene limestone are Lower Miocene conglomerates, sandstones and palaeosols up to 150 m thick (Kıcı Formation). These were deposited in a range of marginal marine settings consisting of alluvial fan/fan delta facies, flood plain as well as basinal facies. Subsequently, during the Middle Miocene, local patch reefs developed in restricted areas (Kepez Formation) followed by Upper Miocene sediments (Gökdere Formation) composed of relatively deep water hemipelagic marl, with clastic interbeds, which represent a transgression during this period. The Upper Miocene becomes sandier upwards, this records the regression from the relatively deep water facies to coastal sediments. Water depth gradually became shallower until during Pliocene time the area became continental in nature. By the Quaternary rifting had resulted in the development of the Karasu Rift with active alluvial fans along the margins and braided rivers depositing coarse conglomerates in the axial zone. These conglomerates are interbedded with basaltic lava flows that resulted from the region extension across the area. This research shows that initial continental collision occurred in this area after the Lutetian (40.4 Ma) and before</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5675B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5675B"><span>Record of Cenozoic sedimentation from the Amanos Mountains, <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Turkey: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the inception and evolution of the Arabia-Eurasia continental collision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boulton, S. J.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The sedimentary succession of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Amanos Mountains, bordering the eastern margin of the Karasu Rift in south central Turkey, provides a record of environmental change from the Eocene (Lutetian) to the Upper Miocene (Tortonian) charting the final evolution of the northern Arabian plate margin prior to, and during, continental collision. Eocene shallow-marine carbonates (Hacıdağı Formation) are interpreted as the youngest unit of the Arabian passive margin succession deposited on a northwards facing carbonate ramp. Subsequent deformation and uplift took place during the Oligocene represented by folding of the Eocene and older strata. Unconformably overlying the Eocene limestone are Lower Miocene conglomerates, sandstones and palaeosols up to 150 m thick (Kıcı Formation). These were deposited in a range of marginal marine settings consisting of alluvial fan, flood plain and shallow marine/lower shoreface environments interpreted as a ‘fan-delta' prograding from the uplifted proto-Amanos into a marine embayment. Subsequently, during the Middle Miocene, local patch reefs developed in restricted areas (Kepez Formation) followed by Upper Miocene sediments (Gökdere Formation) composed of deeper water marine marl, with clastic interbeds, which represents a transgression during this period. The Upper Miocene becomes sandier upwards, this records the regression from the relatively deep water facies to coastal sediments. Water depth gradually became shallower until during the Pliocene the area became continental. By the Quaternary rifting had resulted in the development of the Karasu Rift with active alluvial fans along the margins and braided rivers depositing coarse conglomerates in the axial zone. These conglomerates are interbedded with basaltic lava flows that resulted from the regional extension across the area. This research shows that initial continental collision occurred in this area after the Lutetian (40.4 Ma) and before the Aquitanian (23.03 Ma</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.aquaticinvasions.net/2013/issue4.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.aquaticinvasions.net/2013/issue4.html"><span>Spatio-temporal spawning and larval dynamics of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in a North Texas Reservoir: <span class="hlt">implications</span> for invasions in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Churchill, Christopher John</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Zebra mussels were first observed in Texas in 2009 in a reservoir (Lake Texoma) on the Texas-Oklahoma border. In 2012, an established population was found in a near-by reservoir, Ray Roberts Lake, and in June 2013, settled mussels were detected in a third north Texas reservoir, Lake Lewisville. An established population was detected in Belton Lake in September 2013. With the exception of Louisiana, these occurrences in Texas mark the current <span class="hlt">southern</span> extent of the range of this species in the United States. Previous studies indicate that zebra mussel populations could be affected by environmental conditions, especially increased temperatures and extreme droughts, which are characteristic of surface waters of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> and southwestern United States. Data collected during the first three years (2010–12) of a long-term monitoring program were analyzed to determine if spatio-temporal zebra mussel spawning and larval dynamics were related to physicochemical water properties in Lake Texoma. Reproductive output of the local population was significantly related to water temperature and lake elevation. Estimated mean date of first spawn in Lake Texoma was approximately 1.5 months earlier and peak veliger densities were observed two months earlier than in Lake Erie. Annual maximum veliger density declined significantly during the study period (p < 0.0001). A population crash occurred as a result of thermal stress and variability of lake elevation. In summer 2011, water temperatures peaked at 34.3°C and lake elevation declined to the lowest level recorded during the previous 18 years, which resulted in desiccation of substantial numbers of settled mussels in littoral zones. Veliger spatial distributions were associated with physicochemical stratification characteristics. Veligers were observed in the deepest oxygenated water after lake stratification, which occurred in late spring. Results of this study indicate environmental conditions can influence variability of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSAES..58....9L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSAES..58....9L"><span>Provenance of the Passo Feio complex, Dom Feliciano Belt: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the age of supracrustal rocks of the São Gabriel Arc, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lopes, Carina Graciniana; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Gruber, Leonardo; Armstrong, Richard; Junges, Sergio</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The Passo Feio complex (PFC) is a sequence of metapelite, amphibolite, metavolcanic/metavolcanoclastic rocks, marble, calc-silicate rocks, quartzite