Science.gov

Sample records for southwest ocean dredged-material

  1. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  2. Dredged Material Testing and Evaluation for Ocean Disposal

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Evaluation and testing of dredged material proposed for ocean dumping is conducted to help protect human health and the marine environment. National guidance is provided by the Green Book. Regional Implementation Manuals are provided.

  3. 78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation... designate the Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site pursuant to the draft EIS, ``Designation of the Atchafalaya River Bar Channel Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Pursuant to Section 102(c...

  4. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. )

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  5. 78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation...) Atchafalaya-West Ocean Disposal Site (ODMDS-West) as a permanent MPRSA Section 102(c) ocean dredged material... Management and Monitoring Plan E. Ocean Dumping Site Designation Criteria --General Selection Criteria...

  6. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from MOTBY

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The National Park Service, US Department of the Interior requested U.S. Army Corps of Engineers/New York District (USACE-NYD) to evaluate sediments around the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY) in Bayonne, New Jersey for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from MOTBY. Tests and analyses were conducted on MOTBY sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from MOTBY included grain size and total organic carbon (TOC) analyses and one acute toxicity test with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita. In addition to this benthic toxicity test, a bioaccumulation test (28-day exposure) was conducted.

  7. Ocean Dumping Report for Calendar Year 1984. Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    ME 142 C-3 CHELSEA RIVER , MA 146 C-4 FLUSHING BAY & CREEK (*9) i11 C-S MORRIS CANAL IS4 C-6 N.Y. & N.J. CHANNELS (*93) SOUTH OF SHOOTERS IS. CHAN. 156...COQUILLE RIVER , OR 2cF7 C-46 COLUMBIA R. 9 MOUTH, OR & WA 259 C-47 SIUSLAW RIVER , OR 261 C-48 UMPQUA RIVER . OR 263 C-49 YAQUINA BAY & HARBOR, OR 26S C-50...3. Country of origin of wastes and port of loading: a. United States of America b. Umpqua River , Oregon 4. Specification of dredged material and

  8. Ocean Dumping Report for Calendar Year 1983. Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    at Mouth, OR & WA 230 C-45 Rogue River , OR 232 C-46 Siuslaw River , OR 234 C-47 Umpqua River , OR 236 C-48 Yaquina Bay & Hrb, OR 238 C-49 Nome, AK...America b. Umpqua River , Oregon 4. Specification of dredged material and process from which derived: a. Description: Sand (SP) b. Mode of dredging...Building Ft. Belvoir, VA 22060-5586 C-31 Calcasieu River and Pass, LA (Gulf Approach Channel) 204 C-32 Gulf Intracoastal Water - Trib. Ch. to Port Mansfield

  9. 77 FR 63312 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in Eastern Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... AGENCY Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in Eastern Long... potential designation of one or more Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) to serve the eastern Long... Environmental Management; and Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  10. Tier 1 ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters

    SciTech Connect

    Shreffler, D.K.; Thorn, R.M.; Walls, B.E.; Word, J.Q.

    1994-01-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99--662) authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) -- San Francisco District, to accommodate larger, deeper draft vessels in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors by deepening and widening the existing navigation channel, and providing turning basins and maneuvering areas in Oakland inner Harbor. The suitability of the resulting dredged material for disposal into ocean waters was subject to the procedures of the 1991 Testing Manual, Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal, known as the ``Green Book``. The Green Book provides a tiered approach for testing the suitability of dredged materials through chemical, physical, and biological evaluations. The first level of investigation, or Tier 1 evaluation, is used to determine whether a decision on LPC compliance can be made on the basis of readily available information. The Tier 1 report primarily summarizes existing information on sediment contamination and toxicity potential, identifies contaminants of concern, and determines the need for further testing. To assist the USACE in determining the suitability of dredged material from Oakland inner and Outer Harbors for ocean disposal, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory prepared this Tier 1 report based upon information and data provided by USACE. Because this Tier 1 report originated well after an LPC determination was made to require testing of project sediments in Tier 3, the primary purpose of this report was to identify contaminants of concern (if any) in that particular dredged material. In addition, this Tier 1 report summarizes available information on chemical, physical, and biological characterization of the sediments in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors.

  11. Application of a hazard assessment research strategy to the ocean disposal of a dredged material: Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, J.H.; Pesch, G.G.; Dillon, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    Under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has responsibility for establishing and applying criteria for reviewing and evaluating permits for dumping wastes into the ocean, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) has responsibility for issuing permits for the disposal of dredged material into the ocean. After several years of operational experience, the EPA and the COE have reexamined the strengths and weaknesses of the permit program and the general state of the art in sediment testing for the evaluation of the disposal of dredged material into the marine environment. The chapter describes a predictive hazard assessment strategy and decision rationale for disposal that can be used as the basis for revisions both in the ocean dumping regulations and in the permitting program.

  12. Draft Site Management and Monitoring Plan for Corpus Christi Maintenance and New Work Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    USEPA Region 6 and the US Army Corps of Engineers submit for public comment the Draft Site Management and Monitoring Plan for Corpus Christi Maintenance and New Work Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

  13. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Shark River Project area

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Shark River Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Tests and analyses were conducted on the Shark River sediments. The evaluation of proposed dredged material consisted of bulk sediment chemical and physical analysis, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests. Individual sediment core samples collected from the Shark River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One sediment composite was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate, prepared from suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Shark River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs. Benthic acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests were performed.

  14. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS OF THE U.S. AND OCEAN WATERS § 336.2 Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. (a) Applicable law. Section 103(a) of the ODA provides that the Corps of...

  17. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS OF THE U.S. AND OCEAN WATERS § 336.2 Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. (a) Applicable law. Section 103(a) of the ODA provides that the Corps of...

  18. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. 336.2 Section 336.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS OF THE U.S. AND OCEAN WATERS § 336.2 Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters. (a) Applicable law. Section 103(a) of the ODA provides that the Corps of...

  19. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  20. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Westchester Creek project area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the Westchester Creek project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from this area to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Westchester Creek was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Westchester Creek project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic acute and water-column toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Thirteen individual sediment core samples were collected from this area and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample representing the Westchester Creek area to be dredged, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended- particulate phase (SPP) of the Westchester Creek sediment composite, was analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  1. Impact of the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site on nearby hard bottom reef habitats.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Stacie E; Gayes, Paul T; Viso, Richard F; Bergquist, Derk C; Jutte, Pamela C; Van Dolah, Robert F

    2010-05-01

    The deepening of shipping and entrance channels in Charleston Harbor (South Carolina, USA) was completed in April 2002 and placed an estimated 22 million cubic yards (mcy) of material in the offshore Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS). To determine if sediments dispersed from the ODMDS were negatively affecting invertebrate and/or finfish communities at hard bottom reef areas around the disposal area, six study sites were established: three close to and downdrift of the ODMDS and three upcurrent and farther from the ODMDS. These sites were monitored biannually from 2000 to 2005 using diver surveys and annually using simultaneous underwater video tows and detailed sidescan-sonar. In general, the sediment characteristics of downdrift sites and reference sites changed similarly over time. Overall, the hard bottom reef areas and their associated communities showed little evidence of degradation resulting from the movement of sediments from the Charleston ODMDS during the study period.

  2. 75 FR 54497 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... at the site will be limited to a maximum of 1 million cubic yards (764,555 cubic meters) per calendar...). However, all dredged material must be discharged within a smaller 3,280 foot (1,000 meter) diameter...,790 feet (2,680 meters). D. Disposal Volume Limit G-DODS is designated for a maximum annual dredged...

  3. Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal at the Historic Area Remediation Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance presents the sediment testing guidelines and requirements to be used by applicants who wish to obtain a Department of the Army permit from the USACE-New York District for dredging and placement of dredged material at the HARS in the Atlantic Ocean

  4. Spatial Analysis of Sediment Grain Size in the Vicinity of the Canaveral Harbor Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    the Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDSs) designated by the EPA pursuant to Section 102 of MPRSA. MPRSA, the Water Resources Development Act...However due to the sampling design , Vann’s study did not detect the area of fines in the in the southeast portion of the study area. This indicates that

  5. 75 FR 39523 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... AGENCY Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of... Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the designation of an ODMDS off the mouth... an EIS to designate a new ODMDS offshore the mouth of the St. Johns River. The EIS will provide the...

  6. 76 FR 43685 - Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in the Gulf of Mexico Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... AGENCY Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in the Gulf of Mexico Off the Mouth... of an ODMDS in the Gulf of Mexico off the mouth of the Atchafalaya River, St. Mary Parish, LA... the designation of an ODMDS in the Gulf of Mexico off the mouth of the Atchafalaya River, St. Mary...

  7. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Eastchester Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Tokos, J.J.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Eastchester project (Federal Project [FP] No. 6) was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area in the Hutchinson River to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Eastchester was one of seven waterways that the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water- column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Eighteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Eastchester project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two composite sediment samples, representing the upstream and lower reaches of the area proposed for dredging, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the two Eastchester sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. An additional 1 1 composite samples were created for the USACE-New England Division (USACE-NED) using the same 18 Eastchester core samples but combined into different composites. These composites were analyzed for metals, chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners, PAHS, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed along with bioaccumulation tests.

  8. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Bronx River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the Bronx River project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Bronx River project area in Bronx, New York, to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Bronx River was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USAGE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and to evaluate for dredging and disposal. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Fifteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Bronx River project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample, representing the entire reach of the area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which was prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Bronx River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  9. Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Authorization and Short-Term FATE (STFATE) Model Analysis: 2014-2015 Working Group Findings Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    ER D C TR -1 6- 2 Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Authorization and Short-Term FATE (STFATE) Model Analysis 2014 – 2015...at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC TR-16-2 March 2016 Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Authorization and Short...waters of the United States and ocean waters is a shared responsibility of the USACE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the Marine

  10. Southeast Regional Implementation Manual for Requirements and Procedures for Evaluation of the Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material in Southeastern U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coast Waters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Regional Implementation Manual was prepared by EPA Region 4 to provide guidance for applicants proposing open-water disposal of dredged material in southeastern U.S. coastal waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

  11. Site Management and Monitoring Plan (SMMP) for the Los Angeles/Long Beach, Newport and San Diego Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites, CA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This SMMP is intended to provide management and monitoring strategies for disposal in the Los Angeles/Long Beach (LA-2), Newport (LA-3) and San Diego (LA-5) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites in California.

  12. Site Management and Monitoring Plan (SMMP) for the Mouth of Columbia River- Deep and Shallow Water Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites, OR/WA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This SMMP is intended to provide management and monitoring strategies for disposal in the Mouth of Columbia River- Deep and Shallow Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites on the border of Oregon and Washington.

  13. Draft Site Management and Monitoring Plan, Corpus Christi Site Management and Monitoring Plan for Maintenance and New Work Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    USEPA Region 6 and the US Army Corps of Engineers submit for comment this Draft Site Management and Monitoring Plan, Corpus Christi Site Management and Monitoring Plan for Maintenance and New Work Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

  14. Long-term benthic infaunal monitoring at a deep-ocean dredged material disposal site off Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, James A.; Maciolek, Nancy J.; Ota, Allan Y.; Williams, Isabelle P.

    2009-09-01

    One hundred and thirty-five benthic infaunal samples were collected from the San Francisco Deep-Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS) over a 10-year period from January 1996 to September 2004. Each sample was 0.1 m 2, cut to a depth of 10 cm, and sieved through a 300-μm mesh. A total of 810 species of benthic invertebrates were identified; the majority of taxa (65.4%) new to science. The fauna represents a rich lower slope infaunal assemblage that rivals similarly studied locations in the western North Atlantic. No regional impact or degradation of benthic infauna due to dredged material disposal was detected. All reference stations and stations on the site boundary maintained high species richness and diversity during the monitoring period. Exceptions included an occasional sample with anomalously high numbers of one or two species that reduced the diversity and/or equitability. Within SF-DODS species richness and diversity were often reduced. Stations within the disposal site were recolonized by the same taxa that normally occurred in adjacent reference areas. Initial colonizers of fresh dredged material included spionid and paraonid polychaetes that were typical dominants at the site. At least one polychaete species, Ophelina sp. 1, sometimes colonized dredged materials containing coarse sand. One sample at Station 13, located in the middle of SF-DODS (September 2002), contained 57 species of benthic invertebrates, suggesting that colonization of fresh dredged material is rapid. It seems unlikely that larval dispersal and settlement account for this rapid recolonization; therefore it is postulated that adult organisms from adjacent areas move to the disturbed sites via boundary layer currents. The steep continental slope adjacent to SF-DODS is subject to turbidity flows and the resident fauna are likely pre-adapted to rapidly colonize disturbed sediments. Larval dispersal, especially by spionid polychaetes such as Prionospio delta, may also be important in colonizing

  15. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Port Chester, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Port Chester was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Tests and analyses were conducted on Port Chester sediment core samples. Because the Port Chester area is located on the border between New York and southeast Connecticut, its dredged material may also be considered for disposal at the Central Long Island Sound Disposal Site. The sediment evaluation consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and dredged material elutriate preparations, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Port Chester were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. In addition, sediment was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

  16. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Buttermilk Channel, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Buttermilk Channel was one of seven waterways that was sampled and evaluated for dredging and sediment disposal. Sediment samples were collected and analyses were conducted on sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. A composite sediment samples, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  17. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, M.E.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-07-01

    This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the proposed disposal of Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point (MOTSU), North Carolina, sediments in the ocean. The report is divided into five sections. Section 1.0 is the introduction containing a brief overview of the study and the study objectives. Section 2.0 describes the methods and materials used for sample collection, processing, toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, physical/chemical analysis of sediments and tissues, data analysis, and quality assurance procedures. Section 3.0 presents the results of field collections, sediment chemistry, toxicological testing, and tissue chemistry resulting from bioaccumulation exposures. Section 4.0 presents a discussion of the results and summary conclusions concerning the acceptability of the Wilmington Harbor and MOTSU dredged material for ocean disposal. Section 5.0 lists the literature cited in support of this document. A series of appendixes contain detailed data listings.

  18. Utilizing gamma isotope tracers to determine sediment source at reef sites near the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Scott E; Jutte, Pamela C

    2006-06-01

    The Charleston, South Carolina Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) has been heavily utilized as a disposal site for dredged material resulting from maintenance and channel deepening in the Charleston Harbor. Continuous monitoring by the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources at the ODMDS has indicated the presence of fine-grained sediment within the monitoring zones. However, since the Charleston Harbor is formed by the conjunction of three rivers, it has been suggested that some of the fine-grained sediment surrounding the ODMDS could be due to river transport rather than solely by disposal activities. In order to trace the outflow of sediment from the harbor, natural and man-made isotopes were utilized. (7)Be (natural cosmogenic isotope) and (137)Cs (man-made isotope) are often associated with estuarine sediments. Both isotopes were used as tracers in an attempt to determine the extent of density driven sediment flow from the Charleston Harbor. (7)Be was detected in many of the offshore sampling stations indicating a direct correlation to the harbor. (137)Cs was only found in one sediment trap sample offshore, but none the less indicated some transport from the harbor. Further study for utilizing isotopic tracers in determining offshore sediment transport is still being conducted at the disposal site. It is anticipated that further (7)Be and (137)Cs isotopic monitoring offshore Charleston will aid in determining the role that tidal and density driven sediments play in the sediment budgets at the hard bottom reef sites.

  19. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  20. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... excavated from the navigable waters of the United States, and their disposal into ocean waters is regulated.... Dredged material consists primarily of natural sediments or materials which may be contaminated by... not been contaminated by such pollution. (c) When dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does not...

  1. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hudson River, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    The Hudson River (Federal Project No. 41) was one of seven waterways that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Sediment samples were collected from the Hudson River. Tests and analyses were conducted on Hudson River sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hudson River included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Hudson River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). A composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of Hudson River sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed with three species. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  2. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from South Brother Island Channel, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    South Brother Island Channel was one of seven waterways that the US Army Crops of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal. Tests and analyses were conducted on South Brother Island Channel sediment core samples and evaluations were performed. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from South Brother Island Channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Souther Brother Island Channel were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. a composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particle phase of South Brother Island Channel sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  3. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineering (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 1 of a two-volume data report that presents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as a full presentation of data and results in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 contains the remaining data in Appendixes I through L.

  4. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 2 of a two-volume data report that represents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as data and results presented in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 includes the remaining data presented in Appendixes I through L.

  5. Draft Site Management and Monitoring Plan, Mississippi River, Southwest Pass, Louisiana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Joint Public Notice and Notice of Availability for Draft Mississippi River, Southwest Pass, Louisiana Site Management and Monitoring Plan for the Maintenance Dredging Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

  6. Dispersion Analysis of Charleston, South Carolina, Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    coral reef areas. Two levels of investigation were employed. A short-term analysis of the disposal operation was conducted to examine the immediate fate of material following release from the barge and subsequent descent to the ocean bottom. The second phase examines the long-term fate to determine whether local ocean currents are capable of eroding and transporting deposited material from the site to the reef area. Results of this study indicate the site to be dispersive and recommendations are made as to locations within the designated limits which will minimize the

  7. United States of America Ocean Dumping Report for Calendar Year 1981. Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    PAY Marks. edg Material from Ccm~odores Point Term~ CERTIFICATE Of AWALYSIS GZ TEUT5 RtECErVflNG ATv!R 5TA±DAPD rLUJTRLATF -C14) " arcury 0.0002 Mg/i...Acartia sp. : Control LP 100% Comment ’ , 24 hours 9.33 9.33 Not s,gnificant (t =i 4-24 .96"hours = 7.67 7.33 hot sipnificant (t = 𔃺.27). r. .. , _1" 25...and criteria: a. Liquid Phase test results -A(1) Nutrients: Hot tested. Meets criteria of Section 227.13 (b) (1) - ocean dumping rules and

  8. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Federal Projects in New York and New Jersey and the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY)

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Kohn, N.P.; Gruendell, B.D.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Rosman, L.B.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is authorized by Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, and by the Clean Water Act of 1972 (CWA) and Amendments of 1977 to permit, evaluate, and regulate the disposal of dredged material in ocean waters to minimize adverse environmental effects. Compliance with the regulations of the MPRSA calls for physical and biological testing of sediment proposed for dredging prior to its disposal in ocean waters. The testing required by the MPRSA criteria is conducted under a testing manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the `Green Book.` Testing protocols in the Green Book include bulk sediment analysis, grain size analysis, elutriate testing, and biological testing. The biological testing includes bioassays for acute toxicity as well as analysis to determine bioaccumulation of certain contaminants by marine organisms. The objective of the USACE-NYD Federal Projects Program was to evaluate sediment proposed for dredging and unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. The results of analytical measurements and bioassays performed on the test sediments were compared with analyses of sediment from the Mud Dump Reference Site to determine whether the test sediments were acutely toxic to marine organisms or resulted in statistically significantly greater bioaccumulation of contaminants in marine organisms, relative to the reference sediment. Testing for the federal project areas was performed according to the requirements.

  9. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... not been contaminated by such pollution. (c) When dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does not....13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact §...

  10. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... not been contaminated by such pollution. (c) When dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does not....13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact §...

  11. Beneficial Use of Dredged Material

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An important goal of managing dredged material is to ensure that the material is used or disposed of in an environmentally sound manner.Most of this dredged material could be used in a beneficial manner instead.

  12. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

  13. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

  14. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 2, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.

  15. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.

  16. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 225.2 Section 225.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.2 Review of Dredged Material Permits. (a) The District Engineer shall send a copy of the public notice to the appropriate Regional Administrator, and set...

  17. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 225.2 Section 225.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.2 Review of Dredged Material Permits. (a) The District Engineer shall send a copy of the public notice to the appropriate Regional Administrator, and set...

  18. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... municipal or industrial wastes or by runoff from terrestrial sources such as agricultural lands. (b) Dredged... existing and historical sources of pollution so as to provide reasonable assurance that such material has not been contaminated by such pollution. (c) When dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does not...

  19. ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL INTO OCEAN WATERS; IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL FOR SECTION 103 OF PUBLIC LAW 92-532 (MARINE PROTECTION, RESEARCH, AND SANCTUARIES ACT OF 1972)

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to Section 103 of Public Law 92-532 (Marine Protection ,Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972), any proposed dumping of dredged material into ocean waters must be evaluated through the use of criteria published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i n the Federa...

  20. ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL INTO OCEAN WATERS; IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL FOR SECTION 103 OF PUBLIC LAW 92-532 (MARINE PROTECTION, RESEARCH, AND SANCTUARIES ACT OF 1972)

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to Section 103 of Public Law 92-532 (Marine Protection ,Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972), any proposed dumping of dredged material into ocean waters must be evaluated through the use of criteria published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i n the Federa...

  1. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of ocean dumping in Pacific Southwest, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  2. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project). Volume 1, Background and appendixes A through H

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineering (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 1 of a two-volume data report that presents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as a full presentation of data and results in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 contains the remaining data in Appendixes I through L.

  3. An environmental assessment of the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site and surrounding areas after partial completion of the Charleston Harbor Deepening Project.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Lynn E; Jutte, Pamela C; Van Dolah, Robert F

    2003-11-01

    A project to deepen shipping and entrance channels in Charleston Harbor was conducted from 1999 to 2002. This generated approximately 22 million cubic yards of sediment for offshore disposal. Assessments of biological and physical conditions in the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site and surrounding areas were conducted prior to deepening (1993-94), and partway through the disposal period (2000). Results from the 2000 survey are presented and compared to the baseline survey. The study area was composed of the disposal zone and surrounding areas and divided into 20 one square mile strata. Within each stratum, benthic grab samples were collected from ten random sites for analysis of sediment composition and contaminants and macrobenthic assemblages. No contaminant levels were above effects range low levels. Results revealed that sediments in the western strata had significantly higher silt/clay content in the 2000 survey when compared to baseline sediments, while sediments east of the disposal zone were similar to baseline. Analyses were performed on a subset of the benthic data that compared baseline to 2000 conditions in western and eastern strata. The benthic communities in western strata were altered following disposal operations. The benthic community east of the disposal area was not different from baseline conditions. These alterations in the benthic community were attributed to changes in bottom habitat characteristics rather than pollution effects.

  4. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project). Volume 2, Appendixes I through L

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 2 of a two-volume data report that represents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as data and results presented in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 includes the remaining data presented in Appendixes I through L.

  5. An Assessment of the Potential Impacts on Zooplankton and Fish of Ocean Dredged Material at the Norfolk Disposal Site.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-07

    and lowest in fall and winter. Most species had extensive spatial distributions related to water temperature and distance from shore. The importance of...spatial and temporal distribution of ichthyoplankton and blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) larvae at the disposal site, and in the ocean waters adjacent to...2.1.2 Transport in Coastal Ocean Waters a........so***............ 2-1 2.1.3 Seasonal Stratification .......................... 2-5 2.2 SEDIMENT

  6. Acoustic mapping of the regional seafloor geology in and around Hawaiian ocean dredged-material disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torresan, Michael E.; Gardner, James V.

    2000-01-01

    During January and February 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Team (USGS) conducted regional high-resolution multibeam mapping surveys of the area surrounding EPA-designated ocean disposal sites located offshore of the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. The sites are all located within 5 nautical miles of shore on insular shelves or slopes. Regional maps were required of areas much larger than the disposal sites themselves to assess both the regional seafloor geology and the immediate vicinity of the disposal sites. The purpose of the disposal site surveys was to delimit the extent of disposal material by producing detailed bathymetric and backscatter maps of the seafloor with a ± 1 m spatial accuracy and <1% depth error. The advantage of using multibeam over conventional towed, single-beam sidescan sonar is that the multibeam data are accurately georeferenced for precise location of all imaged features. The multibeam produces a coregistered acoustic-backscatter map that is often required to locate individual disposal deposits. These data were collected by the USGS as part of its regional seafloor mapping and in support of ocean disposal site monitoring studies conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE).

  7. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 2 of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Strand, J.A.; Kohn, N.P.; Squires, A.L. )

    1990-09-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 to deepen and widen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California, to accommodate modern deep-draft vessels. The recommended plan consists of deepening the harbor channels from the presently authorized water depth of {minus}35 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) to {minus}42 ft MLLW and supplying the harbor with adequate turning basins and berthing areas. Offshore ocean disposal of the dredged sediment is being considered, provided there is no evident of harmful ecological effects. It harmful ecological effects are not evident then the appropriate certifications from state environmental quality agencies and concurrence from the Environmental Protection Agency can be obtained to allow disposal of sediment. To help provide the scientific basis for determining whether Oakland Harbor sediments are suitable for offshore disposal, the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) collected sediment cores from 23 stations in Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, evaluated these sediment cores geologically, performed chemical analyses for selected contaminants in sediments, conducted a series of solid phase toxicity tests with four sensitive marine invertebrates and assessed the bioaccumulation potential of sediment-associated contaminants in the tissues of Macoma Nasuta. 43 refs., 26 figs., 61 tabs.

  8. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  9. Review of technical documents supporting revisions to the portion of EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) ocean-dumping regulations relating to the ocean disposal of dredged materials. Report of the Environmental Engineering Committee. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-14

    Although the Committee is in agreement with the EPA that there are significant differences in the properties of most sewage sludge and dredged materials, significant exceptions exist. Clearly defined, consistent, rigorous, and peer-reviewed procedures must exist to identify these exceptions. The EPS Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection maintains that existing procedures for evaluating dredged materials (under Part 227.13) are adequate; however, based on the documents provided to the Committee, a rigorous protocol for identifying exceptions do not appear to exist.

  10. Federal Standard: Beneficial Use of Dredged Material

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this document is to provide national guidance that explains the role of the Federal Standard in implementing beneficial uses of dredged material from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ new and maintenance navigation projects.

  11. Dredged Material Research: Notes, News, Reviews, etc

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    MARRIAGE OF MARICULTURE AND MATERIAL (DREDGED THAT IS!) In August 1974 the Dow Chemical Company submitted an unsolicited proposal to the DMRP for an...34Investigation of Mariculture as an Alternative Use of Dredged Material Containment Areas." Since the unique, innovative approach proposed was...advantages and disadvantages for the landowners and the Government f80880 of combining dredged material disposal with mariculture , and evaluate

  12. DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL USE OF DREDGED MATERIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    STERN, E.A.; LODGE, J.; JONES, K.W.; CLESCERI, N.L.; FENG, H.; DOUGLAS, W.S.

    2000-12-03

    Our group is leading a large-sale demonstration of dredged material decontamination technologies for the New York/New Jersey Harbor. The goal of the project is to assemble a complete system for economic transformation of contaminated dredged material into an environmentally-benign material used in the manufacture of a variety of beneficial use products. This requires the integration of scientific, engineering, business, and policy issues on matters that include basic knowledge of sediment properties, contaminant distribution visualization, sediment toxicity, dredging and dewatering techniques, decontamination technologies, and product manufacturing technologies and marketing. A summary of the present status of the system demonstrations including the use of both existing and new manufacturing facilities is given here. These decontamination systems should serve as a model for use in dredged material management plans of regions other than NY/NJ Harbor, such as Long Island Sound, where new approaches to the handling of contaminated sediments are desirable.

  13. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J A; Word, J Q; Pinza, M R; Mayhew, H L; Barrows, E S; Lefkovitz, L F

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to determine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and three control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged- sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals,, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described in the Draft Implementation manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) test using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredged-sediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaete worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged from 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. Nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments. This report contains the data and test results.

  14. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

  15. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

  16. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Point Frazer Bend Reach, Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.

    1995-02-01

    The port of Georgetown, South Carolina, is served by navigational channels within Winyah Bay and the lower Sampit River. Dredging is required to maintain these waterways and to facilitate normal shipping traffic. Prior to dredging, ecological evaluations must be conducted to determine the suitability of the proposed dredged material for open-ocean disposal. These evaluations are to be performed under Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and, Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), following the testing protocols presented in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal Testing Manual, hereafter referred to as the 1991 Implementation Manual. The Charleston Intensive Project is a reevaluation of sediments collected from two stations (IH-2 and IH-3) in the Frazier Point Bend reach of the Winyah Bay channel. Reference sediment was also collected from site IH-R2, just south of Hare Island. The results of physical/chemical analyses indicated that some contaminants of concern were present in test treatments representing dredged material when compared with the reference treatment IH-R2. The results of this study indicate that, based on the acute toxicity and chemical analyses, dredged material represented by these test treatments is suitable for open-ocean disposal.

  17. Stakeholder engagement in dredged material management decisions.

    PubMed

    Collier, Zachary A; Bates, Matthew E; Wood, Matthew D; Linkov, Igor

    2014-10-15

    Dredging and disposal issues often become controversial with local stakeholders because of their competing interests. These interests tend to manifest themselves in stakeholders holding onto entrenched positions, and deadlock can result without a methodology to move the stakeholder group past the status quo. However, these situations can be represented as multi-stakeholder, multi-criteria decision problems. In this paper, we describe a case study in which multi-criteria decision analysis was implemented in a multi-stakeholder setting in order to generate recommendations on dredged material placement for Long Island Sound's Dredged Material Management Plan. A working-group of representatives from various stakeholder organizations was formed and consulted to help prioritize sediment placement sites for each dredging center in the region by collaboratively building a multi-criteria decision model. The resulting model framed the problem as several alternatives, criteria, sub-criteria, and metrics relevant to stakeholder interests in the Long Island Sound region. An elicitation of values, represented as criteria weights, was then conducted. Results show that in general, stakeholders tended to agree that all criteria were at least somewhat important, and on average there was strong agreement on the order of preferences among the diverse groups of stakeholders. By developing the decision model iteratively with stakeholders as a group and soliciting their preferences, the process sought to increase stakeholder involvement at the front-end of the prioritization process and lead to increased knowledge and consensus regarding the importance of site-specific criteria.

  18. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from St. Andrew Bay, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Kohn, N.P.; Pinza, M.R.; Karle, L.M.; Ward, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Mobile District, requested that the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct field sampling and chemical and biological testing to determine the suitability of potential dredged material for open ocean disposal. Sediment from St. Andrew Bay was chemically characterized and evaluated for biological toxicity and bioaccumulation of contaminants. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material). To meet these requirements, the MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, solid-phase toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation testing on sediment representing potential dredged material from Panama City Harbor. Physical and chemical characterization of sediment to support toxicity and bioaccumulation results was also conducted on both the test and reference sediments. The MSL collected sediment samples from five sites in St. Andrew Bay and one reference site near Lands End Peninsula. The five test sediments and the reference sediment were analyzed for physical and chemical sediment characteristics, SPP chemical contaminants, solid-phase toxicity, SPP toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants.

  19. Collapsed Thunderstorm, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-16

    STS049-71-042 (8 May 1992) --- This photograph, taken from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour, shows a collapsed thunderstorm in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The clouds were pushed from this circular area of the ocean's surface by relatively cool air that spread downward and outward from a dying thunderstorm. Around the edges of the downdrafted air, new, though smaller, storms are developing. The photo was taken on May 8, 1992, between Borneo and the Philippine island of Mindoro. Two coral atolls can be seen near the center of the photograph. The crew members used a handheld Hasselblad camera, 250-mm lens, color film to expose the image.

  20. Collapsed Thunderstorm, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This collapsed thunderstorm was observed over the open ocean (9.0N, 120.0E) between the Philippine island of Mindoro and Borneo, Malaysia. The cleared area in the center is the result of the clouds being driven from there by the sudden rush of katabatic air spreading downward and outward from the dying thunderstorm. Around the edges of the downdrafted air, new though smaller storms are developing. The two small coral atolls are the Tubbataha Reefs.

  1. Informational Webinar on Dredging and Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region 1 and Region 2 informational webinar on dredging and dredged material management in Long Island Sound. Topics include: dredging permit process, dredged material testing, and dredged material disposal.

  2. Variability of the southwest Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P M; Ridderinkhof, Herman; Schouten, Mathijs W

    2005-01-15

    The variability in the southwest Indian Ocean is connected to the basin-scale and global-scale ocean circulation. Two bands of enhanced variability stretch across the Southern Indian Ocean east of Madagascar around 12 degrees S and 25 degrees S, respectively. They mark the preferred routes along which anomalies, generated by varying forcing over the central basin, near the eastern boundary or in the equatorial region, propagate westward as baroclinic Rossby waves. Sea-surface height anomalies pass along the northern tip of Madagascar and are observed by satellite altimetry to propagate into the central Mozambique Channel. There, eddies are subsequently formed that propagate southward into the Agulhas retroflection region. The anomalies along the southern band trigger the formation of large dipolar vortex pairs in the separation region of the East Madagascar Current at the southern tip of the island. South of Africa these eddies and dipoles trigger the shedding of Agulhas Rings that feed the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation with warm, salty, Indian Ocean water. Interannual variability of the forcing over the Indian Ocean, such as that associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole/El Nino climate modes, propagates along these pathways and leads to associated modulations of the eddy transports into the South Atlantic.

  3. Application of Toxicity Identification and Evaluation Procedures for Dredged Material Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    and guidance require the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to evaluate direct, indirect, and cumulative environmental impacts associated with...risks associated with placement of dredged material in a CDF. The USACE Inland Testing Manual and Ocean Disposal Manual provide guidance on a tiered...the mechanism or cause of toxicity) is a critical component for the evaluation of environmental impacts that are associated with many alternative

  4. Analyses of water and dredged material from selected southern Louisiana waterways and selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico, 1976-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallworth, Geraldine R.; Jordan, Helen F.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide water-quality data to evaluate the potential environmental effects of (1) dredging activities in selected navigable waterways of southern Louisiana and (2) the disposal of dredged material at selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico. Areas studied from September 1976 to May 1978 included five ocean disposal sites in the Gulf of Mexico, in addition to the following waterways: Baptiste, Collette Bayou, Mississippi River at Head of Passes and Southwest Pass, Mississippi River at Tiger Pass, Bayou Black, Intracoastal Waterway (Port Allen to Morgan City), and Calcasieu River and Ship Channel. Samples were analyzed for selected chemical, physical, and biological constituents. (USGS)

  5. Beneficial use of dredged material for habitat creation, enhancement, and restoration in New York-New Jersey Harbor.

    PubMed

    Yozzo, David J; Wilber, Pace; Will, Robert J

    2004-10-01

    A comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) has been developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers, New York District (USACE-NYD) and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANY/NJ). The primary objective of the DMMP is to identify cost-effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives for the placement of dredged material derived from ongoing and proposed navigation improvements within the PANY/NJ. A significant portion of this dredged material is classified as unsuitable for open-ocean disposal. One suite of alternatives presented within the DMMP is the beneficial use of dredged material for habitat creation, enhancement, and restoration within the NY/NJ Harbor Estuary. Proposed beneficial use/habitat development projects include the use of dredged material for construction of artificial reefs, oyster reef restoration, intertidal wetland and mudflat creation, bathymetric recontouring, filling dead-end canals/basins, creation of bird/wildlife islands, and landfill/brownfields reclamation. Preliminary screening of the proposed beneficial use alternatives identified advantages, disadvantages, potential volumes, and estimated costs associated with each project type. Continued study of the proposed beneficial use alternatives has identified areas of environmental research or technology development where further investigation is warranted.

  6. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel: Phase 3 -- biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Karle, L.M.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; White, P.J.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The John F. Baldwin Ship Channel is a 28-mile-long portion of the San Francisco Bay to Stockton Ship Channel, the primary shipping lane through San Francisco Bay and Delta. The San Francisco District of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for construction of the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel, which is authorized to be deepened to a project depth of {minus}45 ft relative to mean lower low water (MLLW). Approximately 8.5 million cubic yards (mcy) of sediment will be removed from the channel to reach this project depth. The USACE requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct testing for ocean disposal under the guidelines in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal-Testing Manual (EPA/USACE 1991). This testing manual contains a tiered evaluation approach developed specifically for ocean disposal of dredged material at a selected site. In this study, John F. Baldwin Ship Channel sediments were evaluated under the Tier III (biological) testing guidance, which is considered to be highly stringent and protective of the environment. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects, (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material).

  7. Southwest Atlantic Ocean Marathon Expedition, Leg 8.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    1150.1 2.649 2.770 84 37 27 407 82 778 27.400 7 9 12.210 78 6 1450.2 .2 1171.0 1160 0 2612 2.733 S4 379 27 413 2. 031 27 406 73, 12.214 79654. 1400.2 16.2...AD-R?2 192 SOUTHWEST ATLANTIC OCEAN MARATHON EXPEDITION LEG 9 (U) 1/5MASHINGTON UNIV SEATTLE DEPT OF OC ANOGRAPHY G 1 RODEN ET AL. JUL 86 NISSt4- 84 ...S 41 0.8 W AWS.0 1004.0 22.0o 240 16.1 15.6 30 OCT 84 8 37 40.3 S 41 0.6 W 5035.0 106.8 30.0 o350 17.0 13.8 ~ so OCT 84 9 38 0.4 S 42 0.5 W 5064.0

  8. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Administrator, a statement of the basis for the proposed determination why no previously designated site is... dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6) An estimate of the... composition of the dredged material; and (8) A statement concerning a preliminary determination of the need...

  9. Chemical Clarification Methods for Confined Dredged Material Disposal.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) Approvedl for publico release; distribution unlimited. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the...136. Salinity. The salinity of the sediment water and the bottom water used to suspend and transport the dredged material must be mea- sured or

  10. Identification of Alternative Power Sources for Dredged Material Processing Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    This report provides a basis for selecting alternative, renewable power sources specifically for operating dredged material processing systems. A...obtaining power from solid waste (such as incineration of trash), but was discarded. Of all the alternative power sources studied, wind electric generation seems to be the most practical and versatile to apply at this time.

  11. DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY SITE CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

  12. DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY - ITER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

  13. EPA Proposes Changes to Use of Two Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is proposing to amend its 2005 rule that designated the Central & Western Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites. The proposed amendments will help meet the goal of reducing or eliminating dredged material disposal in the Sound's open waters

  14. DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY - ITER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

  15. DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY SITE CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

  16. Barren Island Dredged Material Placement for Regional Sediment Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    originator . Barren Island Dredged Material Placement for Regional Sediment Management by Robert N. Blama PURPOSE. This Coastal and Hydraulics...via a thin shrub-covered tidal flat. Originally , Barren Island was actually not an island, but rather part of the central Delmarva Peninsula that...orientation. The main geologic component of this peninsula is of clay origin and not silica sediments (sand) typical of coastal islands. Due to this

  17. Dredged Material Management Categories for Tracking Beneficial Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    particularly in threatened ecosystems such as the Mississippi Delta or the South Florida wetlands ” (http://www.asce.org/Content.aspx?id=8638). Furthermore...Shallow water placement for Wetland , Marsh , or Habitat: Dredged material placed below ordinary high water for wetland or marsh nourishment/creation or...other habitat such as bottomland hardwood, salt marsh , swamp, wooded wetland , scrub-shrub, and forested wetland . Benefits can also include storm and

  18. DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM THE PORT OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY.

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

    1999-06-01

    The Port of New York and New Jersey ranks first in the United States in volume of petroleum products handled each year. In addition, many refineries are in operation on the New Jersey side of the Port. These activities have led to the discharge of significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons into the waters of the New York/New Jersey region. Intense industrial and commercial activities have also brought about major inputs of other organic and inorganic contaminants as would be expected in an industrialized, heavily populated urban port. Sediments that then are contaminated are a major problem for the region since they can no longer be disposed of by the traditional method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive dredged material management plan being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. A demonstration decontamination project extending from bench- to field-scale operations is now in progress in the Port, and its current status and relevance for other regions is summarized.

  19. DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM THE PORT OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

    1999-06-01

    The Port of New York and New Jersey ranks first in the US in volume of petroleum products handled each year. In addition, many refineries are in operation on the New Jersey side of the Port. These activities have led to the discharge of significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons into the waters of the New York/New Jersey region. Intense industrial and commercial activities have also brought about major inputs of other organic and inorganic contaminants as would be expected in an industrialized, heavily populated urban port. Sediments that then are contaminated are a major problem for the region since they can no longer be disposed of by the traditional method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive dredged material management plan being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. A demonstration decontamination project extending from bench- to field-scale operations is now in progress in the Port, and its current status and relevance for other regions is summarized.

  20. Ocean Dumping Report for Calendar Year 1982. Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    P-28 Greater NY Terminals 81 P-29 Port Authority of NY/NJ 83 P-30 Colgate /Palmolive Co. 85 P-31 Northville-Linden Terminal 87 P-32 Proctor and Gamble...authority: Division North Atlantic District New York 2. Date issued: November 16, 1981 Permit # 12159 Colgate /Palmolive Co. 3. Country of origin of

  1. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal. Testing Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    from any of four ranges: 0.1-1.0; 1-10; 10-100; or 100-1000. Step 4. From that point, read across to the lefthand vertical axis and select the TBP value...Determination by Administrator, the conditions to be imposed. The Administrator. or such other EPA (c) Review of Corps of Engineers employee as he...Administra- with I 228.4(e). tors or such other EPA employees as they may from time to time designate PART 221-APPUCATIONS FOR in writing, are delegated the

  2. Southwest Indian Ocean Bathymetric Compilation (swIOBC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, L.; Dorschel, B.; Arndt, J. E.; Jokat, W.

    2014-12-01

    As result of long-term scientific activities in the southwest Indian Ocean, an extensive amount of swath bathymetric data has accumulated in the AWI database. Using this data as a backbone, supplemented by additional bathymetric data sets and predicted bathymetry, we generate a comprehensive regional bathymetric data compilation for the southwest Indian Ocean. A high resolution bathymetric chart of this region will support geological and climate research: Identification of current-induced seabed structures will help modelling oceanic currents and, thus, provide proxy information about the paleo-climate. Analysis of the sediment distribution will contribute to reconstruct the erosional history of Eastern Africa. The aim of swIOBC is to produce a homogeneous and seamless bathymetric grid with an associated meta-database and a corresponding map for the area from 5° to 39° S and 20° to 44° E. Recently, multibeam data with a track length of approximately 86,000 km are held in-house. In combination with external echosounding data this allows for the generation of a regional grid, significantly improving the existing, mostly satellite altimetry derived, bathymetric models. The collected data sets are heterogeneous in terms of age, acquisition system, background data, resolution, accuracy, and documentation. As a consequence, the production of a bathymetric grid requires special techniques and algorithms, which were already developed for the IBCAO (Jakobsson et al., 2012) and further refined for the IBCSO (Arndt et al., 2013). The new regional southwest Indian Ocean chart will be created based on these methods. Arndt, J.E., et al., 2013. The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) Version 1.0—A new bathymetric compilation covering circum-Antarctic waters. GRL 40, 1-7, doi: 10.1002/grl.50413, 2013. Jakobsson, M., et al., 2012. The International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) Version 3.0. GRL 39, L12609, doi: 10.1029/2012GL052219.

  3. The Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and climate experiment (SPICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganachaud, A.; Cravatte, S.; Melet, A.; Schiller, A.; Holbrook, N. J.; Sloyan, B. M.; Widlansky, M. J.; Bowen, M.; Verron, J.; Wiles, P.; Ridgway, K.; Sutton, P.; Sprintall, J.; Steinberg, C.; Brassington, G.; Cai, W.; Davis, R.; Gasparin, F.; Gourdeau, L.; Hasegawa, T.; Kessler, W.; Maes, C.; Takahashi, K.; Richards, K. J.; Send, U.

    2014-11-01

    The Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) is an international research program under the auspices of CLIVAR. The key objectives are to understand the Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) dynamics, as well as their influence on regional and basin-scale climate patterns. South Pacific thermocline waters are transported in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC) toward Australia and Papua-New Guinea. On its way, the SEC encounters the numerous islands and straits of the Southwest Pacific and forms boundary currents and jets that eventually redistribute water to the equator and high latitudes. The transit in the Coral, Solomon, and Tasman Seas is of great importance to the climate system because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, while the southward transports influence the climate and biodiversity in the Tasman Sea. After 7 years of substantial in situ oceanic observational and modeling efforts, our understanding of the region has much improved. We have a refined description of the SPCZ behavior, boundary currents, pathways, and water mass transformation, including the previously undocumented Solomon Sea. The transports are large and vary substantially in a counter-intuitive way, with asymmetries and gating effects that depend on time scales. This paper provides a review of recent advancements and discusses our current knowledge gaps and important emerging research directions.

  4. Two bathyal hydroids (Hydrozoa: Leptothecata) from the Southwest Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jeanette E

    2017-03-27

    Two species of hydroids were recovered from a mooring rope and experimentally deployed whale bone attached to an underwater transponder buoy at a depth of 732 m on the Coral Seamount on the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge (41° 22.31'S, 54° 57'E) in the Southern Indian Ocean. The material was collected approximately 1,500 km south south-east of Madagascar during Voyage JC066 of the British Royal Research Ship R.R.S. James Cook on 20/11/2011. Hydroids were collected from the mooring rope and whale bone on board the ship after underwater retrieval by ROV.

  5. A Methodology for Determining Land Value and Associated Benefits Created from Dredged Material Containment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    Definitions 15 CHAPTER III: PRODUCTIVE USES OF DREDGED MATERIAL SITES .... 17 Physical Characteristics 24 Institutional and Legal Constraints 25... definitive information on the environmental effects of dredging and dredged material containment operations. It will develop dredging and...inside of the back cover of this report. Definitions Highest and best use. As commonly employed the term refers to a use of land that maximizes

  6. Lake-dredged materials for beef cattle pasture establishment in subtropics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability to reuse dredge materials for agricultural purposes is important because it reduces offshore disposal and provides an alternative to disposal of the materials in landfills that are already overtaxed. Beneficial uses of dredging or dredged materials are both economical and environmental. ...

  7. Dredged material decontamination demonstration for the port of New York/New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Jones, K W; Feng, H; Stern, E A; Lodge, J; Clesceri, N L

    2001-07-30

    Management of contaminated dredged material is a significant challenge in the Port of New York and New Jersey as a result of more stringent regional ocean placement regulations with escalating costs for upland placement. One component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed by creation of a product suitable for beneficial use. This concept is the focus of a project now being carried out by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 2, the US Army Corps of Engineers, New York District, the US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and regional university groups that have included Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Stevens Institute of Technology. The project has progressed through phased testing of commercial technologies at the bench scale (15 liters) (Marcor, Metcalf & Eddy, Gas Technology Institute, Westinghouse Science & Technology, BioGenesis, International Technology, and BioSafe) and pilot-scale (1.5-500m(3)) (BioGenesis, Gas Technology Institute, and Westinghouse Science & Technology) levels. The technologies developed by Gas Technology Institute and BioGenesis are now going forward to commercial demonstration facilities that are intended to treat from 23000 to 60000m(3) of dredged material during their first operational period in 2001-2002. Beneficial use products are soils and cement. Treatment costs for the final commercial facilities are estimated at US$ 39 per m(3). Selection of the technologies was made based on the effectiveness of the treatment process, evaluation of the possible beneficial use of the treated materials, and other factors. Major elements of the project are summarized here.

  8. Chemical gradients in sediment cores from an EPA reference site off the Farallon Islands - Assessing chemical indicators of dredged material disposal in the deep sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Gill, P.W.; Boothman, W.S.; Taylor, B.B.; Karl, Herman A.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy metal and organic contaminants have been determined in undisturbed sediment cores from the US Environmental Protection Agency reference site for dredged material on the continental slope off San Francisco. As expected, the concentrations are significantly lower than toxic effects guidelines, but concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, Hg, Pb, and Clostridium perfringens (a bacterium spore found in sewage) were nearly two or more times greater in the surface sediments than in intervals deeper in the cores. These observations indicate the usefulness of measuring concentration gradients in sediments at the San Francisco deep ocean disposal site (SF-DODS) where a thin (0.5 cm thick) layer of dredged material has been observed beyond the boundary. This thin layer has not been chemically characterized by the common practice of homogenizing over the top 10 cm. An estimated 300 million cubic yards of dredged material from San Francisco Bay are expected to be discharged at the SF-DODS site during the next 50 years. Detailed depth analysis of sediment cores would add significant new information about the fate and effects of dredged material in the deep sea.

  9. DECONTAMINATING AND PROCESSING DREDGED MATERIAL FOR BENEFICIAL USE

    SciTech Connect

    CLESCERI,N.L.; STERN,E.A.; FENG,H.; JONES,K.W.

    2000-07-01

    Management of contaminated dredged material is a major problem in the Port of New York and New Jersey. One component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed by creation of a product suitable for beneficial use. This concept is the focus of a project now being carried out by the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region 2, the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District, the US Department of Energy-Brookhaven National Laboratory, and regional university groups that have included Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Stevens Institute of Technology. The project has gone through phased testing of commercial technologies at the bench scale (15 liters) and pilot scale (1.5--500 m{sup 3}) levels. Several technologies are now going forward to large-scale demonstrations that are intended to treat from 23,000 to 60,000 m{sup 3}. Selections of the technologies were made based on the effectiveness of the treatment process, evaluation of the possible beneficial use of the treated materials, and other factors. Major elements of the project are summarized here.

  10. Liquid versus solid phase bioassays for dredged material toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Casado-Martínez, M C; Fernández, N; Forja, J M; DelValls, T A

    2007-05-01

    Since 1994 the results of the analyses of key chemical compounds (trace metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and the comparison with the corresponding sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) are used in decision-making for dredged material management in Spain. Nonetheless in the last decades a tiered testing approach is promoted for assessing the physical and chemical characteristics of dredged sediments and their potential biological effects in the environment. Bioassays have been used for sediment toxicity assessment in Spain but few or no experiences are reported on harbour sediments. We studied the incidence of toxicity in the 7 d bioassay using rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) and the 48 h bioassay using sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos over a series of experiments employing 22 different elutriates. The relative performance of this exposure phase was not comparable to data on the 10-d acute toxicity test using the burrowing amphipod Corophium volutator and the polychaete Arenicola marina, carried out on the whole sediments. These results evidence the importance of the exposure route and the test selected in decision-making, as the toxicity registered for the undiluted elutriates was largely due to the different solubility of sediment-bound contaminants. This work and other studies indicate that for many sediments, a complete battery of test is recommended together with physico-chemical analyses to decide whether dredged sediments are suitable for open water disposal or not.

  11. A regional ocean model for the Southwest Pacific Ocean region to assess the risk of storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natoo, N.; Paul, A.; Hadfield, M.; Jendersie, S.; Bornman, J.; de Lange, W.; Ye, W.; Schulz, M.

    2012-04-01

    New Zealand's coasts are not only affected by mid-latitude storms, but infrequently also by storms that originate from the tropics. Projections for the southern hemisphere's southwest Pacific island countries for the 21st century show a poleward shift of the mid-latitude storm tracks, which consequently might result in changes in wind, precipitation and temperature patterns. Furthermore, an increase in frequency of intense storms is expected for the New Zealand region, which will very likely increase the risk of storm surges and flooding of coastal and low-lying regions. We employ the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to assess the changes in the storm climate of the New Zealand region. The model set-up uses a resolution of ~50 km for the Southwest Pacific Ocean "parent domain" and ~10 km for the New Zealand "child domain", to well represent the major eddies that influence the climate of North Island. With the aim to later utilize this nested ocean model set-up as part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere modelling system for the Southwest Pacific Ocean region, results for the 20th century will be presented. The simulated circulation is shown to be largely consistent with the observed regional oceanography.

  12. Tropical cyclone activity over the Southwest Tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Jessica M.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu; Nyadjro, Ebenezer S.; Murty, V. S. N.