and magnesium schist. It is part of the São Gabriel Terrane, a Neoproterozoic juvenile arc formed during the early stages of evolution of the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB), in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Brazil. This belt corresponds to the southernmost portion of the Mantiqueira Province, an important Neoproterozoic orogenic system exposed in the NNE direction along the southeastern coast of Brazil. The geotectonic significance of the original Passo Feio basin in the tectonic evolution of São Gabriel Terrene is not well understood. It has been considered as part of a passive margin sequence or as a back-arc sequence. Geochronological and isotopic data are very scarse for the Passo Feio rocks and this has hampered the better understanding of its significance in the Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of <span class="hlt">southern</span> Brazil. In the present study the age and significance of metasedimentary rocks of the PFC were investigated. The provenance study was carried out in four metapelite samples from the <span class="hlt">southern</span> and northern Passo Feio complex, using U-Pb dating of detrital zircon. The results showed varied provenance patterns and zircon ages range from 3637 to 803 Ma. Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic detrital zircon grains are present in all samples, but an important Neoproterozoic population has been identified in one of them. 3.5 Ga old zircon grains form the oldest population of detrital zircon ever reported in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Brazil. Paleoproterozoic/Archean terranes within the Rio de la Plata Craton may represent the main source of detrital sediments and this suggests that part of the Passo Feio complex might have been a passive margin sequence, developed along the northeastern margin of that paleocontinent. However, the presence of a Neoproterozoic zircon population is not consistent with derivation solely from the craton and indicates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22006264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22006264"><span>Anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk (<span class="hlt">southern</span> Baltic Sea, Poland) and its environmental <span class="hlt">implications</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hampel, Miriam; Mauffret, Aourell; Pazdro, Ksenia; Blasco, Julian</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is a group of anionic surfactants employed in the formulation of laundry and cleaning products, with a global production rate of 4 million metric tons. Sediments from the Polish coast of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Baltic Sea were collected at ten stations. Total LAS concentrations, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, were between 0.04 and 0.72 mg LAS·kg(-1) dry weight. Highest LAS concentrations were found in suspended matter collected from the Vistula River, sediment collected close to the Vistula River mouth and from the Gdańsk Deep, known as the depositional area. With the obtained environmental LAS concentrations, a risk assessment for this surfactant has been carried out, based on publicly available acute and chronic toxicity data in target organisms. The results indicated that LAS could pose a low risk for the existing benthic community applying worst case scenario assessment. This is the first time that levels of LAS have been measured in environmental samples of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Baltic Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3499786','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3499786"><span>Combined structural interventions for gender equality and livelihood security: a critical review of the evidence from <span class="hlt">southern</span> and eastern Africa and the <span class="hlt">implications</span> for young people</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gibbs, Andrew; Willan, Samantha; Misselhorn, Alison; Mangoma, Jaqualine</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Young people in <span class="hlt">southern</span> and eastern Africa remain disproportionately vulnerable to HIV with gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities being key drivers of this. Behavioural HIV prevention interventions have had weak outcomes and a new generation of structural interventions have emerged seeking to challenge the wider drivers of the HIV epidemic, including gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities. Methods We searched key academic data bases to identify interventions that simultaneously sought to strengthen people's livelihoods and transform gender relationships that had been evaluated in <span class="hlt">southern</span> and eastern Africa. Our initial search identified 468 articles. We manually reviewed these and identified nine interventions that met our criteria for inclusion. Results We clustered the nine interventions into three groups: microfinance and gender empowerment interventions; supporting greater participation of women and girls in primary and secondary education; and gender empowerment and financial literacy interventions. We summarise the strengths and limitations of these interventions, with a particular focus on what lessons may be learnt for young people (18–24). Conclusions Our review identified three major lessons for structural interventions that sought to transform gender relationships and strengthen livelihoods: 1) interventions have a narrow conceptualisation of livelihoods, 2) there is limited involvement of men and boys in such interventions, 3) studies have typically been done in stable populations. We discuss what this means for future interventions that target young people through these methods. PMID:22713350</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSG....64...39B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSG....64...39B"><span>New c. 270 kyr strike-slip and uplift rates for the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Alpine Fault and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the New Zealand plate boundary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barth, N. C.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Beu, A. G.; Murray-Wallace, C. V.; Hayward, B. W.; Mildenhall, D. C.; Lee, D. E.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Along 100 km of the Alpine Fault, major valleys and glacial deposits can be matched across an 8000 m dextral offset. We use paleontologic and stratigraphic age constraints to date c. 270 ka marine sediments uplifted to 600 m elevation and overlying c. 270 ka glacial deposits related to the 8000 m dextral offset. These constraints yield a fault-proximal Australian plate uplift rate of 2.6 (-0.5/+0.4) mm/yr and an Alpine Fault dextral slip rate of 29.6 (-2.5/+4.5) mm/yr. Our rates resolve an apparent along-strike drop in strike-slip rate and instead support a relatively constant along-strike dextral slip rate of ˜28 mm/yr (˜80% of current Australian-Pacific plate boundary motion). We argue that the rate of dextral slip on the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Alpine Fault has been relatively constant over the last ≥3.5 myr, and that ductile fault processes may rate-limit the fault from accommodating a progressively higher percentage of plate boundary motion through time (i.e., the fault reached maturity long ago). The spatiotemporally constant strike-slip rate of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Alpine Fault and a previously published paleoseismic record of near-regular earthquake recurrence both characterize the Alpine Fault as a mature plate boundary fault zone that behaves in a constant way with behavior predictable over timescales of thousands and hundreds of thousands of years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Icar..175..320R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Icar..175..320R"><span>Tectonic and kinematic study of a strike-slip zone along the <span class="hlt">southern</span> margin of Central Ovda Regio, Venus: Geodynamical <span class="hlt">implications</span> for crustal plateaux formation and evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Romeo, Ignacio; Capote, Ramón; Anguita, Francisco</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>The tectonic system of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> margin of Central Ovda Regio, a crustal plateau which straddles Venus equator, has been interpreted as a dextral strike-slip array, on the basis of evidence clearly identifiable, as are Riedel fracture patterns of different scales, en échelon folds and brittle strike-slip faults. This transcurrent regime developed two main shear belts (Inner and Outer, on respectively thicker and thinner crust), whose minimum dextral displacement has been estimated in 30-50 km. Since the up or downwelling models for plateau formation cannot easily explain tectonic shears of this magnitude along their margins, an alternative hypothesis has been built, which stands on the proposed collisional belt which could form Ovda northern border (King et al., 1998, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 29, Abstract 1209; Tuckwell and Ghail, 2002, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 33, Abstract 1566). Within this framework, the shear would represent a transcollisional transcurrent zone, similar to the strike-slip zones produced in the foreland of the Himalayas-Tibet collision front. Eastern Ovda would be an independent area of thickened crust, pushed to the SSE by the northern collision, with the deformation concentrated at its margins, and experiencing a shear strain on its <span class="hlt">southern</span> margin. None of the data, however, either supports nor helps to discard theoretical subduction events as a cause of the collision. On the contrary, image relationships could be interpreted as evidence that the main shear deformation took place during the last global resurfacing event on the planet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823063"><span>Incarcerated Black Women in the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> USA: A Narrative Review of STI and HIV Risk and <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Future Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pelligrino, Nicole; Zaitzow, Barbara H; Sothern, Melinda; Scribner, Richard; Phillippi, Stephen</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Incarcerated black women in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> USA are understudied despite the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These incarceration and health disparities are rooted in centuries of historically inequitable treatment. Amidst the current dialogue on mass incarceration in the south and its relationship to the health of the black community, individual and environmental risk factors for STI/HIV transmission are seldom paired with discussions of evidence-based solutions. A narrative review of the literature from January 1995 to May 2015 was conducted. This sample of the literature (n = 18) revealed that partner concurrency, inconsistent condom use, sex work, previous STI, and drug abuse augmented individual STI/HIV risk. Recommended interventions include those which promote healthier relationships, cultural competence, and gender specificity, as well as those that enhance prevention skills. Policy recommendations include improving cultural sensitivity, cultural competence, and cultural humility training for clinicians, as well as substantially increasing funding for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitative services. These recommendations are timely given the recent national attention to incarceration, STI, and HIV disparities, particularly in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> USA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.6881D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.6881D"><span>Carbonate saturation state of surface waters in the Ross Sea and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean: controls and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the onset of aragonite undersaturation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DeJong, H. B.; Dunbar, R. B.; Mucciarone, D.; Koweek, D. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Predicting when surface waters of the Ross Sea and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to biogenic carbonate minerals is challenging in part due to the lack of baseline high-resolution carbon system data. Here we present ~ 1700 surface total alkalinity measurements from the Ross Sea and along a transect between the Ross Sea and <span class="hlt">southern</span> Chile from the austral autumn (February-March 2013). We calculate the saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr) and calcite (Ω Ca) using measured total alkalinity and pCO2. In the Ross Sea and south of the Polar Front, variability in carbonate saturation state (Ω) is mainly driven by algal photosynthesis. Freshwater dilution and calcification have minimal influence on Ω variability. We estimate an early spring surface water ΩAr value of ~ 1.2 for the Ross Sea using a total alkalinity-salinity relationship and historical pCO2 measurements. Our results suggest that the Ross Sea is not likely to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite until the year 2070.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....12.8429D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....12.8429D"><span>Carbonate saturation state of surface waters in the Ross Sea and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean: controls and <span class="hlt">implications</span> for the onset of aragonite undersaturation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DeJong, H. B.; Dunbar, R. B.; Mucciarone, D. A.; Koweek, D. A.