    2016-08-01

    The Southwest Tropical Indian Ocean (SWTIO) is a key region for air-sea interaction. Tropical cyclones (TCs) regularly form over the SWTIO and subsurface ocean variability influences the cyclogenesis of this region. Tropical cyclone days for this region span from November through April, and peak in January and February during austral summer. Past research provides evidence for more tropical cyclone days over the SWTIO during austral summer (December-June) with a deep thermocline ridge than in austral summer with a shallow thermocline ridge. We have analyzed the Argo temperature data and HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) outputs while focusing on the austral summer of 2012/2013 (a positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) year and neutral El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) year) when seven named tropical cyclones developed over the SWTIO region. This study reveals that the climatic events like the IOD and ENSO influence the cyclonic activity and number of TC days over the SWTIO. We ascertain that the IOD events have linkages with the Barrier Layer Thickness (BLT) in the SWTIO region through propagating Rossby waves, and further show that the BLT variability influences the cyclonic activity in this region.

  13. The Role of the Federal Standard in the Beneficial Use of Dredged Material

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A guide for USACE Districts, other federal agencies, state agencies, local governments, and private interest groups. The Federal Standard Paper provides guidance on using dredged material as a resource to achieve environmental and economic benefits.

  14. Using sediment quality guidelines for dredged material management in commercial ports from Spain.

    PubMed

    Casado-Martínez, M C; Buceta, J L; Belzunce, M J; Delvalls, T A

    2006-04-01

    Dredged material contamination was assessed in different commercial ports from Spain: Port of Cádiz and Huelva, South West; Bilbao and Pasajes, North; Cartagena and Barcelona, East; Coruña, North West. Sediment from different locations of these ports was sampled and was characterized following the Spanish recommendations for dredged material management. This characterization included grain size distribution, organic matter content and concentration of the chemical compounds included in the list of pollutants and hazardous substances (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn; PCB congeners IUPAC number 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180; PAHs were also analyzed). The results were compared to the limit values of Spanish Action Levels that define the different categories for assessment and management. A set of empirically derived sediment quality guidelines (SQG) was used to assess the possible toxicity of the dredged materials and to improve the use of the chemical approach to characterize dredged material for its management.

  15. Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material Fact Sheet: Project Partners and Decision Makers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Disposal of dredged material is managed and conducted by federal, state, and local governments; private entities; and semi-private entities. Cooperation among these groups strengthens the possibility that suitable materials will be used beneficially.

  16. Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material Case Study: San Francisco Bay Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A major interagency, regional planning effort led to the development of the Long-Term Management Strategy and other planning programs in the San Francisco Bay area. These programs incorporate beneficial uses of dredged material into local projects.

  17. The potential hydrothermal systems unexplored in the Southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suo, Yanhui; Li, Sanzhong; Li, Xiyao; Zhang, Zhen; Ding, Dong

    2017-06-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents possess complex ecosystems and abundant metallic mineral deposits valuable to human being. On-axial vents along tectonic plate boundaries have achieved prominent results and obtained huge resources, while nearly 90% of the global mid-ocean ridge and the majority of the off-axial vents buried by thick oceanic sediments within plates remain as relatively undiscovered domains. Based on previous detailed investigations, hydrothermal vents have been mapped along five sections along the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) with different bathymetry, spreading rates, and gravity features, two at the western end (10°-16°E Section B and 16°-25°E Section C) and three at the eastern end (49°-52°E Section D, 52°-61°E Section E and 61°-70°E Section F). Hydrothermal vents along the Sections B, C, E and F with thin oceanic crust are hosted by ultramafic rocks under tectonic-controlled magmatic-starved settings, and hydrothermal vents along the Section D are associated with exceed magmatism. Limited coverage of investigations is provided along the 35°-47°E SWIR (between Marion and Indomed fracture zones) and a lot of research has been done around the Bouvet Island, while no hydrothermal vents has been reported. Analyzing bathymetry, gravity and geochemical data, magmatism settings are favourable for the occurrence of hydrothermal systems along these two sections. An off-axial hydrothermal system in the southern flank of the SWIR that exhibits ultra-thin oceanic crust associated with an oceanic continental transition is postulated to exist along the 100-Ma slow-spreading isochron in the Enderby Basin. A discrete, denser enriched or less depleted mantle beneath the Antarctic Plate is an alternative explanation for the large scale thin oceanic crust concentrated on the southern flank of the SWIR.

  18. The potential hydrothermal systems unexplored in the Southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suo, Yanhui; Li, Sanzhong; Li, Xiyao; Zhang, Zhen; Ding, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents possess complex ecosystems and abundant metallic mineral deposits valuable to human being. On-axial vents along tectonic plate boundaries have achieved prominent results and obtained huge resources, while nearly 90% of the global mid-ocean ridge and the majority of the off-axial vents buried by thick oceanic sediments within plates remain as relatively undiscovered domains. Based on previous detailed investigations, hydrothermal vents have been mapped along five sections along the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) with different bathymetry, spreading rates, and gravity features, two at the western end (10°-16°E Section B and 16°-25°E Section C) and three at the eastern end (49°-52°E Section D, 52°-61°E Section E and 61°-70°E Section F). Hydrothermal vents along the Sections B, C, E and F with thin oceanic crust are hosted by ultramafic rocks under tectonic-controlled magmatic-starved settings, and hydrothermal vents along the Section D are associated with exceed magmatism. Limited coverage of investigations is provided along the 35°-47°E SWIR (between Marion and Indomed fracture zones) and a lot of research has been done around the Bouvet Island, while no hydrothermal vents has been reported. Analyzing bathymetry, gravity and geochemical data, magmatism settings are favourable for the occurrence of hydrothermal systems along these two sections. An off-axial hydrothermal system in the southern flank of the SWIR that exhibits ultra-thin oceanic crust associated with an oceanic continental transition is postulated to exist along the 100-Ma slow-spreading isochron in the Enderby Basin. A discrete, denser enriched or less depleted mantle beneath the Antarctic Plate is an alternative explanation for the large scale thin oceanic crust concentrated on the southern flank of the SWIR.

  19. D2M2 Dredged-Material Disposal Management Model. User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    developed by Rochelle Barkin and the network model and the branch-and-bound algorithm were formulated by David Ford and Darryl Davis, Chief, Planning...10 Appendix I: Reprint of "Dredged-material Disposal Management Model" by David T. Ford...By David T. Ford,’ M. ASCE Aae•mA: To identify efficient dredged-material disposal management strat- egies for the Delaware River navigation system

  20. Environmental Effects of Dredging. Engineering Considerations for Capping Subaqueous Dredged Material Deposits -- Background and Preliminary Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (the London Dumping Convention) accepted the capping concept, subject to monitoring, as an appropriate technology for rapidly rendering harmless the contaminants of concern in dredged material. Subsequent detailed investigations (e.g., Brannon et al. 1985, O’Connor and O’Connor 1983) have confirmed that capping can be effective in chemically and biologically isolating contaminated dredged material from the overlying aquatic environment. However, in order to ensure this effectiveness, capping projects cannot

  1. Oceanic eddy formation and propagation southwest of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Feng; Xue, Huijie; Xiu, Peng; Chai, Fei; Shi, Maochong; Guo, Peifang

    2011-12-01

    Oceanic eddies are active and energetic southwest of Taiwan. The formation and propagation of eddies in this area were investigated using 17 year satellite altimeter data. Cyclonic eddies (CEs) and anticyclonic eddies (ACEs) often coexisted, but there were more CEs than ACEs generated during the period from October 1992 to October 2009. ACEs were stronger and, in general, lived longer than CEs. ACEs occurred more often in winter than in other seasons, while CEs were more frequent in summer. Compared with the direct local wind forcing, the Kuroshio path variability appears to be a dominant factor for eddy formation in this area. A conceptual model of an eddy-Kuroshio interaction is proposed. In summer, there exists an outflow northwest of Luzon Island, and the Kuroshio likely leaps across the Luzon Strait. To the north of the outflow and left of the Kuroshio axis, CEs are often formed, which in turn induce ACEs to the west of CEs. In winter, under the influence of northeasterly monsoon, the Kuroshio Current Loop (KCL) appears southwest of Taiwan more frequently than in other seasons, and ACEs are frequently shed from the KCL. Most of the ACEs propagate westward, and, as a result, CEs are often spun up to the east of the ACEs. The surface South China Sea outflow in summer and the KCL in winter are, however, likely related to the monsoons. Therefore, the indirect effects of monsoon winds are also evident in the seasonal variations of eddy occurrence.

  2. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Oakland Harbor intensive study, IC-1 and OC4-B

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-11-01

    Oakland Harbor is located on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay in Alameda County, between the cities of Oakland and Alameda, California. Oakland Harbor and its access channels are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modern deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels to {minus}44 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) ({minus}42 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdraft) in Oakland Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE. Those options include disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean sites, or at upland disposal sites. Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, specifies that all proposed disposal of dredged material into open water be evaluated to determine the potential environmental impacts to those activities. To comply with those requirements, the potential environmental impacts of the dredged material must be evaluated by chemical characterization, toxicity testing, and bioaccumulation testing prior to dredging and disposal. Test results are described.

  3. Chondrichthyan egg cases from the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mabragaña, E; Figueroa, D E; Scenna, L B; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Colonello, J H; Delpiani, G

    2011-11-01

    Egg cases of 21 oviparous chondrichthyan species from the south-west Atlantic Ocean are described and compared. The catshark Schroederichthys bivius has a cigar-shaped egg case with curled tendrils only at the posterior end. Egg cases of the elephant fish Callorhinchus callorynchus are spindle-shaped with anterior and posterior tubular extensions and lateral flanges. The skate Amblyraja doellojuradoi presents medium-sized egg cases (71 mm in length) with a lateral keel extending to the first portion of the horns. The endemic skate species of the genus Atlantoraja have medium to large egg cases (69-104 mm in length) and present relatively large posterior horns. Egg cases of the genus Bathyraja have a medium size, 75-98 mm in length, and are characterized by a very similar morphology, a relatively smooth to rough surface case and posterior horns strongly curved inwards. Egg cases of the genera Dipturus and Zearaja are very large, 115-230 mm in length, and have a well-developed posterior apron. Despite the problematical identification of skates at species level, the egg capsules of the endemic genus Psammobatis are easily diagnosed; the capsules are small (25-53 mm in length), those of Psammobatis rutrum being the smallest known to date in the world. Egg cases of Rioraja agassizi have a medium size, 61-68 mm in length, relatively straight sides, a smooth surface and silky attachment fibres placed in the lateral keel next to each horn. Those of the genus Sympterygia are small to medium sized, 51-86 mm in length, and display the thickest lateral keel and the longest posterior horns among the skates of the world. Egg cases can be a useful tool for identifying species and egg-laying areas; therefore, a provisional key for the south-west Atlantic Ocean chondrichthyan capsules is presented.

  4. Management of dredge material in the Republic of Ireland - A review.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, C; Harrington, J

    2012-05-01

    As an island nation the Republic of Ireland's ports and harbours are key to the economic wellbeing of the country as they are the primary transport link to the United Kingdom, mainland Europe and beyond. This paper examines the main aspects of the Irish dredging industry with comparison to international practice and standards, including the source of the dredge material and volumes generated annually, the dredging plant employed and the management processes currently practised. Relevant European and Irish legislation governing dredging, disposal at sea and waste licensing are presented. The potential impacts of disposal at sea are discussed with the implications for the Irish dredging industry of recently introduced European Directives assessed. Beneficial use rates for dredge material and the techniques implemented in Ireland are examined and compared with international practice. Recent notable beneficial use projects for dredge material and proposed innovative dredge material management techniques for specific dredging projects in Ireland are presented. Proposals to encourage greater beneficial use of dredge material and minimise disposal at sea for Ireland are presented including the introduction of environmental credits, tax breaks and a grant system for pilot schemes. An alternative disposal at sea charge fee structure is also recommended to encourage alternative dredge material management practices. Ireland's management of contaminated sediment is also presented with recent projects described highlighting the current practice of primarily exporting contaminated sediment to mainland Europe. Alternative methods of treatment of contaminated sediment are assessed in an Irish context. Future issues and challenges facing the Irish dredging industry are assessed and a critical analysis of the current approaches to dredge material management is presented.

  5. Analysis of environmental effects of the use of stabilized dredged material from New York/New Jersey Harbor, USA, for construction of roadway embankments.

    PubMed

    Douglas, W Scott; Maher, Ali; Jafari, Farhad

    2005-11-01

    Since the 1997 local ban on ocean dumping of dredged sediments, the state of New Jersey has pursued a policy of environmentally sound solutions to the controversial problem of dredged material management, including beneficial use of dredged material stabilized with pozzolanic additives (SDM). A pilot study was initiated in 1998 to evaluate the use of SDM in the construction of highway embankments. Using 80,000 cubic yards of silty dredged material, 2 embankments were constructed from SDM on a commercial development area adjacent to the New York/New Jersey Harbor. This article presents the evaluation of the environmental effects of the SDM, including fugitive air emissions, leachate, and stormwater quality. Engineering properties, handling and management techniques of the SDM, constructability, and performance were also evaluated, the results of which are published elsewhere. The findings demonstrate that although there are measurable releases of contaminants to the environment from the SDM, these releases are not significant long-term threats to human health or the environment. Policies currently in place to regulate the management of SDM that include limiting placement options to previously contaminated sites with institutional and engineering controls will further reduce the potential for environmental impact and, in fact, have the potential to produce significant environmental benefit.

  6. Circulation, stratification and seamounts in the Southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Raymond; Read, Jane

    2017-02-01

    Circulation in the vicinity of six seamounts along the Southwest Indian Ridge was studied as part of a multidisciplinary survey in November 2009. Examination of altimetric data shows that several of the seamounts lie in the area of slow mean westward flow between the southern tip of Madagascar (25°S) and the Agulhas Return Current (ARC) flowing eastward between 37°S and 40°S. The mean westward drift of mesoscale features was 4.1±0.9 cm s-1. Integrated between Madagascar and 37°S, this westward drift can account for 50 Sv (1 Sv=106 m3 s-1), which, added to 25 Sv of southward flow past Madagascar, is sufficient to account for the total Agulhas Current transport of 70±21 Sv. The transport of the ARC was also measured, at two longitudes, down to 2000 m. Combined with earlier crossings of the ARC in 1986 and 1995, the full depth transport of the ARC is estimated at 71-85 Sv at longitudes 40-50°E, indicating that the Agulhas Current then ARC transport continues unreduced as far as 50°E before beginning to recirculate in the Southwest Indian Ocean subtropical gyre. The primary control on the circulation near each seamount was its position relative to any mesoscale eddy at the time of the survey. Melville lay on the flank of a cyclonic eddy that had broken off the ARC and was propagating west before remerging with the next meander of the ARC. Nearby Sapmer, on the other hand, was in the centre of an anticyclonic eddy, resulting in very weak stratification over the seamount at the time of the survey. Middle of What lies most often on the northern flank of the ARC, in strong currents, but was at the time of the survey near the edge of the same eddy as Sapmer. Coral, in the Subtropical Front south of the ARC, was in waters much colder, fresher, denser and more oxygenated than all the other seamounts. Walter was close to the path of eddies propagating southwest from east of Madagascar, while Atlantis, the furthest east and north seamount, experienced the weakest eddy

  7. Tylers Beach, Virginia, dredged material plume monitoring project, September 27 to October 4, 1991. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    thevenot, M.M.; Prickett, T.L.; Kraus, N.C.

    1992-12-01

    The Tylers Beach, Virginia, Dredged Material Plume Monitoring Project (TBMP) was conducted during the period 27 September to 4 October 1991. The project was conducted under the Dredging Research Program Technical Area 1, entitled 'Analysis of Dredged Material Placed in Open Water,' in support of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Norfolk. The objectives of the TBMP were to (a) collect suspended material concentration data and current data to determine the potential for dredged material issuing from a pipeline discharge to reach environmentally sensitive areas adjacent to the placement site, and (b) continue development of PLUmes MEasurement System (PLUMES) for monitoring dredged material plumes. This report provides an overview of the equipment and procedures used during the TBMP, together with a presentation of the TBMP data and analysis results. The TBMP produced an extensive, high-quality data set from 12 acoustic surveys and numerous suspended material and bottom grab samples.... Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), PLUme MEasurement System (PLUMES), Dredged material, Point of-Shoals, James River, Suspended material.

  8. Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-05-07

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

  9. Linking sediment chemical and biological guidelines for characterization of dredged material.

    PubMed

    Casado-Martínez, M C; Riba, I; Blasco, J; DelValls, T A

    2005-01-01

    Dredged material management in Spain and possible options for the different categories is discussed according to chemical sediment quality guidelines. Also an approach using an integrated assessment that includes biological end points as part of a tiered testing schema is discussed for future implementation in Spanish recommendations. To establish the feasibility of using both kinds of guidelines, an example of the utility and validity of the approach that links both chemical and biological guidelines proposed for the management of dredged material characterization processes data from a particular case study associated with a port in the north of Spain are discussed. The use of both kinds of methodologies, together with the necessity of assessing the bioavailability of some contaminants, has been shown as a powerful tool for the best selection of different disposal options of dredged material in the case study described.

  10. Early Palaeogene temperature evolution of the southwest Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bijl, Peter K; Schouten, Stefan; Sluijs, Appy; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Zachos, James C; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2009-10-08

    Relative to the present day, meridional temperature gradients in the Early Eocene age ( approximately 56-53 Myr ago) were unusually low, with slightly warmer equatorial regions but with much warmer subtropical Arctic and mid-latitude climates. By the end of the Eocene epoch ( approximately 34 Myr ago), the first major Antarctic ice sheets had appeared, suggesting that major cooling had taken place. Yet the global transition into this icehouse climate remains poorly constrained, as only a few temperature records are available portraying the Cenozoic climatic evolution of the high southern latitudes. Here we present a uniquely continuous and chronostratigraphically well-calibrated TEX(86) record of sea surface temperature (SST) from an ocean sediment core in the East Tasman Plateau (palaeolatitude approximately 65 degrees S). We show that southwest Pacific SSTs rose above present-day tropical values (to approximately 34 degrees C) during the Early Eocene age ( approximately 53 Myr ago) and had gradually decreased to about 21 degrees C by the early Late Eocene age ( approximately 36 Myr ago). Our results imply that there was almost no latitudinal SST gradient between subequatorial and subpolar regions during the Early Eocene age (55-50 Myr ago). Thereafter, the latitudinal gradient markedly increased. In theory, if Eocene cooling was largely driven by a decrease in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration, additional processes are required to explain the relative stability of tropical SSTs given that there was more significant cooling at higher latitudes.

  11. Prediction of Heavy Metal Uptake by Marsh Plants Based on Chemical Extraction of Heavy Metals from Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    A field and laboratory study was conducted to establish the extent of heavy metal absorption and uptake by marsh plant species from dredged material...emphasizes the need for a method to predict heavy metal availability from dredged material to plants. DTPA extraction of heavy metals gave the best correlations with actual heavy metal concentrations in marsh plants.

  12. Biosolids and dredged materials: alternative sources of nutrients for crop productivity and sustainability of pasture-based agroecosystem

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domestic sewage sludge or “biosolids” and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and cha...

  13. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 4

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of ocean dumping in Southeast United States. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships

  14. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 1

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of ocean dumping in New England, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  15. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of ocean dumping in NY, NJ and Puerto Rico. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships

  16. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 3

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of ocean dumping in Mid Atlantic, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  17. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 6

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of ocean dumping in South Central, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships

  18. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 10

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of ocean dumping in Pacific Northwest, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  19. Nematodes as Sensitive Indicators of Change at Dredged Material Disposal Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, S. E.; Rees, H. L.; Richardson, C. A.

    2000-12-01

    Demonstration of the recovery of marine habitats from perturbation, or of the effectiveness of protective measures, is dependent on the sensitivity of the target group in responding to change. This paper highlights the utility of the nematode component of the meiofauna as a tool for assessing disturbance from dredgings disposal. Transect surveys were conducted at three major dredged material disposal sites around the U.K. coast. Both gross effects due to the direct impact of dredgings within the disposal sites and lesser consequences arising from the transport of material away from the sites were evident with nematode community analyses. The same nematode species, Sabatieria pulchra group (both breviseta and punctata ) and Daptonema tenuispiculum were found to dominate at all disposal sites, despite appreciable environmental differences between locations and variability in the nature of the deposited dredged material. These studies have established that nematode communities can provide a sensitive indicator of change in response to dredged material disposal at a variety of locations and have introduced a new monitoring tool for a practice that has a wide significance around the U.K. coast. The implications of the findings for the future monitoring of dredged material disposal and other waste inputs are discussed.

  20. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. C Appendix C to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged...

  1. Behavior of subaqueous sediment mounds: Effect on dredged material disposal site capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Poindexter, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Dredging of contaminated sediments and subsequent disposal at legally designated disposal sites is an internationally accepted disposal alternative when adherence to strict disposal practices is maintained. As more highly contaminated sediments in the heavily industrialized harbors of the world must be dredged to maintain navigation and economic viability, use of subaqueous dredged material disposal sites is expected to increase. Use of these subaqueous sites has necessitated development of procedures to analyze disposal site capacity based upon physical, chemical, and biological considerations. A methodology of analysis was developed in this study to investigate the behavior of the crated subaqueous sediment mounds. Emphasis was placed upon the geotechnical engineering aspects of mound behavior although the methodology also includes chemical and biological aspects. This methodology was applied to four field sites at which dredged material mounds have been created. The procedure successfully predicted the geotechnical engineering behavior of the constructed dredged material mounds. This methodology of analysis provides a useful tool for evaluation of subaqueous disposal sites and the dredged materials mounds created within these sites.

  2. Managing dredged material in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, Marta; Boniecka, Helena

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the legal and practical recommendations for the management of dredged material in the riparian countries of the Baltic Sea. The recommendations are contained in three conventions: LC, 2000. London Convention (1972), Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea area (Helsinki Convention) (1992), the OSPAR Convention (1972). Different approaches to evaluating the contamination level of dredge spoils, used by the Baltic Sea riparian countries, have been characterized. The differences in those approaches manifest themselves by various concentration limits for contaminants, which form a basis for the classification of dredged material as either contaminated or non-contaminated, and thus determine how the spoils will be processed further. Based on the collected information about the concentration limits for contaminants of surface sediments in the coastal ports, it was pointed out that it is necessary to conduct routine monitoring of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, tributyltin, and petroleum hydrocarbons in dredged sediments in all the Baltic Sea states. On the other hand, the monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, organochlorine, and organophosphoric pesticides is only needed in locations that are suspected of historical or being the local contamination sources. Due to significant economic limitations of chemical determinations, it is important to consider a simple screening test of sediment that would say whether sediment may be "contaminated" and qualifies for more detailed and costly chemical research. It may be typical basic physical-chemical analysis of sediments or ecotoxicological classification of sediments.Despite environmentally friendly tendencies, the practical application of dredged material within the Baltic Sea area is very limited. Dredged material is most frequently stored at the specifically designated sites. From among the practical uses of

  3. Assessment/management of dredged material to minimize contaminant-related impacts: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Nauke, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Close attention must be given to the effects of dredging and disposal operations on the marine environment. The globally applicable Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972), in conjunction with resolutions adopted there under, provides regulations and guidance regarding sea disposal of dredged material. For this purpose the Dredged Material Assessment Framework developed in 1995 provides advice to decision-makers in the field of management of dredged material, incorporating knowledge and experience gained by Contracting Parties to the Convention on potential environmental impacts of dredging operations. Characterization of dredged material is requested with regard to physical and chemical characteristics, including geochemical parameters, potential routes and previous soils of contaminants in the area, and biological characteristics, including tests to determine acute and chronic toxicity, the potential for bioaccumulation and the potential for tainting aquatic living resources. The results of the physical/chemical/biological characterization will indicate whether the dredged material is suitable for disposal at sea. For material found to be unsuitable for beneficial uses, disposal at sea or disposal on land, disposal management techniques will have to be used to reduce or control impacts to a level that-will not constitute an unacceptable risk to human health, or harm living resources, damage amenities or interfere with legitimate uses of the sea. Disposal management techniques may include burial in the sea floor followed by clean sediment capping, selection of special sites, or methods of containment. The Assessment Framework further includes criteria for selection of sea disposal sites, advice for the conduct of impact assessments, and of post-operational monitoring.

  4. Ocean control of the breeding regime of the sooty tern in the southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaquemet, S.; Le Corre, M.; Quartly, G. D.

    2007-01-01

    Food availability, which is often seasonal, is regarded as a key factor in the breeding success of seabirds. In oceanic tropical areas, the resources are mostly patchy and ephemeral at the surface, and the seasonality is less marked than at higher latitudes. Such a situation influences greatly the breeding strategies of the oceanic seabird species. We conducted a comparative study of the breeding phenology of the sooty tern ( Sterna fuscata) in relation to the local and regional oceanographic conditions around the four major colonies (Europa, Juan de Nova, Lys and Bird Islands) of the southwest Indian Ocean. Over the 1997-2003 period, around all the studied locations, the sea-surface temperature (SST) and the chlorophyll concentration in the Mozambique Channel and the Seychelles area showed clear seasonal differences related to the southern climate and the monsoon phenomena. The breeding activity is synchronized at each studied colony, but the timings are very different. Seasonal reproduction occurs in austral winter at Europa and Bird Island and in austral summer at Juan de Nova; at Lys Island the reproduction is non-seasonal. For the seasonal colonies, there is a large monthly change in SST just before the beginning of reproduction, which is a proxy indicating the annual phytoplankton bloom. This variation is accompanied by the development of oceanic features such as fronts that favour aggregation of prey, and may also play an important role in the presence of schools of surface tuna, which are very important for the foraging success of sooty terns. Conversely, around Lys Island the seasonal variations of the marine environment do not lead to pronounced development of oceanic structures, and consequently, the longer-lasting phytoplankton bloom could explain the non-seasonal breeding regime there. Further studies will help discern the advantages and disadvantages of seasonal and non-seasonal reproduction regime in response to unpredictable fluctuations of the

  5. Humboldt Open Ocean Disposal Site (HOODS) Survey Work 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Humboldt Open Ocean Disposal Site (HOODS) is a dredged material disposal site located 3 nautical miles (nm) offshore of Humboldt Bay in Northern California. HOODS was permanently designated by EPA Region 9 in 1995, and has been actively used for dredged material disposal operations since then. The HOODS has received higher volumes of dredged material than predicted since its designation in 1995, mainly from USACE construction and maintenance dredging.

  6. Macrofaunal recovery following the intertidal recharge of dredged material: a comparison of structural and functional approaches.

    PubMed

    Bolam, S G

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing need to understand the functional implications of anthropogenic pressures, such as those following coastal disposal of dredged material. Current assessments, based on taxonomic structure of benthic organisms, only provide a limited capacity to determine functional impacts or recovery. This study assesses recovery of two intertidal dredged material recharge schemes, comparing results obtained based on taxonomic structure (univariate and multivariate approaches) and function (biological trait composition, functional diversity, secondary production) of the benthic assemblages. The assemblages recolonising both schemes were consistently less speciose, less densely-populated and exhibited multivariate community structures that differed from those of the reference areas. However, for both schemes metrics of functionality converged to those of reference areas, although some differences in trait composition persisted for up to 3 years. These data support the proposition that impacts of, and recovery from, anthropogenic disturbance should be assessed using a combination of both functional and taxonomic structural approaches.

  7. Flotation as a remediation technique for heavily polluted dredged material. 1. A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Cauwenberg, P; Verdonckt, F; Maes, A

    1998-01-19

    The flotation behaviour of highly polluted dredged material was investigated at different pH values by mechanical agitated (Denver) flotation. Up to 80% of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc could be concentrated in the froth layer which represented only 30% of the total mass. The maximum specificity for heavy metals, defined as the concentrating factor, was obtained at pH 8-9. The maximum recovery of heavy metals on the other hand was found to be reached at elevated pH values (pH 12). In addition the specificity of the flotation process for the transition metals could be assigned to their presence as metal sulphides in the dredged material. However, the interaction with organic matter is an important factor in determining their flotability. The carbonate fraction was irrelevant for the flotation behaviour of heavy metals.

  8. Tracking Cyclones in the Southwest Indian Ocean with an Ocean-Bottom Seismometer Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, C.; Barruol, G.; Fontaine, F. R.; Sigloch, K.; Stutzmann, E.

    2014-12-01

    The French-German RHUM-RUM project deployed 57 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) over an area of 2000 x 2000 km2 between September 2012 and December 2013, spread around La Reunion Island and along the Central and the Southwest Indian Ridges. During this period, seven tropical cyclones propagated over the OBS network, providing the unique opportunity for in situ analysis and spatio-temporal tracking of this source of secondary (i.e twice the frequency of the ocean waves) microseismic noise and pressure fluctuations induced on the seafloor. We performed spectral analysis, seafloor pressure and ground polarization analyses on the continuous OBS data, focusing on cyclone Dumile, which passed directly over the OBS network. We observe that microseisms strongly increase in amplitude in the 0.1-0.45 Hz frequency band as the cyclone approaches and propagates over the instruments, and that this noise amplitude is directly related to the distance and intensity of the cyclone. Analysis of the temporal noise variations across the network permit to locate and track the area of maximum noise amplitude, which points towards the cyclone centre with good accuracy. Polarization analyses show that cyclones generate compressional waves in the water column, which give rise to both compressional and surface waves that propagate through the solid earth. In addition to atmospheric, oceanographic and satellite observations, microseisms recorded on the seafloor may therefore be considered a means for monitoring cyclone evolution and intensity.

  9. Verification of Design and Construction Techniques for Gaillard Island Dredged Material Disposal Area, Mobile, Alabama.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    pumping and barge hauling dredged material over distances up to 7 miles. A dust pan dredge was used to dredge the soft clayey bottom mate- rial and deposit...Docks and the city of Mobile acquired 1800 acres to form the nucleus of the pirk. The State Docks dredged a 12-ft barge canal up the mid- dle fork of the...Mobile, set up biomonitoring stations to measure changes in such things as siltation, salinity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and benthic

  10. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program: Guidance for Contracting Biological and Chemical Evaluations of Dredged Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    toxi - cology researchers that sediment toxicity tests are more difficult to reproduce than the classic bioassay, in which fish are exposed to a well...shrimp, copepods, Daphnia , or algae. Although most organ- isms used in dredged material testing may be purchased or collected, these may be cultured in the...Biological screens that are available may be useful in comparing and ranking sediments within a proj- ect area. Daphnia , mysid, and amphipod sediment

  11. Identifying, Planning, and Financing Beneficial Use Projects Using Dredged Material: Beneficial Use Planning Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    project spon- sors are active decision makers in the activities discussed in the Tech- nical Framework . In particular, it assumes that beneficial use...access. Recreational uses of dredged material tend to be heavily dependent on acquiring local funding. The innovative funding opportu- nities discussed ...having varying degrees of interest in beneficial use projects. For a more extensive discussion of public involvement planning, see Framework for

  12. Beneficial Use of Dredge Materials for Soil Reconstruction and Development of Dredge Screening Protocols.

    PubMed

    Koropchak, Sara C; Daniels, W Lee; Wick, Abbey; Whittecar, G Richard; Haus, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Upland placement of dredge sediments has the potential to provide beneficial reuse of suitable sediments for agricultural uses or urban soil reconstruction. However, the use of many dredge materials is limited by contaminants, and most established screening protocols focus on limiting major contaminants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and generally ignore fundamental agronomic parameters. Since 2001, we have placed over 450,000 m of Potomac River fresh water dredge materials and 250,000 m of saline materials from various locations into monitored confined upland facilities in Charles City, VA, and documented their conversion to agricultural uses. Groundwater and soil quality monitoring has indicated no adverse effects from material placement and outstanding agricultural productivity for the freshwater materials. Once placed, saline materials rapidly leach and ripen with quick declines in pH, electrical conductivity, and sodicity, but potentials for local groundwater impacts must be considered. Our experience to date indicates that the most important primary screening parameter is acid-base accounting (potential acidity or lime demand), which should become a mandatory analytical requirement. Our second level of acceptance screening is based on a combination of federal and state residual waste and soil screening standards and basic agronomic principles. High silt+clay and total organic C may also limit rapid use of many dredge materials due to extended dewatering times and physical limitations. This dredge material screening system separates potential upland placement candidates into three soil quality management categories (unsuitable, suitable, and clean fill) with differing monitoring requirements. Similar use of these sediments in urban soil reconstruction is also recommended. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. A Phase One Archaeological Reconnaissance of a Proposed Dredged Material Disposal Site at Prairie Island, Minnesota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    I© AD-A182 629 fuLE GP’", A PHASE ONE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE OF A PROPOSED DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE AT PRAIRIE ISLAND, MINNESOTA BY...Clark A. Dobbs, Ph.D. Senior Research Archaeologist The Institute for Minnesota Archaeology , Inc. Minneapolis, Minnesota INSTITUTE FOR MINNESOTA... ARCHAEOLOGY REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS NUMBER 17 Prepared for the St. Paul District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under the terms of Contract Number DACW37-86

  14. Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study; Beneficial Use of Dredged Material through Nearshore Placement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 7 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study ...Management Study ; Beneficial Use of Dredged Material through Nearshore Placement Layla R. Kashlan U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P.O. Box...454632, “Charleston Harbor, SC; Regional Sediment Management Study ” ERDC/CHL TR-17-7 ii Abstract The 2015 Charleston Harbor, SC, final

  15. Environmental effects of dredging: Wetland animal bioassay of saltwater dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    1986-01-01

    The Clean Water Act requires that the environmental evaluation of dredged material prior to discharge or impacting the waters of the United States include the effects of disposal on contaminant concentrations through biological processes. This resulted in a need for Corps of Engineers Districts to be able to predict the potential contamination of animals that may be associated with each of these potential disposal alternatives: open-water disposal, upland disposal, and/or wetland creation. The following is a summary of a wetland animal solid-phase bioassay test applied to sediment collected from the waterway at Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Connecticut. This test procedure was designed to evaluate the potential movement of toxic heavy metals and other contaminants from dredged material placed in a wetland (reduced) environment into sediment-dwelling intertidal invertebrates as a first step that may be used to evaluate contaminant mobility to animals that may colonize the dredged material. No inference on the movement of contaminants through the wetland food web is offered at this time.

  16. Reclamation of abandoned mined lands along th Upper Illinois Waterway using dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, A; Harrison, W

    1982-01-01

    Sediments were sampled and characterized from 28 actual or proposed maintenance-dredging locations in the Upper Illinois Waterway, that is, the Calumet-Sag Channel, the Des Plaines River downstream of its confluence with the Calumet-Sag Channel, and the Illinois River from the confluence of the Kankakee and Des Plaines rivers to Havana, Illinois. Sufficient data on chemical constituents and physical sediments were obtained to allow the classification of these sediments by currently applicable criteria of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency for the identification of hazardous, persistent, and potentially hazardous wastes. By these criteria, the potential dredged materials studied were not hazardous, persistent, or potentially hazardous; they are a suitable topsoil/ reclamation medium. A study of problem abandoned surface-mined land sites (problem lands are defined as being acidic and/or sparsely vegetated) along the Illinois River showed that three sites were particularly well suited to the needs of the Corps of Engineers (COE) for a dredged material disposal/reclamation site. Thes sites were a pair of municipally owned sites in Morris, Illinois, and a small corporately owned site east of Ottawa, Illinois, and adjacent to the Illinois River. Other sites were also ranked as to suitability for COE involvement in their reclamation. Reclamation disposal was found to be an economically competitive alternative to near-source confined disposal for Upper Illinois Waterway dredged material.

  17. Dredged material characterization and management frameworks: A case study at the port Vilagarcia (NW, Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, Araceli; Khosrovyan, Alla; DelValls, T Angel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2016-01-25

    The potential impact of dredged sediment has been assessed at sixteen areas of the high-traffic port of Vilagarcia (Northwest Spanish Atlantic coast). The assessment has been done by three weight-of-evidence tools, which integrated data on sediment characteristics and toxicity responses of Ampelisca brevicornis, Vibrio fischeri and eggs and embryos of Paracentrotus lividus. Two of the tools also represented management options regarding the disposal of dredged material. The comparison of the logic in these tools revealed essential differences in the type and the necessity of bioassays and threshold values for chemical concentrations. However, despite this difference, assessment results and the derived management options coincided in most of the sediments. The potential toxicity of sediments was relatively low especially for eggs and embryos possibly due to different contaminant availability in solid and liquid phases. The importance of a battery of toxicity tests in the dredged material quality assessment has been emphasized to avoid an underestimation of sediment toxicity for solid phase organisms, if only liquid phase responses are considered. The potential false implications, which may result from the application of the third tool, were highlighted. The strengths and weaknesses of the tools were discussed from the dredged material management perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impacts of dredged material disposal on a tropical soft-bottom benthic assemblage.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Motta, J J; Collins, J

    2004-02-01

    The soft-bottom benthic macrofauna in a spoil-ground of dredged material in Cleveland Bay, North Queensland, Australia, was studied to detect possible impacts of the disposal of sediments. The spatial distribution of the assemblage was studied in relation to the source of the impact at 28 stations on four occasions during 1998 and 1999. Additionally, environmental variables were measured on each occasion at each station. Macrobenthic assemblages inside the spoil-ground were different from assemblages outside the spoil ground only immediately after (15 days) the disposal of dredged material. Given the decrease in the abundance of organisms and number of species, it is suggested that this effect was due to direct burial of the macrobenthic assemblage inside the spoil-ground. Macrobenthic assemblages inside the spoil ground were not different from assemblages outside the spoil ground 3 months after dumping. These results suggest that the soft-bottom macrobenthic assemblages may respond quickly to the disturbance associated with the dumping of dredged material.

  19. Sampling and analysis of sediments in dredged material from Wilma Uplands Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Karle, L.M.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q. )

    1992-09-01

    The Lower Granite Reservoir provides slack-water navigation for the Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington area. The levee system associated with the reservoir protects industrial, commercial, and residential areas from inundation of waters impounded behind the dam. Sediment deposition at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers has required frequent dredging events In past years, Including two recent events in 1986 and 1987. Dredged material from the 1986 and 1987 events was placed in three containment ponds located on the north bank of the Snake River, near River Mile 134.7. The ponds were used to hold approximately 400,000 cubic yards of dredged material removed from the port areas at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Prior to dredging, the river sediments were tested and found to be typical of non-contaminated sediment. Since that testing, dioxins and furans have been found in the effluent from a Kraft pulp mill in Lewiston that discharges directly into the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) believed that dredged material placed in the containment ponds may contain contaminated levels of dioxins and furans. At their request, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) sampled sediments from these ponds and performed a chemical analysis.

  20. Annual Reports Regarding Progress in Developing a Dredged Material Management Plan for the Long Island Sound Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The site designation for the Western and Central Long Island Sound disposal sites requires the completion of a Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) and EPA to conduct an annual review of progress toward completion of the DMMP.

  1. 78 FR 73097 - Ocean Dumping; Sabine-Neches Waterway (SNWW) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... development on coastal barrier islands and adjacent nearshore areas. The Coastal Barrier Improvement Act of... Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1996 Coastal Zone Management Act Coastal Barrier Improvement...'s coastal zone, a coastal consistency determination is not needed. ] 5. Coastal Barrier...

  2. 78 FR 38672 - Ocean Dumping; Sabine-Neches Waterway (SNWW) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ...: Dr. Jessica Franks at franks.jessica@epa.gov . Fax: Dr. Jessica Franks, Marine and Coastal Section (6WQ- EC) at fax number 214-665-6689. Mail: Dr. Jessica Franks, Marine and Coastal Section (6WQ- EC... Franks, Ph.D., Marine and Coastal Section (6WQ-EC), Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, 1445...

  3. 75 FR 19311 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... marine environment, or economic potentialities (Section 103(a) of the MPRSA). Three main objectives for management of the G-DODS are: (1) Protection of the marine environment; (2) beneficial use of dredged... commercial or recreational navigation. The ZSF specifically screened the marine environment to avoid areas of...

  4. Carnivorous sponges (Porifera, Cladorhizidae) from the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestetun, Jon Thomassen; Rapp, Hans Tore; Xavier, Joana

    2017-03-01

    The family Cladorhizidae (Porifera) comprises a particularly interesting group of sponges that has developed a carnivorous feeding strategy unique within the phylum. Cladorhizids are typically considered deep-sea sponges, are frequently found at oceanic ridges and seamount systems, and new species are continuously discovered as new areas are explored. In this study we describe nine new cladorhizid sponges collected on three seamounts of the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge (SWIOR) during the RRS ;James Cook; cruise JC066: Abyssocladia boletiphora, Ab. corniculiphora, Ab. hemiradiata, Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) unguiferata, As. (A.) jamescooki, As. (A.) laminachela, As. (A.) pseudoisochela, As. (A.) ramuscula and Chondrocladia (Meliiderma) rogersi; and re-describe four species, viz. Ab. symmetrica, Ch. (M.) stipitata, Cladorhiza moruliformis and Cl. tridentata collected during the ;Challenger; expedition in the Southwest Indian Ocean. Barcodes and a phylogenetic analysis showing the systematic position of the new species are included as additional information. Our results show that the cladorhizid fauna of the Southwestern Indian Ocean is diverse and seems to be bathymetrically structured with no observed overlap between the newly reported upper bathyal species ( 1000 m) and previously described lower bathyal and abyssal species from the area. While the upper bathyal SWIOR species are unique and represent a regionally endemic cladorhizid fauna, similarities in morphology and spicule characters as well as molecular evidence suggests biogeographical affinities to species from the SW Pacific and SW Atlantic, but no similarities to previously reported Antarctic fauna were found. A table of cladorhizid species from the Southwest Indian Ocean and neighboring areas is provided.

  5. Spinner dolphin whistle in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean: Is there a geographic variation?

    PubMed

    Moron, Juliana Rodrigues; Amorim, Thiago Orion Simões; Sucunza, Federico; de Castro, Franciele Rezende; Rossi-Santos, Marcos; Andriolo, Artur

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic parameters for the spinner dolphins' bioacoustic sounds have previously been described. However, the dolphins in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean were only recently studied near the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago. Therefore, to contribute to additional knowledge of this cosmopolitan species, this study compares previous results with a Brazilian recording. Despite statistically significant differences, the mean value comparison indicated that Hawaiian and Southwest Atlantic Ocean spinners emit similar whistles. The fact that geographical isolation does not lead the dissemblance nor the similarity of the acoustic variations in this species raises the possibility of other factors influencing those emissions. Here those differences and similarities are discussed, thereby contributing to an understanding of how distinct populations and/or species communicate through different ocean basins.

  6. Ecotoxicity Assessment of Contaminated Dredged Material with the Marine Amphipod Corophium volutator

    PubMed

    Ciarelli; Vonck; van Straalen NM; Stronkhorst

    1998-05-01

    The incorporation of toxicological data from bioassays can improve the present system of sediment quality criteria in the Netherlands. The use of acute lethality toxicity tests alone does not however provide sufficient discrimination and sensitivity for predicting ecological effects of slightly and moderately contaminated dredged material. Sublethal endpoints are needed for the assessment of environmental hazards of such dredged material. In this study, two approaches were used to identify toxicity of marine sediments collected from 16 locations classified as "slightly and moderately contaminated" on the basis of chemical data: (1) a comparison of growth vs. mortality as different endpoints in the marine amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas); (2) an investigation on the use of sediment dilutions to characterize the degree of toxicity. The influence of sediment storage time on toxicity was also evaluated. In four out of 16 locations, mortality over 10 days of exposure ranged 80-100%; in two out of 16 locations mortality ranged 40-60%. In the other 10 locations, mortality was below 15%. Results on growth showed that in all locations final dry weight values were significantly lower (a factor of 1.5 to 3) than in controls. Results of dilution experiments showed that if sediments were diluted with a reference sediment of similar physicochemical characteristics, total concentrations of metals, mineral oil, and PAHs decreased as expected and so did the effects on C. volutator. In the 100% contaminated sediments growth was reduced by 32-60% compared to controls. The dilution rate necessary to reduce toxicity to the EC10 value for growth of C. volutator was considered an appropriate endpoint for the evaluation. When sediments were stored for a period of 3-5 months at 4 degreesC and retested, effects on mortality and growth decreased, although some effects on growth were still measured after 5 months of storage. The experiments illustrate the usefulness of ecotoxicity

  7. Marine debris ingestion by albatrosses in the southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Sebastián; Domingo, Andrés; Brazeiro, Alejandro; Defeo, Omar; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-07-15

    Plastics and other marine debris affect wildlife through entanglement and by ingestion. We assessed the ingestion of marine debris by seven albatross species in the southwest Atlantic by analyzing stomach contents of birds killed in fisheries. Of the 128 specimens examined, including four Diomedea species (n=78) and three Thalassarche species (n=50), 21 (16.4%) contained 1-4 debris items, mainly in the ventriculus. The most common type was plastic fragments. Debris was most frequent in Diomedea species (25.6%) and, particularly, Diomedea sanfordi (38.9%) and very rare in Thalassarche species (2.0%), presumably reflecting differences in foraging behavior or distribution. Frequency of occurrence was significantly higher in male than female Diomedea albatrosses (39.3% vs. 18.0%). Although levels of accumulated debris were relatively low overall, and unlikely to result in gut blockage, associated toxins might nevertheless represent a health risk for Diomedea albatrosses, compounding the negative impact of other human activities on these threatened species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inventory of marine biotest methods for the evaluation of dredged material and sediments.

    PubMed

    Nendza, Monika

    2002-09-01

    An inventory of marine biotest methods for the evaluation of dredged material and sediments was compiled on behalf of the Federal Environmental Agency of Germany. Relevant assays were identified from the literature and experts from several countries contributed to a questionnaire survey on established and developing procedures. The biotest methods are applicable to whole sediment, sediment suspension, sediment elutriate, porewater and/or sediment extract. The endpoints cover acute and long-term toxicity, bioaccumulation, endocrine effects, toxic effects on reproduction, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Comparative analyses and evaluation of the biotest methods were conducted with regard to their sensitivity, specificity, applicability (regional specificity, availability and suitability of the test organisms), variability (physicochemical factors, natural factors and factors related to sampling and testing), cost-effectiveness, aspects of animal ethics, standardization (guidelines, intercalibration) and application for monitoring purposes in the areas of the OSPAR and Helsinki Conventions. The available information was integrated to rate the validity of the methods, their relevance for assessing impacts on ecosystems and the suitability of the methods for the evaluation of marine sediments and dredged material. Based on the rating of the individual bioassays, a tiered testing is suggested in a hierarchical approach representing a variety in taxa, biological processes and exposure routes, thereby covering the cellular, species, population and community level with a wide discriminatory and sensitivity range. The toxicological significance and complexity increases with the tiers: (1) screening and detection of impacts, (2) characterization of toxic effects, (3) verification of in situ alterations.

  9. Reducing the effects of dredged material levees on coastal marsh function: sediment deposition and nekton utilization.

    PubMed

    Reed, Denise J; Peterson, Mark S; Lezina, Brian J

    2006-05-01

    Dredged material levees in coastal Louisiana are normally associated with pipeline canals or, more frequently, canals dredged through the wetlands to allow access to drilling locations for mineral extraction. The hydrologic impact on marshes behind the levee is of concern to coastal resource managers because of the potential impact on sediment transport and deposition, and the effect on estuarine organism access to valuable nursery habitat. This study examined the effects of gaps in dredged material levees, compared to continuous levees and natural channel banks, on these two aspects of marsh function. Field studies for sediment deposition were conducted biweekly for a year, and nekton samples were collected in spring and fall. Variation in nekton density among study areas and landscape types was great in part because of the inherent sampling gear issues and in part because of differences in characteristics among areas. Nekton densities were generally greater in natural compared to leveed and gapped landscapes. Differences in landscape type did not explain patterns in sediment deposition. The gaps examined appear to be too restrictive of marsh flooding to provide efficient movements of floodwaters onto the marsh during moderate flooding events. The "trapping" effect of the levees increases sediment deposition during extreme events. Gapping material levees may be an effective method of partially restoring upper marsh connection to nekton, but this method may work best in lower elevation marshes where nekton use is greater.

  10. New species of hippolytid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) from a southwest Indian Ocean seamount.

    PubMed

    Nye, Verity

    2013-01-01

    Two specimens representing two hippolytid genera were sampled recently from the Coral Seamount, southwest Indian Ocean, at 732 m water depth. Lebbeus ketophilos sp. nov. and Eualus oreios sp. nov. are described and illustrated and their morphologies are compared with those of previously described species. The new species are closest in morphology to L. indicus Holthuis, 1947 and E. kinzeri Tiefenbacher, 1990 respectively. They are distinguished clearly from these and other species by a suite of morphological features. This record enhances our present knowledge of seamount biodiversity and species richness of decapod crustaceans in the Indian Ocean.

  11. Contaminant Area Aquaculture Program. Determination of the chemical suitability of a dredged material containment area for aquaculture. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tatem, H.E.

    1990-12-01

    This concerns use of dredged material containment areas (DMCA) for aquaculture, specifically for production of a crop intended for human consumption. New DMCA's used only periodically for dredged material disposal could be managed to produce valuable crops. Previous studies conducted by the Corps of Engineers, including one where shrimp was raised at a DMCA, and others relating to the effects of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms, are reviewed. The literature indicated that most dredged material is uncontaminated and that many sediment constituents such as metal are relatively unavailable to aquatic animals; DMCAs containing parts-per-million levels of organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or petroleum hydrocarbons should not be used for aquaculture without extensive testing.

  12. Variability of The Southwest Indian and Atlantic Oceans and Connexions To Atmospheric Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchereau, N.; Trzaska, S.; Richard, Y.; Roucou, P.

    Sea-Surface-Temperature variability in the Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans is in- vestigated using Empirical Orthogonal Functions analysis over the 1950-1999 period. It reveals a significant pattern of co-variability between the SouthWest Indian and SouthWest Atlantic Oceans (roughly located in the Southwestern branches of the sub- tropical gyres and their retroflection regions). The robustness of this mode is assessed through correlation between box-averaged indices and composite analysis. This mode is phase-locked on the Austral Summer (november to january) and is associated with significant anomalies in the SLP field. A discussion on the potential mechanisms in- volved in such Ocean Atmosphere anomalies is given and attention is devoted to their impact on the precipitation anomalies over Southern America and mainly Southern Africa. Relations to the SST - atmosphere patterns of variability recently described by Behera et Yamagata (2001. Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 2, 327-330) for the Indian Ocean and Venegas et al (1997. Journal of Climate, 19, 2904-2920) for the Atlantic Ocean is also discussed.

  13. Recovery of floral and faunal communities after placement of dredged material on seagrasses in Laguna Madre, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, P.