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Predicting when surface waters of the Ross Sea and <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to biogenic carbonate minerals is challenging in part due to the lack of baseline high resolution carbon system data. Here we present ~ 1700 surface total alkalinity measurements from the Ross Sea and along a transect between the Ross Sea and <span class="hlt">southern</span> Chile from the austral autumn (February-March 2013). We calculate the saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr) and calcite (ΩCa) using measured total alkalinity and pCO2. In the Ross Sea and south of the Polar Front, variability in carbonate saturation state (Ω) is mainly driven by algal photosynthesis. Freshwater dilution and calcification have minimal influence on Ω variability. We estimate an early spring surface water ΩAr value of ~ 1.2 for the Ross Sea using a total alkalinity-salinity relationship and historical pCO2 measurements. Our results suggest that the Ross Sea is not likely to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite until the year 2070.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/1757j/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/1757j/report.pdf"><span>Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi</p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p>For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27899952','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27899952"><span>Prognostic and predictive <span class="hlt">implications</span> of Sokal, Euro and EUTOS scores in chronic myeloid leukaemia in the imatinib era-experience from a tertiary oncology centre in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuntegowdanahalli, Lakshmaiah Chinnagiriyappa; Kanakasetty, Govind Babu; Thanky, Aditi Harsh; Dasappa, Lokanatha; Jacob, Linu Abraham; Mallekavu, Suresh Babu; Lakkavalli, Rajeev Krishnappa; Kadabur, Lokesh N; Haleshappa, Rudresha Antapura</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder. Over the years many prognostic models have been developed to better risk stratify this disease at baseline. Sokal, Euro, and EUTOS scores were developed in varied populations initially receiving various therapies. Here we try to identify their predictive and prognostic <span class="hlt">implication</span> in a larger population of Indian patients with CML-CP (chronic phase) in the imatinib era.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T21A2807Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T21A2807Z"><span>Kinematic Evolution of fold-and-thrust Belts in the Yubei Area: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the Tectonic Events of Ordovician at the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Tarim Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>As a response to tecto-orogenic processes of the South Altun and the West Kunlun (Monlar P, 1975; He Bizhu, 2011), early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tarim craton was distinctively one of the extensions and was followed by compression (Morris W.Leighton, 1990; Gao Zhiqian, 2015). From the late Ordovician, the Yubei area developed distinctively NE-SW trending fold-and-thrust belts in rows which were eroded and deformed through multiphase tectonic movement (Dengfa He, 2007), with similarities and dissimilarities between each other rows in many aspects, at the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Tarim inner basin (Fig. 1). The northern of Hetian paleo-uplift and the northwestern of NE-trending folds zone on Caledonian in Tangguzibasi depression should be favorable to the potential exploration area for the first large-scale period of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation (Brown LF, 1979). In this contribution, based on geophysical log, core and 2D/3D seismic data, we constructed its tectonic geometry morphology, controlled by detailed chronostratigraphic framework. According to the fault-related fold theory, rows of asymmetric fault-propagation folds grew in the Yubei area during the late Caledonian period, with the evidence of interpreted growth strata from the high resolution 3D seismic data (Suppe J et al., 1990). That intercontinental tecto-orogenic events from <span class="hlt">southern</span> Tarim basin, leading to the transformation of its margins, affected inner basin at that time, modified the basin into the Tarim metacraton (Jean-Paul Liégeois, 2013; Zieglar P.A., 1998). Correlating the four tectonic groups of the identified with the axis variation of strata and fold amplitude distribution showed that fault evolution progressed in several superimposed stages: Precambrian, late Ordovician to early Carboniferous (Zhao Zongju, 2009), Carboniferous to Permian, Cenozoic. Analyzing the sedimentary development and structure evolution the tectonic paleo-geographic setting is reconstructed, providing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JSAES..29..400M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JSAES..29..400M"><span>Illite authigenesis in sandstones of the Guaritas Allogroup (Early Paleozoic): <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the depositional age, stratigraphy and evolution of the Camaquã Basin (<span class="hlt">Southern</span> Brazil)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maraschin, Anderson José; Mizusaki, Ana Maria; Zwingmann, Horst; de Borba, André Weissheimer; Sbrissa, Gesiane Fraga</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Several analytical studies performed on alluvial-eolian sandstones of the Early Paleozoic Guaritas Allogroup (Camaquã Basin, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Brazil) indicate illite to be abundant, showing different morphologies as authigenic grain rims and pore-bridging filaments. Authigenic illite separates of variable grain sizes from distinct stratigraphic intervals of the Guaritas Allogroup yielded 40K- 40Ar ages from 521.7 ± 10.3 to 473.7 ± 9.4 Ma. These ages, interpreted to record the timing of illite authigenesis, are coincident with the age of emplacement of the Rodeio Velho andesites (470 ± 19 Ma). Moreover, field structures suggest interaction between hot, andesite lava flows and wet, poorly consolidated sediments of the Pedra Pintada Alloformation (lower strata of the Guaritas Allogroup). This set of data indicates that the Rodeio Velho volcanism could have been responsible for a widespread remobilization of interstitial fluids and consequent authigenic illite precipitation in the sandstones of the Guaritas Allogroup.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011epsc.conf.1798V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011epsc.conf.1798V"><span>Mineralogical study of the hyper-arid Mars like-soils from Pampas de La Joya, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Peru and its <span class="hlt">implications</span> in the geochemistry of dry environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valdivia-Silva, J. E.; Ortega, F.