    2004-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to determine how long alterations in habitat characteristics and use by fishery and forage organisms were detectable at dredged material placement sites in Laguna Madre, Texas. Water, sediment, seagrass, benthos, and nekton characteristics were measured and compared among newly deposited sediments and nearby and distant seagrasses each fall and spring over three years. Over this period, 75% of the estimated total surface area of the original deposits was either re-vegetated by seagrass or dispersed by winds and currents. Differences in water and sediment characteristics among habitat types were mostly detected early in the study. There were signs of steady seagrass re-colonization in the latter half of the study period, and mean seagrass coverage of deposits had reached 48% approximately three years after dredging. Clovergrass Halophila engelmannii was the initial colonist, but shoalgrass Halodule wrightii predominated after about one year. Densities of annelids and non-decapod crustaceans were generally significantly greater in close and distant seagrass habitats than in dredged material habitat, whereas densities of molluscs were not significantly related to habitat type. Nekton (fish and decapod) densities were almost always significantly greater in the two seagrass habitats than in dredged material deposits. Benthos and nekton communities in dredged material deposits were distinct from those in seagrass habitats. Recovery from dredged material placement was nearly complete for water column and sediment components after 1.5 to 3 years, but recovery of seagrasses, benthos, and nekton was predicted to take 4 to 8 years. The current 2 to 5 years dredging cycle virtually insures no time for ecosystem recovery before being disturbed again. The only way to ensure permanent protection of the high primary and secondary productivity of seagrass beds in Laguna Madre from acute and chronic effects of maintenance dredging, while ensuring

  14. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Planning-Level Cost Estimates of Dredged Material Containment Islands in New York Harbor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    WES). Three sites are ... *considered: a. A--East Bank (off East Bank and Coney Island ). .. b. B--West Bank (Lower Bay west to Chapel Hill Channel). c...PROGRAM "P." US~~o ArCop MISCELLANEOUS PAPER D-88 3 PLANNING-LEVEL COST ESTIMATES OF AD-A194 812 DREDGED MATERIAL CONTAINMENT ISLANDS IN NEW YORK HARBOR...10278-0090 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) -’.. Planning-Level Cost Estimates of Dredged Material Containment Islands in New York Harbor

  15. Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) scientific advances and future west pacific coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganachaud, A. S.; Sprintall, J.; Lin, X.; Ando, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) is an international research program under the auspices of CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability). The key objectives are to understand the Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and Convergence Zone (SPCZ) dynamics, as well as their influence on regional and basin-scale climate patterns. It was designed to measure and monitor the ocean circulation, and to validate and improve numerical models. South Pacific oceanic waters are carried from the subtropical gyre centre in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC), towards the southwest Pacific-a major circulation pathway that redistributes water from the subtropics to the equator and Southern Ocean. Water transit through the Coral and Solomon Seas is potentially of great importance to tropical climate prediction because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate ENSO and produce basin-scale climate feedbacks. On average, the oceanic circulation is driven by the Trade Winds, and subject to substantial variability, related with the SPCZ position and intensity. The circulation is complex, with the SEC splitting into zonal jets upon encountering island archipelagos, before joining either the East Australian Current or the New Guinea Costal UnderCurrent towards the equator. SPICE included large, coordinated in situ measurement programs and high resolution numerical simulations of the area. After 8 years of substantial in situ oceanic observational and modeling efforts, our understanding of the region has much improved. We have a refined description of the SPCZ behavior, boundary currents, pathways, and water mass transformation, including the previously undocumented Solomon Sea. The transports are large and vary substantially in a counter-intuitive way, with asymmetries and gating effects that depend on time scales. We will review the recent advancements and discuss

  16. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domestic sewage sludge or biosolids and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and chara...

  17. Environmental effects of dredging: Upland animal bioassays of dredged materials. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Simmers, J.W.; Rhett, R.G.; Lee, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Clean Water Act in the United States requires that the environmental evaluation of dredged material prior to discharge or impacting the waters of the United States include the effects of disposal on concentrations of contaminants through biological processes. This results in a need for Corps of Engineers districts to be able to predict the contamination of animals that may be associated with potential disposal alternatives: open-water disposal, upland disposal, and wetland creation. The following is a summary of the results of bioassay procedures using the earthworm Eisenia foetida to evaluate the potential contaminant mobility into soil-dwelling animals. These tests were derived from proposed Organization for European Common Development (OECD) and European Economics Commission (EEC) test procedures (evaluating the effects of new chemicals) and modified to consider accumulation and sublethal effects rather than toxicity.

  18. Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W N; Miller, G; Simmers, J W

    1990-01-01

    We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high concentrations of trace elements in the biota.

  19. Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.; Simmers, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata) at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high, concentrations of trace elements in the biota.

  20. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and... SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National...

  1. A technique for the assessment of the visual impact of nearshore confined dredged materials and other built islands

    Treesearch

    Roy Mann

    1979-01-01

    Drilling rigs, confined dredged material disposal sites power and sewage treatment facilities, and other built objects on or near shorelines have often created appreciable impacts on the aesthetic perceptions of residents and recreational users. Techniques for assessing such impacts that are reviewed in this paper include viewscape analysis for large-scale shore...

  2. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and... SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D...

  3. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, B.J.; Pearson, W.H. )

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the Seattle District of the US Army Corps of Engineers has begun active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. This survey was to verify that the location of the area of high crab density observed during site selection surveys has not shifted into the Southeast Ocean Disposal Site. In June 1990, mean densities of juvenile Dungeness crab were 146 crab/ha within the disposal site and 609 crab/ha outside ad north of the disposal site. At nearshore locations outside the disposal site, juvenile crab density was 3275 crab/ha. Despite the low overall abundance, the spatial distribution of crab was such that the high crab densities in 1990 have remained outside the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site. The survey data have confirmed the appropriateness of the initial selection of the disposal site boundaries and indicated no need to move to the second monitoring tier. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Site Evaluation Studies of the Massachusetts Bay Disposal Site for Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-05

    nutritive to primary productivity. Although no phosphate EPA criteria exist (EPA, 1987), this nutrient often is the causative agent in eutrophication...ANNEL IDA Polychaeta Sabellidae Myxicola sp. 0.56 7.13 BRACHIOPODA Terebratulina sp. - 0.09 MOLLUSCA Bivalvia Pectin idae Placopecten sp. -0.01

  5. Procedural Guide for Designation Surveys of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    an erosional slope to a slumped and debris-covered slope. Directly off southern California and within the continental borderland the slope is a dip...mackerel, black drum, white seatrout, and sheepshead. PACIFIC COAST Geomorphology Southern California Bight - Los Angeles District Northern California Shelf...San Francisco District The geographic limits of the Southern California Bight extend from the California - Mexico border to Point Conception. The

  6. Benthic and Sedimentological Studies of the Georgetown Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    12 . Stations . / 10 12 12 *..* 󈧎, .*1*i’ 2 943 2- ~,Palycheeta Gastropoda -;Ascidiacea Isopoda SPelecypoda 7] Bryozoa g chinodormata Mysidacea...3197 1 893 1 6427 1 Polychaeta 3159 1 1031 3 550 2 4740 2 Amphipoda 1490 3 330 5 81 4 1901 3 Bryozoa * 204 11 1198 2 247 3 1649 4 Ascidiacea 255 8 498 4...Cumacea 4 9.5 1 20.5 1 16 4 10 Anthozoa* 3 11 2 11 1 95 3 11 Bryozoa 2 13 3 10 1 16 3 12 Hemichordata* 2 13 1 20.5 1 16 2 13 Scaphapoda 2 13 - - - - 2 14

  7. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Gravesend Bay Anchorage, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.

    1996-09-01

    The Gravesend Bay Anchorage was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in February 1994. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses to provide baseline sediment chemistry data on the Gravesend Bay Anchorage. Individual sediment core samples collected at the Gravesend Bay Anchorage were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two samples, one of composited sediment cores representing the southeast corner of the anchorage (COMP GR), and one sediment core representing the northeast corner of the anchorage (Station GR-1 0), were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

  8. Procedural Guide for Designation Surveys of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    zones ’re generally recognized: the inner, middle, and jutcr coo, t nenta ,’ zones. The inner irone extends from shore nut to a bo1th ,! 20 )T meters. As...material in a mortar to obtain single grains. If a porcelain or iron pestle is required, only up-and-down motions are used. Carbonate and ferruginous...Sulfate Solution (mixed 100:1:1 just before use) (I) 2% (w/v) NaIC0 3 in 0.1 N NaOH (2) 2% (w/v) KNa Tartrate in distilled HO (3) 1% (w/v) CuS0 4 in

  9. Marine Remote Sensing Survey of the Atchafalaya Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    fefe o CD 2 CO < 00 3- I © CM 00 * 85 oi 2 o *~: CM Pŕ a in 3 o> 3 in <n co w 5 o> zz as is Iss o 5 sgg o o m z o...gfe§ ? fefe |S8 CD CM CN Ü O P CM £j CM £ CM jj CM «N CM CM CM £ cVi £ CM CM CM CM ulz1 53 g 3 S § S S § § 8 S s o CM CO 5 in CO K 00 8...Is3 g§ && fefe Ulz* CO CO t». r*- 3= Si o) CM CM S < S o 8 CO o CM 2 CM 2 CM 2 D S Q O i 2 < X u 5" 0) g S§ OS ig UJ

  10. Ecological Evaluation of Proposed Discharge of Dredged Material into Ocean Waters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    the Office of Technology Transfer, Washington, DC 20460.) 0 0 2. Rand, M. C., Greenberg, Arnold E., and Taras, Michael J., Editorial Board, Standard...Research and Development, Gulf Breeze, Florida. 2. Rand, M. C., Greenberg, Arnold E., and Taras, Michael J., Editorial Board, Standard Methods for the...WATERS(U) ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS ENVIR. UNLSIID RKPEDCR TA.JUL 77 F/G 13/2 N EEohhhohhhhEEI El’.’., momo 12.0 Ulll

  11. Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for Endemic Mussismilia Corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) of the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zilberberg, Carla; Peluso, Lívia; Marques, Jessica A; Cunha, Haydée

    2014-01-01

    In the Southwest Atlantic, coral reefs are unique due to their growth form, low species richness, and a high level of endemic coral species, which include the most important reef builders. Although these reefs are the only true biogenic reefs in the South Atlantic Ocean, population genetic studies are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a suite of microsatellite loci to help gain insights into the population diversity and connectivity of the endemic scleractinian coral with the largest distributional range along the Southwest Atlantic coast, Mussismilia hispida Fourteen microsatellite loci were characterized, and their degree of polymorphism was analyzed in 33 individuals. The number of alleles varied between 4 and 17 per loci, and H o varied between 0.156 and 0.928, with 2 loci showing significant heterozygote deficiency. Cross-amplification tests on the other 2 species of the genus (Mussismilia braziliensis and Mussismilia harttii) demonstrated that these markers are suitable for studies of population diversity and structure of all 3 species of Mussismilia Because they are the most important reef builders in the Southwest Atlantic, the developed microsatellite loci may be important tools for connectivity and conservation studies of these endemic corals. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Pliocene climate change of the Southwest Pacific and the impact of ocean gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas, Cyrus; Nürnberg, Dirk; Tiedemann, Ralf; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The transition from the early Pliocene “Warmhouse” towards the present “Icehouse” climate and the role of Gateway dynamics are intensively debated. Both, the constrictions of the Central American Seaway and the Indonesian Gateway affected ocean circulation and climate during the Pliocene epoch. Here, we use combined δ18O and Mg/Ca ratios of planktonic foraminifera (marine protozoa) from surface and subsurface levels to reconstruct the thermal structure and changes in salinities from the Southwest Pacific Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 590B from 6.5 to 2.5 Ma. Our data suggest a gradual cooling of ~ 2 °C and freshening of the sea surface during ~ 4.6-4 Ma with an increased meridional temperature gradient between the West Pacific Warm Pool and the Southwest Pacific when the closing of the Central American Seaway reached a critical threshold. After ~ 3.5 Ma, the restricted Indonesian Gateway might have amplified the East Australian Current, allowing enhanced heat transport towards the Southwest Pacific with reduced meridional temperature gradients when the global climate gradually cooled. At the same time our data suggest a cooling and freshening of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) or/and an increased northward flow of SAMW towards Site 590B, possibly a first step towards the present Antarctic Frontal System.

  13. Did shifting winds drive shallow ventilation of the Southwest Pacific Ocean across the last glacial termination?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikes, E. L.; Elmore, A.; Cook, M. S.; Allen, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    At the end of the last ice age, a rapid increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration coincided with changes in seawater δ13C suggesting that invigorated ventilation of the deep ocean released CO2 to the atmosphere. We present here high-resolution, benthic foraminiferal δ13C and δ18O records from a 4-core depth transect in the Southwest Pacific Ocean that document shallow stratification and poor ventilation below ~660 m in the last glacial period. Starting at 17 ka, rapid convergence of shallow and intermediate-depth (660-2050 m) δ13C suggests thickening and increased ventilation of intermediate water, which was interrupted by restratification starting during the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR; 14.5-12.8 ka). δ18O and δ13C from two planktonic foraminiferal species, G.bulloides and G. inflata, growing at different depths, suggest changes in thermocline depth and a switch in source location of mixed layer and shallow subsurface waters from proximal Southern Ocean and more distal equatorial sources which was coeval with changes in intermediate water ventilation. The close coincidence of these changes with early Southern Hemisphere warming and wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean suggests that latitudinal shifts in the southern Westerly wind belt affected intermediate water formation and initiated CO2 release from the ocean early in the termination.

  14. The distribution of pelagic sound scattering layers across the southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Rogers, Alex D.; Brierley, Andrew S.

    2017-02-01

    Shallow and deep scattering layers (SLs) were surveyed with split-beam echosounders across the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) to investigate their vertical and geographical distribution. Cluster analysis was employed to objectively classify vertical backscatter profiles. Correlations between backscatter and environmental covariates were modelled using generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) with spatial error structures. Structurally distinct SL regimes were found across the Subantarctic Front. GAMMs indicated a close relationship between sea surface temperature and mean volume backscatter, with significantly elevated backscatter in the subtropical convergence zone. The heterogeneous distribution of scattering layer biota reflects the biogeographic zonation of the survey area and is likely to have implications for predator foraging and carbon cycling in the Indian Ocean.

  15. Sea-surface temperatures of the southwest Pacific Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, T. T.; Juggins, S.; de Deckker, P.; Thiede, J.; Martinez, J. I.

    2000-02-01

    The southwest Pacific Ocean covers a broad range of surface-water conditions ranging from warm, salty water in the subtropical East Australian Current to fresher, cold water in the Circumpolar Current. Using a new database of planktonic foraminifera assemblages (AUSMAT-F2), we demonstrate that the modern analog technique can be used to accurately reconstruct the magnitude of sea-surfacetemperature (SST) in this region. We apply this technique to data from 29 deep-sea cores along a meridional transect of the southwest Pacific Ocean to estimate the magnitude of SST cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum. We find minimal cooling in the tropics (0°-2°C), moderate cooling in the subtropical midlatitudes (2°-6°C), and maximum cooling to the southeast of New Zealand (6°-10°C). The magnitude of cooling at the sea surface from the tropics to the temperate latitudes is found to generally be less than cooling at the surface of adjacent land masses.

  16. First records of winter sea ice concentration in the southwest Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, Alexander J.; Crosta, Xavier; Quilty, Patrick G.; Fink, David; Howard, William; Armand, Leanne K.

    2015-11-01

    We use a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) to provide the first winter sea ice concentration record from two cores located within the southwest Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. To compliment the application of GAM, a time series analysis on satellite records of sea ice concentration data was used to extend the standard 13.25 year time series used for paleoceanography. After comparing GAM sea ice estimates with previously published paleo sea ice data we then focus on a new paleo winter sea ice record for marine sediment core E27-23 (59°37.1'S, 155°14.3'E), allowing us to provide a more comprehensive view of winter sea ice dynamics for the southwest Pacific Ocean. The paleo winter sea ice concentration estimates provide the first suggestion that winter sea ice within the southwestern Pacific might have expanded during the Antarctic Cold Reversal. Throughout the Holocene, core E27-23 documents millennial scale variability in paleo winter sea ice coverage within the southwest Pacific. Holocene winter sea ice expansion may have resulted from the Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation, increased intensity of the westerly winds, as well as a northern migration of the Subtropical and/or Sub-Antarctic Fronts. Brief consideration is given to the development of a paleo summer sea ice proxy. We conclude that there is no evidence that summer sea ice ever existed at core sites SO136-111 and E27-23 over the last 220 and 52,000 years, respectively.

  17. Environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Stronkhorst, J; Ariese, F; van Hattum, B; Postma, J F; de Kluijver, M; Den Besten, P J; Bergman, M J N; Daan, R; Murk, A J; Vethaak, A D

    2003-01-01

    The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity, biomarker responses and benthic community changes shortly after dumping at the 'North' site had ceased and at the start of disposal at the new dumping site 'Northwest'. During the period of dumping, very few benthic invertebrates were found at the North site. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in the fine sediment fraction (<63 microm) from this site were 2-3 times higher than at the reference site. In four different bioassays with marine invertebrates the sediments showed no acute toxic effects. In tissue (pyloric caeca) of resident starfish Asterias rubens, residual levels of mercury, zinc, PCBs and dioxin-like activity were never more than twice those at the reference site. Four different biomarkers (DNA integrity, cytochrome P450 content, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition) were used on the starfish tissues, but no significant differences were found between North and the reference site. Minor pathological effects were observed in resident dab Limanda limanda. One year after dumping had ceased at the North site, a significant increase in the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates and a concomitant decrease in the fine sediment fraction of the seabed were observed. After 8.2 million m3 of moderately contaminated dredged material had been dumped at the new dumping site Northwest, the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates declined over an area extending about 1-2 km eastwards. This correlated with a shift in sediment texture from sand to silt. The contamination of the fine sediment fraction at the Northwest location

  18. A new genus and species of Platyischnopidae (Amphipoda: Gammaridea) from the Argentine sea, South-West Atlantic ocean.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Ignacio L; Alonso, Gloria M

    2014-05-30

    The family Platyischnopidae is herein reported for the first time in the Argentine Sea, South-West Atlantic Ocean. A new genus and species, Platyisao holodividum gen. et. sp. nov., collected off the coast of Buenos Aires and Río Negro provinces, is fully described and illustrated. Platyisao gen. nov. is distinguished from the eight other genera of Platyischnopidae by the gnathopods subchelate, and the telson elongate, completely cleft. In addition, the distribution of Tiburonella viscana (Barnard J.L., 1964), up to now known in the South-West Atlantic Ocean from Brazilian waters, is extended to the coast off Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

  19. Calls reveal population structure of blue whales across the southeast Indian Ocean and the southwest Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Balcazar, Naysa E; Tripovich, Joy S; Klinck, Holger; Nieukirk, Sharon L; Mellinger, David K; Dziak, Robert P; Rogers, Tracey L

    2015-11-24

    For effective species management, understanding population structure and distribution is critical. However, quantifying population structure is not always straightforward. Within the Southern Hemisphere, the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) complex is extremely diverse but difficult to study. Using automated detector methods, we identified "acoustic populations" of whales producing region-specific call types. We examined blue whale call types in passive acoustic data at sites spanning over 7,370 km across the southeast Indian Ocean and southwest Pacific Ocean (SWPO) from 2009 to 2012. In the absence of genetic resolution, these acoustic populations offer unique information about the blue whale population complex. We found that the Australian continent acts as a geographic boundary, separating Australia and New Zealand blue whale acoustic populations at the junction of the Indian and Pacific Ocean basins. We located blue whales in previously undocumented locations, including the far SWPO, in the Tasman Sea off the east coast of Australia, and along the Lau Basin near Tonga. Our understanding of population dynamics across this broad scale has significant implications to recovery and conservation management for this endangered species, at a regional and global scale.

  20. Calls reveal population structure of blue whales across the southeast Indian Ocean and the southwest Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Balcazar, Naysa E.; Tripovich, Joy S.; Klinck, Holger; Nieukirk, Sharon L.; Mellinger, David K.; Dziak, Robert P.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2015-01-01

    For effective species management, understanding population structure and distribution is critical. However, quantifying population structure is not always straightforward. Within the Southern Hemisphere, the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) complex is extremely diverse but difficult to study. Using automated detector methods, we identified “acoustic populations” of whales producing region-specific call types. We examined blue whale call types in passive acoustic data at sites spanning over 7,370 km across the southeast Indian Ocean and southwest Pacific Ocean (SWPO) from 2009 to 2012. In the absence of genetic resolution, these acoustic populations offer unique information about the blue whale population complex. We found that the Australian continent acts as a geographic boundary, separating Australia and New Zealand blue whale acoustic populations at the junction of the Indian and Pacific Ocean basins. We located blue whales in previously undocumented locations, including the far SWPO, in the Tasman Sea off the east coast of Australia, and along the Lau Basin near Tonga. Our understanding of population dynamics across this broad scale has significant implications to recovery and conservation management for this endangered species, at a regional and global scale. PMID:26989263

  1. High resolution modeling of tropical cyclones-ocean interactions in the South-West Indian Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanut, J.; Samson, G.; Giordani, H.; Barbary, D.; Drillet, Y.

    2016-02-01

    The ocean surface can cool by several degrees during the passage of a tropical cyclone (TC) due to the extreme winds associated with. This cooling decreases the ocean-to-atmosphere heat and moisture supply which can modulate the TC intensity. Hence, atmospheric models need an accurate description of the sea surface temperature (SST) under TCs to correctly predict their intensities. This SST evolution and its feedback on the TC evolution can only be captured by ocean-atmosphere coupled models. In order to evaluate this potential benefit on TC forecasts in the South West Indian Ocean, Mercator-Ocean has developed a new coupled regional model based on the Meteo-France operational atmospheric model AROME and the NEMO ocean model. Exchanges between the two models are handled by the OASIS3 coupler. AROME is initialized and forced at its lateral boundaries with ALADIN 10km-resolution 6-hourly analysis and is integrated during 96 hours at 2.5km convective-resolving resolution. NEMO is initialized and forced with global 1/4° oceanic analyses performed weekly at Mercator-Ocean and is integrated at 1/12° eddy-resolving resolution. An ensemble of 25 coupled simulations and 25 atmospheric-only (forced) simulations based on 5 different TCs over the 2008-2013 seasons are then computed to explore the sensitivity of the TC hindcast to the SST. The ensemble is generated by varying the initial simulation time with a 6-hours step. A clear improvement of the SST evolution under the TCs is observed in the coupled simulations when compared to satellite data. This SST difference directly impacts turbulent latent and sensible heat fluxes spatial distribution and intensities, which lead to different intensification rates in the coupled and the forced simulations. The intensity hindcast mean error is significantly reduced in the coupled ensemble for hindcast ranges extending from 36h up to 96h. A statistical analysis confirms the robustness of this intensity hindcast improvement achieved

  2. Environmental effects of dredging: Upland animal bioassays of dredged material. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, E.A.; Edwards, C.A.

    1988-02-01

    Earthworms have great potential for use as bioassay/biomonitor organisms in studies of contaminant uptake and possess many characteristics that make them ideally suited for this purpose (Ma 1982). Studies have demonstrated that native species of earthworms, collected at contaminated sites, can be used to indicate biologically available levels of these contaminants (Helmke et al. 1979, Ireland 1983, Pietz et al. 1984). However, it is the species Eisenia foetida (which does not naturally colonize these sites) which has been recommended for use in the laboratory for the ecotoxicological testing of agricultural and industrial chemicals (European Economic Community (EEC) 1984), proposed as a bioassay species for assessing contaminant availability in waste materials, and used to determine the bioavallability of contaminants in dredged material (Marquenie and Simmers 1984). Correlations between total and OTPA-extractable metal concentrations in contaminated substrates and the concentrations in the tissues of earthworms exposed to these substrates over a 28-day period may be used to establish their potential as biomonitor organisms.

  3. Quality of dredged material in the River Seine basin (France). I. Physico-chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, S; Moilleron, R; Beltran, C; Hervé, D; Thévenot, D

    2002-08-05

    In rivers, sediments are frequently accumulating persistent chemicals, especially for those that are more contaminated as a consequence of pressure related to environmental pollution and human activity. The Seine river basin (France) is heavily polluted from nearby industrial activities, and the urban expansion of Paris and its suburbs within the Ile de France region and the sediments present in the Seine river basin are contaminated. To ensure safe, navigable waters, rivers and waterways must be dredged. In this paper, the quality of the sediment dredged in 1996, 1999 and 2000 is discussed. Physico-chemical characteristics of the sediment itself and of the pore-water are presented. Seine basin sediments show very diverse compositions depending on the sampling site. Nevertheless, a geographic distribution study illustrated that the Paris impact is far from being the only explanation to this diversity, the quality of this sediment is also of great concern. The sediment once dredged is transported via barges to a wet disposal site, where the dredged material is mixed with Seine water in order to be pumped into the receiving site. This sort of dumping might be responsible for the potential release of contaminants to the overlying water from the significantly contaminated sediments.

  4. Quality of dredged material in the river Seine basin (France). II. Micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, S; Moilleron, R; Beltran, C; Hervé, D; Thévenot, D

    2002-11-01

    Dredging rivers is needed to ensure safe navigable waters, rivers and waterways. To anticipate the management of dredged materials in the case of the river Seine basin, the quality of the sediments in the river is checked every 3 years before dredging operations. The river Seine Basin is heavily submitted to pollution pressure from nearby industrial activities and urban expansion of Paris and its region. Here, the micropollutant content of the sediment sampled in 1996, 1999 and 2000 before dredging is discussed compared to regulatory standards. The results indicate that most of the sediment samples from the river Seine basin are lightly to moderately contaminated with organic and inorganic micropollutants (heavy metals, PAH, PCB), which makes the management after dredging easier. This pollution is strongly correlated with the organic matter content and to the fine fraction (<50 microm) of the sediment. These results can lead to other management options than the ones already used in the river Seine basin: (1) dumping of lightly to moderately polluted sediments in quarries; and (2) physical treatment (sieving, hydrocycloning) of contaminated sediments issued from 'hot spots'.

  5. Lightweight Aggregate Made from Dredged Material in Green Roof Construction for Stormwater Management

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Coffman, Reid

    2016-01-01

    More than 1.15 million cubic meters (1.5 million cubic yards) of sediment require annual removal from harbors and ports along Ohio’s Lake Erie coast. Disposing of these materials into landfills depletes land resources, while open water placement of these materials deteriorates water quality. There are more than 14,000 acres of revitalizing brownfields in Cleveland, U.S., many containing up to 90% impervious surface, which does not allow “infiltration” based stormwater practices required by contemporary site-based stormwater regulation. This study investigates the potential of sintering the dredged material from the Harbor of Cleveland in Lake Erie to produce lightweight aggregate (LWA), and apply the LWA to green roof construction. Chemical and thermal analyses revealed the sintered material can serve for LWA production when preheated at 550 °C and sintered at a higher temperature. Through dewatering, drying, sieving, pellet making, preheating, and sintering with varying temperatures (900–1100 °C), LWAs with porous microstructures are produced with specific gravities ranging from 1.46 to 1.74, and water absorption capacities ranging from 11% to 23%. The water absorption capacity of the aggregate decreases as sintering temperature increases. The LWA was incorporated into the growing media of a green roof plot, which has higher water retention capacity than the conventional green roof system. PMID:28773734

  6. Lightweight Aggregate Made from Dredged Material in Green Roof Construction for Stormwater Management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Coffman, Reid

    2016-07-23

    More than 1.15 million cubic meters (1.5 million cubic yards) of sediment require annual removal from harbors and ports along Ohio's Lake Erie coast. Disposing of these materials into landfills depletes land resources, while open water placement of these materials deteriorates water quality. There are more than 14,000 acres of revitalizing brownfields in Cleveland, U.S., many containing up to 90% impervious surface, which does not allow "infiltration" based stormwater practices required by contemporary site-based stormwater regulation. This study investigates the potential of sintering the dredged material from the Harbor of Cleveland in Lake Erie to produce lightweight aggregate (LWA), and apply the LWA to green roof construction. Chemical and thermal analyses revealed the sintered material can serve for LWA production when preheated at 550 °C and sintered at a higher temperature. Through dewatering, drying, sieving, pellet making, preheating, and sintering with varying temperatures (900-1100 °C), LWAs with porous microstructures are produced with specific gravities ranging from 1.46 to 1.74, and water absorption capacities ranging from 11% to 23%. The water absorption capacity of the aggregate decreases as sintering temperature increases. The LWA was incorporated into the growing media of a green roof plot, which has higher water retention capacity than the conventional green roof system.

  7. Use of hydrocyclone and flotation column for reducing the volume of contaminated dredged material.

    PubMed

    Park, K H; Lee, J H; Bae, B H; Kim, Y H; Choung, Y K

    2006-01-01

    As sediment contamination problems have recently been raised in Korea, the need for technologies to clean contaminants in sediments has increased. Although the recalcitrant organic matters and heavy metals in the contaminated sediments are of primary concern, large amounts of sediment makes the removal of the contaminants in them more difficult. In this study, the performance of hydrocyclone and flotation column was tested to reduce the volume of contaminated dredged materials (CDMs) prior to treating recalcitrant matters, such as various organic chemicals and heavy metals, in an integrated treatment system. When hydrocyclone was operated with 10% (w/v) solids concentration of the feed slurry, the total solids of upflow products were 4 to 7% (w/v) when the inlet pressure was changed from 1.0 to 2.0 kg/cm2. The volume reduction ratio of CDMs by hydrocyclone was approximately 90% (v/v). When the upflow products in hydrocyclone was then spiked with automobile transmission oil and fed to the flotation colum to see the performance of the column flotation on the volume reduction and the TPH removal, 44% of the TPHs in feed were removed at the tails and the volume reduction ratio of CDMs by column flotation was 18% at 200 L/min of wash water. The flotation column could be proposed as a potential preliminary treatment process of CDMs prior to subsequent biological treatments.

  8. Variability in tropical cyclone heat potential over the Southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malan, N.; Reason, C. J. C.; Loveday, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical cyclone heat potential (TCHP) has been proposed as being important for hurricane and typhoon intensity. Here, a climatology of TCHP is developed for the Southwest Indian Ocean, a basin that experiences on average 11-12 tropical cyclones per year, many of which impact on Mauritius, Reunion and Madagascar, and Mozambique. SODA data and a regional ocean model forced with the GFDL-CORE v.2b reanalysis winds and heat fluxes are used to derive TCHP values during the 1948-2007 period. The results indicate that TCHP increases through the austral summer, peaking in March. Values of TCHP above 40 kJ cm-2, suggested as the minimum needed for tropical cyclone intensification, are still present in the northern Mozambique Channel in May. A time series of TCHP spatially averaged over the Seychelles-Chagos thermocline ridge (SCTR), an important area for tropical cyclones, is presented. The model time series, which agrees well with XBT-based observations (r = 0.82, p = 0.01), shows considerable interannual variability overlaying an upward tendency that matches with an observed increase in severe tropical cyclone days in the Southwest Indian Ocean. Although an increase in severe storms is seen during 1997-2007, the increasing TCHP tendency time series after 1997 coincides with a decrease in total cyclone numbers, a mismatch that is ascribed to increased atmospheric anticyclonicity over the basin. Seasons of increased (decreased) TCHP over the SCTR appear to be associated with dry (wet) conditions over certain areas of southern and East Africa and are linked with changes in zonal wind and vertical motion in the midtroposphere.

  9. Model and assessment of the contribution of dredged material disposal to sea-surface contamination in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.T.; Cowan, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    Hydrophobic or floatable materials released to the water column during dredge disposal operations may accumulate in high concentrations on the water surface. If such surface accumulations occur, they could impact the reproduction of fish and shellfish with neustonic (floating) eggs or larvae. Also, floatable surface contaminants could deposit on nearby beaches. In order to examine the potential impacts of such processes, an interactive computer (IBM PC) model was developed. The FORTRAN model allows input of contaminant concentrations on the dredge material, the surface area of the disposal site, the floatable fraction of the contaminated material, and the baseline concentrations of contaminants present in the sea-surface microlayer. The model then computes the resultant concentrations of each contaminant in the microlayer and the potential impact on floating fish eggs. The utility of the model would be greatly improved by empirical data, not yeat available, on the vertical upward and lateral movement of contaminants during dredge material disposal.

  10. Feasibility of Using Mycorrhizal Fungi for Enhancement of Plant Establishment on Dredged Material Disposal Sites. A Literature Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    n *eseey d IdenlIfy by block number) Establishment of vegetation on dredged material disposal sites is often essential for stabilization of the...require longer periods of time than are acceptable for the desired stabilization or reclamation of the site with vegetation. Moisture deficiencies are...water absorption, and root system stabilization of the host plant.-) Beneficial effects of using mycorrhizal tree seedlings are so profound that the

  11. United States/European Union Co-ordination with HR Wallingford on Dredged Material Fate Modelling Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    United States Army EUROPEAN RESEARCH OFFICE OF THE U.S. ARMY London, England CONTRACT NUMBER N68171-01-M-5407 HR Wallingford Report No EX 4891...Netherlands, The United Kingdom , Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany. When all of the comments have been collated the protocols will be finalised. There... United States/European Union Co-ordination with HR Wallingford on Dredged Material Fate Modelling Improvements Final Report – April 2003 by T N Burt

  12. GREAT I: A Study of the Upper Mississippi River. Volume 2. Floodplain Management, Dredged Material Uses, Dredging Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Disposal, Thalwep. The disposal of dredged material into the main channel. Diversion. The taking of water from a stream or other body of water into a...REQUIREMENTS ions will be in bleok 40 white’ VOLUME 3 D. MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT NEEDS E. COMMERCIAL TRANSPORTATION VOLUME 4 F. WATER QUALITY G. SEDIMENT...acceptable on a temporary basis. The material must be removed from the floodway before seasonal high water . 3. The FPMWG recommends that lands along

  13. Comparison of the Direct Scoring Method and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Dredged Material Management Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    regulations is required. There are three main concerns with this approach: lack of weighting, categorical scores, and subjectivity. An initial concern...provided as they may fit into the hypothetical upland disposal site selection for dredged material example below. Three main criteria were identified...cost, environmental, and social (Figure 2). Each main crite- rion is divided into sub-criteria. The cost criterion is divided into construction

  14. Design of a GIS-based rating protocol to assess the potential for landfill closure using dredge material in post Hurricane Sandy New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Miskewitz, Robert J; Barone, Daniel; Guterl, Sar J; Uchrin, Christopher G

    2017-05-12

    New Jersey is rapidly running out of capacity for storage of dredged material. A potential solution to this lack of storage space is to remove and reuse the dredged material for some beneficial use. Results from a Rutgers University project performed for the New Jersey Department of Transportation, Office of Maritime Resources, designed to assess the potential for closure of New Jersey landfills using dredge material from existing Confined Disposal Facilities (CDFs) are presented and discussed. The project included an update of the existing NJDEP landfill database, the development of a rating system to identify landfills with the highest potential to utilize dredged material for their closure, and the identification and preliminary investigation of the top candidate landfills based on this rating system.

  15. Reports of Public Scoping Meetings for the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Designation of Dredged Material Disposal Sites in Eastern Long Island Sound

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These reports provide summaries of the scoping meetings as part of the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) process for the designation of dredged material disposal sites in Eastern Long Island Sound.

  16. Neotectonic activity on continental fragments in the Southwest Indian Ocean: Agulhas Plateau and Mozambique Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Avraham, Z.; Hartnady, C. J. H.; Le Roex, A. P.

    1995-04-01

    The Agulhas Plateau and Mozambique Ridge are composed in part of continental fragments embedded within oceanic crust of the southwest Indian Ocean. Recent studies of the plateaus and their vicinity have discovered significant evidence for neotectonic activity. In both areas, newly obtained seismic reflection profiles indicate possibly young basaltic intrusions in the northern, oceanic parts of the plateaus. Small rock fragments recovered from the southern Mozambique Ridge comprise metamorphic and volcanic lithologies. The volcanic rocks are made of extremely fresh quenched glasses. Although no radiometric dates are available for the volcanic glasses, their lack of any significant alteration suggests that eruption took place in the last few tens of thousands of years, supporting the seismic reflection evidence for magmatic activity in this region. The active crustal stretching and tensional stresses implied by this relatively recent tectonism probably cannot be generated by distantly applied plate-driving torques, such as ridge push, but appear to require bouyancy-related forces originating in the underlying upper mantle.

  17. An introduction to the physical oceanography of six seamounts in the southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Jane; Pollard, Raymond

    2017-02-01

    Exploratory surveys of six seamounts in the Southwest Indian Ocean provide a description of physical processes induced by seamounts along the Southwest Indian Ridge. Mean currents (15-25 cm s-1) in the vicinity of each seamount were dominated by mesoscale eddies. The dominant seamount-driven process was the generation of internal tides by the barotropic tide interacting with the seamount crests. This led to enhanced shear in the vicinity of the crests resulting in mixing where stratification was weak, for example in the core of an anticyclonic mesoscale eddy or where there had been a winter mixed layer. Tidally driven up- and downwelling was observed at the seabed with associated variability in bottom temperature of up to 3 °C over a tidal cycle. Vertical displacement of isopycnals by internal tidal waves reached 200 m peak to trough. Fluorescence in the surface (eutrophic) layer could thus extend down to the seamount crest on each tidal cycle. Apparently spatial variations in short conductivity/temperature/depth sections across each seamount were probably aliased temporal variations from the strong tidal signal. Evidence for Taylor caps or other potential trapped circulations at the seamount crest was weak, most likely because currents associated with mesoscale eddies were too strong to allow their formation.

  18. Southwest Pacific Ocean response to a warmer world: Insights from Marine Isotope Stage 5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, G.; Dunbar, G. B.; Carter, L.; Scott, G.; Bostock, H.; Bowen, M.; Crundwell, M.; Hayward, B. W.; Howard, W.; Martínez, J. I.; Moy, A.; Neil, H.; Sabaa, A.; Sturm, A.

    2013-09-01

    Paleoceanographic archives derived from 17 marine sediment cores reconstruct the response of the Southwest Pacific Ocean to the peak interglacial, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (ca. 125 ka). Paleo-Sea Surface Temperature (SST) estimates were obtained from the Random Forest model—an ensemble decision tree tool—applied to core-top planktonic foraminiferal faunas calibrated to modern SSTs. The reconstructed geographic pattern of the SST anomaly (maximum SST between 120 and 132 ka minus mean modern SST) seems to indicate how MIS 5e conditions were generally warmer in the Southwest Pacific, especially in the western Tasman Sea where a strengthened East Australian Current (EAC) likely extended subtropical influence to ca. 45°S off Tasmania. In contrast, the eastern Tasman Sea may have had a modest cooling except around 45°S. The observed pattern resembles that developing under the present warming trend in the region. An increase in wind stress curl over the modern South Pacific is hypothesized to have spun-up the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre, with concurrent increase in subtropical flow in the western boundary currents that include the EAC. However, warmer temperatures along the Subtropical Front and Campbell Plateau to the south suggest that the relative influence of the boundary inflows to eastern New Zealand may have differed in MIS 5e, and these currents may have followed different paths compared to today.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Oil-Degrading Bacterium Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans Strain YA_1 from the Southwest Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yiyuan; Ren, Chong; Chen, Ruixuan

    2016-01-01

    Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans has been previously reported to be capable of degrading crude oil and diesel oil. G. pentaromativorans strain YA_1 was isolated from the southwest Indian Ocean and can degrade crude oil. This study reports the draft genome sequence of G. pentaromativorans, which can provide insights into the mechanisms of microbial oil biodegradation. PMID:27491993

  20. Impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Goff, John A.; Nichol, Scott L.

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused major landscape changes along the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the flow, natural topography and bathymetry, and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain. Landscape changes included substantial beach erosion and scouring of return-flow channels near the beach, and deposition of sand sheets across the narrow coastal plain. In many areas tsunami deposits also included abundant building rubble due to the extensive destruction of homes and businesses in areas of dense development. Trim lines and flow directions confirmed that shoreline orientation and wave refraction from embayments and rock-anchored headlands locally focused the flow and amplified the inundation. Tsunami deposits were 1 to 36 cm thick but most were less than 25 cm thick. Deposit thickness depended partly on antecedent topography. The deposits were composed of coarse to medium sand organized into a few sets of plane parallel laminae that exhibited overall upward fining and landward thinning trends.

  1. Tasmanian Tertiary basalts, the Balleny plume, and opening of the Tasman Sea (southwest Pacific Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanyon, Ruth; Varne, Rick; Crawford, Anthony J.

    1993-06-01

    A seamount chain extending from the Balleny Islands to the East Tasman Plateau records the passage of the Australian and Antarctic plates over the Balleny plume. A poorly known seamount chain trending northeast from the East Tasman Plateau across the Tasman Sea to the western edge off the Lord Howe Rise represents a possible older trace of the plume. Late Cretaceous inception of this plume, and of another beneath Marie Byrd Land on the stationary Antarctic plate, may have been involved in the initiation of spreading at ˜80 Ma in the Tasman Sea and southwest Pacific Ocean. The Balleny plume isotopic and trace element signature, indicative of a high U/Pb mantle source, is recorded in Cenozoic Tasmanian basalts but is not present in the adjacent Victorian mafic lava-field province, located farther from the plume trace.

  2. Low frequency baleen whale calls detected on ocean-bottom seismometers in the Lau basin, southwest Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Dana C; Dunn, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Ten months of broadband seismic data, recorded on six ocean-bottom seismographs located in the Lau Basin, were examined to identify baleen whale species. As the first systematic survey of baleen whales in this part of the southwest Pacific Ocean, this study reveals the variety of species present and their temporal occurrence in and near the basin. Baleen whales produce species-specific low frequency calls that can be identified by distinct patterns in data spectrograms. By matching spectrograms with published accounts, fin, Bryde's, Antarctic blue, and New Zealand blue whale calls were identified. Probable whale sounds that could not be matched to published spectrograms, as well as non-biologic sounds that are likely of volcanogenic origin, were also recorded. Detections of fin whale calls (mid-June to mid-October) and blue whale calls (June through September) suggest that these species migrate through the region seasonally. Detections of Bryde's whale calls (primarily February to June, but also other times of the year) suggest this species resides around the basin nearly year round. The discovery of previously unpublished call types emphasizes the limited knowledge of the full call repertoires of baleen whales and the utility of using seismic survey data to enhance understanding in understudied regions.

  3. The response of the southwest Western Australian wave climate to Indian Ocean climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandres, Moritz; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Hetzel, Yasha; Wijeratne, E. M. S.

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of regional wave climates is critical for coastal planning, management, and protection. In order to develop a regional wave climate, it is important to understand the atmospheric systems responsible for wave generation. This study examines the variability of the southwest Western Australian (SWWA) shelf and nearshore wind wave climate and its relationship to southern hemisphere climate variability represented by various atmospheric indices: the southern oscillation index (SOI), the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index (DMI), the Indian Ocean Subtropical Dipole (IOSD), the latitudinal position of the subtropical high-pressure ridge (STRP), and the corresponding intensity of the subtropical ridge (STRI). A 21-year wave hindcast (1994-2014) of the SWWA continental shelf was created using the third generation wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), to analyse the seasonal and inter-annual wave climate variability and its relationship to the atmospheric regime. Strong relationships between wave heights and the STRP and the STRI, a moderate correlation between the wave climate and the SAM, and no significant correlation between SOI, DMI, and IOSD and the wave climate were found. Strong spatial, seasonal, and inter-annual variability, as well as seasonal longer-term trends in the mean wave climate were studied and linked to the latitudinal changes in the subtropical high-pressure ridge and the Southern Ocean storm belt. As the Southern Ocean storm belt and the subtropical high-pressure ridge shifted southward (northward) wave heights on the SWWA shelf region decreased (increased). The wave height anomalies appear to be driven by the same atmospheric conditions that influence rainfall variability in SWWA.

  4. Oceanic Influences on Pacific Storm Track Activity and Southwest United States Precipitation from 1915-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, R.; Han, W.

    2016-02-01

    The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) exert influence on the position and strength of storm tracks through ocean interactions with the atmosphere. This study utilizes a comprehensive set of satellite and in situ data from 1915-2011 to show how the IPO and AMO may have influenced and are related to historical December-January-February storm track activity (STA) and precipitation (snow) over the north Pacific and southwest US (SWUS). SWUS river basin water supply for people, agriculture and energy production throughout the year is predominantly dependent on snowpack depth and by changes in ocean conditions across multiple time scales. Positive STA and precipitation anomalies are strongly related to positive (warm) IPO phases across datasets and time periods while negative (cool) IPO phases are not as robustly linked to specific anomalous conditions. Additionally, we find some evidence for STA-precipitation relationships with time and region dependencies. While continued global change could cause a mean poleward shift in STA and precipitation patterns in the future, there is as yet little indication of such a shift in observational data. Moreover, the interannual to interdecadal variability discussed in this study will continue to be important to water resource managers throughout the region.

  5. Crustal Magnetization Model of Maud Rise in the Southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; vanFrese, Ralph R. B.; Golynsky, Alexander V.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2004-01-01

    We modeled the crustal magnetization for the Maud Rise in the south-west Indian Ocean off the coast of East Antarctica using magnetic observations from the Oersted satellite and near-surface surveys complied by the Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP). A new inversion modeling scheme of the multi-altitude anomaly fields suggests that the magnetic effects due to crustal thickness variations and remanence involving the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone (KQZ) become increasingly dominant with altitude. The magnetic crustal thickness effects were modeled in the Oersted data using crustal thickness variations derived from satellite altitude gravity data. Remanent magnetization modeling of the residual Oersted and near-surface magnetic anomalies supports extending the KQZ eastwards to the Astrid Ridge. The remaining near-surface anomalies involve crustal features with relatively high frequency effects that are strongly attenuated at satellite altitudes. The crustal modeling can be extended by the satellite magnetic anomalies across the Indian Ocean Ridge for insight on the crustal properties of the conjugate Agulhas Plateau. The modeling supports the Jurassic reconstruction of Gondwana when the African Limpopo-Zambezi and East Antarctic Princess Astrid coasts were connected as part of a relatively demagnetized crustal block.

  6. Heavy Metal Uptake, Translocation, and Bioaccumulation Studies of Triticum aestivum Cultivated in Contaminated Dredged Materials

    PubMed Central

    Shumaker, Ketia L.; Begonia, Gregorio

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs) originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn) and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn tissue

  7. Land application of carbonatic lake-dredged materials: effects on soil quality and forage productivity.

    PubMed

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Coleman, Samuel W; Holtkamp, Mike L

    2006-01-01

    The ability to reuse carbonatic lake-dredged materials (CLDM) for agricultural purposes is important because it reduces offshore disposal and provides an alternative to disposal of the materials in landfills that are already overtaxed. A four-year (2001 to 2005) study on land application of CLDM as an option for disposal was conducted on a beef cattle pasture in south central Florida. The objectives of this study were (i) to assess CLDM as a soil amendment to improve quality of sandy soils in most subtropical beef cattle pastures and (ii) to determine the effect of CLDM on productivity and nutritive values of bahiagrass (BG, Paspalum notatum Flügge) in subtropical beef cattle pasture. The five treatment combinations arranged in randomized complete block design were represented by plots with different ratios (R) of natural soil (NS) to CLDM: R1 (1000 g kg(-1):0 g kg(-1)); R2 (750 g kg(-1):250 g kg(-1)); R3 (500 g kg(-1):500 g kg(-1)); R4 (250 g kg(-1):750 g kg(-1)); and R5 (0 g kg(-1):1000 g kg(-1)). Addition of CLDM had significant (p < or = 0.001) effects on soil quality and favorable influence on forage establishment and nutritive values. Compared with the control plots (0 g kg(-1)), the soils in plots amended with CLDM exhibited (i) lower penetration resistance, (ii) an increase in soil pH and exchangeable cations (Ca and Mg), and (iii) decrease in the levels of soil trace metals (Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Si). Results disclosed consistently and significantly (p < or = 0.001) higher BG biomass production (forage yield = -106.3x(2) + 1015.8x - 39.2; R(2) = 0.99**) and crude protein content (CP = 1.24x + 6.48; R(2) = 0.94**) from plots amended with CLDM than those of BG planted on plots with no CLDM treatment.

  8. Heavy metal uptake, translocation, and bioaccumulation studies of Triticum aestivum cultivated in contaminated dredged materials.

    PubMed

    Shumaker, Ketia L; Begonia, Gregorio

    2005-08-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs) originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn) and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn tissue

  9. Summary of a workshop on interpreting bioaccumulation data collected during regulatory evaluations of dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, T.S.; Moore, D.W.; Landrum, P.; Neff, J.; Cura, J.

    1996-07-01

    Evaluating the environmental consequences of contaminant bioaccumulation resulting from dredged material disposal is a complex technical and regulatory problem. This problem is exacerbated by the high cost of bioaccumulation testing and the lack of explicit guidance on how bioaccumulation data should be interpreted and used within a regulatory program. Bioaccumulation is a measurable phenomenon, rather than an effect. Without specific information about biological effects (e.g., reduced survival, growth, reproduction in animals, cancer risk in humans) resulting from bioaccumulation, it is difficult if not impossible from a regulatory standpoint to objectively determine what level of bioaccumulation constitutes an `unacceptable adverse effect.` Existing regulatory guidance attempts to overcome this with two approaches, both of which use low aquatic trophic level organisms and a reference-based comparison. In the first approach, the level of bioaccumulation of a specific contaminant is compared with a numerical effect limit, such as a Food and Drug Administration action level or a fish advisory. If the level of the contaminant in the organism exceeds the numerical limit, it is equated to an unacceptable adverse effect. If it does not, or there is no numerical limit, the second approach involves a comparison with animals exposed to a reference sediment. If bioaccumulation in the animals exposed to the dredged material exceeds that of animals exposed to the reference, a number of subjective factors are then evaluated to determine whether or not dredged material disposal will result in an `unacceptable adverse effect` (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) 1991, 1994).

  10. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Aquaculture in Dredged Material Containment Areas, Proceedings Held at Galveston, Texas on September 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    MS ENVIR .. UNCLASSIFIED J HOZIRK ET RL’OCT 83 WESiMP/D-83-2 F/G 13/2 NL EmEEEEEMhhEjh/lll/i/lm!EEEI EEEEEEEEEEEEEIiiiiiiiiiiiiiiEhhGhBhEEEEEBo S...destroyed, some $25 million in damage had occurred, and some 6000 people lost their lives. The citizens of Galveston faced a tremendous task of...are tested for a variety of heavy metals and pesticides . In some cases, bioassays of the dredged material have been performed. The results of these

  11. Restoring marsh elevation in a rapidly subsiding salt marsh by thin-layer deposition of dredged material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, M.A.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Thin-layer deposition of dredged material on coastal marsh by means of high-pressure spray dredging (Jet-Spray??2) technology has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize wetland impacts associated with traditional bucket dredging technologies and to restore soil elevations in deteriorated marshes of the Mississippi River delta. The impact of spray dredging on vegetated marsh and adjacent shallow-water habitat (formerly vegetated marsh that deteriorated to open water) was evaluated in a 0.5-ha Spartina alterniflora-dominated salt marsh in coastal Louisiana. The thickness of dredged sediment deposits was determined from artificial soil marker horizons and soil elevation change was determined from sedimentation-erosion tables (SET) established prior to spraying in both sprayed and reference marshes. The vertical accretion and elevation change measurements were made simultaneously to allow for calculation of shallow (~5 m depth) subsidence (accretion minus elevation change). Measurements made immediately following spraying in July 1996 revealed that stems of S. alterniflora were knocked down by the force of the spray and covered with 23 mm of dredged material. Stems of S. alterniflora soon recovered, and by July 1997 the percent cover of S. alterniflora had increased three-fold over pre-project conditions. Thus, the layer of dredged material was thin enough to allow for survival of the S. alterniflora plants, with no subsequent colonization by plant species typical of higher marsh zones. By February 1998, 62 mm of vertical accretion accumulated at this site, and little indication of disturbance was noted. Although not statistically significant, soil elevation change was greater than accretion on average at both the spray and reference marshes, suggesting that subsurface expansion caused by increased root biomass production and/or pore water storage influence elevation in this marsh region. In the adjacent shallow water pond, 129 mm of sediment was deposited in July

  12. Environmental Effects of Dredging Program: Inland Waterways: Proceedings of a National Workshop on the Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material Held in St. Paul, Minnesota on 27-30 October 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    John W. Simmers, R. G. Rhett, and J. M. Marquenie ..... ............... . 160 Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material in Seven New England Projects...Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material in Seven New England Projects---Messrs. James E. Walsh, Carlos Carranzat, and Robert A. Humphrey, Bay State...accomplish our purpose. 176 SESSION III: INNOVATIVE BENEFICIAL USES AND CONCEPTS BENEFICIAL USES OF DREDGED MATERIAL IN SEVEN NEW ENGLAND PROJECTS

  13. Geomorphology and accommodation space as limiting factors on tsunami deposition: Chatham Island, southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichol, S. L.; Chagué-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.; Horrocks, M.; McFadgen, B. G.; Strotz, L. C.