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The Pampas de La Joya is located in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Peru between 16°S and 17°S latitude and is part of the hyper-arid region of the Atacama Desert. Recently, this place has acquired an increased interest by astrobiology community because it presents Marslike soils regarding with the very low levels of organic matter, high oxidant activity, marked driest conditions, and very low levels of microorganisms. This work describes petrology, X-ray diffraction, and EDS-electron microscopy of 119 samples collected on the surface and shallow subsurface of the desert. The samples were divided in six types of soil due to its physical properties. Overall, our results show that the detrital components of the soils come essentially from the Andean volcanic chain and local outcrops of Precambriam gneisses and Cretaceous granitic batholiths. Current and past microclimates allowed the formation of paleolakes and the consequent heterogeneous deposits of evaporitic minerals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T44A..05D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T44A..05D"><span>A New Estimate for Total Offset on the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> San Andreas Fault: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for Cumulative Plate Boundary Shear in the Northern Gulf of California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Darin, M. H.; Dorsey, R. J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Development of a consistent and balanced tectonic reconstruction for the late Cenozoic San Andreas fault (SAF) in <span class="hlt">southern</span> California has been hindered for decades by incompatible estimates of total dextral offset based on different geologic cross-fault markers. The older estimate of 240-270 km is based on offset fluvial conglomerates of the middle Miocene Mint Canyon and Caliente Formations west of the SAF from their presumed source area in the northern Chocolate Mountains NE of the SAF (Ehlig et al., 1975; Ehlert, 2003). The second widely cited offset marker is a distinctive Triassic megaporphyritic monzogranite that has been offset 160 ± 10 km between Liebre Mountain west of the SAF and the San Bernadino Mountains (Matti and Morton, 1993). In this analysis we use existing paleocurrent data and late Miocene clockwise rotation in the eastern Transverse Ranges (ETR) to re-assess the orientation of the piercing line used in the 240 km-correlation, and present a palinspastic reconstruction that satisfies all existing geologic constraints. Our reconstruction of the Mint Canyon piercing line reduces the original estimate of 240-270 km to 195 ± 15 km of cumulative right-lateral slip on the <span class="hlt">southern</span> SAF (sensu stricto), which is consistent with other published estimates of 185 ± 20 km based on correlative basement terranes in the Salton Trough region. Our estimate of ~195 km is consistent with the lower estimate of ~160 km on the Mojave segment because transform-parallel extension along the southwestern boundary of the ETR during transrotation produces ~25-40 km of displacement that does not affect offset markers of the Liebre/San Bernadino correlation located northwest of the ETR rotating domain. Reconciliation of these disparate estimates places an important new constraint on the total plate boundary shear that is likely accommodated in the adjacent northern Gulf of California. Global plate circuit models require ~650 km of cumulative Pacific-North America (PAC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27595617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27595617"><span>Mercury contamination in <span class="hlt">Southern</span> New England coastal fisheries and dietary habits of recreational anglers and their families: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> to human health and issuance of consumption advisories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, David L; Williamson, Patrick R</p> <p>2017-01-15</p> <p>Total mercury (Hg) was measured in coastal fishes from <span class="hlt">Southern</span> New England (RI, USA), and Hg exposure was estimated for anglers and family members that consumed these resources. Fish Hg was positively related to total length (n = 2028 across 7 fish species), and interspecies differences were evident among legally harvestable fish. Many recreational anglers and their families experienced excessively high Hg exposure rates, which was attributed to the enriched Hg content of frequently consumed fishes. Specifically, 51.5% of participants in this study had Hg exposures exceeding the US EPA reference dose, including 50.0% of women of childbearing years. These results are noteworthy given that Hg neurotoxicity occurs in adults and children from direct and prenatal low-dose exposure. Moreover, this study underscores the need for geographic-specific research that accounts for small-scale spatial variations in fish Hg and dietary habits of at-risk human populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JGR...10123063A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JGR...10123063A"><span>Mapping Precambrian structures in the Sahara Desert with SIR-C/X-SAR radar: The Neoproterozoic Keraf Suture, NE <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Stern, Robert J.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>A major N-trending Neoproterozoic suture between composite arc terranes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield in the east and older crust of the Nile Craton to the west is inferred to trend N-S close to the Nile in northern <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. We used shuttle imaging radar (SIR) C/X synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to find and map these structures in the poorly known Keraf Suture which are not apparent on visible or near IR imagery due to extensive sand cover. L band (23 cm wavelength) radar images best resolve geologic structure; the other frequencies of the SIR-C/X-SAR system (X and C bands) permit qualitative evaluation of the effects of surface versus subsurface backscattering. Interpretation of L band images supported by field work indicates that the Keraf Suture is ~50 km wide and >550 km long, making it the longest basement structure recognized to date in NE Africa. The northern part of the Suture comprises ophiolitic rocks which were thrust westward over tightly folded sediments of the Nile Craton. The <span class="hlt">southern</span> Keraf Suture is dominated by N- and NNW-trending, left-lateral strike-slip faults that affect previously deformed passive margin sediments. Associated with these faults are NE-trending transpressional folds and a possible transtensional basin. These structures are interpreted to be due to NW-SE oblique collision between the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the Nile Craton, as east and west Gondwana collided in the last 150 m.y. of Neoproterozoic time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Tecto..21.1013E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Tecto..21.1013E"><span>Caltepec fault zone: An Early Permian dextral transpressional boundary between the Proterozoic Oaxacan and Paleozoic Acatlán complexes, <span class="hlt">southern</span> Mexico, and regional tectonic <span class="hlt">implications</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elías-Herrera, Mariano; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Fernando</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>The tectonic boundary between the Grenville-age Oaxacan and Paleozoic Acatlán crystalline complexes in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Mexico, named the Caltepec fault zone (CFZ), is characterized for the first time as a dextral transpressional, NNW trending and ENE dipping ductile fault zone of Early Permian age. The complexes are welded by a syntectonic magmatic epidote-bearing granite along the entire length of the CFZ. From east to west, the 2-6 km wide CFZ consists of disrupted and retrograded banded gneisses of the Oaxacan complex, quartz-feldspar mylonite, and the syntectonic magmatic epidote-bearing Cozahuico granite (CZG) with huge xenoliths (up to several kilometers long and up to 600 m wide) of the Proterozoic gneisses, thrust westward over metasedimentary tectonites of the Acatlán complex. The CZG shows magmatic fabrics that represent a transition to solid-state deformation characterized by subvertical foliation, subhorizontal NNE and SSE dipping mineral stretching lineation and dextral kinematics. The megaxenoliths underwent partial melting developing banded migmatites with layers of epidote-bearing granitic neosome. The parallelism of fabrics in these anatexitic rocks and in the enclosing deformed granite suggests that ductile deformation, migmatization of xenolithic gneisses, and granite emplacement along the CFZ were coeval. The neosome yielded a U-Pb zircon concordant age of 275.6 +/- 1 Ma probably dating the peak of the tectonothermal event. We interpret the CFZ as a major terrane boundary accommodating transpressional interaction between the Acatlán and Oaxaquia blocks, which were amalgamated in an oblique convergent setting by Early Permian time, as the leading edge of Gondwana impinged onto the <span class="hlt">southern</span> margin of Laurentia along the Marathon-Ouachita suture to form Pangea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Litho.256..311C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Litho.256..311C"><span>Petrogenesis of early Jurassic basalts in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Jiangxi Province, South China: <span class="hlt">Implications</span> for the thermal state of the Mesozoic mantle beneath South China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cen, Tao; Li, Wu-xian; Wang, Xuan-ce; Pang, Chong-jin; Li, Zheng-xiang; Xing, Guang-fu; Zhao, Xi-lin; Tao, Jihua</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Early Jurassic bimodal volcanic and intrusive rocks in <span class="hlt">southern</span> South China show distinct associations and distribution patterns in comparison with those of the Middle Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the area. It is widely accepted that these rocks formed in an extensional setting, although the timing of the onset and the tectonic driver for extension are debated. Here, we present systematic LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope data for bimodal volcanic rocks from the Changpu Formation in the Changpu-Baimianshi and Dongkeng-Linjiang basins in <span class="hlt">southern</span> Jiangxi Province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks erupted at ca. 190 Ma, contemporaneous with the Fankeng basalts (~ 183 Ma). A compilation of geochronological results demonstrates that basin-scale basaltic eruptions occurred during the Early Jurassic within a relatively short interval (< 5 Ma). These Early Jurassic basalts have tholeiitic compositions and OIB-like trace element distribution patterns. Geochemical analyses show that the basalts were derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle, dominated by a volatile-free peridotite source. The calculated primary melt compositions suggest that the basalts formed at 1.9-2.1 GPa, with melting temperatures of 1378 °C-1405 °C and a mantle potential temperature (TP) ranging from 1383 °C to 1407 °C. The temperature range is somewhat hotter than normal mid-ocean-basalt (MORB) mantle but similar to an intra-plate continental mantle setting, such as the Basin and Range Province in western North America. This study provides an important constraint on the Early Jurassic mantle thermal state beneath South China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP43A1565D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP43A1565D"><span>The upper lithostratigraphic unit of ANDRILL AND-2A core (<span class="hlt">Southern</span> McMurdo Sound, Antarctica): local Pleistocene volcanic sources, paleoenvironmental <span class="hlt">implications</span> and subsidence in the <span class="hlt">southern</span> Victoria Land Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Del Carlo, P.; Panter, K. S.; Bassett, K. N.; Bracciali, L.; di Vincenzo, G.; Rocchi, S.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We report results from the study of the uppermost 37 meters of the <span class="hlt">Southern</span> McMurdo Sound (SMS) AND-2A drillcore, corresponding to the lithostratigraphic unit 1 (LSU 1), the most volcanogenic unit within the core. Nearly all of LSU 1 consists of volcanic breccia and sandstone that is a mixture of near primary volcanic material dominated by lava and vitric clasts with minor exotic material derived from distal basement sources. Lava clasts and glass are mafic and range from strongly alkaline (basanite, tephrite) to moderately alkaline (alkali basalt, hawaiite) compositions that are similar to nearby land deposits. 