    2010-07-01

    Chatham Island in the southwest Pacific Ocean is exposed on all sides to potential tsunami impact. In historical time, tsunamis are known to have inundated the coast on several occasions, with the largest event in 1868. Coastal dunes along the northeast coast of Chatham Island preserve sedimentary evidence of this and possibly earlier tsunami events, as localised gravel lags. However, these deposits lack a clear stratigraphic context and establishing their age is difficult. This study examines the sediment record in a freshwater wetland at Okawa Point, located directly landward of the dunes where apparent tsunami gravels occur. Sediment descriptions, pollen, foraminifera, chemical data and radiocarbon dates from cores are used to reconstruct the environmental history of the wetland. The record extends from ca. > 43 ka to the present and incorporates glacial, post-glacial and human-influenced phases. Throughout this time the wetland appears to have remained isolated from catastrophic marine inundation. The only evidence for saltwater intrusion is observed in the historic period, via geochemical, grain size and pollen data, which record a marine inundation event that forced the transport of a thin (cm-thick) deposit of dune and beach sand into the seaward edge of the wetland. This is interpreted as the signature of the 1868 tsunami. The lack of more widespread physical evidence for this and other tsunami events in the wetland is attributed to the morphological roughness afforded by coastal dunes and limited accommodation space for Holocene deposits.

  14. The Morphology, Structure and Origin of Seamounts on the South-West Indian Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, L. A.; Watts, A. B.; JC066 shipboard scientific party

    2012-04-01

    The South-West Indian Ridge (SWIR) between longitude 46 and 57° East is an ultra-slow spreading (~16 mm/a) mid-ocean ridge system with a highly oblique (>50°) spreading direction and a large number of closely spaced transform faults. Previous swath bathymetry surveys onboard R/V Dr. Fridtjof Nansen in 2009 show that the ridge crest is characterised by a number of irregularly shaped seamounts which rise about 2500 m above the mean depth of the surrounding seafloor. However, the origin of these seamounts and whether they reflect passive cracking of the lithosphere or deep mantle processes is not clear. In November/December, 2011 we re-surveyed 5 of these seamounts onboard RRS James Cook using an EM120 swath bathymetry system, a Lacoste-Romberg air-sea gravimeter and a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). Preliminary results show that the seamounts are highly fractured, with fault trends parallel and orthogonal to the spreading direction. There is evidence of both growth and collapse structures, including head scars, chutes and debris flows. We present here a preliminary analysis of the morphology, gravity field and rock sample data and its implications for tectonics, mass wasting and eruptive processes at young seamounts that have formed in an active extensional setting.

  15. CMIP5 earth system models with biogeochemistry: An assessment for the southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickard, Graham J.; Behrens, Erik; Chiswell, Stephen M.

    2016-10-01

    An assessment is made of the ability of CMIP5 models to represent the seasonal biogeochemical cycles over the late twentieth century in the southwest Pacific Ocean. In particular, sea surface temperature (SST), surface chlorophyll a, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, and the depth of the seasonal thermocline, are examined to quantify the physical-biogeochemical capabilities of each model; the result is a "ranking" estimate enabling model ensemble generation. The better/less ranked ensembles we refer to as inner/outer, respectively. The ensembles then allow less well-observed variables such as iron and vertically integrated primary production to be assessed. The assessment establishes model output confidence limits for setting bounds on future model scenario ecosystem change projections. By the end of the twenty first century under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) RCP4.5 and/or RCP8.5, our best estimates suggest that there will be average domain wide increases in SST and surface iron, but average decreases in surface chlorophyll a, nitrate, and phosphate, accompanied by relatively large decreases in the depth of the seasonal thermocline (all changes realized by both ensembles). On the other hand, for surface silicate the inner ensemble suggests general declines, and vice versa for the outer ensemble. For integrated primary production, the ensembles predict declines in subtropical water, but elsewhere generally less significant changes.

  16. [Stock assessment and management for Illex argentinus in Southwest Atlantic Ocean based on Bayesian Schaefer model].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua-Jie; Chen, Xin-Jun; Li, Gang; Cao, Jie

    2013-07-01

    Abstract: Bayesian Schaefer model was applied to assess the stock of Illex argentinus in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean, with the risk of alternative management strategies for the squid analyzed. Under the scenarios of normal and uniform prior assumptions, the estimated model parameters and reference points were similar, and higher than the values under the scenario of logarithmic normal prior assumption. Under the three proposed scenarios, the fishing mortalities and the total catches in 2001-2010 were lower than the reference point F0.1 and the maximum sustainable yield (MSY), indicating that the I. argentinus was in an expected sustainable exploited level but not in over-fishing and over-fished. The results of decision analysis indicated that at the same harvest rate, the stock of the I. argentinus under the scenario of logarithmic normal prior assumption in 2025 would be the lowest, and the probability of collapse would be the highest. Under the three scenarios, the harvest rate in 2025 would be all 0.6 if the catch was the maximum. However, if the harvest rate was set to 0.6, the stock of the I. argentinus after 2025 would have definite risk, and thus, the harvest rate 0.4 and the catch 550000 t appeared to be the best management regulation or the baseline case.

  17. Mechanism for generating the anomalous uplift of oceanic core complexes: Atlantis Bank, southwest Indian Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baines, A.G.; Cheadle, Michael J.; Dick, H.J.B.; Scheirer, A.H.; John, Barbara E.; Kusznir, N.J.; Matsumoto, T.

    2003-01-01

    Atlantis Bank is an anomalously uplifted oceanic core complex adjacent to the Atlantis II transform, on the southwest Indian Ridge, that rises >3 km above normal seafloor of the same age. Models of flexural uplift due to detachment faulting can account for ???1 km of this uplift. Postdetachment normal faults have been observed during submersible dives and on swath bathymetry. Two transform-parallel, large-offset (hundreds of meters) normal faults are identified on the eastern flank of Atlantis Bank, with numerous smaller faults (tens of meters) on the western flank. Flexural uplift associated with this transform-parallel normal faulting is consistent with gravity data and can account for the remaining anomalous uplift of Atlantis Bank. Extension normal to the Atlantis II transform may have occurred during a 12 m.y. period of transtension initiated by a 10?? change in spreading direction ca. 19.5 Ma. This extension may have produced the 120-km-long transverse ridge of which Atlantis Bank is a part, and is consistent with stress reorientation about a weak transform fault.

  18. Presence of the telescope fish Mendosoma lineatum in Patagonian waters, a new species in the ichthyological fauna from the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bovcon, N D; Cochia, P D; Ruibal Núñez, J; Vucica, M; Figueroa, D E

    2017-10-01

    The presence of the telescope fish Mendosoma lineatum in Patagonian waters of Argentina is reported. Mendosoma lineatum is the second species of the Latridae recorded in the south-west Atlantic Ocean and its presence in Patagonia is an addition to both the ichthyological fauna of the Argentinean Sea and the south-west Atlantic Ocean. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. 75 FR 22524 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ..., boaters, boarders, and divers, to use the near-shore area in the vicinity of the Sites, but EPA does not... coarser (sandy) material is expected to settle out of the water column within a few minutes of disposal... nearshore, sandy, wave-influenced regions of the Pacific Coast in Oregon and Washington. (3) Location in...

  20. 75 FR 5708 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... example, surfers, boaters, boarders, and divers, to use the near-shore area in the vicinity of the Sites... to be sandy material, while a small amount of material (up to 3% of the material) would be classified... the sites is common to nearshore, sandy, wave- influenced regions of the Pacific Coast in Oregon and...

  1. 77 FR 20590 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of Yaquina Bay, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... mineral extraction, desalination plants, or fish and shellfish culture operations near the proposed Sites... operations at the Sites to conflict with this use because of the limited space and time during which disposal... Extraction, Desalination, Fish and Shellfish Culture, Areas of Special Scientific Importance and Other...

  2. 77 FR 55144 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... higher cost of monitoring sites in deeper waters and further offshore. Historic disposal has occurred at... continental shelf and other such sites where historical disposal has occurred (40 CFR 228.5(e)). Disposal... Proximity to the Site of any Significant Natural or Cultural Feature of Historical Importance (40 CFR...

  3. A quantitative analysis of naiad mollusks from the Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin dredge material site on the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havlik, M.E.; Marking, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Prairie du Chien dredge material site contains about 100,000 cubic meters of material dredged from the East Channel of the Mississippi Riverin1976. Previous studies in that area suggested a rich molluscan fauna, but most studies were only qualitative or simply observations. Our study of this material was designed to determine the density and diversity of molluscan fauna, to assess changes in the fauna, to identify endemic species previously unreported, and to evaluate the status of the endangered Lampsilis higginsi. Ten cubic meters of dredge material were sieved to recover shells. Molluscan fauna at the site contained38 species of naiades and up to 1,737 identifiable valves per cubic meter. The endangered L. higginsi ranked18th In occurrence, accounted for only 0.52% of the identifiable shells, and averaged about three valves per cubic meter. From a total of 813 kg of naiades and gastropods, 6,339 naiad valves were identified. Five naiad species were collected at the site for the first time, and Eploblasma triquetra had not been reported previously in the Prairie du Chien area. Although the molluscan fauna has changed, the East Channel at Prairie du Chien is obviously suitable for L. higginsi.

  4. Environmental effects of dredging. Engineering considerations for capping subaqueous dredged material deposits -- background and preliminary planning. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    1987-02-01

    In recent years, the search for alternatives to expensive and limited upland containment areas for contaminated sediment has centered on in-water capped disposal. This interest was further reinforced when the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (the London Dumping Convention) accepted the capping concept, subject to monitoring, as an appropriate technology for rapidly rendering harmless the contaminants of concern in dredged material. Subsequent detailed investigations (e.g., Brannon et al. 1985, O`Connor and O`Connor 1983) have confirmed that capping can be effective in chemically and biologically isolating contaminated dredged material from the overlying aquatic environment. However, in order to ensure this effectiveness, capping projects cannot be treated simply as a modification of conventional disposal practices. A capping project must be thought of as an engineered structure with design and construction requirements that must be met, verified, and maintained over the design life. This is not to say that traditional equipment and operational methods cannot be applied to capping contaminated materials. In fact, they have been used with good success. Technologies must, however, be applied in a systems context and with careful control and monitoring.

  5. A multi-criteria approach for the dumping of dredged material in the Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis; Kanellopoulos, Theodore; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Antoniou, Panayota; Anagnostou, Christos

    2010-12-01

    A multi-criteria approach was applied for the disposal into the sea of ∼1,100,000 m(3) of sediment, dredged from a coastal area in the northeastern part of the Thermaikos Gulf. This sediment (classified as muddy) is distributed vertically into two distinct Layers (A and B) with the thickness of the surficial sedimentary unit ranging from 7 to 54 cm. Its geochemistry reveals increased Cr and Ni concentrations, which may be attributed to natural enrichment through the erosion of the adjacent igneous and metamorphic rocks. In addition, a low to moderate contamination from urban-originated heavy metals, like Cu, Pb and Zn as well as from aliphatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons was identified for the upper Layer A. However, the limited proportion (5.5%) of the polluted Layer A in the total volume of the dredged material could not affect the good quality (assessed by the Sediment Quality Guidelines) of the bulk sediment. The identification of the optimum marine dumping site was based on (a) the physicochemical similarity (detected by the application of a cluster analysis) of the dredged material with the surficial deposits of potential dumping sites in the Outer Thermaikos Gulf, and (b) the consideration, based on previous studies, of various criteria related to the disposal area such as deep-water circulation, influence on living resources, impact on economical (aquaculture, fishing, navigation), recreational (fishing) and military activities.

  6. Growth and Construction of Oceanic Crust at Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J. J.; John, B. E.; Cheadle, M. J.; Miranda, E. A.; Grimes, C. B.; Wooden, J. L.; Dick, H. J.

    2005-12-01

    Magmatic zircon is a common accessory mineral in oceanic crustal rocks including gabbro, oxide gabbro, diabase and felsic veins. Its presence in these rocks provides an exceptional opportunity to document crustal growth processes at slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges. We present nineteen Pb/U zircon SHRIMP-RG ion probe ages of lower crustal rocks collected by manned submersible, ROV, dredging and ODP drilling from a 20 x 30 km2 area of Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge, which allow us to constrain the growth and construction of oceanic crust. Weighted average 206Pb/238U ages of these samples range from 10.7 to 13.9 Ma, with errors of 0.1-0.6 m.y. (<1 - 4%). At least 75% of these gabbros accreted within error of the predicted sea-surface magnetic age, whereas up to 25% are between 700,000 and 2.5 m.y. older. In one sample, we identified zircon with inherited cores as much as 1.5 m.y. older than their corresponding rims. There is no observable correlation between age and lithology, and the anomalously old samples are not from any specific part of Atlantis Bank; they appear to be randomly distributed amongst the non-anomalous age samples and come from various structural depths. We consider two models to explain the presence of these anomalously old rocks: i) a stochastic intrusion model whereby magma was intruded at different spatial locations within the rift valley as the plates spread apart, resulting in the entrapment of older lower crust by subsequent intrusions; and/or ii) a model in which some gabbroic bodies originally crystallized at depths of ~5-18 km below the base of the crust in a thick, cold, axial lithosphere and were subsequently uplifted along flow-lines and intruded by shallow-level magmas during the creation of Atlantis Bank. In this model, the difference in time between the Pb/U zircon crystallization age and the magnetic age is a proxy for the depth at which zircon crystallized (assuming a constant mantle upwelling rate during the construction of

  7. Ecological consequences of dredged material disposal in the marine environment: a holistic assessment of activities around the England and Wales coastline.

    PubMed

    Bolam, S G; Rees, H L; Somerfield, P; Smith, R; Clarke, K R; Warwick, R M; Atkins, M; Garnacho, E

    2006-04-01

    This study provides a holistic perspective on the ecological effects of dredged material disposal, both intertidally and subtidally. A number of numerical techniques (univariate, distributional, multivariate and meta-analysis) were used to assess impacts at 18 different disposal sites. The analyses revealed that ecological effects associated with dredged material disposal were dependent on the numerical techniques used, and that impacts were disposal-site specific. Disposal-site communities were generally faunistically impoverished to varying degrees, and impacts following intertidal placement were comparable to those of subtidal placement. We conclude that any assessment of the consequences of dredged material disposal to the coastal environment must take account of site-specific variation in prevailing hydrographic regimes and in ecological status, along with information on the disposal activity itself (mode, timing, quantity, frequency and type of material). As would be expected, variability in the latter presents a significant challenge in attempts to generalise about environmental and ecological impacts.

  8. GREAT II. Great River Environmental Action Team II. Upper Mississippi River. Guttenberg, Iowa to Saverton, Missouri. Dredged Material Uses Work Group. Appendix.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    0 ) (n M IC E an LL> 3 -OL Lu W W.D a) Q a) (v a) 4J~4 4-) >- 4 I- IV L .0 .0 -0 .0 0 S- 0- 0.- 0. . 0. -4-) 4-) 4- 4-) 4.)4. (.0 w L ( (A (A (n) co...dredged material and as such have not tried to find uses for it. c. Road Sanding - Ice Control Channel maintenance dredged material has been used success...with a sewage sludge and sawdust 29 compost in order to create a useful soil additive from waste materials. As stated in their Appendix the study

  9. Radiocarbon evidence for mid-late Holocene changes in southwest Pacific Ocean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komugabe-Dixson, Aimée. F.; Fallon, Stewart J.; Eggins, Stephen M.; Thresher, Ronald E.

    2016-07-01

    Variability in the southwest (SW) Pacific Ocean circulation is influenced by the changes in the South Pacific subtropical gyre and its western boundary current, the East Australian Current (EAC). The EAC plays a significant role in transporting warm, well-ventilated, nutrient-poor waters to more temperate higher latitudes. Recent climate changes associated with EAC intensification have led to anomalous warming in the South Tasman, with implications for marine ecosystems and environment. A clear understanding of the significance of these changes requires knowledge of past natural variability. Here we have reconstructed a 4500 year record of regional sea surface radiocarbon reservoir ages (R) and local reservoir effects (ΔR). Our results reveal the centennial-scale variability over the last 4500 years, with R ranges as large as 390 14C yr. Older R (~410 14C yr) between 1610 to 1860 A.D. in our record, corresponding to the "Little Ice Age," suggests a weaker influence of the EAC in the South Tasman. Between 4000 and 1900 cal years B.P., R and ΔR were significantly younger than the modern, with values of ~170 and -130 14C yr, respectively, indicating increased EAC transport of tropical waters into the South Tasman. We propose that the large R variability was influenced by strong and abrupt El Niño events which punctuated the muted El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) period in the mid-late Holocene and enabled increased westward flow of gyre waters into the SW Pacific. The strengthening of the EAC extension appears to have been a response to the precession-modulated ENSO-Southern Annular Mode interactions.

  10. Phytoplankton communities and acclimation in a cyclonic eddy in the southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, R.; Lamont, T.; Gibberd, M.-J.; Airs, R.; Jacobs, L.; Britz, K.

    2017-06-01

    A study of phytoplankton in a cyclonic eddy was undertaken in the Mozambique Basin between Madagascar and southern Africa during austral winter. CHEMTAX analysis of pigment data indicated that the community comprised mainly haptophytes and diatoms, with Prochlorococcus, prasinophytes and pelagophytes also being prominent to the east and west of the eddy. There was little difference in community structure, chlorophyll-specific absorption [a*ph(440)] and pigment:TChla ratios between the surface and the sub-surface chlorophyll maximum (SCM), reflecting acclimation to fluctuating light conditions in a well mixed upper layer. Values for a*ph(440) were low for diatom dominance, high where prokaryote proportion was high, and intermediate for flagellate dominated communities. Chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin:TChla ratios were elevated over most of the eddy, while 19‧-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin ratios increased in the eastern and western sectors. In a community comprising mainly flagellates and Prochlorococcus to the west of the eddy, there was high a*ph(440) at the surface and elevated ratios for divinyl chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and 19‧-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin at the SCM. An increase in diadinoxanthin:TChla ratios and a decline in the quantum efficiency of photochemistry in PSII under high light conditions, indicated some photoprotection and photoinhibition at the surface even in a well mixed environment. Diadinoxanthin was the main photoprotective carotenoid within the eddy, while zeaxanthin was the dominant photoprotective pigment outside the eddy. The results of this study will be useful inputs into appropriate remote sensing models for estimating primary production and the size class distribution of phytoplankton in eddies in the southwest Indian Ocean.

  11. Structural Development of an Oceanic Detachment Fault System, Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, E. A.; John, B. E.; Hirth, G.; Dick, H.

    2002-12-01

    In slow-spreading environments, both magmatic and tectonic processes accommodate spreading, where the latter can be manifested in the form of an extensional detachment fault system. The detachment fault system of Atlantis Bank, an oceanic core complex formed at the intersection of the Southwest Indian Ridge and the Atlantis II transform, is dissected by transform-parallel normal faults that provide unique cross-sections through all levels of the detachment fault system. Gabbros and peridotite collected in ODP Hole 735B and with the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 were located structurally beneath, within, and above the main detachment fault surface along the exposed length of the detachment fault system that correspond to roughly 2 Ma of crustal accretion. The samples are ideal for interpreting the process of strain localization and fabric development associated with the formation of oceanic detachment faults. Analysis of the{ \\it in situ} dive samples and continuous core from Hole 735B indicate that the main shear zone associated with the detachment fault is at least 500m thick. The deepest levels of the shear zone are characterized by a 50-m thick zone of unfoliated or weakly foliated granulite grade rocks. The granulite deformation continues upward but is strongly overprinted by a 150-m zone of penetrative amphibolite facies protomylonitic and mylonitic fabrics. A 300-m thick zone of well-foliated amphibolite facies rocks lies above the overprinted granulite. The amphibolites contain 20-30 mm wide, fine-grained shear zones that increase in abundance upward towards the main, brittle detachment fault. These rocks exhibit a greenschist grade deformation characterized by a cataclastic overprint of crystal-plastically deformed plagioclase and brown amphibole within the layers of the mylonitic foliation, and the growth of green amphibole "coronas" around brown amphibole; these relationships preserve the transition from high-temperature ductile deformation to lower

  12. Effects of burial by the disposal of dredged materials from the Columbia River on Pacific razor clams (Siliqua patula)

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrinec, John; Kohn, Nancy P.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.

    2007-05-07

    Annual maintenance of the Columbia River navigation channel requires the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) to dredge sediment from the river and dispose of the sediment in coastal areas at the mouth of the Columbia River. Some of these disposal areas can be as shallow as 12 m deep in waters off the coastal beaches, and dredged material disposal activities have therefore raised concerns of impacts to local razor clam (Siliqua patula) populations that are prevalent in the area. The Corps’ Portland District requested that the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conduct laboratory experiments to evaluate the potential impacts of burial by dredged material to razor clams during disposal. Prior modeling of disposal events indicates three stresses that could have an impact on benthic invertebrates: convective descent and bottom encounter (compression forces due to bottom impact), dynamic collapse and spreading (surge as material washes over the bottom), and mounding (burial by material). Because the razor clam is infaunal, the effects of the first two components should be minimal, because the clams should be protected by substrate that is not eroded in the event and by the clams’ rapid digging capabilities. The mound resulting from the disposal, however, would bury any clams remaining in the footprint under as much as 12 cm of new sediment according to modeling, and the clams’ reaction to such an event and to burial is not known. Although the literature suggests that razor clams may be negatively affected by siltation and therefore perhaps by dredging and disposal activity, as well, impacts of this type have not been demonstrated. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential impacts of dredge material disposal on adult subtidal razor clam populations at the mouth of the Columbia River. Using the parameters defined in a previous model, a laboratory study was created in which a

  13. Impact of prolonged La Niña events on the Indian Ocean with a special emphasis on southwest Tropical Indian Ocean SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, P.; Chowdary, J. S.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the mechanisms governing the teleconnections associated with the long-lived La Niña variability in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies using observational and reanalysis products. Two long-lived La Niña events (1973 to 1976 and 1998 to 2001) are observed in the recent years, one falling before and the other after the mid 1970's climatic shift. The winter (boreal) and spring (November to April) TIO SST is highly influenced by long-lived La Niña forcing. Climatic shift in mid 1970s contributes to the changes in TIO SST pattern during these two long-lived La Niña events. Surface heat flux variations due to long-lived La Niña contribute to the SST changes except in the southwest TIO. The upwelling favorable local surface wind stress curl and upwelling Rossby waves originating from the east are the dominant mechanisms responsible for the La Niña related winter time SST cooling over the southwest TIO. Long-lived La Niña induced surface wind anomalies enhance the fall Wyrtki Jet in the equatorial Indian Ocean resulting large scale anomalous heat transport. Local SST cooling reduces convection and contributes to the low rainfall over southwest TIO and the northern parts of Madagascar Island.

  14. Application of the Geophysical Scale Multi-Block Transport Modeling System to Hydrodynamic Forcing of Dredged Material Placement Sediment Transport within the James River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. C.; Hayter, E. J.; Pruhs, R.; Luong, P.; Lackey, T. C.

    2016-12-01

    The geophysical scale circulation of the Mid Atlantic Bight and hydrologic inputs from adjacent Chesapeake Bay watersheds and tributaries influences the hydrodynamics and transport of the James River estuary. Both barotropic and baroclinic transport govern the hydrodynamics of this partially stratified estuary. Modeling the placement of dredged sediment requires accommodating this wide spectrum of atmospheric and hydrodynamic scales. The Geophysical Scale Multi-Block (GSMB) Transport Modeling System is a collection of multiple well established and USACE approved process models. Taking advantage of the parallel computing capability of multi-block modeling, we performed one year three-dimensional modeling of hydrodynamics in supporting simulation of dredged sediment placements transport and morphology changes. Model forcing includes spatially and temporally varying meteorological conditions and hydrological inputs from the watershed. Surface heat flux estimates were derived from the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). The open water boundary condition for water level was obtained from an ADCIRC model application of the U. S. East Coast. Temperature-salinity boundary conditions were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) long-term monitoring stations database. Simulated water levels were calibrated and verified by comparison with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tide gage locations. A harmonic analysis of the modeled tides was performed and compared with NOAA tide prediction data. In addition, project specific circulation was verified using US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) drogue data. Salinity and temperature transport was verified at seven CBP long term monitoring stations along the navigation channel. Simulation and analysis of model results suggest that GSMB is capable of resolving the long duration, multi-scale processes inherent to practical engineering problems such as dredged material

  15. A temporal and spatial assessment of TBT concentrations at dredged material disposal sites around the coast of England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Bolam, Thi; Barry, Jon; Law, Robin J; James, David; Thomas, Boby; Bolam, Stefan G

    2014-02-15

    Despite legislative interventions since the 1980s, contemporary concentrations of organotin compounds in marine sediments still impose restrictions on the disposal of dredged material in the UK. Here, we analyse temporal and spatial data to assess the effectiveness of the ban on the use of TBT paints in reducing concentrations at disposal sites. At a national scale, there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of samples in which the concentration was below the limit of detection (LOD) from 1998 to 2010. This was observed for sediments both inside and outside the disposal sites. However, this temporal decline in organotin concentration is disposal site-specific. Of the four sites studied in detail, two displayed significant increases in proportion of samples below LOD over time. We argue that site-specificity in the effectiveness of the TBT ban results from variations in historical practices at source and unique environmental characteristics of each site.

  16. Fishery resource utilization of a restored estuarine borrow pit: a beneficial use of dredged material case study.

    PubMed

    Reine, Kevin; Clarke, Douglas; Ray, Gary; Dickerson, Charles

    2013-08-15

    Numerous pits in coastal waters are subject to degraded water quality and benthic habitat conditions, resulting in degraded fish habitat. A pit in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey (USA) was partially filled with dredged sediment to increase flushing, alleviate hypoxia, and enhance benthic assemblages. Restoration objectives were assessed in terms of benthic community parameters and fishery resource occupation. Restoration resulted in increased benthic diversity (bottom samples) and the absence of water column stratification. Fisheries resources occupied the entire water column, unlike pre-restoration conditions where finfish tended to avoid the lower water column. The partial restoration option effectively reproduced an existing borrow pit configuration (Hole #5, control), by decreasing total depth from -11 m to -5.5 m, thereby creating a habitat less susceptible to hypoxic/anoxic conditions, while retaining sufficient vertical relief to maintain associations with juvenile weakfish and other forage fishes. Partially filling pits using dredged material represents a viable restoration alternative.

  17. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay... Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary Point ID No. Latitude Longitude Santa Cruz Harbor/Twin Lakes...

  18. Initial Development of Riparian and Marsh Vegetation on Dredged-material Islands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California

    Treesearch

    A. Sidney England; Mark K. Sogge; Roy A. Woodward

    1989-01-01

    Natural vegetation establishment and development were monitored for 3 1/2 years on a new, dredged-material island located within the breached levees at Donlon Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Vegetation measurements and maps prepared annually indicate that marsh and riparian vegetation types have developed rapidly. Topographic data for the island has...

  19. Decreasing monsoon precipitation in southwest China during the last 240 years associated with the warming of tropical ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Liangcheng; Cai, Yanjun; An, Zhisheng; Cheng, Hai; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Gao, Yongli; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    Based on an absolutely dated stalagmite δ18O record from Yunnan province, China, we reconstructed monsoon precipitation variations in southwest China since 1760 AD with a resolution of about 2 years. Combining the speleothem δ18O and observed rainfall records, we find an overall decreasing trend in monsoon precipitation in this region and suggest that the recent drought in 2009-2012 AD has been the driest since 1760 AD. Our speleothem record is consistent with the monsoon precipitation records reconstructed from tree rings in the Nepal Himalaya and southeastern Tibetan Plateau. However, it is anti-correlated with a speleothem record from central India, which confirms the observed anti-phase variations of Indian monsoon precipitation with moistures from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea on multi-decadal to centennial timescales during historical time. The long-term warming of tropical ocean may have caused the decrease of the land-sea thermal gradient and the amount of moisture transported from the Bay of Bengal, which may reduce precipitations in southwest China during the last 240 years. On decadal scale, El Nińo-like conditions of tropical Pacific sea surface temperature may cause drought in this region. Climate model simulations suggest El Niño-like conditions exist in tropical Pacific under global warming scenarios. As a result, it is crucial to have adaptive strategies to overcome future declines in precipitation and/or drought events in southwest China.

  20. Evaluating Environmental Effects of Dredged Material Management Alternatives: A Technical Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    estuaries, bays, inlets, lagoons , marshes, swamps, mangroves, beaches, dunes, bluffs, and coastal uplands. Coastal -zone uses can include housing...described in this manual and the referenced testing manuals for Ocean disposal (MPRSA) and Inland and Near Coastal Waters (CWA) discharges will allow for...Discharge in Inland and Near Coastal Waters - Testing Manual." As the effort to update the testing manuals progressed, the need for additional guidance

  1. Preliminary Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Materials from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Miller, Martin C.; Williams, Greg D.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-02-01

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). The overall objectives of this effort are to synthesize what is known about disposal effects on Dungeness crabs (Phase 1) and to offer approaches to quantify the effects, including approaches to gain a population-level perspective on any effects found in subsequent studies (Phase 2). This report documents Phase 1, which included (1) development of a conceptual model to integrate knowledge about crab biology and the physical processes occurring during disposal, (2) application of physics-based numerical modeling of the disposal event to understand the physical forces and processes to which a crab might be exposed during disposal, (3) conduct of a vulnerability analysis to identify the potential mechanisms by which crabs may be injured, and (4) recommendations of topics and approaches for future studies to assess the potential population-level effects of disposal on Dungeness crabs. The conceptual model first recognizes that disposal of dredged materials is a physically dynamic process with three aspects: (1) convective descent and bottom encounter, (2) dynamic collapse and spreading, and (3) mounding. Numerical modeling was used to assess the magnitude of the potentially relevant forces and extent of mounding in single disposal events. The modeling outcomes show that predicted impact pressure, shear stress, and mound depth are greatly reduced by discharge in deep water, and somewhat reduced at longer discharge duration. The analysis of numerical modeling results and vulnerabilities indicate that the vulnerability of crabs to compression forces under any of the disposal scenarios is low. For the deep-water disposal scenarios, the maximum forces and mounding do not appear to be sufficiently high enough to warrant concern for surge currents or burial at the depths involved (over 230 ft). For the shallow-water (45 to 65 ft), short

  2. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Gardiner, W.W.; Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The navigational channels of Winyah Bay, Georgetown Harbor, South Carolina require dredging to enable normal shipping traffic to use these areas. Before dredging, environmental assessments must be conducted to determine the suitability of this dredged sediment for unconfined, open-water disposal. The Charleston, South Carolina District Office of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requested that the Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) collect sediment samples and conduct the required physical/chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations as required in the 1991 Implementation Manual. This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the Entrance Channel and Inner Harbor sediments proposed disposal in the ocean.

  3. San Francisco Deep Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (SF-DODS) Monitoring Program. Physical, Chemical, and Benthic Community Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-29

    0 10 .7 2 1 3 4 1 1 8 I 3 124 Hpoicss.2 0 0 1 0__ 0 0 0 -0 1 I 0 0 0 9 Haploops lodo F0002O 1 0 _ 001 0 0 o0 Harpiniopsis emeryi 1 0 0 o0 1 7 0Y0 0 T...1971 Axinopsida sp. 1 (2002) Haploops lodo Barnard, 1961 Lepraxinus cf. mninutus Verrill & Bush, 1898 Mendiculaferruginosa (Forbes, 1844) Family

  4. 78 FR 939 - Notice of Public Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... Culinary Arts Center, 20 E. Main Street, Riverhead, New York 11901. Directions are available at: http://department.sunysuffolk.edu/CulinaryArtsandHospitalityCenter_E/5009.asp . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  5. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality certification and determine consistency with a Federally-approved coastal zone management plan for..., ecological systems or economic potentialities. In making this evaluation, the district engineer, in addition...

  6. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality certification and determine consistency with a Federally-approved coastal zone management plan for..., ecological systems or economic potentialities. In making this evaluation, the district engineer, in addition...

  7. 76 FR 26720 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ....christopher@epa.gov . SUMMARY: EPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville District... is based on capacity computer modeling results. Alternatives: The following proposed...

  8. 77 FR 77076 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...: collins.garyw@epa.gov . SUMMARY: EPA in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Charleston... outside the current ODMDS). The size of an expanded ODMDS will based on capacity computer modeling...

  9. Ocean Dumping of Dredged Material at the Jacksonville Harbor Disposal Site: An Environmental Trend Assessment, February 1977 to April 1978.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Stations 26 within the Disposal Site and from Control Stations FIGURE 8: Lead ( Pb ) Concentrations (ppm) in Sediments from Stations 27 within the...open circles) and Ranges (solid lines) 59 of Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Lead ( Pb ), and Chromium (Cr) in Sediments from Grouped Stations (1...Concentrations (open circles) and Ranges (solid lines) 60 of Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Lead ( Pb ), and Chromium (Cr) in Sediments from Grouped Stations

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments at dredged material disposal sites around England: concentrations in 2013 and time trend information at selected sites 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Rumney, Heather S; Bolam, Stefan G; Law, Robin J

    2015-03-15

    The maintenance of navigation channels to ports and the development of their facilities present a need to conduct dredging operations, and the subsequent disposal of dredged material at sea. Contaminant concentrations in candidate dredged material are determined and their possible impacts considered during the licensing process, which can result in the exclusion of some material from sea disposal. Monitoring of disposal sites is conducted in order to ensure that no undesirable impacts are occurring. In this study we consider the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments at a number of disposal sites monitored in 2013 and variations in concentrations over time at three sites during the period 2008-2013. These were assessed using established sediment quality guidelines. Elevated PAH concentrations were generally observed only within the boundaries of the disposal sites studied.

  11. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Bulls Head Channel (lower Suisun Bay)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Gardiner, W.W.; Word, J.Q.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the sampling and testing program conducted for USACE by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to address (1) exclusion from further testing for ocean disposal, (2) suitability of open-water disposal within San Francisco Bay, and (3) beneficial uses, based on open-water and upland (leaching) disposal criteria, for the estimated 1.86 million cubic yards of sediment to be dredged from Bulls Head Channel and turning basin. To meet these objectives, core samples were collected from 28 locations to a depth of -47 ft mean lower low water (MLLW), which is -45 ft MLLW plus 2 ft overdepth. One to three samples per coring location were characterized physically and chemically; sediment from groups of locations and from various depth strata were combined into composite samples for biological toxicity characterization in addition to physical and chemical characterization. The chemical and biological tests were conducted following the guidance of USACE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and state regulatory agencies.

  12. Sampling, Testing, and Test Interpretation of Dredged Material Proposed for Unconfined, Open-Water Disposal in Central Puget Sound. Volume 5. Evaluation Procedures Technical Appendix. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    in developing guidelines and criteria for regulating dredged and fill material discharge. The focal point for the developmental research fon these...Identification and Assessment and Research Program Development ." Technical Report H-72-8 (U. S . Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg... Development of Dredged Material Disposal Criteria," Contract Report D-74-1 (U. S . Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg, Mississippi

  13. A screening procedure for selecting the most suitable dredged material placement site at the sea. The case of the South Euboean Gulf, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kapsimalis, V; Panagiotopoulos, I P; Hatzianestis, I; Kanellopoulos, T D; Tsangaris, C; Kaberi, E; Kontoyiannis, H; Rousakis, G; Kyriakidou, C; Hatiris, G A

    2013-12-01

    The selection of the best site for the placement of dredged sedimentary material (∼7,000 m(3)) from the Aliveri coastal area in the adjacent South Euboean Gulf (Greece) was accomplished through a screening procedure. The initial stage comprised the determination of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the dredged sediment before the commencement of any dredging operation. Grain size measurements, geochemical analyses together with the use of pollution/toxicity indices and empirical sediment quality guidelines, and the conduct of an acute toxicity test showed that the dredged material consisted of "unpolluted to slightly polluted" silty sands and sandy silts. However, the local authorities planned to place this sediment in the neighboring open sea area, i.e., the South Euboean Gulf, due to the absence of any beneficial use or alternative dumping option (i.e., dumping on public lands). Therefore, the next stage of the screening procedure, based on criteria such as the national legislation, seabed and seawater column characteristics, influence of the water mass circulation pattern on the post-placement migration of dredged sediment, impact on living resources and human activities (i.e., aquaculture and fishing), effect on significant marine sites (i.e., sites of scientific, ecological, and historical importance, navigation routes, military zones), and seafloor engineering uses, led to the evaluation of the suitability of the South Euboean Gulf as a potential dumping area. Then, the identification of the appropriate dredged material placement sites in the South Euboean Gulf was based on a cluster analysis, which tested the physicochemical resemblance of the dredged material and the surface sediments of 19 potential placement locations in the gulf. After the statistical process, only four sites situated near the north shoreline of the South Euboean Gulf were qualified as the best dredged material placement locations.

  14. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program. Long-Term Evaluation of Plants and Animals Colonizing Contaminated Estuarine Dredged Material Placed in Both Upland and Wetland Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    into the surface of the dredged material, enhancing plant growth and establishment. The lime and lime + manure plots showed 51 and 28 percent cover...have greatly improved plant growth and vegetative cover. Vegetative cover plays a significant role in improving surface runoff water quality (Skogerboe...large portion of tie wetland (Figure 9f, left side). As the wetland extended across the marsh creation site, the most robust plant growth was observed

  15. Anomalous seafloor mounds in the northern Natal Valley, southwest Indian Ocean: Implications for the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Errol; Green, Andrew; Watkeys, Mike; Jokat, Wilfried; Krocker, Ralph

    2014-09-01

    The Natal Valley (southwest Indian Ocean) has a complicated and protracted opening history, as has the surrounding southwest Indian Ocean. Recently collected multibeam swath bathymetry and 3.5 kHz seismic data from the Natal Valley reveal anomalous seafloor mounds in the northern Natal Valley. The significance, of these domes, as recorders of the geological history of the Natal Valley and SE African Margin has been overlooked with little attempt made to identify their origin, evolution or tectonic significance. This paper aims to describe these features from a morphological perspective and to use their occurrence as a means to better understand the geological and oceanographic evolution of this basin. The seafloor mounds are distinct in both shallow seismic and morphological character from the surrounding seafloor of the Natal Valley. Between 25 km and 31 km long, and 16 km and 18 km wide, these features rise some 400 m above the sedimentary deposits that have filled in the Natal Valley. Such macro-scale features have not previously been described from the Natal Valley or from other passive margins globally. They are not the result of bottom water circulation, salt tectonics; rather, igneous activity is favoured as the origin for these anomalous seafloor features. We propose a hypothesis that the anomalous seafloor mounds observed in the Natal Valley are related to igneous activity associated with the EARS. The complicated opening history and antecedent geology, coupled with the southward propagation of the East African Rift System creates a unique setting where continental rift associated features have been developed in a marine setting.

  16. 75 FR 33747 - Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final Rule for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final... Final Rule for the Ocean Dumping; De-designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site and...

  17. 75 FR 33708 - Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final Rule for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final... typographical error in the Final Rule for the Ocean Dumping; De-designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal... amended by revising paragraphs (n)(3) and (n)(4) to read as follows: Sec. 228.15 Dumping sites...

  18. Early Paleogene temperature history of the Southwest Pacific Ocean: Reconciling proxies and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, Christopher J.; Taylor, Kyle W. R.; Handley, Luke; Pancost, Richard D.; Huber, Matthew; Creech, John B.; Hines, Benjamin R.; Crouch, Erica M.; Morgans, Hugh E. G.; Crampton, James S.; Gibbs, Samantha; Pearson, Paul N.; Zachos, James C.

    2012-10-01

    We present a new multiproxy (TEX86, δ18O and Mg/Ca), marine temperature history for Canterbury Basin, eastern New Zealand, that extends from middle Paleocene to middle Eocene, including the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and early Eocene climatic optimum (EECO). In light of concerns that proxy-based sea surface temperature (SST) estimates are untenably warm for the southwest Pacific during the Eocene, we review the assumptions that underlie the proxies and develop a preliminary paleo-calibration for TEX86 that is based on four multiproxy Eocene records that represent an SST range of 15-34 °C. For the southwest Pacific Paleogene, we show that TEX86L exhibits the best fit with the Eocene paleo-calibration. SSTs derived from related proxies (TEX86H, 1/TEX86) exhibit a systematic warm bias that increases as TEX86 values decrease (a warm bias of 4-7 °C where TEX86<0.7). The TEX86L proxy indicates that southwest Pacific SST increased by ˜10 °C from middle Paleocene to early Eocene, with SST maxima of 26-28 °C (tropical) during the PETM and EECO and an SST minimum of 13-16 °C (cool-warm temperate) at the middle/late Paleocene transition (58.7 Ma). The base of the EECO is poorly defined in these records but the top is well-defined in Canterbury Basin by a 2-5 °C decrease in SST and bottom water temperature (BWT) in the latest early Eocene (49.3 Ma); BWT falls from a maximum of 18-20 °C in the EECO to 12-14 °C in the middle Eocene. Overall, cooler temperatures are recorded in the mid-Waipara section, which may reflect a deeper (˜500 m water depth) and less neritic depositional setting compared with Hampden and ODP 1172 (˜200 m water depth). The high SSTs and BWTs inferred for the PETM and EECO can be reconciled with Eocene coupled climate model results if the proxies are biased towards seasonal maxima and the likely effect of a proto-East Australian Current is taken into account.

  19. Cephalopods of the Southwest Indian OceanRidge: A hotspot of biological diversity and absence of endemism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptikhovsky, V.; Boersch-Supan, P.; Bolstad, K.; Kemp, K.; Letessier, T.; Rogers, A. D.

    2017-02-01

    A total of 68 cephalopod species belonging to 26 families (10-11% of the total known cephalopod diversity) were collected onboard R/V Fridtjof Nansen during a research survey on Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge in November-December 2009. This relatively small area extends from the Tropical front to the Subantarctic front with four distinctive cephalopod faunas and represents one of the most outstanding hotspots of cephalopod diversity reported to date. However, most of the species caught there were characterised by circumglobal distribution in the Southern Hemisphere, and no endemic species were unambiguously found, although a number of taxa could not be confidently attributed to known species. Most of the studied area was dominated by squid species reproducing in epipelagic layers (mostly Enoploteuthidae and Pyroteuthidae). Species reproducing in meso-bathypelagial whose juveniles ascend to surface water (Cranchiidae, Histioteuthidae, etc.) became gradually more and more important southward from the Tropical Zone to the Southern Peripheral Ecotone. In the latter region they were joined by near-bottom dwellers of the order Sepiolida. The epipelagic strategy of reproduction disappears completely at the Subpolar Front, where epipelagic waters were inhabited by young members of the Cranchiidae and Gonatidae hatched in deep-seas. This study demonstrated the importance of conservation and management of this high-seas area, with its unique biodiversity and ecological resources, in line with recommendations by the IUCN Seamount project and Global Ocean Biodiversity Initiative.

  20. Oceanic Influences on North Pacific Storm Track Activity and Southwest United States Precipitation and Streamflow from 1915-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) exert influence over the position and strength of storm tracks through ocean interactions with the atmosphere. This study utilizes a comprehensive set of satellite and in situ data from 1915-2011 to show how the IPO and AMO may have influenced and are related to historical cool season storm track activity (STA) over the north Pacific and southwest US (SWUS) precipitation and streamflow. SWUS river basin water supply for people, agriculture and energy production throughout the year is predominantly dependent on snowpack depth and by changes in ocean conditions across multiple time scales. Positive STA, precipitation, and streamflow anomalies are most strongly related to positive (warm) IPO phases across datasets and time periods while negative (cool) IPO phases are more robustly linked to negative precipitation anomalies, especially during the mid-20th century. Sub-basin precipitation is differentially dependent on STA over specific north Pacific regions. Additionally, results show evidence for a small eastward shift in north Pacific STA and a lack in mean poleward movement in historical data. Moreover, the interannual to interdecadal variability discussed in this study will continue to be important to water resource managers throughout the region, regardless of future changes to the mean regional state of the climate.

  1. A preliminary study of habitat and resource partitioning among co-occurring tropical dolphins around Mayotte, southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Alexandra; Kiszka, Jeremy; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Richard, Pierre; Ridoux, Vincent

    2009-09-01

    Mayotte in the southwest Indian Ocean is characterized by high dolphin diversity. They may coexist within a fairly small area around the island because they exploit neither the same preferential habitats nor the same resources. This preliminary study aimed to investigate ecological niche segregation among these delphinid communities: the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus, the pantropical spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata, the spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris, and the melon-headed whale, Peponocephala electra. Two approaches were used. Habitat preferences were investigated by analysing dolphin sighting data and associated physiographical characteristics. Resource partitioning was explored by analysing C and N stable isotopes in skin and blubber biopsies. Only T. aduncus, which showed clear association with coastal habitats in the lagoon, differed from the others in terms of habitat preferences, characterised by shallow depth and slope, and proximity to the coast. All other species shared similar oceanic habitats immediately outside the lagoon, these being of higher depth and slope, greater distance from the coast and were not discernable by discriminant analysis. The two Stenella species and the melon-headed whale displayed very high overlap in habitat physiographic variables. The analysis of stable isotopes confirmed the ecological isolation of T. aduncus and revealed a clear segregation of P. electra compared to the two Stenella that was not apparent in the habitat analysis. This may reflect ecological differences that were not observable from diurnal surface observations.

  2. A molecular phylogeny of the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus highlights a separately evolving lineage from the Southwest Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sohana P; Groeneveld, Johan C; Al-Marzouqi, Abdulaziz; Willows-Munro, Sandi

    2017-01-01

    Accurate species description in the marine environment is critical for estimating biodiversity and identifying genetically distinct stocks. Analysis of molecular data can potentially improve species delimitations because they are easily generated and independent, and yield consistent results with high statistical power. We used classical phylogenetic (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) and coalescent-based methods (divergence dating with fossil calibrations and coalescent-based species delimitation) to resolve the phylogeny of the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus subspecies complex in the Indo-West Pacific. Analyses of mitochondrial data and combined nuclear and mitochondrial data recovered Panulirus homarus homarus and Panulirus homarus rubellus as separately evolving lineages, while the nuclear data trees were unresolved. Divergence dating analysis also identified Panulirus homarus homarus and Panulirus homarus rubellus as two distinct clades which diverged from a common ancestor during the Oligocene, approximately 26 million years ago. Species delimitation using coalescent-based methods corroborated these findings. A long pelagic larval life stage and the influence of ocean currents on post-larval settlement patterns suggest that a parapatric mode of speciation drives evolution in this subspecies complex. In combination, the results indicate that Panulirus homarus rubellus from the Southwest Indian Ocean is a separately evolving lineage and possibly a separate species.

  3. The Canada Basin compared to the southwest South China Sea: Two marginal ocean basins with hyper-extended continent-ocean transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lu; Stephenson, Randell; Clift, Peter D.

    2016-11-01

    Both the Canada Basin (a sub-basin within the Amerasia Basin) and southwest (SW) South China Sea preserve oceanic spreading centres and adjacent passive continental margins characterized by broad COT zones with hyper-extended continental crust. We have investigated strain accommodation in the regions immediately adjacent to the oceanic spreading centres in these two basins using 2-D backstripping subsidence reconstructions, coupled with forward modelling constrained by estimates of upper crustal extensional faulting. Modelling is better constrained in the SW South China Sea but our results for the Canada Basin are analogous. Depth-dependent extension is required to explain the great depth of both basins because only modest upper crustal faulting is observed. A weak lower crust in the presence of high heat flow and, accordingly, a lower crust that extends far more the upper crust are suggested for both basins. Extension in the COT may have continued even after seafloor spreading has ceased. The analogous results for the two basins considered are discussed in terms of (1) constraining the timing and distribution of crustal thinning along the respective continental margins, (2) defining the processes leading to hyper-extension of continental crust in the respective tectonic settings and (3) illuminating the processes that control hyper-extension in these basins and more generally.

  4. High connectivity of the crocodile shark between the Atlantic and Southwest Indian Oceans: highlights for conservation.

    PubMed

    da Silva Ferrette, Bruno Lopes; Mendonça, Fernando Fernandes; Coelho, Rui; de Oliveira, Paulo Guilherme Vasconcelos; Hazin, Fábio Hissa Vieira; Romanov, Evgeny V; Oliveira, Claudio; Santos, Miguel Neves; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Among the various shark species that are captured as bycatch in commercial fishing operations, the group of pelagic sharks is still one of the least studied and known. Within those, the crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, a small-sized lamnid shark, is occasionally caught by longline vessels in certain regions of the tropical oceans worldwide. However, the population dynamics of this species, as well as the impact of fishing mortality on its stocks, are still unknown, with the crocodile shark currently one of the least studied of all pelagic sharks. Given this, the present study aimed to assess the population structure of P. kamoharai in several regions of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans using genetic molecular markers. The nucleotide composition of the mitochondrial DNA control region of 255 individuals was analyzed, and 31 haplotypes were found, with an estimated diversity Hd = 0.627, and a nucleotide diversity π = 0.00167. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a fixation index ΦST = -0.01118, representing an absence of population structure among the sampled regions of the Atlantic Ocean, and between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. These results show a high degree of gene flow between the studied areas, with a single genetic stock and reduced population variability. In panmictic populations, conservation efforts can be concentrated in more restricted areas, being these representative of the total biodiversity of the species. When necessary, this strategy could be applied to the genetic maintenance of P. kamoharai.

  5. High Connectivity of the Crocodile Shark between the Atlantic and Southwest Indian Oceans: Highlights for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Ferrette, Bruno Lopes; Mendonça, Fernando Fernandes; Coelho, Rui; de Oliveira, Paulo Guilherme Vasconcelos; Hazin, Fábio Hissa Vieira; Romanov, Evgeny V.; Oliveira, Claudio; Santos, Miguel Neves; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Among the various shark species that are captured as bycatch in commercial fishing operations, the group of pelagic sharks is still one of the least studied and known. Within those, the crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, a small-sized lamnid shark, is occasionally caught by longline vessels in certain regions of the tropical oceans worldwide. However, the population dynamics of this species, as well as the impact of fishing mortality on its stocks, are still unknown, with the crocodile shark currently one of the least studied of all pelagic sharks. Given this, the present study aimed to assess the population structure of P. kamoharai in several regions of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans using genetic molecular markers. The nucleotide composition of the mitochondrial DNA control region of 255 individuals was analyzed, and 31 haplotypes were found, with an estimated diversity Hd = 0.627, and a nucleotide diversity π = 0.00167. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a fixation index ΦST = -0.01118, representing an absence of population structure among the sampled regions of the Atlantic Ocean, and between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. These results show a high degree of gene flow between the studied areas, with a single genetic stock and reduced population variability. In panmictic populations, conservation efforts can be concentrated in more restricted areas, being these representative of the total biodiversity of the species. When necessary, this strategy could be applied to the genetic maintenance of P. kamoharai. PMID:25689742

  6. Constraining early to middle Eocene climate evolution of the southwest Pacific and Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallanave, Edoardo; Bachtadse, Valerian; Crouch, Erica M.; Tauxe, Lisa; Shepherd, Claire L.; Morgans, Hugh E. G.; Hollis, Christopher J.; Hines, Benjamin R.; Sugisaki, Saiko

    2016-01-01

    Studies of early Paleogene climate suffer from the scarcity of well-dated sedimentary records from the southern Pacific Ocean, the largest ocean basin during this time. We present a new magnetostratigraphic record from marine sediments that outcrop along the mid-Waipara River, South Island, New Zealand. Fully oriented samples for paleomagnetic analyses were collected along 45 m of stratigraphic section, which encompasses magnetic polarity Chrons from C23n to C21n (∼ 51.5- 47 Ma). These results are integrated with foraminiferal, calcareous nannofossil, and dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) biostratigraphy from samples collected in three different expeditions along a total of ∼80 m of section. Biostratigraphic data indicates relatively continuous sedimentation from the lower Waipawan to the upper Heretaungan New Zealand stages (i.e., lower Ypresian to lower Lutetian, 55.5 to 46 Ma). We provide the first magnetostratigraphically-calibrated age of 48.88 Ma for the base of the Heretaungan New Zealand stage (latest early Eocene). To improve the correlation of the climate record in this section with other Southern Ocean records, we reviewed the magnetostratigraphy of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1172 (East Tasman Plateau) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1356 (Wilkes Land Margin, Antarctica). A paleomagnetic study of discrete samples could not confirm any reliable magnetic polarity reversals in the early Eocene at Site 1172. We use the robust magneto-biochronology of a succession of dinocyst bioevents that are common to mid-Waipara, Site 1172, and Site U1356 to assist correlation between the three records. A new integrated chronology offers new insights into the nature and completeness of the southern high-latitude climate histories derived from these sites.