40Ar-39Ar laser step-heating analyses on groundmass separated from lava clasts yield Pleistocene ages (692±38 and 793±63, ±2σ internal errors). Volcanoes of the Dailey Island group, located ~13 km SW of the drillsite, are a possible source for the volcanic materials based on their close proximity, similar composition and age. A basanite lava flow on Juergens Island yields a comparable Pleistocene age of 775±22 ka. Yet there is evidence to suggest that the volcanic source is much closer to the drillsite and that the sediments were deposited in much shallower water relative to the present-day water depth of 384 mbsl. Evidence for local volcanic activity is based in part on the common occurrence of delicate vitriclasts (e.g. glass shards and Pele’s hair) and a minimally reworked ~2 meter thick monomict breccia that is interpreted to have formed by autobrecciating lava. In addition, conical-shaped seamounts and high frequency magnetic anomalies encompass the drillsite and extend south including the volcanoes of the Dailey Islands. Sedimentary features and structures indicate shallow water sedimentation for the whole of LSU 1. Rippled asymmetric cross-laminated sands and hummocky cross-stratification occur intermittently throughout LSU 1 and indicate water depths shallower than 100 meters. The occurrence of ooliths and layers containing siderite and Fe</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25836683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25836683"><span>Examination frequency and population dose from medical X-ray examinations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> in 2010.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suliman, I I; Ibraheem, S B; Youssif, B E; Abdelgabar, M I; Gafar, R; Elshiekh, E; Ahmed, Nada A; Sulieman, A</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>This study was performed to estimate examination frequency and collective and per caput effective doses arising from medical X-ray procedures in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>, 2010. Information was collected from 30 hospitals performing radiography, computed tomography (CT), fluoroscopy and interventional radiology (IR) procedures. The estimated annual number of examinations was 33 million radiographic X-ray procedures (99 %), 0.34 million CT exams per year (14 % paediatrics CT), 0.02 million fluoroscopy and IR procedures. The estimated annual number of examinations was 326 per 1000 people. The estimated annual collective and per caput effective doses from medical X-ray procedures mount 7197 man Sv and 0.18 mSv, respectively. The study offered the first projection of frequency and population dose from medical X-ray examinations in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> and provides estimates of the impact of the medical X-ray procedures at the national level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70179622','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70179622"><span>Procedures for woody vegetation surveys in the Kazgail rural council area, Kordofan, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Falconer, Allan; Cross, Matthew D.; Orr, Donald G.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Efforts to reforest parts of the Kordofan Province of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> are receiving support from international development agencies. These efforts include planning and implementing reforestation activities that require the collection of natural resources and socioeconomic data, and the preparation of base maps. A combination of remote sensing, geographic information system and global positioning systems procedures are used in this study to meet these requirements.Remote sensing techniques were used to provide base maps and to guide the compilation of vegetation resources maps. These techniques provided a rapid and efficient method for documenting available resources. Pocket‐sized global positioning system units were used to establish the location of field data collected for mapping and resource analysis. A microcomputer data management system tabulated and displayed the field data. The resulting system for data analysis, management, and planning has been adopted for the mapping and inventory of the Gum Belt of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=index+AND+Green&pg=2&id=EJ455034','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=index+AND+Green&pg=2&id=EJ455034"><span><span class="hlt">Southern</span> Exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schueler, Donald G.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Discusses results of a Green Index, published by the Institute for <span class="hlt">Southern</span> Studies, that ranks the 50 states on the basis of 256 environmental indicators. Explores how and why the deep South states are all at the bottom of the list. A vignette provides a comparison between state hazardous waste generation and spending on waste management. (MCO)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA285313','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA285313"><span>Arthropod-Borne Viral Infectious Associated with a Fever Outbreak in the Northern Province of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Chikungunya (CHIK) and 5 % for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic Fever ( CCHF ) viruses. Antibody prevalences tended to increase with age for WN and YF viruses...for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic Fever ( CCHF ) viruses. Antibody prevalences tended to increase with age for WN and YF viruses. Antibody rates were...distribution of arboviral IgG antibody in the Northern Province of <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Antibody No. pos. (%) Age No. of (years) subjects DEN-2 WN YF RVF SFN SFS CCHF</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6764065','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6764065"><span>Bagasse-fired steam boiler station for Kenana Sugar in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1981-02-01</p> <p>The equipment and operation of the bagasse fired steam boiler station of the Kenana Sugar factory in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> are described. The station consists of six bagasse-fired, steam boilers with individual capacities of 113 tonnes per hour which provide steam for a 40 MN power station. During the off-season it serves as a regional power station which also operates irrigation facilities to the cane fields. The bagasse handling and feeding system is also described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26978872','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26978872"><span>MY EXPERIENCE OF TEACHING PHACOSURGERY ON VISALIS 100 IN <span class="hlt">SUDAN</span> AND NIGERIA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dnyanmote, Santosh</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>At the invitation of the director of The National Eye Center, Kaduna, Nigeria and The Makkah Eye Hospital of Khartoum, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> I visited both these institutions to teach phacoemulsification surgery to their aspiring surgeons on Visalis 100 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany). This article highlights the experience of teaching phacoemulsification surgery in foreign African countries like Nigeria and <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. In Nigeria I had the opportunity to give training in both wet lab and live surgery settings whereas