  7. Carbonate chemistry of intermediate waters in the Southwest Pacific Ocean since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, K. A.; Sikes, E. L.; Elmore, A.; Hoenisch, B.; deMenocal, P. B.; Rosenthal, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Shifts in ocean circulation and marine carbon storage likely played an important role in the termination of the last ice age, but the mechanisms driving these changes have not yet been fully explained. It has been suggested that a greater amount of CO2 was stored in the deep sea during glacial periods via the biologic pump and/or increased uptake by a more alkaline ocean. To quantify the relative roles of such processes, more constraints on past deep ocean alkalinity are needed. Here, we present a new record of deep water carbonate chemistry for the last 30,000 years derived from a sediment core located at 1,627 meters depth in New Zealand's Bay of Plenty. Today, this core site lies at the boundary between relatively fresh Antarctic/Tasman Intermediate Water (above), and Circumpolar Deep Water (below) with more corrosive Pacific Deep Water also intruding from the north. Trace element and stable isotopic composition of foraminiferal calcite (the epibenthic species Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi) reveal changes in bottom water carbonate chemistry during periods of atmospheric CO2 change. The boron to calcium ratio (B/Ca) in these shells indicates that deep water saturation (ΔCO32-) during the last glacial maximum (LGM) was only 5 μmol kg-1 less than the modern value of ~ 20 μmol/kg, consistent with previous work identifying the Pacific as a 'well-buffered' ocean basin on long timescales. However, reconstructed ΔCO32- values fluctuated by as much as 30 μmol/kg across the deglaciation, exhibiting the most pronounced changes between 17 and 13 ka. Together with shifts in carbon isotopes, these results imply changes in circulation and/or respired CO2 storage, and support a series of events in which major oceanographic changes are intimately linked with shifts in atmospheric circulation.

  8. Ocean warming and sea level rise along the southwest u.s. Coast.

    PubMed

    Roemmich, D

    1992-07-17

    Hydrographic time-series data recorded during the past 42 years in the upper 500 meters off the coast of southern California indicate that temperatures have increased by 0.8 degrees C uniformly in the upper 100 meters and that temperatures have risen significantly to depths of about 300 meters. The effect of warming the surface layer of the ocean and there by expanding the water column has been to raise sea level by 0.9 +/- 0.2 millimeter per year. Tide gauge records along the coast are coherent with steric height and show upward trends in sea level that vary from about 1 to 3 millimeters per year.

  9. Investigating behaviour and population dynamics of striped marlin (Kajikia audax) from the southwest Pacific Ocean with satellite tags.

    PubMed

    Sippel, Tim; Holdsworth, John; Dennis, Todd; Montgomery, John

    2011-01-01

    Behaviour and distribution of striped marlin within the southwest Pacific Ocean were investigated using electronic tagging data collected from 2005-2008. A continuous-time correlated random-walk Kalman filter was used to integrate double-tagging data exhibiting variable error structures into movement trajectories composed of regular time-steps. This state-space trajectory integration approach improved longitude and latitude error distributions by 38.5 km and 22.2 km respectively. Using these trajectories as inputs, a behavioural classification model was developed to infer when, and where, 'transiting' and 'area-restricted' (ARB) pseudo-behavioural states occurred. ARB tended to occur at shallower depths (108 ± 49 m) than did transiting behaviours (127 ± 57 m). A 16 day post-release period of diminished ARB activity suggests that patterns of behaviour were affected by the capture and/or tagging events, implying that tagged animals may exhibit atypical behaviour upon release. The striped marlin in this study dove deeper and spent greater time at ≥ 200 m depth than those in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean. As marlin reached tropical latitudes (20-21 °S) they consistently reversed directions, increased swimming speed and shifted to transiting behaviour. Reversals in the tropics also coincided with increases in swimming depth, including increased time ≥ 250 m. Our research provides enhanced understanding of the behavioural ecology of striped marlin. This has implications for the effectiveness of spatially explicit population models and we demonstrate the need to consider geographic variation when standardizing CPUE by depth, and provide data to inform natural and recreational fishing mortality parameters.

  10. Investigating Behaviour and Population Dynamics of Striped Marlin (Kajikia audax) from the Southwest Pacific Ocean with Satellite Tags

    PubMed Central

    Sippel, Tim; Holdsworth, John; Dennis, Todd; Montgomery, John

    2011-01-01

    Behaviour and distribution of striped marlin within the southwest Pacific Ocean were investigated using electronic tagging data collected from 2005–2008. A continuous-time correlated random-walk Kalman filter was used to integrate double-tagging data exhibiting variable error structures into movement trajectories composed of regular time-steps. This state-space trajectory integration approach improved longitude and latitude error distributions by 38.5 km and 22.2 km respectively. Using these trajectories as inputs, a behavioural classification model was developed to infer when, and where, ‘transiting’ and ‘area-restricted’ (ARB) pseudo-behavioural states occurred. ARB tended to occur at shallower depths (108±49 m) than did transiting behaviours (127±57 m). A 16 day post-release period of diminished ARB activity suggests that patterns of behaviour were affected by the capture and/or tagging events, implying that tagged animals may exhibit atypical behaviour upon release. The striped marlin in this study dove deeper and spent greater time at ≥200 m depth than those in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean. As marlin reached tropical latitudes (20–21°S) they consistently reversed directions, increased swimming speed and shifted to transiting behaviour. Reversals in the tropics also coincided with increases in swimming depth, including increased time ≥250 m. Our research provides enhanced understanding of the behavioural ecology of striped marlin. This has implications for the effectiveness of spatially explicit population models and we demonstrate the need to consider geographic variation when standardizing CPUE by depth, and provide data to inform natural and recreational fishing mortality parameters. PMID:21695132

  11. Egg cases of the graytail skate Bathyraja griseocauda and the cuphead skate Bathyraja scaphiops from the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mabragaña, E; Vazquez, D M; Gabbanelli, V; Sabadin, D; Barbini, S A; Lucifora, L O

    2017-09-01

    Egg cases of Bathyraja griseocauda were larger (140-142 mm in length) than those of Bathyraja scaphiops (88-90 mm in length) and their surface was relatively smooth, without denticles, prickles or any ornamentation. Egg cases of B. scaphiops had a relative coarse surface, covered with prickles of similar size. An identification key for the all described egg cases from Bathyraja occurring in the south-west Atlantic Ocean is provided. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site and addtiional sites off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Cullinan, V.I.; Pearson, W.H. )

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District (USACE), has made active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. Disposal site boundaries were established to avoid an area where high densities of Young-of-the-Year (YOY) Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, were observed during the site selection surveys. To monitor possible impacts of disposal operations on Dungeness crab at the site, USACE recommended a crab distribution survey prior to disposal operations in the February 1989 environmental impact statement supplement (EISS) as part of a tiered monitoring strategy for the site. According to the tiered monitoring strategy, a preliminary survey is conducted to determine if the disposal site contains an exceptionally high density of YOY Dungeness crab. The trigger for moving to a more intensive sampling effort is a YOY crab density within the disposal site that is 100 times higher than the density in the reference area to the north. This report concerns a 1991 survey that was designed to verify that the density of YOY Dungeness crab present at the disposal site was not exceptionally high. Another objective of the survey was to estimate Dungeness crab densities at nearshore areas that are being considered as sediment berm sites by USACE.

  13. Purification and identification of a novel antifungal protein secreted by Penicillium citrinum from the Southwest Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chao; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Xinhua

    2014-10-01

    A novel antifungal protein produced by the fungal strain Penicillium citrinum W1, which was isolated from a Southwest Indian Ocean sediment sample, was purified and characterized. The culture supernatant of P. citrinum W1 inhibited the mycelial growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. After saturation of P. citrinum W1 culture supernatants with ammonium sulfate and ion-exchange chromatography, an antifungal protein (PcPAF) was purified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis showed that PcPAF might be an unknown antifungal protein. PcPAF displayed antifungal activity against Trichoderma viride, Fusarium oxysporum, Paecilomyces variotii, and Alternaria longipes at minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1.52, 6.08, 3.04, and 6.08 µg/disc, respectively. PcPAF possessed high thermostability and had a certain extent of protease and metal ion resistance. The results suggested that PcPAF may represent a novel antifungal protein with potential application in controlling plant pathogenic fungal infection.

  14. Annual cycles of deep-ocean biogeochemical export fluxes in subtropical and subantarctic waters, southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodder, Scott D.; Chiswell, Stephen M.; Northcote, Lisa C.

    2016-04-01

    The annual cycles of particle fluxes derived from moored sediment trap data collected during 2000-2012 in subtropical (STW) and subantarctic waters (SAW) east of New Zealand are presented. These observations are the most comprehensive export flux time series from temperate Southern Hemisphere latitudes to date. With high levels of variability, fluxes in SAW were markedly lower than in STW, reflecting the picophytoplankton-dominated communities in the iron-limited, high nutrient-low chlorophyll SAW. Austral spring chlorophyll blooms in surface STW were near synchronous with elevated fluxes of bio-siliceous, carbonate, and organic carbon-rich materials to the deep ocean, probably facilitated by diatom and/or coccolithophorid sedimentation. Lithogenic fluxes were also high in STW, compared to SAW, reflecting proximity to the New Zealand landmass. In contrast, the highest biogenic fluxes in SAW occurred in spring when surface chlorophyll concentrations were low, while highest annual chlorophyll concentrations were in summer with no associated flux increase. We hypothesize that the high spring export in SAW results from subsurface chlorophyll accumulation that is not evident from remote-sensing satellites. This material was also rich in biogenic silica, perhaps related to the preferential export of diatoms and other silica-producing organisms, such as silicoflagellates and radiolarians. Organic carbon fluxes in STW are similar to that of other mesotrophic to oligotrophic waters (˜6-7 mg C m-2 d-1), whereas export from SAW is below the global average (˜3 mg C m-2 d-1). Regional differences in flux across the SW Pacific and Tasman region reflect variations in physical processes and ecosystem structure and function.

  15. Family tetrodotoxin poisoning in Reunion Island (Southwest Indian Ocean) following the consumption of Lagocephalus sceleratus (Pufferfish).

    PubMed

    Puech, B; Batsalle, B; Roget, P; Turquet, J; Quod, J-P; Allyn, J; Idoumbin, J-P; Chane-Ming, J; Villefranque, J; Mougin-Damour, K; Vandroux, D; Gaüzère, B-A

    2014-05-01

    Pufferfish poisoning has rarely been reported in the southwestern Indian Ocean and in the French overseas territories. In Reunion Island, the last notified documented case occurred in 1989 and people are no longer aware of the potential toxicity of pufferfish. We report a family hospitalized for a tetrodotoxin poisoning following the consumption of Lagocephalus sceleratus caught on the coast of Reunion Island in September 2013. Two patients presenting acute vital functions failures were admitted in an ICU. Ten people were admitted simultaneously to the emergency department after consuming L. sceleratus with signs of toxicity appearing within 2 hours. Treatment was supportive, but included the need for mechanical ventilation for two patients. All those affected had complete and uneventful recoveries within a few days. The fish consumed was identified as L. sceleratus, a species known to contain tetrodotoxin. The diagnosis of tetrodotoxin poisoning was suggested by typical clinical manifestations together with the history of very recent consumption of tetrodotoxin-containing fish. Tetrodotoxin was later detected at high levels in food remnants. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no documented case series of tetrodotoxin poisoning reported from Reunion Island for the last 25 years and from the entire Indian Ocean area since 1998. Pufferfish intoxication is one of the most common causes of poisoning among people in coastal regions of Asia but it has also recently been reported in areas where it was previously unknown, particularly along the Mediterranean shores and in Spain. Public health education in French overseas territories and along the Mediterranean shores should be adapted to include increased awareness of the danger of consuming pufferfish. Health teams must be aware of such clinical presentations.

  16. Fe-Ti-oxide textures and microstructures in shear zones from oceanic gabbros at Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, Jessica; Morales, Luiz F. G.; Rybacki, Erik

    2016-04-01

    Ocean drilling expeditions at several oceanic core complexes formed at slow- and ultra-slow-spreading ridges have recovered cores containing numerous zones of oxide-rich gabbros containing ilmenite and magnetite. In these cores, high modal concentrations of Fe-Ti-oxides are systematically associated with high-temperature plastic deformation features in silicates. We present observations of Fe-Ti-oxide mineral structures and textural characteristics from a series of oxide-rich shear zones from Atlantis Bank (ODP Site 735B) on the Southwest Indian Ridge aimed at determining how oxide mineral abundances relate to strain localization. Fe-Ti-oxide minerals in undeformed oxide gabbros and in highly deformed samples from natural shear zones generally have morphologies characteristic of crystallized melt, including highly cuspate grains and low dihedral angles. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in oxide-rich shear zones is very strong, with fabrics mainly characterized by strong magnetic foliations parallel to the macroscopic foliation. Crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) in magnetite are generally weak, with occasionally well-defined textures. Ilmenite typically displays well-developed CPOs, however, the melt-like ilmenite grain shapes indicate that at least part of the crystallographic texture results from oriented ilmenite growth during post-deformation crystallization. The oxides are hypothesized to have initially been present as isolated pockets of trapped melt (intercumulus liquid) in a load-bearing silicate framework. Progressive plastic deformation of silicate phases at high-temperature mainly produced two features: (i) elongated melt pockets, which crystallized to form strings of opaque minerals and (ii), interconnected networks of melt regions. The latter lead to intense strain localization of the rock, which appears as oxide-rich mylonites in the samples. In some samples, abundant low-angle grain boundaries in both magnetite and ilmenite suggest

  17. Survey and evaluation of contaminants in earthworms and in soils derived from dredged material at confined disposal facilities in the Great Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Stafford, C.

    1993-01-01

    Soils derived from dredged material were collected, together with earthworms from nine confined disposal facilities located in the Great Lakes Region. These samples were analyzed for 18 elements, 11 organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The concentrations detected in earthworms were evaluated in terms of their potential hazard to wildlife, which for the sake of the evaluation were assumed to prey entirely either on earthworms or on other soil invertebrates having similar concentrations. The soil concentrations (dry wt.) of the contaminants of greatest concern were < 1.9 to 32 ppm Cd, < 0.053 to 0.94 ppm Hg, 4.6 to 550 ppm Pb, and < 0.1 to 1.0 ppm PCBs. The concentrations in earthworms (dry wt., ingested soil included) were as high as 91 ppm Cd, 1.6 ppm Hg, 200 ppm Pb, and 1.8 ppm PCBs. Based on laboratory toxicity studies of relatively sensitive species, and on concentration factors calculated from the earthworm and soil data, we estimated that lethal or serious sublethal effects on wildlife might be expected at concentrations of 10 ppm Cd, 3 ppm Hg, 670 ppm Pb, and 1.7 ppm PCBs in alkaline surface soils derived from dredged material. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in earthworms were well below those in soil.

  18. Field-verification program (aquatic disposal): comparison of field and laboratory bioaccumulation of organic and inorganic contaminants from Black Rock Harbor dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, J.L.; Galloway, W.; Hoffman, G.; Nelson, W.; Scott, K.J.

    1988-05-01

    The utility of laboratory tests for predicting bioaccumulation of contaminants in the field was evaluated by comparing the identities, relative abundances, and quantities of organic and inorganic contaminants accumulated by organisms exposed to dredged material in both laboratory and field studies. The organisms used were Mytilus edulis (a filter-feeding bivalve) and Nephtys incisa (a benthic polychaete). These organisms were exposed in the laboratory and in the field to a contaminated dredged material from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Connecticut. Both organisms had positive and negative attributes for these exposure studies. Mytilus edulis appeared to reach steady-state in laboratory-exposure studies. However, the determination of field-exposure concentrations was precluded due to limitations on obtaining an integrated water sample during the exposure period in the field. Nephtys incisa did not appear to reach steady-state in laboratory studies and, although field-exposure data (sediment concentrations) were obtained, the exposure zone for these organisms could not be determined. Estimates of field exposures were made using laboratory-derived exposure-residue relationships and residues from field-exposed organisms. These field-exposure estimates were compared with those estimated using exposure data from the field. A comparison of these estimates showed the same general trends in the exposure-residue relationships from the laboratory and the field and further supports the laboratory predictive approach.

  19. Assessing the efficacy of dredged materials from Lake Panasoffkee, Florida: implication to environment and agriculture. Part 1: Soil and environmental quality aspect.

    PubMed

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Holtkamp, Mike L; Coleman, Samuel W

    2004-01-01

    Dredged materials because of its variable but unique physical and chemical properties are often viewed by society and regulators as pollutants, but many have used these materials in coastal nourishment, land or wetland creation, construction materials, and for soil improvement as a soil amendment. Environmental impact assessment is an important pre-requisite to many dredging initiatives. The ability to reuse lake-dredge materials (LDM) for agricultural purposes is important because it reduces the need for off-shore disposal and provides an alternative to disposal of the materials in landfills. Additional research on disposal options of dredged materials are much needed to supply information on criteria testing and evaluation of the physical and chemical impacts of dredged materials at a disposal site, as well as information on many other aspects of dredging and dredged material disposal. While preliminary efforts are underway to provide information to establish criteria for land disposal, testing procedures for possible land disposal of contaminated sediments are still in their developing stage. The objective of this study (Part 1) was to quantify the effect of applied LDM from Lake Panasoffkee (LP), Florida on soil physico-chemical properties (soil quality) at the disposal site. This series of two papers aims at providing assessment of the efficacy of lake-dredged materials from LP especially its implication to environment (soil quality, Part 1) and agriculture (forage quality and pasture establishment, Part 2). The experimental treatments that were evaluated consisted of different ratios of natural soil (NS) to LDM: LDM0 (100% NS:0% LDM); LDM25 (75% NS:25% LDM); LDM50 (50% NS:50% LDM); LDM75 (25% NS:75% LDM); and LDM100 (0% NS:100% LDM). Field layout was based on the principle of a completely randomized block design with four replications. The Mehlich 1 method (0.05 N HCl in 0.025 N H2SO4) was used for chemical extraction of soil. Soil P and other exchangeable

  20. Effects of long-term dumping of harbor-dredged material on macrozoobenthos at four disposal sites along the Emilia-Romagna coast (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Simonini, R; Ansaloni, I; Cavallini, F; Graziosi, F; Iotti, M; Massamba N'siala, G; Mauri, M; Montanari, G; Preti, M; Prevedelli, D

    2005-12-01

    Sediment from harbors of the Emilia-Romagna (Northern Adriatic Sea) were dredged and dumped in four disposal areas characterized by muddy bottoms. The long-term effects of the dumping on macrozoobenthic communities were investigated before and after 6 month, 8 month, 2 years and 4 years. The disposal of dredged material did not influence the granulometry and %TOC in the sediment, and no alterations in the structure of the macrobenthic communities were observed in the four areas. The lack of impact could be ascribed to the environmental characteristics and precautionary measures taken to minimize the effects of the dumping. It appears that: (1) the communities of the dumping areas are well adapted to unstable environments; (2) the sediments were disposed gradually and homogeneously over relatively large areas; Other factors that help to reduce the impact of sediment disposal are the low concentrations of contaminants in dredged materials and the similarity of sediment in the dredged and disposal areas. Off-shore discharge appears a sustainable strategy for the management of uncontaminated dredged sediments from the Northern Adriatic Sea harbors.

  1. Habitat selection of two island-associated dolphin species from the south-west Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condet, Manon; Dulau-Drouot, Violaine

    2016-08-01

    Identifying suitable habitats of protected species is an essential question in ecology and conservation planning. Modelling approaches have been widely used to identify environmental features that contribute to a species' ecological requirements and distribution. On Reunion Island, a fast-growing French territory located in the south-western Indian Ocean, anthropogenic impacts are mainly concentrated along the coast, representing a potential threat for Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins, two resident coastal species. Beside coastal development, commercial and recreational dolphin-watching are growing, particularly along the west coast. To promote effective local management, habitat modelling was applied using presence-only data collected from 2008 to 2012 on the west coast of the island. Ecological Niche Factor Analyses were used to investigate the effect of physiographic variables on the distribution of these two dolphin species and delineate suitable habitats. It was found that the core habitat of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was mainly restricted by depth and confined to coastal waters ranging from 4.7 to 75.8 m deep. The species preferentially used soft substrates (sand and mud) and tended to be ubiquitous in terms of substrate type/color used. Foraging activities were significantly related to soft substrates. The diurnal core habitat of spinner dolphins was confined to one discrete area, on the flat portion of the insular shelf, between 45.1 m and 70.7 m of depth. Suitable habitat was mainly related to soft and light-colored substrates, with a clear avoidance of dark-colored substrates. The core habitats of both species were very restrained spatially and therefore vulnerable to human activities. The fine scale habitat mapping achieved in this study represents baseline data to conduct ad hoc impact assessment and support conservation actions.

  2. Evolutionary dynamics in the southwest Indian ocean marine biodiversity hotspot: a perspective from the rocky shore gastropod genus Nerita.

    PubMed

    Postaire, Bautisse; Bruggemann, J Henrich; Magalon, Hélène; Faure, Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    The Southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) is a striking marine biodiversity hotspot. Coral reefs in this region host a high proportion of endemics compared to total species richness and they are particularly threatened by human activities. The island archipelagos with their diverse marine habitats constitute a natural laboratory for studying diversification processes. Rocky shores in the SWIO region have remained understudied. This habitat presents a high diversity of molluscs, in particular gastropods. To explore the role of climatic and geological factors in lineage diversification within the genus Nerita, we constructed a new phylogeny with an associated chronogram from two mitochondrial genes [cytochrome oxidase sub-unit 1 and 16S rRNA], combining previously published and new data from eight species sampled throughout the region. All species from the SWIO originated less than 20 Ma ago, their closest extant relatives living in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA). Furthermore, the SWIO clades within species with Indo-Pacific distribution ranges are quite recent, less than 5 Ma. These results suggest that the regional diversification of Nerita is closely linked to tectonic events in the SWIO region. The Reunion mantle plume head reached Earth's surface 67 Ma and has been stable and active since then, generating island archipelagos, some of which are partly below sea level today. Since the Miocene, sea-level fluctuations have intermittently created new rocky shore habitats. These represent ephemeral stepping-stones, which have likely facilitated repeated colonization by intertidal gastropods, like Nerita populations from the IAA, leading to allopatric speciation. This highlights the importance of taking into account past climatic and geological factors when studying diversification of highly dispersive tropical marine species. It also underlines the unique history of the marine biodiversity of the SWIO region.

  3. Chikungunya fever: a clinical and virological investigation of outpatients on Reunion Island, South-West Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Thiberville, Simon-Djamel; Boisson, Veronique; Gaudart, Jean; Simon, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for acute febrile polyarthralgia and, in a proportion of cases, severe complications including chronic arthritis. CHIKV has spread recently in East Africa, South-West Indian Ocean, South-Asia and autochthonous cases have been reported in Europe. Although almost all patients are outpatients, medical investigations mainly focused on hospitalised patients. Here, we detail clinico-biological characteristics of Chikungunya (CHIK) outpatients in Reunion Island (2006). 76 outpatients with febrile arthralgia diagnosed within less than 48 hours were included by general practitioners during the CuraChik clinical trial. CHIK was confirmed in 54 patients and excluded in 22. A detailed clinical and biological follow-up was organised, that included analysis of viral intrahost diversity and telephone survey until day 300. The evolution of acute CHIK included 2 stages: the 'viral stage' (day 1-day 4) was associated with rapid decrease of viraemia and improvement of clinical presentation; the 'convalescent stage' (day 5-day 14) was associated with no detectable viraemia but a slower clinical improvement. Women and elderly had a significantly higher number of arthralgia at inclusion and at day 300. Based on the study clinico-biological dataset, scores for CHIK diagnosis in patients with recent febrile acute polyarthralgia were elaborated using arthralgia on hands and wrists, a minor or absent myalgia and the presence of lymphopenia (<1G/L) as major orientation criteria. Finally, we observed that CHIKV intra-host genetic diversity increased over time and that a higher viral amino-acid complexity at the acute stage was associated with increased number of arthralgia and intensity of sequelae at day 300. This study provided a detailed picture of clinico-biological CHIK evolution at the acute phase of the disease, allowed the elaboration of scores to assist CHIK diagnosis and investigated for the first time the impact of viral intra-host genetic

  4. Variation in the isotopic composition of striped weakfish Cynoscion guatucupa of the Southwest Atlantic Ocean in response to dietary shifts.

    PubMed

    Viola, M N Paso; Riccialdelli, L; Jaureguizar, A; Panarello, H O; Cappozzo, H L

    2017-08-17

    The aim of this study was to analyze the isotopic composition in muscle of striped weakfish Cynoscion guatucupa from Southwest Atlantic Ocean in order to evaluate a possible variation in δ13C and δ15N in response to dietary shifts that occur as animals grow. We also explored for isotopic evidence of differences between sample locations. The results showed an agreement between isotope analysis and previous conventional studies. Differences in the isotope composition between sampling location were not observed. A positive relation exists between isotope values and total body length of the animals. The Cluster analysis defined three groups of size classes, validated by the MDS. Differences in the relative consumption of prey species in each size class were also observed performing isotope mixing models (SIAR). Variation in δ15N among size classes would be associated with the consumption of a different type of prey as animals grow. Small striped weakfish feed on small crustaceans and progressively increase their consumption of fish (anchovy, Engraulis anchoita), increasing by this way their isotope values. On the other hand, differences in δ13C values seemed to be related to age-class specific spatial distribution patterns. Therefore, large and small striped weakfish remain specialized but feeding on different prey at different trophic levels. These results contribute to the study of the diet of striped weakfish, improve the isotopic ecology models and highlight on the importance of accounting for variation in the isotopic composition in response to dietary shifts with the size of one of the most important fishery resources in the region.

  5. Evolutionary Dynamics in the Southwest Indian Ocean Marine Biodiversity Hotspot: A Perspective from the Rocky Shore Gastropod Genus Nerita

    PubMed Central

    Postaire, Bautisse; Bruggemann, J. Henrich; Magalon, Hélène; Faure, Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    The Southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) is a striking marine biodiversity hotspot. Coral reefs in this region host a high proportion of endemics compared to total species richness and they are particularly threatened by human activities. The island archipelagos with their diverse marine habitats constitute a natural laboratory for studying diversification processes. Rocky shores in the SWIO region have remained understudied. This habitat presents a high diversity of molluscs, in particular gastropods. To explore the role of climatic and geological factors in lineage diversification within the genus Nerita, we constructed a new phylogeny with an associated chronogram from two mitochondrial genes [cytochrome oxidase sub-unit 1 and 16S rRNA], combining previously published and new data from eight species sampled throughout the region. All species from the SWIO originated less than 20 Ma ago, their closest extant relatives living in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA). Furthermore, the SWIO clades within species with Indo-Pacific distribution ranges are quite recent, less than 5 Ma. These results suggest that the regional diversification of Nerita is closely linked to tectonic events in the SWIO region. The Reunion mantle plume head reached Earth’s surface 67 Ma and has been stable and active since then, generating island archipelagos, some of which are partly below sea level today. Since the Miocene, sea-level fluctuations have intermittently created new rocky shore habitats. These represent ephemeral stepping-stones, which have likely facilitated repeated colonization by intertidal gastropods, like Nerita populations from the IAA, leading to allopatric speciation. This highlights the importance of taking into account past climatic and geological factors when studying diversification of highly dispersive tropical marine species. It also underlines the unique history of the marine biodiversity of the SWIO region. PMID:24736639

  6. Mapping rainfall fields and their ENSO variation in data-sparse tropical south-west Pacific Ocean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basher, Reid E.; Zheng, Xiaogu

    1998-03-01

    Rainfall fields for the data-sparse tropical south-west Pacific Ocean region have been mapped by partial thin-plate smoothing spline surface modelling applied to island rainfall measurements, enhanced by the use of satellite observations of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) as a regression covariate. The aim is to obtain spatially realistic rainfall maps, especially in the data-sparse areas between island groups, through a fully objective and statistically valid method that includes error estimates. The method has been applied to the region 4°N-24°S, 168°E-154°W. The rainfall data set initially comprised 57 stations, most with 40 year records. As a first step, a regression of annual OLR and rainfall for atolls only was formed and used to eliminate outlier rainfall stations, all of which are on mountainous islands and thus are probably influenced orographically.The maps clearly show the spatial patterns and seasonal behaviour of the regions key meteorological features, namely, the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the southern edge of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and the wedge shaped region of divergent easterlies lying between them. To identify ENSO variations, maps of 3-month seasonal rainfall were constructed from composites of eight El Niño (negative SOI) episodes and nine La Niña (positive SOI) episodes. These maps are relatively rough in appearance, but nevertheless they show the evolution of the spatial patterns through each composite episode and the strong and symmetrically opposite differences between them. Marked variations in the strength and position of the SPCZ are evident and the isohyets in the equatorial dry zone exhibit east-west shifts of nearly 3000 km relative to the average field. The rainfall variation at a particular location may be understood in terms of competition of influence among the changing features of the pattern, rather than as a simple linear function of the SOI.

  7. Continuous movement behavior of humpback whales during the breeding season in the southwest Indian Ocean: on the road again!

    PubMed

    Dulau, Violaine; Pinet, Patrick; Geyer, Ygor; Fayan, Jacques; Mongin, Philippe; Cottarel, Guillaume; Zerbini, Alexandre; Cerchio, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Humpback whales are known to undertake long-distance migration between feeding and breeding sites, but their movement behavior within their breeding range is still poorly known. Satellite telemetry was used to investigate movement of humpback whales during the breeding season and provide further understanding of the breeding ecology and sub-population connectivity within the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO). Implantable Argos satellite tags were deployed on 15 whales (7 males and 6 females) during the peak of the breeding season in Reunion Island. A switching-state-space model was applied to the telemetry data, in order to discriminate between "transiting" and "localized" movements, the latter of which relates to meandering behavior within putative breeding habitats, and a kernel density analysis was used to assess the spatial scale of the main putative breeding sites. Whales were tracked for up to 71 days from 31/07/2013 to 16/10/2013. The mean transmission duration was 25.7 days and the mean distance travelled was 2125.8 km. The tracks showed consistent movement of whales from Reunion to Madagascar, demonstrating a high level of connectivity between the two sub-regions, and the use of yet unknown breeding sites such as underwater seamounts (La Perouse) and banks (Mascarene Plateau). A localized movement pattern occurred in distinct bouts along the tracks, suggesting that whales were involved in breeding activity for 4.3 consecutive days on average, after which they resume transiting for an average of 6.6 days. Males visited several breeding sites within the SWIO, suggesting for the first time a movement strategy at a basin scale to maximize mating. Unexpectedly, females with calf also showed extensive transiting movement, while they engaged in localized behavior mainly off Reunion and Sainte-Marie (East Madagascar). The results indicated that whales from Reunion do not represent a discrete population. Discrete breeding sites were identified, thereby highlighting

  8. 3D seismic reflection imaging of nearly amagmatic oceanic lithosphere at the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momoh, E. I.; Cannat, M.; Singh, S. C.; Watremez, L.; Leroy, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    Ultra-slow spreading ridges (< 10 mm/yr half-spreading rate), are characterized by a variety of mode accretion, from purely magmatic to nearly amagmatic. With the prevalence of mantle-derived peridotites and sparse volcanism on the seafloor, the easternmost portion of the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) at 64°E represents a melt-poor end-member in the global ridge system. Mantle-derived peridotites there are proposed to have been exhumed along the footwall of detachment faults (Cannat et al, 2006; Sauter et al, 2013). However, the geometry and structural styles of detachments at depth are conjectural. We show the first 3D seismic reflection images of nearly amagmatic axial oceanic lithosphere in this region. The results are from 3D processing of 2D seismic data acquired during the SISMOSMOOTH 2014 cruise along 100 m-spaced profiles in a 1.8 km wide by 24 km long box spanning the axial valley and a part of its elevated northern wall. Wide-angle tomography results from Ocean bottom Seismometer (OBS) line are used to provide a velocity structure of the crust and correlate the MCS reflection images. We image 4 classes of reflectors. The first class occurs in 2 parts as south-dipping events and can be followed in the cross-line of the survey area. The upper part terminates on the northern slope of the massif. The lower part occurs as an isolated event until half of the width of the survey area after which it appears as a continuation of the upper part. This class of reflectors may be due to the damage zone of the active axial detachment fault. The second class of reflectors occurs as north-dipping events. They extend 1 km in the cross-line. They can be interpreted as fractured zones, zones of localized serpentinization or as dikes. The third class of reflectors occurs as sub-horizontal events at depth and seems to serve as the termination of the proposed dikes/fractured zones. On the OBS result, this reflector mimics the 7.5 km/s velocity contour in

  9. Late Miocene - Early Pliocene Stratigraphy and Paleoceanography of the South Atlantic and Southwest Pacific Oceans: A Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodell, David A.; Kennett, James P.

    1986-09-01

    The stratigraphy and paleoceanography of the late Miocene and early Pliocene have been examined at six sites in the South Atlantic and southwest Pacific oceans: Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) sites 284, 516A, 519, 588, and 590 and two piston cores from Chain cruise 115. A consistent stratigraphy was developed among sites using graphic correlation, which resulted in age models for all sites that are tied to the revised paleomagnetic time scale of Berggren et al. (1985). Applying these chronologies, we assessed latitudinal and interocean contrasts in the stratigraphic ranges of late Miocene-early Pliocene planktonic foraminiferal and nanno - fossil datums. Salient stratigraphic results include (1) The last appearance datum (LAD) of Globoquadrina dehiscens is a late Miocene (˜6.4 Ma) event in the subtropics and is not useful for the placement of the Miocene/Pliocene (M/P) boundary in this biogeographic province. (2) The first appearance datum (FAD) of Globorotalia crassaformis occurred at ˜5.1 Ma in the South Atlantic near the M/P boundary, suggesting that Gr. crassaformis may have first evolved in the South Atlantic and later migrated to other regions. (3) In the southwest Pacific, the FADs of Gr. margaritae (5.97 Ma), Gr. puncticulata (5.09 Ma), and Gr. crassaformis (4.87 Ma) are significantly time transgressive between temperate and warm subtropical regions. Time lags of ˜1.0 m.y. were required for these species to adapt to physical and/or biotic conditions peripheral to their endemic biogeographic provinces. (4) Between the subtropics of the South Atlantic and southwest Pacific, many planktonic foraminiferal datums (FAD of Dentogloboquadrina altispira, Gr. cibaoensis, Gr. conomiozea, Gr. margaritae, and Gq. dehiscens and LAD of Gr. cibaoensis) markedly depart from the correlation suggested by magnetostratigraphy, indicating that these datum levels are unreliable for correlation between these ocean basins. (5) In contrast, available calcareous nannofossil

  10. Water content within the oceanic upper mantle of the Southwest Indian Ridge: a FTIR analysis of orthopyroxenes of abyssal peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Li, H.; Tao, C.; Jin, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Water can be present in the oceanic upper mantle as structural OH in nominally anhydrous minerals. Such water has marked effects on manlte melting and rheology properties. However, the water content of MORB source is mainly inferred from MORB glass data that the water budget of oceanic upper mantle is poorly constrained. Here we present water analysis of peridotites from different sites on the Southwest Indian Ridge. The mineral assemblages of these peridotites are olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel. As the peridotites have been serpentinized to different degrees, only water contents in orthopyroxnene can be better determined by FTIR spectrometry. The IR absorption bands of all measured orthopyroxenes can be devided into four different groups: (1)3562-3596 cm-1, (2)3515-3520 cm-1, (3)3415-3420 cm-1, (4)3200-3210 cm-1. The positions of these absorption bands are in good agreement with perivious reports. Hydrogen profile measurements performed on larger opx grains in each suite of samples show no obvious variations between core and rims regions, indicating that diffusion of H in orthopyroxene is insignificant. Preliminary measured water contents of orthopyroxene differ by up to one order of magnitude. Opx water contents (80-220 ppm) of most samples are within the range of those found in mantle xenoliths of contentinal settings [1]. Opx water contents of one sample (VM-21V-S9-D5-2: 38-64 ppm) are similar to those from Gakkel Ridge abyssal peridotites (25-60 ppm) [2] but higher than those from Mid-Atlantic Ridge ODP-Leg 209(~15 ppm) [3]. Two other samples show high water concentrations (VM-19ΙΙΙ-S3-TVG2-4: 260-275 ppm, Wb-18-b: 190-265 ppm) which compare well with those from Mid-Atlantic Ridge ODP-Leg 153(160-270 ppm) [4]. Most opx water contents decrease with increasing depletion degree (spl Cr#) consistent with an incompatible behavior of water during partial melting. Recalculated bulk water contents (27-117 ppm) of these peridotites overlap

  11. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Application of neutral red retention assay to caged clams (Ruditapes decussatus) and crabs (Carcinus maenas) in the assessment of dredged material.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Sara; Ramos-Gómez, Julia; Fabbri, Elena; DelValls, T Angel; Martín-Díaz, M Laura

    2012-01-01

    Dredged material management is a key issue for the protection of aquatic environments. The in situ approach using caged bioindicator species has been chosen lately as a new methodology for the assessment of dredged material. In a tier testing approach, neutral red retention (NRR) assay has been applied as a screening tool to detect adverse changes in health status associated with contamination. Nevertheless, to authors' knowledge, little is known about the application and validation of this technique in sediment bioindicator species and under field conditions. Caged Ruditapes decussatus and Carcinus maenas were exposed during 28 days to potentially contaminated sediments at three sites in Algeciras Bay (SW Spain) and one site in Cádiz Bay (SW Spain). Lysosomal membrane stability was measured over time in haemolymph samples of exposed clams and crabs using the NRR assay. Sediment characterization of the study sites was performed in parallel. NRR time did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) over time in organisms from Cádiz Bay. Conversely, significant differences (p < 0.05) in NRR time were found in clams and crabs exposed to sediments from Algeciras Bay, which exhibited a 30-70% decrease in haemocyte lysosome membrane stability compared to day 0. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between the drop of haemocyte lysosome membrane stability, in both crabs and clams, and the presence of metals (p < 0.05) and PAHs (p < 0.01) in the studied sediments. The results obtained confirmed the use of NRR assay as a suitable and sensitive method to be used in the assessment of sediment quality using as bioindicator species the clam R. philippinarum and the crab C. maenas.

  13. Chikungunya Fever: A Clinical and Virological Investigation of Outpatients on Reunion Island, South-West Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Thiberville, Simon-Djamel; Boisson, Veronique; Gaudart, Jean; Simon, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for acute febrile polyarthralgia and, in a proportion of cases, severe complications including chronic arthritis. CHIKV has spread recently in East Africa, South-West Indian Ocean, South-Asia and autochthonous cases have been reported in Europe. Although almost all patients are outpatients, medical investigations mainly focused on hospitalised patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we detail clinico-biological characteristics of Chikungunya (CHIK) outpatients in Reunion Island (2006). 76 outpatients with febrile arthralgia diagnosed within less than 48 hours were included by general practitioners during the CuraChik clinical trial. CHIK was confirmed in 54 patients and excluded in 22. A detailed clinical and biological follow-up was organised, that included analysis of viral intrahost diversity and telephone survey until day 300. The evolution of acute CHIK included 2 stages: the ‘viral stage’ (day 1–day 4) was associated with rapid decrease of viraemia and improvement of clinical presentation; the ‘convalescent stage’ (day 5–day 14) was associated with no detectable viraemia but a slower clinical improvement. Women and elderly had a significantly higher number of arthralgia at inclusion and at day 300. Based on the study clinico-biological dataset, scores for CHIK diagnosis in patients with recent febrile acute polyarthralgia were elaborated using arthralgia on hands and wrists, a minor or absent myalgia and the presence of lymphopenia (<1G/L) as major orientation criteria. Finally, we observed that CHIKV intra-host genetic diversity increased over time and that a higher viral amino-acid complexity at the acute stage was associated with increased number of arthralgia and intensity of sequelae at day 300. Conclusions/Significance This study provided a detailed picture of clinico-biological CHIK evolution at the acute phase of the disease, allowed the elaboration of scores to assist CHIK

  14. Preliminary characterization and biological reduction of putative biogenic iron oxides (BIOS) from the Tonga-Kermadec Arc, southwest Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Langley, S; Igric, P; Takahashi, Y; Sakai, Y; Fortin, D; Hannington, M D; Schwarz-Schampera, U

    2009-01-01

    Sediment samples were obtained from areas of diffuse hydrothermal venting along the seabed in the Tonga sector of the Tonga-Kermadec Arc, southwest Pacific Ocean. Sediments from Volcano 1 and Volcano 19 were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and found to be composed primarily of the iron oxyhydroxide mineral, two-line ferrihydrite. XRD also suggested the possible presence of minor amounts of more ordered iron (hydr)oxides (including six-line ferrihydrite, goethite/lepidocrocite and magnetite) in the biogenic iron oxides (BIOS) from Volcano 1; however, Mössbauer spectroscopy failed to detect any mineral phases more crystalline than two-line ferrihydrite. The minerals were precipitated on the surfaces of abundant filamentous microbial structures. Morphologically, some of these structures were similar in appearance to the known iron-oxidizing genus Mariprofundus spp., suggesting that the sediments are composed of biogenic iron oxides. At Volcano 19, an areally extensive, active vent field, the microbial cells appeared to be responsible for the formation of cohesive chimney-like structures of iron oxyhydroxide, 2-3 m in height, whereas at Volcano 1, an older vent field, no chimney-like structures were apparent. Iron reduction of the sediment material (i.e. BIOS) by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 was measured, in vitro, as the ratio of [total Fe(II)]:[total Fe]. From this parameter, reduction rates were calculated for Volcano 1 BIOS (0.0521 day(-1)), Volcano 19 BIOS (0.0473 day(-1)), and hydrous ferric oxide, a synthetic two-line ferrihydrite (0.0224 day(-1)). Sediments from both BIOS sites were more easily reduced than synthetic ferrihydrite, which suggests that the decrease in effective surface area of the minerals within the sediments (due to the presence of the organic component) does not inhibit subsequent microbial reduction. These results indicate that natural, marine BIOS are easily reduced in the presence of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria, and that the

  15. Ingestion and defecation of marine debris by loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from by-catches in the South-West Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hoarau, Ludovic; Ainley, Lara; Jean, Claire; Ciccione, Stéphane

    2014-07-15

    Marine debris, caused by anthropogenic pollution, is a major problem impacting marine wildlife worldwide. This study documents and quantifies the ingestion and defecation of debris by 74 loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in the South-West Indian Ocean. Debris was found in 51.4% of gut or fecal samples of loggerheads by-catch from Reunion Island long liners. Anthropogenic debris was ubiquitous in our samples with plastics accounting for 96.2% of the total debris collected. No significant relationship was detected between the characteristics of ingested debris and the biometric characteristics of loggerheads. The number, weight, volume and mean length of debris were higher in gut content of deceased loggerheads than in fecal samples of live turtles, but not significantly, except for the mean length. This is the first record of debris ingestion by sea turtles in the Indian Ocean and our results highlight the magnitude of this pollution of the marine environment.

  16. A high-resolution record of ocean chemistry, temperature and productivity in the Southwest Pacific Ocean during Marine Isotope Stage 31 from G. ruber and G. bulloides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, A.; Baker, J.; Dunbar, G. B.; Carter, L.

    2010-12-01

    We have produced a high-resolution, millennial record of the trace element chemistry and stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition of Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerina bulloides from the Southwest Pacific Ocean during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 33 to 29, including the super-warm interglacial MIS-31. During MIS-31, southern hemisphere solar radiation was considerably higher than the present interglacial, and geological evidence (Naish et al., 2009) suggests open ocean conditions existed in the Ross Sea and significant ice loss occurred from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. LA-ICP-MS was used to analyse the trace element/Ca ratios (Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Sr and Ba/Ca) of three species of planktonic foraminifera (G. ruber, G. bulloides and N. incompta) recovered from 1.2 Myr old marine sediments from Chatham Rise, east of New Zealand (ODP Site 1123). Site 1123 is located just north of the Sub-Tropical Front in the path of the Deep Western Boundary Current that branches from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, off the eastern New Zealand micro-continent. Mg/Ca ratios were used to reconstruct sea surface temperatures (SST) for each species using locally derived Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations obtained by LA-ICP-MS analysis of core-top foraminifera (Bolton et al., 2010, in review; Marr et al., 2010, in review). Trace element data for foraminifera were complimented with oxygen isotope data and size-normalized weight measurements. Mg/Ca data for G. ruber and G. bulloides suggest that MIS-31 SSTs were ca. 4-5°C warmer at southern mid-latitudes (42°S) as compared to modern SSTs and 8-9°C warmer than MIS-29 and MIS-30 glacial periods. Size-normalised weights of G. bulloides also correlate with SSTs. These findings have implications for predicted future global climate models. Models suggest that a 5°C polar warming could lead to West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse (Pollard et al., 2009). If our data and interpretations of a 4-5°C warming at southern mid-latitudes are correct

  17. Three-dimensional visualization maps of suspended-sediment concentrations during placement of dredged material in 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment, Duluth-Superior Harbor, Duluth, Minnesota, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groten, Joel T.; Ellison, Christopher A.; Mahoney, Mollie H.

    2016-06-30

    Excess sediment in rivers and estuaries poses serious environmental and economic challenges. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) routinely dredges sediment in Federal navigation channels to maintain commercial shipping operations. The USACE initiated a 3-year pilot project in 2013 to use navigation channel dredged material to aid in restoration of shoreline habitat in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment of the Duluth-Superior Harbor. Placing dredged material in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment supports the restoration of shallow bay aquatic habitat aiding in the delisting of the St. Louis River Estuary Area of Concern.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the USACE, collected turbidity and suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) in 2014 and 2015 to measure the horizontal and vertical distribution of SSCs during placement operations of dredged materials. These data were collected to help the USACE evaluate the use of several best management practices, including various dredge material placement techniques and a silt curtain, to mitigate the dispersion of suspended sediment.Three-dimensional visualization maps are a valuable tool for assessing the spatial displacement of SSCs. Data collection was designed to coincide with four dredged placement configurations that included periods with and without a silt curtain as well as before and after placement of dredged materials. Approximately 230 SSC samples and corresponding turbidity values collected in 2014 and 2015 were used to develop a simple linear regression model between SSC and turbidity. Using the simple linear regression model, SSCs were estimated for approximately 3,000 turbidity values at approximately 100 sampling sites in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment of the Duluth-Superior Harbor. The estimated SSCs served as input for development of 12 three-dimensional visualization maps.

  18. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D...

  19. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

  20. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor Deepening Project and the intensive study of the Turning Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Word, J.Q.; Michaels, L.L.

    1995-06-01

    Richmond Harbor is on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay and its access channels and several of the shipping berths are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modem deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (PL99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels in Richmond Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE: disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean disposal sites, or at uplands disposal sites. Purpose of this study was to conduct comprehensive evaluations, including chemical, biological, and bioaccumulation testing of sediments in selected areas of Richmond Harbor. This information was required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and USACE. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory collected 20 core samples, both 4-in. and 12-in., to a project depth of -40 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) (-38 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdepth) using a vibratory-hammer core. These 20 field samples were combined to form five test composites plus an older bay mud (OBM) composite that were analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, biological toxicity, and tissue chemistry. Solid-phase tests were conducted with the amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius; the clam, Macoma nasuta; and the polychaete worm, Nephtys caecoides. Suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests were conducted with the sanddab, Citharichthys stigmaeus; the mysid, Holmesimysis costata; and the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bioaccumulation of contaminants was measured in tissues of Macoma nasuta and Nereis virens. Sediments from one ocean reference sediment, and two in-bay reference sediments, were tested concurrently. Results from analysis of the five test treatments were statistically compared with the reference sediment R-OS in the first five sections of this report.

  1. Analyses of native water, bottom material, elutriate samples, and dredged material from selected southern Louisiana waterways and selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico, 1979-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District, to provide water-quality data to evaluate environmental effects of dredging activities in selected reaches of the Calcasieu River in southwestern Louisiana. Samples were collected from the upper and lower Calcasieu River between January 1980 and March 1981. Thirty-three samples (22 native-water and 11 effluent) were collected from eleven dredging sites. In addition, a series of elutriate studies were conducted between July 1979 and July 1981 to determine water quality as a basis for assessing possible environmental effects of proposed dredging activities in the following areas: Grand Bayou and Martins Canal near Happy Jack, unnamed bayou near Port Sulphur, Grand Bayou and Pipeline Canal near Port Sulphur and Bayou des Plantins near Empire; Mississippi River Gulf Outlet and Inner Harbor Navigation Canal; Southwest Pass; Barataria Bay; Atchafalaya Bay at Eugene Island; Calcasieu Ship Channel. Samples of native water and samples of bottom material were collected from 22 different sites and elutriate (mixtures of native water and bottom material) samples were prepared and analyzed. Four proposed ocean-disposal sites were sampled for bottom material only. Samples were analyzed for selected chemical and biological constituents and physical properties. (USGS)

  2. Lipid biomarker and microbial community of 49.6°E hydrothermal field at Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, J.; Chu, F.; Yu, X.; Li, X.; Tao, C.

    2012-12-01

    In 2007, Chinese Research Cruises Discovered the First Active Hydrothermal Vent Field at the Ultraslow Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. This study intent to get composition, evolution and origin information of lipid compounds in SWIR, and recognize the style of lipid biomarkers which have obviously indicative significance for community structure.Soluble organic matter were extracted from geological samples (including chimney sulfide, oxide, around hydrothermal vents) in Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), and divided into hydrocarbon, fatty acid component by column chromatography. GC, GC-MS, HPLC-MS were applied for composition and abundance analysis. Lipid in hydrothermal sulfide contains obvious isoprenoidal hydrocarbon biomarkers (Sq, IS40) and GDGTs (m/z=653) that associated with methanogenic archaea which belongs to Euryarchaeota, and iso /anti-iso fatty acid (iC15:0, aiC15:0, iC17:0, aiC17:0)which may originated from sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB).Lipids extracted from hydrothermal oxide lack isoprenoidal hydrocarbon, and Ph/C18 (0.57) is much lower than sulfide (1.22). Fatty acid compound of oxide include abundant saturated fatty (C16:0, C18:0) acid and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (C16:1n7, C18:1n7), but much less iso/anti-iso was detected. Lipid composition of hydrothermal oxide showed that archaea activity was seldom in hydrothermal oxide, and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was the main microbial community.Study of Jaeschke (2010) showed that high temperature hydrothermal venting encompassed different microbial community from low temperature hydrothermal venting. Our study showed that in different stage of hydrothermal, microbial community structure may be distinct.