in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> only hands-on live surgery. <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> being an Islamic nation pigs are not slaughtered there and hence no pig eyes. Goat eyes differ significantly from human eyes and hence have almost no value in wet lab teaching. The training program included theoretical discussions, wet lab, surgery and finally discussions related to the days' surgery. It became clear that quality of learning depends on three main factors. Thorough understanding of theory and observation of senior surgeons in operation room Good wet lab and finally doing the surgery oneself in step by step manner. Dedicated teachers and instructors can make all the difference. The learning curve also significantly shortens if the trainees are exposed to all types of cataract surgery like ECCE, SICS and phacoemulsification surgery. The main problem faced by those surgeons who have done only ECCE/SICS is that they are not used to handling microscope and instruments in both hands at the same time. Hence I strongly recommend them wet lab where they can sit and practice using both hands and feet and microscope simultaneously and in coordinated fashion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27230426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27230426"><span>Levels of pesticides residues in the White Nile water in the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nesser, Gibreel A A; Abdelbagi, Azhari O; Hammad, Ahmed Mohammed Ali; Tagelseed, Mirghani; Laing, Mark D</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Twenty-two commonly used pesticides were monitored during autumn, winter, and summer of 2004-2005 in 27 water samples from three sites along the White Nile in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> (former <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>). Sites were selected to reflect pesticides gathered from drainage canals in central <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> and from upstream sources. Collected samples were extracted and subjected to gas chromatographic analysis. Pesticides levels were measured in nanograms per liter. Pesticides residues were detected in 96 % of the samples with a total residue burden of 4132.6 ng L(-1), and an overall mean concentration and range of 50.99 and not detected-1570 ng L(-1), respectively. Ororganochlorines were the most frequently detected contaminants, which were found in 70 % of the samples, causing a total burden of 2852.8 ng L(-1), followed by pyrethroids 15 % of the samples, with a total burden of 926.5 ng L(-1). The tested herbicides were detected in ˂4 % of the samples with a total burden of 353.3 ng L(-1), while organophosphorus levels were below the detection limit. The most frequent contaminants were the following: heptachlor and its epoxide (52 % of samples), followed by DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes) (DDT and DDE, in 19 % of the samples), cypermethrin and fenvalerate (in 11 % of the samples), and pendimethalin (in <4 % of the samples). Residues of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (α, β, γ and δ), endosulfan (α and β), p, p-DDD, λ cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and oxyfluorfen were not detected in the analyzed samples. Generally, levels were least in autumn, and followed by summer and winter. Sources of contamination might include agricultural lands in central <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> and upstream sources. Both recent and old contaminations were indicated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24821265','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24821265"><span>Cancer incidence in Khartoum, <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>: first results from the Cancer Registry, 2009-2010.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saeed, Intisar E; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Mohamed, Kamal H; Mohammed, Sulma I</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>In 2009, the first National Population-based Cancer Registry (NCR) was established in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>. We report in this study, the first data from the NCR for Khartoum State for the period 2009-2010. The NCR staff used passive and active approaches to collect data on cancer diagnosed by all means in Khartoum State. Rates were age standardized to the 2010 <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Standard Population and 1966 and 2000 World Standard Population and expressed per 100,000 populations. During 2009-2010, 6771 new cancer cases were registered. Of those, 3646 (53.8%) cases were in women and 3125 (46.2%) were in men. The most commonly diagnosed cancer among women was breast followed by leukemia, cervix, and ovary, and among men it was prostate cancer followed by leukemia, lymphoma, oral, colorectal, and liver. In children less than 15 years of age, leukemia was the most common cancer followed lymphoma, and cancer of the eye, bone, kidney, and the brain. The overall age-standardized rate (ASR) per 100,000 population was higher in women (124.3) than in men (90.8) using 2010 <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Standard Population. Similarly, it was higher in women (188.6 and 206.3 per 100,000 population) than in men (145.4 and 160.0 per 100,000 population) using 1966 and 2000 World Standard Population, respectively. The data from NCR indicated that prostate and breast as the most commonly diagnosed cancer sites in men and women in Khartoum, while cancer of the cervix trailed behind portraying a cancer picture similar to that of the developed world. Despite the study limitations, the NCR data gave a fair representation of cancer profile of Khartoum State and underscored the need for high-quality cancer registries in <span class="hlt">Sudan</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270255','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270255"><span>A Qualitative Analysis of the Spontaneous Volunteer Response to the 2013 <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> Floods: Changing the Paradigm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Albahari, Amin; Schultz, Carl H</p> <p>2017-03-08</p> <p>Introduction While the concept of community resilience is gaining traction, the role of spontaneous volunteers during the initial response to disasters remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the debate, investigators examined the activities of a spontaneous volunteer group called Nafeer after the <span class="hlt">Sudan</span> floods around the city of Khartoum in August of 2013. Hypothesis Can spontaneous volunteers successfully initiate, coordinate, and deliver sustained assistance immediately after a disaster?</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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