  3. Application of Dredged Materials and Steelmaking Slag as Basal Media to Restore and Create Seagrass Beds: Mesocosm and Core Incubation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukasaki, A.; Suzumura, M.; Tsurushima, N.; Nakazato, T.; Huang, Y.; Tanimoto, T.; Yamada, N.; Nishijima, W.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrass beds stabilize bottom sediments, improve water quality and light conditions, enhance species diversity, and provide habitat complexity in coastal marine environments. Seagrass beds are now experiencing worldwide decline by rapid environmental changes. Possible options of seagrass bed restoration are civil engineering works including mounding to raise the bottom to elevations with suitable light for seagrass growth. Reuse or recycling of dredged materials (DM) and various industrial by-products including steelmaking slags is a beneficial option to restore and create seagrass beds. To evaluate the applicability of DM and dephosphorization slag (Slag) as basal media of seagrass beds, we carried out mesocosm experiments and core incubation experiments in a land-based flow-through seawater tank over a year. During the mesocosm experiment, no difference was found in growth of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) and macrobenthic community structures between Slag-based sediments and sand-based control experiments, even though Slag-based sediments exhibited substantially higher pH than sand-based sediments. During the core incubation experiment, we investigated detailed variation and distributions of pH and nutrients, and diffusion fluxes of nutrients between the sediment/seawater interface. Though addition of Slag induced high pH up to 10.7 in deep layers (< 5 cm), the surface pH decreased rapidly within 10 days. Concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen were comparable between Slag- and sand-based sediments, whereas dissolved phosphate concentration was substantially reduced by the addition of Slag. The low concentrations of phosphate was likely due to precipitation with calcium under high pH condition. Diffusion fluxes of nutrients from the cores were comparable with those reported in natural coastal systems. It was suggested that the mixture of Slag and DM is applicable as basal media for construction of artificial seagrass beds.

  4. Petrogenesis of fertile mantle peridotites from the Monte del Estado massif (southwest Puerto Rico): a preserved section of Proto-Caribbean oceanic lithospheric mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Jolly, Wayne T.; Lewis, John F.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín. A.; Lidiak, Edward G.

    2010-05-01

    The Monte del Estado massif is the largest and northernmost serpentinized peridotite belt in southwest Puerto Rico. It is mainly composed of spinel lherzolite and minor harzburgite with variable clinopyroxene modal abundances. Mineral and whole rock major and trace element compositions of peridotites coincide with those of fertile abyssal peridotites from mid ocean ridges. Peridotites lost 2-14 wt% of relative MgO and variable amounts of CaO by serpentinization and seafloor weathering. HREE contents in whole rock indicate that the Monte del Estado peridotites are residues after low to moderate degrees (2-15%) of fractional partial melting in the spinel stability field. However, very low LREE/HREE and MREE/HREE in clinopyroxene cannot be explained by melting models of a spinel lherzolite source and support that the Monte del Estado peridotites experienced initial low fractional melting degrees (~ 4%) in the garnet stability field. The relative enrichment of LREE in whole rock is not due to secondary processes but probably reflects the capture of percolating melt fractions along grain boundaries or as microinclusions in minerals, or the presence of exotic micro-phases in the mineral assemblage. We propose that the Monte del Estado peridotite belt represents a section of ancient Proto-Caribbean (Atlantic) lithospheric mantle originated by seafloor spreading between North and South America in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. This portion of oceanic lithospheric mantle was subsequently trapped in the forearc region of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc generated by the northward subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the Proto-Caribbean ocean. Finally, the Monte del Estado peridotites belt was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous probably as result of the change in subduction polarity of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc without having been significantly modified by subduction processes.

  5. One new genus and three new species of deep-sea nematodes (Nematoda: Microlaimidae) from the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Ross Sea.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Daniel

    2016-02-11

    New deep-sea nematodes of the family Microlaimidae are described from the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Ross Sea. Microlaimus korari n. sp. is characterised by annulated cuticle with longitudinal bars, round amphideal aperture slightly smaller than the cryptospiral amphideal fovea, spacious and heavily cuticularised buccal cavity with large dorsal tooth and right subventral tooth situated anteriorly relative to left subventral tooth, slender spicules 4.4 cloacal body diameters long, and gubernaculum 1.2 cloacal body diameters long with laterally curved distal end and swollen proximal end. Bolbolaimus tongaensis n. sp. is characterised by annulated cuticle with longitudinal bars, oval amphideal aperture and cryptocircular amphideal fovea situated between cephalic setae and only partially surrounded by cuticle annulations, and short spicules cuticularised along dorsal edge and at proximal end and with swollen portion near proximal end. Maragnopsia n. gen. is characterised by a minute, non-cuticularised mouth cavity without teeth, an elongated posterior pharyngeal bulb more than twice as long as it is wide, a single outstretched testis, and a conico-cylindrical tail 13-16 anal body diameters long. A list of all 83 valid Microlaimus species is provided. The present study provides the first microlaimid species records from deep-sea habitats (> 200 m depth) in the Southwest Pacific and Ross Sea. The presence of M. korari n. sp. on both the continental slope of New Zealand and Ross Sea abyssal plain suggests that this species has a wide geographical and depth distribution. However, molecular analyses will be required to confirm the identity of these two geographically disparate populations.

  6. Oceanographic and climatic changes over the past 160,000 years at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 594 off southeastern New Zealand, southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Campbell S.; Cooke, Penelope J.; Hendy, Chris H.; Cuthbertson, Alison M.

    1993-08-01

    the Antarctic Convergence south of New Zealand during glacial episodes, we conclude that the Subtropical Convergence remained locked to Chatham Rise (approximately 44°S) throughout stages 1 to 6. Major compression of the intervening belt of Subantarctic water during glacial episodes, and the associated very steep thermal gradients and intensified atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns that developed in this part of the southwest Pacific, account for the harsh, frigid environment reported for on-land southern New Zealand at these times.

  7. Ecological adaptations and commensal evolution of the Polynoidae (Polychaeta) in the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge: A phylogenetic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetti, Natalia; Taylor, M. L.; Brennan, D.; Green, D. H.; Rogers, A. D.; Paterson, G. L. J.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.

    2017-03-01

    The polychaete family polynoid is very large and includes a high diversity of behaviours, including numerous examples of commensal species. The comparison between free-living and commensal behaviours and the evolution of the relationships between commensal species and their hosts are valuable case studies of ecological adaptations. Deep-sea species of Polynoidae were sampled at four seamounts in the Southwest Indian Ridge and twenty specimens from seven species were selected to be analysed. Among them, there were free-living species, living within the three-dimensional framework of cold-water coral reefs, on coral rubble and on mobile sediments, and commensal species, associated with octocorals, hydrocorals (stylasterids), antipatharians and echinoderms (holothurian and ophiuroids). We analysed two mitochondrial (COI, 16S) and two nuclear (18S, 28S) ribosomal genetic markers and their combined sequences were compared with other Genbank sequences to assess the taxonomic relationships within the species under study, and the potential role of hosts in speciation processes. Most basal species of the sub-family Polynoinae are obligate symbionts showing specific morphological adaptations. Obligate and facultative commensal species and free-living species have evolved a number of times, although, according to our results, the obligate coral commensal species appear to be monophyletic.

  8. Recycled Glass and Dredged Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    soft drink, beer , food, wine, and liquor containers collected at residential curbside, drop boxes, trash barrels, deposit stations, or recycling...cullet (for new bottles and other containers) or non-container glass cullet (all other uses), and non-container processed cullet production is...crystal, porcelain, etc.), metal (from bottle caps), organics (from food, paper labels, etc.), and other inorganics (from soil, concrete, bricks, etc

  9. Thermal History of an Oceanic Core Complex, Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge: Evidence for Hydrothermal Activity 2.6 Myr Off-Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J. J.; John, B. E.; Cheadle, M. J.; Reiners, P. W.; Baines, G.

    2004-12-01

    We report 26 new (U-Th)/He zircon dates from the Atlantis Bank Oceanic Core Complex (OCC), Southwest Indian Ridge. The low (~200 °C) closure temperature of the (U-Th)/He isotopic system, together with higher temperature (850 °C) crystallization ages from U-Pb zircon dating, allow us to constrain the timescales and rates of lower crustal cooling in oceanic crust. Samples from the detachment fault surface exposed at the sea floor, indicate that the denuded crust cooled rapidly through 200 °C in <1 Myr, yielding mean cooling rates >1200 °C/Myr, consistent with existing models for cooling of oceanic crust. However, samples collected along post-detachment, N-S- and E-W-trending fault scarps record (U-Th)/He ages averaging 2.6 Myr younger than their corresponding igneous crystallization ages. These ages are inconsistent with steady-state conductive cooling models for lower oceanic crust and cannot be explained by simple monotonic cooling. Instead, they record cooling through 200 °C when the crust was well outside the rift valley, ~36 km off-axis assuming a half spreading rate of 14km/Myr. These samples display extensive post-crystallization greenschist-facies alteration and contain metamorphic mineral assemblages of chlorite + actinolite ± hornblende ± epidote ± serpentine ± clay, consistent with hydrothermal alteration. Therefore, we suggest that these anomalously young (U-Th)/He zircon ages record localized thermal heating events associated with high- temperature (>300 °C) hydrothermal fluid flow along transform-parallel and transform-normal faults that were active outside the rift valley during transtension along the bounding Atlantis II transform fault. A significant component of the heat driving hydrothermal fluid flow may have been derived from underplated mafic magmas emplaced during transtension. The young (U-Th)/He ages therefore delimit zones of hydrothermal upflow, and record evidence of protracted hydrothermal circulation up to ~3 Myr off-axis at

  10. Thermal History of an Oceanic Core Complex, Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge: Evidence for Hydrothermal Activity 2.6 Myr Off-Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J. J.; John, B. E.; Cheadle, M. J.; Reiners, P. W.; Baines, G.

    2007-12-01

    We report 26 new (U-Th)/He zircon dates from the Atlantis Bank Oceanic Core Complex (OCC), Southwest Indian Ridge. The low (~200 °C) closure temperature of the (U-Th)/He isotopic system, together with higher temperature (850 °C) crystallization ages from U-Pb zircon dating, allow us to constrain the timescales and rates of lower crustal cooling in oceanic crust. Samples from the detachment fault surface exposed at the sea floor, indicate that the denuded crust cooled rapidly through 200 °C in <1 Myr, yielding mean cooling rates >1200 °C/Myr, consistent with existing models for cooling of oceanic crust. However, samples collected along post-detachment, N-S- and E-W-trending fault scarps record (U-Th)/He ages averaging 2.6 Myr younger than their corresponding igneous crystallization ages. These ages are inconsistent with steady-state conductive cooling models for lower oceanic crust and cannot be explained by simple monotonic cooling. Instead, they record cooling through 200 °C when the crust was well outside the rift valley, ~36 km off-axis assuming a half spreading rate of 14km/Myr. These samples display extensive post-crystallization greenschist-facies alteration and contain metamorphic mineral assemblages of chlorite + actinolite ± hornblende ± epidote ± serpentine ± clay, consistent with hydrothermal alteration. Therefore, we suggest that these anomalously young (U-Th)/He zircon ages record localized thermal heating events associated with high- temperature (>300 °C) hydrothermal fluid flow along transform-parallel and transform-normal faults that were active outside the rift valley during transtension along the bounding Atlantis II transform fault. A significant component of the heat driving hydrothermal fluid flow may have been derived from underplated mafic magmas emplaced during transtension. The young (U-Th)/He ages therefore delimit zones of hydrothermal upflow, and record evidence of protracted hydrothermal circulation up to ~3 Myr off-axis at

  11. Use of marine space by Black-browed albatrosses during the non-breeding season in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copello, Sofía; Seco Pon, Juan Pablo; Favero, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Marine birds like albatrosses have shown a profound deterioration of their conservation status in recent years. The Black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris) is the most abundant threatened albatross species in the Southwest Atlantic continental shelf. Declines in their breeding populations have been largely attributed to the impact of incidental mortality in fisheries. Data on at-sea distribution for the species during breeding is abundant, but movements of individuals during winter are poorly known. Here, we investigate the at-sea distribution of Black-browed albatrosses during the non-breeding seasons 2011 and 2012. Eleven adult individuals were captured at-sea and equipped with satellite tags. Distribution of tracked Black-browed albatrosses was mostly restricted to waters within the continental shelf of Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil; from 29° to 51°S. Two large marine areas, comprising the ca. 90% of the core area (50% utilization distribution) were identified; one from the mouth of Rio de la Plata toward the E and SE reaching the shelfbreak, and another in El Rincón estuary and waters to the South. Tracked birds were distributed over nine oceanographic regimes in the SW Atlantic continental shelf, spending between 5 and 34% of their time at sea in marine fronts of high productivity such as Río de la Plata, Los Patos lagoon estuary front, the shelfbreak and the mixed front. The identified core areas could be considered as proxy indicators of priority areas at the time of implementing conservation measures for the species. The analysis of overlapping with fisheries on the Argentinean Continental Shelf will provide further insights about critical areas where those measures should be more stringent.

  12. Interpretation of the 231Pa/ 230Th paleocirculation proxy: New water-column measurements from the southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Alex L.; Henderson, Gideon M.; Robinson, Laura F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of 231Pa, 230Th and 232Th concentrations have been made on five water-column profiles along the western margin of the Madagascar and Mascarene Basins in the southern Indian Ocean. These measurements help to fill a significant gap in the global coverage of water-column 232Th, 230Th and 231Pa data. 232Th concentrations vary, but generally increase with depth, suggesting higher particle loading in deeper waters, and the presence of a significant dissolved fraction of 232Th. 230Th concentrations increase with depth, and profiles are similar to the average of existing data from other regions. 231Pa concentrations, on the other hand, show significant depth structure, apparently reflecting the various water masses sampled at this location. The modified remnants of North Atlantic Deep Water are found at a depth of ≈ 2000 m and exhibit elevated 231Pa concentrations exported from the South Atlantic. Antarctic Intermediate and Bottom Waters have lower 231Pa, probably due to scavenging onto opal particles during transit from the Southern Ocean. The differences between water masses raises a question: which water mass is important in controlling the 231Pa/ 230Th ratio in underlying sediments? A simple one-dimensional model is used to demonstrate that the 230Th and 231Pa exported to sea-floor sediments last equilibrates with waters close to the seafloor (within ≈ 1000 m), rather than averaging the whole water column. These findings suggest that 231Pa xs/ 230Th xs in sediments provides information primarily about deep-water masses. In this region, sedimentary records will therefore provide information about the past flow of Antarctic Bottom Water into the Indian Ocean. Interpretation of data from other regions, such as the North Atlantic where this proxy has most successfully been applied, requires careful consideration of regional oceanography and knowledge of the composition of the water masses being investigated.

  13. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality in the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area and vicinity, Cecil County, Maryland, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Koterba, Michael T.; Zapecza, Otto S.; Walker, Charles W.; Rice, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, to support an evaluation of the feasibility of reopening the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area (DMCA) in Cecil County, Maryland, for dredge-spoil disposal, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a comprehensive study designed to improve the understanding of the hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality of shallow aquifers underlying the DMCA and adjacent communities, to determine whether or not the DMCA affected groundwater quality, and to assess whether or not groundwater samples contained chemical constituents at levels greater than maximum allowable or recommended levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act. The study, conducted in 2010-11 by USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, included installation of observation wells in areas where data gaps led earlier studies to be inconclusive. The data from new wells and existing monitoring locations were interpreted and show the DMCA influences the groundwater flow and quality. Groundwater flow in the two primary aquifers used for local supplies-the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone)-is radially outward from the DMCA toward discharge areas, including West View Shores, the Elk River, and Pearce Creek Lake. In addition to horizontal flow outward from the DMCA, vertical gradients primarily are downward in most of the study area, and upward near the Elk River on the north side of the DMCA property, and the western part of West View Shores. Integrating groundwater geochemistry data in the analysis, the influence of the DMCA is not only a source of elevated concentrations of dissolved solids but also a geochemical driver of redox processes that enhances the mobilization and transport of redox-sensitive metals and nutrients. Groundwater affected by the DMCA is in the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone). Based on minimal data, the water quality

  14. Towards a better understanding of Rift Valley fever epidemiology in the south-west of the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Balenghien, Thomas; Cardinale, Eric; Chevalier, Véronique; Elissa, Nohal; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Jean Jose Nipomichene, Thiery Nirina; Nicolas, Gaelle; Rakotoharinome, Vincent Michel; Roger, Matthieu; Zumbo, Betty

    2013-09-09

    Rift Valley fever virus (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) is an arbovirus causing intermittent epizootics and sporadic epidemics primarily in East Africa. Infection causes severe and often fatal illness in young sheep, goats and cattle. Domestic animals and humans can be contaminated by close contact with infectious tissues or through mosquito infectious bites. Rift Valley fever virus was historically restricted to sub-Saharan countries. The probability of Rift Valley fever emerging in virgin areas is likely to be increasing. Its geographical range has extended over the past years. As a recent example, autochthonous cases of Rift Valley fever were recorded in 2007-2008 in Mayotte in the Indian Ocean. It has been proposed that a single infected animal that enters a naive country is sufficient to initiate a major outbreak before Rift Valley fever virus would ever be detected. Unless vaccines are available and widely used to limit its expansion, Rift Valley fever will continue to be a critical issue for human and animal health in the region of the Indian Ocean.

  15. Towards a better understanding of Rift Valley fever epidemiology in the south-west of the Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) is an arbovirus causing intermittent epizootics and sporadic epidemics primarily in East Africa. Infection causes severe and often fatal illness in young sheep, goats and cattle. Domestic animals and humans can be contaminated by close contact with infectious tissues or through mosquito infectious bites. Rift Valley fever virus was historically restricted to sub-Saharan countries. The probability of Rift Valley fever emerging in virgin areas is likely to be increasing. Its geographical range has extended over the past years. As a recent example, autochthonous cases of Rift Valley fever were recorded in 2007–2008 in Mayotte in the Indian Ocean. It has been proposed that a single infected animal that enters a naive country is sufficient to initiate a major outbreak before Rift Valley fever virus would ever be detected. Unless vaccines are available and widely used to limit its expansion, Rift Valley fever will continue to be a critical issue for human and animal health in the region of the Indian Ocean. PMID:24016237

  16. How well do models reproduce the ocean-forced teleconnections associated with droughts and pluvials in the Middle East and Southwest Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew; Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan

    2016-04-01

    Tropical sea surface temperatures have been shown to strongly influence the seasonal and multi-year occurrence of both droughts and very wet periods (pluvials) across Southwest Asia and parts of the Middle East. Here, we examine those ocean-forced teleconnections from three perspectives: how their influence varies within this broad region, how well their influence is captured by a range of models, and how closely their influence is linked to societal impacts. This combination of perspectives improves our understanding of these modes, especially in relation to societal impacts, and provides key information for evaluating climate projections. The teleconnections are examined first in observational data, considering differences resulting from focusing on the western part of the region (the Mediterranean coastal Middle East) to the eastern part of the region (the Pamir mountains), and then comparing the observational results to ensemble simulations from a range of models. There are notable differences between models, with important implications for understanding the dynamics of the events and for setting confidence bounds on climate change projections in the region. The relationship between droughts and floods in the region is also considered. The teleconnections associated with pluvials are approximately antisymmetric to those associated with droughts. Floods occur over a considerably shorter time-scale, however, and their variability is examined by analyzing changes to the frequency of floods between pluvial and drought periods, considering floods as recorded in the Dartmouth Flood Observatory and the CRED EM-DAT disaster database.

  17. Exogenous glycine and serine promote growth and antifungal activity of Penicillium citrinum W1 from the south-west Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-wen; Zhao, Xian-liang; Wu, Xiao-jun; Wen, Chao; Li, Hui; Chen, Xin-hua; Peng, Xuan-xian

    2015-04-01

    PcPAF is a novel antifungal protein identified by our recent study, which is produced by a fungal strain Penicillium citrinum W1 isolated from a south-west Indian Ocean sediment sample. The present study identified glycine as a potential metabolite which increased the fungal growth and promoted antifungal activity. Then, GC/MS based metabolomics was used to disclose the metabolic mechanism manipulated by glycine. With the aid of unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis and supervised orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis, the intracellular metabolite profiles were distinguished among two glycine-treated groups and control. 43 and 47 significantly varied metabolites were detected in 2.5 mM or 5 mM glycine-treated groups and involved in seven and eight pathways, respectively. Furthermore, exogenous serine, which is converted from glycine, showed the same potential as glycine did. Our findings not only identify glycine and serine as nutrients which promoted P. citrinum W1 growth and increased antifungal activity, but also highlight the way to utilize metabolomics for an understanding of metabolic mechanism manipulated by an exogenous compound.

  18. A revision of Pheidole Westwood (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the islands of the southwest Indian Ocean and designation of a neotype for the invasive Pheidole megacephala.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Fisher, B L

    2013-01-01

    The myrmicine genus Pheidole Westwood is revised for the smaller islands of the Southwest Indian Ocean: Comoros, Juan de Nova Island, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, and the Seychelles. Descriptions and keys are provided for the thirteen species on these islands of which seven are newly described: P. decepticon sp. n., P. dodo sp. n., P. komori sp. n, P. loki sp. n., P. megatron sp. n., P. ragnax sp. n., P. vulcan sp. n.; and six were previously described: P. braueri Forel, P. fervens Smith, F., P. jonas Forel, P. megacephala (Fabricius), P. parva Forel, and P. teneriffana Forel. New synonymies (with the senior synonym listed first) include P. parva Mayr = P. flavens var. farquharensis Forel, P. parva Mayr = P. tarda Donisthorpe, P. megacephala (Fabricius) = P. picata Forel, P. megacephala (Fabricius) = P. punctulata r. gietleni Forel, 1905, P. megacephala (Fabricius) = P. picata var. bernhardae Emery, 1915, P. megacephala (Fabricius) = P megacephala r. scabrior Forel, and P. teneriffana Forel = P. voeltzkowii Forel. Furthermore, lectotypes are designated from the syntypes of P. braueri, P. fervens, P. jonas, P. parva, and P. teneriffana in order to provide a single name-bearing specimen and to facilitate future taxonomic studies. Finally, a neotype is provided for the untraceable or possibly lost type of the cosmopolitan and invasive P. megacephala, which was originally described by Fabricius from Mauritius (the former 'Ile de France').

  19. Carbon isotope evidence for changes in Antarctic Intermediate Water circulation and ocean ventilation in the southwest Pacific during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostock, Helen C.; Opdyke, Bradley N.; Gagan, Michael K.; Fifield, L. Keith

    2004-12-01

    Deep-sea sediment core FR1/97 GC-12 is located 990 mbsl in the northern Tasman Sea, southwest Pacific, where Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) presently impinges the continental slope of the southern Great Barrier Reef. Analysis of carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope ratios on a suite of planktonic and benthic foraminifera reveals rapid changes in surface and intermediate water circulation over the last 30 kyr. During the Last Glacial Maximum, there was a large δ13C offset (1.1‰) between the surface-dwelling planktonic foraminifera and benthic species living within the AAIW. In contrast, during the last deglaciation (Termination 1), the δ13Cplanktonic-benthic offset reduced to 0.4‰ prior to an intermediate offset (0.7‰) during the Holocene. We suggest that variations in the dominance and direction of AAIW circulation in the Tasman Sea, and increased oceanic ventilation, can account for the rapid change in the water column δ13Cplanktonic-benthic offset during the glacial-interglacial transition. Our results support the hypothesis that intermediate water plays an important role in propagating climatic changes from the polar regions to the tropics. In this case, climatic variations in the Southern Hemisphere may have led to the rapid ventilation of deep water and AAIW during Termination 1, which contributed to the postglacial rise in atmospheric CO2.

  20. Quantitative estimate of Antarctic Intermediate Water contributions from the Drake Passage and the southwest Indian Ocean to the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yuzhu

    2002-04-01

    Recently obtained World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) bottle sections and a pre-WOCE bottle data set are used in a water mass mixing model. The mixing scheme comprises three intermediate water sources: Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) from the northern Drake Passage, a combination source of the Indian Ocean intermediate waters entering from south of Africa, and a transformed end-member of the former two sources. I call them dAAIW, iAAIW, and aAAIW, respectively. The dAAIW originates from the southeast South Pacific, enters the South Atlantic in the northern Drake Passage, and is modified in the Falkland Current loop. The iAAIW is a combination of the Indian Ocean sources including Red Sea Intermediate Water, Indonesian Intermediate Water, and AAIW formed locally in the south central Indian Ocean and transformed dAAIW that has returned following a loop through the Indian Ocean. The aAAIW is a transformed end-member of a mixture of dAAIW and iAAIW located in the eastern tropical South Atlantic, characterized by an oxygen minimum and nutrient maxima. Although aAAIW is not an import source like dAAIW and iAAIW, it spans property fields to extrema as a result of water mass mixing and transformation processes and therefore must be included in the basin-wide water mass mixing scheme. The study is performed on five neutral surfaces that encompass the AAIW layer from 700 to 1200 dbar in the subtropical latitudes with a distance of about 100 dbar between a pair of surfaces. Four conservative variables of potential temperature, salinity, initial phosphate (PO4o), and NO and one conservative dynamical tracer fN2 (where f is the Coriolis frequency and N2 is the squared buoyancy frequency) are used as input information to the mixing model. The model-derived mixing fraction gives a quantitative description of AAIW sources when they are mapped onto neutral surfaces. The contoured pattern of mixing fraction shows water mass spreading paths, thus implying circulation and

  1. Zircon record of fractionation, hydrous partial melting and thermal gradients at different depths in oceanic crust (ODP Site 735B, South-West Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietranik, A.; Storey, C.; Koepke, J.; Lasalle, S.

    2017-03-01

    Felsic veins (plagiogranites) are distributed throughout the whole oceanic crust section and offer insight into late-magmatic/high temperature hydrothermal processes within the oceanic crust. Despite constituting only 0.5% of the oceanic crust section drilled in IODP Site 735B, they carry a significant budget of incompatible elements, which they redistribute within the crust. Such melts are saturated in accessory minerals, such as zircon, titanite and apatite, and often zircon is the only remaining phase that preserves magmatic composition and records processes of felsic melt formation and evolution. In this study, we analysed zircon from four depths in IODP Site 735B; they come from the oxide gabbro (depth approximately 250 m below sea floor) and plagiogranite (depths c. 500, 860, 940 m below sea floor). All zircons have similar ɛHf composition of c. 15 units indicating an isotopically homogenous source for the mafic magmas forming IODP Site 735B gabbro. Zircons from oxide gabbro are scarce and variable in composition consistent with their crystallization from melts formed by both fractionation of mafic magmas and hydrous remelting of gabbro cumulate. On the other hand, zircon from plagiogranite is abundant and each sample is characterized by compositional trends consistent with crystallization of zircon in an evolving melt. However, the trends are different between the plagiogranite at 500 m bsf and the deeper sections, which are interpreted as the record of plagiogranite formation by two processes: remelting of gabbro cumulate at 500 m bsf and fractionation at deeper sections. Zircon from both oxide gabbro and plagiogranite has δ18O from 3.5 to 6.0‰. Values of δ18O are best explained by redistribution of δ18O in a thermal gradient and not by remelting of hydrothermally altered crust. Tentatively, it is suggested that fractionation could be an older episode contemporaneous with gabbro crystallization and remelting could be a younger one, triggered by

  2. Diversity and ecological structure of vibrios in benthic and pelagic habitats along a latitudinal gradient in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A; Silva, Bruno Sergio de O; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Valle, Cecilia; Alves, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Giselle; Garcia, Gizele; Lopes, Rubens M; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the diversity and population structure of the 775 Vibrio isolates from different locations of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SAO), including St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (SPSPA), Abrolhos Bank (AB) and the St. Sebastian region (SS), between 2005 and 2010. In this study, 195 novel isolates, obtained from seawater and major benthic organisms (rhodoliths and corals), were compared with a collection of 580 isolates previously characterized (available at www.taxvibrio.lncc.br). The isolates were distributed in 8 major habitat spectra according to AdaptML analysis on the basis of pyrH phylogenetic reconstruction and ecological information, such as isolation source (i.e., corals: Madracis decactis, Mussismilia braziliensis, M. hispida, Phyllogorgia dilatata, Scolymia wellsi; zoanthids: Palythoa caribaeorum, P. variabilis and Zoanthus solanderi; fireworm: Hermodice carunculata; rhodolith; water and sediment) and sampling site regions (SPSPA, AB and SS). Ecologically distinct groups were discerned through AdaptML, which finds phylogenetic groups that are significantly different in their spectra of habitat preferences. Some habitat spectra suggested ecological specialization, with habitat spectra 2, 3, and 4 corresponding to specialization on SPSPA, AB, and SS, respectively. This match between habitat and location may reflect a minor exchange of Vibrio populations between geographically isolated benthic systems. Moreover, we found several widespread Vibrio species predominantly from water column, and different populations of a single Vibrio species from H. carunculata in ecologically distinct groups (H-1 and H-8 respectively). On the other hand, AdaptML detected phylogenetic groups that are found in both the benthos and in open water. The ecological grouping observed suggests dispersal and connectivity between the benthic and pelagic systems in AB. This study is a first attempt to characterize the biogeographic distribution of vibrios in both seawater and

  3. Seismic tomographic constraints on the Antarctic-Eastern Australian margin of Gondwanaland and the southwest Pacific oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. F.; Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Renqi, L.; Kanda, R. V. S.

    2014-12-01

    We have mapped a distinct swath of flat slabs at depths of 1900 to 2500 km below present-day West Antarctica and the southernmost Pacific. The slab anomalies occupy a minimum area of 8000 x 5000 km and are distinguishable on multiple global tomography datasets including TX2011 (Grand and Simmons, 2011) and MIT-P08 (Li et al., 2008). When reconstructed within a lower mantle reference, the restored slab positions show a compelling fit opposite the pre-breakup (~185 Ma) southern margin of Gondwanaland from published plate reconstructions (Seton et al., 2012). Here we present a new plate reconstruction with the subducted slab constraints. At ~185 Ma the southern mapped slabs began to subduct under a SSE-moving Eastern Gondwanaland margin formed by Antarctica-Eastern Australia. The northern slabs were subducted during the formation of the new oceans at the Ellice Basin, Osbourn Trough and the present-day Tonga-Kermadec slabs. The mapped flat slabs were completely subducted by ~85 Ma, at which time subduction ceased at the Eastern Australian-Antarctica margin. We mapped subducted slabs by manually picking the midpoints of fast seismic tomographic anomalies and constructing meshed mid-slab surfaces. Slabs were restored to their pre-subduction geometries by structurally unfolding to a spherical Earth model surface. Unfolded slabs were used as plate reconstruction constraints using Gplates software.

  4. Detection of Seismic Anisotropy Using Ocean Bottom Seismometers: A Case Study from the Accretionary Prism Off Southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W. B.; Lin, J. Y.; Hsu, S. K.; Dong, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    A multicomponent ocean-bottom seismometer data set was collected by National Central University, Taiwan in the accreationary prism off southwestern Taiwan in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The OBS contains four component receivers, including a three component 4.5 Hz geophone unit containing three orthogonal components and a hydrophone. GI-gun shots located at 1 mile and 1.5 miles radius from the OBS, with spacing approximately 40 m along the sail line. The OBS recorded data at a sampling rate of 250 Hz and from a shot pattern that gave good azimuthal coverage around the OBS. Based on P and P-S converted waves recorded between the direct and multiple arrivals, this experiment targeted the top few hundred meters of sediment in the study area. Synthetic seismograms were calculated from a model representative of the sediment sequence at this site indicating that converted amplitudes are dominated by P to S mode-converted waves generated on reflection. After preliminary processing, including a static correction, the data were optimally rotated to radial (R) and transverse (T) components. The principal technique used to detect the anisotropy was azimuthal stacking of the radial and transverse horizontal geophone components. The R component shows azimuthal variation of traveltime indicating variation of velocity with azimuth; the corresponding T component shows azimuthal variation of amplitude and phase. From the radial component azimuthal gather and mode-converted wave amplitude variation for the first few layers and determined corresponding anisotropy parameter and VP/VS values. We attribute the observed azimuthal anisotropy to the presence of microcracks and grain boundary orientation due to stress since fracture at this depth is not likely to occur.

  5. Annual Cycles of Deep-ocean, Biogeochemical Export Fluxes and Biological Pump Processes in Subtropical and Subantarctic Waters, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodder, S.; Chiswell, S.; Northcote, L.

    2016-02-01

    One of the key aspects of the global carbon cycle is the efficiency and spatio-temporal variability of the biological pump. In this paper, the annual cycles of particle fluxes, derived from moored sediment trap data collected from 2000-12 in subtropical (STW) and subantarctic waters (SAW), east of New Zealand, are presented. These observations are the most comprehensive export flux time-series from temperate Southern Hemisphere latitudes to date. With high levels of variability, fluxes in SAW were markedly lower than in STW, reflecting the picophytoplankton-dominated communities in the iron-limited, high nutrient-low chlorophyll SAW. Austral spring chlorophyll blooms in surface STW were near-synchronous with elevated fluxes of bio-siliceous, carbonate and organic carbon-rich materials to the deep ocean, probably facilitated by diatom sedimentation. Lithogenic fluxes were also high in STW, compared to SAW, reflecting proximity to the New Zealand landmass. In contrast, the highest biogenic fluxes in SAW occurred in spring when surface chlorophyll concentrations were low, while highest annual chlorophyll concentrations were in summer with no associated flux increase. We hypothesize that the high spring export in SAW occurs from subsurface chlorophyll accumulations that are not evident from remote-sensing satellites. This material was also rich in biogenic silica, perhaps related to the preferential export of diatoms and other silica-producing organisms, such as silicoflagellates and radiolarians. Particle fluxes in STW are similar to that of other mesotrophic to oligotrophic waters ( 6-7 mgC m-2 d-1), whereas export from SAW is below global averages ( 3 mgC m-2 d-1), and is characterized by carbonate-dominated and prominent bio-siliceous deposition.

  6. Early to middle Eocene magneto-biochronology of the southwest Pacific Ocean and climate influence on sedimentation: new data from the Mead Stream section (Marlborough, New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallanave, E.; Agnini, C.; Bachtadse, V.; Muttoni, G.; Crampton, J. S.; Strong, P.; Hines, B. R.; Hollis, C. J.; Slotnick, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Mead Stream section (South Island, New Zealand) consists of a 650-m-thick series of continuous and well-exposed strata deposited on a South Pacific continental slope from the Late Cretaceous to the middle Eocene. We examined the uppermost Paleocene-middle Eocene part of the Mead Stream section, which consists of ~360 m of limestone and marl, for detailed magnetic polarity stratigraphy, calcareous nannofossil, and foraminifera biostratigraphy. Magneto-biostratigraphic data indicate that the section straddles magnetic polarity Chrons from C24r to C18n, calcareous nannofossil Zone from NP9a to NP17 (CNP11-CNE15 following a recently revised Paleogene zonation), and from the Waipawan to the Bortonian New Zealand stages (i.e., from the base of the Ypresian to the Bartonian international stages), encompassing 17 Myr (56-39 Ma) of Southwest Pacific Ocean history. The ages of calcareous nannofossil biohorizons are consistent with low to mid-latitude data from the literature, indicating that during the early-middle Eocene the low-mid latitude calcareous nannofossil domain extended at least to ~50-55°S in the South Pacific. Correlation of the magnetic polarity stratigraphy from the Mead Stream section with the geomagnetic polarity time scale allows us to derive the sediment accumulation rates (SAR), which range between 8 and 44 m/Myr. Comparing the SAR with paleotemperature proxy records, we found that two intervals of increased SAR occurred during the early Eocene climatic optimum (EECO; 52-50 Ma) and during the transient climate warming culminating with the middle Eocene climatic optimum (MECO; 40.5 Ma). This correlation indicates that the climate evolution of the early-middle Eocene is recorded in the sedimentation patterns whereby times of warmer climate promote continental weathering, transportation, and accumulation of terrigenous sediments.

  7. Comparative feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) in the coastal waters of the southwest Indian Ocean inferred from stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ryan; Froneman, Pierre W; Smale, Malcolm J

    2013-01-01

    As apex predators, sharks play an important role shaping their respective marine communities through predation and associated risk effects. Understanding the predatory dynamics of sharks within communities is, therefore, necessary to establish effective ecologically based conservation strategies. We employed non-lethal sampling methods to investigate the feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) using stable isotope analysis within a subtropical marine community in the southwest Indian Ocean. The main objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the predatory role that sub-adult and adult bull sharks play within a top predatory teleost fish community. Bull sharks had significantly broader niche widths compared to top predatory teleost assemblages with a wide and relatively enriched range of δ(13)C values relative to the local marine community. This suggests that bull sharks forage from a more diverse range of δ(13)C sources over a wider geographical range than the predatory teleost community. Adult bull sharks appeared to exhibit a shift towards consistently higher trophic level prey from an expanded foraging range compared to sub-adults, possibly due to increased mobility linked with size. Although predatory teleost fish are also capable of substantial migrations, bull sharks may have the ability to exploit a more diverse range of habitats and appeared to prey on a wider diversity of larger prey. This suggests that bull sharks play an important predatory role within their respective marine communities and adult sharks in particular may shape and link ecological processes of a variety of marine communities over a broad range.

  8. Comparative Feeding Ecology of Bull Sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) in the Coastal Waters of the Southwest Indian Ocean Inferred from Stable Isotope Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Ryan; Froneman, Pierre W.; Smale, Malcolm J.

    2013-01-01

    As apex predators, sharks play an important role shaping their respective marine communities through predation and associated risk effects. Understanding the predatory dynamics of sharks within communities is, therefore, necessary to establish effective ecologically based conservation strategies. We employed non-lethal sampling methods to investigate the feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) using stable isotope analysis within a subtropical marine community in the southwest Indian Ocean. The main objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the predatory role that sub-adult and adult bull sharks play within a top predatory teleost fish community. Bull sharks had significantly broader niche widths compared to top predatory teleost assemblages with a wide and relatively enriched range of δ13C values relative to the local marine community. This suggests that bull sharks forage from a more diverse range of δ13C sources over a wider geographical range than the predatory teleost community. Adult bull sharks appeared to exhibit a shift towards consistently higher trophic level prey from an expanded foraging range compared to sub-adults, possibly due to increased mobility linked with size. Although predatory teleost fish are also capable of substantial migrations, bull sharks may have the ability to exploit a more diverse range of habitats and appeared to prey on a wider diversity of larger prey. This suggests that bull sharks play an important predatory role within their respective marine communities and adult sharks in particular may shape and link ecological processes of a variety of marine communities over a broad range. PMID:24205168

  9. Geodynamic and Geochemical Modeling of Mantle Processes along the Southwest Indian Ridge at 35°-40°E: A Hotspot-Mid-Ocean Ridge Interaction Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, M. O.; Okino, K.; Montesi, L.

    2014-12-01

    Mantle convection can be regarded as the superposition of two convective models: aplate mode and a plume mode. Geodynamic modeling of these regimes has grantedinsight into surface features, and tells us about the mantle processes in a system largelydevoid of observables. Our study of the 35°-40°E segment of the Southwest Indian Ridge(SWIR) seeks to link geochemical and geological observations with the underlying mantleprocesses.Both plate and plume modes interact and combine at the SWIR 35°-40°E segment. Themid-ocean ridge itself is a manifestation of the plate tectonics mode of mantle convection.The slow opening rate and obliquity of this segment should lead to low volcanic activityalong this segment. However, this segment is the point along the SWIR closest to theMarion hotspot, a manifestation of the plume mode of mantle convection. When interactingwith the mid-ocean ridges, hotspots like the Azores, Iceland, Galápagos, and Rodriguezproduce distinctive patterns, such as propagating rifts, triple junctions, and enriched MORBsignatures. The Marion hotspot does not have a similar effect on the SWIR even thoughit is associated with a bathymetric high and residual mantle Bouguer anomaly low. Anotable feature along the ridge is a V-shaped bathymetric anomaly around one of the non-transform discontinuities (NTD).As for the SWIR 10°-16°E area (Montési et al., 2011) geodynamics modeling predictsmagma focusing to highly segmented non-transform oblique segments (NTOS) along theridge. However, geophysical observations show a thinning crust at these regions. Modelingwithout the segmentation along the oblique segments shows much better agreement withthe observations. So either the NTOS are a crustal structure that does not influence mantleupwelling, melt extraction parameters vary along the ridge, or the density of the crust isanomalous in NTOS due to a different fractionation history.We will incorporate whole rock chemistry (including trace element, & REEs

  10. Extreme cyclone wave climate in the Southwest Pacific Ocean: Influence of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and projected climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Scott A.; Ramsay, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the first use of a stochastic cyclone model (SCM) to quantify the extreme significant wave height from tropical cyclones across the Southwest Pacific Ocean. The median extreme significant wave heights across the entire SW Pacific Ocean were 7.5, 10 and 11 m for annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs) of 0.1, 0.02 and 0.01 respectively. Maximum significant wave heights in the region were approximately 1.5 times these values for the same AEP. Tables of extreme significant wave heights are provided for selected inhabited locations. The SCM was used to quantify the effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on extreme significant wave heights, and also the effects of projected climate change on cyclone intensity and frequency of occurrence. West of the International Dateline in the region of the Vanuatu archipelago, the extreme cyclone wave climate was relatively consistent during all phases of the ENSO cycle, but highest during El Niño. Cyclone formation and propagation eastward of the Dateline are more likely to occur during El Niño conditions, however these cyclones tended to be more intense, particularly during extreme El Niño events, leading to a higher long-term extreme wave climate in the eastern SW Pacific, despite the relatively low cyclone observation rate there. Simulations of climate change cyclone intensity increases of 10-20% of the most intense cyclones (categories 4 and 5) along with 10-20% reduction in number of cyclones indicated little change in extreme significant wave heights for low-occurrence AEPs of 1/20 or less. These changes were much less than induced by present-day ENSO variability, suggesting that future changes in extreme wave climate will be sensitive to climate change influences on the frequency and intensity of ENSO events. These results are significant in the light of indications that the frequency of extreme El Nino events might double in response to greenhouse warming.

  11. Soft sediment deformation associated with the passage of North Atlantic Deep water through the deep Ariel Graben, Mozambique Ridge southwest Indian Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Errol; Green, Andrew; Watkeys, Mike; Jokat, Wilfried; Krocker, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    Interactions between bottom water currents and seafloor sediments are well known. Bottom current generated bedforms are varied both morphologicaly and sedimentologicaly. Sediment transport and deposition, associated with bottom water circulation, plays a significant role is sculpting seafloor morphology in all ocean basins. Indeed, bedforms have been used to great effect to define the presence, direction and strength of bottom water circulation globally. Here we present new multibeam swath bathymetry and high frequency seismic data from the Natal Valley and Mozambique Ridge, southwest Indian Ocean. These data show a deep (-3200 m) channel-like feature (Ariel Graben, situated at 28° 30"S on the Mozambique Ridge) connecting the northern Natal Valley to the Mozambique Basin. A distinct W - E change in seafloor morphology and seismic character is noted moving from the Natal Valley through the Ariel Graben. The northern flank of the graben exhibits smooth plastered drifts which give way to undulating seafloor in the east. The plastered drifts are characterised by distinct bottom echoes, with several discontinuous sub-bottom reflections. In contrast, the undulating seafloor is characterised by distinct hyperbolic echoes, with occasional indistinct sub-bottom reflectors. The W - E orientated undulations are straight crested, parallel / sub-parallel to the local isobaths. Wavelength is variable, ranging from 600 m to 1200 m. Cross-sectional symmetry of these features varies from symmetrical to asymmetrical, with board crests and narrow troughs. When asymmetrical, the lower (south-facing) limb is the longer (511.76 m average) than the upper (north-facing) limb (323.53 m average). The lower limbs are also steeper than the upper limbs; calculated averages being 3.80° and 1.55°, respectively. Overall, the slope on which the undulations are found, is south-facing with a gradient of 1.54°, however, the area affected by undulations is slightly steeper (average slope of 1.75

  12. Surface oceanography of BROKE-West, along the Antarctic margin of the south-west Indian Ocean ( 30-80∘E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. D.; Nicol, S.; Aoki, S.; Meijers, A. J. S.; Bindoff, N. L.; Iijima, Y.; Marsland, S. J.; Klocker, A.

    2010-05-01

    Hydrographic CTD and ADCP data were collected during the BROKE-West research voyage (January-March 2006) in the south-west Indian Ocean sector of the Antarctic margin. These data describe the large-scale circulation, water masses, fronts and summertime stratification in the surface layer over the continental shelf, slope and rise region between 30 and 80∘E that forms CCAMLR Statistical Area 58.4.2. The surface circulation matched the full-depth circulation and consisted of the eastward flowing southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current front to the north, and the westward flowing Antarctic Slope Current associated with the Antarctic Slope Front along the continental slope to the south. Two sub-polar gyres were detected south of the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current: the eastern Weddell Gyre in the Cosmonaut Sea ( 30-50∘E) and the greater Prydz Bay Gyre in the Cooperation Sea ( 60-80∘E). In the eastern Weddell Gyre, the seasonal mixed layer depths were shallower, warmer and fresher relative to the regions to the east which were deeper, cooler and more saline. This spatial variability is found to be strongly correlated to the large-scale pattern of sea ice melt/retreat in the months preceding the voyage and the accumulated wind stress thereafter. Areas of upwelling warm deep waters into the surface layer are presented from positive anomalies of potential temperature and nutrient concentrations (nitrate and silicate). These anomalies were strongest in the eastern Weddell Gyre in the vicinity of the Cosmonaut Polynya/Embayment, north of Cape Anne and near the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the eastern sector of the survey. The summertime stratification (seasonal mixed layer, seasonal pycnocline and Tmin layer) are discussed relative to the distributions of chl a and acoustically determined Antarctic Krill ( Euphausia superba) densities. Elevated chl a concentrations were found in the surface layer of the marginal ice

  13. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prohibition of dumping dredged and domestic sewage sludge (DSS) materials in streams and oceans, diminishing land fill space, skyrocketing landfill costs, and concerns over air pollution from incineration of wastes have contributed to a strong public interest in finding alternative, environmenta...

  14. Criteria for the management of disposal sites for ocean dumping extension of interim designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-16

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated amendments to its regulations on ocean dumping which extend the interim designation of certain ocean dumping sites pending completion of Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) and formal rulemaking procedures. Other sites, mainly those for dredged material disposal, will be extended pending completion of site designation studies and formal designation. The schedule for availability of draft EIS on 25 dumping sites and extension dates for the affected interim sites are discussed. This rule is effective as of 1/16/80. Comments must be received by 2/15/80.

  15. Interplate coupling along the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan, inferred from inversion analyses of GPS data: Effects of subducting plate geometry and spacing of hypothetical ocean-bottom GPS stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Shoichi; Matsuoka, Yoshiko

    2013-07-01

    We estimated the slip-deficit rate distribution on the plate boundary between the subducting Philippine Sea plate and the continental Amurian plate along the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan. Horizontal and vertical displacement rates were calculated from land-based Global Positioning System (GPS) data during the 5-year period from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2009. We employed an inversion analysis of geodetic data using Akaike's Bayesian information criterion (ABIC), including an indirect prior constraint that slip distribution is smooth to some extent and a direct prior constraint that slip is mainly oriented in the plate-convergent direction. The results show that a large slip deficit exists at depths ranging from 15 to 20 km on the plate boundary in a belt-like form. The maximum slip-deficit rate was identified off Shikoku and reached 6 cm/year. The slip-deficit rate differed by as much as 1 cm/year when using a different geometric model of the subducting plate. On the basis of the spatial distribution of estimation errors and the resolution of the obtained slip-deficit rate on the plate boundary, we also found that the offshore slip-deficit rate cannot be estimated with sufficient accuracy using only land-based GPS data. Therefore, we tested the improvement in results when introducing hypothetical ocean-bottom GPS stations. The stations were arranged in four along-arc and across-arc spacings of 80 km and 40 km. The ocean-bottom data improved the estimation errors and resolutions, and successful results were obtained for a checkerboard with each square 75 km × 76 km. Our results indicate that 40-km along-arc and across-arc two-dimensional spacing of ocean-bottom GPS stations is required to obtain reliable slip-deficit distributions near the trough axis, assuming the current estimation accuracy for ocean-bottom horizontal displacement rates.

  16. Report to Congress on ocean dumping, 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The Report to Congress summarizes the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) activities in carrying out its responsibilities under Title I of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) and its 1988 amendment, the Ocean Dumping Ban Act (ODBA). ODBA makes the ocean dumping of industrial waste and municipal sewage sludge unlawful after December 31, 1991. EPA's Office of Water (OW) in conjunction with EPA Regional Offices have responsibilities under MPRSA to regulate and monitor ocean disposal of municipal sewage sludge, industrial waste, and dredged materials as well as incineration-at-sea. In addition to administering MPRSA and ODBA, OW: (1) continued its participation in the work of the London Dumping Convention (LDC), the international agreement that addresses the dumping of wastes into the marine environment; (2) continued monitoring and public education activities aboard the Ocean Survey Vessel PETER W. ANDERSON; and (3) collaborated in programs with other organizations involved in marine protection.

  17. Numerical forecasting of the time interval between successive M8 earthquakes along the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan, using ocean bottom cable network data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Takane; Hyodo, Mamoru; Miyazaki, Shin'ichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2014-09-01

    One possible approach to estimating the time interval between large-scale Tōnankai (Tōkai) and Nankai earthquakes on the Japan arc is sequential assimilation of crustal deformation data. We conducted numerical modeling of sequential assimilation using surface deformation calculated from earthquake generation cycle simulations along the Nankai Trough. To account for observation noise, we used measured ocean bottom pressure gauge data, excluding tidal modulation, from a station on the ocean bottom cable network Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis in the Kumano basin. We used sequential importance sampling as our data assimilation method. We found that as the amount of data increased, the estimated time interval between the Tōnankai and Nankai earthquakes approached the "true" observed interval. In addition, the noise in the pressure gauge data was sufficiently small that simulated crustal deformation patterns could be distinguished for different time intervals.

  18. Southwestern limits of Indian Ocean Ridge mantle and the origin of low Pb-206/Pb-204 mid-ocean ridge basalt - Isotope systematics of the central Southwest Indian Ridge (17 deg - 50 deg E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, J.; Le Roex, A. P.; Peng, Z.; Fisher, R. L.; Natland, J. H.

    1992-12-01

    The isotopic characteristics of the Indian Ocean Ridge midocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and of the Atlantic and the Pacific MORBs (north of 25 deg S) were determined in order to estimate the southwestern limits of the Indian Ocean Ridge mantle and the origin of low Pb-206/Pb-204 MORB. In view of the possible importance of a Marion-type mantle along portions of the ridge, lavas from several Marion Island, Prince Edward Island, and Funk Seamount were also analyzed isotopically. The isotopic results include analyses of fields for the Indian Ocean triple junction area, the entire Central Indian and southern Carlsberg ridges, for several oceanic islands, and Pacific and/or North Atlantic MORBs.

  19. ENSO and Indian Ocean subtropical dipole variability is recorded in a coral record off southwest Madagascar for the period 1659 to 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinke, J.; Dullo, W.-Chr.; Heiss, G. A.; Eisenhauer, A.

    2004-11-01

    The Ifaty coral record from off SW Madagascar provide a 336-year coral oxygen isotope record that is used to investigate the natural variability of the western Indian Ocean subtropical SST dipole and ENSO. The coral oxygen isotope record primarily reflects past sea-surface temperature (SST) variability on seasonal to multidecadal scales. To validate the SST reconstructions derived from oxygen isotopes, Sr/Ca ratios were obtained for selected time windows (1973-1995, 1863-1910, 1784-1809, 1688-1710). The period 1675-1760 was found to be the coolest period of the entire record with anomalies of 0.3-0.5 °C that includes the Late Maunder Minimum (1675-1710). The warmest periods, as indicated by our data, occur between 1880 and 1900 and the upper part of the Ifaty record (1973-1995). We generated a time series of coral δ18O for different seasons of the year to investigate austral winter and summer SST variability that influences rainfall intensity over southern Africa. Winter coral δ18O is coherent with winter SST on decadal and multidecadal time scales between 1854 and 1995. We suggest that the Ifaty winter time series provides a record of winter SST variability over the Mozambique Channel/Agulhas Current region over 336 years. Strong Indian Ocean subtropical dipole events, occurring during austral summer, are displayed in the Ifaty record. The austral summer coral δ18O is coherent and in phase with ENSO indices on interannual time scales (2-4 years) between 1880-1920, 1930-1940 and after 1970. Our data indicate that the impact of ENSO on SW Indian Ocean SST and atmospheric circulation was also strong between 1680-1720 and 1760-1790, in agreement with other studies. We show evidence that these variations are caused by changes in the regional hydrologic balance. The results demonstrate that the impact of ENSO cycles in the region of the SW Indian Ocean has changed significantly since 1970 and relate to a warming of southwestern Indian Ocean surface waters altering

  20. The Easternmost Southwest Indian Ridge: A Laboratory to Study MORB and Oceanic Gabbro Petrogenesis in a Very Low Melt Supply Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, M.; Cannat, M.; Hamelin, C.; Brunelli, D.

    2014-12-01

    Our study area is located at the ultra-slow Southwest Indian Ridge, east of the Melville Fracture Zone, between 61 and 67°E. The melt distribution in this area is very heterogeneous, with corridors of ultramafic seafloor where plate separation is accommodated by large offset normal faults [Sauter, Cannat et al., 2013]. These ultramafic corridors also expose rare gabbros and basalts. We use the major and trace elements composition of these magmatic rocks to document the petrogenesis of MORB in this exceptionnally low melt supply portion of the MOR system. Basalts from the easternmost SWIR represent a global MORB end-member for major element compositions [Meyzen et al., 2003], with higher Na2O and Al2O3 wt%, and lower CaO and FeO wt% at a given MgO. Within this group, basalts from the ultramafic corridors have particularly high Na2O, low CaO and FeO wt%. Best fitting calculated liquid lines of descent are obtained for crystallization pressures of ~8 kbar. Gabbroic rocks recovered in the ultramafic corridors include gabbros, oxide-gabbros and variably impregnated peridotites. This presentation focuses on these impregnated samples, where cpx have high Mg#, yet are in equilibrium with the nearby basalts in terms of their trace element compositions. Plagioclase An contents vary over a broad range, and there is evidence for opx resorption. These characteristics result from melt-mantle interactions in the axial lithosphere, which may explain several peculiar major element characteristics of the basalts. Similar interactions probably occur beneath ridges at intermediate to slow and ultraslow spreading rates. We propose that they are particularly significant in our study area due to its exceptionnally low integrated melt-rock ratio.

  1. Studies in Southwest Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, J. Donald, Ed.; Ornstein, Jacob, Ed.

    The Spanish dialects of the Southwest United States have received little serious attention until recently. The present volume contains studies designed to contribute to the understanding and acceptance of Southwest Spanish. The book consists of the following chapters: (1) "Linguistic Diversity in Southwest Spanish," by Garland D. Bills…

  2. Dredged-Material Disposal System Capacity Expansion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    plan is the product of the acquisition cost and the binary variable. O’Laoghaire and Himmelblau (1972) propose such an IP formulation, and a similar...Methods: A Survey," Op- erations Research, Vol. 14, 1966, pp. 699-719. Lesso, W. G., Himmelblau , D. M., Jensen, P. A., and Shanmugham, C. V., "Ca...34 Water Resources Research, Vol. 15, No. 4, Aug., 1979, pp. 750-756. O’Laoghaire, D. T., and Himmelblau , D. M., "Optimal Capital Investment in the

  3. Guidance for Subaqueous Dredged Material Capping.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    rjynC QUALITY INSPECTED 1 Prepared for Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising...locally, as needed. Contents Preface xii Conversion Factors, Non-SI to SI Units of Measurement xiv 1—Introduction 1 Background 1 Purpose and Scope...material properties, and com- puter models for predicting mound development and spreading behavior are available. c. Long-term cap integrity

  4. Bioassays on Illinois Waterway Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    promelas (the fathead min- now) and Daphnia magna (a freshwater cladoceran). A chronic (21-day) toxicity test was also conducted using Daphnia magna...NUMBER OF PAGES Acute Cadmium Daphnia magna Pimephales promelas 110 Ammonia Chronic Elutriate Sediment 16. PRICE CODE Bioassay Cladoceran Fathead minnow 17...11 Acute (48-hr) Bioassays with Daphnia magna ... ........... .. 11 Acute (48-hr) Bioassays with Pimephales

  5. Modeling of Nearshore-Placed Dredged Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    and placement onshore. Mound sand was dyed to provide contrast and to differentiate it from the natural sand beach used in the model. Beach surveys...were performed intermittently during each 9-hour (prototype) experiment with a laser scanner. In addition to beach change elevations, the scanner...accumulation was observed on the beach onshore and updrift of the mounds. Beach response was similar to that of an offshore breakwater in which the mound

  6. Dredged Material Containment in Long Island Sound.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    one factor such as biological value, but the fact that these sites are American oyster ( Crassostrea virginica ) seeding grounds would eliminate them...1 N v’ Iuz3 96s N I ~ ~ U r m ICCIO S is I U IC 41 I-E z b .. I u. CU . Ia Q Ix. -’A-6 6, W~ ) 61a U𔃻 L’L L 0 ’o. ’L .I C - I~A Ia. 16161 uv. -d...presented the criteria. He gave a figure of about $3 to $5/ cu . yd. for a barge hauling distance of about 30 miles. An increase of hauling distance from

  7. Effects of Dredged Materials on Zooplankton.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    VI. Biology of Acartia clausi and A. tonsa. Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., 15: 156-7 . "b Darby, 0. A., R. W. Alden III, J. H. Rule, C. H. Blair...block number) Elutriate bioassays with Acartia tonsa suggest that sediments from the Southern Branch lower reaches could significantly impact the...REFERENCES ..................................................... 15 -’ LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Multiple regression table for Acartia tonsa survival

  8. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... material with particle sizes larger than silt, and the material is found in areas of high current or wave energy such as streams with large bed loads or coastal areas with shifting bars and channels; or (2...

  9. 76 FR 12339 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Southwest Region Vessel Identification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Southwest Region Vessel Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  10. Dominant petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the Archipelago Sea in South-West Finland (Baltic Sea) belong to different taxonomic groups than hydrocarbon degraders in the oceans.

    PubMed

    Reunamo, Anna; Riemann, Lasse; Leskinen, Piia; Jørgensen, Kirsten S

    2013-07-15

    The natural petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capacity of the Archipelago Sea water in S-W Finland was studied in a microcosm experiment. Pristine and previously oil exposed sites were examined. Bacterial community fingerprinting was performed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and samples from selected microcosms were sequenced. The abundance of PAH degradation genes was measured by quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities in diesel exposed microcosms diverged from control microcosms during the experiment. Gram positive PAH degradation genes dominated at both sites in situ, whereas gram negative PAH degrading genes became enriched in diesel microcosms. The dominant bacterial groups after a 14 days of diesel exposure were different depending on the sampling site, belonging to the class Actinobacteria (32%) at a pristine site and Betaproteobacteria (52%) at a previously oil exposed site. The hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the Baltic Sea differ from those in the oceans, where most hydrocarbon degraders belong to Gammaproteobacteria.

  11. Quaternary geology of the Duck Hawk Bluffs, southwest Banks Island, Arctic Canada: a re-investigation of a critical terrestrial type locality for glacial and interglacial events bordering the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.; England, John H.; La Farge, Catherine; Coulthard, Roy D.; Lakeman, Thomas R.; Vaughan, Jessica M.

    2014-05-01

    Duck Hawk Bluffs, southwest Banks Island, is a primary section (8 km long and 60 m high) in the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago exposing a long record of Quaternary sedimentation adjacent to the Arctic Ocean. A reinvestigation of Duck Hawk Bluffs demonstrates that it is a previously unrecognized thrust-block moraine emplaced from the northeast by Laurentide ice. Previous stratigraphic models of Duck Hawk Bluffs reported a basal unit of preglacial fluvial sand and gravel (Beaufort Fm, forested Arctic), overlain by a succession of three glaciations and at least two interglacials. Our observations dismiss the occurrence of preglacial sediments and amalgamate the entire record into three glacial intervals and one prominent interglacial. The first glacigenic sedimentation is recorded by an ice-contact sandur containing redeposited allochthonous organics previously assigned to the Beaufort Fm. This is overlain by fine-grained sediments with ice wedge pseudomorphs and well-preserved bryophyte assemblages corresponding to an interglacial environment similar to modern. The second glacial interval is recorded by ice-proximal mass flows and marine rhythmites that were glacitectonized when Laurentide ice overrode the site from Amundsen Gulf to the south. Sediments of this interval have been reported to be magnetically reversed (>780 ka). The third interval of glacigenic sedimentation includes glacifluvial sand and gravel recording the arrival of Laurentide ice that overrode the site from the northeast (island interior) depositing a glacitectonite and constructing the thrust block moraine that comprises Duck Hawk Bluffs. Sediments of this interval have been reported to be magnetically normal (<780 ka). The glacitectonite contains a highly deformed melange of pre-existing sediments that were previously assigned to several formally named, marine and interglacial deposits resting in an undeformed sequence. In contrast, the tectonism associated with the thrust block moraine

  12. Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Marie E. C.; Ndunguru, Joseph; Berrie, Leigh C.; Paximadis, Maria; Berry, Shaun; Cossa, Nurbibi; Nuaila, Valter N.; Mabasa, Ken G.; Abraham, Natasha; Rybicki, Edward P.; Martin, Darren; Pietersen, Gerhard; Esterhuizen, Lindy L.

    2012-01-01

    The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component) or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B), many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-αs) or betasatellites (DNA-βs). Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs) DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world. PMID:23170182

  13. Diversity of dicotyledenous-infecting geminiviruses and their associated DNA molecules in southern Africa, including the South-west Indian ocean islands.

    PubMed

    Rey, Marie E C; Ndunguru, Joseph; Berrie, Leigh C; Paximadis, Maria; Berry, Shaun; Cossa, Nurbibi; Nuaila, Valter N; Mabasa, Ken G; Abraham, Natasha; Rybicki, Edward P; Martin, Darren; Pietersen, Gerhard; Esterhuizen, Lindy L

    2012-09-01

    The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component) or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B), many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-αs) or betasatellites (DNA-βs). Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs) DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world.

  14. Determination of Fracture Distribution on the Accretionary Prism off Southwest Taiwan Seismic Using Ocean Bottom Seismometers and shear-wave splitting analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Win-Bin; Lin, Jin-Yi; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Dong, Jia-Jyun

    2015-04-01

    A multicomponent ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) data set was collected by National Central University, Taiwan in the accreationary prism off southwestern Taiwan in 2013 and 2014, respectively. GI-gun shots located at 1 mile and 1.5 miles radius from the OBS, with spacing approximately 40 m along the sail line that were analysed as common receiver azimuthal gathers. The OBS recorded data at a sampling rate of 250 Hz and from a shot pattern that gave good azimuthal coverage around the OBS. Methods to obtain information about fractured sediments have been developed from these data since anisotropy, an effect of parallel fracture trains, generates birefringence of P-S converted waves. The multicomponent seismic method allows recording the complete wave field, including P-S converted waves. Based on P and P-S converted waves recorded between the direct and multiple arrivals, this experiment targeted the top few hundred meters of sediment in the study area. After preliminary processing, including a static correction, the data were optimally rotated to radial (R) and transverse (T) components. The principal technique used to detect the anisotropy was azimuthal stacking of the radial and transverse horizontal geophone components. The R component shows azimuthal variation of traveltime indicating variation of velocity with azimuth; the corresponding T component shows azimuthal variation of amplitude and phase. From the radial component azimuthal gather and mode-converted wave amplitude variation for the first few layers and determined corresponding anisotropy parameter and Vp/Vs values. Significant results were found, that might imply the presence of natural fracturing directions. We attribute the observed azimuthal anisotropy to the presence of microcracks and grain boundary orientation due to stress since fracture at this depth is not likely to occur. This result requires to be tested with complementary geological information.

  15. Insights into oceanic core complex formation from structural studies of IODP Hole U1473A, Expedition 360 Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deans, J. R.; Cheadle, M. J.; Ferrando, C.; Plümper, O.; Viegas, G.; Expedition 360 Scientists, I.

    2016-12-01

    Atlantis Bank formed as an oceanic core complex by exhumation along a detachment shear zone (DSZ). IODP Hole U1473A is sited on the wave-cut platform of Atlantis Bank and was cored to 809 m consisting of lower crustal gabbro, partly through this DSZ. The uppermost 600 m of the hole is a zone of intense, locally pervasive, granulite to amphibolite grade, crystal-plastic deformation. Numerous intervals of porphyroclastic to ultramylonitic gabbro, often Fe-Ti oxide-rich, reveal a protracted history of deformation. This deformation overprints primary magmatic features including igneous contacts, layering, and fabrics. From 600 mbsf to 809 mbsf, crystal-plastic deformation becomes less pervasive, but meter- to cm-scale shear zones extend to the bottom of the hole. Individual shear zones throughout the hole predominately dip between 10-50° and below 50 mbsf notably exhibit a reverse sense of shear. Amphibole veins occur mostly in the upper 300 m of the hole and crosscut the crystal-plastic foliations at high angle. These veins may both transpose and fault older crystal-plastic fabrics indicating that vein injection occurred at temperatures close to the brittle-plastic transition. Additionally, the uppermost 500 m of Hole U1473A is cut by a series of brittle faults ranging from discrete 5 cm thick cataclasites at the top to a major fault zone at 411-469 mbsf. Carbonate veins and oxidative reddish clay replacement of olivine are conspicuous in these fault zones. The distribution of deformation, and importantly the dominant reverse sense of shear recorded in Hole U1473A, is very similar to that from 400-1100 mbsf in ODP Hole 735B. Given that Hole U1473A is in the north-central part of the platform and Hole 735B is in the western margin of the platform, we suggest that preferential erosion of the central platform may have removed the upper part of the DSZ from the site of Hole U1473. If this is the case, then Hole U1473A records the crystal-plastic deformation from the

  16. Yo-yo-ing of the Subtropical Convergence in Sympathy with the Vostok Climatic Record, 0-0.38 Ma: ODP Site 1119, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, R. M.; Gammon, P.; Millwood, L.

    2002-12-01

    ODP site 1119 is located at water depth 395 m near the subtropical convergence, and just downslope from the shelf edge of eastern South Island, New Zealand. The site contains an expanded stratigraphic record of Southern Ocean Quaternary oceanographic change, the younger part of which correlates closely with the climatic history contained within the Vostok ice core. Four palaeoceanographic proxy measures vary in consonance with the main lithological glacial-interglacial cyclicity at the site. Interglacial intervals are characterised by high d13C and colour reflectance (a proxy for carbonate content), and low gamma-ray (a proxy for clay content) and d18O; conversely, glacial intervals exhibit low d13C and reflectance, and high gamma ray and d18O. Early interglacial intervals are represented by silty clays which enclose intervals of 10-65 cm thick, sharp-based, Chondrites-burrowed, shelly, graded, very fine sands. The sands are rich in foraminifers, including species of warm water affinities, and were deposited distant from the shoreline under the influence of longitudinal flow in relatively deep water, as the palaeo-STC passed shorewards across the upper slope. The enclosing glacial units, which comprise mostly micaceous silty clay, though with some thin (3-25 cm thick) sands present also at peak cold periods, contain the cold-water scallop Zygochlamys delicatula. The 1119 core records the seaward movement of the STC during glacial periods, accompanied by the incursion then of warmer subtropical water (STW) above the site, and landward movement during interglacials, resulting in a dominant influence then of colder subantarctic surface water (SAW). Intervals of thin, sharp-based, graded sands-muds occur within cold periods MIS 2-3, 6.2 and 7.4, and indicate the onset at times of peak cold of intermittent bottom currents which correspond to strengthened and expanded frontal flows along the STC, which at this time lay east of site 1119 in relatively close proximity to

  17. A new 0.9 Ma oxygen isotope stratigraphy for a shallow-water sedimentary transect across three IODP 317 sites in the Canterbury Bight of southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xuan; Wu, YingYing

    2016-04-01

    Sedimentary records in shallow-water environment provide unique opportunity to further our understanding on the regional relative sea level changes in relation to global climate change. Here we present a new 0.9 Ma oxygen isotope stratigraphy for a shallow-water sedimentary transect across three IODP 317 sites in the Canterbury Bight of southwest Pacific Ocean. The three sites are located on the eastern margin of the South Island of New Zealand, including a continental slope site, IODP317-U1352 and two continental shelf sites, IODP317-U1354 and IODP317-U1351. We first generated high resolution benthic foraminifers (Nonionella flemingi) δ18O records for the three sites and a planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) record for the U1352B. An initial chronological framework for the benthic δ18O record of the U1352B was constructed using 8 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates and 4 biostratigraphic events. Then a refined age model was established by correlating the U1352B benthic δ18O record with the EDC δD record on the AICC2012 time-scale, and the LR04 benthic δ18O stack. Although the U1354B and U1351B have lower sedimentation rates, their benthic δ18O records correlate well with that of U1352B. In order to ensure the accuracy of the chronostratigraphic framework established, we also analyzed the characteristics of sedimentary grain size and the planktonic and benthic δ18O values. In accord with the adjacent sites, the results show that the melt of Southern Alps glaciers due to the warming climate during MIS 11 and 5.5 led to the increased fresh water delivery, with massive terrigenous deposit; and the warm SST during the MIS7 is related with the STF migration, which led to strong current activity, with coarser grain size. Meanwhile, records of benthic δ18O, sedimentation rate and content of >63μm coarse fraction of site U1352 all indicate the MIS 20 was indeed a colder interval compared to subsequent glacial times.

  18. Southwest coast of Greenland and Davis Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image was taken by MODIS as it passed over the southwest coast of Greenland (right) and the Davis Strait (center and left). The Davis Strait connects Baffin Bay to the north and the Labrador Sea to the south, and separates Greenland from Baffin Island, Canada. The Davis Strait is part of the Northwest Passage, a navigable seaway connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The image shows the prevailing currents in the area, with the warm water of a branch of the North Atlantic Drift flowing northward along the Greenland coast, and the cold, iceberg-filled Labrador Current flowing southward along the Baffin Island coast.

  19. Southwest coast of Greenland and Davis Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image was taken by MODIS as it passed over the southwest coast of Greenland (right) and the Davis Strait (center and left). The Davis Strait connects Baffin Bay to the north and the Labrador Sea to the south, and separates Greenland from Baffin Island, Canada. The Davis Strait is part of the Northwest Passage, a navigable seaway connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The image shows the prevailing currents in the area, with the warm water of a branch of the North Atlantic Drift flowing northward along the Greenland coast, and the cold, iceberg-filled Labrador Current flowing southward along the Baffin Island coast.

  20. Pacific Southwest Media Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    News media, state and local officials, and others can find press releases, media events and contacts in EPA's Pacific Southwest. Additional resources include newsletters, annual reports, and library services that support regional activities.

  1. Review of reports on landfilling and land-application alternatives to the ocean disposal of POTW sludges. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-15

    In late 1985, the Environmental Engineering Committee of the Science Advisory Board was asked by the Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection (OMEP) to review technical documents supporting revisions to the Agency's ocean-dumping regulations. The two main issues were: (1) technical justification for the different regulatory treatment of the disposal of dredged materials; and (2) the consideration, in the ocean disposal of publicly owned treatment works (POTW) sludges, of both the need for ocean dumping and the availability and impacts of land-based alternatives. This report deals with the second of these issues only. Specifically, the report presents the Science Advisory Board review of the methodologies developed by EPA's Office of Policy Planning and Evaluation (OPPE) to analyze POTW sludge landfilling and land application as alternatives to ocean disposal of POTW sludges.

  2. Comparison of wetland structural characteristics between created and natural salt marshes in southwest Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, K.R.; Proffitt, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The use of dredge material is a well-known technique for creating or restoring salt marshes that is expected to become more common along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the future. However, the effectiveness of this restoration method is still questioned. Wetland structural characteristics were compared between four created and three natural salt marshes in southwest Louisiana, USA. The created marshes, formed by the pumping of dredge material into formerly open water areas, represent a chronosequence, ranging in age from 3 to 19 years. Vegetation and soil structural factors were compared to determine whether the created marshes become more similar over time to the natural salt marshes. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1997, 2000, and 2002 using the line-intercept technique. Site elevations were measured in 2000. Organic matter (OM) was measured in 1996 and 2002, while bulk density and soil particle-size distribution were determined in 2002 only. The natural marshes were dominated by Spartina alterniflora, as were the oldest created marshes; these marshes had the lowest mean site elevations ( 35 cm NGVD) and became dominated by high marsh (S. patens, Distichlis spicata) and shrub (Baccharis halimifolia, Iva frutescens) species. The higher elevation marsh seems to be following a different plant successional trajectory than the other marshes, indicating a relationship between marsh elevation and species composition. The soils in both the created and natural marshes contain high levels of clays (30-65 %), with sand comprising < 1 % of the soil distribution. OM was significantly greater and bulk density significantly lower in two of the natural marshes when compared to the created marshes. The oldest created marsh had significantly greater OM than the younger created marshes, but it may still take several decades before equivalency is reached with the natural marshes. Vegetation structural characteristics in the created marshes take only a few years to become similar

  3. Looking Southwest at Southwest End of Erbia Building Showing Typical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest at Southwest End of Erbia Building Showing Typical Wall and Roof Juncture Including a Recycling Furnace - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Erbia Plant, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  4. Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast vault door, and evidence of forced entry in north interior wall. View from west interior wall of southwest vault. Facing east. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  5. 50 CFR 654.23 - Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure. 654.23 Section 654.23 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management...

  6. A Physical Model for Extreme Drought over Southwest Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, A.; Barlow, M. A.; Funk, C. C.; Cannon, F.

    2015-12-01

    The socioeconomic difficulties of Southwest Asia, defined as the area bound by the domain 25°N-40°N and 40°E-70°E, which includes the countries of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan, are exacerbated by extreme precipitation deficits during the November-April rainy season. The precipitation deficits during many Southwest Asia droughts have been examined in terms of the forcing by climate variability originating over the Pacific Ocean as a result of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) and the long-term warming of Pacific (LT) sea surface temperatures (SST). Here, we 1) examine how the most extreme November-April Southwest Asia droughts relate to global SSTs and the associated large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies, 2) analyze the specific atmospheric forcing mechanisms responsible for changes in regional Southwest Asian precipitation and 3) examine the causal mechanisms responsible for the increased frequency of Southwest Asia drought in recent decades. The driest November-April seasons during 1948-2012 over Southwest Asia are forced by subsidence and reductions of moisture fluxes as a result of the interaction of the mean flow with anomalous zonally-symmetric high pressure throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The anomalous zonally-symmetric high pressure throughout the Northern Hemisphere occurs simultaneously with cool central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies associated with La Niña and the negative phase of PDV and a warm west Pacific Ocean caused in part by the long-term warming of the west Pacific Ocean. The long-term warming of the Pacific Ocean has driven the regional precipitation declines in recent decades, with the strongest signal occurring over areas bordering the Arabian Sea.

  7. The changing southwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David M. Theobald,; William Travis,; Drummond, Mark A.; Eric Gordon,; Michelle Betsill,

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes important geographical and socio-economic characteristics and trends in the Southwest—such as population and economic growth and changes in land ownership, land use, and land cover—that provide the context for how climate change will likely affect the Southwest. The chapter also describes key laws and institutions relevant to adaptive management of resources.

  8. "Southwest Strategy" update

    Treesearch

    Steve Kluge

    1999-01-01

    The Southwest Strategy is an effort by federal agencies to work with each other, the public, and tribal, state, and local agencies to maintain and restore the cultural, economic, and environmental quality of life in Arizona and New Mexico. This update explains the strategy and its progress to date.

  9. Phytomass in southwest Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Bert R. Mead

    2000-01-01

    Phytomass tables are presented for southwest Alaska. The methods used to estimate plant weight and occurrence in the river basin are described and discussed. Average weight is shown for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 19 forest and 48 nonforest vegetation types. Species frequency of occurrence and species constancy within the type...

  10. Long-Term Management Strategy for Dredged Material Disposal for Naval Weapons Station, Yorktown, Yorktown, Virginia; Naval Supply Center, Cheatham Annex, Williamsburg, Virginia; and Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek, Norfolk, Virginia. Phase 2: Formulation of Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    evaluacion program for open-water disposal options was therefore performed for this Phase II effort as described in Part IV. 73. As described in the Phase I...capacity to accommo- date the total dredging requirement. Therefore, open-water 86 disposal at in-bay or ocean sites will be an integral part of any...the placement site as the integral component of the beneficial use. Bioaccumulation - The accumulation of contaminants in the tissues of organisms

  11. An Analysis of an Eddy-Resolving Global Ocean Model in the Tropical Indian Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Ocean circulation. The seasonally-reversing Somali Current is simulated by the model, and includes seasonai undercurrents and a tvo-gyre system during...undercurrents and a two-gyre system during the southwest monson. Westward-flow occ,, rs beneath the Southwest Monsoon Current during June and July. The...25 F. THE SOMALI CURRENT SYSTEM ....................................... 28 G. THROUGHFLOW IN THE

  12. Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration Project: Beach and Nearshore Morphological Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Stevens, A. W.; Ruggiero, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Shoreline change along the southwest Washington and northwest Oregon coast responds to both natural and anthropogenic drivers at a range of temporal and spatial scales. Within the last century, human interventions, primarily the construction of large jetties at the entrance to the Columbia River, have been the dominant driver of nearshore morphology and shoreline change in this area. These jetties caused the inlet to narrow and deepen, the ebb-tidal delta to migrate offshore into deeper water, and adjacent shorelines to first accrete then erode over distances of tens of kilometers and time scales of decades. Shoreline change modeling suggests that reduced local sediment supply owing to these morphological changes is causing a deficit of sand feeding the shoreline, especially in the region of Benson Beach, just north of the mouth of the Columbia River. One of the goals of the Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration (SW LDR) project is to assess the long-term viability of placing dredged material from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) directly on Benson Beach to supplement the littoral sediment budget. The SW LDR will be one of the largest beach nourishment projects in the Pacific Northwest, with approximately 200,000 - 400,000 m3 of dredged material being placed on Benson Beach during the summer of 2010. Extensive monitoring and modeling efforts are underway to evaluate the effectiveness of the project and to develop morphodynamic modeling tools to inform future Regional Sediment Management decisions. Overall project components include Argus beach monitoring, measurements of nearshore waves and currents, deployment of a sand tracer, morphodynamic modeling, and a morphological monitoring program. The primary purpose of the morphological monitoring program, and the focus for this presentation, is to track the response of beach and nearshore areas during and after the sand placement. Bathymetric data, collected using Personal Watercraft (PWCs) equipped with

  13. Pacific Southwest Tribal Program Newsletters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pacific Southwest Tribal Program newsletters contain news and events of interest to tribal communities including: environmental news, upcoming meetings, webinars and training, grants, jobs and internships.

  14. Ocean Dumping Amendments Act of 1983. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Water Resources of the Committee on Public Works and Transportation, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on H. R. 1761 to amend Title I of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, July 21, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    A hearing on the proposed House amendment (H.R. 1761) to Title I of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 notes that the bill addresses only part of the problem of ocean dumping procedures, but does tighten restrictions on dumping sites. At issue were questions relating to the disposal of dredging materials and their environmental and economic impacts. The hearing record includes the text of H.R. 1761, the testimony of four witnesses from federal agencies and the American Association of Port Authorities, and four submissions for the record. (DCK)

  15. Strategy, Operational Art and MacArthur in the Southwest Pacific 1944

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff POA Pacific Ocean Area of Operations SWPA Southwest Pacific Area of Operations 1 Introduction Military...particularly the Admiralty Islands.23 In addition to MacArthur and Halsey, Admiral Chester Nimitz directed operations in the Pacific Ocean Area of

  16. The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    rates of seasonal cross-shore sediment transport mask any potential profile change in the Coastal Profiling System data due to dredge placement. *Pockets of accretion have been recorded by topographic surveying adjacent to the dredge site, but it is unclear if the accretion is linked to the nourishment. *Cross-shore profile modeling suggests that dredge material must be placed in water depths no greater than 5 m to drive a positive shoreline response. *Area modeling demonstrates that the new dredge site increases wave dissipation and modifies local sediment-transport patterns, although the effect on the nearshore morphology is largely negligible. *Any increase in beach width or wave energy-dissipation related to the nourishment is likely to be realized only in the vicinity directly onshore of the nourishment site, which is several hundred meters south of the area of critical erosion. *Larger waves from the northwest and smaller waves from the west or southwest contribute most to the sediment transport from the dredge mound onshore.

  17. Hazard assessment research strategy for ocean disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, J.H.; Bierman, V.J.; Paul, J.F.; Walker, H.A.; Miller, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A decision rationale for ocean disposal based on a predictive hazard assessment research strategy is presented. The conceptual framework for hazard assessment is outlined, and its major components are identified and discussed. The strategy involves the synthesis of results from separate exposure and effects components in order to provide a scientific basis for estimating the probability (risk) of harm to the aquatic environment. The exposure assessment component consists of methodologies for determining biological effects as a function of contaminant exposure concentrations. Two case studies illustrate how a hazard assessment strategy synthesizes exposure and effects information to provide a casual linkage between mass inputs of contaminants and biological effects. The first study examines sewage-sludge disposal at Deep-water Dumpsite-106. The second study, which examines the disposal of dredged material in a shallow coastal site in central Long Island Sound, is a field verification program designed to test methodologies required for the acquisition of exposure and effects information. Both the laboratory and field data are synthesized to evaluate the accuracy and confidence of predictions of the individual methods, the tiered hierarchal concept, and the final prediction.

  18. Jurassic zircons from the Southwest Indian Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hao; Zhou, Huaiyang; Yang, Qunhui; Zhang, Lingmin; Ji, Fuwu; Dick, Henry

    2016-01-01

    The existence of ancient rocks in present mid-ocean ridges have long been observed but received less attention. Here we report the discovery of zircons with both reasonably young ages of about 5 Ma and abnormally old ages of approximate 180 Ma from two evolved gabbroic rocks that were dredged from the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) in the Gallieni fracture zone. U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotope analyses of zircons were made using ion probe and conventional laser abrasion directly in petrographic thin sections. Young zircons and their host oxide gabbro have positive Hf isotope compositions (εHf = +15.7–+12.4), suggesting a highly depleted mantle beneath the SWIR. The spread εHf values (from−2.3 to−4.5) of abnormally old zircons, together with the unradiogenic Nd-Hf isotope of the host quartz diorite, appears to suggest an ancient juvenile magmatism along the rifting margin of the southern Gondwana prior to the opening of the Indian Ocean. A convincing explanation for the origin of the unusually old zircons is yet to surface, however, an update of the theory of plate tectonics would be expected with continuing discovery of ancient rocks in the mid-oceanic ridges and abyssal ocean basins. PMID:27185575

  19. Jurassic zircons from the Southwest Indian Ridge.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao; Zhou, Huaiyang; Yang, Qunhui; Zhang, Lingmin; Ji, Fuwu; Dick, Henry

    2016-05-17

    The existence of ancient rocks in present mid-ocean ridges have long been observed but received less attention. Here we report the discovery of zircons with both reasonably young ages of about 5 Ma and abnormally old ages of approximate 180 Ma from two evolved gabbroic rocks that were dredged from the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) in the Gallieni fracture zone. U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of zircons were made using ion probe and conventional laser abrasion directly in petrographic thin sections. Young zircons and their host oxide gabbro have positive Hf isotope compositions (εHf = +15.7-+12.4), suggesting a highly depleted mantle beneath the SWIR. The spread εHf values (from-2.3 to-4.5) of abnormally old zircons, together with the unradiogenic Nd-Hf isotope of the host quartz diorite, appears to suggest an ancient juvenile magmatism along the rifting margin of the southern Gondwana prior to the opening of the Indian Ocean. A convincing explanation for the origin of the unusually old zircons is yet to surface, however, an update of the theory of plate tectonics would be expected with continuing discovery of ancient rocks in the mid-oceanic ridges and abyssal ocean basins.

  20. Jurassic zircons from the Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hao; Zhou, Huaiyang; Yang, Qunhui; Zhang, Lingmin; Ji, Fuwu; Dick, Henry

    2016-05-01

    The existence of ancient rocks in present mid-ocean ridges have long been observed but received less attention. Here we report the discovery of zircons with both reasonably young ages of about 5 Ma and abnormally old ages of approximate 180 Ma from two evolved gabbroic rocks that were dredged from the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) in the Gallieni fracture zone. U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotope analyses of zircons were made using ion probe and conventional laser abrasion directly in petrographic thin sections. Young zircons and their host oxide gabbro have positive Hf isotope compositions (εHf = +15.7–+12.4), suggesting a highly depleted mantle beneath the SWIR. The spread εHf values (from‑2.3 to‑4.5) of abnormally old zircons, together with the unradiogenic Nd-Hf isotope of the host quartz diorite, appears to suggest an ancient juvenile magmatism along the rifting margin of the southern Gondwana prior to the opening of the Indian Ocean. A convincing explanation for the origin of the unusually old zircons is yet to surface, however, an update of the theory of plate tectonics would be expected with continuing discovery of ancient rocks in the mid-oceanic ridges and abyssal ocean basins.

  1. Southwest Asia assessment.

    PubMed

    Devendra, T

    1984-06-01

    Southwest Asia, which support 1/3 of the world's population, is acutely aware of the consequences of rapid and excessive population growth. No other region has consciously devoted so much of its resources to stemming excessive population growth. India, with a population of 684 million, formulated a policy of population limitation in the 1950s. The 1980 government rededicated itself to voluntary family planning and rebuilt the broad coalition of an excellent infrastructure of government institutions, voluntary organizations, and international agencies. Government support for family planning clinics began in Bangladesh in the 1960s. A strong institutional structure has been established under the supervision of the National Population Council. Innovative approaches to family planning service delivery have been initiated by an admirable array of institutions. Pakistan's Population Welfare Plan provides substantial funds and an administrative structure to make maternal/child helath care and family planning services available in rural areas. Another welfare program encourages smaller families through projects to enhance the status of women by improving literacy, establishing rural industries, and advocating late marriage. Nepal has had to struggle with a poor administrative structure, grossly insufficient medical services, and an inadequate database for policy formulation. Family planning services are now a component of the overall health program. The family planning services of the pioneer Afghan Family Guidance Association, established in 1968, have been incorported into the national maternal/child health program. The present government of Iran views foreign assistance as an unacceptable form of persuasion and has phased out all international funded family planning programs. Sri Lanka is the only country in the region to have made the demographic transition to fertility decline. An impressive health infrastructure delivers family planning services at every level using

  2. Analysis of stable isotope ratios in blood of tracked wandering albatrosses fails to distinguish a δ(13) C gradient within their winter foraging areas in the southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ceia, Filipe R; Ramos, Jaime A; Phillips, Richard A; Cherel, Yves; Jones, Daniel C; Vieira, Rui P; Xavier, José C

    2015-12-30

    The main limitation of isotopic tracking for inferring distribution is the lack of detailed reference maps of the isotopic landscape (i.e. isoscapes) in the marine environment. Here, we attempt to map the marine δ(13) C isoscape for the southwestern sector of the Atlantic Ocean, and assess any temporal variation using the wandering albatross as a model species. Tracking data and blood and diet samples were collected monthly from wandering albatrosses rearing chicks at Bird Island, South Georgia, during the austral winter between May and October 2009. The δ(13) C and δ(15) N values were measured by mass spectrometry in plasma and blood cells, and related to highly accurate data on individual movements and feeding activity obtained using three types of device: GPS, activity (immersion) loggers and stomach temperature probes. The tracked birds foraged in waters to the north or northwest of South Georgia, including the Patagonian shelf-break, as far as 2000 km from the colony. The foraging region encompassed the two main fronts in the Southern Ocean (Polar and Subantarctic fronts). The δ(13) C values varied by only 2.1 ‰ in plasma and 2.5 ‰ in blood cells, and no relationships were found between the δ(13) C values in plasma and the mean latitude or longitude of landings or feeding events of each individual. The failure to distinguish a major biogeographic gradient in δ(13) C values suggest that these values in the south Atlantic Ocean are fairly homogeneous. There was no substantial variation among months in either the δ(13) C or the δ(15) N values of plasma or blood cells of tracked birds. As birds did not show a significant change in diet composition or foraging areas during the study period, these results provide no evidence for major temporal variation in stable isotope ratios in consumer tissues, or in the regional marine isoscape in the austral winter of 2009. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A monsoon-like Southwest Australian circulation and its relation with rainfall in Southwest Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Juan; Li, Jianping; Li, Yun

    2010-05-01

    Using the NCEP/NCAR, ERA-40 reanalysis, and precipitation data from CMAP and Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the variability and circulation features influencing the southwest Western Australia (SWWA) winter rainfall are investigated. It is found that the climate of southwest Australia bears a strong seasonality in the annual cycle and exhibits a monsoon-like atmospheric circulation, which is termed as the southwest Australian circulation (SWAC) for its several distinct features characterizing a monsoonal circulation: the seasonal reversal of winds, alternate wet and dry seasons, and an evident land-sea thermal contrast. The seasonal march of the SWAC in extended winter (May to October) is demonstrated by pentad data. An index based on the dynamics normalized seasonality was introduced to describe the behavior and variation of the winter SWAC. It is found that the winter rainfall over SWWA has a significant positive correlation with the SWAC index in both early (May to July) and late (August to October) winter. In weaker winter SWAC years there is an anti-cyclonic anomaly over southern Indian Ocean resulting in weaker westerlies and northerlies which are not favorable for more rainfall over SWWA, and the opposite combination is true in the stronger winter SWAC years. The SWAC explains not only a large portion of the interannual variability of SWWA rainfall in both early and late winter, but also the long term drying trend over SWWA in early winter. The well-coupled SWAC-SWWA rainfall relationship seems to be largely independent of the well-known effects of large-scale atmospheric circulations such as the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM), El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and ENSO Modoki (EM). The result offers qualified support for the argument that the monsoon-like circulation may contribute to the rainfall decline in early winter over SWWA.

  4. April 2016 Pacific Southwest Newsletter

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Pacific Southwest Newsletter for April 2016: University of Arizona Reduces Food Waste, Cleaning Up Underground Fuel Tanks in Fresno, The Argonaut Mine, Ensuring Clean Water in Nevada,Cleaning Up Groundwater in Whittier, California, and more!

  5. Infiltration of Refractory Melts into the Sub-Oceanic Mantle: Evidence from Major and Minor Element Compositions of Minerals from the 53° E Amagmatic Segment Abyssal Peridotites at the Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, C.; Dick, H. J.; Zhou, H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated sodium and titanium in pyroxene and spinel with high TiO2 (> 0.2 wt%) are suggested as the geochemical characteristic for the MORB-like melt infiltration of peridotites. The petrological and geochemical results of melt infiltrating in mantle peridotites are controlled by not only the melt composition but also the melt/rock ratio. Large discordant dunite bodies in the mantle transition zone are the direct observation of large volume melt (high melt/rock ratio) infiltrating by channeled porous flow in the shallow mantle (1). In addition to dunites, melt infiltrating results in a large variety of vein lithologies in mantle, and the occurrence of plagioclases are considered as a petrological signal of melt-reaction at shallow depth (2, 3) with a medium melt/rock ratio. Because the lacking of obviously petrological and geochemical variation of peridotites, melt infiltration of peridotites with a low melt/rock ratio are rarely reported. Peridotites in this study are from the 53° E amagmatic segment at the Southwest Indian Ridge. These peridotites are suggested as highly depleted buoyant mantle drawn up from the asthenosphere beneath southern Africa during the breakup of Gondwanaland (4) and are residues of multi-stage melt extracting in both spinel and garnet field. We present a detailed analysis of mineral compositions by both the EMPA and LA-ICPMS. Mineral phases in 53°E peridotites have mantle major element compositions, although minerals show variations with the crystal size and the location from cores to rims (Fig.1). In conjunction with the profile analysis of large clinopyroxene crystals, our results document the melt infiltration occurred at the ultraslow-spreading environment. At least two kinds of percolation melts are distinguished. They are normally MORB-like melt and ultra-depleted melt. Reference1.P. B. Kelemen, H. J. B. Dick, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 100, 423 (Jan, 1995). 2.J. M. Warren, N. Shimizu, Journal of Petrology 51

  6. A Decade of Drought: Southwest Asia during the 2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, A.; Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Barlow, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Southwest Asia, which contains the nations of Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, is a water-stressed and semi-arid region that receives nearly 80 percent of its annual rainfall during November-April. The cold season climate of Southwest Asia is strongly influenced by tropical Indo-Pacific variability on intraseasonal, interannual, and decadal time scales, much of which can be attributed to sea surface temperature (SST) variations. A decade of dry conditions, and many of the driest years within the observational record since 1940, occurred during the 2000s, which resulted in adverse socioeconomic impacts, including widespread famine in the region. Here, we examine: 1) the historical context of the 2000s drought over Southwest Asia in terms of the atmospheric forcing of precipitation and their influences on soil moisture and runoff and 2) the potential predictability of future seasonal and decadal hydrologic extremes. The synchronous SST forcing of Pacific Decadal variability in the negative phase and a warm west Pacific Ocean throughout the 2000s resulted in persistent atmospheric circulations responsible for reduced Southwest Asia precipitation. The Pacific SSTs forced anomalous anticyclonic circulation over Southwest Asia, which displaced the climatological storm track northward and interacted with the mean climate, resulting in subsidence and reduced precipitation. These atmospheric conditions over Southwest Asia were extraordinary, having never occurred for such an extended time in the observational record. During La Niña events, the aforementioned atmospheric circulations were intensified, resulting in three of the driest years since 1940. We utilize model based soil moisture and runoff as well as observed streamflow data for analyzing 2000s drought events and examine the contribution of initial hydrologic state in seasonal scale drought predictability in this region.

  7. Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing southsouthwest, with ocean bank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing south-southwest, with ocean bank visible in the background - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  8. Seismic consequences of warm versus cool subduction metamorphism: examples from southwest and northeast japan

    PubMed

    Peacock; Wang

    1999-10-29

    Warm and cool subduction zones exhibit differences in seismicity, seismic structure, and arc magmatism, which reflect differences in metamorphic reactions occurring in subducting oceanic crust. In southwest Japan, arc volcanism is sparse and intraslab earthquakes extend to 65 kilometers depth; in northeast Japan, arc volcanism is more common and intraslab earthquakes reach 200 kilometers depth. Thermal-petrologic models predict that oceanic crust subducting beneath southwest Japan is 300 degrees to 500 degrees C warmer than beneath northeast Japan, resulting in shallower eclogite transformation and slab dehydration reactions, and possible slab melting.

  9. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... by the Administrator, a statement of the basis for the proposed determination why no previously... made in the dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6) An... determination of the need for and/or availability of an environmental impact statement. (b) The Regional...

  10. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... by the Administrator, a statement of the basis for the proposed determination why no previously... made in the dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6) An... determination of the need for and/or availability of an environmental impact statement. (b) The Regional...

  11. The Long Island Sound Dredged Material Containment Feasibility Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    containment sites; Clinton Harbor and Black Ledge (Groton) North in Connecticut. Detailed investigations at Clinton Harbor and Black Ledge have been made...be a Marsh creation project while Black Ledge would be a shallow island creation project. This report is a compilation of the various site screenings...and the detailed investigations of Clinton Harbor and Black Ledge. q DD I PJ0=1 1473 EDITION 0f.I Nov of t OS@OL9TE DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY NEW

  12. AN OVERVIEW OF TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION IN SEDIMENTS AND DREDGED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The identification of toxicants affecting aquatic benthic systems is critical to sound assessment and management of our nation?s waterways. Identification of toxicants can be useful in designing effective sediment remediation plans and reasonable options for sediment disposal. K...

  13. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Niyogi, D.K.; Kohn, N.P.

    1992-10-01

    During the summer of 1991, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted to conduct sampling and testing of sediments proposed for dredging of Richmond Harbor, California. The MSL collected sediment cores to a depth of {minus}40 ft MLLW ({minus}38 ft + 2 ft overdepth) from 28 (12-in. core) and 30 (4-in. core) stations. The sediment cores were allocated to six composite samples referred to as sediment treatments, which were then subjected to physical, chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation testing. Physical and chemical parameters included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), priority pollutant metals, and butyltins. The results from the test treatments were compared to results from five reference treatments representative of potential in-bay and offshore disposal sites.

  14. Economical Treatment of Dredged Material to Facilitate Beneficial Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    45 Soil Washing EDTA and Citric Acid ...cadmium-contaminated marine sediment at Point Mugu, citric acid was added to the cathode wells for pH control. The spacing between anodes and...cathodes was 4.6 m. Half of the anode well samples contained citric acid in less than 15 days after citrate was added to cathode wells (Gent and Estes in

  15. Upper Mississippi II Dredged Material Disposal Site Recreational User Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    true where a popular beach was near a large metropolitan area, such as Hogback Island near Quincy, IL, in Pool 21. E. Climatic Factors Cool...of the users who reported they were headed for a specific place said they were going to Hogback Island (Q 25). The average party size was seven people...Use of Pool 21 and Hogback Island on Selected Days Utilizing Aerial and Water Based Observation." Unpublished Paper Dept. of Recreation and Parks

  16. Air emissions from exposed contaminated sediments and dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Valsaraj, K.T.; Ravikrishna, R.; Reible, D.D.; Thibodeaux, L.J.; Choy, B.; Price, C.B.; Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Yost, S.

    1999-01-01

    The sediment-to-air fluxes of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and pyrene) and a heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (dibenzofuran) from a laboratory-contaminated sediment and those of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) from three field sediments were investigated in experimental microcosms. The flux was dependent on the sediment moisture content, air-filled porosity, and the relative humidity of the air flowing over the sediment surface. The mathematical model predictions of flux from the laboratory-spiked sediment agreed with observed values. The fluxes of compounds with higher hydrophobicity were more air-side resistance controlled. Conspicuous differences were observed between the fluxes from the laboratory-spiked and two of the three field sediments. Two field sediments showed dramatic increases in mass-transfer resistances with increasing exposure time and had significant fractions of oil and grease. The proposed mathematical model was inadequate for predicting the flux from the latter field sediments. Sediment reworking enhanced the fluxes from the field sediments due to exposure of fresh solids to the air. Variations in flux from the lab-spiked sediment as a result of change in air relative humidity were due to differences in retardation of chemicals on a dry or wet surface sediment. High moisture in the air over the dry sediment increased the competition for sorption sites between water and contaminant and increased the contaminant flux.

  17. Using lake dredged material to enhance pasture establishment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cow-calf (Bos taurus) industry in subtropical United States and other parts of the world depends almost totally on grazed pastures. Establishment of complete, uniform stand of bahiagrass in a short time period is vital economically. Domestic wastewater sludge or sewage sludge, composted urban pl...

  18. Framework for Comparative Risk Analysis of Dredged Material Disposal Options.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    biomagnification of some organochlorine compounds (e.g., DDT , PCB). The objectives of the following analysis are to: 9 Describe the limitations of the...common carcinogens may lead to average lifetime cancer risks as high as 7x10- 4 (Table A-i. Cigarette smokers experience higher risks; e.%., on the order...0.060000000 92-94 4,4’- DDT , DD, DDE 3.000000000 1.000000000 0.100000000 35 2,4-dinitrotoluene 3.000000000 1.000000000 0.100000000 3 acrylonitrile 4.000000000

  19. USING SEDIMENT QUALITY GUIDELINES IN DREDGED MATERIAL ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) are not formally included in the frameworks described in the Inland Testing manual and the Green Book because these frameworks are biologically based. The SQGs are often used informally, however, to help put the results of biological testing in ...

  20. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M R; Ward, J A; Mayhew, H L; Word, J Q; Niyogi, D K; Kohn, N P

    1992-10-01

    During the summer of 1991, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted to conduct sampling and testing of sediments proposed for dredging of Richmond Harbor, California. The MSL collected sediment cores to a depth of [minus]40 ft MLLW ([minus]38 ft + 2 ft overdepth) from 28 (12-in. core) and 30 (4-in. core) stations. The sediment cores were allocated to six composite samples referred to as sediment treatments, which were then subjected to physical, chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation testing. Physical and chemical parameters included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), priority pollutant metals, and butyltins. The results from the test treatments were compared to results from five reference treatments representative of potential in-bay and offshore disposal sites.

  1. Environmental Risk Assessment and Dredged Material Management: Issues and Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    Mission Valley Hilton, San Diego, California by David W. Moore, Todd S. Bridges, Carlos Ruiz, WES Jerome Cura , Susan Kane Driscoll, Donna...Vorhees, Menzie- Cura and Associates, Inc. Dick Peddicord, Dick Peddicord & Co., Inc. Approved For Public Release; Distribution Is Unlimited 19990316 084...3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 Jerome Cura , Susan Kane Driscoll, Donna Vorhees Menzie- Cura and Associates, Inc. 1 Courthouse Lane

  2. Assessment of Dredged Material Toxicity in San Francisco Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    bio- assay with the copepod Tigriopus californicus . Reproduction, measured as the total number of young produced, was evaluated in copepods exposed...there were no sig- nificant differences in copepod reproduction. The effects of elevated hydro- gen sulfide concentrations in Islais Waterways...sediments may have affected the observed response in copepod reproduction. A number of field observations have been reported which suggest that San Francisco

  3. Chemical and Biological Characterization of Black Rock Harbor Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    the first test (Table.- 833). Dissolved oxygen was at or above saturation. Mortality in the control appeared to be the result of gas supersaturation ...Reference Strain and Four Geographical Strains of Artemia as Food for Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) Larvae," Aquaculture , Vol 29, pp...EVIDENCE OF SUPERSATURATION . (1) PERCENT FOR SOLID PHASE TESTS (2) MILLIGRAMS/LITER FOR SUSPENDED PARTICULATE TESTS, DRY WEIGHTS OR COULTER COUNTS OR

  4. Area Strip Mine Reclamation Using Dredged Material: A Field Demonstration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    capillare PENNSYLVANNIA KNOTWEED Polygonum pensylvanicum laevigatum PURPLE-STEMM4ED TICKWEED Bidens connata PUSSY WILLOW Salix discolor RED ROOTED SEDGE...evident at this time), and common buckthorn, with lingering colonies of sandbar and pussy willow. Tree of heaven is represented by only one specimen on...GREAT BULRUSH Scirpus validus creber RIVER BULRUSH Scirpus fluviatilis SALICACEAE SANDBAR WILLOW Salix interior PUSSY WILLOW Salix discolor A7

  5. Bioassays on Illinois waterway dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.W.; Gibson, A.B.; Dillon, T.M.

    1992-12-01

    Sediment from the Illinois Waterway navigation channel is hydraulically dredged by the US Army Engineer District, Rock Island, and placed in the nearshore environment via pipeline. Water returning to the river can have a high-suspended solids load approaching fluid mud consistency. There is a concern that this return water may exceed the State of Illinois water quality standards for ammonia and have adverse effects on aquatic life. To address these concerns, composite sediment samples and site water collected from selected sites in the Illinois Waterway were evaluated in toxicity tests. Acute (48-hr) toxicity tests were conducted with two species, Pimephales promelas (the fathead minnow) and Daphnia magna (a freshwater cladoceran). A chronic (21-day) toxicity test was also conducted using Daphnia magna. Animals were exposed separately to different concentrations of filtered and unfiltered elutriates prepared from Acute, Cadmium, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promela, Ammonia, Chronic, Elutriate, Sediment, Bioassay, Cladoceran, Fathead minnow. Illinois Waterway edged material. Total ammonia concentrations were measured in all tests and the un-ionized fraction was calculated by adjusting for temperature and pH. Tests were conducted at the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. In addition, as part of an interlaboratory effort, a 48-hr acute toxicity test with Pimephales pomelas fry was conducted concurrently by the Hygienic Laboratory of the University of Iowa, Des Moines, IA.

  6. Triassic/Jurassic faulting patterns of Conecuh Ridge, southwest Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Hutley, J.K.

    1985-02-01

    Two major fault systems influenced Jurassic structure and deposition on the Conecuh Ridge, southwest Alabama. Identification and dating of these fault systems are based on seismic-stratigraphic interpretation of a 7-township grid in Monroe and Conecuh Counties. Relative time of faulting is determined by fault geometry and by formation isopachs and isochrons. Smackover and Norphlet Formations, both Late Jurassic in age, are mappable seismic reflectors and are thus reliable for seismicstratigraphic dating. The earlier of the 2 fault systems is a series of horsts and grabens that trends northeast-southwest and is Late Triassic to Early Jurassic in age. The system formed in response to tensional stress associated with the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The resulting topography was a series of northeast-southwest-trending ridges. Upper Triassic Eagle Mills and Jurassic Werner Formations were deposited in the grabens. The later fault system is also a series of horsts and grabens trending perpendicular to the first. This system was caused by tensional stress related to a pulse in the opening of the Gulf of Mexico. Faulting began in Early Jurassic and continued into Late Jurassic, becoming progressively younger basinward. At the basin margin, faulting produced a very irregular shoreline. Submerged horst blocks became centers for shoaling or carbonate buildups. Today, these blocks are exploration targets in southwest Alabama.

  7. 75 FR 61467 - Desert Southwest Power, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Desert Southwest Power, LLC; Notice of Filing September 27, 2010. Take notice that on September 24, 2010, Desert Southwest Power, LLC (Desert Southwest) supplemented the... Commission's July 28, 2010 letter regarding Desert Southwest's petition for declaratory order...

  8. 75 FR 61790 - Capital Southwest Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Capital Southwest Corporation; Notice of Application September 29, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and...: Applicant, Capital Southwest Corporation (``Capital Southwest''), requests an order to permit it to issue.... Applicant's Representations 1. Capital Southwest, a Texas corporation, is an internally managed,...

  9. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    PubMed

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients.

  10. Forest resources of southwest Alabama

    Treesearch

    I.F. Eldredge

    1938-01-01

    An area of about 8 million acres in southwest Alabama, extending from the Gulf of Mexico northward into the western edge of the Black Belt Prairie, includes two Forest survey Unites: Alabama #1 (the southern part of the area, with Covington, Escambia, Baldwin, Mobile, and Washington Counties), and Alabama #2 (the northern part, with Sumter, Coctaw, Marengo, Wilcox,...

  11. Forest statistics for southwest Oregon.

    Treesearch

    John W. Hazard; Melvin E. Metcalf

    1964-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the latest reinventory of five counties in southwest Oregon: Coos, Curry, Douglas, Jackson, and Josephine. This block of five counties is one of 10 such blocks set up in the States of Oregon and Washington by the Forest Survey to facilitate orderly reinventories of the timber resources. Each block will be reinventoried at 10-...

  12. Native Art of the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langham, Barbara A.

    1997-01-01

    Provides historical information on native Southwest peoples and their arts to encourage appreciation and understanding of this cultural heritage. Provides instructions and supply lists for age-appropriate craft projects including woven baskets and rugs, clay pots, clay and paper beads, silver bracelets, kachina dolls, sand paintings, dream…

  13. Native Art of the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langham, Barbara A.

    1997-01-01

    Provides historical information on native Southwest peoples and their arts to encourage appreciation and understanding of this cultural heritage. Provides instructions and supply lists for age-appropriate craft projects including woven baskets and rugs, clay pots, clay and paper beads, silver bracelets, kachina dolls, sand paintings, dream…

  14. Cultural Arts in the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Kate

    1998-01-01

    Presents a pottery project for eighth-grade students based on a study of ancient and modern forms of Pueblo Indian pottery of the Southwest United States. Details the process for creating either carved, red clay, or painted white clay pottery typical of these cultural groups. Relates student reactions to the project. (DSK)

  15. Geotechnical engineering for ocean waste disposal. An introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Homa J.; Demars, Kenneth R.; Chaney, Ronald C.; ,

    1990-01-01

    As members of multidisciplinary teams, geotechnical engineers apply quantitative knowledge about the behavior of earth materials toward designing systems for disposing of wastes in the oceans and monitoring waste disposal sites. In dredge material disposal, geotechnical engineers assist in selecting disposal equipment, predict stable characteristics of dredge mounds, design mound caps, and predict erodibility of the material. In canister disposal, geotechnical engineers assist in specifying canister configurations, predict penetration depths into the seafloor, and predict and monitor canister performance following emplacement. With sewage outfalls, geotechnical engineers design foundation and anchor elements, estimate scour potential around the outfalls, and determine the stability of deposits made up of discharged material. With landfills, geotechnical engineers evaluate the stability and erodibility of margins and estimate settlement and cracking of the landfill mass. Geotechnical engineers also consider the influence that pollutants have on the engineering behavior of marine sediment and the extent to which changes in behavior affect the performance of structures founded on the sediment. In each of these roles, careful application of geotechnical engineering principles can contribute toward more efficient and environmentally safe waste disposal operations.

  16. Geo-Morphological Analyses of the Gakkel Ridge and the Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorschel, B.; Schlindwein, V. S. N.; Eagles, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic Ocean and the Southwest Indian Ridge in the Southwest Indian Ocean between Africa and Antarctica are ultraslow-spreading (<20 mm yr-1) mid ocean ridges. This type of mid ocean ridge has distinct geo-morphologies that are influenced by the slow rate of plate divergence and by mantle potential temperature, which control the processes (peridotite diapirism and intersticial melt migration) by which material rises to fill the space vacated by plate divergence. These ridges are characterised by non-orthogonal spreading. Transform faults, typical of faster spreading mid ocean ridges, are far less common at ultraslow spreading mid ocean ridges. Thus in return, detailed geo-statistical analyses of the geo-morphology of ultraslow-spreading mid ocean ridges can provide valuable information towards a better understanding of these slowest of spreading ridges. We have generated high resolution bathymetric grids for the Gakkel and Southwest Indian ridges based on high resolution multibeam echosounder data from various expeditions with RV Polarstern. On the basis of these grids, geo-statistical analyses allow for an assessment of the geo-morphological elements of the ridges on various scales. The results of these analyses show that, approximately 200 km long medium-scale sections of the ridges can be characterised by the lengths and orientations of the short-scale (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometres) ridges and troughs. The geomorphologies of short-scale ridges and troughs situated at the junctions between medium scale sections often exhibit a mixture of the geomorphological elements seen in the neighbouring sections. These geo-morphological patterns provide insights into the overall spreading-geometry along the Gakkel Ridge and the Southwest Indian Ridge.

  17. Cenozoic reconstruction of southwest Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Y.Y.; Kroenke, L.W.

    1986-07-01

    Poles of opening and spreading rates for some of the well-studied marginal basins in the southwest Pacific have been redetermined. Times of opening range from Late Cretaceous-Paleocene in the Tasman basin to middle Pliocene in the Bismarck Sea. The observed magnetic lineations in most of these basins show a relatively short duration of opening and relatively small area of total opening. Most of the smaller basins are bounded by troughs and arcuate island chains, some of which are inferred to be trenches and volcanic arcs situated along paleoconvergent boundaries. At least four successive paleoconvergent boundaries are believed to have formed between the Pacific and the Indian-Australian plates during the Cenozoic. Combining the newly determined poles of opening, spreading rates, and paleoplate boundary locations, a series of palinspastic maps of the southwest Pacific have been constructed for these times, relative to a fixed hot-spot frame of reference for both the Pacific and Indian-Australian plates.

  18. Snow in Southwest United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In late December, the Southwest was blanketed with snow, and this scence was captured by MODIS on December 27, 2001. The white drape contrasts sharply with the red rock of the Colorado Plateau, a geologic region made up of a succession of plateaus and mesas composed mostly of sedimentary rock, whose reddish hues indicate the presence of oxidized iron. The Plateau covers the Four Corners area of the Southwest, including (clockwise from upper left) southern Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. The region gets its name from the Colorado River, seen most prominently as a dark ribbon running southwest through southern Utah. At the upper left of the image, a bank of low clouds partially obscures Utah's Great Salt Lake, but its faint outline is still visible. To the east and southeast of the lake, some high peaks of the Wasatch Mountain range break free of the clouds. The Park City area, one of the 2002 Winter Olympic venues, can be seen poking through the cloud deck about 75km southeast of the lake. Farther east, the dark Uinta Mountains follow the border between Colorado and Wyoming. The Uinta are one of the rare east-west running ranges of the Rocky Mountains.

  19. Indian Ocean Triple Junction

    SciTech Connect

    Tapscott, C.R.; Patriat, P.; Fisher, R.L.; Sclater, J.G.; Hoskins, H.; Parsons, B.

    1980-09-10

    The boundaries of three major plates (Africa, India, and Antarctica) meet in a triple junction in the Indian Ocean near 25 /sup 0/S, 70 /sup 0/E. Using observed bathymetry and magnetic anomalies, we locate the junction to within 5 km and show that it is a ridge-ridge-ridge type. Relative plate motion is N60 /sup 0/E at 50 mm/yr (full rate) across the Central Indian Ridge, N47 /sup 0/E at 60 mm/yr across the Southeast Indian Ridge, and N3 /sup 0/W at 15 mm/yr across te Southwest Indian Ridge; the observed velocity triangle is closed. Poles of instantaneous relative plate motion are determined for all plate pairs. The data in the South Atlantic and Indian oceans are consistent with a rigid African plate without significant internal deformation. Two of the ridges at the triple junction are normal midocean spreading centers with well-defined median valleys. The Southwest Indian Ridge, however, has a peculiar morphology near the triple junction, that of an elongate triangular deep, with the triple junction at its apex. The floor of the deep represents crust formed at the Southwest Indian Ridge, and the morphology is a consequence of the evolution of the triple junction and is similar to that at the Galapagos Triple Junction. Though one cannot determine with precision the stability conditions at the triple junction, the development of the junction over the last 10 m.y. can be mapped, and the topographic expressions of the triple junction traces may be detected on the three plates.

  20. Surface Currents. Southwest North Pacific Ocean Including the Philippine Islands.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    020’ a * 0*" *20 2*’ 20 .042 220’ 2*’ 200’ 2*2 2202 *2 2002 *02 2002 22022200 S 202’ 220’ 0*2 2022 0*’ 022’ ~52 0*2 02 000 2 p~2 2002 a’ o2o ~ .0 02 02

  1. Surface-water chemistry in the wintertime southwest Indian Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.T.A.

    1986-01-01

    In the 1984 austral winter (July), the first cruise of the joint French-US INDIVAT (Indien Valorisation de Transite) program was successfully accomplished. Surface data were collected during transit from La Reunion to Crozet, Kerguelen, Amsterdam Island and back to La Reunion Aboard the French antarctic research/supply vessel Marion Dufresne. The subtropical front was found to be near 40/sup 0/S and the antarctic front was near 47/sup 0/S during INDIVAT 1. Many chemical properties, especially when normalized to a constant salinity to remove the effects of evaporation and precipitation, are known to correlate linearly with temperature. This paper reports normalized values for nitrate, alkalinity, pH, and carbon dioxide. Production of organic carbon as soft tissue is also discussed.

  2. Evidence for excess pore pressures in southwest Indian Ocean sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, D.; Menke, W.; Hobart, M.; Anderson, R.

    1981-03-10

    Brown clay cores from the Madagascar and Crozet basins show the following evidence of excess pore pressures: large amounts of flow-in, increasing average sedimentation rate with age, and nonlinear temperature gradients. Additionally, many hilltops in these basins have no visible sediment cover. The bare hilltops may result from periodic slumping caused by excess pore pressures. Calculated excess pore pressures which equal or exceed the overburden pressure were inferred from water fluxes predicted by nonlinear temperature gradients and laboratory permeability measurements by using Darcy's law. Since pore pressures which exceed the overburden pressure are unreasonable, we attribute this discrepancy to laboratory measures which underestimate the in situ permeability. The widespread presence of overpressured sediments in areas of irregular topography provides a process for resuspension of clay-sized particles. This mechanism does not require high current velocities for the erosion of clay and therefore can be applied to many areas where no strong currents are evident. Carbonate-rich sediments from the Madagascar Ridge, the Mozambique Ridge, and the Agulhas Plateau had almost no flow-in and occurred in areas where all topography was thickly draped with sediment, Since the age and tectonic location of the ridges and plateaus preclude water circulation in the basement, we attribute these differences between the brown clay and the carbonate-rich material to an absence of significant excess pore pressures in the plateau and ridge sediments.

  3. The Evolution of the Indian Ocean Triple Junction and the Finite Rotation Problem.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    overview. ........ 13 7. CHAPTER 2: Eocene to Recent Development of the Southwest Indian Ridge .......... 26 a. Abstract.....................28 b...Topographic chart of the Southwest Indian Ridge between 530E and the Indian Ocean Triple Junction ..... ................ 37 2. Profiles of magnetic... Ridge .... ............. .. 46 4. Magnetic anomaly profiles across the Central Indian Ridge .... .............. . 49 5. Tectonic chart of the

  4. Contact EPA Pacific Southwest (Region 9)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contact EPA Region 9, Pacific Southwest: 24-hour report of violations and emergencies, environmental complaint tip line, Environmental Information Center, Library, Reception, Employee Locator, Media, Press, Public Affairs.

  5. Contact EPA Region 9 (Pacific Southwest)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contact EPA Region 9, Pacific Southwest: 24-hour report of violations and emergencies, environmental complaint tip line, Environmental Information Center, Library, Reception, Employee Locator, Media, Press, Public Affairs.

  6. Geochemical Characteristics of Granitoids in southwest Tianshan: Four Stages for Geodynamic Evolution of the Southwest Tianshan Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Paleozoic intrusive rocks widely exposed in the west Tianshan orogenic belt provides key to understand the geodynamic evolution of the central Asian orogenic belt. A synthesis involving the data for Chinese Yili-central Tianshan and southwest Tianshan and comparison of Kyrgyz Tianshan with a broader dataset including zircon U-Pb ages, zircon Hf isotopic composition, major and trace elements for Paleozoic intrusions are presented to classify the Paleozoic intrusive rocks in four categories which corresponding to subduction of the Terskey Ocean, initial subduction stage of South Tianshan Ocean (STO), major subduction stage of the STO, and collisional to post-collisional stages. The subduction of the Terskey Oceanic crust finally caused the closure of the Terskey Ocean and the opening of the South Tianshan back-arc basin. The development of the Southwest Tianshan back-arc basin formed the STO, which subducted under the Yili-central Tianshan during early Silurian to early Carboniferous, and consequently formed huge arc magmatic rocks. Both the Silurian and early Carboniferous intrusions showing arc geochemical characteristics were derived from partial melting of juvenile arc-derived rocks with involvement of old continental crust. The STO finally closed by the end of early Carboniferous. Afterwards, geodynamic setting changed from convergence to extensional during late Carboniferous to early Permian periods. There is a significant geodynamic change from convergence to extension during late Carboniferous to early Permian, which may be resulted from breakoff of the subducted slab (Fig. 1). Such processes caused upwelling of asthenosphere and triggered partial melting of continental crust, as evidenced by emplacement of voluminous granitic rocks. References: An F, et al, 2013. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 78: 100-113; Zhu YF, 2011. Ore Geology Reviews, 40: 108-121; Zhu YF, et al, 2009. Geological Society, London, 166: 1085-1099; Zhu YF et al, 2016. Journal of Earth

  7. Bivalve larvae testing of ocean and in-bay sediments using porewater and elutriates

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, D.; Targgart, L.

    1995-12-31

    Toxicity of marine sediments is commonly tested using bivalve larval tests. The tests are performed on elutriates, which are prepared by mixing the sediment sample with seawater, and allowing the mixture to settle. The supernatant is separated and tested. Test results appeared to vary depending on the grain-size of the sediments. A study was performed to compare the effects of sediment grain-size on elutriate and porewater toxicity using the bivalve larvae test. Sediments were sampled from two sites: one in San Francisco Bay and one off the coast of San Francisco in the open ocean. From each site, two areas were sampled, one that was potentially impacted by a point-source discharge and another that was free from any discharge impacts. The bay sediments were fine-grained, and the ocean sediments were coarse grained. Porewater from each sample was extracted by centrifugation, and elutriates were prepared using a 4:1 sediment: seawater ratio. Each of the porewater and elutriate samples were tested using the ASTM Standard Guide for Conducting Static Acute Toxicity Tests with Saltwater Bivalves. The results show differences in toxicity that appear to be related to sediment grain-size. The results of this study further imply that dredge material test results should be interpreted with caution when fine-grained sediments are tested. Normalization of the results to grain-size may be appropriate.

  8. Desert basins of the Southwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Konieczki, Alice D.; Rees, Julie A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation’s most important natural resources. It provides drinking water to urban and rural communities, supports irrigation and industry, sustains the flow of streams and rivers, and maintains riparian and wetland ecosystems. In many areas of the Nation, the future sustainability of ground-water resources is at risk from overuse and contamination. Because ground-water systems typically respond slowly to human actions, a long-term perspective is needed to manage this valuable resource. This publication is one in a series of fact sheets that describe ground-water-resource issues across the United States, as well as some of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey that provide information to help others develop, manage, and protect ground-water resources in a sustainable manner. Ground-water resources in the Southwest are among the most overused in the United States. Natural recharge to aquifers is low and pumping in many areas has resulted in lowering of water tables. The consequences of large-scale removal of water from storage are becoming increasingly evident. These consequences include land subsidence; loss of springs, streams, wetlands and associated habitat; and degradation of water quality. Water managers are now seeking better ways of managing ground-water resources while looking for supplemental sources of water. This fact sheet reviews basic information on ground water in the desert basins of the Southwest. Also described are some activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that are providing scientific information for sustainable management of ground-water resources in the Southwest. Ground-water sustainability is defined as developing and using ground water in a way that can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences.

  9. Prehistoric astronomy in the Southwest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McK. Malville, J.; Putnam, C.

    Many sites in the southwestern United States have yielded evidence of the prehistoric Anasazi's intense interest in astronomy, similar to that of the megalithic cultures of Europe. The authors describe the astronomical alignments at the well-known sites of Chaco Canyon and Hovenweep and present new evidence, based on recent field work of alignments at Yellow Jacket and Chimney Rock. Drawing on the archeological evidence, ethnographical parallels with historic pueblo peoples, and mythology from other cultures, the authors present theories about the meaning and function of the mysterious stone alignments and architectural orientations of the prehistoric Southwest.

  10. Geology of the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldridge, W. Scott

    2004-06-01

    Scott Baldridge presents a concise guide to the geology of the Southwestern U.S. Two billion years of Earth history are represented in the rocks and landscape of the Southwest U.S., creating natural wonders such as the Grand Canyon, Monument Valley, and Death Valley. This region is considered a geologist's "dream", attracting a large number of undergraduate field classes and amateur geologists. The volume will prove invaluable to students and will also appeal to anyone interested in the geology and landscape of the region's National Parks.

  11. Relationship between Antarctic sea ice and southwest African climate during the late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuut, Jan-Berend W.; Crosta, Xavier; van der Borg, Klaas; Schneider, Ralph

    2004-10-01

    Here we compare late Quaternary southwest African climate records from the west coast of southern Africa (published winter rainfall and trade wind intensity records from a core off the coast of Namibia) to records of Antarctic sea-ice extent. This comparison reveals coherent changes between Antarctic sea-ice extent and the southwest African winter rain region since 45 k.y. B.P., with enhanced winter rainfall and trade-wind vigor during periods of increased sea-ice presence. We propose an oceanic and atmospheric coupling between Antarctic sea ice and the winter rainfall zone of southwest Africa that may lead to increased desertification in the region if global warming persists.

  12. 75 FR 76001 - Southwest Gas Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southwest Gas Corporation; Notice of Application November 29, 2010. On November 16, 2010, Southwest Gas Corporation (Southwest) filed with the Federal Energy...

  13. Southwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogan, Michael A.; Allen, Craig D.; Muldavin, Esteban H.; Platania, Steven P.; Stuart, James N.; Farley, Greg H.; Mehlhop, Patricia; Belnap, Jayne

    1998-01-01

    The southwestern region of the United States is a land of extremes and contrasts. Elevations vary from below sea level in the Imperial Valley of California to mountain peaks approaching 4,000 meters. Landscapes are striking and variable and include mountains, foothills, canyons, deserts, plains, and rivers. The area is arid or semiarid and, depending on the location, may have mild winters and summers, periods of bitter cold, or intervals of intense heat. Climate is inextricably tied to water and its availability. Historically, water varied from abundant to sparse over the span of a year, and adaptations of native plants and animals reflect those extremes. Annual precipitation, usually in the form of rain, varies from 30 to 40 millimeters in the low-elevation Sonoran Desert to more than 1,000 millimeters in the high mountains (Brown 1982a; Bahre and Shelton 1993). This variation in topography and climate has produced great floral and faunal diversity.

  14. 19. NORTH TOWER, PORTE COCHERE & FLAG TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. NORTH TOWER, PORTE COCHERE & FLAG TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 20. CAMPANILE WITH DOWNING URN IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. CAMPANILE WITH DOWNING URN IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 18. NORTH TOWER, PORTE COCHERE & FLAG TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. NORTH TOWER, PORTE COCHERE & FLAG TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST BY WEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. The forcing of monthly precipitation variability over Southwest Asia during the Boreal cold season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoell, Andrew; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Barlow, Mathew; Cannon, Forest; Kelley, Colin; Funk, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Southwest Asia, deemed as the region containing the countries of Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and Pakistan, is water scarce and receives nearly 75% of its annual rainfall during8 the boreal cold season of November-April. The forcing of Southwest Asia precipitation has been previously examined for the entire boreal cold season from the perspective of climate variability originating over the Atlantic and tropical Indo-Pacific Oceans. Here, we examine the inter-monthly differences in precipitation variability over Southwest Asia and the atmospheric conditions directly responsible in forcing monthly November-April precipitation. Seasonally averaged November-April precipitation over Southwest Asia is significantly correlated with sea surface temperature (SST) patterns consistent with Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV), the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the warming trend of SST (Trend). On the contrary, the precipitation variability during individual months of November-April are unrelated and are correlated with SST signatures that include PDV, ENSO and Trend in different combinations. Despite strong inter-monthly differences in precipitation variability during November- April over Southwest Asia, similar atmospheric circulations, highlighted by a stationary equivalent barotropic Rossby wave centered over Iraq, force the monthly spatial distributions of precipitation. Tropospheric waves on the eastern side of the equivalent barotropic Rossby wave modifies the flux of moisture and advects the mean temperature gradient, resulting in temperature advection that is balanced by vertical motions over Southwest Asia. The forcing of monthly Southwest Asia precipitation by equivalent barotropic Rossby waves is different than the forcing by baroclinic Rossby waves associated with tropically-forced-only modes of climate variability.

  18. Seasonal Variability in Atmospheric Methane Mixing Ratio and Coastal Methane Emission from the Southwest United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas; Hopkins, Frances; Nightingale, Phil

    2017-04-01

    We report 2+ year observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) mixing ratio and water-to-air CH4 fluxes from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) on the southwest coast of the UK. About 6 km southwest of Plymouth, this coastal site is located at the mouth of the Plymouth Sound, 10 m above mean sea level, and 30 m from the water's edge. Air from the southwest encounters little terrestrial influence and appears to be largely representative of the background North Atlantic. The other wind sectors are affected to a varying degree by natural and anthropogenic terrestrial emissions as well as discharge from the nearby Tamar estuary/Plymouth Sound. Compared to the southwest wind sector, CH4 mixing ratios from terrestrially influenced wind sectors are greater in the mean and also show stronger seasonality (higher in winter than in summer). Novel application of the eddy covariance technique enables a direct and continuous quantification of the water-to-air CH4 fluxes. CH4 emissions from this region exceed predicted CH4 fluxes over the open ocean but are less than estimates from polar regions or freshwater systems. Within the water-facing wind sectors, CH4 emissions are a few times higher when winds are over the Plymouth Sound than when winds are from the southwest, suggesting a source from riverine outflow. Long-term measurements of CH4 fluxes allow us to examine the dependence on wind speed, tide, and water temperature.

  19. Neodymium isotopic composition of intermediate and deep waters in the glacial southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Taryn L.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; McCave, I. Nick

    2013-12-01

    Neodymium (Nd) isotopes, tracers of deep water mass source and mixing, were measured on sedimentary planktic foraminifera with authigenic coatings from a depth-transect of cores (1400-4800 m) from Chatham Rise in the southwest Pacific, over the past 30 ka. We observe deglacial variations in the Nd isotopic composition, which showed an average glacial composition of ɛNd=-5.0 (1σ; ±0.3n=4) for cores sites below 3200 mbsl. No significant deglacial variation was observed in the Nd isotopic composition of intermediate depth waters (1400 mbsl), in contrast with benthic foraminifera δC13 data. The deglacial ɛNd shift of CDW in the southwest Pacific is consistent with changes observed in the deep South Atlantic and Equatorial Indian Ocean, but ɛNd values are offset by ˜1ɛNd-unit to more radiogenic values throughout the deglacial records, likely due to admixture of a Nd isotope signal which was modified in the Southern Ocean or Pacific, perhaps by boundary exchange. However, this modification did not overprint the deglacial Nd isotope change. The consistent deglacial evolution of ɛNd in the South Atlantic, Equatorial Indian and southwest Pacific CDW, is evidence for the connection of CDW during the glacial, and propagation of diminished North Atlantic Deep Water export to the glacial Southern Ocean. In contrast, spatial heterogeneities in the benthic foraminifera δC13 of CDW have been observed in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific basins of the deep glacial Southern Ocean. The Nd isotope data implies a well-connected deep Southern Ocean, which transported waters from the Atlantic to the Indian and Pacific oceans, during the glacial. This suggests that basin-scale variability in the glacial δC13 composition of CDW was unrelated to circulation changes.

  20. 75 FR 58376 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ..., Sabine-Neches Waterway Channel Improvement Project, Proposed Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site... Plan, Addressing Natural and Cultural Resource Conflicts, Parking and Circulation Improvements in...

  1. 75 FR 57761 - Desert Southwest Power, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Desert Southwest Power, LLC; Notice of Filing September 14, 2010. Take notice that on September 10, 2010, Desert Southwest Power, LLC (Desert Southwest) filed responses to the... Commission's July 28, 2010 letter regarding Desert Southwest's petition for declaratory order...

  2. Intense Southwest Florida hurricane landfalls over the past 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolani, Christian; Muller, Joanne; Collins, Jennifer; Savarese, Michael; Squiccimara, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has proposed that human-induced sea surface temperature (SST) warming has led to an increase in the intensity of hurricanes over the past 30 years. However, this notion has been challenged on the basis that the instrumental record is too short and unreliable to reveal long-term trends in hurricane activity. This study addresses this limitation by investigating hurricane-induced overwash deposits (paleotempestites) behind a barrier island in Naples, FL, USA. Paleotempestologic proxies including grain size, percent calcium carbonate, and fossil shells species were used to distinguish overwash events in two sediment cores spanning the last one thousand years. Two prominent paleotempestites were observed in the top 20 cm of both cores: the first identified as Hurricane Donna in 1960 whereas an older paleotempestite (1900-1930) could represent one of three documented storms in the early 1900s. An active period of hurricane overwash from 1000 to 500 yrs. BP and an inactive period from 500 to 150 yrs. BP correlate with reconstructed SSTs from the Main Development Region (MDR) of the North Atlantic Ocean. We observe an increased number of paleotempestites when MDR SSTs are warmer, coinciding with the Medieval Warm Period, and very few paleotempestites when MDR SSTs are cooler, coinciding with the Little Ice Age. Results from this initial Southwest Florida study indicate that MDR SSTs have been a key long-term climate driver of intense Southwest Florida hurricane strikes.

  3. Optical and biochemical properties of a southwest Florida whiting event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Jacqueline S.; Hu, Chuanmin; Robbins, Lisa L.; Byrne, Robert H.; Paul, John H.; Wolny, Jennifer L.

    2017-09-01

    ;Whiting; in oceanography is a term used to describe a sharply defined patch of water that contains high levels of suspended, fine-grained calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Whitings have been reported in many oceanic and lake environments, and recently have been reported in southwest Florida coastal waters. Here, field and laboratory measurements were used to study optical, biological, and chemical properties of whiting waters off southwest Florida. No significant difference was found in chlorophyll a concentrations between whiting and outside waters (non-whiting water), but average particle backscattering coefficients in whiting waters were double those in outside waters, and remote sensing reflectance in whiting waters was higher at all wavelengths (400-700 nm). While other potential causes cannot be completely ruled out, particle composition and biochemical differences between sampled whiting water, contiguous water, and outside water indicate a biologically precipitated mode of whiting formation. Taxonomic examination of marine phytoplankton samples collected during a whiting event revealed a community dominated by autotrophic picoplankton and a small (<10 μm), centric diatom species, identified as Thalassiosira sp. through the use of scanning electron microscopy. Amorphous to fully formed crystals of CaCO3 were observed along the girdle bands of Thalassiosira sp. cells and autotrophic picoplankton cells. Although carbonate parameters differed from whiting and contiguous to outside water, more sampling is needed to determine if these results are statistically significant.

  4. How ENSO Impacts Precipitation in Southwest and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, A.

    2007-12-01

    Hydroclimatological variability in parts of Southwest and Central Asia is very large. For instance, a very severe drought was experienced in a broad region centered around Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan during the period 1998-2002, which has been associated with exceptionally prolonged La Nina-like conditions. Several studies have investigated the broader role of ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) events in precipitation variability in this region. A late summer-early winter ENSO precipitation signal has consistently been reported by various authors, however the underlying cause has not been determined. In other seasons the ENSO precipitation signal is less well established. In this talk, the impact of ENSO events on interannual precipitation variability in parts of Southwest and Central Asia is described using state-of-the-art precipitation datasets and re-analyses. Decadal changes in this teleconnection are addressed.The underlying mechanism is discussed based on AMIP-type simulations for the autumn season with a model of intermediate complexity. In particular, the roles played by various oceanic regions in producing the observed signal are discussed.

  5. Squid as nutrient vectors linking Southwest Atlantic marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.

    2013-10-01

    Long-term investigations of three abundant nektonic squid species from the Southwest Atlantic, Illex argentinus, Doryteuthis gahi and Onykia ingens, permitted to estimate important population parameters including individual growth rates, duration of ontogenetic phases and mortalities. Using production model, the productivity of squid populations at different phases of their life cycle was assessed and the amount of biomass they convey between marine ecosystems as a result of their ontogenetic migrations was quantified. It was found that squid are major nutrient vectors and play a key role as transient 'biological pumps' linking spatially distinct marine ecosystems. I. argentinus has the largest impact in all three ecosystems it encounters due to its high abundance and productivity. The variable nature of squid populations increases the vulnerability of these biological conveyers to overfishing and environmental change. Failure of these critical biological pathways may induce irreversible long-term consequences for biodiversity, resource abundance and spatial availability in the world ocean.

  6. Preliminary timber resource statistics for southwest Washington.

    Treesearch

    Colin D. MacLean; Janet L. Ohmann; Patricia M. Bassett

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1988 timber inventory of six counties in southwest Washington: Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Pacific, Skamania, and Wahkiakum. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  7. Timber resource statistics for southwest Washington.

    Treesearch

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978 timber-resource inventory of six counties in southwest Washington: Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Pacific, Skamania, and Wahkiakum. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  8. Marine mammal strandings in the New Caledonia region, Southwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Borsa, Philippe

    2006-04-01

    Four hundred twenty three marine mammals, in 72 stranding events, were recorded between 1877 and 2005 in New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, and Vanuatu in the southwest Pacific. Sixteen species were represented in this count, including: minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata (1 single stranding), sei whale, B. borealis (1 single stranding), blue whale, B. musculus (1 single stranding), humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (2 single strandings), giant sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus (18 single strandings, 2 pair strandings), pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps (5 single strandings), dwarf sperm whale, K. sima (2 single strandings, 1 triple stranding), Blainville's beaked whale, Mesoplodon densirostris (2 single strandings), short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus (4 strandings, 56 individuals), melon-headed whale, Peponocephala electra (1 single stranding and 2 mass strandings totalling 231 individuals), common dolphin, Delphinus delphis (1 single stranding), spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris (1 pair stranding and 2 mass strandings of groups of approximately 30 individuals each), Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus (2 single strandings), dugong, Dugong dugon (14 single strandings), and New Zealand fur seal, Arctocephalus forsteri (3 single strandings). A stranded rorqual identified as an Antarctic minke whale (B. bonaerensis), with coloration patterns that did not match known descriptions, was also reported. Sei whale was recorded for the first time in the tropical Southwest Pacific region and Antarctic minke whale, melon-headed whale, and Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin were recorded for the first time in New Caledonia. Strandings of sperm whales were most frequent in the spring, but also occurred in autumn months, suggesting a seasonal pattern of occurrence possibly related to seasonal migration. One stranded humpback whale bore the scars of a killer whale's attack and one dugong was injured by a shark. Scars left by

  9. Trona resources in southwest Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, J.R.; Wiig, S.V.; Grundy, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Bedded trona (Na2CO3??NaHCO3??2H2O) in the lacustrine Green River Formation of Eocene age in the Green River Basin, southwest Wyoming, constitutes the largest known resource of natural sodium carbonate in the world. In this study, 116 gigatons (Gt) of trona ore are estimated to be present in 22 beds, ranging from 1.2 to 11 meters (m) in thickness. Of this total, 69 Gt of trona ore are estimated to be in beds containing less than 2 percent halite and 47 Gt in beds containing 2 or more percent halite. These 22 beds underlie areas of about 130 to more than 2,000 km2 at depths ranging from about 200 m to more than 900 m below the surface. The total resource of trona ore in the basin for which drilling information is available is estimated to be about 135 Gt. Underveloped trona beds in the deeper southern part of the basin may be best developed by solution mining. Additional unevaluated sodium carbonate resources are present in disseminated shortite (Na2CO3??2CaCO3) in strata interbedded with the trona and in shallow sodium carbonate brines in the northeast part of the basin. Estimates of the shortite and brine resources were not made. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  10. Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2008-12-01

    It has been suggested that ocean fertilization could help diminish ocean acidification. Here, we quantitatively evaluate this suggestion. Ocean fertilization is one of several ocean methods proposed to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The basic idea of this method is to enhance the biological uptake of atmospheric CO2 by stimulating net phytoplankton growth through the addition of iron to the surface ocean. Concern has been expressed that ocean fertilization may not be very effective at reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and may produce unintended environmental consequences. The rationale for thinking that ocean fertilization might help diminish ocean acidification is that dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in the near-surface equilibrate with the atmosphere in about a year. If ocean fertilization could reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it would also reduce surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, and thus diminish the degree of ocean acidification. To evaluate this line of thinking, we use a global ocean carbon cycle model with a simple representation of marine biology and investigate the maximum potential effect of ocean fertilization on ocean carbonate chemistry. We find that the effect of ocean fertilization on ocean acidification depends, in part, on the context in which ocean fertilization is performed. With fixed emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere, ocean fertilization moderately mitigates changes in ocean carbonate chemistry near the ocean surface, but at the expense of further acidifying the deep ocean. Under the SRES A2 CO2 emission scenario, by year 2100 simulated atmospheric CO2, global mean surface pH, and saturation state of aragonite is 965 ppm, 7.74, and 1.55 for the scenario without fertilization and 833 ppm, 7.80, and 1.71 for the scenario with 100-year (between 2000 and 2100) continuous fertilization for the global ocean (For comparison, pre-industrial global mean surface pH and saturation state of

  11. 33 CFR 325.2 - Processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dredged material in ocean waters (40 CFR parts 220 to 229), if applicable, and the conclusions of the... (FONSI), 404(b)(1) guideline analysis, and/or the criteria for dumping of dredged material in ocean... the National Ocean Service, Office of Coast Survey, N/CS261, 1315 East West Highway, Silver...

  12. 33 CFR 325.2 - Processing of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dredged material in ocean waters (40 CFR parts 220 to 229), if applicable, and the conclusions of the... (FONSI), 404(b)(1) guideline analysis, and/or the criteria for dumping of dredged material in ocean... the National Ocean Service, Office of Coast Survey, N/CS261, 1315 East West Highway, Silver...

  13. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF DREDGED MATERIAL § 324.3 Activities requiring permits. (a... in ocean waters. (b) Activities of Federal agencies. (1) The transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal in ocean waters done by or on behalf of any Federal agency other than...

  14. 33 CFR 324.3 - Activities requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERMITS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF DREDGED MATERIAL § 324.3 Activities requiring permits. (a... in ocean waters. (b) Activities of Federal agencies. (1) The transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal in ocean waters done by or on behalf of any Federal agency other than...

  15. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ..., Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing special local regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located southwest of..., November 13, 2011. These special local regulations are necessary to provide for the safety of life...

  16. Skylab 4 Command Module in Pacific Ocean following splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An early morning sun casts a reflection across the Skylab 4 Command Module in Pacific Ocean some 176 miles southwest of San Diego, California, following splashdown at 8:17 a.m., February 8, 1974. Swimmers from the U.S.S. New Orleans, prime recovery ship, are taking part in recovery operations, here.

  17. Oceanic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, merchant ships and the naval fleets of various countries have been the major source of data over and in the open ocean. Oceanographic research experiments and process studies in the field have also contributed to the climatological data bases for the global ocean, but, for the most part, these have been limited in duration and extent. However, over the last 10 years under the auspices of the World Climate Research Program and the International Geosphere Biosphere Program the role of the oceans in global and climate change has taken on increased significance. This has created a need for a considerably improved understanding of the seasonal, interannual, decadal and longer time-scale variability of the physical and biogeochemical attributes of the global ocean. As a result, over the past 10 years several major international field programs have been implemented and have had a tremendous impact on the number of in situ observations obtained for the global ocean. The Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program, the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) were designed with observational, modelling, and process study components aimed at analyzing different aspects of the ocean's role in the coupled climate system. In parallel with the field programs, continuous space-based observations of sea surface temperature, sea surface topography, and sea surface winds spanning nearly a decade or longer have become a reality. During this same time period, numerical ocean models and computational power have advanced to the point where the oceanographic observations, both in situ and remotely sensed, can be assimilated into numerical ocean models in order to provide a four-dimensional (x-y-z-t) depiction of the evolving state of the global ocean.

  18. Characterization of southwest monsoon onset over Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mie Sein, Z. M.; Islam, A. R. M. Towfiqul; Maw, K. W.; Moya, T. B.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to characterize the southwest monsoon onset over Myanmar based on the model. The Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) was run for a period of 10 years (2000-2009) to simulate the meteorological fields which focused on April to July season. The model input data were obtained from the reanalyzed datasets of the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Grell scheme with Arakawa closure for cumulus parameterization assumption was used for simulation with 45 km horizontal resolution. The results revealed that southwest monsoon onset was confirmed when the prevailing wind direction up to 600 hPa level had shifted from northeasterly to westerly or southwesterly. The southwest monsoon first arrived at southernmost Kawthoung station of Myanmar and progressed through the Deltaic and Central parts until it reached at northernmost Putao station. Over the simulation periods, the southwest monsoon onset progressed from the southernmost to northernmost parts of the country in 19 ± 10 days. The position of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) appeared (23°N-28°N) over the Northern part of the country before the onset. Furthermore, 500 hPa ridge appeared consistently over the Deltaic area of Myanmar from 6 to 10 days before the monsoon onset. Its position is about 6° to the south of the ITCZ.

  19. Continuous exhumation of mantle-derived rocks at the Southwest Indian Ridge for 11 million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, Daniel; Cannat, Mathilde; Rouméjon, Stéphane; Andreani, Muriel; Birot, Dominique; Bronner, Adrien; Brunelli, Daniele; Carlut, Julie; Delacour, Adélie; Guyader, Vivien; MacLeod, Christopher J.; Manatschal, Gianreto; Mendel, Véronique; Ménez, Bénédicte; Pasini, Valerio; Ruellan, Etienne; Searle, Roger

    2013-04-01

    The global mid-ocean ridge system, where tectonic plates diverge, is traditionally thought of as the largest single volcanic feature on the Earth. Yet, wide expanses of smooth sea floor in the easternmost part of the Southwest Indian Ridge in the Indian Ocean lacks the hummocky morphology that is typical for submarine volcanism. At other slow-spreading ridges, the sea floor can extend by faulting the existing lithosphere, along only one side of the ridge axis. However, the smooth sea floor in the easternmost Southwest Indian Ridge also lacks the corrugated texture created by such faulting. Instead, the sea floor is smooth on both sides of the ridge axis and is thought to be composed of altered mantle-derived rocks. Here we use side-scan sonar to image the sea floor and dredge samples to analyse the composition of two sections of the Southwest Indian Ridge, between 62°05'E and 64°40'E, where the sea floor formed over the past 11 million years. We show that the smooth floor is almost entirely composed of seawater-altered mantle-derived rocks that were brought to the surface by large detachment faults on both sides of the ridge axis. Faulting accommodates almost 100% of plate divergence and the detachment faults have repeatedly flipped polarity. We suggest that this tectonic process could also explain the exhumation of mantle-derived rocks at the magma-poor margins of rifted continents.

  20. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  1. Hydrologic Literacy in the Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburne, J.; Madden, J.

    2008-12-01

    Improving hydrologic literacy at all levels has been the keystone to the education mission at NSF's SAHRA Science and Technology Center since its inception in 2000. Water issues and water education are particularly relevant in the semi-arid southwest, which has experienced a series of droughts and tremendous growth throughout this period. One of our strategies has been to focus our efforts on the high school and undergraduate level, for which there are far fewer water education materials available. Early on, we worked with local water educators and employed an Understanding by Design methodology to develop a series of Enduring Understandings in the critical areas of water quality, aquatic life, watersheds and urban hydrology. These basic concepts have helped guide our development of content and training opportunities. A prime example of this process is our Watershed Visualization project, which includes a series of animated videos focused on understanding the geographic and hydrologic setting of the Verde Watershed in central Arizona. This series also addresses the interaction of climate and groundwater recharge in this rapidly changing area. This past year, we developed a new program called Arizona Rivers, which emphasizes local and student- based monitoring and research of the interactions between riparian hydrology and ecology. One key feature of this program is an extended summer field trip/research experience for high school students called the Riparian Research Experience. A goal of this program is to raise the level of critical analysis and environmental stewardship among high school students and their teachers. A more comprehensive effort of raising the hydrologic literacy of non-science university freshman has been taking place at the University of Arizona for the past five years through the general education course titled Arizona Water Issues or HWR203. This course focuses equally on fundamental hydrologic understandings, beginning with the water cycle as

  2. Ancient tortoise hunting in the southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Stuart; Worthy, Trevor H.; Bedford, Stuart; Spriggs, Matthew; Clark, Geoffrey; Irwin, Geoff; Best, Simon; Kirch, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    We report the unprecedented Lapita exploitation and subsequent extinction of large megafauna tortoises (?Meiolania damelipi) on tropical islands during the late Holocene over a 281,000 km2 region of the southwest Pacific spanning from the Vanuatu archipelago to Viti Levu in Fiji. Zooarchaeological analyses have identified seven early archaeological sites with the remains of this distinctive hornless tortoise, unlike the Gondwanan horned meiolaniid radiation to the southwest. These large tortoise radiations in the Pacific may have contributed to the rapid dispersal of early mobile Neolithic hunters throughout southwest Melanesia and on to western Polynesia. Subsequent rapid extinctions of these terrestrial herbivorous megafauna are likely to have led to significant changes in ecosystems that help explain changes in current archaeological patterns from Post-Lapita contexts in the region.

  3. Ancient tortoise hunting in the southwest Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Stuart; Worthy, Trevor H.; Bedford, Stuart; Spriggs, Matthew; Clark, Geoffrey; Irwin, Geoff; Best, Simon; Kirch, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We report the unprecedented Lapita exploitation and subsequent extinction of large megafauna tortoises (?Meiolania damelipi) on tropical islands during the late Holocene over a 281,000 km2 region of the southwest Pacific spanning from the Vanuatu archipelago to Viti Levu in Fiji. Zooarchaeological analyses have identified seven early archaeological sites with the remains of this distinctive hornless tortoise, unlike the Gondwanan horned meiolaniid radiation to the southwest. These large tortoise radiations in the Pacific may have contributed to the rapid dispersal of early mobile Neolithic hunters throughout southwest Melanesia and on to western Polynesia. Subsequent rapid extinctions of these terrestrial herbivorous megafauna are likely to have led to significant changes in ecosystems that help explain changes in current archaeological patterns from Post-Lapita contexts in the region. PMID:27922064

  4. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson; Rick Allis; Barry Biediger; Joel Brown; Jim Cappa; George Guthrie; Richard Hughes; Eugene Kim; Robert Lee; Dennis Leppin; Charles Mankin; Orman Paananen; Rajesh Pawar; Tarla Peterson; Steve Rauzi; Jerry Stuth; Genevieve Young

    2004-11-01

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes six whole states, including Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Utah, roughly one-third of Texas, and significant portions of adjacent states. The Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. The Partnership made great progress in this first year. Action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are almost finished, including both technical and non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. All partners in the Partnership are taking an active role in evaluating and ranking optimum sites and technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. We are identifying potential gaps in all aspects of potential sequestration deployment issues.

  5. Navy Tactical Applications Guide. Volume 5. Part 1. Indian Ocean (Red Sea/Persian Gulf) Weather Analysis and Forecast Applications. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    Tactical Applications Guide. Volume 5. Part I Indian Ocean (Red Sea/Persian Gulf) Weather Analysis and Forecast Applications . . PERFORMING ORD. REPORT...and ideaittp by hiocA nb..) Meteorological Satellite Systems Southwest Monsoon Analysis and Forecast Applications Coastal Zone Phenomena Indian Ocean...describing regional environmental analysis and forecast applications based on satellite data and conventional meteorological observations for the Indian Ocean

  6. Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias-Rodriguez, Maria Debora

    The oceans play a central role in the maintenance of life on Earth. Oceans provide extensive ecosystems for marine animals and plants covering two-thirds of the Earth's surface, are essential sources of food, economic activity, and biodiversity, and are central to the global biogeochemical cycles. The oceans are the largest reservoir of carbon in the Planet, and absorb approximately one-third of the carbon emissions that are released to the Earth's atmosphere as a result of human activities. Since the beginning of industrialization, humans have been responsible for the increase in one greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), from approximately 280 parts per million (ppm) at the end of the nineteenth century to the current levels of 390ppm. As well as affecting the surface ocean pH, and the organisms living at the ocean surface, these increases in CO2 are causing global mean surface temperatures to rise.

  7. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2005-08-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of October 1, 2004--March 31, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Action plans for possible Phase 2 carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are completed, and a proposal was developed and submitted describing how the Partnership may develop and carry out appropriate pilot tests. The content of this report focuses on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period.

  8. Rock Art of the Greater Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Archaeoastronomical studies in the American Southwest began in 1955 with recognition of what seemed to be pictorial eyewitness records of the Crab supernova of 1054 AD In time, reports of seasonally significant light-and-shadow effects on rock art and associations of rock art with astronomical alignments also emerged. Most astronomical rock art studies remained problematic, however, because criteria for proof of ancient intent were elusive. Disciplined methods for assessing cultural function were difficult to develop, but review of ethnographically documented astronomical traditions of California Indians and of Indians in the American Southwest subsequently increased confidence in the value of some astronomical rock art initiatives.

  9. East side, middle section, looking southwest, shows slightly more northerly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side, middle section, looking southwest, shows slightly more northerly section than CO-172-AO-4. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Quartermaster's Storehouse, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Twelfth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. 6. INTERIOR, OFFICE AREA IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR, OFFICE AREA IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING, FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Coffee Roasting Plant, East of Fourth Street, between J & K, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. View of automotive repair and gas station, facing southwest from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of automotive repair and gas station, facing southwest from across Pope Street. Garage built for storage of employee automobiles in left background - Automotive Repair & Gas Station, Southwest corner of Pope Street & Olympic Avenue, Port Gamble, Kitsap County, WA

  12. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW SHOWING THE SOUTHWEST & SOUTHEAST SIDES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW SHOWING THE SOUTHWEST & SOUTHEAST SIDES OF THE AUDITORIUM, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1056, Southwest of intersection of South Tenth Avenue & South "X" Street, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  13. 10. WIDE GENERAL VIEW OF SHED SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACADE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. WIDE GENERAL VIEW OF SHED SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACADE AND TRUCK PLATFORM/STAGING AREA AT SOUTHWEST END OF BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. 78 FR 78810 - Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee (Recreation RAC) will meet in San Bernardino, California. The Recreation RAC is...

  15. 78 FR 49253 - Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Forest Service Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committe will meet in Sacramento, California. The Committee is authorized under the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement...

  16. 13. Southwest corner of burning hood and incinerator. North wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Southwest corner of burning hood and incinerator. North wall of scrubber cell room. Looking southwest. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  17. 1. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER, NORTH AND EAST SIDES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER, NORTH AND EAST SIDES - Juniata Mill Complex, Mine & Camp Residence, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  18. 2. NORTH VIEW OF SOUTH AND WEST SIDES, SOUTHWEST CORNER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH VIEW OF SOUTH AND WEST SIDES, SOUTHWEST CORNER. BUNK HOUSE ROOF IS VISIBLE BEYOND THIS STRUCTURE - Juniata Mill Complex, Mine & Camp Residence, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  19. 1. Aerial view of southwest circular bastion. Rose Island lighthouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view of southwest circular bastion. Rose Island lighthouse was built atop structure in 1869. - Fort Hamilton, Southwest Circular Bastion, Underneath Rose Island Lighthouse, Newport, Newport County, RI

  20. Looking southwest at dualtrack transfer table, with Machine Shop (Bldg. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest at dual-track transfer table, with Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) in background - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM