Science.gov

Sample records for southwestern black sea

  1. The Morpho-Acoustic Structure of Sakarya Canyon, Southwestern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasıf, Aslıhan; Dondurur, Derman

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Black Sea outlet of Sakarya River in the western Black Sea continental margin is analyzed using a total of 1400 km multichannel seismics, Chirp sub-bottom profiler and multibeam bathymetric datasets. Three scientific cruises between 2012 and 2016 have been conducted in the area to map and reveal the morphological structure of the Sakarya Canyon along the southwestern Black Sea margin. The Western Black Sea Turkey coastal area is also home to many active canyons. These canyons extend from deep shallow shelf areas of about 100 m to deep water depths of 1800-2000 m. The largest and most active of the Western Black Sea canyons is the Sakarya Canyon, which is located at the exit of the Sakarya River. Research on submarine canyons are important for military submarine operations, positioning of marine engineering structures and understanding the sedimentology, ecological and oceanographic functions of canyons. The canyon systems observed on continental slopes lead to the most convenient sedimentary transportation from the shelf platform. The dataset from study area was analyzed to identify the acoustic structure of Sakarya Canyon, the morphology of which is not widely known. Bathymetric data shows that the canyon consists of two separate canyon heads in the shallow continental shelf to the south, both of which coalesce at 867 m water depth. This meandering canyon then deepens along the continental slope towards to north. Another wide canyon from west, named as Kefken Canyon, then conjoins this main canyon at approximately 1000 m water depths to form the deeper structure of the modern Sakarya Canyon. In the distal parts, canyon gets wider and wider, and its thalweg becomes significantly flat eroded by the present day activity of small scale turbidity channels. Multichannel seismic data indicate that the Sakarya Canyon was formed by the activity of hyperphycnal flows and also clearly show the extensive sediment erosion along the canyon.

  2. Preliminary Results from Acoustic Survey Offshore Kefken, Southwestern Black Sea Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondurur, Derman; Karaca, Onur; Nasıf, Aslıhan

    2017-04-01

    In March 2016, different marine acoustic datasets were collected aboard of R/V K. Piri Reis research vessel of Dokuz Eylül University within the scope of Turkish Research Council (Tübitak) Project (115Y218) to reveal submarine morphology and seismo-acoustical structure of the continental shelf and upper slope of Şile-Kefken region in the southwest of the Black Sea. A total of 1564 km high resolution seismic, multibeam bathymetry and Chirp sub-bottom profiler data were collected. Seismic data was collected using a 1500 m long digital streamer with 240 active channels. Group and shot intervals were 6.25 m and 25 m, respectively. Collected data were analyzed by means of (i) stratigraphic and (ii) structural components, and (iii) the structure of upper slope and shelf break. The stratigraphic elements in the region indicate the existence of Eocene and younger units. A distinctive acoustical basement in the seismic data observed throughout the shelf which is interpreted as uplifted Cretaceous basement of the Black Sea, that is Akveren or Yemişliçay Formation. The basement also outcrops around the Kefken Island. Chirp data is used to map the shallow stratigraphy of the shelf including the Holocene sediment distribution which exists on a very restricted area on the shelf. To the east, there is a large outcrop zone offshore Kefken where no Holocene sediments are observed. Initial evaluation of the collected data indicates that there is no present day delta formation in the area due to a few weak streams observed in the study area. The penetration of Chirp data in the western and the southern parts of the shelf area is very limited while it increases towards to upper continental slope to the North, and east of Kefken Cape. The acoustic data suggests that the study area is under the influence of the Pontide overthrust. Possible existence of reverse faults of Pontide overthrust is evident on the seismic data from southwestern shelf. In addition to the reverse faults to

  3. Origin and abundance of marine litter along sandy beaches of the Turkish Western Black Sea Coast.

    PubMed

    Topçu, Eda N; Tonay, Arda M; Dede, Ayhan; Öztürk, Ayaka A; Öztürk, Bayram

    2013-04-01

    Beach debris abundance was estimated from surveys on 10 beaches of the Turkish Western Black Sea Coast. Debris was collected from 20 m long transects during four different seasons; sorted and categorized by type, usage and origin. Litter density varied from 0.085 to 5.058 items m(-2). Debris was mainly composed of unidentifiable small size (2-7 cm) plastic pieces and beverage-related litter such as bottles and bottle caps. About half of the labeled litter was of foreign origin, including 25 different countries, 23% of which are in the Black Sea region. The south-western Black Sea Coast seems to receive foreign litter from two main sources: land-based debris from the neighboring countries and seaborne debris due to international shipping. Standardized methodology and indicators need to be designated all over the Black Sea basin in order to quantify and qualify coastal litter pollution, monitor compliance with MARPOL and develop regionally effective mitigation measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Black Sea in Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  5. Black Sea Becomes Turquoise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of color variance. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably due to sediments carried in from high waters and snowmelt from upstream. This scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on May 14, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is ?one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.? The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated'supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  6. New tool for the Black Sea environmental safety: BlackSea Track Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubryakov, A. I.; Korotayev, G. K.; Thoorens, F.-X.; Liungman, O.; Ambjorn, C.

    2012-04-01

    Huge increases in the volume of oil being transported across the Black Sea have greatly increased the risk of oil pollution. Remote sensing data show that the majority of oil spills occur along major shipping routes, suggesting that shipping, rather than land-based oil installations have been the principal cause of concern. However, a single large spill from ships, platforms or land-based oil installations could severely impact biota and the economies of all coastal countries and could produce significant damage of the Black Sea ecosystem and fishing. Also, due to the semi-enclosed character of the basin, oil spill will definitely pollute coast of the basin suffering great losses to the recreation industry and potentially to the human health. Fighting oil pollution in the Black Sea is a great challenge. The challenge is likely to become even greater in the future as maritime traffic is expected to increase over the next few years, making offences and accidents more likely. The risks of shipwrecks and catastrophic oil spill necessitate the use of the modern technologies to effectively protect the marine environment. In turn, such technologies require high-quality products of operational oceanography. Recently such products are the products of the MyOcean project. The development of the Black Sea operational oceanography made it possible to transfer of cost-efficient technologies to the region to create a new tool against oil pollution and for life-saving in case of a shipwreck. The Black Sea Track Web (BSTW) system of accidental oil spill evolution forecast in the Black Sea has been created in the framework of MONINFO project. The system is based on the Seatrack Web (STW) model developing by the consortium of the Baltic Sea countries. It is adapted to the configuration of the Black Sea observing system and is implemented to the regional contingency plans. The BSTW system consists of three parts: - forcing in the form of forecasted stratification, sea currents and

  7. 75 FR 59154 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    .... 100120036-0360-02] RIN 0648-XT99 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule Extension; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... emergency action to increase the 2010 black sea bass specifications. The preamble text of that rule...

  8. 75 FR 38935 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...--XT99 [Docket No. 100120036-0038-01] Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule Extension AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...; emergency action extension. SUMMARY: NMFS is extending the emergency action to increase the 2010 black sea...

  9. Chemical composition, stratigraphy, and depositional environments of the Black River Group (Middle Ordovician), southwestern Ohio.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stith, David A.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical composition and stratigraphy of the Black River Group in southwestern Ohio were studied. Chemical analyses were done on two cores of the Black River from Adams and Brown Counties, Ohio. These studies show that substantial reserves of high-carbonate rock are present in the Black River at depths of less than 800 ft, in proximity to Cincinnati and the Ohio River. Stratigraphic studies show that the Black River Group has eight marker beds in its middle and upper portions and three distinct lithologic units in its lower portion; these marker beds and units are present throughout southwestern Ohio. The Black River Group correlates well with the High Bridge Group of Kentucky. Depositional environments of the Black River are similar to those of the High Bridge and to present-day tidal flats in the Bahamas.-Author

  10. 50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial quota, recreational landing limit, research set-aside, and other specification measures. The Black Sea Bass Monitoring...

  11. 50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial quota, recreational landing limit, research set-aside, and other specification measures. The Black Sea Bass Monitoring...

  12. 50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial quota, recreational landing limit, research set-aside, and other specification measures. The Black Sea Bass Monitoring...

  13. 75 FR 6586 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ...-XT99 [Docket No. 100120036-0038-01] Fisheries of the Northeastern United; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... sea bass specifications (i.e., commercial fishing quota, recreational harvest limit (RHL), and...

  14. On The Black Sea Surozhian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Corneliu, Cerchia

    2016-04-01

    Some Black Sea researchers still support the idea of no other connection to the Mediterranean Sea between LGM and Karangatian Stage (Riss - Wurm). We try to clarify the source of these disagreements. C14 AMS age data (HERAS Project) made on undisturbed samples from a new Mamaia drilling hole where compared with the classical Black Sea stratigraphic schemes. A first transgressive event (Zone D) is found between 38.00 - 20.20 m depth. Zone D4 shows a fairly rapid rise of sea level, about 10 m below the present one indicating an inner shelf marine polyhaline environment. AMS age data show 14C ages between 53690 - 47359 y (MIS 1), corresponding to the "Surozhian Beds" of Popov. The "beach rock" from Zone E marks the decrease of the sea level after the maximum reached in Zone D4. Zone E mollusc shells AMS data, indicate 14C ages of 48724 - 44604 y, suggesting a long-time reworked material from the previous D4 zone sediments, and represents the beginning of the "regressive Tarkankutian" sequence.The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) led to the retreat of the sea level down to about 100 m below the current one (27-17 ky BP), followed by an retreat of the shoreline to the present position. At the beginning of the Holocene - MIS 1 (8408-8132 cal. y BP), Black Sea brackish water level grew rapidly, up to -14 m below the present one (Zone F: 22, 57-20, 20 m). Zone F deposits could be correlated with the Bugazian strata. Then, a continuous rising of the Black Sea level is recorded up to a maximum of -2 m under the present one, about 6789 - 7063 cal. y BP, when a transgressive spurt ("Neolithic transgression") may have taken place. After that, given a weak Danubian sedimentary input, coastal erosion intensified. The coarse sandy sediments were reworked and pushed over the previous peat deposits, and suggest a classical "sedimentary regression", not a sea-level decrease. During the last 1.5 ky, sea level has risen towards the current one. Previous C14 dates from "Karangatian

  15. 50 CFR 648.143 - Black sea bass Accountability Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass Accountability Measures... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.143 Black sea bass Accountability Measures. (a... based on dealer reports, state data, and other available information. All black sea bass landed for sale...

  16. 50 CFR 648.143 - Black sea bass Accountability Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass Accountability Measures... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.143 Black sea bass Accountability Measures. (a... based on dealer reports, state data, and other available information. All black sea bass landed for sale...

  17. 50 CFR 648.143 - Black sea bass Accountability Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass Accountability Measures... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.143 Black sea bass Accountability Measures. (a... based on dealer reports, state data, and other available information. All black sea bass landed for sale...

  18. 50 CFR 648.144 - Black sea bass gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass gear restrictions. 648.144... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.144 Black sea bass gear restrictions. (a) Trawl gear restrictions—(1) General. (i) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a black sea bass moratorium permit and...

  19. 50 CFR 648.144 - Black sea bass gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass gear restrictions. 648.144... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.144 Black sea bass gear restrictions. (a) Trawl gear restrictions—(1) General. (i) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a black sea bass moratorium permit and...

  20. 50 CFR 648.144 - Black sea bass gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass gear restrictions. 648.144... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.144 Black sea bass gear restrictions. (a) Trawl gear restrictions—(1) General. (i) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a black sea bass moratorium permit and...

  1. 50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) During the recreational fishing season specified at § 648.146, no person shall possess more than 15 black sea bass in, or...

  2. 50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) From January 1 through February 28, no person shall possess more than 15 black sea bass in, or harvested from, the EEZ...

  3. 50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) During the recreational fishing season specified at § 648.146, no person shall possess more than 20 black sea bass in, or...

  4. Tectonic evolution of the Black Sea orogene belt and the history of opening of the Black Sea basin

    SciTech Connect

    Uesuemezsoy, S.

    1988-08-01

    The Black Sea basin is surrounded by successive orogenic belts of Hercynian, Cimmerian, and Alpine ages. The Rhodope, Thracian, western Pontian, and Transcaucasian (RTPT) blocks of Precambrian age were involved by the circum-Black Sea orogene belts. The Hercynian orogene was documented in the Balkanide, Great Caucasian, Kriastide, southern Pontian, and Transcaucasian belts. The Cimmerian orogene extended north and south of the Black Sea. The southern Cimmerian orogene was represented by the circum-Rhodope and East Thracian-Strandja-Kuere belts. The northern Cimmerian orogene belt extended along the Dobruca-Crimean and southern slope belts. Following the demise of the Black Sea Cimmerian basin, the northernmostmore » oceanic branch extending from Nish-Trajan through the present Black Sea to the intra-Transcaucasian basin, was opened within the Hercynian and Cimmerian consolidated terrain in the Late Jurassic. The other oceanic branch, extending from Izmir-Ankara through circum Kirsehir to various basins, was opened within the Paleotethyan collision belt, considered to be eastern extension of the Pindus basin. The Nish-Trajan sector of the northernmost basin was closed in the middle Cretaceous, and the Moesian platform re-fused to the Getic-Serbo-Macedonian-Rhodope belt. The easternmost extension of the intra-Transcaucasian basin disappeared in the Late Cretaceous. Consequently, the northernmost oceanic branch was reduced to the present Black Sea basin.« less

  5. 50 CFR 648.146 - Black sea bass recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass recreational fishing... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.146 Black sea bass recreational fishing season... possession limit specified in § 648.145(a), may possess black sea bass from January 1 through February 28...

  6. 50 CFR 648.146 - Black sea bass recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass recreational fishing... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.146 Black sea bass recreational fishing season... possession limit specified in § 648.145(a), may only possess black sea bass from May 19 through September 21...

  7. 50 CFR 648.146 - Black sea bass recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass recreational fishing... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.146 Black sea bass recreational fishing season... possession limit specified in § 648.145(a), may only possess black sea bass from May 19 through October 14...

  8. 50 CFR 648.147 - Black sea bass minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass minimum fish sizes. 648... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.147 Black sea bass minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium (commercially) permitted vessels. The minimum size for black sea bass is 11 inches (27.94 cm) total length for...

  9. 50 CFR 648.147 - Black sea bass minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass minimum fish sizes. 648... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.147 Black sea bass minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium (commercially) permitted vessels. The minimum size for black sea bass is 11 inches (27.94 cm) total length for...

  10. 50 CFR 648.147 - Black sea bass minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass minimum fish sizes. 648... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.147 Black sea bass minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium (commercially) permitted vessels. The minimum size for black sea bass is 11 inches (27.94 cm) total length for...

  11. Morphological evolution of the southwestern Black Sea coast of Turkey since the early 2000s: medium- vs. short-term changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LiBassi, Nick; Özener, Haluk; Otay, Emre; Doğru, Aslı

    2018-06-01

    Coastal zones are in a state of continual flux worldwide, due in part to seasonal factors and in part to influences operating over longer periods of time. Discerning changes on different timescales remains a challenge. This study compares shoreline position and nearshore bathymetry over a time interval of 16 years in order to determine the extent of medium-term changes in comparison with short-term changes along the southwestern Black Sea coast of Turkey near Kilyos. For this purpose the results of surveys completed in 2001 and 2002 are compared with data collected in December 2015, September 2016, and March 2017 at the same location using a differential global positioning system (DGPS) in real-time kinematic (RTK) configuration combined with echo-sounder profiling. Average shoreline recession over the 16-year period (medium term) has been estimated at 3-4 cm/year as opposed to an average of 9.5 m in the 12-month period from June 2001 to June 2002 (short term). The medium-term nearshore sediment loss has been approx. 100-125 m3/m shoreline since the early 2000s. Over the same period a prominent offshore bar has moved seaward at a maximum rate of 1 m/year since 2002. Considering the large discrepancy in the shoreline recession rates recorded in the short and medium term, this aspect must be taken into account in any integrated coastal zone management strategy.

  12. Morphological evolution of the southwestern Black Sea coast of Turkey since the early 2000s: medium- vs. short-term changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LiBassi, Nick; Özener, Haluk; Otay, Emre; Doğru, Aslı

    2017-12-01

    Coastal zones are in a state of continual flux worldwide, due in part to seasonal factors and in part to influences operating over longer periods of time. Discerning changes on different timescales remains a challenge. This study compares shoreline position and nearshore bathymetry over a time interval of 16 years in order to determine the extent of medium-term changes in comparison with short-term changes along the southwestern Black Sea coast of Turkey near Kilyos. For this purpose the results of surveys completed in 2001 and 2002 are compared with data collected in December 2015, September 2016, and March 2017 at the same location using a differential global positioning system (DGPS) in real-time kinematic (RTK) configuration combined with echo-sounder profiling. Average shoreline recession over the 16-year period (medium term) has been estimated at 3-4 cm/year as opposed to an average of 9.5 m in the 12-month period from June 2001 to June 2002 (short term). The medium-term nearshore sediment loss has been approx. 100-125 m3/m shoreline since the early 2000s. Over the same period a prominent offshore bar has moved seaward at a maximum rate of 1 m/year since 2002. Considering the large discrepancy in the shoreline recession rates recorded in the short and medium term, this aspect must be taken into account in any integrated coastal zone management strategy.

  13. Mean and extreme sea level changes in the southwestern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jessica; Patzke, Justus; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen; Fröhle, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution an overview over the BMBF project AMSeL_Ostsee (2015-2018) for the assessment of mean and extreme sea level changes over the past 150 years in the southwestern Baltic Sea is presented. We compile several high resolution tide gauge records provided by the Water and Shipping Administration (WSV) along the German Baltic Sea coastline and merge them in internationally available data bases (UHSLC, PSMSL, and data officially available at national authorities). In addition, we make efforts in digitizing historical records to expand the number of available data sets in this complex and vulnerable coastal region. To separate absolute from relative long-term changes in sea level the vertical land motion (VLM) at specific sites is assessed. Possible sources of VLM are independently assessed by using different state-of-the-art approaches, that is: Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) modelled by viscoelastic Earth models, GPS derived VLM, and the difference between tide gauge and nearby satellite altimetry. The VLM corrected tide gauge records are further assessed for linear and non-linear trends as well as possible acceleration/deceleration patterns by applying advanced time series models such as Singular System Analysis (SSA) combined with a Monte-Carlo-Autoregressive-Padding approach (Wahl et al., 2010). These trend assessments are applied to mean and extreme sea levels independently to prove whether observed changes in extremes are either due to an underlying trend on mean sea levels or changes in storminess. References: Wahl, T., Jensen, J., Frank, T. (2011): On analysing sea level rise in the German Bight since 1844, NHESS, 10, 171-179.

  14. 50 CFR 648.141 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.141 Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT). (a) The Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall identify and review the relevant sources of management...

  15. 50 CFR 648.141 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.141 Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT). (a) The Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall identify and review the relevant sources of management...

  16. 50 CFR 648.141 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.141 Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT). (a) The Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall identify and review the relevant sources of management...

  17. Home range size of Black-backed Woodpeckers in burned forests of southwestern Idaho

    Treesearch

    Jonathan G. Dudley; Victoria A. Saab

    2007-01-01

    We examined home range size of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in burned ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) / Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests of southwestern Idaho during 2000 and 2002 (6 and 8 years following fire). Home range size for 4 adult males during the post-fledging period was 115....

  18. Holocene sea level and climate change in the Black Sea: Multiple marine incursions related to freshwater discharge events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, R.E.; Leorri, E.; McLaughlin, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    Repeated marine invasions of the Black Sea during the Holocene have been inferred by many eastern scientists as resulting from episodes of marine inflow from the Mediterranean beneath a brackish outflow from the Black Sea. We support this scenario but a fundamental question remains: What caused the repeated marine invasions? We offer an hypothesis for the repeated marine invasions of the Black Sea based on: (1) the overall similarity of sea-level curves from both tectonically quiescent and active margins of the Black Sea and their similarity to a sequence stratigraphic record from the US mid-Atlantic coast. The similarity of the records from two widely-separated regions suggests their common response to documented Holocene climate ocean-atmosphere reorganizations (coolings); (2) the fact that in the modern Black Sea, freshwater runoff from surrounding rivers dominates over evaporation, so that excess runoff might have temporarily raised Black Sea level (although the Black Sea would have remained brackish). Following the initial invasion of the Black Sea by marine Mediterranean waters (through the Marmara Sea) in the early Holocene, repeated marine incursions were modulated, or perhaps even caused, by freshwater discharge to the Black Sea. Climatic amelioration (warming) following each documented ocean-atmosphere reorganization during the Holocene likely shifted precipitation patterns in the surrounding region and caused mountain glaciers to retreat, increasing freshwater runoff above modern values and temporarily contributing to an increase of Black Sea level. Freshwater-to-brackish water discharges into the Black Sea initially slowed marine inflow but upon mixing of runoff with more marine waters beneath them and their eventual exit through the Bosphorus, marine inflow increased again, accounting for the repeated marine invasions. The magnitude of the hydrologic and sea-level fluctuations became increasingly attenuated through the Holocene, as reflected by Black

  19. 50 CFR 648.140 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.140 Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL). (a) The Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial and...

  20. 50 CFR 648.140 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.140 Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL). (a) The Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial and...

  1. 50 CFR 648.140 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.140 Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL). (a) The Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial and...

  2. XXI century projections of wind-wave conditions and sea-level rise in the Black sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonsky, A.; Garmashov, A.; Fomin, V.; Valchev, N.; Trifonova, E.

    2012-04-01

    Projection of regional climate changes for XXI century is one of the priorities of EC environmental programme. Potential worsening of the waves' statistics, sea level rise and extreme surges are the principal negative consequences of the climate change for marine environment. That is why the main purpose of this presentation is to discuss the above issue for the Black sea region (with a strong focus to the south-west subregion because the maximum heights of waves exceeding 10 m occur just here) using output of several global coupled models (GCM) for XXI century, wave simulation, long-term observations of sea level and statistical techniques. First of all we tried to choose the best coupled model (s) simulated the Black sea climate change and variability using the control experiments for 20 century (203). The principal result is as follows. There is not one model which is simulating adequately even one atmospheric parameter for all seasons. Therefore we considered (for the climate projection) different outputs form various models. When it was possible we calculated also the ensemble mean projection for the selected model (s) and emission scenarios. To calculate the wave projection we used the output of SWAN model forced by the GCM wind projection for 2010 to 2100. To estimate the sea level rise in XXI century and future surges statistics we extrapolate the observed sea level rise tendencies, statistical relation between wave heights and sea level and wave scenarios. Results show that in general, the climate change in XXI century doesn't lead to the catastrophic change of the Black sea wind-wave statistics including the extreme waves in the S-W Black sea. The typical atmospheric pattern leading to the intense storm in the S-W Black sea is characterized by the persistent anticyclonic area to the North of the Black sea and cyclonic conditions in the Southern Black sea region. Such pressure pattern causes persistent and strong eastern or north-eastern wind which

  3. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  4. On the Bioeconomic potential of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, Marian-Traian

    2015-04-01

    The paper is a plea for the need to engage in more intensive researches on the Black Sea region bioeconomy so that they should keep pace with the researches taking place in other European seas. Bioeconomy offers Europe a unique opportunity to address complex inter-connected challenges, while achieving economic growth. Bioeconomy refers to the set of economic activities relating to the invention, development, production and use of biological products and processes. According to the European Commission, bioeconomy can be found in societal challenge category entitled "Food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine, maritime and inland water research, and the Bioeconomy" (http://ec.europa.eu/research/bioeconomy/h2020/index_en.htm); a transition is needed towards an optimal and renewable use of biological resources and towards sustainable primary production and processing systems. The author makes a brief overview of the European preoccupations concerning scientific research into bioeconomy and, equally, presents Romanian thinking in the field, launched several decades ago, but never applied and developed in practice. In 1933 Dr. Gr. Antipa, former outstanding student of Ernst Haeckel at Jena, expounded his conception of general biology and the biological structure of the Black Sea introducing the concepts of "biosociology" and "bioeconomy", drawing conclusions on the natural mechanism of fish production in this sea and specifying the determining factors in functioning. Antipa notes the lack of uniformity of the living conditions in the Black Sea and draws conclusions based on indices and faunal aspects found in different areas and at different depths: 1. The Black Sea, to an even greater extent than the Baltic Sea, with which it has some similarity both of them having a continuous surface and homogeneous appearance, is divided into more zones or biotypes, bounded horizontally and vertically - i.e. depending on areas and depths - each with distinct and well

  5. Foraging-habitat selection of Black-backed Woodpeckers in forest burns of southwestern Idaho

    Treesearch

    Jonathan G. Dudley; Victoria A. Saab; Jeffrey P. Hollenbeck

    2012-01-01

    We examined foraging-habitat selection of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in burned forests of southwestern Idaho during 2000 and 2002 (6 and 8 years following wildfire). This woodpecker responds positively to large-scale fire disturbances and may be at risk from logging and post-fire management. With 100 radio-locations of four adult males, we used...

  6. Petroleum geology of Azov-Black Sea region

    SciTech Connect

    Lukin, A.; Trofimenko, G.

    1995-08-01

    The main features of tectonics, stratigraphy, paleogeography, lithology, hydrogeology, geothermics and hydrocarbon-bearingness of Azov-Black Sea Region are characterized on the basis of present-day data. Among the most prospective petroliferous complexes one ought to mention: Paleozoic (S - D - C{sub 1}) of Near-Dobrudga foredeep, Triassic - Jurassic of the Black Sea (shelf and continental slope); Lower Cretaceous of the various parts of the Region; Upper Cretaceous of the Black Sea shelf; Paleocene-Eocene of Azov Sea. In addition certain prospects are connected with Precambrian and Paleozoic basements within conjunction zone between Eastern-Europe platform and Scythian plate. Geodynamic evolution of the Regionmore » is considered with determination of tension and compression stages and characteristic of the main regularities of diapirs, mud volcanos, swells, horsts and grabens distribution. There determined the most interesting types of hydrocarbon traps connected with various tectonic forms, river and deltaic channels, bars, conturites, carbonate reefs, etc. Paleogeothermic and paleogeodynamic reconstructions allow to determine the main phases of oil and gas accumulation. The most prospective oil-gas-bearing zones and areas are mapped.« less

  7. Contribution of mesoscale eddies to Black Sea ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capet, Arthur; Mason, Evan; Pascual, Ananda; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2017-04-01

    The shoaling of the Black Sea oxycline is one of the most urgent environmental issues in the Black Sea. The permanent oxycline derives directly from the Black Sea permanent stratification and has shoaled alarmingly in the last decades, due to a shifting balance between oxygen consumption and ventilation processes (Capet et al. 2016). The understanding of this balance is thus of the utmost importance and requires to quantify 1) the export of nutrients and organic materials from the shelf regions to the open sea and 2) the ventilation processes. These two processes being influenced by mesoscale features, it is critical to understand the role of the semi-permanent mesoscale structures in horizontal (center/periphery) and vertical (diapycnal and isopycnal) exchanges. A useful insight can be obtained by merging observations from satellite altimeter and in situ profilers (ARGO). In such composite analyses, eddies are first automatically identified and tracked from altimeter data (Mason et al. 2014, py-eddy-tracker). Vertical ARGO profiles are then expressed in terms of their position relative to eddy centers and radii. Derived statistics indicate how consistently mesoscale eddies alter the vertical structure, and provide a deeper understanding of the associated horizontal and vertical fluxes. However, this data-based approach is limited in the Black Sea due to the lower quality of gridded altimetric products in the vicinity of the coast, where semi-permanent mesoscale structures prevail. To complement the difficult analysis of this sparse dataset, a compositing methodology. is also applied to model outputs from the 5km GHER-BHAMBI Black Sea implementation (CMEMS BS-MFC). Characteristic biogeochemical anomalies associated with eddies in the model are analyzed per se, and compared to the observation-based analysis. Capet, A., Stanev, E. V., Beckers, J.-M., Murray, J. W., and Grégoire, M.: Decline of the Black Sea oxygen inventory, Biogeosciences, 13, 1287-1297, doi:10

  8. Magnetite in Black Sea Turtles (Chelonia agassizi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Garduño, V.; Sanchez, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have reported experimental evidence for magnetoreception in marine turtles. In order to increase our knowledge about magnetoreception and biogenic mineralization, we have isolated magnetite particles from the brain of specimens of black sea turtles Chelonia agassizi. Our samples come from natural deceased organisms collected the reserve area of Colola Maruata in southern Mexico. The occurrence of magnetite particles in brain tissue of black sea turtles offers the opportunity for further studies to investigate possible function of ferrimagnetic material, its mineralogical composition, grain size, texture and its location and structural arrangement within the host tissue. After sample preparation and microscopic examination, we localized and identified the ultrafine unidimensional particles of magnetite by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Particles present grain sizes between 10.0 to 40.0Mm. Our study provides, for the first time, evidence for biogenic formation of this material in the black sea turtles. The ultrafine particles are apparently superparamagnetic. Preliminary results from rock magnetic measurements are also reported and correlated to the SEM observations. The black turtle story on the Michoacan coast is an example of formerly abundant resource which was utilized as a subsistence level by Nahuatl indigenous group for centuries, but which is collapsing because of intensive illegal commercial exploitation. The most important nesting and breeding grounds for the black sea turtle on any mainland shore are the eastern Pacific coastal areas of Maruata and Colola, in Michoacan. These beaches are characterized by important amounts of magnetic mineral (magnetites and titanomagnetites) mixed in their sediments.

  9. Problems of the active tectonics of the Eastern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javakhishvili, Z.; Godoladze, T.; Dreger, D. S.; Mikava, D.; Tvaliashvili, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Black Sea Basin is the part of the Arabian Eurasian Collision zone and important unit for understanding the tectonic process of the region. This complex basin comprises two deep basins, separated by the mid-Black Sea Ridge. The basement of the Black Sea includes areas with oceanic and continental crust. It was formed as a "back-arc" basin over the subduction zone during the closing of the Tethys Ocean. In the past decades the Black Sea has been the subject of intense geological and geophysical studies. Several papers were published about the geological history, tectonics, basement relief and crustal and upper mantle structure of the basin. New tectonic schemes were suggested (e. g. Nikishin et al 2014, Shillington et al. 2008, Starostenko et al. 2004 etc.). Nevertheless, seismicity of the Black Sea is poorly studied due to the lack of seismic network in the coastal area. It is considered, that the eastern basin currently lies in a compressional setting associated with the uplift of the Caucasus and structural development of the Caucasus was closely related to the evolution of the Eastern Black Sea Basin. Analyses of recent sequence of earthquakes in 2012 can provide useful information to understand complex tectonic structure of the Eastern Black Sea region. Right after the earthquake of 2012/12/23, National Seismic monitoring center of Georgia deployed additional 4 stations in the coastal area of the country, close to the epicenter area, to monitor aftershock sequence. Seismic activity in the epicentral area is continuing until now. We have relocated approximately 1200 aftershocks to delineate fault scarf using data from Georgian, Turkish and Russian datacenters. Waveforms of the major events and the aftershocks were inverted for the fault plane solutions of the events. For the inversion were used green's functions, computed using new 1D velocity model of the region. Strike-slip mechanism of the major events of the earthquake sequence indicates extensional

  10. Recent Extreme Marine Events at Southern Coast of Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Kirezci, Cagil; Baykal, Cuneyt; Gokhan Guler, Hasan; Erol, Onur; Zaytsev, Andrey; Kurkin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The utilization at the coastal areas of Black Sea basin has increased in the recent years with the projects such as large commercial ports, international transportation hubs, gas and petrol pipelines, touristic and recreational infrastructures both along surrounding shoreline. Although Black Sea is a closed basin, extreme storms and storm surges have also been observed with an increasing frequency in the recent years. Among those events, February 1999, March 2013 and September 2014 storms impacted Southern coast of Black sea have clearly shown that the increasing economic value at the coastal areas caused the increasing cost of damages and loss of property by natural hazards. The storm occurred on February 19-20, 1999 is one of the most destructive storm in the last decades. The 1999 event (1999 Southern Black sea storm) caused destruction at all harbors and coastal protection structures along the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The complete damage of the breakwater of Giresun Harbor and damage on the harbor structures and cargo handling equipment were the major impacts of the 1999 Southern Black sea storm. Similar coastal impact have also been observed during the September 24, 2014 storm at 500m East of Giresun harbor. Although there are considerable number of destructive storms observed at southern coast of Black sea recently, data on these events are limited and vastly scattered. In this study the list of recent extreme marine events at South coast of the Black sea compiled and related data such as wind speed, wave height, period, and type of damages are cataloged. Particular attention is focused on the 1999 and 2014 storm events. The meteorological and morphological characteristics which may be considered as the reasons of the generation and coastal amplification of these storms are discussed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This study is partly supported by Turkish Russian Joint Research Grant Program by TUBITAK (Turkey) and RFBR (Russia), and TUBITAK 213M534 Research Project.

  11. Contemporary genetic structure and postglacial demographic history of the black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus, in the Mediterranean and the Black Seas.

    PubMed

    Boissin, E; Micu, D; Janczyszyn-Le Goff, M; Neglia, V; Bat, L; Todorova, V; Panayotova, M; Kruschel, C; Macic, V; Milchakova, N; Keskin, Ç; Anastasopoulou, A; Nasto, I; Zane, L; Planes, S

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the distribution of genetic diversity in the light of past demographic events linked with climatic shifts will help to forecast evolutionary trajectories of ecosystems within the current context of climate change. In this study, mitochondrial sequences and microsatellite loci were analysed using traditional population genetic approaches together with Bayesian dating and the more recent approximate Bayesian computation scenario testing. The genetic structure and demographic history of a commercial fish, the black scorpionfish, Scorpaena porcus, was investigated throughout the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The results suggest that the species recently underwent population expansions, in both seas, likely concomitant with the warming period following the Last Glacial Maximum, 20 000 years ago. A weak contemporaneous genetic differentiation was identified between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. However, the genetic diversity was similar for populations of the two seas, suggesting a high number of colonizers entered the Black Sea during the interglacial period and/or the presence of a refugial population in the Black Sea during the glacial period. Finally, within seas, an east/west genetic differentiation in the Adriatic seems to prevail, whereas the Black Sea does not show any structured spatial genetic pattern of its population. Overall, these results suggest that the Black Sea is not that isolated from the Mediterranean, and both seas revealed similar evolutionary patterns related to climate change and changes in sea level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Attributing extreme precipitation in the Black Sea region to sea surface warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Edmund; Semenov, Vladimir; Maraun, Douglas; Park, Wonsun; Chernokulsky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Higher sea surface temperatures (SSTs) warm and moisten the overlying atmosphere, increasing the low-level atmospheric instability, the moisture available to precipitating systems and, hence, the potential for intense convective systems. Both the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions have seen a steady increase in summertime SSTs since the early 1980s, by over 2 K in places. This raises the question of how this SST increase has affected convective precipitation extremes in the region, and through which mechanisms any effects are manifested. In particular, the Black Sea town of Krymsk suffered an unprecedented precipitation extreme in July 2012, which may have been influenced by Black Sea warming, causing over 170 deaths. To address this question, we adopt two distinct modelling approaches to event attribution and compare their relative merits. In the first, we use the traditional probabilistic event attribution approach involving global climate model ensembles representative of the present and a counterfactual past climate where regional SSTs have not increased. In the second, we use the conditional event attribution approach, taking the 2012 Krymsk precipitation extreme as a showcase example. Under the second approach, we carry out ensemble sensitivity experiments of the Krymsk event at convection-permitting resolution with the WRF regional model, and test the sensitivity of the event to a range of SST forcings. Both experiments show the crucial role of recent Black Sea warming in amplifying the 2012 Krymsk precipitation extreme. In the conditional event attribution approach, though, the explicit simulation of convective processes provides detailed insight into the physical mechanisms behind the extremeness of the event, revealing the dominant role of dynamical (i.e. static stability and vertical motions) over thermodynamical (i.e. increased atmospheric moisture) changes. Additionally, the wide range of SST states tested in the regional setup, which would be

  13. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  14. Phytoplankton bloom in the Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Brightly colored waters in the Black Sea give evidence of the growth of tiny marine plants called phytoplankton, which contain chlorophyll and other pigments that reflect light different ways, producing the colorful displays. The very bright blue waters could be an organism called a coccolithophores, which has a highly reflective calcium carbonate coating that appears bright blue (or sometimes white) in true-color (visible) imagery. However, other organisms, such as cyanobacteria can also appear that color, and so often scientists will compare the ratios of reflectance at one wavelength of light to another to decide what organisms might be present. This series of images shows a bloom occurring in the Black Sea from May 11, 2002, to May 18.

  15. Modeling of Long-Term Evolution of Hydrophysical Fields of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorofeyev, V. L.; Sukhikh, L. I.

    2017-11-01

    The long-term evolution of the Black Sea dynamics (1980-2020) is reconstructed by numerical simulation. The model of the Black Sea circulation has 4.8 km horizontal spatial resolution and 40 levels in z-coordinates. The mixing processes in the upper layer are parameterized by Mellor-Yamada turbulent model. For the sea surface boundary conditions, atmospheric forcing functions were used, provided for the Black Sea region by the Euro mediterranean Center on Climate Change (CMCC) from the COSMO-CLM regional climate model. These data have a spatial resolution of 14 km and a daily temporal resolution. To evaluate the quality of the hydrodynamic fields derived from the simulation, they were compared with in-situ hydrological measurements and similar results from physical reanalysis of the Black Sea.

  16. Variational data assimilation system "INM RAS - Black Sea"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmuzin, Eugene; Agoshkov, Valery; Assovskiy, Maksim; Giniatulin, Sergey; Zakharova, Natalia; Kuimov, Grigory; Fomin, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Development of Informational-Computational Systems (ICS) for Data Assimilation Procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The problems discussed above are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for Personal Computers (PC). Special problems and questions arise while effective ICS versions for PC are being developed. These problems and questions can be solved with applying modern methods of numerical mathematics and by solving "parallelism problem" using OpenMP technology and special linear algebra packages. In this work the results on the ICS development for PC-ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" are presented. In the work the following problems and questions are discussed: practical problems that can be studied by ICS; parallelism problems and their solutions with applying of OpenMP technology and the linear algebra packages used in ICS "INM - Black Sea"; Interface of ICS. The results of ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" testing are presented. Efficiency of technologies and methods applied are discussed. The work was supported by RFBR, grants No. 13-01-00753, 13-05-00715 and by The Ministry of education and science of Russian Federation, project 8291, project 11.519.11.1005 References: [1] V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black Sea hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 5-31 [2] E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 69-94 [3] V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V

  17. Pigments, size and distribution of Synechococcus spp. in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, Zahit

    2000-03-01

    Pigments, size and distribution of Phycoerythrin-containing unicellular cyanobacteria Synechococcus spp. within the euphotic zone were studied for the first time in April-May 1994 in the western and southwestern Black Sea by epifluorescence microscopy and flow-cytometry. Synechococcus was present in varying quantities at every station and depth studied. Surface spatial distribution of Synechococcus revealed that cells were much more abundant in offshore waters than near coastal regions under the direct influence of the Danube river. Minimum and maximum cell concentrations ranged between 9×10 2 and 1.45×10 5 cells/ml at the surface, between 2×10 3 and 1.23×10 5 cells/ml at the chlorophyll sub-maximum layer, and between 1.3×10 2 and 3.5×10 2 at the nitrite maximum layer. Cells at the chlorophyll sub-maximum layer (based on in-situ fluorometer readings) fluoresce brighter and longer than the ones at the surface and lower depths. Spectral properties of chromophore pigment types of total 64 clonal isolates from different depths down to the lower layer of the euphotic zone (˜60 m) in the southern Black Sea coast revealed that all have type 2 phycoerythrobilin in common, lacking in phycourobilin. In vivo fluorescence emission maxima for the phycoerythrobilin were about the same (˜578 nm) for all isolates. All isolates examined showed in vivo absorption maxima at between 435 and 442 nm and at about 681 nm due to chlorophyll- a. Based on the flow cytometer mean forward light scatter data for size distribution, it could be concluded that cells at the surface mixed layer (0-10 m) were larger in cell size than the cells at lower depths (20-60 m).

  18. Black Sea outflow response to Holocene meltwater events.

    PubMed

    Herrle, Jens O; Bollmann, Jörg; Gebühr, Christina; Schulz, Hartmut; Sheward, Rosie M; Giesenberg, Annika

    2018-03-06

    During the Holocene, North American ice sheet collapse and rapid sea-level rise reconnected the Black Sea with the global ocean. Rapid meltwater releases into the North Atlantic and associated climate change arguably slowed the pace of Neolithisation across southeastern Europe, originally hypothesized as a catastrophic flooding that fueled culturally-widespread deluge myths. However, we currently lack an independent record linking the timing of meltwater events, sea-level rise and environmental change with the timing of Neolithisation in southeastern Europe. Here, we present a sea surface salinity record from the Northern Aegean Sea indicative of two meltwater events at ~8.4 and ~7.6 kiloyears that can be directly linked to rapid declines in the establishment of Neolithic sites in southeast Europe. The meltwater events point to an increased outflow of low salinity water from the Black Sea driven by rapid sea level rise >1.4 m following freshwater outbursts from Lake Agassiz and the final decay of the Laurentide ice sheet. Our results shed new light on the link between catastrophic sea-level rise and the Neolithisation of southeastern Europe, and present a historical example of how coastal populations could have been impacted by future rapid sea-level rise.

  19. Wind impact on the Black Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanichny, Sergey; Ratner, Yuriy; Shokurov, Mike; Stanychna, Rimma; Soloviev, Dmytro; Burdyugov, Vyacheslav

    2010-05-01

    Combination of the recent satellite and meteorological data for the regional investigation allowed to describe new features of the processes in marine ecosystem and detect some relations with wind variability for different time scales. Next topics are highlighted in presentation: 1. Inter-annual variability of the wind stress curl over the Black Sea. Shift in the atmospheric processes after 2003 year and related variations in chlorophyll concentration and intensity of the mesoscale currents. 2. Like-tropical cyclone in September 2005 and its impact o the Black Sea upper layer. 3. Strong storm November 11, 2007 and oil pollutions of the Kerch Strait. 4. Relation of the Danube waters transport with wind fields for summer 2007 and 2008. 5. "Valley" wind in the Eastern part of the Black Sea and its impact on the Rim current formation. 6. Low wind conditions and blue -green algae bloom. NCEP, SKIRON and MHI MM5 wind data together with AVHRR, MODIS, MERIS, ETM+, QuikSCAT, ASAR (ESA) satellite data were used for investigation. Work was done with support of the SESAME FP7, "Stable Ecosystem" and Operational Oceanography NASU projects.

  20. Tsunami early warning system for the western coast of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Partheniu, Raluca; Cioflan, Carmen; Constantin, Angela; Danet, Anton; Diaconescu, Mihai; Ghica, Daniela; Grecu, Bogdan; Manea, Liviu; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Moldovan, Iren; Neagoe, Cristian; Radulian, Mircea; Raileanu, Victor; Verdes, Ioan

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea area is liable to tsunamis generation and the statistics show that more than twenty tsunamis have been observed in the past. The last tsunami was observed on 31st of March 1901 in the western part of the Black Sea, in the Shabla area. An earthquake of magnitude generated at a depth of 15 km below the sea level , triggered tsunami waves of 5 m height and material losses as well. The oldest tsunami ever recorded close to the Romanian shore-line dates from year 104. This paper emphasises the participation of The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) to the development of a tsunami warning system for the western cost of the Black Sea. In collaboration with the National Institute for Marine Geology and Geoecology (GeoEcoMar), the Institute of Oceanology and the Geological Institute, the last two belonging to the Bulgarian Academy of Science, NIEP has participated as partner, to the cross-border project "Set-up and implementation of key core components of a regional early-warning system for marine geohazards of risk to the Romanian-Bulgarian Black Sea coastal area - MARINEGEOHAZARDS", coordinated by GeoEcoMar. The main purpose of the project was the implementation of an integrated early-warning system accompanied by a common decision-support tool, and enhancement of regional technical capability, for the adequate detection, assessment, forecasting and rapid notification of natural marine geohazards for the Romanian-Bulgarian Black Sea cross-border area. In the last years, NIEP has increased its interest on the marine related hazards, such as tsunamis and, in collaboration with other institutions of Romania, is acting to strengthen the cooperation and data exchanges with institutions from the Black Sea surrounding countries which already have tsunami monitoring infrastructures. In this respect, NIEP has developed a coastal network for marine seismicity, by installing three new seismic stations in the coastal area of the Black Sea, Sea Level Sensors

  1. Black Sea GIS developed in MHI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, E.; Khaliulin, A.; Zodiatis, G.; Nikolaidis, A.; Isaeva, E.

    2016-08-01

    The work aims at creating the Black Sea geoinformation system (GIS) and complementing it with a model bank. The software for data access and visualization was developed using client server architecture. A map service based on MapServer and MySQL data management system were chosen for the Black Sea GIS. Php-modules and python-scripts are used to provide data access, processing, and exchange between the client application and the server. According to the basic data types, the module structure of GIS was developed. Each type of data is matched to a module which allows selection and visualization of the data. At present, a GIS complement with a model bank (the models build in to the GIS) and users' models (programs launched on users' PCs but receiving and displaying data via GIS) is developed.

  2. Biogeochemical properties of sinking particles in the southwestern part of the East Sea (Japan Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minkyoung; Hwang, Jeomshik; Rho, TaeKeun; Lee, Tongsup; Kang, Dong-Jin; Chang, Kyung-Il; Noh, Suyun; Joo, HuiTae; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the biological pump system in the East Sea (Japan Sea) by conducting an analysis of the total particle flux, biogenic material composition, and carbon isotope ratios of sinking particles. The samples were collected for one year starting from March 2011 using time-series sediment traps deployed at depths of 1040 m and 2280 m on bottom-tethered mooring at Station EC1 (37.33°N, 131.45°E; 2300 m water depth) in the Ulleung Basin (UB), southwestern part of the East Sea. The temporal variation in the particulate organic carbon (POC) flux at 1000 m shows a good relationship with the primary production in the corresponding surface water. The ratio of POC flux at 1000 m to satellite-based primary production in the corresponding region in the UB was 3%, which is comparable to the values of 2 to 5% estimated from previous studies of other part of the East Sea. The lithogenic material accounted for > 17% of the sinking particles at 1000 m and for a larger fraction of 40 to 60% at 2280 m. The radiocarbon contents of the sinking POC at both trap depths imply the additional supply of aged POC, with a much greater contribution at 2280 m. Overall, the particle flux in the deep interior of the East Sea appears to be controlled by the supply of complex sources, including aeolian input, the lateral supply of resuspended sediments, and biological production in the surface water.

  3. Propagation of the Sea of Azov plume in the Black Sea and its relation with atmospheric forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavialov, Ivan; Osadchiev, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    This work is devoted to research of the influence of wind forcing on propagation of the Sea of Azov water plume in the Black Sea. The Sea of Azov water is characterized by relatively low salinity and high concentrations of suspended matter, terrigenic nutrients, and anthropogenic pollutants. Thus, the Sea of Azov inflow has significant impacts on physical, chemical, and biological processes in the Black Sea. The increased concentration of the suspended matter in the Sea of Azov plume allows to determine accurately its borders based on remote sensing data. For this purpose, data of the satellite color scanner MERIS/EnviSat with 300-meter spatial resolution were used. Atmospheric forcing on the Sea of Azov plume was investigated with the data of 6-hour reanalysis of winds (MERRA and NCAR/NCEP) with spatial resolution at 1/2 degrees in latitude and 2/3 degrees in longitude. Based on satellite images and wind reanalysis data for 2002-2012 period, it was established that the Azov Sea water inflow is favored by strong N and NE winds, which prevail in the region. It is evident in the processed satellite data that the Sea of Azov plume mainly extends along the east coast of the Crimean peninsula. In some cases under sufficiently strong winds, the Azov waters spread to the southern coast of the Crimea, and sometimes even to its south-west extremity. Factors influencing the propagation of the Azov Sea plume include intensity of water exchange between the Azov and the Black seas, the Rim Current, mesoscale eddies and other dynamic processes. However, the study demonstrated that the influence of wind forcing is dominant. Empirical regressions are derived expressing the dependence of the Azov plume area and its orientation on the magnitude and directions of the wind stress. Satellite-derived statistics of the Azov plume in the Black Sea characteristics are obtained.

  4. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  5. 77 FR 24151 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Black Sea Bass Fisheries; Final 2012 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Specifications AGENCY... management measures, for the 2012 summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries. The specifications are... specifications for the summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries, including commercial quotas...

  6. 77 FR 76950 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2012 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Specifications; Correction... Register the final rule to implement the 2012 summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass specifications... summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass specifications. Regulations for the summer flounder fishery are...

  7. 76 FR 53831 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2011 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Specifications; Correction... Federal Register the final rule to implement the 2011 summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass....100. Need for Correction The final rule implementing 2011 summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass...

  8. [FATTY ACID COMPOSITION ALTEROMONAS-LIKE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE BLACK SEA WATER].

    PubMed

    Klochko, V V; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii strains isolated from the Black sea water were similar in their fatty acids composition with the type strain of this species. Analysis of lipid composition of 10 A. macleodii strains isolated from the deep and surface water layers in different World ocean regions including the Black sea water has shown that the deep and surface isolates of this species formed two groups different in their fatty acids profiles. The Black sea isolates of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, P. citrea, P. flavipulchra conformed to these species type strains in their fatty acids composition. On the basis of the fatty acids spectra similarity of three Pseudoalteromonas species strains with Plipolytica described in 2010 has been established. Presence of three isomers C16:1ψ7, C 16:1ψ9 and C16:1ψ6--components of hexadecenic acid in the Black sea isolates of Shewanella baltica has been shown.

  9. Spawning of Bluefin Tuna in the Black Sea: Historical Evidence, Environmental Constraints and Population Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Brian R.; Mariani, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae), used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity, but its biogeographic range has contracted since the 1950s. Most recently, the species disappeared from the Black Sea in the late 1980s and has not yet recovered. Reasons for the Black Sea disappearance, and the species-wide range contraction, are unclear. However bluefin tuna formerly foraged and possibly spawned in the Black Sea. Loss of a locally-reproducing population would represent a decline in population richness, and an increase in species vulnerability to perturbations such as exploitation and environmental change. Here we identify the main genetic and phenotypic adaptations that the population must have (had) in order to reproduce successfully in the specific hydrographic (estuarine) conditions of the Black Sea. By comparing hydrographic conditions in spawning areas of the three species of bluefin tunas, and applying a mechanistic model of egg buoyancy and sinking rate, we show that reproduction in the Black Sea must have required specific adaptations of egg buoyancy, fertilisation and development for reproductive success. Such adaptations by local populations of marine fish species spawning in estuarine areas are common as is evident from a meta-analysis of egg buoyancy data from 16 species of fish. We conclude that these adaptations would have been necessary for successful local reproduction by bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, and that a locally-adapted reproducing population may have disappeared. Recovery of bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, either for spawning or foraging, will occur fastest if any remaining locally adapted individuals are allowed to survive, and by conservation and recovery of depleted Mediterranean populations which could through time re

  10. Autumn orientation behaviour of paddyfield warblers, Acrocephalus agricola, from a recently expanded breeding range on the western Black Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Ilieva, Mihaela; Akesson, Susanne

    2010-10-01

    The paddyfield warbler, Acrocephalus agricola, has extended its breeding range from Central Asia to the western Black Sea coast. The Balkan population offers a unique chance to test the effect of breeding range expansion on the genetically programmed migratory direction. We studied 21 paddyfield warblers at Durankulak Lake, NE Bulgaria, by recording their autumn migratory orientation in circular orientation cages. Our data show that the preferred migratory orientation is directed along a NE-SW axis. Paddyfield warblers seem to avoid direct crossing of the Black Sea by following the western coast. The mean bearing was parallel to the nearest coastline and corresponds to the direction of the historical breeding range expansion of the species. In our experiment many individuals showed south-western orientation in autumn, a course which would potentially lead the birds to exploratory movements outside the current breeding range. An axial orientation response has been often shown in circular cage tests, and can be due to factors such as coastal orientation or reverse orientation triggered by the physiological condition of some individuals. However, it might also be one of the driving mechanisms for range expansion. Hence, we can expect the future expansion of Balkan paddyfield warblers to continue towards south-west. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Black Sea thermohaline properties: Long‐term trends and variations

    PubMed Central

    Stips, A.; Garcia‐Gorriz, E.; Macias Moy, D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The current knowledge about spatial and temporal dynamics of the Black Sea's thermohaline structure is incomplete because of missing data and sparse distribution of existing measurements in space and time. This study presents 56 year continuous simulations of the Black Sea's hydrodynamics using the 3D General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM), without incorporating any relaxation toward climatological or observational data fields. This property of the model allows us to estimate independent temporal trends, in addition to resolving the spatial structure. The simulations suggest that the intermediate layer temperature is characterized by a weak positive trend (warming), whereas the surface temperature does not show a clear linear trend. Different salinity trends have been established at the surface (negative), upper (weaker negative) and main halocline (positive). Three distinct dynamic periods are identified (1960–1970, 1970–1995, 1995–2015), which exhibit pronounced changes in the Black Sea's thermohaline properties and basin circulation. Strengthening of the main cyclonic circulation, accompanied by intensification of the mesoscale anticyclonic eddy formation is found. Both events strongly affect the sea surface salinity but contribute in opposing directions. Specifically, strong composite large‐scale circulation leads to an increase in sea surface salinity, while enhanced formation of mesoscale anticyclones decreases it. Salinity evolution with time is thus the result of the competition of these two opposing yet interdependent processes. PMID:28989833

  12. Exchanges between the open Black Sea and its North West shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zhou, Feng

    2014-05-01

    Exchanges between the vast NW shelf and the deep basin of the Black Sea play a significant role in maintaining the balance of nutrients, heat content and salinity of the shelf waters. Nearly 87 % of the Black Sea is entirely anoxic below 70 to 200m and contains high levels of hydrogen sulphide (Zaitsev et al, 2001), and this makes the shelf waters particularly valuable for maintaining the Black Sea ecosystem in good health. The increase in salinity of shelf waters occurs partially due to exchanges with more saline open sea waters and represents a threat to relics and endemic species. The shelf-break is commonly considered the bottle-neck of the shelf-deep sea exchanges (e.g. (Huthnance, 1995, Ivanov et al, 1997). Due to conservation of potential vorticity, the geostrophic currents flow along the contours of constant depth. However the ageostrophic flows (Ekman drift, mesoscale eddies, filaments, internal waves) are not subject to the same constraints. It has been shown that during the winter well mixed cold waters formed on the North West shelf propagate into the deep sea, providing an important mechanism for the replenishment of the Cold Intermediate Layer ( Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However, much less is known about exchanges in the warm season. In this study, the transports of water, heat and salt between the northwestern shelf and the adjacent deep basin of the Black Sea are investigated using a high-resolution three-dimensional primitive equation model, NEMO-SHELF-BLS (Shapiro et al, 2013). It is shown that during the period from April to August, 2005, both onshore and offshore cross-shelf break transports in the top 20 m were as high as 0.24 Sv on average, which was equivalent to the replacement of 60% of the volume of surface shelf waters (0 - 20 m) per month. Two main exchange mechanisms are studied: (i) Ekman transport, and (ii) transport by mesoscale eddies and associated meanders of the Rim Current. The Ekman drift causes nearly uniform onshore or

  13. Coccolithophore assemblage response to Black Sea Water inflow into the North Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatsolis, B.-Th.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; Dimiza, M. D.; Malinverno, E.; Lagaria, A.; Mara, P.; Archontikis, O.; Psarra, S.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to presents the species composition of living coccolithophore communities in the NE Aegean Sea, investigating their spatial and temporal variations along a north-south transect in the area receiving the inflowing surface Black Sea Water (BSW) over the deeper Levantine Water (LW) layer. Coccolithophores in the area were relatively diverse and a total of 95 species over 3 sampling periods studied were recognized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) techniques. R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished two coccolithophore Groups (I, IIa, IIb, IIc) with different ecological preferences. Emiliania huxleyi was the most abundant species of Group I, whereas Syracosphaera spp., Rhabdosphaera spp. and holococcolithophores were prevailing in the highly diversified Group II assemblages. Biometric analysis conducted on E. huxleyi coccoliths from Aegean water column and Black Sea sediment trap samples, indicated that during autumn, NE Aegean specimens in samples under BSW influence were featured by unimodal distribution concerning the coccolith relative tube width, with values similar to those provided by the Black Sea specimens. In early spring, coccoliths in the stations with increased BSW influx displayed a bimodal pattern of relative tube width with smaller values found mostly in the surface layers, while the distribution became again unimodal and dominated by larger values within the deeper LW layers. In the summer period, the typical LW holococcolithophore species (Group II) presented low cell numbers in the surface layer (<20 m), which is their usual ecological niche in the Aegean Sea, compared to greater depths, therefore marking LW mass flowing beneath the less saline BSW surface lid. In contrast to Black Sea early summer bloom conditions, E. huxleyi was almost absent in the NE Aegean during the summer sampling period.

  14. The forcing of southwestern Asia teleconnections by low-frequency sea surface temperature variability during boreal winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Christopher C.; Mathew Barlow,

    2015-01-01

    Southwestern Asia, defined here as the domain bounded by 20°–40°N and 40°–70°E, which includes the nations of Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, is a water-stressed and semiarid region that receives roughly 75% of its annual rainfall during November–April. The November–April climate of southwestern Asia is strongly influenced by tropical Indo-Pacific variability on intraseasonal and interannual time scales, much of which can be attributed to sea surface temperature (SST) variations. The influences of lower-frequency SST variability on southwestern Asia climate during November–April Pacific decadal SST (PDSST) variability and the long-term trend in SST (LTSST) is examined. The U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CLIVAR) Drought Working Group forced global atmospheric climate models with PDSST and LTSST patterns, identified using empirical orthogonal functions, to show the steady atmospheric response to these modes of decadal to multidecadal SST variability. During November–April, LTSST forces an anticyclone over southwestern Asia, which results in reduced precipitation and increases in surface temperature. The precipitation and tropospheric circulation influences of LTSST are corroborated by independent observed precipitation and circulation datasets during 1901–2004. The decadal variations of southwestern Asia precipitation may be forced by PDSST variability, with two of the three models indicating that the cold phase of PDSST forces an anticyclone and precipitation reductions. However, there are intermodel circulation variations to PDSST that influence subregional precipitation patterns over the Middle East, southwestern Asia, and subtropical Asia. Changes in wintertime temperature and precipitation over southwestern Asia forced by LTSST and PDSST imply important changes to the land surface hydrology during the spring and summer.

  15. Radiocarbon chronology of Black Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Glenn A.; Gagnon, Alan R.

    1994-03-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon analyses have been made on 102 samples from 12 sediment cores and 23 samples from two water column profiles. These materials, collected during the first leg of the 1988 joint U.S.-Turkish Black Sea Expedition, provide the most comprehensive radiocarbon chronology of Black Sea sediments yet attempted. Radiocarbon analyses from carefully collected box cores and a mollusc shell collected live in 1931 suggest the prebomb surface waters had a Δ 14C value of -55% (460 years) and that the maximum detrital correction for radiocarbon ages of Unit I sediments is 580 years for the organic carbon and 260 years for the carbonate fractions. Evidence does not support the 1430-2000 years pre-bomb surface water and/or detrital corrections argued for in past studies. The best estimates for the age of the beginning of the final invasion of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Unit 1/2 boundary of Ross and DEGENS, 1974, The Black Sea—geology, chemistry and biology, pp. 183-199) and the age of the first invasion of E. huxeleyi (Unit I/II boundary of HAYet al., 1991, Deep-Sea Research, 38, S1211-S1235) are 1635 ± 60 and 2720 ± 160 years BP, respectively. Sapropel formation began at approximately 7540 ± 130 years BP at all depths in the basin, a pattern in disagreement with those predicted by existing time-evolution models of sapropel formation for this basin. Our data suggest that the oxic-anoxic interface has remained relatively stable throughout the Holocene, is controlled largely by the physical oceanography of the basin, and has not evolved as assumed by previous workers.

  16. Air-sea exchange over Black Sea estimated from high resolution regional climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velea, Liliana; Bojariu, Roxana; Cica, Roxana

    2013-04-01

    Black Sea is an important influencing factor for the climate of bordering countries, showing cyclogenetic activity (Trigo et al, 1999) and influencing Mediterranean cyclones passing over. As for other seas, standard observations of the atmosphere are limited in time and space and available observation-based estimations of air-sea exchange terms present quite large ranges of uncertainty. The reanalysis datasets (e.g. ERA produced by ECMWF) provide promising validation estimates of climatic characteristics against the ones in available climatic data (Schrum et al, 2001), while cannot reproduce some local features due to relatively coarse horizontal resolution. Detailed and realistic information on smaller-scale processes are foreseen to be provided by regional climate models, due to continuous improvements of physical parameterizations and numerical solutions and thus affording simulations at high spatial resolution. The aim of the study is to assess the potential of three regional climate models in reproducing known climatological characteristics of air-sea exchange over Black Sea, as well as to explore the added value of the model compared to the input (reanalysis) data. We employ results of long-term (1961-2000) simulations performed within ENSEMBLE project (http://ensemblesrt3.dmi.dk/) using models ETHZ-CLM, CNRM-ALADIN, METO-HadCM, for which the integration domain covers the whole area of interest. The analysis is performed for the entire basin for several variables entering the heat and water budget terms and available as direct output from the models, at seasonal and annual scale. A comparison with independent data (ERA-INTERIM) and findings from other studies (e.g. Schrum et al, 2001) is also presented. References: Schrum, C., Staneva, J., Stanev, E. and Ozsoy, E., 2001: Air-sea exchange in the Black Sea estimated from atmospheric analysis for the period 1979-1993, J. Marine Systems, 31, 3-19 Trigo, I. F., T. D. Davies, and G. R. Bigg (1999): Objective

  17. First evaluation of neustonic microplastics in Black Sea waters.

    PubMed

    Aytan, Ulgen; Valente, Andre; Senturk, Yasemen; Usta, Riza; Esensoy Sahin, Fatma Basak; Mazlum, Rahsan Evren; Agirbas, Ertugrul

    2016-08-01

    The Black Sea has a high risk of plastic pollution given the high river discharge of several industrialized countries into this semi-enclosed sea. Here, for the first time, the occurrence and distribution of microplastics are reported for the Black Sea. Microplastics were assessed from zooplankton samples taken during two cruises along the south eastern coast of the Black Sea in the November of 2014 and February of 2015. In each cruise neuston samples were collected at 12 stations using a WP2 net with 200 μm mesh. Microplastics (0.2-5 mm) were found in 92% of the samples. The primary shapes were fibres (49.4%) followed by plastic films (30.6%) and fragments (20%), and no micro beads were found. Average microplastic concentration in November (1.2 ± 1.1 × 10(3) par. m(-3)) was higher than in February (0.6 ± 0.55 × 10(3) par. m(-3)). Reduced concentrations in February were possibly caused by increased mixing. The highest concentrations of microplastics were observed in offshore stations during November sampling. The heterogeneous spatial distribution (0.2 × 10(3)-3.3 × 10(3) par. m(-3) for all samples) and accumulation in some stations could be associated to transport and retention mechanisms linked with wind and the dynamics of the rim current, as well by different sources of plastic. There were no statistically significant differences in MP concentration between sampling stations and sampling periods (t-test, p < 0.05).The relatively high microplastic concentrations suggest that Black Sea is a hotspot for microplastic pollution and there is an urgency to understand their origins, transportation and effects on marine life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Boundary current instabilities, upwelling, shelf mixing and eutrophication processes in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Hali˙l. İ.; Özsoy, Emi˙n.; Ünlüata, Ümi˙t.

    Satellite and in situ data are utilized to investigate the mesoscale dynamics of the Black Sea boundary current system with special emphasis on aspects of transport and productivity. The satellite data are especially helpful in capturing rapid sub-mesoscale motions insufficiently resolved by the in situ measurements. Various forms of isolated features, including dipole eddies and river plumes, are identified in the satellite images. Unstable flow structures at these sites appear to transport materials and momentum across the continental shelf. Species differentiation and competition are evident along the boundary current system and at the frontal regions during the development of early summer productivity. A time series of Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS) images indicate dynamical modulation of the springtime surface productivity in the southern Black Sea. Unstable meandering motions generated at Sakarya Canyon propagate east with speeds of ∼10-15 km d -1. Within weeks, a turbulent jet is created which separates from the coast, covering the entire southwestern sector. The nutrients driving the phytoplankton production (mainly Emiliana huxleyi) of the current system evidently originate from fluvial discharge entering from the northwestern region including the Danube river. The productivity pattern develops in early summer when the Danube inflow is at its peak, and through meandering motions spreads into an area several times wider than the continental shelf. In 1980, the CZCS data, and in 1991 and 1992, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data indicate patches of upwelling along the west Anatolian coastline between Sakarya Canyon and Cape İnce ( Ince Burun) in summer. The upwelling phenomenon is outstanding because it occurs on a coast where normally the surface convergence near the coast implies downwelling, and under conditions of unfavorable winds. In 1992, the hydrographic data indicated the upwelling to be the result of a surface

  19. Crustal underthrusting in the Crimea - Northern Black Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegorova, Tamara; Gobarenko, Valentina; Murovskaya, Anna; Sheremet, Yevgeniya

    2016-04-01

    The southern Crimean Mountains and the Greater Caucasus form a fold and thrust belt located on the northern margin of the Black Sea, south of Precambrian East European Craton. It is limited to the south by the Main Caucasus Thrust that runs along the whole of the northern margin of the Black Sea and is related to a zone of present day seismicity along the southern Crimea-Caucasus coast of the Sea (Crimean Seismogenic Zone). Strong seismic activity in the region indicates active on-going tectonic processes caused by collision of Eurasian and Arabian plates. In the vicinity of the seismogenic zone there is a transition from thick continental crust on the north to thin suboceanic one on the south in the sea. However, type and structural relations between them are known poorly. To understand better geodynamic processes, there were collected data on the earthquakes that were analyzed together with focal mechanisms of strong earthquakes, new results of geological structural analysis and paleostress reconstructions by kinematic method. These allowed drawing the following conclusions. Seismic activity in the study region, evidenced of active tectonic processes under compression and transpression at the transition from the southern margin of the East European Craton (Scythian Platform) to the Black Sea, is confirmed by predominance of reverse mechanisms among 31 focal mechanisms. In the seismogenic zone, much of which is located along the continental slope, there are three subzones (from east to west): 1) Kerch-Taman one dipping northwards at angle 30 degrees to the depth of 90 km; 2) South-Coast subzone gently dipping to the southeast at angle of 18 degrees with foci depth range 10-45 km, and 3) orthogonal to the latter and confining it from the west the Sevastopol one, characterized by scattered seismicity. The earthquake foci are located in the gradient zone that separates intense Crimea gravity high and positive anomaly of Northern Caucasus from negative gravity field

  20. 77 FR 65136 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... fishing commercially. Regulations governing the black sea bass fishery require publication of this... no Federal recreational quota is available for fishing black sea bass. DATES: Effective at 0001 hr.... The initial total RHL for black sea bass for the 2012 fishing year is 1.86 million lb (844 mt) (76 FR...

  1. Multi-decadal storminess fluctuations of Black Sea due to North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Sergey; Saprykina, Yana; Grigorieva, Victoria; Aydoǧan, Berna; Aydoǧan, Burak

    2017-04-01

    Storminess variability is of key importance for many marine applications, naval and coastal engineering. Studying the evolution of this phenomenon along with large scale atmospheric patterns and being able to predict them is crucial for in the context of rising sea level due to climate change what make the low-lying coasts in the Black Sea to become increasingly vulnerable to marine hazards. The aim of this work is to clarify the trends, statistics and reasons of variations of storminess in dependence of such climatic characteristic as NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation Index). The analysis of Black Sea storminess activity was performed on the base of visual wave observations (Voluntary Observing Ship or VOS) for the period 1970-2011. Annual means and maximum heights of wind-driven seas and swell waves averaging over whole Black Sea area were investigated separately. The both wind-driven seas and swell demonstrate the decreasing in heights about 10% the same as their periods for the chosen time frame. Parametric spectral analysis was performed. The periods of wave height fluctuations for wind-driven seas and swell were shown to coincide with each other and with periods of low frequency fluctuation of NOA: 14 and 4 year respectively. Correlation coefficients of wave height and NOA were 0.3 for swell and 0.4 for wind-driven sea. Nonlinear regularities of NAO fluctuations were investigated using wavelet and spavlet (spectra of modules of wavelet coefficients) analyses. Their influence on variability of storminess in Black Sea is discussed. The reported study was funded by RFBR (project No. 16-55-76002 ERA_a) and by TUBITAK (project No. 116M061) in frame of BS STEMA project.

  2. Monitoring hypoxia: approaches to addressing a complex phenomenon in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; Janssen, Felix; He, Yunchang; Holtappels, Moritz; Konovalov, Sergey; Prien, Ralf; Rehder, Gregor; Stanev, Emil

    2014-05-01

    In this contribution we present an overview of results and share experiences from monitoring and assessing various hypoxia phenomena in the Black Sea. The focus is on approaches and technologies for monitoring of, e.g., mesoscale seasonal patterns in water column oxygenation, multi-decadal trends in oxycline boundary shifts, fast oxygen fluctuations at the pelagic redoxcline and the sediment-water interface, and seasonal changes in bottom-water oxygen. The various temporal scales (from hours to decades) and spatial patterns (from local to basin-scale) in water column oxygenation were addressed using state-of-the-art technologies, e.g., a free-falling pump CTD, a profiling instrumentation platform, ARGO floats equipped with oxygen optodes, static moorings equipped with oxygen optodes, and long-term monitoring programs based on standard CTD casts. Examples from four study sites in the Black Sea and one in the Baltic Sea are presented. Oxygen sensor equipped ARGO type profiling floats proved to be powerful tools to resolve seasonal changes in water column oxygenation and emphasize the importance of mesoscale processes for oxygen distribution in the Black Sea basin. Existing multi-decadal time-series monitoring data based on standard CTD measurements revealed the imprint of climate change and eutrophication on long-term oxygen distributions in the central Black Sea and hence, highlight the importance of maintaining long-term commitments to oxygen monitoring programs. Monitoring data from the last 90 years reflect the rising of the upper boundary of the suboxic zone in the 1970s and 1980s due to eutrophication, and again in the 1990s and 2000s due to NAO forcing, while eutrophication relaxed. Such long time series data allow separating out the effects that climatic forcing and eutrophication exert on oxygen depletion i.e., in the Black Sea. A free-falling pump-CTD provided high-resolution profiles of oxygen and reduced compounds in the Bosporus outflow to the Black Sea

  3. Collision processes at the northern margin of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobarenko, V. S.; Murovskaya, A. V.; Yegorova, T. P.; Sheremet, E. E.

    2016-07-01

    Extended along the Crimea-Caucasus coast of the Black Sea, the Crimean Seismic Zone (CSZ) is an evidence of active tectonic processes at the junction of the Scythian Plate and Black Sea Microplate. A relocation procedure applied to weak earthquakes (mb ≤ 3) recorded by ten local stations during 1970-2013 helped to determine more accurately the parameters of hypocenters in the CSZ. The Kerch-Taman, Sudak, Yuzhnoberezhnaya (South Coast), and Sevastopol subzones have also been recognized. Generalization of the focal mechanisms of 31 strong earthquakes during 1927-2013 has demonstrated the predominance of reverse and reverse-normal-faulting deformation regimes. This ongoing tectonic process occurs under the settings of compression and transpression. The earthquake foci with strike-slip component mechanisms concentrate in the west of the CSZ. Comparison of deformation modes in the western and eastern Crimean Mountains according to tectonophysical data has demonstrated that the western part is dominated by strike-slip and normal- faulting, while in the eastern part, reverse-fault and strike-slip deformation regimes prevail. Comparison of the seismicity and gravity field and modes of deformation suggests underthusting of the East Black Sea Microplate with thin suboceanic crust under the Scythian Plate. In the Yuzhnoberezhnaya Subzone, this process is complicated by the East Black Sea Microplate frontal part wedging into the marginal part of the Scythian Plate crust. The indentation mechanism explains the strong gravity anomaly in the Crimean Mountains and their uplift.

  4. Tides in the Black Sea: Observations and Numerical Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Igor P.

    2018-05-01

    Longterm hourly data from 28 tide gauges were used to examine the main features of tides in the Black Sea. The tides in this basin are directly caused by tide-generating forces and the semidiurnal tides prevail over diurnal tides. Based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), a numerical model of tides in the Black Sea and adjacent Sea of Azov was developed and found to be in good agreement with tide gauge observations. Detailed tidal charts for amplitudes and phase lags of the major tidal harmonics in these two seas were constructed. The results of the numerical modelling and observations reveal for the semidiurnal tides the presence of an amphidromy with clockwise rotation and another one with counterclockwise rotation for the diurnal tides, both located in the central part of the sea near the Crimean Peninsula. Therefore, for this part of the sea the amplitudes of harmonics M 2 and K 1 are less than 0.1 cm. Relatively larger M 2 amplitudes are observed on the east and west coasts of the sea (2-3 cm). The maximum amplitude of the harmonic M 2 was found at Karkinit Bay—up to 4.5 cm—while the maximum tidal range varies from 1 cm near the Crimean Peninsula to 18-19 cm in the Dnieper-Bug Estuary and Karkinit Bay. Radiational tides, initiated mainly by sea breezes, make an important contribution to the formation of tidal oscillations in the Dnieper-Bug Estuary.

  5. A 6,000-year sedimentary molecular record of chemocline excursions in the Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; Wakeham, S. G.; Kohnen, M. E.; Hayes, J. M.; de Leeuw, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The Black Sea is the world's largest anoxic basin; it is also a contemporary analogue of the environment in which carbonaceous shales and petroleum source beds formed. Recently, Repeta et al. reported that anoxygenic photosynthesis may be an important component of carbon cycling in the present Black Sea, owing to a shoaling of the chemocline and consequent penetration of the photic zone by anaerobic waters in the past few decades. It has been suggested that this was due to an anthropogenic decrease in freshwater input to the Black Sea, although natural causes were not ruled out. Here we report the distributions of sequestered photosynthetic pigments in eight core samples of sediments from the Black Sea ranging in age from zero to 6,200 years before the present. Our results show that photosynthetic green sulphur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae [correction of Clorobiaceae]) have been active in the Black Sea for substantial periods of time in the past. This finding indicates that the penetration of the photic zone by anaerobic waters is not a recent phenomenon, and suggests that natural causes for shoaling of the chemocline are more likely than anthropogenic ones.

  6. New records of five sponge species (Porifera) for the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Evcen, Alper; Çinar, Melih Ertan; Zengin, Mustafa; Süer, Serdar; Rüzgar, Melih

    2016-04-13

    The present study deals with five sponge species [Chalinula renieroides, Haliclona (Halichoclona) fulva, H. (Rhizoniera) rosea, Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) pansa and Ircinia variabilis] belonging to 3 families (Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, and Irciniidae) found at one locality (near the opening of Kızılırmak River) on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. All these species are new records for the Black Sea. Three species (Chalinula renieroides, H. (R.) rosea and H. (H.) pansa] are also new records for the marine fauna of Turkey. All these species were previously reported from Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The morphological and distributional features of these species are presented.

  7. Estimates of tsunami damage for Russian coast of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Yalciner, Ahmet; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2010-05-01

    The historic database of tsunamis in the Black Sea contains 20 - 30 events with different level of validity, and at least six events occurred in 20th century. Numerical modeling of the last historic events is performed in the framework of shallow-water theory with use of code NAMI-DANCE. The computed tide-gauge records in Russian coastal locations are in good agreement with instrumental data for the 1939 and 1966 tsunamis. The tsunami of the landslide origin occurred in Sochi in 1970 is modeled in the framework of the two-layer model realized in TUNAMI. Also, some hypothetic tsunamis generated in the open part of the Black Sea are computed and the distribution of the tsunami height along the Russian and Turkish coast ais found. In particular, the tsunami amplification near Sochi is highest to compare with other coastal locations on the Russian coast of Black Sea.

  8. Radioisotopes in sedimentary study of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptev, Gennady; Voitsekhovych, Oleg V.

    2013-04-01

    Natural archives, such as lake or marine sediment, are widely used in erosion/sedimentation, water quality, climate change and eutrophication study alongside with the retrospective reanalysis of contaminants fluxes (trace metals, organic pollutants or radionuclides). In order to "read" information stored in sediment sequences a chronostatigraphic method have been developed and used since 1950s which is based upon variation of activity of 210Pb over the sediment profile, natural radioisotope of Uranium decay series with half-life 22 years, and hence valid for the last 100-150 years of recent sedimentation history. The 210Pb chronology is prone to be validated by other time-markers, such as artificial radionuclides globally dispersed after the nuclear weapons tests of 1960s or major accidents on NPP (the Chernobyl accident of 1986 or latest on the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011). In the last decade an intensive study using sediment cores collected from shelf and deep-sea areas in the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea have been undertaken within the framework of a number of international research projects organized by IAEA and UNOPS-GEF and devoted to environmental problems of this enclosed, and therefore sensitive to environmental impact, marine systems. Elaborative analysis of the experimental data and sediment age calculation have been done by application of CRS and CIC dating models to unsupported 210Pb activity over the sediment profile. Measured in sediment 137Cs and 241Am clearly showed well resolved Bomb test and Chernobyl fallout peaks and were used as markers in order to corroborate radiometrically determined age of sediment. Geochronological reconstruction of the fallout radionuclides inventory, fluxes and accumulation rate in the sediment of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea by application of combined radiometric dating technique proved to be very consistent with the historical data of atmospheric fallout observations of that artificial radionuclides recorded worldwide

  9. Black sea surface temperature anomaly on 5th August 1998 and the ozone layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manev, A.; Palazov, K.; Raykov, St.; Ivanov, V.

    2003-04-01

    BLACK SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY ON 5th AUGUST 1998 AND THE OZONE LAYER THICKNESS A. Manev , K. Palazov , St. Raykov, V. Ivanov Solar Terrestrial Influences Laboratory, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences amanev@abv.bg This paper focuses on the peculiarities of the Black Sea surface temperature anomaly on 05.08.1998. Researching the daily temperature changes in a number of control fields in the course of 8-10 years, we have found hidden correlations and anomalous deviations in the sea surface temperatures on a global scale. Research proves the statistical reliability of the temperature anomaly on the entire Black Sea surface registered on 04.-05.08.1998. In the course of six days around these dates the temperatures are up to 2°C higher than the maximum temperatures in this period in the other seven years. A more detailed analysis of the dynamics of the anomaly required the investigation of five Black Sea surface characteristic zones of 75x75 km. The analysis covers the period 20 days - 10 days before and 10 days after the anomaly. Investigations aimed at interpreting the reasons for the anomalous heating of the surface waters. We have tried to analyze the correlation between sea surface temperature and the global ozone above the Black Sea by using simultaneously data from the two satellite systems NOAA and TOMS. Methods of processing and comparing the data from the two satellite systems are described. The correlation coefficients values for the five characteristic zones are very high and close, which proves that the character of the correlation ozone - sea surface temperature is the same for the entire Black Sea surface. Despite the high correlation coefficient, we have proved that causality between the two phenomena at the time of the anomaly does not exit.

  10. Impact of winter cooling on the northern part of the Black Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, Anatolii

    2016-07-01

    Climate change in the future may have a negative impact on many countries due to the increasing surface temperature and sea level rise. Probably, unprecedented largest positive trend of surface temperature, which observed since the mid XX century, has associated with increasing human activities around the world. Moreover, this warming will continue in this century, and at the end of the XXI century will be 2 - 5 ºC. Thus, investigation and monitoring of current climate are very important and necessary tasks. Regional model data (downscaling) and satellite data are used, because of underdeveloped network of meteorological stations in the northern part of the Black Sea region. Experiment of downscaling was carried out for the Black Sea region with a high spatial resolution of 0.22° x 0.22° for 1958 - 2007(daily values). For the Black Sea were also used satellite data of sea surface temperature(SST) from MyOcean-2 Project, which CNR(Rome) has reprocessed Pathfinder V5.2 (PFV52) AVHRR data over period 1981 - 2012 with daily gap-free maps (L4) at the original PFV52 resolution at 0.04° x 0.04°. Correlation between satellite SST and surface temperature from regional model climate are amounted 0,99. Thus, surface temperature of model and satellite data for the Black Sea is much correlated between yourself. The following integral characteristics of the Black Sea are referred to the area of sea limited by the 44 - 47º N and 28 - 34º E. Maximum cooling of the north-western part of the Black Sea in winter is occurs after invasion of cold air across the northern border of the basin. In addition, this water area is also interesting in the presence of her huge oil and gas reserves, as well as the construction of liquefied gas (crude oil) terminals. The maximum values of total heat flux (sensible + latent heat fluxes= Q) corresponding to the minimum values of SST are observed during the periods of the negative phase of the NAO. Besides, fluxes with extreme days P (Q) = 95

  11. The Mediterranean and Black Sea Fisheries at Risk from Overexploitation

    PubMed Central

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C.; Dinouli, Anny; Tsiros, Vasileios-Zikos; Tsalkou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W), central (C) and eastern (E) Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS), with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures. PMID:25793975

  12. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: Sea otters and black abalone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raimondi, Peter T.; Jurgens, Laura J.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  13. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  14. Geoid undulations and gravity anomalies over the Aral Sea, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea from a combined GEOS-3/SEASAT/GEOSAT altimeter data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Au, Andrew Y.; Brown, Richard D.; Welker, Jean E.

    1991-01-01

    Satellite-based altimetric data taken by GOES-3, SEASAT, and GEOSAT over the Aral Sea, the Black Sea, and the Caspian Sea are analyzed and a least squares collocation technique is used to predict the geoid undulations on a 0.25x0.25 deg. grid and to transform these geoid undulations to free air gravity anomalies. Rapp's 180x180 geopotential model is used as the reference surface for the collocation procedure. The result of geoid to gravity transformation is, however, sensitive to the information content of the reference geopotential model used. For example, considerable detailed surface gravity data were incorporated into the reference model over the Black Sea, resulting in a reference model with significant information content at short wavelengths. Thus, estimation of short wavelength gravity anomalies from gridded geoid heights is generally reliable over regions such as the Black Sea, using the conventional collocation technique with local empirical covariance functions. Over regions such as the Caspian Sea, where detailed surface data are generally not incorporated into the reference model, unconventional techniques are needed to obtain reliable gravity anomalies. Based on the predicted gravity anomalies over these inland seas, speculative tectonic structures are identified and geophysical processes are inferred.

  15. Gigantic oocytes in the deep sea black coral Dendrobathypathes grandis (Antipatharia) from the Mar del Plata submarine canyon area (southwestern Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretta, Daniel; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.

    2017-10-01

    The black coral Dendrobathypathes grandis (Cnidaria: Antipatharia) is studied for the first time in the southwestern Atlantic off Argentina. This is the only antipatharian reported from the Atlantic between 35°S and 54°S. Eleven specimens were collected at depths of 819-2204 m during three expeditions to the Mar del Plata submarine canyon (2012-2013); seven were females. The species is gonochoric, and the polyps in female colonies contain up to nine oocytes per polyp, which can reach 1500 μm in diameter. In contrast, the largest oocyte currently reported for antipatharians is 500 μm, and usual diameters do not exceed 200 μm. These large oocytes have over 20 times more volume than the biggest oocyte reported, but over 800 times more volume when compared with the common oocyte size of the group. Sperm size and morphology is similar to previous data from other species. As in previous studies, neither embryos nor larvae were found in any specimens. This species was previously only reported from waters off South Georgia Island, and so these specimens expand the known distribution north by 1800 km.

  16. Sulfides of Bottom Sediments in the Northeastern Part of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, A. G.

    2018-03-01

    A study of bottom sediments conducted on the 100th cruise of R/V Professor Shtokman in the northeastern part of the Black Sea along the section from the Kerch Strait to the deep-sea depression allowed estimation of Holocene sulfide sedimentation and consideration of the accompanying diagenetic processes, which involve reactions with C, N, and P. The behavior of dissolved forms of Mn and Fe is considered from the viewpoint of their different solubility and formation of sulfides. The redox system of the Black Sea sediments can significantly be expanded at the expense of the migration methane and hydrogen, which accompanies its anaerobic oxidation.

  17. 77 FR 60945 - 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    .... 0907271173-0629-03] RIN 0648-XC152 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass... accountability measure (AM) for the commercial sector of black sea bass in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of... (ACL) (equal to the commercial quota) for black sea bass will have been reached by October 8, 2012...

  18. Causes and consequences of hypoxia on the Western Black Sea Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; Gomoiu, Marian-Trajan; Naeher, Sebastian; Secrieru, Dan; Teaca, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The Black Sea, containing the world's largest natural anoxic basin since ca 7500 years (Jones & Gagnon 1994), suffers from combined effects of anthropogenic eutrophication, overfishing and climate variability (Oguz & Gilbert 2007). We discuss causes for hypoxia in western shelf waters. Freshwater runoff by the large rivers Danube, Dniester and Dnieper results in strong thermohaline stratification that limits bottom water ventilation on the north-western shelf during warm seasons. This makes the western shelf generally prone to oxygen deficiency. During autumn and winter, the thermohaline stratification is eroded by frequent storms and the water column is re-oxygenated. The causal chain of anthropogenic eutrophication since the 1970s led to seasonal hypoxia on the western shelf for more than 20 years causing the catastrophic decline of key shelf habitats (Mee et al. 2005). More frequent and intense algal blooms, red tides (i.e. Noctiluca, Prorocentrum cordatum) and changes in species composition in phytoplankton resulted in deposition of surplus organic matter on the seafloor increasing the oxygen demand, with serious consequences for pelagic and benthic ecosystem structure and functioning. During hypoxia, release of reduced substances like ammonia and phosphate from the sediment to the water fuelled eutrophication internally (Friedrich et al. 2002). The combination of existing data with those gained during EU FP7 HYPOX on the Romanian shelf enables to assess the development of bottom water hypoxia and changes in benthic community and hence, the current state and trends in recovery of the Romanian Black Sea shelf ecosystem. Mud worms are the winners of eutrophication and hypoxia, whereas filter feeders like Mytilus galloprovincialis and Acanthocardia paucicostata are the losers. The western shelf benthic ecosystem showed a significant reduction in species diversity, a reduction of biofilter strength due to the loss of filter-feeder populations and flourishing of

  19. Changes in the ecosystem structure of the Black Sea under predicted climatological and anthropogenic variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoglu, Ekin; Salihoglu, Baris; Fach Salihoglu, Bettina; Libralato, Simone; Cannaby, Heather; Oguz, Temel; Solidoro, Cosimo

    2014-05-01

    A dynamic Ecopath with Ecosim higher-trophic-level (HTL) model representation of the Black Sea ecosystem was coupled to the physical (BIMS-CIR) and biogeochemical (BIMS-ECO) models of the Black Sea in order to investigate historical anthropogenic and climatological interactions and feedbacks in the ecosystem. Further, the coupled models were used to assess the likely consequences of these interactions on the ecosystem's structure and functioning under predicted future climate (IPCC A1B) and fishing variability. Therefore, two model scenarios were used; i) a hindcast scenario (1980-1999) to evaluate and understand the impacts of the short-term climate and physical variability and the introduction of invasive species on the Black Sea ecosystem, and ii) a forecast scenario (2080-2099) to investigate the potential implications of climate change and anthropogenic exploitation on living resources of the Black Sea ecosystem by the end of the 21st century. According to the outcomes of the hindcast simulation, fisheries were found to be the main driver in determining the structure and functioning of the Black Sea ecosystem under changing environmental conditions. The coupled physical-biogeochemical forecast simulations predicted a slight but statistically significant basin-wide increase in the Black Sea's primary productivity by the end of the century due to increased stratification induced by basin-wide temperature increase and reduced Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) formation which increased the residence time of riverine nutrients within the euphotic zone. Despite this increased primary productivity, the HTL model forecast simulation predicted a significant decrease in the commercial fish stocks primarily due to fisheries exploitation if current catch rates are maintained into the future. Results further suggested that some economically important small pelagic fish species are likely to disappear from the ecosystem making the recovery of the already-collapsed piscivorous

  20. Inter-annual variability of exchange processes at the outer Black Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Yuan, Dongliang; Wang, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    The advection of cold water below the surface mixed layer has a significant role in shaping the properties of the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) in the Black Sea, and thus the horizontal redistribution of nutrients. The minimal temperature of the CIL in the southwest deep region of the sea in summer was shown to be lower than the winter surface temperature at the same location, indicating the horizontal advective nature of CIL formation in the area (Kolesnikov, 1953). In addition to advection in the deep area of the sea, the transport of cold waters from the northwest Black Sea shelf across the shelf break in winter was shown to contribute to the formation of the CIL (Filippov, 1968; Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However less is known of the exchanges between the CIL waters and the outer shelf areas in summer, when a surface mixed layer and the underlying seasonal thermocline are formed. Ivanov et al. (1997) suggested that the cross frontal exchange within the CIL is strongly inhibited, so that CIL waters formed in the deep sea (i.e. offshore of the Rim Current) do not replenish the CIL waters onshore of the Rim Current (also known as near-bottom shelf waters, or BSW), due to strong cross frontal gradients in potential vorticity (PV). To the contrary, Shapiro et al. (2011) analysed in-situ observations over the period of 1950-2001 and showed a high correlation between the CIL temperatures in the open sea and outer shelf. However, the statistical methods alone were not able to clearly establish the relation between the cause and the consequences. In this study we use a 3D numerical model of the Black Sea (NEMO-SHELF-BLS) to quantify the exchange of CIL waters between the open sea and the outer northwest Black Sea shelf and to assess its significance for the replenishment of BSW on the outer shelf. The model has a resolution of 1/16º latitude × 1/12º longitude and 33 levels in the vertical. In order to represent near-bottom processes better, the model uses a hybrid

  1. A review of zooplankton investigations of the Black Sea over the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kideys, Ahmet E.; Kovalev, Alexander V.; Shulman, Gregory; Gordina, Anna; Bingel, Ferit

    2000-03-01

    Investigations performed in the last decade indicate that there have been important changes in the zooplankton composition and structure in the Black Sea. However, contrasting events taking place in different regions of the Black Sea indicate a non-uniform structure of its ecosystem. Several fodder zooplankton species have either disappeared from or substantially decreased in number at different sampling sites of the Black Sea over the last one or two decades. Some other species adapted to thrive in eutrophic conditions have either appeared or increased in quantity. Meanwhile the biomass of the fodder zooplankton has also fluctuated considerably through the years. However, there seems to be a reverse trend in the long-term variation of fodder zooplankton between the shallow western and deep eastern areas. Over the last few decades the abundance of fish larvae has decreased significantly when compared either to past records or with larval abundances of other seas. This was shown to be due mainly to malnutrition of larvae. One of the most striking changes in the ichthyoplankton has been the shift in the spawning areas of the main fish species, the anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus from the northwestern to the southeastern Black Sea. Even the invading ctenophore Mnemiopsis were found to be starving. The condition of other species ( Calanus euxinus and Pleurobrachia pileus) disclosed the fact that cyclonic regions where chlorophyll and nutrient concentrations are high, provide better nutrition than anticyclonic regions.

  2. Optical properties of sea ice doped with black carbon - an experimental and radiative-transfer modelling comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Amelia A.; Lamare, Maxim L.; King, Martin D.

    2017-12-01

    Radiative-transfer calculations of the light reflectivity and extinction coefficient in laboratory-generated sea ice doped with and without black carbon demonstrate that the radiative-transfer model TUV-snow can be used to predict the light reflectance and extinction coefficient as a function of wavelength. The sea ice is representative of first-year sea ice containing typical amounts of black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities. The experiments give confidence in the application of the model to predict albedo of other sea ice fabrics. Sea ices, ˜ 30 cm thick, were generated in the Royal Holloway Sea Ice Simulator ( ˜ 2000 L tanks) with scattering cross sections measured between 0.012 and 0.032 m2 kg-1 for four ices. Sea ices were generated with and without ˜ 5 cm upper layers containing particulate black carbon. Nadir reflectances between 0.60 and 0.78 were measured along with extinction coefficients of 0.1 to 0.03 cm-1 (e-folding depths of 10-30 cm) at a wavelength of 500 nm. Values were measured between light wavelengths of 350 and 650 nm. The sea ices generated in the Royal Holloway Sea Ice Simulator were found to be representative of natural sea ices. Particulate black carbon at mass ratios of ˜ 75, ˜ 150 and ˜ 300 ng g-1 in a 5 cm ice layer lowers the albedo to 97, 90 and 79 % of the reflectivity of an undoped clean sea ice (at a wavelength of 500 nm).

  3. 7000 years of Emiliania huxleyi viruses in the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Coolen, Marco J L

    2011-07-22

    A 7000-year record of Coccolithovirus and its host, the calcifying haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi, was reconstructed on the basis of genetic signatures preserved in sediments underlying the Black Sea. The data show that the same virus and host populations can persist for centuries. Major changes in virus and host populations occurred during early sapropel deposition, ~5600 years ago, and throughout the formation of the coccolith-bearing sediments of Unit I during the past 2500 years, when the Black Sea experienced dramatic changes in hydrologic and nutrient regimes. Unit I saw a reoccurrence of the same host genotype thousands of years later in the presence of a different subset of viruses. Historical plankton virus populations can thus be included in paleoecological and paleoenvironmental studies.

  4. Buried paleo-sedimentary basins in the north-eastern Black Sea-Azov Sea area and tectonic implications (DOBRE-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Tolkunov, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    A number of independent but inter-related projects carried out under the auspices of various national and international programmes in Ukraine including DARIUS were aimed at imaging the upper lithosphere, crustal and sedimentary basin architecture in the north-eastern Black Sea, southern Crimea and Kerch peninsulas and the Azov Sea. This region marks the transition from relatively undisturbed Precambrian European cratonic crust and lithosphere north of the Azov Sea to areas of significant Phanerozoic tectonics and basin development, in both extensional as well as compressional environments, to the south, including the eastern Black Sea rift, which is the main sedimentary basin of the study area. The wide-angle reflection and refraction (WARR) profile DOBRE-2, a Ukrainian national project with international participation (see below), overlapping some 115 km of the southern end of the DOBREfraction'99 profile (that crosses the intracratonic Donbas Foldbelt) in the north and running to the eastern Black Sea basin in the south, utilised on- and offshore recording and energy sources. It maps crustal velocity structure across the craton margin and documents, among other things, that the Moho deepens from 40 km to ~47 km to the southwest below the Azov Sea and Crimean-Caucasus deformed zone. A regional CDP seismic profile coincident with DOBRE-2, crossing the Azov Sea, Kerch Peninsula and the north-eastern Black Sea southwest to the Ukraine-Turkey border, acquired by Ukrgeofisika (the Ukrainian national geophysical company) reveals in its inferred structural relationships the ages of Cretaceous and younger extensional and subsequent basin inversion tectonic events as well as the 2D geometry of basement displacement associated with post mid-Eocene inversion. A direct comparison of the results of the WARR velocity model and the near-vertical reflection structural image has been made by converting the former into the time domain. The results dramatically demonstrate that

  5. Recent seasonal hypoxia on the Western Black Sea shelf recorded in adjacent slope sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roepert, Anne; Jilbert, Tom S.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2015-04-01

    Bottom water hypoxia is a major environmental problem afflicting estuarine and marine environments across the globe (Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008). Hypoxia is often attributed to human-induced increased nutrient discharge from rivers and related eutrophication. The Western Black Sea shelf is a typical example of a system where such anthropogenic impacts are thought to have contributed to the development of seasonal hypoxia in the late 20th century. However, due to the lack of spatially and temporally consistent monitoring in the region, questions remain about the evolution, causes and consequences of the seasonal hypoxia on the Western Black Sea shelf and whether or not the ecological state has recently improved (Capet et al., 2013). In this study a resin-embedded sediment core from a location below the chemocline on the Western Black Sea slope (water depth 377 m) was analyzed for its elemental composition by means of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), recovering a continuous geochemical record at a sub-annual resolution for the last 100 years. Relative enrichments in organic carbon, Pb, Fe, S, and Mo were observed in the depth interval corresponding to the 1970s until the 1990s, suggesting an increased carbon flux to the sediments as well as an anthropogenic pollution signal. We propose that the expansion of eutrophication on the Western Black Sea shelf was responsible for the enhanced carbon flux to our study site, while the associated hypoxia enhanced the shuttling of redox-sensitive elements to locations below the chemocline. The subsequent decrease in organic carbon and metal enrichments at the core top suggests a recent rise in oxygen concentrations and improvement of the ecological state of the Western Black Sea shelf. References: Capet, A., Beckers, J.-M., Grégoire, M. (2013). "Drivers, mechanisms and long-term variability of seasonal hypoxia on the Black Sea northwestern shelf-is there any recovery after eutrophication

  6. Freshwater lake to salt-water sea causing widespread hydrate dissociation in the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Riboulot, Vincent; Ker, Stephan; Sultan, Nabil; Thomas, Yannick; Marsset, Bruno; Scalabrin, Carla; Ruffine, Livio; Boulart, Cédric; Ion, Gabriel

    2018-01-09

    Gas hydrates, a solid established by water and gas molecules, are widespread along the continental margins of the world. Their dynamics have mainly been regarded through the lens of temperature-pressure conditions. A fluctuation in one of these parameters may cause destabilization of gas hydrate-bearing sediments below the seafloor with implications in ocean acidification and eventually in global warming. Here we show throughout an example of the Black Sea, the world's most isolated sea, evidence that extensive gas hydrate dissociation may occur in the future due to recent salinity changes of the sea water. Recent and forthcoming salt diffusion within the sediment will destabilize gas hydrates by reducing the extension and thickness of their thermodynamic stability zone in a region covering at least 2800 square kilometers which focus seepages at the observed sites. We suspect this process to occur in other world regions (e.g., Caspian Sea, Sea of Marmara).

  7. Black shale deposition during Toarcian super-greenhouse driven by sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermoso, M.; Minoletti, F.; Pellenard, P.

    2013-07-01

    One of the most elusive aspects of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) is the paradox between carbon isotopes that indicate intense global primary productivity and organic carbon burial at a global scale, and the delayed expression of anoxia in Europe. During the earliest Toarcian, no black shales were deposited in the European epicontinental seaways, and most organic carbon enrichment of the sediments postdated the T-OAE (defined by the overarching positive trend in the carbon isotopes). In the present studied, we have attempted to establish a sequence stratigraphy framework for Early Toarcian deposits recovered from a core drilled in the Paris Basin using a combination of mineralogical (quartz and clay relative abundance) and geochemical (Si, Zr, Ti and Al) measurements. Combined with the evolution in redox sensitive elements (Fe, V and Mo), the data suggest that expression of anoxia was hampered in European epicontinental seas during most of the T-OAE due to insufficient water depth that prevented stratification of the water column. Only the first stratigraphic occurrence of black shales in Europe corresponds to the "global" event. This interval is characterised by > 10% Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content that contains relatively low concentration of molybdenum compared to subsequent black shale horizons. Additionally, this first black shale occurrence is coeval with the record of the major negative Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE), likely corresponding to a period of transient greenhouse intensification likely due to massive injection of carbon into the Atmosphere-Ocean system. As a response to enhanced weathering and riverine run-off, increased fresh water supply to the basin may have promoted the development of full anoxic conditions through haline stratification of the water column. In contrast, post T-OAE black shales were restricted to epicontinental seas (higher Mo to TOC ratios) during a period of relative high sea level, and carbon isotopes

  8. Organophosphate ester (OPE) flame retardants and plasticizers in the open Mediterranean and Black Seas atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Pizarro, Mariana; Dachs, Jordi

    2014-03-18

    The presence of organophosphate ester (OPE) flame retardants and plasticizers has been confirmed for the first time in the atmosphere over the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected during two West-East oceanographic cruises across the Mediterranean and in the southwest Black Sea. This comprehensive assessment of baseline concentrations of aerosol phase OPEs, spatial distribution, and related deposition fluxes reveals levels ranging from 0.4 to 6.0 ng m(-3) for the ∑14OPEs and a lack of significant differences among sub-basins. Levels measured across the Mediterranean Sea and in the Black Sea are in the upper range or higher than those from previous reports for the marine atmosphere, presumably due to proximity to sources. From 13 to 260 tons of OPEs are estimated to be annually loaded to the Mediterranean Sea open waters from the atmosphere. Tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TCPP) was the most abundant compound over the atmosphere of all the Mediterranean and Black Sea sub-basins, and therefore the chemical reaching surface waters at a higher extent by dry deposition. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of phosphorus due to OPE deposition is a significant fraction of known atmospheric inputs of new organic phosphorus (P), suggesting the relevant role that anthropogenic organic pollutants could play in the P cycle.

  9. A two millennium-long hot drought in the southwestern United States driven by Arctic sea-ice retreat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachniet, M. S.; Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Denniston, R. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Great Basin and lower Colorado River Basin are susceptible to sustained droughts that impact water resources and economic activity for millions of residents of the southwestern United States. The causes of past droughts in the basin remain debated. Herein, we document a strong Arctic to mid-latitude teleconnection during the Holocene that resulted in an extreme `hot drought' persisting for more than two millennia in the southwestern United States, based on a continuous growth rate and new high-resolution carbon and oxygen isotopic time series from a precisely-dated stalagmite from Leviathan Cave, Nevada. Between 9850-7670 yr B2k, highest Holocene oxygen isotope values indicate warm temperatures and moisture-sensitive proxies of high carbon isotope values and low stalagmite growth rate and minimal soil productivity and aquifer recharge. We refer to this period as the Altithermal Hot Drought. A second interval (6770 to 5310 yr B2k) indicates a warm drought. The two Altithermal droughts exceed in severity and duration any droughts observed in the modern and tree-ring records. Further, we show that Altithermal hot droughts were widespread in the southwestern United States, at a time when human populations in the Great Basin were low. The droughts show strong similarities to proxies for Arctic paleoclimate and we suggest that insolation-driven changes in sea ice and snow cover extent in the high latitudes drove atmospheric circulation anomalies in the Great Basin. Because rising greenhouse gas concentrations are projected to increase global and Arctic temperatures with a possible loss of summer sea by the end of the 21st century, our record suggests that a return to prolonged hotter and drier conditions in the southern Great Basin and lower Colorado River Basin is possible within coming centuries.

  10. Evidence for anoxygenic photosynthesis from the distribution of bacteriochlorophylls in the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Repeta, D J; Simpson, D J; Jorgensen, B B; Jannasch, H W

    1989-11-02

    The contribution of anoxygenic photosynthesis to carbon cycling in the Black Sea, the world's largest body of anoxic marine water, has been vigorously investigated and debated for over four decades. Penetration of light into the sulphide-containing deep water may result in a zone of anaerobic primary production by photosynthetic bacteria. We report here the results of analyses of photosynthetic pigments in samples of suspended particulate matter collected from two stations in the western basin of the Black Sea. Our data demonstrate high concentrations of a bacterio-chlorophyll at the chemocline, and thus the potential for anoxygenic photosynthesis as a component of primary production in the carbon cycle of the Black Sea. More than 95% of the pigments in the bacteriochlorophyll-maximum are accounted for by a series of aromatic carotenoids and bacteriochlorophylls-e, including a previously unreported geranyl ester of 4-i-butyl bacteriochlorophyll-e. The distribution of pigments is characteristic of the obligate phototrophs Chlorobium phaeobacteroides and C. phaeovibriodes. Total depth-integrated bacteriochlorophyll at one station exceeded total chlorophyll-a in the overlying oxygenated portion of the euphotic zone. We suggest that anoxygenic photosynthesis is a relatively recent phenomenon in the Black Sea initiated by shallowing of the chemocline over the past decade and development of an anoxic layer devoid of O2 and H2S.

  11. Sediment Flux of Particulate Organic Phosphorus in the Open Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhomenko, A. V.; Kukushkin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variation of the monthly average (weighted average) concentrations of particulate organic phosphorus (PPOM) in the photosynthetic layer, oxycline, redox zone, and H2S zone in the open Black Sea is estimated based on long-term observation data. The suspension sedimentation rates from the studied layers are assessed using model calculations and published data. The annual variation of PPOM sediment fluxes from the photosynthetic layer, oxycline, redox zone, and upper H2S zone to the anaerobic zone of the sea and the correspondingly annual average values are estimated for the first time. A regular decrease in the PPOM annual average flux with depth in the upper active layer is demonstrated. A correlation between the annual average values of PPOM sediment flux from the photosynthetic layer and ascending phosphate flux to this layer is shown, which suggests their balance in the open sea. The results are discussed in terms of the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle and the concept of new and regenerative primary production in the open Black Sea.

  12. Light Absorption in Arctic Sea Ice - Black Carbon vs Chlorophyll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunro, O. O.; Wingenter, O. W.; Elliott, S.; Hunke, E. C.; Flanner, M.; Wang, H.; Dubey, M. K.; Jeffery, N.

    2015-12-01

    The fingerprint of climate change is more obvious in the Arctic than any other place on Earth. This is not only because the surface temperature there has increased at twice the rate of global mean temperature but also because Arctic sea ice extent has reached a record low of 49% reduction relative to the 1979-2000 climatology. Radiation absorption through black carbon (BC) deposited on Arctic snow and sea ice surface is one of the major hypothesized contributors to the decline. However, we note that chlorophyll-a absorption owing to increasing biology activity in this region could be a major competitor during boreal spring. Modeling of sea-ice physical and biological processes together with experiments and field observations promise rapid progress in the quality of Arctic ice predictions. Here we develop a dynamic ice system module to investigate discrete absorption of both BC and chlorophyll in the Arctic, using BC deposition fields from version 5 of Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) and vertically distributed layers of chlorophyll concentrations from Sea Ice Model (CICE). To this point, our black carbon mixing ratios compare well with available in situ data. Both results are in the same order of magnitude. Estimates from our calculations show that sea ice and snow around the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay has the least black carbon absorption while values at the ice-ocean perimeter in the region of the Barents Sea peak significantly. With regard to pigment concentrations, high amounts of chlorophyll are produced in Arctic sea ice by the bottom microbial community, and also within the columnar pack wherever substantial biological activity takes place in the presence of moderate light. We show that the percentage of photons absorbed by chlorophyll in the spring is comparable to the amount attributed to BC, especially in areas where the total deposition rates are decreasing with time on interannual timescale. We expect a continuous increase in

  13. Numerical modelling of the Black Sea eigen-oscillations on a curvilinear boundary fitted coordinate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koychev Demirov, Encho

    1994-12-01

    The paper presents a numerical solution of barotropic and two-layer eigen-oscillation problems for the Black Sea on a boundary fitted coordinate system. This solution is compared with model and empirical data obtained by other workers. Frequencies of the eigen-oscillations found by the numerical solution of spectral problem are compared with the data obtained by spectral analysis of the sea-level oscillations measured near the town of Achtopol and Cape Irakli in stormy sea on 17-21 February 1979. Extreme oscillations of the sea-level result from resonant amplifications of three eigenmodes of the Black Sea of 68.3 -1, 36.6 -1 and 27.3 -1 cycles h -1 frequency.

  14. Evolution of the plankton paleome in the Black Sea from the Deglacial to Anthropocene

    PubMed Central

    Coolen, Marco J. L.; Orsi, William D.; Balkema, Cherel; Quince, Christopher; Harris, Keith; Sylva, Sean P.; Filipova-Marinova, Mariana; Giosan, Liviu

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of climate shifts over Eurasia and global sea level changes modulates freshwater and saltwater inputs to the Black Sea. The dynamics of the hydrologic changes from the Late Glacial into the Holocene remain a matter of debate, and information on how these changes affected the ecology of the Black Sea is sparse. Here we used Roche 454 next-generation pyrosequencing of sedimentary 18S rRNA genes to reconstruct the plankton community structure in the Black Sea over the last ca. 11,400 y. We found that 150 of 2,710 species showed a statistically significant response to four environmental stages. Freshwater chlorophytes were the best indicator species for lacustrine conditions (>9.0 ka B.P.), although the copresence of previously unidentified marine taxa indicated that the Black Sea might have been influenced to some extent by the Marmara Sea since at least 9.6 ka calendar (cal) B.P. Dinoflagellates, cercozoa, eustigmatophytes, and haptophytes responded most dramatically to the gradual increase in salinity after the latest marine reconnection and during the warm and moist mid-Holocene climatic optimum. According to paired analysis of deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) isotope ratios in fossil alkenones, salinity increased rapidly with the onset of the dry Subboreal after ∼5.2 ka B.P., leading to an increase in marine fungi and the first occurrence of marine copepods. A gradual succession of dinoflagellates, diatoms, and chrysophytes occurred during the refreshening after ∼2.5 ka cal B.P. with the onset of the cool and wet Subatlantic climate and recent anthropogenic perturbations. PMID:23650351

  15. Mercury in the Black Sea: New Insights From Measurements and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, G.; Heimbürger, L. E.; Melaku Canu, D.; Lagane, C.; Laffont, L.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; Gerringa, L. J. A.; Solidoro, C.; Gencarelli, C. N.; Hedgecock, I. M.; De Baar, H. J. W.; Sonke, J. E.

    2018-04-01

    Redox conditions and organic matter control marine methylmercury (MeHg) production. The Black Sea is the world's largest and deepest anoxic basin and is thus ideal to study Hg species along the extended redox gradient. Here we present new dissolved Hg and MeHg data from the 2013 GEOTRACES MEDBlack cruise (GN04_leg2) that we integrated into a numerical 1-D model, to track the fate and dynamics of Hg and MeHg. Contrary to a previous study, our new data show highest MeHg concentrations in the permanently anoxic waters. Observed MeHg/Hg percentage (range 9-57%) in the anoxic waters is comparable to other subsurface maxima in oxic open-ocean waters. With the modeling we tested for various Hg methylation and demethylation scenarios along the redox gradient. The results show that Hg methylation must occur in the anoxic waters. The model was then used to simulate the time evolution (1850-2050) of Hg species in the Black Sea. Our findings quantify (1) inputs and outputs of HgT ( 31 and 28 kmol yr-1) and MeHgT ( 5 and 4 kmol yr-1) to the basin, (2) the extent of net demethylation occurring in oxic ( 1 kmol yr-1) and suboxic water ( 6 kmol yr-1), (3) and the net Hg methylation in the anoxic waters of the Black Sea ( 11 kmol yr-1). The model was also used to estimate the amount of anthropogenic Hg (85-93%) in the Black Sea.

  16. Comparison of the seasonal variability in abundance of the copepod Pseudocalanus newmani in Lagoon Notoro-ko and a coastal area of the southwestern Okhotsk Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Mitsuaki; Nakagawa, Yoshizumi; Nishino, Yasuto; Segawa, Susumu; Shiomoto, Akihiro

    2018-03-01

    Replacement of the warm water of the Soya Warm Current (SWC) and the cold water of the East Sakhalin Current (ESC) occurs seasonally along the coast of the southwestern Okhotsk Sea, and sea ice covers the surface during winter. Pseudocalanus newmani is one of the dominant copepods in coastal waters of the northern hemisphere. To better understand the population dynamics of the copepod P. newmani in coastal areas of the southwestern Okhotsk Sea, this study compared the seasonal variation in P. newmani abundance in Lagoon Notoro-ko and a coastal area of the Okhotsk Sea with regard to developmental stage. We sampled P. newmani in the lagoon, including during the ice cover season, and the coastal waters. Pseudocalanus newmani was abundant at both sites in spring. During summer-fall, adults disappeared from the populations at both sites, whereas the early developmental stages were abundant and dominated the population. Total length of adult females decreased toward summer at both sites. Pseudocalanus newmani abundance in the lagoon increased in early winter, and larger females were found in the populations at both sites. These phenomena at both sites corresponded with seasonal variation in water temperature caused by seasonal water-mass replacement and sea ice.

  17. Arctic sea ice a major determinant in Mandt's black guillemot movement and distribution during non-breeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Divoky, G.J.; Douglas, David C.; Stenhouse, I. J.

    2016-01-01

    Mandt's black guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandtii) is one of the few seabirds associated in all seasons with Arctic sea ice, a habitat that is changing rapidly. Recent decreases in summer ice have reduced breeding success and colony size of this species in Arctic Alaska. Little is known about the species' movements and distribution during the nine month non-breeding period (September–May), when changes in sea ice extent and composition are also occurring and predicted to continue. To examine bird movements and the seasonal role of sea ice to non-breeding Mandt's black guillemots, we deployed and recovered (n = 45) geolocators on individuals at a breeding colony in Arctic Alaska during 2011–2015. Black guillemots moved north to the marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas immediately after breeding, moved south to the Bering Sea during freeze-up in December, and wintered in the Bering Sea January–April. Most birds occupied the MIZ in regions averaging 30–60% sea ice concentration, with little seasonal variation. Birds regularly roosted on ice in all seasons averaging 5 h d−1, primarily at night. By using the MIZ, with its roosting opportunities and associated prey, black guillemots can remain in the Arctic during winter when littoral waters are completely covered by ice.

  18. Study of the Western Black Sea Storms with a Focus on the Storms Caused by Cyclones of North African Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galabov, Vasko; Chervenkov, Hristo

    2018-04-01

    We present a study of the Black Sea storms, using a long hindcast of the western Black Sea wind waves. The goal of the work is to study the trends in the storminess indicators. We identify 238 storms with significant wave height above 4 m for the period 1900-2015. We study the cyclogenetic regions of the cyclones causing these storms and focus specifically on the Black Sea storms associated with cyclones originating over the Gulf of Sidra and the adjacent areas. We also identify which of these storms are associated with the so-called explosive cyclogenesis (with deepening rate above 1 Bergeron) and find that 3 out of 5 cases of severe Black Sea storms associated with explosive cyclones are caused by cyclones originating in the Gulf of Sidra. We find no evidence of steady trends in the western Black Sea storminess.

  19. Variability of Phytoplankton Size Structure in Response to Changes in Coastal Upwelling Intensity in the Southwestern East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jung-Wook; Park, Jinku; Choi, Jang-Geun; Jo, Young-Heon; Kang, Jae Joong; Joo, HuiTae; Lee, Sang Heon

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the size structure of phytoplankton under varying coastal upwelling intensities and to determine the resulting primary productivity in the southwestern East Sea. Samples of phytoplankton assemblages were collected on five occasions from the Hupo Bank, off the east coast of Korea, during 2012-2013. Because two major surface currents have a large effect on water mass transport in this region, we first performed a Backward Particle Tracking Experiment (BPTE) to determine the coastal sea from which the collected samples originated according to advection time of BPTE particles, following which we used upwelling age (UA) to determine the intensity of coastal upwelling in the region of origin for each sample. Only samples that were affected by coastal upwelling in the region of origin were included in subsequent analyses. We found that as UA increased, there was a decreasing trend in the concentration of picophytoplankton, and increasing trends in the concentration of nanophytoplankton and microphytoplankton. We also examined the relationship between the size structure of phytoplankton and primary productivity in the Ulleung Basin (UB), which has experienced significant variation over the past decade. We found that primary productivity in UB was closely related to the strength of the southerly wind, which is the most important mechanism for coastal upwelling in the southwestern East Sea. Thus, the size structure of phytoplankton is determined by the intensity of coastal upwelling, which is regulated by the southerly wind, and makes an important contribution to primary productivity.

  20. NW Black Sea ecosystems recovery from former severe seasonal hypoxia and effect on macrofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, Marian-Traian; Begun, Tatiana; Teaca, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The benthos researches carried out in the last decade on the NW Black Sea shelf established the transitional process of the bottom communities, from the severe disturbed state resulted from seasonal hypoxia of high eutrophication from 1970-2000 period towards a new state. The authors, with their expertise achieved in the framework of several national and EU FP6&7 projects (SESAME, HYPOX, PERSEUS), analyzing more than 600 quantitative samples, consider the benthic associations influenced mainly by the Danube River discharge being characterized as follows: • decrease in the specific diversity (e.g. Mollusca - from 170 species in the 1960s - 1970s to 70 species in the present in NW Black Sea); • loss or diminishing of some habitat areas (typical habitat with Zostera, Phyllophora, Cystoseira, Barnea, Donacilla etc.); • increase in the numeric abundance and biomass of some specific benthic populations (Melinna, Alitta, Dipolydora etc.); • loss or reduction of some specific populations (Abra prismatica, Spisula subtruncata, Chamelia gallina etc.); • replacement of some strong and quite large benthic populations by metapopulation of small extension; • diminution of the biofilter strength by reduction of the filter - feeder populations; • qualitative and quantitative worsening of benthic biological resources, especially molluscs - forms playing an important ecological part and with great economic importance (mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, soft-shell clam Mya arenaria, veined rapa whelk Rapana venosa); • thriving of opportunistic forms (especially worms populations causing sediment bioturbation - Melinna palmata, Heteromastus filiformis) and, temporarily, some exotic species recently pervading Black Sea (Mya, Anadara, Rapana etc.); • great quantitative fluctuations of all benthic populations; • occurrence of some weak sing of ecosystem recovery. However, recovery of the benthic ecosystem appears to be less certain although an improvement on

  1. Mercury in the Black Sea: New Insights From Measurements and Numerical Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Melaku Canu, D.; Lagane, C.; Laffont, L.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; Gerringa, L. J. A.; Solidoro, C.; Gencarelli, C. N.; Hedgecock, I. M.; De Baar, H. J. W.; Sonke, J. E.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Redox conditions and organic matter control marine methylmercury (MeHg) production. The Black Sea is the world's largest and deepest anoxic basin and is thus ideal to study Hg species along the extended redox gradient. Here we present new dissolved Hg and MeHg data from the 2013 GEOTRACES MEDBlack cruise (GN04_leg2) that we integrated into a numerical 1‐D model, to track the fate and dynamics of Hg and MeHg. Contrary to a previous study, our new data show highest MeHg concentrations in the permanently anoxic waters. Observed MeHg/Hg percentage (range 9–57%) in the anoxic waters is comparable to other subsurface maxima in oxic open‐ocean waters. With the modeling we tested for various Hg methylation and demethylation scenarios along the redox gradient. The results show that Hg methylation must occur in the anoxic waters. The model was then used to simulate the time evolution (1850–2050) of Hg species in the Black Sea. Our findings quantify (1) inputs and outputs of HgT (~31 and ~28 kmol yr−1) and MeHgT (~5 and ~4 kmol yr−1) to the basin, (2) the extent of net demethylation occurring in oxic (~1 kmol yr−1) and suboxic water (~6 kmol yr−1), (3) and the net Hg methylation in the anoxic waters of the Black Sea (~11 kmol yr−1). The model was also used to estimate the amount of anthropogenic Hg (85–93%) in the Black Sea. PMID:29861543

  2. Coastal zone - Terra (and aqua) incognita - Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyan, R. D.; Velikova, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    In the Black Sea coastal states (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has no properly established legal and institutional framework. The term "coastal zone" is undefined in national (reportedly with the exception of Bulgaria) and regional legislative documents. The interface between science and policy within ICZM remains poorly developed. Policies for streamlining efforts have been ill-managed and decisions taken in functional zoning and the balanced use and protection of coastal zones have often been shown to be incorrect. The observed proliferation of consultative committees and councils has not been much helpful, public participation has been widely neglected. Illegal practices are in place, and coastal developments continue being largely unsustainable. These problems are often explained by the low awareness of ICZM benefits, and hence, a shortage of political good will, but also by the lack of appropriate Black Sea scientific research, which would ensure a fundamental knowledge-base. There are hundreds of organizations involved in collection of data and information of relevance for ICZM, although there is a distinct lack of coordination. Consequently, there is a substantial overlap of activities, whilst important scientific and policy questions remain unanswered. We review the status of ICZM or mismanagement (ICZmisM) in the Black Sea region, building links between environmental problems and policy measures in response, and providing appropriate examples. Recommendations are put forward with regard to major gaps in ICZM at levels of its theoretical development and practical implementation within the region. The review is intended to remind of major disastrous consequences of present complacency and laissez-faire in the management of the Black Sea. This paper calls for urgent implementation of ICZM in the Black Sea at national and regional levels.

  3. Black shale deposition during Toarcian super-greenhouse driven by sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermoso, M.; Minoletti, F.; Pellenard, P.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most elusive aspects of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE) is the paradox between carbon isotopes that indicate intense global primary productivity and organic carbon burial at a global scale, and the delayed expression of anoxia in Europe. During the earliest Toarcian, no black shales were deposited in the European epicontinental seaways, and most organic carbon enrichment of the sediments postdated the end of the overarching positive trend in the carbon isotopes that characterises the T-OAE. In the present study, we have attempted to establish a sequence stratigraphic framework for Early Toarcian deposits recovered from a core drilled in the Paris Basin using a combination of mineralogical (quartz and clay relative abundance) and geochemical (Si, Zr, Ti and Al) measurements. Combined with the evolution in redox sensitive elements (Fe, V and Mo), the data suggest that expression of anoxia was hampered in European epicontinental seas during most of the T-OAE (defined by the positive carbon isotope trend) due to insufficient water depth that prevented stratification of the water column. Only the first stratigraphic occurrence of black shales in Europe corresponds to the "global" event. This interval is characterised by >10% Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content that contains relatively low concentration of molybdenum compared to subsequent black shale horizons. Additionally, this first black shale occurrence is coeval with the record of the major negative Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE), likely corresponding to a period of transient greenhouse intensification likely due to massive injection of carbon into the atmosphere-ocean system. As a response to enhanced weathering and riverine run-off, increased fresh water supply to the basin may have promoted the development of full anoxic conditions through haline stratification of the water column. In contrast, post T-OAE black shales during the serpentinum and bifrons Zones were restricted to epicontinental

  4. 75 FR 70192 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2011 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Specifications; 2011 Research... Management Council's (Council) Research Set-Aside (RSA) program. The implementing regulations for the Summer... species to be set aside each year in support of scientific research. For the 2011 fishing year, NMFS...

  5. A High Resolution Study of Black Sea Circulation and Hypothetical Oil Spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, D. E.; Bowman, M. J.; Korotenko, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    A 1/24 deg resolution adaptation of the DieCAST ocean model simulates a realistically intense Rim Current and ubiquitous mesoscale coastal anticyclonic eddies that result from anticyclonic vorticity generation by laterally differential bottom drag forces that are amplified near Black Sea coastal headlands. Climatological and synoptic surface forcings are compared. The effects of vertical momentum transfer by known (by Synop region fishermen, as reported by Ballard National Geographic article) big amplitude internal waves are parameterized by big vertical viscosity. Sensitivity to vertical viscosity is shown. Results of simulated hypothetical oil spills are shown. A simple method to nowcast/forecast the Black Sea currents is described and early results are shown.

  6. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  7. Meteotsunami ("Marrobbio") of 25-26 June 2014 on the Southwestern Coast of Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica; Rabinovich, Alexander; Tinti, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    A major tsunami-like event, locally known as `marrobbio', impacted the southwestern coast of Sicily on 25-26 June 2014. The event was part of a chain of hazardous episodes in the Mediterranean and Black seas during the last week of June 2014 resulting from an anomalous atmospheric system ("tumultuous atmosphere") propagating eastward over the region. The synoptic patterns and vertical structure of the atmosphere over Sicily at the time of the event indicate that atmospheric wave ducting was responsible for the generation of tsunamigenic air pressure disturbances that produced especially high sea level responses ("meteotsunamis") at certain sites along the Sicilian coast. The strongest sea level oscillations were observed at Mazara del Vallo, where a 1-m meteotsunami bore, propagating upstream in the Mazaro River, was generated. The combined effects of external resonance (Proudman resonance on the western Sicilian shelf) and internal resonant conditions (bathymetric and topographic characteristics of specific sites) were found to be the key factors that caused the meteotsunami (marrobbio phenomenon) on the coast of Sicily and the meteobore at Mazara del Vallo.

  8. Meteotsunami ("Marrobbio") of 25-26 June 2014 on the Southwestern Coast of Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica; Rabinovich, Alexander; Tinti, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    A major tsunami-like event, locally known as `marrobbio', impacted the southwestern coast of Sicily on 25-26 June 2014. The event was part of a chain of hazardous episodes in the Mediterranean and Black seas during the last week of June 2014 resulting from an anomalous atmospheric system ("tumultuous atmosphere") propagating eastward over the region. The synoptic patterns and vertical structure of the atmosphere over Sicily at the time of the event indicate that atmospheric wave ducting was responsible for the generation of tsunamigenic air pressure disturbances that produced especially high sea level responses ("meteotsunamis") at certain sites along the Sicilian coast. The strongest sea level oscillations were observed at Mazara del Vallo, where a 1-m meteotsunami bore, propagating upstream in the Mazaro River, was generated. The combined effects of external resonance (Proudman resonance on the western Sicilian shelf) and internal resonant conditions (bathymetric and topographic characteristics of specific sites) were found to be the key factors that caused the meteotsunami (marrobbio phenomenon) on the coast of Sicily and the meteobore at Mazara del Vallo.

  9. Man induced change in community control in the north-western Black Sea: The top-down bottom-up balance.

    PubMed

    Bănaru, Daniela; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Boudouresque, Charles F

    2010-05-01

    The present study shows how marine commercial fish food webs dramatically changed in the north-western Black Sea on both pelagic and benthic environments. Fisheries landings, diversity and equitability strongly decreased between 1965-1970 and 2001-2005. Fishes adapted their feeding behaviour to the increasingly low species diversity of the Black Sea communities. Their food web became poor and simplified following the loss of many top predator species and their trophic links. Linkage density, connectivity and Lyapunov stability proxy strongly decreased. The north-western Black Sea system switched from a complex top-down and bottom-up functioning pattern to a dominantly bottom-up functioning pattern. This study contributes to a better understanding of these transformations within the Danube-Black Sea system in the last decades. An attempt is made to relate these changes with river inputs, fisheries and coastal pollution. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Special data base of Informational - Computational System 'INM RAS - Black Sea' for solving inverse and data assimilation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Piskovatsky, Nicolay; Gusev, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    Development of Informational-Computational Systems (ICS) for data assimilation procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The above problems are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for personal computers. In this work the results on the Special data base development for ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" are presented. In the presentation the input information for ICS is discussed, some special data processing procedures are described. In this work the results of forecast using ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" with operational observation data assimilation are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No 13-01-00753) and by Presidium Program of Russian Academy of Sciences (project P-23 "Black sea as an imitational ocean model"). References 1. V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black Sea hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 5-31. 2. E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 69-94. 3. V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V.V. Fomin, S.N. Moshonkin, S.G. Demyshev, Numerical model of the circulation of Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 95-111. 4. Agoshkov V.I.,Assovsky M.B., Giniatulin S. V., Zakharova N.B., Kuimov G.V., Parmuzin E.I., Fomin V.V. Informational Computational system of variational assimilation of observation data "INM RAS - Black sea"// Ecological

  11. Common behaviour of the Adriatic and Black Seas level in the 20th century as response to a Mediterranean forcing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Stanica, Adrian; Dinu, Irina; Lionello, Piero

    2017-04-01

    The Adriatic and Black Seas are two marginal seas, both connected with the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, through the Otranto and Bosporus straits respectively. This contribution aims to evidence the fraction of the interannual sea level variability that is common to the two basins, likely an effect of the common forcing produced by Mediterranean Sea. In order to identify the common signal, the effect of the main local factors (wind, inverse barometer effect, steric effects, river runoff) determining the larger fraction of the interannual sea level variability have been identified and subtracted. Using 7 and 5 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic and Black Sea coasts respectively, provided by PSMSL (Permanent Service of Mean Sea Level), two seamless timeseries representing the sea level of the basins from 1900 to 2009 have been produced. The comparison with satellite data, between 1993 and 2009, confirms that these reconstructions are representative of the actual sea level in the two basins (values are 0.87 for the Adriatic and 0.72 for the Black Sea). When considering local factors, for the Adriatic Sea the annual cycle of inverse barometer effect, steric contribution due to local temperature and salinity variations, and wind set-up have been computed. For the Black Sea, the wind factor (negligible in this case) has been replaced by the Danube river contribution estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta). After subtracting these local factors from the observed sea level of each basin, the correlation between the residual time series amounts to 0.47, suggesting the presence of a common factor acting at Mediterranean scale, which can be attributed to the effect of the large-scale circulation on the mass exchange between the Mediterranean and the two local basins. The present analysis is still unable to explain a non-negligible fraction of interannual variability of sea level of the Black Sea. This is likely

  12. Impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis on Black Sea hydrology—Insights from hydrogen isotopes analysis on biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Iuliana; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Krijgsman, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.96-5.33 Ma ago) was a dramatic oceanographic event, when evaporites kilometers thick precipitated in a desiccating Mediterranean basin, trapping more than 5% of the world's oceanic salt. Hydrological changes in the adjacent Black Sea and water exchange with the Mediterranean region are crucial, but poorly understood factors, influencing Messinian evaporite formation. Here, we present compound specific hydrogen isotope (δD) data from Messinian Black Sea sedimentary rocks that show a rapid change to heavy waters at 5.8 Ma, when major glaciations occurred. At the same time, highly depleted δD values of long chain n-alkanes derived from plant waxes indicate that fresh, river transported water originated from colder northern latitudes. The δD values of alkenones, biosynthesized by haptophyte algae, show an unprecedented increase of 60‰ within ˜100 kyr. The corresponding rapid change to +110‰ for δD of the Black Sea waters seem unrealistic, being heavier than anywhere in the present day oceans. Regardless of the applied relation between the δD values of the alkenones and δD of the waters where they were produced, the 60‰ enrichment in the δD values of alkenones indicates strongly enhanced evaporitic conditions. Still, the relative distribution of the alkenones implies in-situ growth and reproduction of haptophyte algae, requiring sustained marine conditions in the Black Sea up to 5.6 Ma. This indicates that Mediterranean-Black Sea connectivity persisted during the first MSC phase when gypsum precipitated in the Mediterranean basin. When the Black Sea became isolated, at the peak of the MSC (˜5.6 Ma), it had a strongly negative hydrological budget and rapidly desiccated due to excess evaporation.

  13. Late Quaternary paleoceanographic changes in the southwestern Okhotsk Sea: Evidence from geochemical, radiolarian, and diatom records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Yusuke; Takahashi, Kozo; Katsuki, Kota; Ono, Ayumu; Hori, Joichi; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Ikehara, Minoru; Aoki, Kaori

    2005-08-01

    High-resolution analyses of geochemical parameters (biogenic opal, calcium carbonate, organic carbon, and nitrogen) and microfossil assemblages (diatoms and radiolarians) on Core MD01-2412 clarified detailed paleoceanographic changes such as sea-ice cover and biological production in the southwestern Okhotsk Sea during the last 115 kyr. An age model of Core MD01-2412 was established based on δ 18O stratigraphy, accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) 14C, and tephrochronology. Sea-ice history reconstructed by siliceous microplankton records indicated that the present sea-ice condition was formed during the last 8 kyr. Only during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 was the duration of sea-ice cover in this region much longer than that of today (4-5 months a year). Two diatom species, Thalassionema nitzschioides and Fragilariopsis doliolus, revealed that the Soya Warm Current Water (SWCW) flowed into the Okhotsk Sea near the site of Core MD01-2412 during the last 12-14 kyr and during MIS 5a, and was associated with sea-level rise. Biological productivity rapidly increased during MIS 1, associated with sea-ice retreat. Two major increases of organic carbon (OC) contents (wt%) and C org/N ratios were observed, and the timings of these events were 15.8-16.7 ka (Event 1) and 13.1-13.6 ka (Event 2). Corresponding to these events, the abundance of Cycladophora davisiana, an intermediate water dwelling radiolarian species, increased. This high C. davisiana abundance can be correlated to the input of terrestrial organic matter from the submerged shelf to the intermediate water. Apart from the radiolarians, the production of diatoms in the surface waters was suppressed by the development of well-stratified surface water along with sea-ice melting during the early Holocene. Diatom production increased gradually during the last 10 kyr with enhanced vertical mixing.

  14. Black Sea impact on its west-coast land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheval, Sorin; Constantin, Sorin

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the Black Sea influence on the thermal characteristics of its western hinterland based on satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The marine impact on the land surface temperature (LST) values is detected at daily, seasonal and annual time scales, and a strong linkage with the land cover is demonstrated. The remote sensing products used within the study supply LST data with complete areal coverage during clear sky conditions at 1-km spatial resolution, which is appropriate for climate studies. The sea influence is significant up to 4-5 km, by daytime, while the nighttime influence is very strong in the first 1-2 km, and it gradually decreases westward. Excepting the winter, the daytime temperature increases towards the plateau with the distance from the sea, e.g. with a gradient of 0.9 °C/km in the first 5 km in spring or with 0.7 °C/km in summer. By nighttime, the sea water usually remains warmer than the contiguous land triggering higher LST values in the immediate proximity of the coastline in all seasons, e.g. mean summer LST is 19.0 °C for the 1-km buffer, 16.6 °C for the 5-km buffer and 16.0 °C for the 10-km buffer. The results confirm a strong relationship between the land cover and thermal regime in the western hinterland of the Black Sea coast. The satellite-derived LST and air temperature values recorded at the meteorological stations are highly correlated for similar locations, but the marine influence propagates differently, pledging for distinct analysis. Identified anomalies in the general observed trends are investigated in correlation with sea surface temperature dynamics in the coastal area.

  15. Distribution and migration of 239+240Pu in abiotic components of the Black Sea ecosystems during the post-Chernobyl period.

    PubMed

    Tereshchenko, N N; Gulin, S B; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2018-08-01

    Distribution of 239,240 Pu in abiotic components (water and bottom sediment) of the Black Sea ecosystems was studied during the post-Chernobyl period at different offshore and near-shore locations. The trends of these radionuclides accumulation by sediments were analyzed. The spatial-temporal changes in the 239,240 Pu distribution as well as effective half-life for these radionuclides in the Black Sea surface water in deep-sea area are presented. The estimations of the average annual removal fluxes of the 239,240 Pu into the bottom sediments were obtained. The Black Sea sediments were characterized by a higher 239,240 Pu concentration factor (C f  ≈ n·10 4 -n·10 6 ) and radiocapacity factor (F( 239,240 Pu) was about 99.9% on the shelf, 94.5-99.1% on deep-sea basin for silty and 94.6-98.9% on the shelf for sandy bottom sediments) as compared with C f and F for 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Silty bottom sediments play the role of 239,240 Pu main depot in the Black Sea ecosystem. The studied radioecological characteristics of Pu allowed us to define the type of plutonium biogeochemical behavior in the Black Sea as a pedotropic one. The results of this complex radioecological monitoring of 239+240 Pu contamination in the Black Sea and their analysis makes it possible to understand the plutonium redistribution pathways which will enable to carry out the tracing of its migration within the ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exchanges between the shelf and the deep Black Sea: an integrated analysis of physical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zatsepin, Andrei; Akivis, Tatiana; Zhou, Feng

    2017-04-01

    This study provides an integrated analysis of exchanges of water, salt and heat between the north-western Black Sea shelf and the deep basin. Three contributing physical mechanisms are quantified, namely: Ekman drift, transport by mesoscale eddies at the edge of the NW Black Sea shelf and non-local cascading assisted by the rim current and mesoscale eddies. The semi-enclosed nature of the Black Sea together with its unique combination of an extensive shelf area in the North West and the deep central part make it sensitive to natural variations of fluxes, including the fluxes between the biologically productive shelf and predominantly anoxic deep sea. Exchanges between the shelf and deep sea play an important role in forming the balance of waters, nutrients and pollution within the coastal areas, and hence the level of human-induced eutrophication of coastal waters (MSFD Descriptor 5). In this study we analyse physical mechanisms and quantify shelf-deep sea exchange processes in the Black Sea sector using the NEMO ocean circulation model. The model is configured and optimized taking into account specific features of the Black Sea, and validated against in-situ and satellite observations. The study uses NEMO-BLS24 numerical model which is based on the NEMO codebase v3.2.1 with amendments introduced by the UK Met Office. The model has a horizontal resolution of 1/24×1/24° and a hybrid s-on-top-of-z vertical coordinate system with a total of 33 layers. The horizontal viscosity/diffusivity operator is rotated to reduce the contamination of vertical diffusion/viscosity by large values of their horizontal counterparts. The bathymetry is processed from ETOPO5 and capped to 1550m. Atmospheric forcing for the period 1989-2012 is given by the Drakkar Forcing Set v5.2. For comparison, the NCEP atmospheric forcing also used for 2005. The climatological runoff from 8 major rivers is included. We run the model individually for 24 calendar years without data assimilation. For

  17. Estimation of Sea Level variations with GPS/GLONASS-Reflectometry Technique: Case Study at Stationary Oceanographic Platform in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbatov, G. A.; Padokhin, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work we study GNSS - reflectometry methods for estimation of sea level variations using a single GNSS-receiver, which are based on the multipath propagation effects (interference pattern in SNR of GNSS signals at small elevation angles) caused by the reflection of navigational signals from the sea surface. The measurements were carried out in the coastal zone of Black Sea at the Stationary Oceanographic Platform during one-week campaign in the summer 2017. GPS/GLONASS signals at two working frequencies of both systems were used to study sea level variations which almost doubled the amount of observations compared to GPS-only tide gauge. Moreover all the measurements were conducted with 4-antenna GNSS receiver providing the opportunity for different orientations of antennas including zenith and nadir looking ones as well as two horizontally oriented ones at different azimuths. As the reference we used data from co-located wire wave gauge which showed good correspondence of both datasets. Though tidal effects are not so pronounced for the Black Sea, the described experimental setup allowed to study the effects of sea surface roughness, driven by meteorological conditions (e.g. wind waves), as well as antenna directivity pattern effects on the observed interference patterns of GPS/GLONASS L1/L2 signals (relation of the main spectral peak to the noise power) and the quality of sea level estimations.

  18. Temporal Variation in Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata) Abundance in the Maryland Coastal Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, R.; Chigbu, P.

    2016-02-01

    Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) is a warm temperate species associated with structured habitats along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. Currently, the northern stock is considered data poor, and the lack of information about the abundance and ecology of these fish in estuaries is a major concern. The Maryland Coastal Bays (MCBs) serves as a habitat for 0+ and 1+ black sea bass. The Maryland Department of Natural Resources conducts annual surveys of juvenile finfish including black sea bass in the MCBs from April to October. Highest mean Catch-Per-Unit efforts (CPUE) were in sites 7 (Isle of Wight Bay), 9 (Sinepuxent Bay), and 20 (Chincoteague Bay), which are also sites closet to the Ocean City and Chincoteague Inlets. Length frequency distribution from data collected from 1989-2013 in these trawls show that there are two year classes in the MCBs. Juveniles (1+) began to enter the bays in April, and (YoY) 0+ fish were caught in the trawls beginning in June. Juvenile abundance peaked in July, while 0+ abundance peaked in September. The abundance of both 0+ and 1+ fish varied over the years with abundances peaking in the same years. YoY black sea bass abundance was positively correlated (r2=0.22, p≤0.05) with average salinity each year and negatively correlated (r2=0.15, p≤0.05) with average NAO winter index. The negative NAO winter years could cause the increase in salinity, which could favor high recruitment. This could be caused by the warmer winters increasing rainfall and reducing salinity during that time. However, abundance of YoY was low in the MCBs, which could be from the trawl gear used to sample the structure oriented fish, and therefore could be a source of bias in this study. Nevertheless, other studies have also used trawls to assess distribution and trends of YoY black sea bass. Studies using traps to assess the relative abundance of the fish in the MCBs are ongoing, and could provide more insight into climatic factors affecting

  19. Changing Coastal oceanography of the Black Sea. I: Northwestern Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmazin, D.

    This article describes the hydrography of the Northwestern Shelf (NWS), of the Black Sea emphasizing the changes induced by water management in the Dniejer and Dniester river basins. The existing literature and previously unpublished data have been reviewed and synthesized to describe water property fields and transport mechanisms of the NWS and the Dnieper and Dniester estuaries before the early 1960s, or the so-called precontrol period, when the effect of artificial river flow control upon the coastal waters was insignificant. After the hydroenergy complexes and water withdrawal and disposal systems on rivers became fully operational in the early 1970s (the so-called postcontrol period), the annual river discharge from the Dnieper and Dniester had noticeably decreased and seasonal river flow patterns had been artificially modified. Instead of a powerful and short early spring flood, typical for the natural conditions in the Dnieper river, the hydrographs in the postcontrol period exhibit two smaller peaks of river discharge of much longer period. One of them (winter-early spring) is caused by intense hydroenergy generation and weir discharges through the cascade of storage reservoirs. Another is associated with spring flood, modified by intense water consumption and storage in this period. High average river discharge in late May-early June strengthened the summer pycnocline which inhibits vertical mixing in the estuaries and coastal waters. Owing to a slow summer circulation, the rate of natural purification of the entire coastal system has been reduced. This coupled with the increased nutrient, organic and pollutant transport, decreased the dissolved-oxygen concentration and led to anoxic events and mass mortalities of marine organisms in the previously productive regions. These effects have primarily plagued the benthic communities along the entire western coast of the NWS since 1973. Winter convective overturn in the Black Sea reaches its maximum depth at the

  20. Geochemical characteristics of Holocene laminated sapropel (unit II) and underlying lacustrine unit III in the Black Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, Walter E.; Arthur, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    eg 1 of the 1988 R/V Knorr expeditions to the Black Sea recovered 90 gravity and box cores. The longest recovery by gravity cores was about 3 meters, with an average of about 2.5 meters, recovering all of the Holocene and upper Pleistocene sections in the Black Sea. During the latest Pleistocene glaciation, sea level dropped below the 35-meters-deep Bosporus outlet sill of the Black Sea. Therefore throughout most of its history the Black Sea was a lake, and most of its sediments are lacustrine. The oldest sediments recovered (older than 8,000 calendar years) consist of massive to coarsely banded lacustrine calcareous clay designated as lithologic Unit III, generally containing less than 1 percent organic carbon (OC). The base of overlying Unit II marks the first incursion of Mediterranean seawater into the Black Sea, and the onset of bottom-water anoxia about 7,900 calendar years. Unit II contains as much as 15 percent OC in cores from the deepest part of the Black Sea (2,200 meters). The calcium carbonate (CaCO3) remains of the coccolith Emiliania huxleyi form the distinctive white laminae of overlying Unit I. The composition of Unit III and Unit II sediments are quite different, reflecting different terrigenous clastic sources and increased contributions from hydrogenous and biogenic components in anoxic Unit II sapropel. In Unit II, positive covariance between OC and three trace elements commonly concentrated in OC-rich sediments where sulfate reduction has occurred (molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium) and a nutrient (phosphorus) suggest a large marine source for these elements although nickel and vanadium also have a large terrigenous clastic source. The marine sources may be biogenic or hydrogenous. A large biogenic source is also suggested for copper and cobalt. Because abundant pyrite forms in the water column and sediments of the Black Sea, we expected to find a large hydrogenous iron component, but a strong covariance of iron with aluminum suggests that the

  1. Novel pyropheophorbide steryl esters in Black Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Linda L.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    1991-07-01

    A series of non-polar chlorophyll degradation products (NPCs) with greater than 10 components has been isolated from Black Sea sediment and identified as pyropheophorbide steryl esters by visible and mass spectrometry. These compounds have been previously observed in seawater and sediment trap samples, and may be formed during grazing of phytoplankton by zooplanktonic herbivores. In Black Sea sediments, NPCs constitute 14% of the total phorbins determined spectroscopically at 660 nm, and 39% of the total chlorophyll degradation products measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. NPCs therefore constitute a significant sedimentary sink for chlorophyll. The distribution of sterols released by hydrolysis of NPCs most closely resembles sterols in suspended particulate matter collected from the euphotic zone and is quite different from the distribution of solvent-extractable sterols in sediments. Sterols extracted from sediments have high concentrations of 4-methylsterols and high stanol/stenol ratios. NPC-derived sterols have very low concentrations of 4-methylsterols and low stanol/stenol ratios. We suggest that these differences reflect an enhanced preservation of NPCs in sediments relative to free sterols and phorbins. As a result, the original production of sterols in the euphotic zone may be more closely approximated by the distribution of NPC-derived sterols than by the distribution of free sterols in sediments.

  2. BIO ARGO floats: tools for operational monitoring of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Slabakova, Violeta; Peneva, Elisaveta; Stanev, Emil

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of ecological status in the context of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the physical and biogeochemical processes that determine the functioning of marine ecosystems. One of the main challenges however is the need of data with frequency relevant to the spatial and temporal scales of the ecological processes. The majority of in situ observations that are commonly used for ecological monitoring of the Black Sea are generally based on near-shore monitoring programs or irregular oceanographic cruises that provide either non-synoptic, coarse resolution realizations of large scale processes or detailed, but time and site specific snapshots of local features. These gaps can be filled by two independent sources: satellite observation and profiling floats. In fact satellite ocean color sensors allows for determination at synoptic scale of water quality parameters through its absorption properties. However the satellite ocean color methods have a number of limitations such as: measurements can only be made during daylight hours; require cloud-free conditions and are sensitive to atmospheric aerosols; provide information only for the upper layer of the ocean (approximately the depth of 10% incident light); algorithms developed for global applications are a source of large uncertainties in the marginal seas and costal areas. These constrains of the optical remote sensing observations can be avoided by using miniature biogeochemical sensors and autonomous platforms that offer remarkable perspectives for observing the "biological" ocean, notably at critical spatiotemporal scales which have been out of reach until recently (Claustre et al., 2010). In the frame of "E-AIMS: Euro-Argo Improvements for the GMES marine Service" 7 EC FP project two Bio Argo floats were deployed in the Black Sea. Beside the traditionally CTD the floats were equipped with biogeochemical

  3. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends.

    PubMed

    Gulin, S B; Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G; Sidorov, I G; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2013-10-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m(-3), respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq (137)Cs and 22 Bq (90)Sr per m(3) as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly (90)Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995-1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental policy in the north-eastern sector of the Black sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyan, Ruben; Godin, Evgenii; Kosyan, Alisa

    2015-04-01

    Active economic development of the Black Sea East coastal zone has started in the beginning of 20-th century. Those days the pebble taken from beaches was used for construction of buildings, rail and motor roads. Active consumption of pebble from the beaches and river banks had caused a sharp increase of sea shores abrasion and washout rate, number of landslides had also increased. Contemporary Caucasian shores of Black Sea are being developed under increasing man-caused load. Favorable natural conditions, their variety and uniqueness determine the exceptional role of these shores as very important recreational zone of Russian South. Waste urbanized areas, agricultural territories and National Parks are located in immediate neighborhood with the sea. Important industrial facilities and federal and international communi- cations, including major seaports are located in the shore zone. At present time major gas and oil transportation facilities are commissioned and being constructed in the area. Due to the change of geopolitical situation the Russian shoreline had significantly reduced in comparison with Soviet period, especially in most developed regions. Large resort complexes in Georgia, Crimea and Baltic area were lost. Russia had also lost many major seaports that, under conditions of structural change of economy and export growth, had caused the necessity of building new industrial facilities in the Black Sea coastal zone, and, consequently, had stimulated active human invasion into natural coastal processes. At the time being, a major part (three hundred nine kilometers) of Black Sea coast within Russian sector is subject to abrasion and landslide processes. Abrasion process and beaches wash-out, landslides cause destruction of industrial and transport facilities, living and public buildings, resort complexes and valuable agricultural areas. In this light, the challenge of estimation of effective methods of shores protection against wave-induced erosion

  5. Boron-rich mud volcanoes of the Black Sea region: Modern analogues to ancient sea-floor tourmalinites associated with Sullivan-type Pb-Zn deposits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, John F.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Ware, Paul L. G.

    1998-05-01

    Large submarine mud volcanoes in the abyssal part of the Black Sea south of the Crimean Peninsula are similar in many respects to synsedimentary mud volcanoes in the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell basin. One of the Belt-Purcell mud volcanoes directly underlies the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia. Footwall rocks to the Sullivan deposit comprise variably tourmalinized siltstone, conglomerate, and related fragmental rock; local thin pyrrhotite-rich and spessartine-quartz beds are interpreted as Fe and Fe-Mn exhalites, respectively. Analogous Fe- and Mn-rich sediments occur near the abyssal Black Sea mud volcanoes. Massive pyrite crusts and associated carbonate chimneys discovered in relatively shallow waters (˜200 m depth) west of the Crimean Peninsula indicate an active sea-floor hydrothermal system. Subaerial mud volcanoes on the Kerch and Taman Peninsulas (˜100 km north of the abyssal mud volcanoes) contain saline thermal waters that locally have very high B contents (to 915 mg/L). These data suggest that tourmalinites might be forming in or near submarine Black Sea mud volcanoes, where potential may also exist for Sullivan-type Pb-Zn mineralization.

  6. Boron-rich mud volcanoes of the Black Sea region: modern analogues to ancient sea-floor tourmalinites associated with Sullivan-type Pb-Zn deposits?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Turner, R.J.W.; Ware, P.L.G.

    1998-01-01

    Large submarine mud volcanoes in the abyssal part of the Black Sea south of the Crimean Peninsula are similar in many respects to synsedimentary mud volcanoes in the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell basin. One of the Belt-Purcell mud volcanoes directly underlies the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia. Footwall rocks to the Sullivan deposit comprise variably tourmalinized siltstone, conglomerate, and related fragmental rock; local thin pyrrhotite-rich and spessartine-quartz beds are interpreted as Fe and Fe-Mn exhalites, respectively. Analogous Fe- and Mn-rich sediments occur near the abyssal Black Sea mud volcanoes. Massive pyrite crusts and associated carbonate chimneys discovered in relatively shallow waters (~200 m depth) west of the Crimean Peninsula indicate an active sea-floor-hydrothermal system. Subaerial mud volcanoes on the Kerch and Taman Peninsulas (~100 km north of the abyssal mud volcanoes) contain saline thermal waters that locally have very high B contents (to 915 mg/L). These data suggest that tourmalinites might be forming in or near submarine Black Sea mud volcanoes, where potential may also exist for Sullivan-type Pb-Zn mineralization.

  7. Implementation of Black Sea numerical model based on NEMO and 3DVAR data assimilation scheme for operational forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Peneva, Elisaveta; Storto, Andrea; Rostislav, Kandilarov; Lecci, Rita; Yang, Chunxue; Coppini, Giovanni; Masina, Simona; Pinardi, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    This study describes a new model implementation for the Black Sea, which uses data assimilation, towards operational forecasting, based on NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean, Madec et al., 2012). The Black Sea domain is resolved with 1/27°×1/36° horizontal resolution (~3 km) and 31 z-levels with partial steps based on the GEBCO bathymetry data (Grayek et al., 2010). The model is forced by momentum, water and heat fluxes interactively computed by bulk formulae using high resolution atmospheric forcing provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecast (ECMWF). The initial condition is calculated from long-term climatological temperature and salinity 3D fields. Precipitation field over the basin has been computed from the climatological GPCP rainfall monthly data (Adler et al., 2003; Huffman et al., 2009), while the evaporation is derived from the latent heat flux. The climatological monthly mean runoff of the major rivers in the Black Sea is computed using the hydrological dataset provided by SESAME project (Ludvig et al., 2009). The exchange with Mediterranean Sea through the Bosporus Straits is represented by a surface boundary condition taking into account the barotropic transport calculated to balance the fresh water fluxes on monthly bases (Stanev and Beckers, 1999, Peneva et al., 2001). A multi-annual run 2011-2015 has been completed in order to describe the main characteristics of the Black Sea circulation dynamics and thermohaline structure and the numerical results have been validated using in-situ (ARGO) and satellite (SST, SLA) data. The Black Sea model represents also the core of the new Black Sea Forecasting System, implemented at CMCC operationally since January 2016, which produces at daily frequency 10-day forecasts, 3-days analyses and 1-day simulation. Once a week, the system is run 15-day in the past in analysis mode to compute the new optimal initial condition for the forecast cycle. The assimilation is performed by a

  8. Determination of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the western Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Turna, Sema; Sapmaz, Canan; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught from five different locations of the western Black Sea coast of Turkey in August 2009. Organochlorine pesticides were extracted from the liver tissues, and then the levels of OCPs were measured using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all locations. The levels of total OCPs in fish samples ranged between 0.224 and 1.103 μg g(-1) dry weight in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. DDT, beta-HCH, and endosulfan I were the dominant OCPs in the fish samples. The levels of DDT in fish samples ranged between 0.081 and 0.186 μg g(-1) dry weight. The levels of total HCH in fish samples ranged between 0.007 and 0.376 μg g(-1) dry weight in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. Although the usage of OCPs was banned in Turkey, the results of this study clearly indicated the presence of OCPs in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey and exposure of living organisms to these chemicals.

  9. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties, and Zoogeographical Composition of the Elateridae (Coleoptera) Family in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical composition of the family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. As a result, 44 species belonging to 5 subfamilies and 19 genera were identified. After adding species reported in the literature to the analysis, the fauna in the research area consists of 6 subfamilies, 23 genera and 72 species. Most of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region were classified in the subfamilies Elaterinae and Dendrometrinae. The genus Athous was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region partially overlaps with the known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Western Black Sea region shares the most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic region, including many of those in the Elateridae family, compared to other regions. Comparisons of the three geographical regions of Turkey show that fauna composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical compositions of the Middle and Western Black Sea regions are more similar to each other than to those of the Central Anatolian region. PMID:24787627

  10. Sediment and water discharge rates of Turkish Black Sea rivers before and after hydropower dam construction

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, B.J.

    1994-06-01

    Presently, the water discharge rate to the Black Sea by Turkish rivers is approximately 41 km[sup 3]/yr. The sediment discharge rate of Turkish rivers to the Black Sea is 28 x 10[sup 6] t/yr. Before construction of the hydroelectric dams, the sediment discharge rate was approximately 70 x 10[sup 6] t/yr. The sharp reduction in sediment load is largely a result of the dams near the mouths of the Yesil Irmak and Kizil Irmak rivers. Before the construction of dams, Turkish rivers contributed approximately one third of the total amount of sediment received by the Black Sea from all surroundingmore » rivers. The life-span of the major reservoirs varies from approximately only one century (Yesil Irmak river reservoirs) to several thousand years (Sakarya river reservoirs). Life-span for the large Altinkaya Dam reservoir is estimated with approximately 500 yr.« less

  11. The Minor Rivers of Black Sea North-Western Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyukaeva, Alevtina

    2017-04-01

    The generalisations and conclusions have been done based on the expeditional monitoring of minor rivers of the Russian Federation Black Sea Coast for summer-autumn mean water in 2011-2015. The length of coastal line under monitoring was 300 km with 78 rivers with length no longer, then 50 km. The monitoring task was to establish the natural background of river effluent for the region under study. The observation parameters are physical measures (temperature, pH, Eh), solution (salts) and suspension forms of effluent (feculence, suspension chemical composition). 1. The tendency to decrease minor river water temperature at isthmus correspondent to movement from north-west to south-east along the coastal line. The causes are the growing length of the rivers and steepness of the relief along the Black Sea Caucasus. 2. The dependence between the size of coagulated suspension and water temperature is established. Moreover the intensive mix is not able to compensate the negative influence of the low temperature. 3. The value of hydrogen index, mineralization and specific electric conductivity for minor river are growing from north-west to south-east along the coastal line. 4. By the main ionic composition of the minor rivers of Black Sea north-eastern coast can be classified as hydrocarbonate. The main characteristic (marker) of colt composition for the region is the sensible concentrations of potassium and sodium. 5. The amount of suspension substance in the river water and its feculence changes between 50 mg/dm3 дo 280 mg/dm3. In particle size distribution composition of river suspensions the politic fractions (up to 70%) are prevailed, sand and silt fractions are presented less (25%). 6. Suspension form content of microelements depends on general amount of suspension in river water. The suspension form migration is significant for lead, cobalt, tin and silver. Other metals "prefer" the solution forms and can be arranged approximately in the following: vanadium

  12. Regional forecasting system of marine state and variability of dynamical processes in the easternmost part of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordzadze, Avtandil; Demetrashvili, Demuri

    2014-05-01

    The regional forecasting system for the easternmost part of the Black Sea developed at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics of I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University under the EU framework projects ARENA and ECOOP is a part of the Black Sea basin-scale Nowcasting/Forecasting System. A core of the regional forecasting system is a baroclinic regional model of Black Sea dynamics with 1 km spacing based on hydrostatic primitive equations of ocean hydrothermodynamics, which are written in z-coordinates for deviations of thermodynamic values from their standard vertical distributions. To solve the problem the two-cycle method of splitting the model equation system with respect to both physical processes and coordinate planes and lines is used. The regional model of M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics is nested in the basin-scale model of Black Sea dynamics of Marine Hydrophysical Institute (Sevastopol/Ukraine). The regional forecasting system provides 3 days' forecasts of current, temperature and salinity for the easternmost part of the Black Sea, which is limited to the Caucasian and Turkish coastal lines and the western liquid boundary coinciding with the meridian 39.080E. Data needed on liquid and upper boundaries, also the 3-D initial hydrophysical fields for the easternmost regional area are provided in near operative mode from Marine hydrophysical Institute via Internet. These data on the liquid boundary are values of velocity components, temperature and salinity predicted by the basin-scale model of Black Sea dynamics of Marine Hydrophysical Institute and on the sea surface 2-D meteorological boundary fields - wind stress, heat fluxes, evaporation and precipitation rates predicted by the regional atmospheric model ALADIN are used. The analysis of the results of modeling and forecast of dynamic processes developed for 2010-2014 showed that the easternmost water area of the Black Sea is a dynamically very active zone, where continuously there are processes of generation

  13. Magnetic Mineral diagenesis in changing water environments in the Black Sea since ˜41.6 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiabo; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Frank, Ute; Arz, Helge

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic mineral diagenesis plays a key role in the global iron cycle. To understand the authigenic magnetic mineral formation by diagenesis is also fundamentally important for the interpretation of environmental magnetic as well as paleomagnetic signals. Core MSM33-55-1, recovered from the SW Black Sea, was subjected to rock-magnetic and SEM studies. The results demonstrate that four different magnetic mineral assemblages associated to specific water conditions can be observed. Between ˜41.6 ka and ˜19 ka, magnetite and greigite are alternatively in dominance in the sediment. Due to low organic matter input during the late MIS 3 and the last glacial maximum (LGM), oxygenated bottom water in the Black Sea was favourable for preserving detrital magnetite. Greigite in this interval have irregular shapes and assemble in spots, which were formed in a micro environment with limited sulfate availability. Between ˜19 ka and ˜16.5 ka, black layers were deposited as a result of organic matter accumulation induced by productivity blooming and riverine discharge soaring after the LGM. Hence less oxygenated bottom water conditions developed, and more fine grained greigite was formed. After melt-water pulse (MWP) events (˜16.5 ka), both primary productivity and the sea level were continuously rising until ˜8.3 ka, leading to the depletion of oxygen in bottom water. In addition to greigite, pyrite was also formed and gradually in dominance as approaching the Holocene. The influx of salt water masses from the Mediterranean Sea after ˜8.3 ka contributed to the establishment of the anoxic Black Sea, which resulted in the formation of ubiquitous frambiods of pyrite. Additionally, bacterial magnetic minerals are likely present in the sediment younger than ˜8.3 ka as indicated by rock magnetic results. In this paper, four different magnetic mineral assemblages, reflecting gradual changes from an oxic to an anoix Black Sea, were identified, yielding insights into the relation

  14. Novel pyropheophorbide steryl esters in Black Sea sediments

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.L.; Repeta, D.J.

    1991-07-01

    A series of non-polar chlorophyll degradation products (NPCs) with greater than 10 components has been isolated from Black Sea sediment and identified as pyropheophorbide steryl esters by visible and mass spectrometry. These compounds have been previously observed in seawater and sediment trap samples, and may be formed during grazing of phytoplankton by zooplanktonic herbivores. In Black Sea sediments, NPCs constitute 14% of the total phorbins determined spectroscopically at 660 nm, and 39% of the total chlorophyll degradation products measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. NPCs therefore constitute a significant sedimentary sink for chlorophyll. The distribution of sterols released by hydrolysismore » of NPCs most closely resembles sterols in suspended particulate matter collected from the euphotic zone and is quite different from the distribution of solvent-extractable sterols in sediments. Sterols extracted from sediemtns have high concentrations of 4-methylsterols and high stanol/stenol ratios. BNPC-derived sterols have very low concentrations of 4-methylsterols and low stanol/stenol ratios. The authors suggest that these differences reflect an enhanced preservation of HPCs in sediments relative to free sterols and phorbins. As a result, the original production of sterols in the euphotic zone may be more closely approximated by the distribution of NPC-derived sterols than by the distribution of free sterols in sediments.« less

  15. EMODnet Black Sea Checkpoint First Data Adequacy Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinardi, Nadia; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Manzella, Giuseppe; Palazov, Atanas; Slabakova, Violeta; Buga, Luminita; Kallos, George; Zodiatis, George; Stylianou, Stavros; Blanc, Frederique; Cesarini, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the first Data Adequacy Report (DAR) of the EMODnet Black Sea Checkpoint project is to assess the basin scale monitoring systems on the basis of input data sets for 11 prescribed Challenges. The first step in this process involved the definition of a "Data Adequacy Framework", which was derived from the ISO 9004:2009 standards. Data Adequacy is essentially defined as the fitness for use of the monitoring data required by the Challenges. The CheckPoint adequacy relates to both the requirements as well as the needs of the Challenges and was developed considering the ISO 9001 Quality Management System. The quality assessment is subdivided into two major "territories": "appropriateness" and "availability". In the first DAR only the "availability" indicators are explored and analyzed. The second step in the analysis is to set up a metadatabase containing standardized information about the input datasets potentially usable by the Challenges to generate their products. The metadatabase is at the back-end of an INSPIRE Web and GIS platform, known as Sextant, and uses the SeaDataNet common vocabulary to identify the categories of characteristics needed by the Challenges and to analyze the statistics of indicators. The DAR contains the first assessment of the Black Sea monitoring system on the basis of the analysis of the availability indicators across all Challenges for the 452 input data sets and the 40 characteristic categories. The 8 availability indicators are classified based upon a three value range color system: "red" meaning "not adequate", "yellow" "partly adequate" and "green" "fully adequate". The analysis shows that for most of the indicators half are "not adequate" and the other half are "adequate". The single most negative score is for the "INSPIRE catalogue service" indicator, which is generally not adequate. Furthermore, the "Pricing" indicator is split in half between "not well documented pricing policy" and "open and free data policy". In

  16. Distribution and Origin of Multiple Bottom Simulating Reflectors in the Danube Deep-Sea Fan, Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, T.; Berndt, C.; Haeckel, M.; Klaucke, I.; Bialas, J.; Klaeschen, D.

    2015-12-01

    The sedimentary succession of the anoxic, deep Black Sea Basin is an ideal location for organic matter preservation and microbial methane generation. In the depth range of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) methane gas forms methane hydrates and presumably large accumulations of gas hydrate exist in porous sediments, such as those encountered on the Danube deep-sea fan. High-resolution P-Cable 3D seismic data reveals the character and distribution of up to four stacked bottom simulating reflectors (BSR) within the channel-levee systems of the Danube deep-sea fan. These anomalous BSRs were first described by Popescu et al. (2006). The geological processes that lead to multiple BSRs are still poorly understood. The theoretical base of the GHSZ calculated from regional temperature gradients and salinity data is in agreement with the shallowest BSR in the area. We have tested two hypotheses that may explain the formation of the lower BSRs. The first hypothesis is that the lower BSRs are formed by overpressure compartments. Large amounts of free gas below the BSRs are trapped in the pore space increasing the pressure above hydrostatic condition up to a level where gas hydrates are stable again. The second hypothesis is that the lower BSRs are linked to the growth of the Danube fan. Sediment deposits from the outer levee of the youngest channel cover the area hosting multiple BSRs. The youngest channel developed during the last sea level lowstand that is correlated with the Neo-Euxinian that started 23,000 yrs. BP. We propose that the rapid sediment loading during sea level lowstands is a key factor for the preservation of paleo-BSRs in the study area. References Popescu, I., De Batist, M., Lericolais, G., Nouzé, H., Poort, J., Panin, N., Versteeg, W., Gillet, H., 2006. Multiple bottom-simulating reflections in the Black Sea: Potential proxies of past climate conditions. Marine Geology 227, 163-176.

  17. Flood risk on the Black sea coast of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseevsky, Nikolay; Magritsky, Dmitry; Koltermann, Peter; Krylenko, Inna; Umina, Natalya; Aybulatov, Denis; Efremova, Natalya; Lebedeva, Seraphima

    2013-04-01

    The data of unique database "Floods in the coastal zones of Europeans part of Russia", developed by authors, are shown, that frequency of floods and damage in the coastal zones are growing. There is most dangerous situation on the Black sea coast of Russia. Here the main part of settlements, resorts and industry is situated in the river valleys and mouths. All main roads and pipelines cross the river channels. The Black sea rivers have flood regime with high intensity of flood formations and huge destructive flood power. Despite prevalence of floods during the cold period of year the most part of high floods in 100 years of supervision was noted here in the summer-fall (65% in July-October). Usually they were induced by the showers connected with passing of powerful cyclones, atmospheric fronts, and water tornadoes. The insignificant part of floods was connected with snow melting, backwater phenomena, showers in the cities and dam breaks. Thus shower induced floods here are the most widespread and destructive. Usually they arise within two-three watersheds simultaneously. Formation catastrophic heavy rain flood is possible on any site of a river valley of the Black Sea coast. The wave of a high water moves with very high speed, carrying a large number of deposits and garbage. To the mouth the flood can be transformed into debris flow. The water levels during a high water period rise on 3-6 m in the channels, and up to 11-12 m in the river canyons; the maximum depths of flow on the floodplains are 3 m and more. Flooding depths, induced by slope streams, can be to 0,5 m and higher. Flooding proceeds only some hours. After that water rather quickly flows down from a floodplains to the bed of the rivers and into the sea, leaving traces of destructions, a powerful layer of deposits (to 10-20 cm and more) and garbage. In the mouth river deposits quite often form the river mouth bar which is washed away during next storms. The damage from river floods on the Black Sea

  18. Regional distribution patterns of chemical parameters in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea and their possible causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipe, T.; Naumann, M.; Tauber, F.; Radtke, H.; Friedland, R.; Hiller, A.; Arz, H. W.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents selected results of a sediment geochemical mapping program of German territorial waters in the south-western Baltic Sea. The field work was conducted mainly during the early 2000s. Due to the strong variability of sediment types in the study area, it was decided to separate and analyse the fine fraction (<63 μm, mud) from more than 600 surficial samples, combined with recalculations for the bulk sediment. For the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) and selected elements (P, Hg), the regional distribution maps show strong differences between the analysed fine fraction and the recalculated total sediment. Seeing that mud contents vary strongly between 0 and 100%, this can be explained by the well-known grain-size effect. To avoid (or at least minimise) this effect, further interpretations were based on the data for the fine fraction alone. Lateral transport from the large Oder River estuary combined with high abundances and activities of benthic fauna on the shallow-water Oder Bank (well sorted fine sand) could be some main causes for hotspots identified in the fine-fraction element distribution. The regional pattern of primary production as the main driver of nutrient element fixation (C, N, P, Si) was found to be only weakly correlated with, for example, the TOC distribution in the fine fraction. This implies that, besides surface sediment dynamics, local conditions (e.g. benthic secondary production) also have strong impacts. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no comparable study with geochemical analyses of the fine fraction of marine sediments to this extent (13,600 km2) and coverage (between 600 and 800 data points) in the Baltic Sea. This aspect proved pivotal in confidently pinpointing geochemical "anomalies" in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea.

  19. Acoustic Conditioning System Development and Conditioning Experiments on Black Seabreams in the Xiangshan Bay Sea Ranch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qingsong; Rahman, Hafiz Abd ur; Jiang, Yazhou; Zhang, Shouyu; Shentu, Jikang

    2018-06-01

    Attracting released hatchery-reared fish to designated areas during the growth process is vital to realize the objectives of sea ranching. Based on the bottom artificial reefs and surface kelp culture facilities in the Xiangshan Bay sea ranch, we proposed systematic techniques related to acoustic conditioning of the black seabream ( Sparus macrocephalus). Experiments conducted in 12 m × 10 m × 1.6 m ponds on Xixuan Island showed that black seabream was positively sensitive to 500-600 Hz periodic signals. Conditioned responses were apparent after 8 d. Two to three days were required for recovery of the memory of a conditioned response after a 20-day interval. According to the practical application requirements in the open sea, unattended acoustic conditioning equipment was developed. The ranching equipment was used in 12 m × 12 m × 2.5 m cages, and the behavior of black seabream juveniles was successfully guided after 7 days. Of the 16000 released fish, 82.5% of them were conditioned with a flexible grading net. To avoid inducing a stress response, the juveniles were released into the sea ranch in situ from the net cage. The acoustic conditioning equipments were moved into the open sea and the aggregation phenomenon of the released fish was observed when the sound was played. After 6 months of investigation and based on Sr+ marking, only one acoustically conditioned fish was found outside the 3.5-km2 sea ranch area, thereby reached the goal of guiding activity. The practical effect in the Xiangshan Bay sea ranch showed the validity of the acoustic conditioning system, which may contribute to improve the operation of the sea ranches in the East China Sea.

  20. Southern Dobrogea coastal potable water sources and Upper Quaternary Black Sea level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Stefanescu, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Southern Dobrogea is a typical geologic platform unit, placed in the south-eastern part of Romania, with a Pre-Cambrian crystalline basement and a Paleozoic - Quaternary sedimentary cover. It is bordered to the north by the Capidava - Ovidiu fault and by the Black Sea to the east. A regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system divides the Southern Dobrogea structure in several tectonic blocks. Four drinking water sources have been identified: surface water, phreatic water, medium depth Sarmatian aquifer, and deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer. Surface water sources are represented by several springs emerged from the base of the loess cliff, and a few small rivers, barred by coastal beaches. The phreatic aquifer develops at the base of the loess deposits, on the impervious red clay, overlapping the Sarmatian limestones. The medium depth aquifer is located in the altered and karstified Sarmatian limestones, and discharges into the Black Sea. The Sarmatian aquifer is unconfined where covered by silty loess deposits, and locally confined, where capped by clayey loess deposits. The aquifer is supplied from the Pre-Balkan Plateau. The Deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer, located in the limestone and dolomite deposits, is generally confined and affected by the regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system. In the south-eastern Dobrogea, the deep aquifer complex is separated from the Sarmatian aquifer by a Senonian aquitard (chalk and marls). The natural boundary of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is the Capidava - Ovidiu Fault. The piezometric heads show that the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is supplied from the Bulgarian territory, where the Upper Jurassic deposits crop out. The aquifer discharges into the Black Sea to the east and into Lake Siutghiol to the northeast. The cyclic Upper Quaternary climate changes induced drastic remodeling of the Black Sea level and the corresponding shorelines. During the Last Glacial

  1. Including granulometric sediment coastal data composition into the Black Sea GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, Elena; Khaliulin, Alexey; Krylenko, Marina; Krylenko, Viacheslav; Zodiatis, George; Nikolaidis, Marios; Nikolaidis, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The module structure of the Black Sea GIS allows the increasing of its functionality, including new data types and defining new procedures accessing them, their visualization and integration with existing data by their conjoint processing and representation. The Black Sea GIS is released as free software; Mapserver is used as a mapping service; MySQL DBMS works with relational data. A new additional feature provided, is the ability of including coastal data obtained in SB SIO RAS. The data represent granulometric composition of the Anapa bay-bar sediments. The Anapa bay-bar is an accumulative sand form (about 50 km long) located on the northwest Russian Black Sea coast. The entire bay-bar and especially its southern part with sand beaches 50-200 m wide is intensively used in recreation. This work is based on the results of field studies of 2010-2014 in the southern part of the Anapa bay-bar researched by scientists of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS. Since the shore under consideration has no clearly pronounced reference points, "virtual" points located within 1 km distance from each other were selected. Transversal profiles cross these points. The granulometric composition was studied along with 45 profiles. The samples taken in every profile were from the most characteristic morphological parts of the beach. In this study we used shoreline zone samples. Twenty one granule fractions (mm) were separated in the laboratory. The module which processes coastal data allows to select coastal data based on territory/region and granulometric sediment composition. Also, it allows to visualize coastal maps with user-selected features combined with other GIS data.

  2. Investigation of the shelf break and continental slope in the Western part of the Black Sea using acoustic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutu, F.; Ion, G.; Jugaru Tiron, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Black Sea is a large marginal sea surrounded by a system of Alpine orogenic chains, including the Balkanides-Pontides, Caucasus, Crimea and North Dobrogea located to the south, northeast, north and northwest, respectively (Dinu et al., 2005). The north-western part of the Black Sea is the main depocentre for sediment supply from Central Europe via the Danube River, but also from Eastern Europe through the Ukrainian rivers Dniepr, Dniestr and Southern Bug (Popescu et al., 2004). The shelfbreak is located at water depths of 120-140 m southward of the Danube Canyon, and up to 170 m northward of the canyon possibly due to recent faulting which is very common in this area. The continental slope is dissected by numerous canyons, each of which is fed by several tributaries. The Danube Canyon (also known as Viteaz Canyon) is a large shelf-indenting canyon located in the north-western Black Sea and connected to the youngest channel-levee system of the Danube Fan (Popescu et al., 2004). The acoustic methods are a useful way for investigate the shelf break and the continental slope giving us information about landslides on the continental slope, the topography of the investigated area, the sedimentary zones affected by instability and to quantify the geometry of the underwater landslides. The measurements made on the continental slope from north-western part of the Black Sea gave us the possibility to make a digital terrain model. After processing the data the model offer information about the main access ways of the sediments through gravitational slide on the submarines canyons, with forming of turbidity currents, debris flows and also other transport/transformation phenomena of the sediments on the continental slope like submarine landslides and submarine collapse. References Dinu, C., Wong, H.K., Tambrea, D., Matenco, L., 2005. Stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the Romanian Black Sea shelf. Tectonophysics 410, 417-435. Popescu, I., Lericolais, G., Panin

  3. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, an Emerging Fish Pathogen in the Black Sea: Evidence of a Multiclonal Origin

    PubMed Central

    Terceti, Mateus S.; Ogut, Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae is considered to be an emerging pathogen of marine fish of importance in aquaculture, with a notable increase in its geographical distribution during the last several years. In this study, we carried out for the first time to our knowledge a genetic and pathobiological characterization of 14 strains isolated from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) reared in the Southeastern Black Sea, where high mortalities were observed at two aquaculture farms during the summer and autumn of 2011. Heterogeneity was evidenced among strains in phenotypical traits, such as sucrose fermentation, motility, and hemolysis. Although 11 of 14 isolates were hemolytic, we found that all of the isolates lacked the pPHDD1 virulence plasmid that encodes the phospholipase-D damselysin (Dly) and the pore-forming toxin PhlyP, two hemolysins previously reported to constitute major virulence factors for turbot. Subsequent PCR and sequencing analyses demonstrated that the 11 hemolytic isolates harbored a complete hlyAch gene, a chromosome I-borne gene that encodes HlyAch hemolysin, whereas the three nonhemolytic isolates contained hlyAch pseudogenes caused by insertion sequence elements. Virulence challenges with two representative strains revealed that, albeit less virulent than the pPHDD1-harboring strain RM-71, the plasmidless hlyAch-positive and hlyAch-negative Black Sea isolates were pathogenic for sea bass. A phylogenetic analysis based on the toxR gene sequence uncovered a greater diversity in the isolates, indicating that the presence of this pathogen in the Black Sea was not caused by the introduction and spread of a single virulent clone but by the proliferation of different clones. IMPORTANCE The geographical distribution of marine bacterial pathogens is undergoing a worldwide increase. In particular, bacteria of the group vibrios are increasingly being isolated as the causative agents of disease in novel species of cultivated fish in areas

  4. A new species of brooding Psolidae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from deep-sea off Argentina, Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Mariano I.; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a new species of Psolus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata), P. lawrencei sp. nov., (19 specimens) found in the deep sea (308-1398 m) in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SWAO) (around 38°S-54°W) with brooders (up to 3.15 mm) in the tentacles of females and a penis-like genital papilla on males. The presence of dorsal scales, the concave shape of the ossicles with a bridge, the distribution of podia on the dorsal side and the absence of large and conspicuous oral and anal valves are unique for this species. Furthermore, this is the first species of this genus found outside Antarctica that broods between its tentacles. The paper also reviews the reproductive, brooding development and morphological characteristics of P. lawrencei sp. nov. and compares them with those of several members of the family Psolidae. Finally, a possible connectivity between the deep-sea populations in the SWAO and in Antarctica is considered based on the appearance of a similar reproductive pattern in populations found in both areas, which suggests a past or present connection between these regions.

  5. The 2012 Strike-slip Earthquake Sequence in Black Sea and its Link to the Caucasus Collision Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, T. L.; Hsu, C. H.; Legendre, C. P.; Jian, P. R.; Huang, B. S.; Karakhanian, A.; Chen, C. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Black Sea formed as a back-arc basin in Late Cretaceous to Paleogene with lots of extensional features. However, the Black Sea is now tectonically stable and absent of notable earthquakes except for the coastal region. In this study we invert regional waveforms of a new seismic array to constrain the focal mechanisms and depths of the 2012/12/23 earthquake sequence occurred in northeastern Black Sea basin that can provide unique estimates on the stress field in the region. The results show that the focal mechanisms for the main shock and 5 larger aftershocks are all strike-slip faulting and resembling with each other. The main rupture fall along the vertical dipping, NW-SE trending sinistral fault indicated by the lineation of most aftershocks. The fault strike and aftershock distribution are both consistent with the Shatsky Ridge, which is continental in nature but large normal faults was created by previous subsidence. The occurrence of 2012 earthquakes can be re-activated, as strike-slip, on one of the pre-existing normal fault cutting at depth nearly 20-30 km in the extended crust. Some of the aftershocks, including a larger one occurred 5 days later, are distributed toward NE direction 20 km away from main fault zone. Those events might be triggered by the main shock along a conjugate fault, which is surprisingly at the extension of proposed transform fault perpendicular to the rift axis of eastern Black Sea Basin. The focal mechanisms also indicate that the maximum compression in northeast Black Sea is at E-W direction, completely different from the N-S compression in the Caucasus and East Turkey controlled by Arabia-Eurasia collision. The origin of E-W maximum compression is probably the same as the secondary stress inferred from earthquakes in Racha region of the Greater Caucasus.

  6. Tidal dynamics in the inter-connected Mediterranean, Marmara, Black and Azov seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarin, Christian; Bellafiore, Debora; Sannino, Gianmaria; Bajo, Marco; Umgiesser, Georg

    2018-02-01

    In this study we investigated the tidal dynamics in a system of inter-connected land-locked basins formed by the Mediterranean, the Marmara, the Black and the Azov seas (MMBA system). Through the application of an unstructured grid hydrodynamic model to a unique domain representing the whole MMBA system, we simulated the tidal propagation and transformation inside each basin and in the straits connecting them. The model performance was evaluated against amplitudes and phases of major tidal constituents from 77 tidal gauges. The numerical results provided a description of the characteristics of the principal semi-diurnal, diurnal and long-term tides over the entire system. Even if the narrow straits act as a barrier for the tidal sea surface oscillations, our numerical results demonstrated that the along-strait interface slope produces water fluxes between the adjacent basins of the same order of magnitude of the climatological transports estimated by several authors. The long-term tidal modulations of the water exchange between the Mediterranean and the Black seas resulted to be non negligible and may partially explain the monthly and fortnightly flow variability observed in the Dardanelles and Bosphorus straits.

  7. Recent Research in Black Sea Region on Assessment in Education (Review)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipia, Ekaterine

    2016-01-01

    This article is written to inform educational community particularly in the respect of new tendencies in educational assessment and present a clear-cut picture of the recent studies conducted in the Black Sea Region. The review paper refers to the following countries: Georgia, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine. It stresses the prevalent approach detected…

  8. Satellite observations of eddies in the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimova, S.

    2012-04-01

    In the present paper mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddies in the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas are studied by means of satellite radiometer and radar images. Using these data makes it possible to investigate the vortical structures of a wide spatial range, from the basin scale through mesoscale to a small scale with a few kilometers in size. Over 2000 Envisat ASAR and ERS-2 SAR images with two-year time coverage (2009-2010) and spatial resolution of 75 m obtained in different parts of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Seas were applied to study submesoscale (with a diameter less than ca. 20 km) eddies in the basins mentioned. As a result of the analysis performed the role of different mechanisms (ones due to surfactant films, wave/current interactions and thermal fronts) in eddy visualization in SAR imagery was revealed. In every basin studied the main eddy characteristics such as number of eddies, frequency of their occurrence in SAR imagery, sign of vorticity, typical length scale and lifetime as well as spatial distribution patterns were investigated. Spatio-temporal parameters of the vortices were subjected to statistical analysis. Interannual and seasonal variabilities of the eddy parameters were traced. Hypotheses about the most important mechanisms of generation of the eddies observed were proposed. Among them there are barotropic, baroclinic and topographic instabilities, convection in the surface layer and heterogeneous wind forcing. Satellite infrared and visible images were used for retrieving statistical information on the Black Sea mesoscale vortical structures. The dataset used included ~5000 AVHRR NOAA Sea Surface Temperature (SST) images covering the entire Black Sea with time coverage since September, 2004 to December, 2010 and ~1500 MODIS Aqua (SST, normalized water-leaving radiance at 551 nm, chlorophyll-a concentration) images obtained in 2006-2010. Spatial resolution of the images was 1 km. Analysis performed revealed that numerous vortical

  9. Multiscale wind cycles and current pulses at the Black Sea eastern boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, Vasiliy; Moskalenko, Lidija; Piotoukh, Vladimir; Zatsepin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The goal of the research is to examine meteorological descriptive elements, sea-water properties, regional hydrodynamics and energy conversion fluxes in order to study sea responses to the local and far-field weather system. The Black Sea is situated in the chain of internal basins between the North Atlantic and Central Asia deserts in the marginal interaction zone and, accordingly, is under the influence of the Azores and Siberian anticyclones, Arctic cold-air surges and subtropical desert belt to the south. The analysis is based on the data of modern oceanographic measuring network "Hydro-physical Polygon" of the Institute of oceanology, using contact and remote sensing methods, weather stations around the Black Sea coasts, including long-term (1938-2014) measurements at the Gelendzhik weather station. Various satellite and Reanalysis databases are used. Currently, there are three long-time measuring moored stations (each contains ADCP and thermistor chain) and scanning profiling system "Akvalog". Hydrological sections and field surveys using towed ADCP and CTD are performed on a regular basis. The data are accumulated in the coastal archive which allows calibration of satellite measurements and testing results of numerical modeling. Data processing includes data sets preparation, editing, time series statistical calculations using histograms, progressive vector diagrams, traditional Fourier spectral analysis including auto- and cross spectra, auto and mutual wavelet diagrams, moving spectrograms, vector data methods using rotary components, spectral invariants, empirical modes, hodograph and pre-specified spectrum representations on the basis of stochastic models with imposed dynamical assumptions. Due to the intermittent nature of the time rows, spectral representation is misleading, often. In order to identify the individual evolving dynamical phenomenon, typical background (seasonal) three-dimensional structures of the hydrological field, as well as

  10. Do buoyant plumes enhance cross-shelf transport in the Black Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedakov, Roman; Zavialov, Peter; Izhitsky, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Like many inland seas, the Black Sea is exposed to massive continental discharges on the one hand and significant anthropogenic stresses, including pollution, on the other. It is, therefore, important to understand mechanisms of advection of continental water into the sea and factors that may influence transport of such water across shelf areas. In this study, we focus on the coastal segment of the Black Sea between the Feodosia Bay, which includes nature reserve and resort areas, and the Kerch Strait. The Sea of Azov outflow penetrates into the Black Sea through the latter, forming a plume of relatively fresh, light waters with elevated concentrations of suspended matter but also pollutants, especially hydrocarbons. This plume, which can be detected via satellite imagery of the region, extends on over 70 km from the Kerch Strait outfall along Crimea shore and reaches the Feodosia Bay, making that area the most polluted of the Crimea shoreline. In situ velocity measurements were conducted at a mooring station deployed in the area at the depth of 5 and 21.5 meters during the period 17th-23rd of May 2015. These data demonstrated high correlation of the wind stress with the cross-shore component of the velocity in the surface layer and anti-correlation with that in the bottom layer during the periods when a two-layered stratification of the water column due to the occurrence of the Azov plume was present, and lack of such correlation otherwise. In order to investigate whether the buoyant plume in the surface layer is capable of fortifying the wind-driven cross-shelf exchanges, we develop a dynamical model of current forming under the influence of wind tension, pressure gradient and Earth's rotation in a simple one- and a two- layer setups. Firstly, a 2D model was investigated that did not account Coriolis effect. Secondly, a 3D model with Coriolis effect was investigated. The main parameter of the problem is the eddy diffusivity coefficient, which we choose to be

  11. Cretaceous rocks from southwestern Montana to southwestern Minnesota, northern Rocky Mountains, and Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T.S.; Cobban, W.A.; Fox, J.E.; Hammond, R.H.; Nichols, D.J.; Perry, W.J.; Porter, K.W.; Rice, D.D.; Setterholm, D.R.; Shurr, G.W.; Tysdal, R.G.; Haley, J.C.; Campen, E.B.

    1994-01-01

    In Montana, Wyoming, North and South Dakota, and Minnesota, Cretaceous strata are preserved in the asymmetric Western Interior foreland basin. More than 5,200 m (17,000 ft) of Cretaceous strata are present in southwestern Montana, less than 300 m (1,000 ft) in eastern South Dakota. The asymmetry resulted from varying rates of subsidence due to tectonic and sediment loading. The strata consist primarily of sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, and shale. Conglomerate is locally abundant along the western margin, whereas carbonate is present in most areas of the eastern shelf. Sediment was deposited in both marine and nonmarine environments as the shoreline fluctuated during major tectonic and eustatic cycles.A discussion of Cretaceous strata from southwestern to east-central Montana, the Black Hills, eastern South Dakota, and southwestern Minnesota shows regional stratigraphy and facies relations, sequence, boundaries, and biostratigraphic and radiometric correlations. The thick Cretaceous strata in southwestern Montana typify nonmarine facies of the rapidly subsiding westernmost part of the basin. These strata include more than 3,000 m (10,000 ft) of synorogenic conglomerate of the Upper Cretaceous part of the Beaverhead Group. West of the Madison Range, sequence boundaries bracket the Kootenai (Aptian and Albian), the Blackleaf (Albian and Cenomanian), and the Frontier Formations (Cenomanian and Turonian); sequence boundaries are difficult to recognize because the rocks are dominantly non-marine. Cretaceous strata in east-central Montana (about 1,371 m; 4,500 ft thick) lie at the approximate depositional axis of the basin and are mostly marine terrigenous rocks. Chert-pebble zones in these rocks reflect stratigraphic breaks that may correlate with sequence boundaries to the east and west. Cretaceous rocks of the Black Hills region consist of a predominantly marine clastic sequence averaging approximately 1,524 m (5,000 ft) thick. The Cretaceous System in eastern South

  12. The relationship between sea surface temperature and chlorophyll concentration of phytoplanktons in the Black Sea using remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Kavak, Mehmet Tahir; Karadogan, Sabri

    2012-04-01

    Present work investigated the relationship between Chlorophyll (Chl), of phytoplankton biomass, and sea surface temperature (SST) of the Black Sea, using Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite imagery. Satellite derived data could provide information on the amount of sea life present (Brown algae, called kelp, proliferate, supporting new species of sea life, including otters, fish, and various invertebrates) in a given area throughout the world. SST from AVHRR from 1993 to 2008 showed seasonal, annual and interannual variability of temperature, monthly variability Chl from SeaWiFS from 1997 to 2009 has also been investigated. Chl showed two high peaks for the year 1999 and 2008. The correlation between SST and Chl for the same time has been found to be 60%. Correlation was significant at p<0.05. The information could also be useful in connection with studies of global changes in temperature and what effect they could have on the total abundance of marine life.

  13. Distribution of black-tailed jackrabbit habitat determined by GIS in southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Dyer, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    We developed a multivariate description of black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus) habitat associations from Geographical Information Systems (GIS) signatures surrounding known jackrabbit locations in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA), in southwestern Idaho. Habitat associations were determined for characteristics within a 1-km radius (approx home range size) of jackrabbits sighted on night spotlight surveys conducted from 1987 through 1995. Predictive habitat variables were number of shrub, agriculture, and hydrography cells, mean and standard deviation of shrub patch size, habitat richness, and a measure of spatial heterogeneity. In winter, jackrabbits used smaller and less variable sizes of shrub patches and areas of higher spatial heterogeneity when compared to summer observations (P 0.05), differed significantly between high and low population phase. We used the Mahalanobis distance statistic to rank all 50-m cells in a 440,000-ha region relative to the multivariate mean habitat vector. On verification surveys to test predicted models, we sighted jackrabbits in areas ranked close to the mean habitat vector. Areas burned by large-scale fires between 1980 and 1992 or in an area repeatedly burned by military training activities had greater Mahalanobis distances from the mean habitat vector than unburned areas and were less likely to contain habitats used by jackrabbits.

  14. Toxic and essential elements in butter from the Black Sea region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dervisoglu, Muhammet; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Guvenc, Dilek; Atmaca, Enes; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 88 randomly selected samples of butter produced in the Black Sea region of Turkey were purchased from different retail markets during different periods and investigated for toxic and essential elements content. Quantitative analyses of elements in the samples were performed using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Mean concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn in the butter samples were 18.93, 100.32, 384.66, 4199.1, 887.47, 168.64, 56.13, 16.34 and 384.66 µg kg(-1), respectively. Cd and Co were detected in 19 (mean content 0.29 µg kg(-1)) and 81 (mean content 3.81 µg kg(-1)) samples of 88 butter samples, respectively. However, the dietary intake of these elements by the population of the Black Sea region is currently well below the dietary reference intake (DRI) and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) levels of essential and toxic elements.

  15. Variscan orogeny in the Black Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okay, Aral I.; Topuz, Gültekin

    2017-03-01

    Two Gondwana-derived Paleozoic belts rim the Archean/Paleoproterozoic nucleus of the East European Platform in the Black Sea region. In the north is a belt of Paleozoic passive-margin-type sedimentary rocks, which extends from Moesia to the Istanbul Zone and to parts of the Scythian Platform (the MOIS Block). This belt constituted the south-facing continental margin of the Laurussia during the Late Paleozoic. This margin was deformed during the Carboniferous by folding and thrusting and forms the Variscan foreland. In the south is a belt of metamorphic and granitic rocks, which extends from the Balkanides through Strandja, Sakarya to the Caucasus (BASSAC Block). The protoliths of the metamorphic rocks are predominantly late Neoproterozoic granites and Paleozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks, which were deformed and metamorphosed during the Early Carboniferous. There are also minor eclogites and serpentinites, mostly confined to the northern margin of the BASSAC Block. Typical metamorphism is of low pressure-high temperature type and occurred during the Early Carboniferous (Visean, 340-330 Ma) coevally with that observed in the Central Europe. Volumetrically, more than half of the crystalline belt is made up of Carboniferous-earliest Permian (335-294 Ma) granites. The type of metamorphism, its concurrent nature over 1800 km length of the BASSAC Block and voluminous acidic magmatism suggest that the thermal event probably occurred in the deep levels of a continental magmatic arc. The BASSAC arc collided with Laurussia in the mid-Carboniferous leading to the foreland deformation. The ensuing uplift in the Permian resulted in the deposition of continental red beds, which are associated with acidic magmatic rocks observed over the foreland as well as over the BASSAC Block. In the Black Sea region, there was no terminal collision of Laurussia with Gondwana during the Late Paleozoic and the Laurussia margin continued to face the Paleo-Tethyan ocean in the south.

  16. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-1 imagery: Southwestern North America and the Red Sea area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator); Tubbesing, L.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The ERTS-1 imagery was utilized to study major fault and tectonic lines and their intersections in southwestern North America. A system of transverse shear faults was recognized in the California Coast Ranges, the Sierra Nevada, the Great Basin, and Mexico. They are interpreted as expressions of a major left-lateral shear which predated the San Andreas system, the opening of the Gulf of California and Basin and Range rift development. Tectonic models for Basin and Range, Coast Ranges, and Texas-Parras shears were developed. Geological structures and Precambrian metamorphic trend lines of schistosity were studied across the Red Sea rift.

  17. Long-period variability of oxygen dissolved in Black Sea waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonsky, A. B.; Kotolypova, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Using an archival database from the Institute of Natural and Technical Systems, the low-frequency variability of oxygen dissolved in the deep-water and northwestern parts of the Black Sea for the period of 1955-2004 is analyzed. The upper mixed layer (UML) is characterized by quasi-periodic variability in the dissolved oxygen concentration in the interdecadal scale. Deeper, a long-term decrease in the oxygen concentration is recorded.

  18. Toward a Euro-Atlantic Strategy for the Black Sea Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    to a collection of countries with diverse and often compet- ing interests, security agendas, and urgent problems . These interests and agendas cannot...member of NATO, it was presented with an opportunity for regional leadership , based on TOWARD A EURO-ATLANTIC STRATEGY FOR THE BLACK SEA REGION Figure... problem , both countries suffer from some of the same problems , such as corruption, smuggling, and weak rule of law, that plague many of their

  19. Sedimentary Nitrogen Stable Isotopes and Variations in Nutrient Cycling in the Holocene Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, J. M.; Arthur, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    Interpreting the evolution of organic matter production and preservation in anoxic basins such as the Holocene Black Sea depends on developing an understanding of changes in nutrient cycling within the water column with time. The organic fraction of sediments may preserve evidence of such changes in nutrient utilization. One model proposes changes in phosphorus availability as a driver for changes in algal productivity in the Black Sea. Nitrogen, the other macronutrient commonly considered to limit algal growth, is the focus of this study as we examine the nitrogen content and stable isotope variations of Black Sea sediments to determine what role it may have played in temporal changes in productivity and organic matter accumulation. High-resolution samples from five gravity cores collected by the RV Knorr 1988 expedition were analyzed for δ 15N-total and δ 13C-organic as well as their percent composition of organic carbon and total nitrogen. One core, GC71, was subjected to sequential extractions with KCl and hydrogen peroxide to remove exchangeable ammonia and labile organic matter respectively. The KCl extraction did not remove a statistically significant amount of ammonia, having no measurable effect on the percent nitrogen or δ 15N of the solid samples. The hydrogen peroxide extraction removed ca. 95% of the organic carbon and 85% of the nitrogen, leaving a relatively nitrogen-enriched residual material, probably due to ammonium fixed within the clay lattice. The fixed nitrogen has a minimal effect on the bulk nitrogen isotope values, suggesting the bulk nitrogen values are similar to the organic nitrogen signal. All cores examined were from below the modern Black Sea chemocline and are thought to have remained under anoxic bottom water continuously since soon after the incursion of saline Mediterranean water ca. 7800 years ago. Water depths for these cores range from 411 meters along the south margin of the sea to 2088 meters in the eastern Black Sea basin

  20. Mercury in the Black Sea - results of the 2013 GEOTRACES MEDBlack cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbürger, L. E.; Sonke, J.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; Gerringa, L. J.; De Baar, H. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Inorganic mercury (Hg), whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, can be converted into the neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg). Today we believe this conversion occurs during the bacterial remineralization of sinking organic matter in the oceanic water column. The Black Sea with its high organic matter inputs and anoxic deep waters is an excellent study site to investigate in more detail the processes yielding MeHg. To date only one vertical profile of Hg species near the Western shelf and one vertical profile in the Western Gyre are published (Lamborg et al. 2008). We will present new results of the 2013 Dutch-led GEOTRACES MEDBlack cruise in the Black Sea. Research vessel "Pelagia" occupied 12 full depth stations along an east-west transect from 13 to 25 July 2013. High resolution vertical profiles were sampled using a titanium ultraclean CTD frame (de Baar et al., 2008) equipped with 24 x 24L PVDF samplers. Samples were filtered (0.2µm, Sartobran 300), drawn into pre-cleaned 250mL Savillex PFA bottles and acidified to 0.4% (v:v) with double-distilled HCl. Dissolved MeHg, as the sum of monomethylHg and dimethylHg, was analyzed via isotope dilution gas chromatography sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Total dissolved Hg was determined following the US EPA 1631 method. We will present high resolution vertical Hg species profiles, including one ultra-high resolution profile (1 sample every 5m-depth) to understand the dynamics along the chemocline (Luther et al., 1991). We will also present the results of the GEOTRACES international intercalibration exercise for dissolved MeHg and dissolved total Hg in surface seawater that we organized during the same cruise. References De Baar HJW, Timmermans KR, Laan P, De Porto HH, Ober S, Blom JJ, Bakker MC, Schilling J, Sarthou G, Smit MG, Klunder M. Titan: A new facility for ultraclean sampling of trace elements and isotopes in the deep oceans in the international Geotraces program. Mar. Chem. 2008, 111

  1. Sensitivity of WRF-ARW for Heavy Precipitation Event over the Eastern Black Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doǧan, Onur Hakan; Önol, Barış

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we examined the extreme summer precipitation case over the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey by using WRF-ARW. 11 people were killed by the flood and many buildings were damaged by the landslides in Artvin province. The flood caused by heavy precipitation between August 23 and 24, 2015 and the station observation is 255 mm total precipitation for the two days. We have also used satellite based observational data (Global Precipitation Measurement: GPM), which represents 150 mm total precipitation during case, to validate precipitation simulations. We designed three nested domains with 27-9-3 km resolutions for the simulations and the inner domain covers the all Black Sea and the surrounded coasts. The simulations have been driven by ECMWF ERA-Interim data and the initial conditions have been generated for 4 different simulations which are 3-days, 7-days, 15-days and 25-days long. WRF-ARW model physics parameters have been tested to improve simulation capability for extreme precipitation events. The microphysics (Kessler and New-Thompson) and PBL (YSU PBL and Mellor-Yamada-Janjic) options have been applied for each simulations separately, therefore 15 sensitivity simulation have been analyzed by using different parametrizations. In general, all simulations underestimated the two days extreme precipitation event which the large scale flow interact with warmer sea surface temperatures and complex topography over the eastern Black Sea region. The 3-days simulation with Kessler microphysics and YSU PBL predicts 148 mm precipitation which is highest simulated precipitation compare to all simulations for the corresponding station location. Moreover 25-days simulation represents better spatial coverage for precipitation pattern compare to the GPM data.

  2. Use of a nesting platform by Gull-billed Terns and Black Skimmers at the Salton Sea, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molina, Kathy C.; Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Schoneman, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, we constructed an elevated nesting platform at the Salton Sea, California, and monitored its use by Gull-billed Terns and Black Skimmers over three subsequent breeding seasons. Black Skimmers were the first to colonize the platform with a total of five nests in 2006. In 2007 Gull-billed Terns colonized the platform with a total of 28 nests and the number of Black Skimmer nests increased to 20. Neither species nested on the platform in 2008. Low success for both species was probably influenced by at least two factors. First, when both species nested on the platform, nest densities were higher than is typical of their colonies on larger, earthen islands, and colony success may have been reduced by overcrowding. Second, lack of access to water may have reduced chicks' ability to thermoregulate effectively in the hot environment of the Salton Sea. Refinements to the size, design, and location of artificial nesting habitats are necessary to enhance productivity of colonial groundnesting birds at the Salton Sea successfully.

  3. Control of the geomorphology and gas hydrate extent on widespread gas emissions offshore Romania (Black Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riboulot, V.; Cattaneo, A.; Sultan, N.; Ker, S.; Scalabrin, C.; Gaillot, A.; Jouet, G.; Marsset, B.; Thomas, Y.; Ballas, G.; Marsset, T.; Garziglia, S.; Ruffine, L.; Boulart, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Romanian sector of the Black Sea deserves attention because the Danube deep-sea fan is one of the largest sediment depositional systems worldwide and is considered the world's most isolated sea, the largest anoxic water body on the planet and a unique energy-rich sea. Due to the high sediment accumulation rate, presence of organic matter and anoxic conditions, the Black sea sediment offshore the Danube delta is rich in gas and thus show BSR. The cartography of the BSR over the last 20 years, exhibits its widespread occurrence, indicative of extensive development of hydrate accumulations and a huge gas hydrate potential. By combining old and new datasets acquired in 2015 during the GHASS expedition, we performed a geomorphological analysis of the continental slope north-east of the Danube canyon that reveals the presence of several landslides inside and outside several canyons incising the seafloor. It is a complex study area presenting sedimentary processes such as seafloor erosion and instability, mass wasting, formation of gas hydrates, fluid migration, gas escape, where the imprint of geomorphology seems to dictate the location where gas seep occurs. . Some 1409 gas seeps within the water column acoustic records are observed between 200 m and 800 m water depth. No gas flares were detected in deeper areas where gas hydrates are stable. Overall, 93% of the all gas seeps observed are above geomorphological structures. 78% are right above escarpment induced by sedimentary destabilizations inside or outside canyons. The results suggest a geomorphological control of degassing at the seafloor and gas seeps are thus constrained by the gas hydrates stability zone. The stability of the gas hydrates is dependent on the salinity gradient through the sedimentary column and thus on the Black Sea recent geological history. The extent and the dynamics of gas hydrates have a probable impact on the sedimentary destabilization observed at the seafloor.

  4. Education and Raising Awareness of Seismic Risk in the Black Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin Balan, Stefan; Alcaz, Vasile; Trifonova, Petya; Uker, Nalan; Tataru, Dragos

    2014-05-01

    The Project "Black Sea Earthquake Safety Net(work)" ESNET has the intention to educate and raise awareness of seismic risk in the Black Sea Basin in four countries: Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. The project is financed through "The Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme", an EU operational programmes under European Neighborhood & Partnership Instrument (ENPI). The programme is financed by ENPI. The participation of Turkey is financed by Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance. It is implemented during the period 2007 - 2013. The project wants to contribute to the prevention of natural disasters generated by earthquakes in Black Sea Basin by developing a joint monitoring and intervention concept. All the countries involved in the project have their own studies, strategies, prevention and intervention systems in case of earthquakes, but until now there has not been an integrated approach so far in the Black Sea Basin. Given the cross-border character of seismic activity, it is necessary to have a cross-border approach on prevention, monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes. Main objectives : 1. The assessment of the disaster potential, with accent on the seismic risk degree and the earthquakes effects in the intervention area. For achieving the main objective is to have an accurate and up-to-date assessment of the potential of disasters provoked by earthquakes in the project area/regions. This assessment will be carried out at national level and will be used in designing the common concept/approach for dealing with earthquakes at regional level, thus ensuring the cross-border character of the objective. 2.To develop an integrated seismic monitoring and intervention concept. This integrated concept, built on the basis of the previous objective, will have a cross-border relevance and is at the core of the action. The monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes will be coordinated among the participating countries based on this, thus a

  5. New nutritional composition data on selected traditional foods consumed in Black Sea Area countries.

    PubMed

    Costa, Helena S; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; D'Antuono, L Filippo; Alexieva, Iordanka; Boyko, Nadiya; Costea, Carmen; Fedosova, Katerina; Hayran, Osman; Karpenko, Dmitry; Kilasonia, Zaza; Finglas, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Traditional foods are an important part of the culture, history, identity and heritage of a region or country and are key elements in dietary patterns. In most countries there is limited information on the nutritional composition of such foods and therefore there is a need to investigate, register and promote traditional foods. One of the aims within the 'Sustainable exploitation of bioactive components from the Black Sea Area traditional foods' (BaSeFood) project is to generate for the first time new data on the nutritional composition of traditional foods from six Black Sea Area countries to promote their sustainable development and exploitation. Thirty-three traditional foods were analysed in an accredited laboratory to determine their nutritional composition, and the data were fully documented. The nutrient content varied widely because of the nature and variety of the analysed foods. The energy content ranged between 4 kcal per 100 g for kvass southern and 900 kcal per 100 g for mustard oil, with the exception of the analysed teas, which did not contribute to energy intake. The use of a common methodology for the study of traditional foods will enable countries to further investigate these foods. Moreover, a new nutritional knowledge base of traditional foods from Black Sea Area countries will contribute to promote local biodiversity and sustainable diets by maintaining healthy dietary patterns within local cultures. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Elevated biological productivity as a trigger for the Holocene sapropel in the Black Sea during its reconnection with the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanchilina, A.; Ryan, W. B.; Kenna, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    Sapropelic sedimentation characterizes the mid-Holocene section of the Black Sea strata, ranging from ~7500 to 3000 kyr BP. The level of organic carbon in the sapropel reaches 20% and the timing of the onset is independent of depth. However, it is unclear what sequence of events led to the development of the sapropel and how exactly its deposition was related to the connection of the Black Sea with the Mediterranean. One component that contributes to the uncertainty is a ~1000 kyr BP jump in age across the sapropel interface derived from radiocarbon dating of carbonate material. This study looks at records of XRF done on dry and wet sediments (i.e., Cu, Mo, Br) in addition to radiocarbon and stable isotope measurements on shells of ostracods. Cu, Mo, and Br all increase substantially from their low abundances in the glacial, post-glacial, and early Holocene gray clay almost concurrently. An increase in Cu indicates the rise of nutrients in the surface water and is coincident with a rise in Corg. Mo rises after Cu; it is attributed to the onset of anoxia, as it precipitates out of the water column in an environment lacking oxygen. Br increases last, attributed to the rise of the bottom dense salt water layer to the surface and its uptake by phytoplankton. Stable isotope results show that the δ18O rises from -1 to 0.3 ‰ and δ13C rises from -3 to -0.5 ‰ prior to the disappearance of ostracods in the sediment and indicates that anoxia started after the Black Sea-Lake connected with the Mediterranean. These results suggest that it was increased biological productivity that initially led to the deposition of the sapropel and only later to anoxia that then reinforced the highly organic content of the preserved sediment for thousands of years. The one thousand year jump in radiocarbon is interpreted as a decrease in the reservoir age of the water due to the replacement of stratified Black Sea that has accumulated old carbon and a large reservoir age with

  7. The Change in Black Sea Water Composition and Hydrology during Deglaciation from Multiproxy Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanchilina, A.; Ryan, W. B. F.; McManus, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a reconstruction of changes in the water column from the last glacial into the early Holocene using stable isotope, 87Sr/86Sr, 14C, and trace element ratios from mollusks from the shelf area and ostracods from the basin of the Black Sea. The stable isotope record is compared to a thoroughly U/Th dated terrestrial stable isotope record of a nearby cave, Sofular cave in northwestern Turkey. The combination of deep, surface, and terrestrial signals gives valuable insight towards the behavior of the lake water during the deglaciation in multiple dimensions, specifically the water column stratification and hydrological dynamics. The comparison of the stable isotope records of two independent proxies allows to make inferences on the changes in the 14C reservoir of the Black Sea-Lake. Results show that during the glacial period, water from the Black Sea-Lake was outflowing to the Sea of Marmara but the ventilation of the water column was weak as old 14C was not removed and allowed to accumulate giving the lake a large 14C reservoir age. A deglacial pulse of meltwater released from the Eurasian Fennoscandian pro-glacial lakes increased ventilation of the water column. This is seen in lighter δ18O and a spike in radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr in both deep and shallow parts of the water column. The dynamic ventilation and outflow of water into the Sea of Marmara continued until the onset of the Bolling/Allerod as the radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr was almost completely flushed out in a couple hundred years time. During the Bolling/Allerod and Preboreal warming, δ18O got heavier whereas the 87Sr/86Sr stayed constant and the 14C again accumulated and contributed to an older reservoir age. The Younger Dryas period, sandwiched in between the two warming periods, shows a return to glacial conditions in the δ13C and that the water outflowed to the Sea of Marmara as the δ18O only showed a slight change towards a more heavy value.

  8. Geophysical Imprints of the Geodynamic Evolution of Moesia Following the Black Sea Opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besutiu, Lucian

    2014-05-01

    Genesis of the two types of the Moesia basement (the so called Walachian, and Dobrogean sectors) along with the complex fault system affecting its cover and basement are still debated issues. Besides, there are two other intriguing aspects raised by the seismicity map of Romania: the sub-crustal events in the bending zone of East Carpathians, and the crust seismicity of the eastern Moesian Plate (MoP). Both the intermediate-depth earthquakes within full intra-continental environment and the intense craton seismicity are unusual aspects, and their apparent association difficult to explain. The paper proposes an integrated geodynamic model of MoP able to justify its current tectonics and both the crustal events in front of Carpathians, and the intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Vrancea zone within the frame of a unique geodynamic process. It starts from the idea that tectonic and geodynamic evolution of the E MoP and the bending zone of East Carpathians has been strongly affected by the opening of the W Black Sea basin, and is currently maintained by active rifting in SW Arabian Plate. The model is supported by geophysical and geodetic evidence. Unlike some previous geology-based models assuming that Black Sea opened during a singular geodynamic event (northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean floor), the pattern of the gravity and geomagnetic field, along with off-shore seismics bring convincing evidence on the distinct timing of the W and E Black Sea basins opening. Fingerprints of the lithosphere expelled by the W Black Sea rifting in the NW inland may be seen in the distribution of compression (P) wave velocity. In-depth development of NW striking major faults (splitting MoP into numerous vertical compartments) is also well revealed by seismic tomography (e.g. Peceneaga-Camena Fault, as the limit between MoP and East European Plate (EEP), still separates two distinct P wave velocity domains at 150 km depth). A second major fault system was created by the

  9. Velocity model of the crust and upper mantle at the southern margin of the East European Craton (Azov Sea-Crimea-Black Sea area), DOBRE-2 & DOBRE'99 transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Janik, Tomasz; Stephenson, Randell; Gryn, Dmytro; Tolkunov, Anatoliy; Czuba, Wojciech; Środa, Piotr; Sydorenko, Grigoriy; Lysynchuk, Dmytro; Omelchenko, Victor; Grad, Marek; Guterch, Aleksander; Kolomiyets, Katerina; Thybo, Hans; Dannowski, Anke; Flűh, Ernst R.; Legostaeva, Olga

    2013-04-01

    The southern part of the eastern European continental landmass consists mainly of a thick platform of Vendian and younger sediments overlying Precambrian basement, part of the East European Craton (EEC). The Scythian Platform (SP) lies between the EEC and the (mainly Alpine) deformed belt running from Dobrudja (Romania) to Crimea (Ukraine) and the Greater Caucasus (Russia), along the northern margin of the Black Sea. Hard constraints on the Palaeozoic history on the SP are very sparse and little is known of its crustal structure in this area. The poster presents the seismic results of a multidisciplinary project that fills some of this gap. The project is called DOBRE-2 (as it forms a prolongation of the successful DOBRE project executed in 1999-2001). The main objectives of DOBRE-2 were to elucidate the deep-seated structure of the lithosphere and geodynamic setting of the shelf zones of the Azov and Black seas and the Crimean peninsula and to study the deep controls on the structure of basement and sedimentary cover. DOBRE-2 traverses a number of major faults and suture zones separating the EEC from the SP, the Crimean Mountains, and the Black Sea depression. Significant hydrocarbon reserves occur in the basins traversed by DOBRE-2. Deep seismic reflection profiling (30 second, Vibroseis) has been completed on a 100-km segment of the profile on the Azov massif (part of the Ukrainian Shield) as well as a 47-km segment in Crimea. These are complemented by refraction profiling on the shelf zones of the Azov (~53 km) and Black (~160 km) seas and coincident near-vertical (CDP) in the Black Sea, using a combination of onshore seismograph stations, ocean-bottom seismometers, onshore explosive energy sources (6 shot points), as well as ship-borne seismic acquisition. We present a 2-D seismic velocity model (Vp in the crust, depth to the Moho and depth to the intracrustal reflectors) along (~780 km) the DOBRE-2 & DOBRE'99 transect. Our model extends the model published

  10. Determining change of bathymetry with GPR method in Ordu-Giresun, a sea-filled airport in the Black Sea, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Ordu-Giresun (OGU) is a newly-constructed airport, the first sea-filled airport in Turkey and in Europe, and the second airport in the world after Osaca-Japan. The airport is between Gulyalı district in Ordu city and Piraziz district in Giresun city in Black Sea -Turkey. A protection breakwater has been constructed by filling a rock approximately 7.435-m long and with an average height of 5.5 m. Then, the Black Sea has been filled until 1 m over the sea level, approximately the area is 1.770.000 m2 wide and includes a runway, aprons and taxiway covered by breakwater. The runway has a 1-m thickness, 3-km length and 45-m width, PCN84 strength, and stone mastic asphalt surface. The aprons has a 240 x 110 m length and PCN110 strength, the taxiway is 250 x 24 m wide. The airport was started to be constructed in July 2011 and it began to serve on 22th May 2015. The aim of this study was to determine the depth of the rock-filled layer and the amount of sinking of the bathymetry which has been determined before filling processing. In addition, before bathymetry determination, unconsolidated sediments had been removed from the bottom of the sea. There were four drilling points to control the sinking of the bathymetry. Therefore, six suitable Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) profiles were measured, crossing these points with runway and aprons, using 250-MHz and 100-MHz shielded antennas. Starting points of the profiles were in the middle of the runway to merge between depth and thickness changing of the filled layer and bathymetry along the profiles. Surface topography changing was measured spaced 1 m apart with 1 cm sensitivity on each profile. At the same time, similarly the topography changing, bathymetry coordinates was re-arranged along the each profile. Topography corrections were applied to the processed radargrams and then the bottom boundary lines of the rock-filled layer were determined. The maximum height was 3.5 m according to the sea level, which was on the

  11. Lithospheric Response of the Anatolian Plateau in the Realm of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East make up the southern boundary of the Tethys Ocean for the last 200 Ma by the disintegration of the Pangaea and closure of the Tethys Ocean. It covers the structures: Hellenic and Cyprus arcs; Eastern Anatolian Fault Zone; Bitlis Suture Zone and Zagros Mountains. The northern boundary of the Tethys Ocean is made up the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and it extends up to Po valley towards the west (Pontides, Caucasus). Between these two zones the Alp-Himalayan orogenic belt is situated where the Balkan, Anatolia and the Iran plateaus are placed as the remnants of the lost Ocean of the Tethys. The active tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean is the consequences of the convergence between the Africa, Arabian plates in the south and the Eurasian plate in the north. These plates act as converging jaws of vise forming a crustal mosaic in between. The active crustal deformation pattern reveals two N-S trending maximum compression or crustal shortening syntaxes': (i) the eastern Black Sea and the Arabian plate, (ii) the western Black Sea and the Isparta Angle. The transition in young mountain belts, from ocean crust through the agglomeration of arc systems with long histories of oceanic closures, to a continental hinterland is well exemplified by the plate margin in the eastern Mediterranean. The boundary between the African plate and the Aegean/Anatolian microplate is in the process of transition from subduction to collision along the Cyprus Arc. Since the Black Sea has oceanic lithosphere, it is actually a separate plate. However it can be considered as a block, because the Black Sea is a trapped oceanic basin that cannot move freely within the Eurasian Plate. Lying towards the northern margin of orogenic belts related to the closure of the Tethys Ocean, it is generally considered to be a result of back-arc extension associated with the northward subduction of the Tethyan plate to the south. Interface oceanic lithosphere at

  12. Benthic hypoxia and early diagenesis in the Black Sea shelf sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Audrey; Roevros, Nathalie; Capet, Arthur; Grégoire, Marilaure; Fagel, Nathalie; Chou, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Marine waters of semi-enclosed seas are affected by a major environmental issue which is oxygen depletion in bottom waters. Deoxygenation is one of the most widespread man-induced consequences which can be catastrophic for living species. Between 1970 and 1990, the benthic compartment of the Black Sea underwent modifications due to the occurrence and increase of hypoxia. Indeed, these changes might cause a deterioration of the structure and functioning of the ecosystems. Nowadays, some regions, such as the north-western shelf, are still affected seasonally by this phenomenon. Within the framework of the BENTHOX project, a biogeochemical study focusing on the early diagenesis is conducted in the Black Sea. It aims (1) to obtain a better understanding of the impact of benthic hypoxia on the diagenetic pathways, (2) to contribute to a new dataset of biogeochemical measurements in the sediments including porewaters. During a cruise (Emblas II - May 2016), on board the RV Mare Nigrum, sediment cores were taken at 4 stations on the Ukrainian shelf. Porewaters were extracted on board the ship using Rhizon technique under N2 atmosphere and will be analyzed for dissolved nutrients and major ions. In addition, sediments were sliced and will be determined for major solid phases and trace element contents. A multi-proxies (biological, sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical) approach will be used to identify the hypoxic events and to reconstruct the history of bottom hypoxia. The results obtained will be presented and discussed with emphasis on the first outcomes and the major biogeochemical processes involved in the early diagenesis.

  13. Morphodynamics of a tidal ridge system in the southwestern Yellow Sea: HF radar study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yao-Zhao; Li, Yan; Wu, Xiong-Bin; Gao, Shu; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Ya Ping; Gao, Jian-Hua

    2018-06-01

    A radial tidal ridge system is present throughout the coastal waters of the southwestern Yellow Sea (China) with varied and complicated ridges and channels between them. A newly designed ground-wave high-frequency (HF radar), with full-coverage and high spatial-temporal resolution, was employed in this study to measure the surface currents and bathymetric features correlated wave celerity in the study area from July 17 to August 6, 2011. We found that the spatial distribution pattern of the tidal channels is generally stable with periodic adjustments during a spring-neap tidal cycle and with higher degree of spatial orderliness from neap to spring tides than from spring to neap tides; the nearshore part of the channels is most stable in lateral, the middle part is relatively lateral unstable, and the offshore part changes complicatedly; flood-dominated channels and ebb-dominated ridges are identified using HF radar signals. The horizontal Kelvin number (Keh) is workable in lateral stability evaluation. This study reveals the potential of HF radar in morphodynamic studies on shallow coastal waters.

  14. Spatial variability of the Black Sea surface temperature from high resolution modeling and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizyuk, Artem; Senderov, Maxim; Korotaev, Gennady

    2016-04-01

    Large number of numerical ocean models were implemented for the Black Sea basin during last two decades. They reproduce rather similar structure of synoptical variability of the circulation. Since 00-s numerical studies of the mesoscale structure are carried out using high performance computing (HPC). With the growing capacity of computing resources it is now possible to reconstruct the Black Sea currents with spatial resolution of several hundreds meters. However, how realistic these results can be? In the proposed study an attempt is made to understand which spatial scales are reproduced by ocean model in the Black Sea. Simulations are made using parallel version of NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean). A two regional configurations with spatial resolutions 5 km and 2.5 km are described. Comparison of the SST from simulations with two spatial resolutions shows rather qualitative difference of the spatial structures. Results of high resolution simulation are compared also with satellite observations and observation-based products from Copernicus using spatial correlation and spectral analysis. Spatial scales of correlations functions for simulated and observed SST are rather close and differs much from satellite SST reanalysis. Evolution of spectral density for modelled SST and reanalysis showed agreed time periods of small scales intensification. Using of the spectral analysis for satellite measurements is complicated due to gaps. The research leading to this results has received funding from Russian Science Foundation (project № 15-17-20020)

  15. Studies on the phosphorus requirement and proper calcium/phosphorus ratio in the diet of the black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingke; Li, Maotang; Wang, Keling; Wang, Xincheng; Liu, Jianking

    1993-06-01

    An expriment on the phosphorus requirement and the proper Ca/P ratio in the diet of the black sea bream using the phosphorus gradient method (with casein as basic diet, sodium dihydrogen phosphate as source of phosphorus, and calcium lactate as source of calcium) showed that growth was greatly affected by the diet's phosphorus content and Ca/P ratio. Inadequate phosphorus in the diet resulted in slow growth and poor food conversion ratio (FCR). Analyses of the fish body showed it contained a high level of lipid but a low level of moisture, ash, calcium and phosphorus. The optimal values of phosphorus and Ca/P ratio in the black sea bream diet are 0.68% and 1∶2 respectively. Phosphorus in excess of this optimum value resulted in slow growth or even death. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that phosphorus is the principal mineral additive affecting black sea bream growth.

  16. Morphologic and seismic evidence of rapid submergence offshore Cide-Sinop in the southern Black Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocakoğlu, Neslihan; İşcan, Yeliz; Kılıç, Fatmagül; Özel, Oğuz

    2018-06-01

    Multi-beam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data obtained offshore Cide-Sinop have revealed important records on the latest transgression of the Black Sea for the first time. A relatively large shelf plain within the narrow southern continental shelf characterized by a flat seafloor morphology at -100 water depth followed by a steep continental slope leading to -500 m depth. This area is widely covered by submerged morphological features such as dunes, lagoons, possible aeolianites, an eroded anticline and small channels that developed by aeolian and fluvial processes. These morphological features sit upon an erosional surface that truncates the top of all seismic units and constitutes the seafloor over the whole shelf. The recent prograded delta deposits around the shelf break are also truncated by the similar erosional surface. These results indicate that offshore Cide-Sinop was once a terrestrial landscape that was then submerged. The interpreted paleoshoreline varies from -100 to -120 m. This variation can be explained by not only sea level changes but also the active faults observed on the seismic section. The effective protection of morphological features on the seafloor is the evidence of abrupt submergence rather than gradual. In addition, the absence of coastal onlaps suggests that these morphological features should have developed at low sea level before the latest sea level rise in the Black Sea.

  17. Validation of an intermediate-complexity model for simulating marine biogeochemistry under anoxic conditions in the modern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniello, Stephen J.; Derry, Louis A.

    2010-08-01

    We test the ability of a new 1-D intermediate-complexity box model (ICBM) that includes process-based C, N, P, O, and S biogeochemistry to simulate profiles and fluxes of biogeochemically reactive species across a wide range of ocean redox states. The ICBM was developed to simulate whole ocean processes for paleoceanographic applications and has been tested with data from the modern global ocean. Here we adapt the circulation submodel of the ICBM to simulate water mass exchange and eddy diffusion processes in the Black Sea but make only very minor changes to the biogeochemical submodel. We force the model with estimated natural and anthropogenic inputs of tracers and nutrients to the Black Sea and compare the results of the simulations to modern observations. Ventilation of the Black Sea is modeled by depth-dependent entrainment of Cold Intermediate Layer water into Bosphorus plume water and subsequent intrusion into deep layers. The simulated profiles of circulation tracers θ, salinity, CFC-12, and radiocarbon agree well with available data, suggesting that the model does a reasonable job of representing physical exchange. Vertical profiles of biogeochemically active components are in good overall agreement with observations. The lack of trace metal (Mn and Fe) cycling in the model results in some discrepancies between the simulated profiles and observation across the suboxic zone; however, the overall redox balance is not sensitive to this difference. We compare modeled basin-wide biogeochemical fluxes to available estimates, but in a number of cases uncertainties in modern budgets limit our ability to test the model rigorously. In agreement with earlier work we find that fixed N losses via thiodenitrification are likely a major pathway in the Black Sea N cycle. Overall, the same biogeochemical submodel used to simulate the modern global ocean appears to perform well in simulating Black Sea processes without requiring significant modification. The ability of a

  18. Comparative analysis of Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) from different biotopes of the Black Sea based on its morphological characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos'yan, A. R.

    2013-02-01

    The Asian whelk Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda: Muricidae), being tolerant to wide variations in the temperature, salinity, and oxygen concentration, successfully settled down in the Black Sea and eventually became one of the dominant species in the benthic ecosystems. The whelk inhabits all types of grounds all over the Black sea demonstrating a wide spectrum of morphological modifications. The objective of this research is to compare 10 samples of R. venosa from different biotopes of the Black Sea coast from the western Crimea to Sochi. The results of the statistical comparison based on 15 morphological characteristics showed that most of the samples differed from each other with high statistical significance ( p < 0.001). The material fell into five groups on the discriminant analysis diagram corresponding to the biotope in which each was collected. The main ecological factor influencing the morphological variability of the rapa whelk populations is the characteristics of prey items they feed on, i.e., the bivalve species ( Mytilus galloprovincialis, Anadara sp., Chamelea gallina), the prevailing prey size, and its abundance.

  19. [Contribution to determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Black Sea region: data from single high volume center in Zonguldak, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Akar, Tarık; Aynıoğlu, Aynur; Dındar, Gökhan; Babür, Taner

    2014-07-01

    We've read with great interest the article entitled "Determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes among hepatitis C patients in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey" by Buruk et al. published in Mikrobiyol Bul 2013; 47(4): 650-7. In that study, the authors described the determination and distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Eastern Black Sea Region comprehensively. According to the current information, the determination of HCV genotypes is the most important factor for the management of therapy and virus-related complications, such as chirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies geographically throughout the world. Therefore every country and even each region within the country should know the distribution of HCV genotypes to determine the appropriate treatment strategy. Herein we would like to contribute the data about distribution of HCV genotypes in whole Black Sea Region by presenting our current results obtained from Zonguldak province, where maximum number of chronic hepatit C patients have already been identified in Eastern Black Sea Region. A total of 53 chronic hepatitis C patients (26 female, 27 male; mean age: 57.1 ± 14.3, age range: 21-82 years) who were admitted to Zonguldak Ataturk State Hospital between January 2012-December 2013 were evaluated. Genotype analysis was performed by RealTime HCV Genotype II (Abbott Molecular, ABD) system. Genotype-1 was found to be the most frequently detected type with a rate of 96.2% (51/53). The prevalences of genotype-2 (1/53) and genotype-4 (1/53) were same, with a rate of 1.9%, in our study. Subtyping of genotype-1 strains yielded 52.9% (27/51) genotype-1b, 3.9% genotype-1a (2/51) and 47% untypeable genotype-1 (24/51). The present study was the second study from the Western Black Sea Region in our country, regarding HCV genotypes. In conclusion, considering entire Black Sea Region, genotype-1 is the most common genotype (96.2%), and 1b (52.9%) is the most common

  20. Analysis of Complex Marine Hazards on the Romanian Black Sea Shelf Using Combined Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoila, I. V.; Radulescu, V.; Moise, G.; Diaconu, A.; Radulescu, R.

    2017-12-01

    Combined geophysical acquisition technologies including High Resolution 2D Seismic (HR2D), Multi-Beam Echo-Sounding (MBES), Sub-Bottom Profiling (SBP) and Magnetometry were used in the Western Black Sea (offshore Romania) to identify possible geohazards, such as gas escaping surface sediments and tectonic hazard areas up to 1 km below the seafloor. The National Project was funded by the Research and Innovation Ministry of Romania, and has taken place over 1.5 years with the purpose of creating risk maps for the surveyed pilot area. Using an array of geophysical methods and creating a workflow to identify geohazard susceptible areas on the Romanian Black Sea continental shelf is important and beneficial for future research projects. The SBP and MBES data show disturbed areas that can be interpreted as gas escapes on the surface of the seafloor, and some escapes were confirmed on the HR2D profiles. Shallow gas indicators like gas chimneys and acoustic blanking are usually delimited by vertical, sub-vertical and/or quasi-horizontal faults that mark possible hazard areas on shallow sedimentary sections. Interpreted seismic profiles show three main markers: one delimiting the Pliocene-Quaternary boundary and two for the Miocene (Upper and Lower). Vertical and quasi-horizontal faults are characteristic for the Upper Miocene, while the Lower Miocene has NW-SE horizontal faults. Faults and possible hazard areas were marked on seismic sections and were further correlated with the MBES, SBP, Magnetometry and previously recorded data, such as earthquake epicenters scattered offshore in the Western Black Sea. The main fault systems likely to cause those earthquakes also aid the migration of gas if the faults are not sealed. We observed that the gas escapes were correlated with faults described on the recent seismic profiles. Mapping hazard areas will have an important contribution to better understand the recent evolution of the Western Black Sea basin but also for projecting

  1. Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Southwestern Atlantic, including the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge area.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Irene A; Burukovsky, Rudolf N

    2014-11-26

    The deep sea shrimp genus Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 includes 47 species, ten of them have been recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Herein, material sampled during three scientific projects (REVIZEE Central Fishery project; Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project; Evaluation of Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin) made in the Southwestern Atlantic, off Brazil, is examined. In addition, material sampled from the South Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR-ECO Project) was also examined. Four species are recorded for the first time to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean including Mid Atlantic Ridge area: Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2001; N. gracilipes Filhol, 1884; N. rotundus Crosnier & Forest, 1973 and N. tenuipes Spence-Bate, 1888.

  2. Stability of the Black Sea Littoral Region: Focus on the Montreux Convention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-27

    qualitative), missing regulation to the safe transit of ships, international law changes, safety of the Turkish shore, and pollution regulation46...scientific activities, rescue operations or anti- pollution projects; the ships are advised to abide by the new traffic separation schemes put in...of the host cities for the 2018 World Cup are in the immediate proximity of the Black Sea (Sochi & Krasnodar.)78 The continued developments in the

  3. Development of Oil Spill Monitoring System for the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and the Barents/Kara Seas (DEMOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandven, Stein; Kudriavtsev, Vladimir; Malinovsky, Vladimir; Stanovoy, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    DEMOSS will develop and demonstrate elements of a marine oil spill detection and prediction system based on satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and other space data. In addition, models for prediction of sea surface pollution drift will be developed and tested. The project implements field experiments to study the effect of artificial crude oil and oil derivatives films on short wind waves and multi-frequency (Ka-, Ku-, X-, and C-band) dual polarization radar backscatter power and Doppler shift at different wind and wave conditions. On the basis of these and other available experimental data, the present model of short wind waves and radar scattering will be improved and tested.A new approach for detection and quantification of the oil slicks/spills in satellite SAR images is developed that can discriminate human oil spills from biogenic slicks and look-alikes in the SAR images. New SAR images are obtained in coordination with the field experiments to test the detection algorithm. Satellite SAR images from archives as well as from new acquisitions will be analyzed for the Black/Caspian/Kara/Barents seas to investigate oil slicks/spills occurrence statistics.A model for oil spills/slicks transport and evolution is developed and tested in ice-infested arctic seas, including the Caspian Sea. Case studies using the model will be conducted to simulate drift and evolution of oil spill events observed in SAR images. The results of the project will be disseminated via scientific publications and by demonstration to users and agencies working with marine monitoring. The project lasts for two years (2007 - 2009) and is funded under INTAS Thematic Call with ESA 2006.

  4. Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) in the NE Aegean Sea frontal area: Seasonal dynamics under the influence of Black Sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parinos, C.; Gogou, A.; Krasakopoulou, E.; Lagaria, A.; Giannakourou, A.; Karageorgis, A. P.; Psarra, S.

    2017-10-01

    The abundance of Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) was determined on a seasonal basis (autumn, spring and summer) along a north-south transect in the NE Aegean Sea and the vicinity of the Dardanelles Straits. Their distribution patterns were studied in respect to hydrographic conditions and water mass characteristics in the area, as well as particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations, changes in standing stocks of chlorophyll-α and bacterial production. TEP concentrations ranged from 15.4 to 188 μg GX eq L-1. Their spatial distribution patterns within the euphotic zone displayed significant seasonal variability, which appears to closely reflect the temporal variation of the water column structure, resulting from the encounter and interplay of the Black Sea and Levantine Water masses, and the associated biogeochemical processes. Minimum TEP concentrations during autumn could be likely attributed to a minor quantity of TEP and/or its dissolved precursors exuded by phytoplankton and their enhanced degradation due to their long residence time in the water column. During spring, high TEP production was mediated by actively growing phytoplankton, while during summer a positive link to the intense stratification of the water column and the enhanced bacterial growth within the Black Sea Water layer was observed. The results reported in this study highlight the fact that TEP carbon represents a significant fraction of the POC pool. Moreover, TEP production is critical in promoting particle coagulation rates, playing an important role in carbon cycling/transportation out of the euphotic zone.

  5. Mössbauer study of oxide phase distributions in rust formed on steel constructions near the Black Sea in Sochi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, V. P.; Lauer, Yu. A.; Goloborodko, P. G.; Polyakov, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    The phase composition of the intermediate oxide layers formed on elements of steel structures at different positions relative to the sea water of the Black Sea near Sochi are investigated. The differences of the phase composition of these oxide layers are shown, depending on the location of the design details in relation to the sea and the abundancies of certain types of oxides in the studied layers are discussed.

  6. Cascading ocean basins: numerical simulations of the circulation and interbasin exchange in the Azov-Black-Marmara-Mediterranean Seas system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, Emil Vassilev; Grashorn, Sebastian; Zhang, Yinglong Joseph

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we use the unstructured grid model SCHISM to simulate the thermohydrodynamics in a chain of baroclinic, interconnected basins. The model shows a good skill in simulating the horizontal circulation and vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and currents. The magnitude and phases of the seasonal changes of circulation are consistent with earlier observations. Among the mesoscale and subbasin-scale circulation features that are realistically simulated are the anticyclonic coastal eddies, the Sebastopol and Batumi eddies, the Marmara Sea outflow around the southern coast of the Limnos Island, and the pathway of the cold water originating from the shelf. The superiority of the simulations compared to earlier numerical studies is demonstrated with the example of model capabilities to resolve the strait dynamics, gravity currents originating from the straits, high-salinity bottom layer on the shallow shelf, as well as the multiple intrusions from the Bosporus Strait down to 700 m depth. The warm temperature intrusions from the strait produce the warm water mass in the intermediate layers of the Black Sea. One novel result is that the seasonal intensification of circulation affects the interbasin exchange, thus allowing us to formulate the concept of circulation-controlled interbasin exchange. To the best of our knowledge, the present numerical simulations, for the first time, suggest that the sea level in the interior part of the Black Sea can be lower than the sea level in the Marmara Sea and even in some parts of the Aegean Sea. The comparison with observations shows that the timings and magnitude of exchange flows are also realistically simulated, along with the blocking events. The short-term variability of the strait transports is largely controlled by the anomalies of wind. The simulations demonstrate the crucial role of the narrow and shallow strait of Bosporus in separating the two pairs of basins: Aegean-Marmara Seas from one side and Azov-Black

  7. Source identification of hydrocarbon contaminants and their transportation over the Zonguldak shelf, Turkish Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unlu, S.; Alpar, B.

    2009-04-01

    Under great anthropogenic pressure due to the substantial freshwater input from the surrounding industrial and agricultural areas, especially central and middle-Eastern Europe, the Black Sea basin is ranked among the most ecologically threatened water bodies of the world. Oil levels are unacceptable in many coastal areas perilously close to polluted harbors and many river mouths; the places presenting the highest levels of bio-diversity and having a high socio-economic importance due to human use of coastal resources. There are about sixty sources of pollution which resulted in "hot spots" having disastrous impacts on sensitive marine and coastal areas and needing immediate priorities for action. Beyond such land-based sources, trans-boundary pollution sources from Black Sea riparian countries, heavy maritime traffic, particularly involving petroleum transports and fishing boats, and the improper disposal of ballast and bilge waters and solid waste are also important marine sources of pollution. Found in fossil fuels such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are generated by incomplete combustion of organic matter. In order to estimate their distribution in sediment and their sources, they were monitored from the bottom samples offshore the Zonguldak industry region, one of the most polluted spots in the Turkish Black Sea. There the budget of pollutants via rivers is not precisely known due to an evident lack of data on chemical and granulometric composition of the river runoff and their fluxes. Therefore the marine sediments, essential components of marine ecosystems, are very important in our estimating the degree of the damage given to the ecosystem by such inputs. Realization of the sources and transport of these contaminants will be a critical tool for future management of the Zonguldak industry region and its watershed. The sea bottom in study area is composed of mainly sand and silt mixtures with small amount of clay. Geochemical analyses have shown that oil

  8. Development of a WebGIS-based monitoring and environmental protection and preservation system for the Black Sea: The ECO-Satellite project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziavos, Ilias N.

    2013-04-01

    The ECO-Satellite project has been approved in the frame of the Joint Operational Program "Black Sea Basin 2007-2013" and it is co-financed by the European Union through the European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument and the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance and National Funds. The overall objective of the project is to contribute to the protection and preservation of the water system of the Black Sea, with its main emphasis given to river deltas and protected coastal regions at the seaside. More specifically, it focuses on the creation of an environmental monitoring system targeting the marine, coastal and wetland ecosystems of the Black Sea, thus strengthening the development of common research among the involved partners and increasing the intraregional knowledge for the corresponding coastal zones. This integrated multi-level system is based on the technological assets provided by satellite Earth observation data and Geo-Informatics innovative tools and facilities, as well as on the development of a unified, easy to update geodatabase including a wide range of appropriately selected environmental parameters. Furthermore, a Web-GIS system is under development aiming in principle to support environmental decision and policy making by monitoring the state of marine, coastal and wetland ecosystems of the Black Sea and managing all the aforementioned data sources and derived research results. The system is designed in a way that is easily expandable and adaptable for environmental management in local, regional national and trans-national level and as such it will increase the capacity of decision makers who are related to Black Sea environmental policy. Therefore, it is expected that administrative authorities, scientifically related institutes and environmental protection bodies in all eligible areas will show interest in the results and applications of the information system, since the ECO-Satellite project could serve as a support tool for the

  9. A 20-15 ka high-resolution paleomagnetic secular variation record from Black Sea sediments - no evidence for the 'Hilina Pali excursion'?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiabo; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Frank, Ute; Arz, Helge W.

    2018-06-01

    A comprehensive magnetostratigraphic investigation on sixteen sediment cores from the southeastern Black Sea yielded a very detailed high-quality paleosecular variation (PSV) record spanning from 20 to 15 ka. The age models are based on radiocarbon dating, stratigraphic correlation, and tephrochronology. Further age constraints were obtained by correlating four meltwater events, described from the western Black Sea, ranging in age from about 17 to 15 ka, with maxima in K/Ti ratios, obtained from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning, and minima in S-ratios, reflecting increased hematite content, in the studied cores. Since the sedimentation rates in the investigated time window are up to 50 cm ka-1, the obtained PSVs records enabled a stacking using 50-yr bins. A directional anomaly at 18.5 ka, associated with pronounced swings in inclination and declination, as well as a low in relative paleointensity (rPI), is probably contemporaneous with the Hilina Pali excursion, originally reported from Hawaiian lava flows. However, virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) calculated from Black Sea sediments are not located at latitudes lower than 60°N, which denotes normal, though pronounced secular variations. During the postulated Hilina Pali excursion, the VGPs calculated from Black Sea data migrated clockwise only along the coasts of the Arctic Ocean from NE Canada (20.0 ka), via Alaska (18.6 ka) and NE Siberia (18.0 ka) to Svalbard (17.0 ka), then looping clockwise through the Eastern Arctic Ocean.

  10. Megafloods in Marginal Basins: New Data from the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giosan, L.; Mart, Y.; McHugh, C. M.; Vachtman, D.; Cagatay, N. M.; Kadir, E. K.; Ryan, W. B.

    2005-12-01

    One of Jim Kennett's long-standing scientific interests has been the study of abrupt events ranging from destabilization of the gas hydrate reservoir, to volcanism, to megafloods. In appreciation to his contribution to the study of catastrophes in paleoceanography, we present new data on the Holocene reconnection of the Black Sea basin to the ocean, resulting from a July 2005 survey aboard the R/V Mediterranean Explorer of the EcoOcean Foundation. The survey included tightly-spaced Chirp subbottom profiling on the outer shelf northwest of the Bosporus outlet (Istanbul Bogazi), combined with precisely targeted gravity coring. Subbottom horizons are calibrated by radiocarbon and optical luminescence ages on cores. Chirp profiles reveal channels and ridges nearly transversal to the bathymetric contours. Ridges have grown on a seaward-dipping erosion surface that truncates the top of older prograding clinoforms. The ridges are up 12 m in height and have an asymmetrical cross-section, gentler on the west and steeper on the east. Sediment drifting is apparent on the gentler side. In the interiors of the ridges we found highly reflective mounds that are rooted directly on the erosion surface. The mounds organize in both elongated and circular to oval features. Shell-bearing marine mud drapes the mounds. Between the ridges and mounds the drape rests directly on the erosion surface that can be traced seaward to beyond -120 m. High abundance of exceptionally large shells of Mytilus sp. at the base of the drape suggests that bedforms were seeded by a colonization of mollusks building bioherms right on top of the erosion surface beginning at the time of the Mediterranean connection. The Black Sea lacustrine stage experienced an evaporative drawdown below its outlet and has only tracked the global sea level rise since 8.4 ky bp. The saltwater megaflood from the Mediterranean led to dramatic morphologic reorganization of the shelf sea-floor close to the Bosporus and exceptional

  11. Crustal structure of southwestern Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.; Blank, H.R.; Mooney, W.D.; Healy, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    The southwestern Arabian Shield is composed of uplifted Proterozoic metamorphic and plutonic rocks. The Shield is bordered on the southwest by Cenozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Red Sea paar and on the east by the Arabian Platform, an area of basin sedimentation throughout Phanerozoic time. The Shield appears to have been formed by successive episodes of island arc volcanism and sea-floor spreading, followed by several cycles of compressive tectonism and metamorphism. An interpretation and synthesis of a deep-refraction seismic profile from the Riyadh area to the Farasan Islands, and regional gravity, aeromagnetic, heat flow, and surface geologic data have yielded a self-consistent regional-scale model of the crust and upper mantle for this area. The model consists of two 20 km-thick layers of crust with an average compressional wave velocity in the upper crust of about 6.3 km/s and an average velocity in the lower. crust of about 7.0 km/s. This crust thins abruptly to less than 20 km near the southwestern end of the profile where Precambrian outcrops abut the Cenozoic rocks and to 8 km beneath the Farasan Islands. The data over the coastal plain and Red Sea shelf areas are fit satisfactorily by an oceanic crustal model. A major lateral velocity inhomogeneity in the crust is inferred about 25 km northeast of Sabhah and is supported by surface geologic evidence. The major velocity discontinuities occur at about the same depth across the entire Shield and are interpreted to indicate horizontal metamorphic stratification of the Precambrian crust. Several lateral inhomogenities in both the upper and lower .crust of the . Shield are interpreted, to indicate bulk compositional variations. The subcrustal portion of the model is composed of a hot, low-density lithosphere beneath the Red Sea which is systematically cooler and denser to the northeast. This model provides a mechanism which explains the observed topographic uplift, regional gravity pattern, heat

  12. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are transcontinental migration routes of wild birds from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting of many migratory bird species with a very high level of ...

  13. Danube paleohydrology: Hyperspectral and sedimentological high-resultion study of the last glacial Black Sea rythmites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Lamas, R.; Debret, M.; Deloffre, J.; Toucanne, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Black Sea has undergone alternating phases of lacustrine and marine environment over geological timescales directly related to its semi-enclosed character and to eustatic sea-level oscillations. During lowstand conditions, as during the last glacial period, the Black Sea was a giant lake disconnected from the global ocean. At that time, Black Sea water-level was controlled by regional climate, and by Eurasian rivers, including the Danube that acted as an outlet of European Ice Sheet and the Alpine ice cap. Thus, the paleo-mouth of the Danube river contains a high quality archive for the study of the paleohydrology of the Danube River and by extension of the European climate changes during the last 30 kyr. For this purpose, we have focused on the GAS-CS01 calypso long-piston core (33.4 m) which was taken during GHASS cruise (Ifremer, 2015) on the upper slope (240 m. depth) at about 25 km east of the Danube Canyon, i.e. in the sediment pile of the Danube paleo-mouth during the last glacial period. Our chronology reveals that core GAS-CS01 extends back to 31 cal kyr BP. The lithology of GAS-CS01 is characterized by clastic rythmites which are presented as a high-resolution Danube runoff proxy. Preliminary results of sedimentological and chronological analysis showed five peaks of terrestrial discharges between ca 31 and 14 ka BP, probably linked to five phases of the enhanced runoff during the studied period. In order to understand the origin and the depositional processes of this laminae, we combined sedimentary analysis (x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, grain size ...) and hyperspectral images analysis. Hyperspectral imagery is a non-destructive fast method classically used to quantify colour and provides data with high spatial (57-µm pixel size) and spectral (3 nm) resolution. The multi-proxy calibration is essential in order to obtain a high-resolution sedimentological dataset. This information allows us to reconstruct the nature and depositional

  14. Mastritherium (Artiodactyla, Anthracotheriidae) from Wadi Sabya, southwestern Saudi Arabia; an earliest Miocene age for continental rift-valley volcanic deposits of the Red Sea margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madden, Gary T.; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman; Whitmore, Frank C.

    1983-01-01

    A lower jaw fragment with its last molar (M/3) from the Baid formation in Wadi Sabya, southwestern Saudi Arabia, represents the first recorded occurrence in the Arabian Peninsula of an anthracotheriid artiodactyl (hippo-like, even-toed ungulate). This fossil is identified as a primitive species of Masritherium, a North and East African genus restricted, previously to the later early Miocene. This identification indicates that the age of the Baid formation, long problematical, is early Miocene and, moreover, shows that the age of the fossil site is earliest Miocene (from 25 to 21Ma). The Wadi Sabya anthracothere is the first species of fossil mammal recorded from western Saudi Arabia, and more important, it indicates an early Miocene age for the volcanic deposits of a continental rift-valley that preceded the initial sea-floor spreading of the Red Sea.

  15. Wave modelling south of the Danube Delta in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Eugen; Butunoiu, Dorin

    2015-04-01

    A multilevel wave modelling system, based on SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) spectral model, was implemented in the Black Sea and focused on the western coast. Model simulations have been performed for a 10-year time interval (1999-2008). Validations have been carried out against both satellite data and in situ measurements. A high resolution SWAN computational domain (100m x100m), which is focused on the coastal environment south of the Danube Delta, was also implemented. This coastal area includes Sacalin, which is a newly formed island in the Black Sea, south of the Saint George branch of the Danube. Initially, this was an island system, which consisted of two smaller islands, Greater Sacalin and Lesser Sacalin. In time, due to the enhanced sedimentary processes, the two islands merged into a single continuous landmass. The island has become the habitat of a great variety of rare species and for this reason it was declared an ecological reserve. In the high resolution computational domain, focused on the Sacalin Island, the effect of the currents induced by the Danube River outflow was also accounted in the model, together with some other processes specific to the coastal environment as diffraction, triad wave-wave interactions and wave induced set up. Considering the results of the ten-year SWAN model simulations with the modelling system covering the entire sea basin, the most relevant configurations of the environmental matrix, characteristic to this side of the sea, were defined. On this basis, by performing SWAN simulations in the high resolution coastal domain, the wave propagation patterns in the nearshore, together with some parameters related to the shoreline conditions, were evaluated. A great number of possible situations were analyzed. The most relevant correspond to different directions of the incoming waves (N, NE, E and SE, respectively) and significant wave energy conditions. The results provided by the modelling system indicate two different

  16. Geochemistry and microbiology at gas hydrate and mud volcano sites in the black sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, M.; Schmaljohann, R.; Wallmann, K.

    2003-04-01

    We present geochemical and microbiological results which were obtained from sediments at gas hydrate and mud volcano sites in the Sorokin Trough (northern Black Sea, south east of the Crimean peninsula) at water depths of about 1800 to 2100 m during the METEOR cruise 52-1. The surface near sub-bottom accumulations of gas hydrates (occuring at depths of several meters or less beneath the sea floor) in the Black Sea are associated with numerous mud volcanos. At stations we investigated gas hydrates occurred below 10 cm to 100 cm with a significant influence on the sediment biochemistry. Analyses revealed high methane concentrations, anoxic and sulfidic conditions, a steep sulfate gradient, carbonate precipitation, and high anaerobic methane oxidation rates. In proximity of the so called Odessa mud volcano one investigated sampling station showed maximum methane oxidation rates in the depth horizon of a firm 2 cm thick carbonate crust layer, adhered to by a bacterial mat. This observation is taken to indicate that the bacteria are causing or mediating the crust formation by their anaerobic methane oxidation metabolism. The station was further characterised by two layers of gas hydrate fragments and lenses below 1 m depth. A 2 to 4 cm thick carbonate crust with attached bacterial mat from a Yalta mud vulcano sample (2124 m water depth) was investigated under the scanning electron microscope. The stiff gelatinous mat showed a dense and morphologically uniform population of rod shaped bacteria with only a few nests of coccoid cells. Purified mat material exhibited anaerobic methane oxidation activity. These mats resemble the type previously found in the shallow NW methane seep area of the Black Sea, where it covers carbonate chimneys. Samples from two sites atop the summit of the active but flat-topped Dvurechenskii mud volcano were characterised by very high methane oxidation rates (up to 563 nmol/cm3/d) at the sediment surface. Strong pore water gradients of chloride

  17. Growth rate and age distribution of deep-sea black corals in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, N.G.; Roark, E.B.; Buster, N.A.; Ross, Steve W.

    2011-01-01

    Black corals (order Antipatharia) are important long-lived, habitat-forming, sessile, benthic suspension feeders that are found in all oceans and are usually found in water depths greater than 30 m. Deep-water black corals are some of the slowest-growing, longest-lived deep-sea corals known. Previous age dating of a limited number of black coral samples in the Gulf of Mexico focused on extrapolated ages and growth rates based on skeletal 210Pb dating. Our results greatly expand the age and growth rate data of black corals from the Gulf of Mexico. Radiocarbon analysis of the oldest Leiopathes sp. specimen from the upper De Soto Slope at 300 m water depth indicates that these animals have been growing continuously for at least the last 2 millennia, with growth rates ranging from 8 to 22 µm yr–1. Visual growth ring counts based on scanning electron microscopy images were in good agreement with the 14C-derived ages, suggestive of annual ring formation. The presence of bomb-derived 14C in the outermost samples confirms sinking particulate organic matter as the dominant carbon source and suggests a link between the deep-sea and surface ocean. There was a high degree of reproducibility found between multiple discs cut from the base of each specimen, as well as within duplicate subsamples. Robust 14C-derived chronologies and known surface ocean 14C reservoir age constraints in the Gulf of Mexico provided reliable calendar ages with future application to the development of proxy records.

  18. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  19. Mesoscale cyclogenesis dynamics over the southwestern Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Jorge F.; Bromwich, David H.

    1993-07-01

    Previous work has shown that frequent mesoscale cyclogenesis adjacent to Franklin Island is linked to the strong and persistent katabatic winds from East Antarctica which funnel into Terra Nova Bay and then blow out over the southwestern Ross Sea. Four mesoscale cyclones that formed near Terra Nova Bay between February 16 and 20, 1988 are examined to more clearly define the governing mechanisms. These events are investigated using all available observations, including automatic weather station data, high-resolution satellite images, satellite soundings, and hemispheric synoptic analyses. The first two cyclones formed on low-level baroclinic zones established by the synoptic scale advection of warm moist air toward the cold continental air blowing gently from East Antarctica. In the second case, baroclinic instability of this small-scale cold front was apparently triggered by the enhanced upward vertical motion associated with the approach of a midtropospheric trough. The third mesocyclone formed shortly after on a baroclinic zone over the polar plateau; the second vortex completely disrupted the usual katabatic drainage over the plateau and forced warm moist air over the coastal slopes. All three cyclones moved to the north in the prevailing cyclonic flow, but the plateau vortex lasted for only 6 hours. The fourth mesoscale low formed in conjunction with an abrupt and intense surge of katabatic air from Terra Nova Bay which resharpened the coastal baroclinic zone. At the same time a transiting midtropospheric trough probably associated with lower tropospheric upward vertical motion apparently accelerated the katabatic winds and triggered the vortex formation. A similar katabatic wind-forced mesocyclone formed near Byrd Glacier. The two vortices moved to the east-southeast and northeast, respectively, apparently being steered by the generating katabatic airstreams, and merged just to the north of the Ross Ice Shelf. The combined vortex reintensified as another

  20. Mass Evolution of Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas from GRACE and Altimetry: Accuracy Assessment and Solution Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, B. D.; Luthcke, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present new measurements of mass evolution for the Mediterranean, Black, Red, and Caspian Seas as determined by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) GRACE time-variable global gravity mascon solutions. These new solutions are compared to sea surface altimetry measurements of sea level anomalies with steric corrections applied. To assess their accuracy, the GRACE and altimetry-derived solutions are applied to the set of forward models used by GSFC for processing the GRACE Level-1B datasets, with the resulting inter-satellite range acceleration residuals providing a useful metric for analyzing solution quality.

  1. Escarpment evolution at the Red Sea continental margin of southwestern Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turab, Syed Ali; Stüwe, Kurt; Stuart, Finlay M.; Cogné, Nathan; Chew, David M.

    2017-04-01

    Rifting of the Red Sea started around 30-32 Ma and resulted in the formation of one of the youngest and best developed escarpments of the world: the Great Escarpment of southwestern Saudi Arabia. The escarpment is perfectly developed over a length of more than 500 km and includes mountains up to 3000 m in elevation. To better understand the geodynamics of Red Sea rifting and to constrain a denudational model for the Great Escarpment, the results of apatite fission track and (U-Th-[Sm])/He thermochronologic techniques are combined with stream power analysis from the central part of this region. Pooled fission track ages (recording cooling through about 110 °C) range from 13.2 ± 1.7 to 352.1 ± 17.6 Ma (1σ) with all ages that are younger than about 50 Ma (and thus related to the rifting) being from elevations lower than about 500 m (i.e. towards the base of the escarpment). Apatite He ages range from 2.8 ± 0.3 to 264.5 ± 19.6 Ma with a similar age-elevation relationship. The base of the pre-uplift apatite partial annealing zone is interpreted to be lying at 200 m present-day elevation. Our fission-track data indicate that the amount of exhumation is insufficient to completely reset all the coastal plain samples, but exhumation along the escarpment appears to increase from south towards north. The highest amount of exhumation is confined to two separate regions, one in the north and one in the south, which are separated by a region of non-reset AFT ages and hence lower amounts of exhumation. This interpretation is also supported by stream power analysis from this region. The reset AFT ages indicate about 4.5 km of exhumation which may have started in the early Miocene, but the majority of this exhumation phase occurred after 13 Ma. This interpretation is consistent with a single isolated outcrop of Nubian sandstone at the summit of Saudi Arabia's highest peak. The distributions of AFT and AHe ages across the escarpment and coastal region supports the escarpment

  2. The eastern Black Sea-Caucasus region during the Cretaceous: New evidence to constrain its tectonic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosson, Marc; Stephenson, Randell; Sheremet, Yevgeniya; Rolland, Yann; Adamia, Shota; Melkonian, Rafael; Kangarli, Talat; Yegorova, Tamara; Avagyan, Ara; Galoyan, Ghazar; Danelian, Taniel; Hässig, Marc; Meijers, Maud; Müller, Carla; Sahakyan, Lilit; Sadradze, Nino; Alania, Victor; Enukidze, Onice; Mosar, Jon

    2016-01-01

    We report new observations in the eastern Black Sea-Caucasus region that allow reconstructing the evolution of the Neotethys in the Cretaceous. At that time, the Neotethys oceanic plate was subducting northward below the continental Eurasia plate. Based on the analysis of the obducted ophiolites that crop out throughout Lesser Caucasus and East Anatolides, we show that a spreading center (AESA basin) existed within the Neotethys, between Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Later, the spreading center was carried into the subduction with the Neotethys plate. We argue that the subduction of the spreading center opened a slab window that allowed asthenospheric material to move upward, in effect thermally and mechanically weakening the otherwise strong Eurasia upper plate. The local weakness zone favored the opening of the Black Sea back-arc basins. Later, in the Late Cretaceous, the AESA basin obducted onto the Taurides-Anatolides-South Armenia Microplate (TASAM), which then collided with Eurasia along a single suture zone (AESA suture).

  3. Sea surface salinity and temperature-based predictive modeling of southwestern US winter precipitation: improvements, errors, and potential mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Schmitt, R. W.; Li, L.

    2017-12-01

    Using 69 years of historical data from 1948-2017, we developed a method to globally search for sea surface salinity (SSS) and temperature (SST) predictors of regional terrestrial precipitation. We then applied this method to build an autumn (SON) SSS and SST-based 3-month lead predictive model of winter (DJF) precipitation in southwestern United States. We also find that SSS-only models perform better than SST-only models. We previously used an arbitrary correlation coefficient (r) threshold, |r| > 0.25, to define SSS and SST predictor polygons for best subset regression of southwestern US winter precipitation; from preliminary sensitivity tests, we find that |r| > 0.18 yields the best models. The observed below-average precipitation (0.69 mm/day) in winter 2015-2016 falls within the 95% confidence interval of the prediction model. However, the model underestimates the anomalous high precipitation (1.78 mm/day) in winter 2016-2017 by more than three-fold. Moisture transport mainly attributed to "pineapple express" atmospheric rivers (ARs) in winter 2016-2017 suggests that the model falls short on a sub-seasonal scale, in which case storms from ARs contribute a significant portion of seasonal terrestrial precipitation. Further, we identify a potential mechanism for long-range SSS and precipitation teleconnections: standing Rossby waves. The heat applied to the atmosphere from anomalous tropical rainfall can generate standing Rossby waves that propagate to higher latitudes. SSS anomalies may be indicative of anomalous tropical rainfall, and by extension, standing Rossby waves that provide the long-range teleconnections.

  4. [New settlers comb jellies Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz) and Beroe ovata Mayer 1912 and their influence on the pelagic ecosystem of the northeastern part of the Black Sea].

    PubMed

    Shiganova, T A; Musaeva, E I; Bulgakova, Iu V; Mirzoian, Z A; MartynIuk, M L

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the condition of pelagic ecosystem of northeastern Black Sea influenced by expansion of a new settler Beroe ovata in 1999-2001. Expansion of B. ovata considerably decreased the population of another new settler Mnemiopsis leidyi that deformed the Black Sea ecosystem for over a decade. Reduction of M. leidyi population limited its influence on the ecosystem and, consequently, we observed reestablishment of the main components of the Black Sea pelagic ecosystem--zooplankton and fish, their spawn and larvae. The relationship between annual and seasonal variability of the population and biomass of the both new settlers M. leidyi and B. ovata are discussed.

  5. Emerging and Conventional Contaminants in River Waters Discharging into the Black Sea along the Ukrainian Coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major rivers of Ukraine, including the Dnieper, Dniester, Southern Bug and Danube, discharge approximately 8500 m3/s of freshwater into the northern and western portions of the Black Sea. As one of the largest countries in Europe, Ukraine also has one of the largest human po...

  6. The Oceanic Crustal Structure of the Southwestern Subbasin in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Ruan, A.; Li, J.; Lee, C.

    2012-12-01

    Located at the southwestern part of the South China Sea (SCS) among the Zhongsha Islands(Macclesfield Bank), the east subbasin, the Nansha Islands(Dangerous Ground), the V type southwest subbasin (SWSB) is an unique ocean basin in all the three subbasins of SCS. The crustal structure is one of the key problems to study the formation and evolution of SWSB. During December 2010 to March 2011, Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) experiment has been carried out in the SWSB to get the deep crustal structure information, especially under the fossil spreading center. Three types of OBS, Sedis IV type, I-4C type and MicrOBS type have been used in the experiment, and the energy source was supplied by 6000 inch3 large volume air-gun. High quality seismic data of four 2D profiles which covered the fossil spreading center of SWSB have been acquired. The data of the experiment can supply evidence for the study of oceanic crustal structure of the SWSB and seafloor spreading course, etc. The profile 1 extended 130 km in length. A total of 8 OBSs were deployed at intervals of 10 or 15 km and 7 OBSs were recovered. The data of the 7 stations of profile 1 have been processed, which shows that the seismic records are clear and seismic phases are abundance, and the air-guns have enough energy supply. The velocity model was obtained by using an interactive trial-and-error 2D ray-tracing method. The crustal structure indicates that the crustal thickness under the SWSB is about 6 km, and the moho depth is about 10km. The results reveal that the crust of SWSB is normal oceanic crust with a thin sedimentary layer on the seamount and shallow moho surface. The crustal velocity under the spreading center is extremely low, which shows the characteristic of the deep crustal structure of the fossil spreading center. Acknowledgements This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91028006, 41106053, 41176046), Scientific Research Fund of the Second Institute

  7. Water Constituents in the North-western Black Sea from Optical Remote Sensing and In situ Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barale, V.; Cipollini, P.; Davidov, A.; Melin, F.

    2002-03-01

    Satellite-based optical observations of surface waters have been used to assess the main environmental interactions in the north-western Black Sea, as a contribution to the EROS 21 project. Such observations allow evaluations of the presence and abundance of water constituents (primarily phytoplankton pigments), providing essential information on the processes which are taking place in the area and on their spatial and temporal scales. An analysis of ocean colour imagery was performed, using historical data collected by the CZCS (1978-1986), and by the MOS before, during and after the EROS 21 oceanographic cruise which took place in April/May 1997. The time series of CZCS-derived parameters (i.e. chlorophyll-like pigment concentration) originates from the archive generated by the OCEAN project. The MOS data were processed to apply sensor calibration, to correct for atmospheric contamination so as to assess water-leaving radiances for each visible channel, and to estimate geophysical parameters such as pigment concentration and in-water optical depth, which is correlated to suspended matter concentration. The atmospheric correction was performed with a novel algorithm developed especially for MOS application. The bio-optical algorithms used to derive in-water parameters were obtained by comparison with the concurrent in situ measurements of optically active parameters collected in the north-western Black Sea in the framework of the EROS 21 project. The multi-satellite data set highlights the differences between western and eastern sub-basins, inshore and offshore domains, northern and southern near-coastal areas. In the Danube delta area, the water constituents trace complex interactions of near-coastal and basin-wide features of the Black Sea.

  8. The role of horizontal exchanges on ventilation of the benthic boundary layer on the Black Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred

    2010-05-01

    The state of the benthic component of the shelf ecosystem is strongly influenced by availability of dissolved oxygen. The chemical structure of the Black Sea waters is largely determined by the location and the strength of the pycnocline. Due to similarity in the mechanisms of vertical exchanges the oxycline and the chemocline occur at the same depth intervals as the halocline and pycnocline (Özsoy and Ünlüata, 1997). As the data for dissolved oxygen on the shelf is relatively sparse we assume that much abundant data on physical parameters (temperature and salinity) can be used as proxy in determining the location of the oxycline and hence the spatial extent of near-bottom waters depleted in oxygen. When the waters of the benthic boundary layers below the pycnocline are ‘locked' i.e. unable to mix vertically with surface then the biological pump and supply of oxygen are suppressed. However, the locked water can, in principle, move ‘horizontally', predominantly along the constant density levels and get ventilated via isopycnal exchanges. The isopycnals in the Black Sea have generally a dome-like structure, so that the isopycnal movements across the shelf break can ventilate bottom shelf waters with water masses from upper parts of the water column in the deep sea. We use the intra- and inter-annual variations in the near-bottom temperature as indicators for variability of physical conditions in the benthic boundary layer on the shelf. The physical reason for this is that interannual variations in the near-bottom temperature are directly related with the volume of cold waters (Ivanov et al., 2000) which are formed on the shelf and then exported into the deep sea, so that variations in temperature may indicate changes in the intensity of horizontal exchanges. In this paper we identified areas on the Black Sea margin where bottom waters can not be mixed vertically (‘locked' waters) during the winter months and locations to which the locked waters can move

  9. Arabian Sea tropical cyclones intensified by emissions of black carbon and other aerosols.

    PubMed

    Evan, Amato T; Kossin, James P; Chung, Chul Eddy; Ramanathan, V

    2011-11-02

    Throughout the year, average sea surface temperatures in the Arabian Sea are warm enough to support the development of tropical cyclones, but the atmospheric monsoon circulation and associated strong vertical wind shear limits cyclone development and intensification, only permitting a pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period for cyclogenesis. Thus a recent increase in the intensity of tropical cyclones over the northern Indian Ocean is thought to be related to the weakening of the climatological vertical wind shear. At the same time, anthropogenic emissions of aerosols have increased sixfold since the 1930s, leading to a weakening of the southwesterly lower-level and easterly upper-level winds that define the monsoonal circulation over the Arabian Sea. In principle, this aerosol-driven circulation modification could affect tropical cyclone intensity over the Arabian Sea, but so far no such linkage has been shown. Here we report an increase in the intensity of pre-monsoon Arabian Sea tropical cyclones during the period 1979-2010, and show that this change in storm strength is a consequence of a simultaneous upward trend in anthropogenic black carbon and sulphate emissions. We use a combination of observational, reanalysis and model data to demonstrate that the anomalous circulation, which is radiatively forced by these anthropogenic aerosols, reduces the basin-wide vertical wind shear, creating an environment more favourable for tropical cyclone intensification. Because most Arabian Sea tropical cyclones make landfall, our results suggest an additional impact on human health from regional air pollution.

  10. Microbial mats in the Black Sea that anaerobically oxidise methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauhaus, K.; Knittel, K.; Krüger, M.; Boetius, A.; Michaelis, W.; Widdel, F.

    2003-04-01

    Reef-forming microbial mats were recovered from methane seeps in anoxic waters of the northwestern Black Sea (BS) shelf. The microbial mats consist mainly of archaea (ANME-1 cluster) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus group). Laboratory incubations with homogenized subsamples of the mats revealed their ability for the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The phylogentic relationship of the sulfate reducing partner is the same as in the AOM consortia studied in sediment samples from a methane hydrate area (Hydrate Ridge (HR), Oregon, USA (1,2)). The archaeal partner however belongs to a different cluster than in the HR samples (ANME-2). Methane oxidation is coupled to sulfate reduction in a 1:1 stoichiometry. Elevated methane partial pressures (0.1 to 1.1 MPa) increased the sulfate reduction rates in the Black Sea samples only two-fold in contrast to 5-fold in HR samples. The optimal temperature for the BS samples is between 10 and 25^oC. In both samples AOM was not taking place if typical inhibitors for sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis were added, thus indicating a syntrophic relationship between the partner organisms. The intermediate that is exchanged between the methane oxidizing archaea and the sulfate-reducing bacterium is still unknown. Additions of the possible intermediates (Acetate, Formate, Hydrogen) did not result in higher sulfate reduction rates in the absence of methane. (1) Boetius, A. et al. (2000) A marine microbial consortium apparently mediating anaerobic oxidation of methane. Nature. 407: 623--626 (2) Nauhaus, K., Boetius, A., Krüger, M., Widdel, F. (2002) In vitro demonstration of anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulphate reduction in sediment from a marine gas hydrate area. Environ. Microbiol. 4 (5): 296--305

  11. Natural radionuclide and plutonium content in Black Sea bottom sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Strezov, A.; Stoilova, T.; Yordanova, I.

    1996-01-01

    The content of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, polonium, and plutonium in bottom sediments and algae from two locations at the Bulgarian Black Sea coast have been determined. Some parent:progeny ratios for evaluation of the geochemical behavior of the nuclides have been estimated as well. The extractable and total uranium and thorium are determined by two separate radiochemical procedures to differentiate the more soluble chemical forms of the elements and to estimate the potential hazard for the biosphere and for humans. No distinct seasonal variation as well as no significant change in total and extractable uranium (also for {sup 226}Ra) contentmore » is observed. The same is valid for extractable thorium while the total thorium content in the first two seasons is slightly higher. Our data show that {sup 210}Po content is accumulated more in the sediments than {sup 210}Pb, and the evaluated disequilibria suggest that the two radionuclides belong to more recent sediment layers deposited in the slime samples compared to the silt ones for the different seasons. The obtained values for plutonium are in the lower limits of the data cited in literature, which is quite clear as there are no plutonium discharge facilities at the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The obtained values for the activity ratio {sup 238}Pu: {sup 239+240}Pu are higher for Bjala sediments compared to those of Kaliakra. The ratio values are out of the variation range for the global contamination with weapon tests fallout plutonium which is probably due to Chernobyl accident contribution. The dependence of natural radionuclide content on the sediment type as well as the variation of nuclide accumulation for two types of algae in two sampling locations for five consecutive seasons is evaluated. No serious contamination with natural radionuclides in the algae is observed. 38 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  12. Drivers of the autumn phytoplankton development in the open Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikaelyan, Alexander S.; Shapiro, Georgy I.; Chasovnikov, Valeriy K.; Wobus, Fred; Zanacchi, Marcus

    2017-10-01

    The dynamics of the autumn development of phytoplankton in the Black Sea were investigated using satellite-derived chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl), which was estimated for two regions in the deep sea over a 20-year period. We analysed 8-day composite Chl images along with changes in: (i) nutrient concentration obtained from in-situ measurements, (ii) sea surface temperature (SST), (iii) photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) obtained from satellite imagery, (iv) wind speed from the re-analysis of meteodata and (v) the depth of the upper mixed layer (UML) calculated from a 3D numerical model of the Black Sea. The peak in Chl was identified most frequently in the first half of November. A positive correlation between the duration of strong wind events and phytoplankton development was revealed, which was associated with the deepening of the UML, and replenishment of the photic zone with nutrients. The impact on phytoplankton was significant when the cumulative duration of strong wind (> 8 m s- 1) exceeded 60 h over the preceding 8 days. In such cases, the frequency of the Chl peaks increased up to 30-50% with an average of 20%. Strong wind was shown to determine the timing of the autumn bloom, but not its strength. From a positive relationship between the maximum Chl and nitrate concentration we found instead that the intensity of the autumn bloom was mainly defined by nitrate replenishment in the photic zone. On average, the timing of the seasonal maximum of Chl in the first half of November coincided with the deepening of the UML to the bottom of the seasonal thermocline (ca 25 m). Elution of nitrate from deeper layers, where its concentration is substantially higher, mitigated the nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth. At the same time, a sharp decrease in PAR after mid-November resulted in the limitation of light for phytoplankton growth. Inter-annual variations of Chl in spring and autumn were shown not to be correlated. For example, the basin

  13. Seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal zone of the North-Eastern Black Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikishina, A. B.; Arashkevich, E. G.; Louppova, N. E.; Soloviev, K. A.

    2009-04-01

    The phenological response of zooplankton community is a result of simultaneous effect of several factors: feeding conditions, predation abundance, periods of reproduction of common species and hydrodynamic regime. The Black sea ecosystem is one of the best studied in the world, otherwise there is still some illegibility about ecosystem functioning and especially about environmental factors influence on zooplankton dynamics. For the last twenty years pelagic system of the Black Sea has changed dramatically. The invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the middle of eighties caused significant decrease in zooplankton biomass. It also altered plankton structure and shifted periods of mass reproduction of the abundant species and biomass maximums. For instance, before the invasion of Mnemiopsis the maximum of zooplankton biomass was observed in autumn (data by A. Pasternak, 1983), and after that the maximum moved to the spring (data by V.S. Khoroshilov, 1999). The incursion of ctenophore Beroe ovata feeding on Mnemiopsis in the nineties has led to the enhancement of zooplankton community. Although the detailed analysis of seasonal zooplankton dynamics wasn't performed in the recent years. The object of our research was to study seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal area of the North-Eastern Black Sea. Analysis of interannual, seasonal and spatial changes in zooplankton distribution, abundance and species composition along with age structure of dominant populations were performed based on investigations during 2005-2008 years in the North-Eastern Black Sea. Plankton samples were obtained monthly since June 2005 till December 2008. Plankton was collected at three stations at depths 25m, 50m and 500-1000m along the transect from the Blue Bay to the open sea. Sampling of gelatinous animals was conducted in parallel to the zooplankton sampling. Simultaneously with plankton sampling CTD data were obtained. The feeding conditions were

  14. Stable isotope evidence for the Bottom Convective Layer homogeneity in the Black Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Black Sea is the largest euxinic basin on the Earth. The anoxic zone consists of the upper part water mass stratified by density, and the lower water mass homogenized relative to density (depth >1750 m), named the Bottom Convective Layer. To assess homogeneity and possible exchange of matter across the upper and lower boundaries of the Bottom Convective Layer, new data on stable isotope composition of S, O and H were obtained. Samples were collected in August 2008 and March 2009 from two stations located in the eastern central part of the Black Sea. Distribution of δ18O and δD values of water for the entire water column did not vary seasonally. Appreciable differences were marked for δD value variation in the picnocline area (water depth 200-400 m) and in the BCL 5 m above the bottom that might be caused by penetration of intrusions with elevated portion of shelf modified Mediterranean Water. Observed linear relationship between δ18O (or δD) and salinity indicates that mixing water and salt occurs at the same time, and the deep water of the Black Sea has two end members: the high-salinity Mediterranean seawater and freshwater input. In the Bottom Convective Layer, the average δ34S (H2S) was -40.6 ± 0.5‰ and did not vary seasonally. At the bottom (depth > 2000 m), 34S depletion down to –41.0‰ was observed. Our δ34S (SO4) data are by 2-3‰ higher than those measured previously for the Bottom Convective Layer. Sulfate from the aerobic zone with δ34S (SO4) = +21‰ corresponds to ocean water sulfate and that has not been subjected to sulfate reduction. Average δ34S (SO4) values for depths > 1250 m were found to be +23.0 ± 0.2‰ (1σ). Sulfur isotope composition of sulfate does not change in the Bottom Convective Layer and on its upper and lower boundaries, and does not depend on the season of observation. PMID:24739078

  15. High resolution optically stimulated luminescence dating of a sediment core from the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugisaki, S.; Buylaert, J. P.; Murray, A. S.; Harada, N.; Kimoto, K.; Okazaki, Y.; Sakamoto, T.; Iijima, K.; Tsukamoto, S.; Miura, H.; Nogi, Y.

    2012-05-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is now widely accepted as a chronometer for terrestrial sediment. More recently, it has been suggested that OSL may also be useful in the dating of deep-sea marine sediments. In this paper, we test the usefulness of high resolution quartz OSL dating in application to a 19 m marine sediment core (MR0604-PC04A) taken from the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk, immediately to the north of Hokkaido, Japan. Fine-grained quartz (4 to 11μm) was chosen as the dosimeter, and a single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol was used for the determination of equivalent dose (De), with stimulation by both infrared and blue light. The suitability of the measurement procedure was confirmed using dose recovery tests. A high resolution record (˜2 OSL ages/m) identified clear sedimentation rate changes down the core. The OSL ages are significantly dependent on the water content model chosen; two alternative interpretations are discussed, and the geologically preferred model identified. However, ages resulting from the observed (non-modeled) water content lie closest to the available radiocarbon ages (in the range back to 20 ka). Our OSL ages confirm the known high sedimentation rates in this locality, and for the first time demonstrate clear differences in sedimentation rate before, during and after deglaciation. Although the apparent accuracy of single sample ages is not always consistent with expectations, average ages are accurate, and our data show that OSL dating can be a powerful method for establishing high resolution marine chronologies.

  16. Molecular characterization and morphological aspects of Myxobolus parvus (Myxozoa) from Liza saliens (Mugilidae) off the Turkish Black Sea coasts.

    PubMed

    Özer, A; Gürkanlı, C T; Özkan, H; Acar, G; Çiftçi, Y; Yurakhno, V

    2016-09-01

    Members of the phylum Myxozoa are among the most cosmopolitan parasites of fish, and the genus Myxobolus is the largest within the class Myxosporea in freshwater and marine environment from all over the world. Myxobolus parvus has been reported from mainly mugilid fishes from different localities including the Black Sea. Leaping mullet Liza saliens collected by fishermen off Sinop coasts of the Black Sea in the period between September 2014 and December 2015 was investigated for myxosporean parasites using conventional methods. M. parvus Schulman, 1962 was the only Myxobolus species identified and it was found in the gills, gall bladder, kidney tubules, and inside several cysts located on the lower jaw of examined fish in the present study. Morphometric data and all details of parasitic infection were determined and presented in tables and illustrated in figures. Molecular characterization was also conducted to reveal its position within Myxosporea. Two M. parvus samples from gills and kidney showed the same haplotype and appeared in the same sub-lineage with marine Myxobolus species. The closest haplotypes to M. parvus were Triactinomyxon sp. and Endocapsa sp. which are the actinosporeans forms of unknown myxozoan species. These data are the first in molecular characterization of M. parvus, its occurrence in lower jaw of leaping mullet along with its infection prevalence values off the Turkish Black Sea coasts.

  17. Numerical simulation of inter-annual variations in the properties of the upper mixed layer in the Black Sea over the last 34 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Georgy I.; Wobus, Fred; Zatsepin, Andrei G.; Akivis, Tatiana M.; Zanacchi, Marcus; Stanichny, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea is a nearly land-locked basin where a combination of salt and heat budgets results in a unique thermohaline water mass structure. An important feature of the Black Sea is that oxygen is dissolved and rich sea life made possible only in the upper water levels. This is due to a strong pycnocline which cannot be mixed even by strong winds or winter convection (Shapiro, 2008). The upper mixed layer (UML) with a nearly uniform temperature profile and a very sharp seasonal thermocline at its lower boundary develops during the summer season (Sur & Ilyin, 1997). The deepening of the UML has an important effect on the supply of nutrients into the euphotic upper layer from the underlying nutrient-rich water mass. The temperature of the UML at any given location is dependent on the surface heat flux, horizontal advection of heat, the depth and the rate of deepening of the UML. In this study we use a 3D ocean circulation model, NEMO-SHELF (O'Dea et al, 2012) to simulate the parameters of the UML in the Black Sea over the last 34 years. The model has horizontal resolution of 1/12×1/16 degrees and 33 layers in the vertical. The vertical discretization uses a hybrid enveloped s-z grid developed in Shapiro et al. (2012). The model is spun up from climatology (Suvorov et al., 2004); it is forced by the Drakkar Forcing Set v5.2 (Brodeau et al., 2010, Meinvielle et al., 2013) and river discharges from 8 major rivers are included. For each year the model is run from 1st January and the data for the period April to October are used for analysis. The sea surface temperature produced by the model is compared with satellite data ( Modis-Aqua, 2013) to show a good agreement. The model simulations are validated against in-situ observations (BSERP-3, 2004; Piotukh et al., 2011). The analysis is performed for the deep basin where the depth of the sea is greater than 1000m. It clearly shows the inter-annual variations of both the SST and the depth of UML. The depth of UML is

  18. Regional Responses to Black Carbon Aerosols: The Importance of Air-Sea Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Scott, A. A.; Pradal, M.-A.; Seviour, W. J. M.; Waugh, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of modern black carbon aerosols on climate via their changes in radiative balance is studied using a coupled model where sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are allowed to vary and an atmosphere-only version of the same model where SSTs are held fixed. Allowing the ocean to respond is shown to have a profound impact on the pattern of temperature change. Particularly, large impacts are found in the North Pacific (which cools by up to 1 K in the coupled model) and in north central Asia (which warms in the coupled simulation and cools in the fixed SST simulation). Neither set of experiments shows large changes in surface temperatures in the Southeast Asian region where the atmospheric burden of black carbon is highest. These results are related to the stabilization of the atmosphere and changes in oceanic heat transport. Over the North Pacific, atmospheric stabilization results in an increase in stratiform clouds. The resulting shading reduces evaporation, freshening the surface layer of the ocean and reducing the inflow of warm subtropical waters. Over the land, a delicate balance between greater atmospheric absorption, shading of the surface and changes in latent cooling of the surface helps to determine whether warming or cooling is seen. Our results emphasize the importance of coupling in determining the response of the climate system to black carbon and suggest that black carbon may play an important role in modulating climate change over the North Pacific.

  19. An indicator-based evaluation of Black Sea food web dynamics during 1960-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoglu, Ekin; Salihoglu, Baris; Libralato, Simone; Oguz, Temel; Solidoro, Cosimo

    2014-06-01

    Four Ecopath mass-balance models were implemented for evaluating the structure and function of the Black Sea ecosystem using several ecological indicators during four distinctive periods (1960s, 1980-1987, 1988-1994 and 1995-2000). The results exemplify how the Black Sea ecosystem structure started to change after the 1960s as a result of a series of trophic transformations, i.e., shifts in the energy flow pathways through the food web. These transformations were initiated by anthropogenic factors, such as eutrophication and overfishing, that led to the transfer of large quantities of energy to the trophic dead-end species, which had no natural predators in the ecosystem, i.e., jellyfish whose biomass increased from 0.03 g C m- 2 in 1960-1969 to 0.933 g C m- 2 in 1988-1994. Concurrently, an alternative short pathway for energy transfer was formed that converted significant amounts of system production back to detritus. This decreased the transfer efficiency of energy flow from the primary producers to the higher trophic levels from 9% in the 1960s to 3% between 1980 and 1987. We conclude that the anchovy stock collapse and successful establishment of the alien comb-jelly Mnemiopsis in 1989 were rooted in the trophic interactions in the food web, all of which were exacerbated because of the long-term establishment of a combination of anthropogenic stressors.

  20. Traditional foods from the Black Sea region as a potential source of minerals.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Tânia G; Costa, Helena S; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Santos, Mariana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; D'Antuono, Filippo; Alexieva, Iordanka; Boyko, Nadiya; Costea, Carmen; Fedosova, Katerina; Karpenko, Dmitry; Kilasonia, Zaza; Koçaoglu, Bike; Finglas, Paul

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, minerals have assumed great importance in public health. As a consequence, considerable research has been carried out to better understand their physiological role and the health consequences of mineral-deficient diets, to establish criteria for defining the degree of public health severity of malnutrition, and to develop prevention and control strategies. In most countries, there is limited information on the mineral content of traditional foods, and consequently it is very difficult to estimate mineral intake across these countries. Ten minerals were quantified in 33 traditional foods from Black Sea area countries. Our results indicate a considerable variability among the analysed traditional foods; nevertheless, the most abundant components were sodium (ranging from 40.0 to 619 mg 100 g(-1), for kvass southern and herbal dish, respectively), potassium (varied between 45.5 mg 100 g(-1) for millet ale and 938 mg 100 g(-1) for roasted sunflower seeds), and phosphorus (22.2 mg 100 g(-1) and 681 mg 100 g(-1) for sauerkraut and roasted sunflower seeds, respectively). This is the first study that provides validated data on the mineral content for 33 traditional foods from Black Sea area countries, which is important in order to elucidate their role in the dietary pattern of populations and to preserve and promote these foods. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine (2010-2011)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. From September ...

  2. Monitoring land use/cover changes on the Romanian Black Sea Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, L. F. V.; Dida, A. I.; Zoran, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    Remotely sensed satellite data are critical to understanding the coastal zones' physical and social systems interaction, complementing ground based methods and providing accurate wide range, objective and comparable, at widely-varying scales, synoptically data. For some environmental agreements remote sensing may provide the only viable means of compliance verification because the phenomena are monitored occurs over large and inaccessible geographic areas. The main aim of this paper was the assessment of coastal zone land cover/use changes based on fusion technique of satellite remote sensing imagery. The evaluation of coastal zone landscapes was based upon different sub-functions which refer to landscape features such as water, soil, land-use, buildings, groundwater, biotope types. A newly proposed sub-pixel mapping algorithm was applied to a set of multispectral and multitemporal satellite data for Danube Delta, Constantza and Black Sea coastal zone areas in Romania. A land cover classification and subsequent environmental quality analysis for change detection was done based on Landsat TM , Landsat ETM, QuickBird satellite images over 1990 to 2013 period of time. Spectral signatures of different terrain features have been used to separate and classify surface units of coastal zone and sub-coastal zone area.The change in the position of the coastline in Constantza area was examined in relation with the urban expansion. A distinction was made between landfill/sedimentation processes on the one hand and dredging/erosion processes on the other. We considered the Romanian Black Sea coastal zone dynamics in connection with the spatio-temporal variation of physical and biogeochemical processes and their influences on the environmental state in the near-shore area.

  3. The Black Sea Monitoring and Forecasting Center (BS-MFC) in the framework of the Copernicus Marine Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Coppini, Giovanni; Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Gregoire, Marilaure; Staneva, Joanna; Peneva, Elisaveta; Özsoy, Emin; Vandenbulcke, Luc; Storto, Andrea; Lemieux-Dudon, Benedicte; Lovato, Tomas; Masina, Simona; Pinardi, Nadia; Palermo, Francesco; Creti, Sergio; Macchia, Francesca; Lecci, Rita; Behrens, Arno; Marinova, Veselka; Slabakova, Violeta

    2017-04-01

    The BS-MFC entered the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS, http://marine.copernicus.eu/) in October 2016, providing regular and systematic information about the ocean state in the Black Sea in operational mode. An expert team constitutes the BS-MFC Consortium: the Institute of Oceanology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IO-BAS, Bulgaria) coordinates the service and the management in collaboration with Fondazione Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC, Italy), Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht - Institute of Coastal Research (HZG, Germany), the University of Liege (ULG, Belgium), the Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski (USOF, Bulgaria) and the Eurasia Earth Sciences Institute - Istanbul Technical University (ITU, Turkey). The system provides a complete data catalogue for the Black Sea ocean variables such as temperature, salinity, sea level, currents, biogeochemistry and waves through a technologically advanced and resilient service, which is fully interconnected with the other Centers in the Copernicus network. The high level BS-MFC architecture is based on 3 Production Units, for Physics, Biogeochemistry and Waves products respectively, a Dissemination/Archiving Unit for the delivery of the products and their archiving/accessibility, a Local Service Desk connected to the CMEMS Service Desk devoted to support all the operational activities, and backup units for all the main service components. Products consist of analysis/hindcast, 10-days forecast and reanalysis, describing the physical (currents, temperature, salinity, sea level, mixed layer depth and bottom temperature), the biogeochemical state and waves. To implement and improve the service, the BS-MFC has detailed an evolution plan, actually under implementation, devoted to establish, assess and improve the systems and their operational functionalities, providing some improvements from the scientific point of view concerning the modeling components (e.g., the fully aligned

  4. The Lower Danube River-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea: A pivotal area of major interest for the past, present and future of its fish fauna--A short review.

    PubMed

    Bănăduc, Doru; Rey, Sonia; Trichkova, Teodora; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Curtean-Bănăduc, Angela

    2016-03-01

    The complex Danube-Black Sea geoecosystem, created by a unique combination of integrated biotopes and biocoenoses related forces and counter-forces in time and space, forms a rich "ichthyosystem". The equilibrium among the fish species captured in the Danube Delta reveals its structural and functional roles in the connectivity of the Danube and Black Sea. The key role of the delta is evidenced by the fact that 57.26% of the Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea fish species use two or three of the subsystems in terms of habitats. Therefore, this convergence area can be considered to be a dynamic and rich "ichthyosystem", with three subsystems. All three evolved interdependently, which permits their flexibility and adaptation in an interdependent way. The habitat heterogeneity, native economic and conservation priority fish species of the Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North Western Black Sea have decreased significantly, and there are no indications that this trend will be halted soon. The Danube "sub-ichtyosystem" seems to be more directly affected than the others. The Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North Western Black Sea "ichthyosystem" exhibits a significant level of flexibility, resilience and adaptation over geological time, but has become much more sensitive to environmental perturbations due to the last century of human impact. This "ichthyosystem" is affected by non-native fish species. The study area represents an interdependent ecological net, without which the specific "ichthyosystem" formed over geological time will disappear. The studied ecological net fish fauna is an accurate indicator of various human pressures. The Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea geoecosystem, in which the Danube Delta provides the pivotal habitat element, is the matrix for a unique "ichthyosystem." However, human impacts decrease its resilience and can induce its extinction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to Recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Palcu, Dan; Dekkers, Mark; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the Late Neogene, the Black Sea experienced large paleoenvironmental changes, switching between (anoxic) marine conditions when connected to the Mediterranean Sea and (oxic) freshwater conditions at times of isolation. We create a magnetostratigraphic time frame for three sites drilled during Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 42B to the Black Sea (drilled in 1975). At the time, magnetostratigraphic dating was impossible because of the presence of the little understood iron sulfide mineral greigite (in sediments a precursor to pyrite) as magnetic carrier. Our rock-magnetic results indicate that only anoxic conditions result in poor magnetic signal, likely as a result of pyrite formation in the water column rather than in the sediment. The magnetostratigraphic results indicate that Hole 379A, drilled in the basin center, has a continuous sedimentary record dating back to 1.3 Ma. Hole 380/380A is subdivided into three consistent intervals, 0-700 mbsf, 700-860 mbsf and 860-1075 mbsf. The top unit covers the Pleistocene but the magnetostratigraphy is likely compromised by the presence of mass transport deposits. The middle unit spans between 4.3 and 6.1 Ma and records continuous deposition at ~10 cm/kyr. The lower unit lacks the independent age constraints to correlate the obtained magnetostratigraphy. Hole 381 is drilled on the Bosporus slope and as a result, hiatuses are common. A correlation to the nearby Hole 380/380A is proposed, but indicates deposits cannot straightforwardly be traced across the slope. Our improved age model does not support the original interpretation based on these cores of a desiccation of the Black Sea during the Messinian salinity crisis.

  6. Sublacustrine river valley in the shelf zone of the Black Sea parallel to the Bulgarian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisinger, A.; Aslanian, S.; Beigelbeck, R.; Heinitz, W.-D.

    2009-04-01

    The considered sublacustrine river valley is situated in the shelf zone of the Black Sea. It runs in parallel to the Bulgarian coast, was formed in the time period of the Younger Dryas (Preisinger et al., 2005), and features an inclination of about 0.5 m/km. An about 200 km long sediment wall separates the approximately 10 km broad river valley from the outside shelf zone. This wall was generated during the Older Dryas until the beginning of the Younger Dryas. Its shape was formed by transportation of water and sediment from the Strait of Kerch by a circulating rim current in the Black Sea and water as well as sediment flow of the Danube in direction to the Bosporus. New investigations of the sediments of this river valley were performed by utilizing a Sediment Echo Sounder (SES 2000). This Echo Sounder is a parametric sub-bottom profiler enabling a high resolution sub-bottom analyses. It is capable of penetrating sea beds up to more than 50 m of water depth. The received echo data are real-time processed. The signal amplitudes are valuated in context to a logarithmic scale and graphically visualized by means of a colorized echogram utilizing false colours ranging from red for a high to blue representing a low signal (W.-D. Heinitz et al., 1998). The highest signal (red) is given by the acoustic impedance of the boundary between sea water and river sediment. The echograms of the river valley depict spatially isolated (red) high-signal peaks, which are periodically repeated in vertical direction between the sediment surface and the bottom of the valley. The number of these high-signal parts increase with an increasing valley depth. Studying of the distribution of these peaks allows to draw conclusions regarding the content and composition of the sediment. This prediction of the sediment composition obtained by means of the SES 2000 was successfully verified by analyzing a gravity core taken near Nos Maslen (at 44 m water depth) with a particular focus on the water

  7. Determination of Seasonal Vitamin and Mineral Contents of Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L., 1758) Cultured in Net Cages in Central Black Sea Region.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Dilara Kaya; Baki, Birol; Karayücel, İsmihan; Öztürk, Recep; Gören, Gülşen Uzun; Karayücel, Sedat

    2018-05-12

    This study aimed to determine the seasonal vitamin and mineral contents of sea bream (Sparus aurata) cultured in net cages in Central Black Sea region. The average seasonal A, D 3 , and E vitamins values in fish meat were between 0.27 ± 0.02-0.60 ± 0.00, 0.98 ± 0.01-1.70 ± 0.00, and 3.10 ± 0.14-6.00 ± 0.21 mg/kg, respectively (p < 0.05). The average seasonal Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Zn, and Se values in fish meat were between 276.90 ± 0.99-1788.50 ± 51.27 (p < 0.05), 3.50 ± 0.12-4.47 ± 0.18 (p > 0.05), 4244.50 ± 8.84-4761.50 ± 1.06 (p < 0.05), 251.55 ± 2.55-312.65 ± 11.42 (p < 0.05), 56.49 ± 0.04-128.75 ± 0.18 (p < 0.05), 2234.50 ± 15.20-2619.00 ± 7.07 (p < 0.05), 5.62 ± 0.10-15.30 ± 0.22 (p < 0.05), and 0.30 ± 0.00-0.38 ± 0.01 mg/kg (p > 0.05), respectively. As a result, it can be concluded that sea bream cultured in the Central Black Sea region is a rich source of nutrients in terms of vitamins and mineral matters, and fish size, feed quality, and the environmental factors are influential on the contents of vitamin and mineral substances in the fish tissue.

  8. Understanding the Dynamics of the Oxic-Anoxic Interface in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, Emil V.; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Grayek, Sebastian; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Claustre, Hervé; Murray, James W.

    2018-01-01

    The Black Sea, the largest semienclosed anoxic basin on Earth, can be considered as an excellent natural laboratory for oxic and anoxic biogeochemical processes. The suboxic zone, a thin interface between oxic and anoxic waters, still remains poorly understood because it has been undersampled. This has led to alternative concepts regarding the underlying processes that create it. Existing hypotheses suggest that the interface originates either by isopycnal intrusions that introduce oxygen or the dynamics of manganese redox cycling that are associated with the sinking of particles or chemosynthetic bacteria. Here we reexamine these concepts using high-resolution oxygen, sulfide, nitrate, and particle concentration profiles obtained with sensors deployed on profiling floats. Our results show an extremely stable structure in density space over the entire basin with the exception of areas near the Bosporus plume and in the southern areas dominated by coastal anticyclones. The absence of large-scale horizontal intrusive signatures in the open-sea supports a hypothesis prioritizing the role of biogeochemical processes.

  9. Vertical profiles of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP-derived radiocesium concentrations in the waters of the southwestern Okhotsk Sea (2011-2017).

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mutsuo; Morokado, Toshiki; Fujimoto, Ken; Miki, Shizuho; Kofuji, Hisaki; Isoda, Yutaka; Nagao, Seiya

    2018-04-30

    We examined the vertical 134 Cs and 137 Cs concentration profiles in the southwestern Okhotsk Sea in 2011, 2013, and 2017. In June 2011, atmospheric deposition-derived 134 Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) was detected at depths of 0-200 m (0.06-0.6 mBq/L). In July 2013, 134 Cs detected at depths of 100-200 m (∼0.05 mBq/L) was ascribed to the transport of low-level 134 Cs-contaminated water and/or the convection of radioactive depositions (<0.03 mBq/L at depths of 0-50 m). In July 2017, 134 Cs was detected in water samples at depths above 300 m (0.03-0.05 mBq/L), and the inventory, decay-corrected to the FDNPP accident date, exhibited its maximum value (85 Bq/m 2 ) during this period. Combining temperature-salinity data with the concentrations of global fallout-derived 137 Cs led to a plausible explanation for this observation, which is a consequence of re-entry of FDNPP-derived radiocesium through the Kuril Strait from the northwestern North Pacific Ocean to the Okhotsk Sea and subsequent mixing with the south Okhotsk subsurface layer until 2017. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region

    PubMed Central

    ANUFRIIEVA, Elena V.; SHADRIN, Nickolai V.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some observed regularities. The variability of linear body parameters and proportions was studied. The impacts of salinity, temperature, and population density on morphological characteristics and their variability can manifest themselves in different ways at the intra- and inter-population levels. A significant effect of salinity, pH and temperature on the body proportions was not found. Their intra-population variability is dependent on temperature and salinity. Sexual dimorphism of A. salinus manifests in different linear parameters, proportions, and their variability. There were no effects of temperature, pH and salinity on the female/male parameter ratio. There were significant differences in the body proportions of males and females in different populations. The influence of temperature, salinity, and population density can be attributed to 80%-90% of intra-population variability of A. salinus. However, these factors can explain less than 40% of inter-population differences. Significant differences in the body proportions of males and females from different populations may suggest that some local populations of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region are in the initial stages of differentiation. PMID:26646569

  11. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region.

    PubMed

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2015-11-18

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some observed regularities. The variability of linear body parameters and proportions was studied. The impacts of salinity, temperature, and population density on morphological characteristics and their variability can manifest themselves in different ways at the intra- and inter-population levels. A significant effect of salinity, pH and temperature on the body proportions was not found. Their intra-population variability is dependent on temperature and salinity. Sexual dimorphism of A. salinus manifests in different linear parameters, proportions, and their variability. There were no effects of temperature, pH and salinity on the female/male parameter ratio. There were significant differences in the body proportions of males and females in different populations. The influence of temperature, salinity, and population density can be attributed to 80%-90% of intra-population variability of A. salinus. However, these factors can explain less than 40% of inter-population differences. Significant differences in the body proportions of males and females from different populations may suggest that some local populations of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region are in the initial stages of differentiation.

  12. Odessa Observatory as a Cultural and Scientific Educational Center on the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karetnikov, V. G.; Dorokhova, T. N.

    2007-10-01

    Odessa is a large port city on the Black Sea. Historically, transport, economy and business problems call forth the necessity of a major astronomical center in the city. In 2006 the Astronomical Observatory of Odessa National University celebrates its 135th Anniversary. Some interesting astronomical buildings and instruments of the 19th and 20th centuries, and the extensive scientific investigations which are reflected in numerous publications make the Observatory not only a scientific and educational establishment but also an historical and cultural center.

  13. Modeling and water quality assessment during realisation of the coastal projects in Sochi region (Black sea coast of Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhoda-Shumskikh, L.

    2012-04-01

    Sochi region is the unique subtropical resort on the Black Sea coast of Russia. Nowadays due to Sochi is the capital of the Olympic game 2014, the government of the Russian Federation accepts the special federal program of Black Sea coast development. Program foresees the existing and creation of new coastal recreational and touristic complexes along the Russian Black Sea coast, such as complex of yacht harbors, water centers (aqua-centers), network of port localities and etc. These coastal projects are different, but the main problems of the environmental impact assessment are the same. The environmental impact and the relative damage should be assessed at the stage of construction as well as at the stage of operation. The key problem for the recreation coastal zone is water quality management. The port localities network as example is considered. To increase the accuracy and informative of forecasts for the coastal zone conditions the system-dynamic model has been developed, what allows to estimate the quality of the sea water, including that in the semi-enclosed coastal water areas with the limited water exchange. The model of water quality in the coastal zone includes the equations of deposit concentration changes and chemical substances evolution in the studied areas. The model incorporates joint description of cycles of two biogenic elements - nitrogen and phosphorus. The system is completely defined by the biogeochemical reactions. The sizes of such water areas allow the applying the full mixing and zero-dimensional models of water quality. The circulation of water inside the area is taken into account additionally. Water exchange in the semi-enclosed coastal water areas is defined by the discharge through the open parts of area border. The novelty of the offered model is its adaptation to the specific conditions of semi-enclosed coastal water areas. At the same time, the model contains details of the biogeochemical processes to complete modelling of the

  14. Contributions to the knowledge of the Danube waters impact on the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, Marian-Traian; Oaie, Gheorghe; Secrieru, Dan; Vasiliu, Dan; Begun, Tatiana; Caraus, Ioan

    2013-04-01

    Rivers usually have a positive impact on marine areas where they discharge their waters, fertilizing them and supporting high biological productivity, the Danube River being a good example in this respect. Given the conditions of chaotic industrialization and the discharge into rivers of many chemicals, some of high toxicity, the eutrophication influence changed its beneficial nature, turning into a toxic polluting influence, with catastrophic effects on the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems, which is a situation well-known and in the area of the Danube mouths for the period 1970-1990. After 1990, under major political changes in socio-economic systems, the environmental pressures with impact on marine coastal ecosystems diminished; these pressures had been maintained by hydrological systems opening to the marine areas. What is the current situation of these pressures? What are the major characteristics of the organisms associations under the direct influence of the Danube? In this paper, the authors try to give some answers to these questions. In the framework of the lower Danube monitoring program, conducted by GeoEcoMar during 2009-2012, measurements were made and samples collected in more than 230 stations along the Romanian sector of the Danube River. The main aspects related to the ecological state of the River were: - Physico-chemical and biological (phytoplankton); - Sediment granulometry and inorganic chemistry - CaCO3, Fe2O3, TiO2, Zr, Ba, Rb, Zn, Ni, MnO, Cr, V, Co, Pb; - Ammonia, TOC, total cyanide, organochlorine pesticides in sediments; - Physico-chemical analyses of water samples. According to the results, the areas suspected of pollution from anthropogenic sources and also from other activities, could be outlined as follows: - The stretch between km 1072 (Danube entry to Romania) and km 1039 - downstream the mining sector Moldova Veche; - Sector between km 957-947, near the Iron Gates I dam; - Danube - Black Sea Canal (the NPP

  15. Sulfur speciation and sulfide oxidation in the water column of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, George W., III; Church, Thomas M.; Powell, David

    We have applied sulfur speciation techniques to understand the chemistry and cycling of sulfur in Black Sea waters. The only reduced dissolved inorganic sulfur species detected (above the low minimum detection limits of the voltammetric methods employed) in the water column was hydrogen sulfide. The maximum concentration of sulfide (423 μM) is similar to previous reports. Using a cathodic stripping square wave voltammetry (CSSWV) method for nanomolar levels of sulfide, we determined the precise boundary between the "free" hydrogen sulfide (sulfidic) zone and the upper (oxic/suboxic) water column at the two stations studied. This boundary has apparently moved up by about 50 m in the past 20 years. Our results help demonstrate three chemically distinct zones of water in the central basin of the Black Sea: (1) the oxic [0-65 m], (2) the anoxic/nonsulfidic [65-100 m] and (3) the sulfidic [>100 m]. Sulfide bound to metals ("complexed" sulfide) is observed in both the oxic and anoxic/nonsulfidic zones of the water column. This supports previous studies on metal sulfide forms. From the electrochemical data, it is possible to estimate the strength of the complexation of sulfide to metals (log K = 10 to 11). Thiosulfate and sulfite were below our minimum detectable limit (MDL) of 50 nM using CSSWV. Elemental sulfur (MDL 5 nM) was detected below the onset of the hydrogen sulfide zone (90-100 m) with a maximum of 30-60 nM near 120 m. The sulfur speciation results for the Black Sea are lower by one order of magnitude or more than other marine systems such as the Cariaco Trench and salt marshes. New HPLC techniques were applied to detect thiols at submicromolar levels. The presence of thiols (2-mercaptoethylamine, 2-mercaptoethanol, N-acetylcysteine and glutathione) is correlated with the remineralization of organic matter at the oxic and anoxic/nonsulfidic interface. Water samples collected from the upper 50 m of the sulfidic zone showed significant sulfide oxidation on

  16. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic). Black Sea Bass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic) BLACK SEA BASS BY Linda P. Mercer North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries ...CHARACTERISTICS. .. ....... ....... ...... ..... 6 FISHERY .. .. ....... ...... ....... ....... ..... 7 Commnercial Harvest...Manooch, III, Gene Huntsman, and R.O. Parker, Jr., of the National Marine Fisheries Service, Beaufort Laboratory, and C. Wayne Waltz of the South

  17. Satellite observation of bio-optical indicators related to North-Western Black Sea coastal zone changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    Satellite remote sensing provides a means for locating, identifying and mapping certain coastal zone features and assessing of spatio-temporal changes.The Romanian coastal zone of the Black Sea is a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, exposed to dramatic changes due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). This study focuses on the assessment of coastal zone land cover changes based on the fusion of satellite remote sensing data.The evaluation of coastal zone landscapes is based upon different sub-functions which refer to landscape features such as water, soil, land-use, buildings, groundwater, biotope types. Mixed pixels result when the sensor's instantaneous field-of-view includes more than one land cover class on the ground. Based on different satellite data (Landsat TM, ETM, SAR ERS, IKONOS, Quickbird, and MODIS) was performed object recognition for North-Western Black Sea coastal zone. Preliminary results show significant coastline position changes of North Western Black Sea during the period of 1987-2007 and urban growth of Constantza town. Also the change in the position of the coastline is examined and linked to the urban expansion in order to determine if the changes are natural or anthropogenic. A distinction is made between landfill/sedimentation processes on the one hand and dredging/erosion processes on the other. Waves play an important role for shoreline configuration. Wave pattern could induce erosion and sedimentation. A quasi-linear model was used to model the rate of shoreline change. The vectors of shoreline were used to compare with wave spectra model in order to examine the accuracy of the coastal erosion model. The shoreline rate modeled from vectors data of SAR ERS-1 has a good correlation with a quasi-linear model. Wave refraction patterns are a good index for shoreline erosion. A coast

  18. Distribution and migration of ⁹⁰Sr in components of the Dnieper River basin and the Black Sea ecosystems after the Chernobyl NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G

    2013-11-01

    The change in (90)Sr concentrations in hydrobionts, water and bottom sediments of the Chernobyl NPP pond-cooler, the Kievskoe and Kakhovskoe reservoirs, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident was studied. The environmental half-times for the decrease of (90)Sr concentrations were determined: in water - 4.1-24.3 years; algae and flowering water plants - 3.6-7.7 years, in molluscs - 2.4-6.7 years, and in fish - 7.8-12.9 years. The time for (90)Sr concentrations to decrease to pre-accident levels were estimated: in freshwater reservoirs and the northwest part of the Black Sea this was 32-44 years, and in freshwater hydrobionts this was 25-73 years. The contribution of dose from (90)Sr to the hydrobionts, sampled from the Kakhovskoe reservoir, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea, has not reached values which could impact them during the entire post-accident period. This complex of comparative studies was carried out for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurency of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in river water sources of Black Sea, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koloren, Zeynep; Seferoğlu, Onuralp; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-12-01

    A total of 420 environmental water samples and 120 drinking water samples from 45 different sampling sites of the Black Sea in Turkey were collected between 2012 and 2014. Genomic DNA was isolated from all the investigated water samples and comparativelly analyzed by Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the elongation factor 1 Alfa (EF1α) gene, and by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (nPCR) of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA and semi-nested PCR (snPCR) of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (GDH). 141 (58.7%), 125 (52.1%) and 120 (50%) samples respectivelly were positive by each method. Out of 240 environmental samples collected from 25 sites of Samsun Province have been found positive for G. duodenalis by LAMP, nPCR and snPCR, respectively. 55 (30.5%), 50 (27.8%) and 47 (26.1%) of 180 environmental samples collected from 20 other sampling sites of Giresun Province were positive for Giardia by LAMP, nPCR and snPCR, respectively. Five PCR products from different samples of the Giresun Province and 10 other samples from the Samsun Province were found positive for G. duodenalis assemblage B. Five PCR products from Giresun Province and 5 samples from Samsun Province were found positive for G. duodenalis assemblage A. This is the first report about G. duodenalis assemblages A and B from water samples investigations in Black Sea of Turkey. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Man-made marine debris and sea turtle strandings on beaches of the upper Texas and southwestern Louisiana coasts, June 1987 through September 1989. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Duronslet, M.J.; Revera, D.B.; Stanley, K.M.

    1991-02-01

    The upper Texas and southwestern Louisiana coastlines were divided into six sampling zones to survey the amounts, types and rates of accumulation of man-made marine debris, the number of sea turtle strandings, the incidence of sea turtle entanglements in marine debris and the incidence of ingestion of such debris by sea turtles. From June 1987 through September 1989, 473 sample plots were examined for marine debris. Significant differences were detected in mean number of debris items per 100 sq m of beach sampled by year, zone and month. Significant differences in mean weight of debris items per 100 sq mmore » of beach sampled were detected by month and zone. Both number and weights (per 100 sq m) of debris were lowest in the winter months. Number per 100 sq m was greatest in August while weight per 100 sq m peaked in May. Tar balls and plastic items were the most frequently encountered marine debris items. Wooden items had the highest average weights while tar balls and polystyrene foam were the lightest items collected. A total of 171 sea turtles stranded on the surveyed beaches during the study. Of 26 gastrointestinal tracts examined, 16 had ingested some form of man-made debris. Six turtles were entangled in man-made debris and 9 were live stranded.« less

  1. On the origin of multiple BSRs in the Danube deep-sea fan, Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, Timo; Haeckel, Matthias; Berndt, Christian; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Klaucke, Ingo; Bialas, Joerg; Klaeschen, Dirk; Koch, Stephanie; Atgın, Orhan

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution 2D seismic data reveal the character and distribution of up to four stacked bottom simulating reflectors (BSR) within the channel-levee systems of the Danube deep-sea fan. The theoretical base of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) calculated from regional geothermal gradients and salinity data is in agreement with the shallowest BSR. For the deeper BSRs, BSR formation due to overpressure compartments can be excluded because the necessary gas column would exceed the vertical distance between two overlying BSRs. We show instead that the deeper BSRs are likely paleo BSRs caused by a change in pressure and temperature conditions during different limnic phases of the Black Sea. This is supported by the observation that the BSRs correspond to paleo seafloor horizons located in a layer between a buried channel-levee system and the levee deposits of the Danube channel. The good match of the observed BSRs and the BSRs predicted from deposition of these sediment layers indicates that the multiple BSRs reflect stages of stable sealevel lowstands possibly during glacial times. The observation of sharp BSRs several 10,000 of years but possibly up to 300,000 yr after they have left the GHSZ demonstrates that either hydrate dissociation does not take place within this time frame or that only small amounts of gas are released that can be transported by diffusion. The gas underneath the previous GHSZ does not start to migrate for several thousands of years.

  2. Looking for long-term changes in hydroid assemblages (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in Alboran Sea (South-Western Mediterranean): a proposal of a monitoring point for the global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Duarte, Manuel María; Megina, Cesar; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    In the last 20-30 years, the temperature of the Mediterranean Sea has increased and global warming is allowing the establishment of tropical-affinity species into more temperate zones. Sessile communities are particularly useful as a baseline for ecological monitoring; however, a lack of historical data series exists for sessile marine organisms without commercial interest. Hydroids are ubiquitous components of the benthic sessile fauna on rocky shores and have been used as bio-indicators of environmental conditions. In this study on the benthic hydroid assemblages of the Chafarinas Islands (Alboran Sea, South-Western Mediterranean), we characterized the hydroid assemblages, identified the bathymetric gradients, and compared them with a previous study carried out in 1991. Hydroid assemblages showed a significant difference both between year and among depths. Furthermore, eight species not present in 1991 were found, including two possible new species and the tropical and subtropical species Sertularia marginata. Due to its strategic position at the entrance of the Mediterranean and the existence of previous data on hydroid assemblages, the Chafarinas Islands are proposed as a possible monitoring point for entrance of Atlantic tropical species into the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. Microphallids in Gammarus insensibilis Stock, 1966 from a Black Sea lagoon: manipulation hypothesis going East?

    PubMed

    Kostadinova, A; Mavrodieva, R S

    2005-09-01

    Patterns of parasite site selection, variation in infection parameters and interspecific associations are examined in the light of new field data on larval microphallids in Gammarus insensibilis from a Black Sea lagoon. These patterns are discussed in relation to the predictions for the manipulative effect of Microphallus papillorobustus and its relationships with the other microphallid species based on studies on the French Mediterranean coast. Four species were recovered: Maritrema subdolum, Microphallus hoffmanni, M. papillorobustus and Levinseniella propinqua. The latter two were located in both corporal and cephalic segments, but the selection of brain appeared stronger for L. propinqua. M. subdolum was the first colonizer of amphipod population recruits, and unequivocally the dominant species in the lagoon. There was a significant positive relationship between the parasite load of all 4 species. Concurrent infections were exceedingly frequent, and no departures from random association were detected. We found no evidence that the cerebral metacercariae of M. papillorobustus consistently predict the parasite load of any of the other species in the system and identify sources for heterogeneity that may account for the differences between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean system: habitat heterogeneity, bird diversity and host-parasite systems used to infer relationships between microphallids.

  4. Authigenic carbonate precipitates from the NE Black Sea: a mineralogical, geochemical, and lipid biomarker study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, A.; Pape, T.; Bohrmann, G.; Mazzini, A.; Haeckel, M.; Reitz, A.; Ivanov, M.

    2009-04-01

    Carbonate precipitates recovered from 2,000 m water depth at the Dolgovskoy Mound (Shatsky Ridge, north eastern Black Sea) were studied using mineralogical, geochemical and lipid biomarker analyses. The carbonates differ in shape from simple pavements to cavernous structures with thick microbial mats attached to their lower side and within cavities. Low δ13C values measured on carbonates (-41 to -32‰ V-PDB) and extracted lipid biomarkers indicate that anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) played a crucial role in precipitating these carbonates. The internal structure of the carbonates is dominated by finely laminated coccolith ooze and homogeneous clay layers, both cemented by micritic high-magnesium calcite (HMC), and pure, botryoidal, yellowish low-magnesium calcite (LMC) grown in direct contact to microbial mats. δ18O measurements suggest that the authigenic HMC precipitated in equilibrium with the Black Sea bottom water while the yellowish LMC rims have been growing in slightly 18O-depleted interstitial water. Although precipitated under significantly different environmental conditions, especially with respect to methane availability, all analysed carbonate samples show lipid patterns that are typical for ANME-1 dominated AOM consortia, in the case of the HMC samples with significant contributions of allochthonous components of marine and terrestrial origin, reflecting the hemipelagic nature of the primary sediment.

  5. Discussion: a critique of Possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the late Quaternary: evidence from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey, Geo-Marine Letters, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaltırak, Cenk; Ülgen, Umut B.; Zabcı, Cengiz; Franz, Sven Oliver; Ön, Sena Akçer; Sakınç, Mehmet; Çağatay, M. Namık; Alpar, Bedri; Öztürk, Kurultay; Tunoğlu, Cemal; Ünlü, Selma

    2012-06-01

    The identification of past connection routes between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, other than the traditional one through to the Bosphorus Strait, would be of considerable interest to the international scientific community. Nazik et al. (Geo-Mar Lett 31:75-86 (2011) doi:10.1007/s00367-010-0216-9) suggest the possibility of two alternative waterway connections via lakes Sapanca and İznik. Their Black Sea to Sea of Marmara multi-connection hypothesis, which is based on undated marine fossils collected in both lakes from surficial grab samples, conflicts with many earlier studies. In this contribution, the hypothesis and the underlying data are discussed in the light of previous tectonic, sedimentological and limnological findings showing that it is impossible to have had marine connections through lakes Sapanca and İznik during the last 11.5 ka. Global sea-level trends and tectonic uplift rates would accommodate a connection between the Sea of Marmara and Lake İznik in the middle Pleistocene. Uplift rates for the northern block of the North Anatolian Fault, when compared with the global sea-level curve, clearly indicate that there cannot have been a connection through the İzmit Gulf-Lake Sapanca-Sakarya Valley for at least the past 500 ka. Moreover, borehole sediments along the western shores of Lake Sapanca, which reach down to the bedrock, do not contain any marine fossils.

  6. Molecular identification of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in water samples collected from Black sea, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koloren, Zeynep; Gulabi, Berivan Basak; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of Blastocystis sp. and complete a phylogenetic analysis of 268 water samples that were collected from the Samsun, Amasya and Sinop Provinces of the Black Sea in Turkey, between the years 2011 and 2014. Blastocystis sp. was investigated in 48 uncultured sea water samples that were collected from 4 sites within the Sinop Province. A total of 100 river water samples were collected from 37 sites in the Samsun Province and 120 river water samples were collected from 10 sampling sites within the Amasya Province. The small subunit (SSU) rDNA gene Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed for the detection of Blastocytis sp. and the PCR-positive samples were sequenced. Subsequently, the (SSU) rDNA sequences were aligned by Bioedit and phylogenetic trees were constructed for Blastocystis with reference to the genotypes from GenBank. Blastocystis sp. were found in 3 out of the 75 (4%) river water samples that were collected from the Samsun Province. Six of the 120 (5%) river water samples and 1 out of the 48 (2%) seawater samples were positive for Blastocystis in the Amasya and Sinop Provinces. There were two different subtypes (ST; 1 and 3) found from sequencing all of the samples from the investigated sites. Two and one PCR products were found to be positive for ST1 and ST3 from the different samples collected within the Samsun Province. Two and 4 PCR products from the Amasya Province were ST1 and ST3, respectively and only one sample from the Sinop Province was found to be positive for ST1. This is the first report to identify and report the occurrence of Blastocystis subtypes within the Black Sea of Turkey. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Seasonal hypoxia in eutrophic stratified coastal shelves: mechanisms, sensibilities and interannual variability from the North-Western Black Sea case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capet, A.; Beckers, J.-M.; Grégoire, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf (NWS) is a~shallow eutrophic area in which seasonal stratification of the water column isolates bottom waters from the atmosphere and prevents ventilation to compensate for the large consumption of oxygen, due to respiration in the bottom waters and in the sediments. A 3-D coupled physical biogeochemical model is used to investigate the dynamics of bottom hypoxia in the Black Sea NWS at different temporal scales from seasonal to interannual (1981-2009) and to differentiate the driving factors (climatic versus eutrophication) of hypoxic conditions in bottom waters. Model skills are evaluated by comparison with 14 500 in-situ oxygen measurements available in the NOAA World Ocean Database and the Black Sea Commission data. The choice of skill metrics and data subselections orientate the validation procedure towards specific aspects of the oxygen dynamics, and prove the model's ability to resolve the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of oxygen concentration as well as the spatial location of the oxygen depleted waters and the specific threshold of hypoxia. During the period 1981-2009, each year exhibits seasonal bottom hypoxia at the end of summer. This phenomenon essentially covers the northern part of the NWS, receiving large inputs of nutrients from the Danube, Dniestr and Dniepr rivers, and extends, during the years of severe hypoxia, towards the Romanian Bay of Constanta. In order to explain the interannual variability of bottom hypoxia and to disentangle its drivers, a statistical model (multiple linear regression) is proposed using the long time series of model results as input variables. This statistical model gives a general relationship that links the intensity of hypoxia to eutrophication and climate related variables. The use of four predictors allows to reproduce 78% of hypoxia interannual variability: the annual nitrate discharge (N), the sea surface temperature in the month preceding stratification (T), the

  8. Coastal cliffs, rock-slope failures and Late Quaternary transgressions of the Black Sea along southern Crimea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pánek, Tomáš; Lenart, Jan; Hradecký, Jan; Hercman, Helena; Braucher, Règis; Šilhán, Karel; Škarpich, Václav

    2018-02-01

    Rock-slope failures represent a significant hazard along global coastlines, but their chronology remains poorly documented. Here, we focus on the geomorphology and chronology of giant rockslides affecting the Crimean Mountains along the Black Sea coast. Geomorphic evidence suggests that high (>100 m) limestone cliffs flanking the southern slopes of the Crimean Mountains are scarps of rockslides nested within larger deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs). Such pervasive slope failures originated due to lateral spreading of intensively faulted Late Jurassic carbonate blocks moving atop weak/plastic Late Triassic flysch and tuff layers. By introducing a dating strategy relying on the combination of the uranium-thorium dating (U-Th) of exposed calcareous speleothems covering the landslide scarps with the 36Cl exposure dating of rock walls, we are able to approximate the time interval between the origin of incipient crevices and the final collapse of limestone blocks that exposed the cliff faces. For the three representative large-scale rockslides between the towns of Foros and Yalta, the initiation of the DSGSDs as evidenced by the widening of crevices and the onset of speleothem accumulation was >300 ka BP, but the recent cliff morphology along the coast is the result of Late Pleistocene/Holocene failures spanning ∼20-0.5 ka BP. The exposures of rockslide scarps occurred mostly at ∼20-15, ∼8, ∼5-4 and ∼2-0.5 ka, which substantially coincide with the last major Black Sea transgressions and/or more humid Holocene intervals. Our study suggests that before ultimate fast and/or catastrophic slope failures, the relaxation of rock massifs correlative with karstification, cracks opening, and incipient sliding lasted on the order of 104-105 years. Rapid Late Glacial/Holocene transgressions of the Black Sea likely represented the last impulse for the collapse of limestone blocks and the origin of giant rockslides, simultaneously affecting the majority

  9. Overview of the Pre-YMC2015 campaign over the southwestern coastal land and adjacent sea of Sumatera Island, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shuichi; Katsumata, Masaki; Yoneyama, Kunio; Suzuki, Kenji; Hayati, Noer; Syamsudin, Fadli

    2016-04-01

    An international research project named Years of the Maritime Continent (YMC) is planned during 2017-2019 to expedite the progress of improving understanding and prediction of local multi-scale variability of the Maritime Continent (MC) weather-climate system and its global impact through observations and modeling exercises. We carried out a campaign observation over the southwestern coastal land and adjacent sea of Sumatera Island, Indonesia, during November-December 2015 as a pilot study of the YMC to examine land-ocean coupling processes in mechanisms of coastal heavy rain band (CHeR) along Sumatera Island and further potential scientific themes in the coming YMC. We deployed two land observation sites at Bengkulu city (3.86S, 102.34E) in the southwestern coast of Sumatera Island with various kinds of instruments including an X-band dual polarimetric (DP) radar and a C-band Doppler radar, and the R/V Mirai approximately 50 km southwest (4.07S, 101.90E) of the land stations with a C-band DP radar. We made 3 hourly soundings at Bengkulu and the R/V Mirai during 09 November - 25 December (47 days) and 24 November - 17 December (24 days), respectively. In addition, 18 videosondes observations, which could identify precipitation particles by an onboard camera in and out of rainclouds, were performed under heavy rainfall condition to examine cloud microphysical processes as well as simultaneous RHI observations with the Mirai DP radar. Whereas rainfall amount during the period was less than that of climatological view due to the Godzilla El-Nino event in this rainy season, we found concrete diurnal variation with thunderstorms in the evening along the foothills of coastal land and widely spread stratiform precipitation mainly over the adjacent sea due to the passage of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) convection with strong westerly wind in the lower troposphere during the former and latter halves of the campaign period, respectively. Diurnally developed thunderstorms

  10. Geochemical assessment of hydrocarbon migration phenomena: Case studies from the south-western margin of the Dead Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Ella; Kozmenko, Olga; Smirnov, Sergey; Sokol, Ivan; Novikova, Sofya; Tomilenko, Anatoliy; Kokh, Svetlana; Ryazanova, Tatyana; Reutsky, Vadim; Bul'bak, Taras; Vapnik, Yevgeny; Deyak, Michail

    2014-10-01

    Calcite veins with fluid and solid bitumen inclusions have been discovered in the south-western shoulder of the Dead Sea rift within the Masada-Zohar block, where hydrocarbons exist in small commercial gas fields and non-commercial fields of heavy and light oils. The gas-liquid inclusions in calcite are dominated either by methane or CO2, and aqueous inclusions sometimes bear minor dissolved hydrocarbons. The enclosed flake-like solid bitumen matter is a residue of degraded oil, which may be interpreted as “dead carbon”. About 2/3 of this matter is soot-like amorphous carbon and 1/3 consists of n-C8sbnd C18 carboxylic acids and traces of n-alkanes, light dicarboxylic acids, and higher molecular weight (>C20) branched and/or cyclic carboxylic acids. Both bitumen and the host calcites show genetic relationship with mature Maastrichtian chalky source rocks (MCSRs) evident in isotopic compositions (δ13C, δ34S, and δ18O) and in REE + Y patterns. The bitumen precursor may have been heavy sulfur-rich oil which was generated during the burial compaction of the MCSR strata within the subsided blocks of the Dead Sea graben. The δ18O and δ13C values and REE + Y signatures in calcites indicate mixing of deep buried fluids equilibrated with post-mature sediments and meteoric waters. The temperatures of fluid generation according to Mg-Li-geothermometer data range from 55 °С to 90 °С corresponding to the 2.5-4.0 km depths, and largely overlap with the oil window range (60-90 °С) in the Dead Sea rift (Hunt, 1996; Gvirtzman and Stanislavsky, 2000; Buryakovsky et al., 2005). The bitumen-rich vein calcites originated in the course of Late Cenozoic rifting and related deformation, when tectonic stress triggers damaged small hydrocarbon reservoirs in the area, produced pathways, and caused hydrocarbon-bearing fluids to rise to the subsurface; the fluids filled open fractures and crystallized to calcite with entrapped bitumen. The reported results are in good agreement

  11. Geochemical peculiarities of sediments in the northeastern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, A. G.; Gursky, Yu. N.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of chemical determinations of Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, Sb, and As in Black Sea sediments over a profile from the Kerch Strait to the eastern part of a deep depression (2210 m). The lithological and geochemical variations were studied in the horizontal and vertical profiles of sediments up to 3 m thick. The tendencies in the distributions of the studied metals during Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentation were analyzed beginning from Neoeuxinian freshwater deposits via the overlaying Drevnechernomorian beds with elevated contents of sapropel to modern clayey carbonate deposits with coccolithophorids. Statistical factor analysis isolated five factors: two main factors (75% of the total dispersion) and three subordinate factors. The first leading biogenic factor (47% of dispersion) reflects the correlation between Corg, Cu, and Ni; the second terrigenous factor (28% of dispersion) combimes Fe, Al, Cr, and Sb. The chemical composition of the sediments reflects the manifestation of diagenesis of landslide processes and mud volcanism along with sedimentation regularities.

  12. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, within southwestern Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott M; Lehman, Preston M; Kern, Ryan A; Henning, Jill D

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence studies of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been rare for ticks from southwestern Pennsylvania. We collected 325 Ixodes scapularis ticks between 2011 and 2012 from four counties in southwestern Pennsylvania. We tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum using PCR. Of the ticks collected from Pennsylvania, B. burgdorferi (causative agent of Lyme disease) was present in 114/325 (35%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis) was present in 48/325 (15%) as determined by PCR analysis. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  13. Seasonal variation in the biochemical compositions of phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in the southwestern East/Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Naeun; Kang, Jae Joong; Park, Won Gyu; Lee, Bo Ram; Yun, Mi Sun; Lee, Jang Han; Kim, Su Min; Lee, Dasom; Joo, HuiTae; Lee, Jae Hyung; Ahn, So Hyun; Lee, Sang Heon

    2017-09-01

    The macromolecular composition of phytoplankton communities and the proximate composition of zooplankton communities were measured monthly in the southwestern East/Japan Sea from April to November 2014 in order to identify seasonal changes in, and relationships among, the biochemical compositions in both phytoplankton and zooplankton. The carbohydrate content of phytoplankton was highest in June, whereas the protein content was highest in August and lipids were highest in April. Overall, carbohydrates were dominant (53.2 ± 12.5%) in the macromolecular composition of phytoplankton during the study period. This composition is believed to result from the dominance of diatoms and/or nutrient-depleted conditions. In comparison, the protein level of zooplankton was highest in November, whereas lipids were slightly higher in May than other months. Overall, proteins were the dominant organic compounds (47.9±8.6% DW) in zooplankton communities, whereas lipids were minor components (5.5±0.6% DW). The high protein content of zooplankton might be related to the abundance of copepods, whereas the low lipid content might be due to a relatively high primary production that could provide a sufficient food supply for zooplankton so that they do not require high lipid storage. A significant positive correlation (r=0.971, n=7, p<0.01) was found between the lipid compositions of phytoplankton and zooplankton during our study period with a time lag, which is consistent with the findings from previous studies. More detailed studies on the biochemical composition of phytoplankton and zooplankton are needed to better understand the East/Japan Sea ecosystem's response to the many environmental changes associated with global warming.

  14. Karyotypic Characteristics of the Ornithophilic Simulium aureum Species Group (Diptera: Simuliidae) Along the Northern Black Sea Coast and the Origin of Chromosomal Reduction.

    PubMed

    Vlasov, Sergey; Adler, Peter H; Topolenko, Varvara; Aibulatov, Sergey; Gorlov, Ivan; Harutyunova, Maria; Harutyunova, Karine

    2018-05-03

    The Simulium aureum group (Diptera: Simuliidae), also known as subgenus Eusimulium Roubaud, is a monophyletic, Holarctic taxon of bird-feeding black flies with a reduced chromosome number of two and remarkably similar external structure in all life stages. We analyzed the banding patterns of the polytene chromosomes to understand the composition of this species group along the northern coast of the Black Sea where two little-known nominal species have their type localities. Our analyses link the names Simulium krymense (Rubtsov) and Simulium maritimum (Rubtsov) with unique chromosomal characters, indicate that both are male chiasmate, and reveal the presence of Simulium angustipes Edwards along the northern coast of the Black Sea for the first time. We show that S. krymense has a banding sequence most similar to the hypothesized ancestral form of the S. aureum group, and that the entire group is derived from within the Simulium vernum group, rendering the latter group and its encompassing subgenus, Nevermannia Enderlein, paraphyletic.

  15. The test skeletal matrix of the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula.

    PubMed

    Kanold, Julia M; Immel, Francoise; Broussard, Cédric; Guichard, Nathalie; Plasseraud, Laurent; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Brümmer, Franz; Marin, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    In the field of biomineralization, the past decade has been marked by the increasing use of high throughput techniques, i.e. proteomics, for identifying in one shot the protein content of complex macromolecular mixtures extracted from mineralized tissues. Although crowned with success, this approach has been restricted so far to a limited set of key-organisms, such as the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the pearl oyster or the abalone, leaving in the shadow non-model organisms. As a consequence, it is still unknown to what extent the calcifying repertoire varies, from group to group, at high (phylum, class), median (order, family) or low (genus, species) taxonomic rank. The present paper shows the first biochemical and proteomic characterization of the test matrix of the Mediterranean black sea urchin Arbacia lixula (Arbacioida). Our work suggests that the skeletal repertoire of A. lixula exhibits some similarities but also several differences with that of the few sea urchin species (S. purpuratus, Paracentrotus lividus), for which molecular data are already available. The differences may be attributable to the taxonomic position of the species considered: A. lixula belongs to an order - Arbacioida - that diverged more than one hundred million years ago from the Camarodonta, which includes the two species S. purpuratus and P. lividus. For the echinoid class, we suggest that large-scale proteomic screening should be performed in order to understand which molecular functions related to calcification are conserved and which ones have been co-opted for biomineralization in particular lineages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multidisciplinary experiment on studying short-period variability of the sedimentary process in the northeastern part of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Ostrovskii, A. G.; Novigatskii, A. N.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    The principal aim of this work is to reveal the regularities of short-period synoptic variability of vertical flows and the composition of settling sedimentary material, to obtain information on the quantitative characteristics of the processes that influence sound-scattering layers in the water layer above the continental slope behind the shelf edge in the northeastern part of the Black Sea. The results were obtained due to improvement of the equipment and the procedures for performing sea experiments on studying physicogeological, biological, and hydrophysical processes in the upper illuminated layer of phytoplankton development.

  17. Distribution and species identification in the crustacean isopod genus Dynamene Leach, 1814 along the North East Atlantic-Black Sea axis

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Pedro E.; Queiroga, Henrique; Costa, Filipe O.; Holdich, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sphaeromatid isopods, such as Dynamene, are common and abundant members of the invertebrate fauna of littoral and shallow sublittoral substrates. Six species of Dynamene occur in the northern hemisphere. Only two species exist outside this range, in Australia. The distribution of the various species in the NE Atlantic-Black Sea axis has been controversial due to the difficulty in the identification of the different species. This has led to inaccurate records of their distribution, ultimately generating uncertain or faulty assessments on the biodiversity of these habitats. An update and a clarification about the distribution of this genus is therefore in order. In this study, we describe the distribution of Dynamene species in the light of new records from the NE Atlantic Ocean and its associated islands, and the Mediterranean, Black and Red Seas, and from re-examination of museum and several authors’ personal collections. Based on these observations, we extend the northern and southern limits of Dynamene bidentata (Adams); the western and southern limits of Dynamene magnitorata Holdich; the northern, eastern and western limits of Dynamene edwardsi (Lucas); and the eastern and western limits of Dynamene bifida Torelli. The range of Dynamene tubicauda Holdich is extended, but is still only known from the eastern Mediterranean. We also clarify the synonymy of Dynamene torelliae Holdich with Dynamene bicolor (Rathke), and the occurrence of Dynamene bicolor in the Black Sea. New distribution maps of the six Dynamene species are presented. Illustrated keys to the adult males and females of the northern hemisphere species are provided. PMID:27917055

  18. History of water-column anoxia in the Black Sea indicated by pyrite framboid size distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkin, R.T.; Arthur, M.A.; Dean, W.E.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed study of size distributions of framboidal pyrite in Holocene Black Sea sediments establishes the timing of a change from deposition under an oxic water column to deposition under an anoxic and sulfidic water column. In the most recent carbonate-rich sediments (Unit I) and in the organic carbon-rich sapropel (Unit II), framboid size distributions are remarkably uniform (mean diameter= 5 ??m); over 95% of the framboids in Unit I and Unit II are < 7 ??m in diameter. These properties of framboidal pyrite are consistent with framboid nucleation and growth within an anoxic and sulfidic water column, followed by transport to the sediment-water interface, cessation of pyrite growth due to the exhaustion of reactive iron, and subsequent burial. In contrast, the organic carbon-poor sediments of lacustrine Unit III contain pyrite framboids that are generally much larger in size (mean diameter = 10 ??m). In Unit III, over 95% of the framboids are < 25 ??m in diameter, 40% of framboids are between 7 ??m and 25 ??m, and framboids up to 50 ??m in diameter are present. This distribution of sizes suggests framboid nucleation and growth within anoxic sediment porewaters. These new data on size distributions of framboidal pyrite confirm that the development of water-column anoxia in the Black Sea coincided with the initiation of deposition of laminated Unit II sapropels.

  19. Feeding of the Dominant Herbivorous Plankton Species in the Black Sea and Their Role in Coccolithophorid Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelina, A. B.; Sergeeva, V. M.; Arashkevich, E. G.; Drits, A. V.; Louppova, N. E.; Solovyev, K. A.

    2017-11-01

    The feeding of abundant herbivore plankton species has been investigated during different stages of coccolithophorid development in the northeastern Black Sea, namely, at the initial stage of development (March 2009) and at the massive bloom stage (June 2011 and May 2013). The role of coccolithophorids as a food source for Black Sea copepods Calanus euxinus, Acartia clausi, and Pseudocalanus elongatus; the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans; and the larvacean Oikopleura dioica has been characterized for the first time. The contribution of coccolithophorids to copepod ration was low (0.2 to 13% of total carbon intake) during all study periods. The content of these organisms in the diet of N. scintillans ranged from 17 to 100%. The coccolithophorid bloom apparently had a stronger positive effect on the nutrition of fine filter feeders, such as N. scintillans and O. dioica, than on copepod nutrition. Daily coccolithophorid consumption by zooplankton ranged from 0.7 to 39.4% of the biomass in different study periods. The grazing of N. scintillans and O. dioica populations made the greatest contribution to coccolithophorid consumption (up to 26 and 23% of the coccolithophorid biomass, respectively).

  20. IASON - Fostering sustainability and uptake of research results through Networking activities in Black Sea & Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patias, P.

    2014-09-01

    IASON Project has the ultimate goal to establish a permanent and sustainable Network of scientific and non-scientific institutions, stakeholders and private sector enterprises belonging in the EU and third countries located in two significant areas: The Mediterranean and the Black Sea regions. The main focal points of the project will be the usage and application of Earth Observation (EO) in the following topics: - climate change - resource efficiency - raw materials management IASON aims to build on the experiences gained by 5 FP7 funded projects, OBSERVE, enviroGRIDS, GEONETCab, EGIDA, and BalkanGEONet. All of the above projects focused on enhancing EO capacities, knowledge and technology in the EU and in neighborhood countries. During their execution time they managed to establish links with a critical mass of research institutions, organizations, public organizations, stakeholders, and policy makers in the Balkan region, the Mediterranean, and the Black Sea Basin. IASON intends to create the proper conditions for enhancing knowledge transfer capacity building, and market opportunities in using EO applications and mechanisms in specific research fields that are addressing climate actions resource efficiency and raw materials management.

  1. Seasonal seafloor oxygen dynamics on the Romanian Black Sea Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; Balan, Sorin; van Beusekom, Justus E.; Naderipour, Celine; Secrieru, Dan

    2017-04-01

    The Black Sea suffers from the combined effects of anthropogenic eutrophication, overfishing and climate forcing. As a result, its broad and shallow western shelf in particular has a history of ecosystem collapse during the 1970s to the mid-1990s, which followed a slow recovery since the late 1990s due to reduction in anthropogenic pressures. Because of eutrophication, increased oxygen consumption caused recurrent widespread seasonal seafloor hypoxia in a system that is already naturally prone to decrease in bottom water oxygen during summer. On the shelf, reduced bottom water ventilation is a strong natural driver for seafloor hypoxia, due to strong seasonal thermohaline stratification as a result of freshwater inflow from the large rivers Danube, Dniester and Dniepro. To understand the present seasonal dynamics of seafloor oxygen on the Romanian shelf, a seafloor mooring was deployed in 2010 and 2016 during summer and autumn, for three and six months, respectively. The mooring, consisting of an Aanderaa SEAGUARD sensor package attached to an acoustic release, was deployed in 30 m water depth in the Portita region - north of Constanta and south of the Danube River Mouths. The in-situ time series of seafloor oxygen, temperature, turbidity, salinity, and current velocities and directions, combined with CTD profiles, benthic oxygen consumption rates based on ex-situ incubations of sediment cores, and pelagic oxygen respiration rates provide a set of information that allows biological and hydrophysical controls on seafloor oxygen to be identified. We observed the built-up of the thermohaline stratification during late spring and early summer, accompanied by steady decrease in bottom water oxygen. Superimposed settling of particles to the seafloor eventually led to the formation of seafloor hypoxia in late summer. Anticyclonic currents resemble diurnal tidal cycles, albeit low in magnitude. The effects of a strong rainstorm and a Danube flood event in late September

  2. Interannual variability of Danube waters propagation in summer period of 1992-2015 and its influence on the Black Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubryakov, A. A.; Stanichny, S. V.; Zatsepin, A. G.

    2018-03-01

    The propagation of the Danube River plume has strong interannual variability that impacts the local balance of nutrients and the thermohaline structure in the western Black Sea. In the present study, we use a particle-tracking model based on satellite altimetry measurements and wind reanalysis data, as well as satellite measurements (SeaWiFS, MODIS), to investigate the interannual variability in the Danube plume pathways during the summer from 1993 to 2015. The wind conditions largely define the variability in the Danube water propagation. Relatively low-frequency variability (on periods of a week to months) in the wind stress curl modulates the intensity of the geostrophic Rim Current and related mesoscale eddy dynamics. High-frequency offshore wind-drift currents transport the plume across isobaths and provide an important transport link between shelf and offshore circulation. Inherent plume dynamics play an additional role in the near-mouth transport of the plume and its connection with offshore circulation. During the years with prevailing northeast winds ( 30% of studied cases), which are usually accompanied by increased wind curl over the Black Sea and higher Danube discharge, an alongshore southward current at the NorthWestern Shelf (NWS) is formed near the western Black Sea coast. Advected southward, the Danube waters are entrained in the Rim Current jet, which transports them along the west coast of the basin. The strong Rim Current, fewer eddies and downwelling winds substantially decrease the cross-shelf exchange of nutrients. During the years with prevailing southeastern winds ( 40%), the Rim Current is less intense. Mesoscale eddies effectively trap the Danube waters, transporting them to the deep western part of the basin. The low- and high-frequency southeastern wind-drift currents contribute significantly to cross-isobath plume transport and its connection with offshore circulation. During several years ( 15%), the Danube waters moved eastward to

  3. New insights and questions about the Meso-Cenozoic Tectonic evolution of Eastern Black Sea and Caucasus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosson, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Hässig, Marc; Meijers, Maud; Smith, Brigitte; Muller, Carla; Adamia, Shota; Melkonian, Rafael; Kangarli, Talat; Sahakyan, Lilit; Sadradze, Nino; Avagyan, Ara; Galoyan, Ghazar; Alania, Victor; Enukidze, Onice; Sheremet-Korniyenko, Yevgeniya; Yegorova, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Since last decade a lot of new field researches (supported by MEBE and DARIUS programmes) were carried out in order to clarify the tectonic evolution of the South Caucasus and Eastern Black Sea regions. A summary of these improvements are as following: 1. Evidence of only one suture zone in the Lesser Caucasus: the Sevan-Akera suture zone as the eastward continuity of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan one. 2. Timing and modalities of the Upper Cretaceous obduction process of the Sevan-Akera back-arc basin. 3. Paleolatitude reconstruction of the Taurides-Anatolides-South Armenia microplate (TASAM) since the Late Cretaceous 4. Paleocene to Miocene tectonic evolution of the collision zone between Eurasia and the TASAM. 5. Structures and propagation of the Lesser Caucasus and Greater Causasus foreland basins from Paleocene to Miocene. 6. Structures of the inverted Paleocene-Eocene Adjara-Trialeti basin of the Eurasian margin and timing of deformations from Lesser Caucasus to Greater Caucasus. 7. New stratigraphic data from the Crimea Mountain which argues for a Lower Cretaceous rifting of the Eastern Black Sea. According to aforementioned results and previous studies, this widespread zone (from the Eastern Black Sea to the Lesser Caucasus) appears act as a large puzzle of heterogeneous lithospheres (continental, oceanic, arc, back-arc basins) since the Early Cretaceous. This is probably why this area has differently reacted in time and space to the northward collision of the TASAM with Eurasia since the Late Cretaceous and then of Arabian plate since the Oligo-Miocene. It seems that some lithospheres which have cold mantellic behavior (especially the Black Sea) react as rigid blocks, while others with a continental origin, reheated by magmatism, (as the Taurides-Anatolides) were extruded to the west or bended as an orocline (as the Lesser Caucasus, the Pontides). This is why some main questions remain, are not solved and are still debated. 1. The continuity of main structures

  4. Phosphorus dynamics in and below the redoxcline in the Black Sea and implications for phosphorus burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, N.; Kraal, P.; Séguret, M. J. M.; Flores, M. R.; Gonzalez, S.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; Slomp, C. P.

    2018-02-01

    Marine basins with oxygen-depleted deep waters provide a natural laboratory to investigate the consequences of anoxic and sulfidic (i.e. euxinic) conditions for biogeochemical processes in seawater and sediments. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) and associated elements such as manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) in the euxinic deep basin of the Black Sea. By examining water column particles with scanning electron microscope - energy dispersive spectroscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that Mn(III/IV)-P is the key form of particulate P in the redoxcline. Other forms of particulate P include organic P, Fe(III)-P, and inorganic polyphosphates. Most inorganic P particles that are formed in the redoxcline subsequently dissolve in the underlying sulfidic waters, with the exception of some particulate Fe(III)-P that accounts for <1% of all P settling onto the seafloor. Organic P is the dominant source of P to the sediment. Most of this organic P is degraded in the upper 2 cm of the sediment. Results of sequential extractions and a 33P radiotracer experiment point towards the formation of labile Ca-P and P adsorbed onto calcium-carbonate and clays and a role of these phases as a major sink of P in the sediment. The total P burial efficiency in the sediments is ∼27%, which is relatively high when compared to estimates for sediments in other euxinic basins such as the Baltic Sea (<12%). We suggest that the abundant presence of calcium carbonate may contribute to the more efficient sequestration of P in Black Sea sediments.

  5. Determination of particles concentration in Black Sea waters from spectral beam attenuation coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchemkina, E. N.; Latushkin, A. A.; Lee, M. E.

    2017-11-01

    The methods of determination of concentration and scattering by suspended particles in seawater are compared. The methods considered include gravimetric measurements of the mass concentration of suspended matter, empirical and analytical calculations based on measurements of the light beam attenuation coefficient (BAC) in 4 spectral bands, calculation of backscattering by particles using satellite measurements in the visible spectral range. The data were obtained in two cruises of the R/V "Professor Vodyanitsky" in the deep-water part of the Black Sea in July and October 2016., Spatial distribution of scattering by marine particles according to satellite data is in good agreement with the contact measurements.

  6. Severe Storm in the Sea of Azov

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A fierce storm struck both the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on November 11, 2007. According to news reports, as many as 10 ships either sank or ran aground, one of them an oil tanker. The Russian tanker Volganeft-139 was anchored to the sea floor in the Kerch Strait linking the Black and Azov Seas when 108-kilometer- (67-mile-) per-hour winds tore the ship apart. As of November 12, up to 2,000 metric tons of fuel oil had leaked from the ship. On November 11, 2007, the day the storm struck, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image of the region. Thick clouds obscure the view of much of the land area, including Ukraine, Belarus, western Russia, and Georgia. Clouds also obscure the Sea of Azov, although skies over the Black Sea are somewhat clearer. Over the Sea of Azov and immediately to the north, the clouds form a vague swirling pattern, suggestive of a low-pressure cyclonic system.

  7. The Training of Qualified Specialists in the Countries of the Black Sea Region in the Context of Globalization Education Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheludko, Inna

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the trends in higher education development in the countries of the Black Sea region, namely, historical, methodological, methodical and technological, which determine the objective and subjective connections and relationships that are common to the system of higher pedagogical education of the countries under study and define…

  8. Preliminary sediments quality assessment of the Midia Port aquatorium - Black Sea - Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catianis, I.; Ungureanu, C.; Stanica, A.

    2012-04-01

    This study shows the present environmental quality of superficial sediments within the aquatorium of an industrial harbor. These results help better understand the correlation between historical pollution and present environmental state of the harbor sediments and related environmental hazards in case of dredging. The study area is the Port of Midia, situated in Romania, western Black Sea coast. The port is located at the boundary between the Danube Delta coast (widest nature protected biosphere reserve in the EU) in the north - and the almost entirely human controlled coast - starting south of the port. Midia Harbor was first built in 1942, expanded during the late 1970`s, and currently operates as an oil and general merchandise terminal. This port receives a double impact of waters: brackish Black Sea waters, as well as Danube fresh waters arriving into the aquatorium through the inshore Danube - Black Sea Canal Lock. To understand the environmental status of the port aquatorium one sampling campaign was performed during August 2011. Samples were collected within the aquatorium and in in the surrounding area outside the harbor. For a better correlation with the particularities related to the transitions in water salinity, the aquatorium was divided into five sectors with specific characteristics: Cargo Terminal Area, Oil Terminal Enclosure Area, Ships Transit Area, Waste Oil Buffer Area and Marine Area. The following analyses were performed on water and sediment samples: physical and chemical characteristics of the waters (dissolved oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts, pH, redox potential, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulphates, heavy metals), bulk sediments (particle size, grain size distribution, mineralogy, organic matter and carbonates content, heavy minerals load, organic compounds) and microbiological and ecotoxicological assays. The grain size analysis reveals the prevalence of very fine-silt and silty-clay fractions, and

  9. Offshore Habitat Preference of Overwintering Juvenile and Adult Black Sea Bass, Centropristis striata, and the Relationship to Year-Class Success

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Alicia S.; Shepherd, Gary R.; Fratantoni, Paula S.

    2016-01-01

    Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) migrations are believed to play a role in overwinter survival and connectivity between juvenile and adult populations. This study investigated oceanographic drivers of winter habitat choice and regional differences between populations of juvenile and adult black sea bass. Trends in cohort strength, as a result of juvenile survival, were also identified. Oceanographic and fisheries survey data were analyzed using generalized additive models. Among the oceanographic variables investigated, salinity was the main driver in habitat selection with an optimal range of 33–35 practical salinity units (PSU) for both juveniles and adults. Preferred temperature ranges varied between juveniles and adults, but held a similar minimum preference of >8°C. Salinity and temperature ranges also differed by regions north and south of Hudson Canyon. Shelf water volume had less of an effect than temperature or salinity, but showed an overall negative relationship with survey catch. The effect of winter conditions on juvenile abundance was also observed across state and federal survey index trends. A lack of correlation observed among surveys in the fall paired with a strong correlation in the spring identifies the winter period as a factor determining year-class strength of new recruits to the population. A rank order analysis of spring indices identified three of the largest year classes occurring during years with reduced shelf water volumes, warmer winter shelf waters, and a 34 PSU isohaline aligned farther inshore. While greater catches of black sea bass in the northwest Atlantic Ocean remain south of Hudson Canyon, the species’ range has expanded north in recent years. PMID:26824350

  10. Evolutionary melting pots: a biodiversity hotspot shaped by ring diversifications around the Black Sea in the Eastern tree frog (Hyla orientalis).

    PubMed

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Leuenberger, Julien; Ghali, Karim; Zinenko, Oleksandr; Stöck, Matthias; Perrin, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Hotspots of intraspecific genetic diversity, which are of primary importance for the conservation of species, have been associated with glacial refugia, that is areas where species survived the Quaternary climatic oscillations. However, the proximate mechanisms generating these hotspots remain an open issue. Hotspots may reflect the long-term persistence of large refugial populations; alternatively, they may result from allopatric differentiation between small and isolated populations, that later admixed. Here, we test these two scenarios in a widely distributed species of tree frog, Hyla orientalis, which inhabits Asia Minor and southeastern Europe. We apply a fine-scale phylogeographic survey, combining fast-evolving mitochondrial and nuclear markers, with a dense sampling throughout the range, as well as ecological niche modelling, to understand what shaped the genetic variation of this species. We documented an important diversity centre around the Black Sea, composed of multiple allopatric and/or parapatric diversifications, likely driven by a combination of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex regional topography. Remarkably, this diversification forms a ring around the Black Sea, from the Caucasus through Anatolia and eastern Europe, with terminal forms coming into contact and partially admixing in Crimea. Our results support the view that glacial refugia generate rather than host genetic diversity and can also function as evolutionary melting pots of biodiversity. Moreover, we report a new case of ring diversification, triggered by a large, yet cohesive dispersal barrier, a very rare situation in nature. Finally, we emphasize the Black Sea region as an important centre of intraspecific diversity in the Palearctic with implications for conservation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Ecological state of the Romanian Black Sea littoral lacustrine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, M.-T.

    2009-04-01

    The author uses the results of his own researches as well as data from specialty literature to assess the ecological state of some typical lacustrine ecosystems considered, about 50 years ago, of major importance by their functions, services and researches, for the human populations in the settlements nearby. Based on this assessment the author recommends a few criteria which can be taken into account when programs of integrated management of these coastal ecosystems are initiated. The paper focuses on the study cases regarding the following major ecosystems: 1. Razelm-Sinoie Lagoon Complex - tightly linked to the Danube River and Delta systems, 2. Taşaul Lake - interfered in the last two decades by a branch of the DanubeRiver - Black Sea Canal and 3. Techirghiol Lake - for a long time under the sea level, a hyperhaline lake with therapeutic, sapropelic mud, disturbed by huge quantities of freshwaters infiltrated from the irrigation system. At present, the state of the lacustrine ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea Coast can be characterized, mainly, by the following aspects: · Increase in the quantities of nutrients and chemical toxicants; · Rise in the level and frequency of eutrophication and pollution phenomena; · Drastic reduction of specific diversity; · Simplification of communities' structure - biocoenosis homogeneity; · Decrease in numerical abundance and biomass of benthic populations and consequently, low biofilter power by the decrease of the filter-feeder populations; · Worsening of the qualitative and the quantitative state of the biological benthic resources; · Thriving opportunistic forms (e.g. the worms causing sediment bioturbation); · Invasion by some exotic species, with harmful, unexpected consequences; · All populations undergo quantitative fluctuations; · Decrease in the fish population and in the use values of lacustrine assets, with strong impact on the welfare of the human society. Almost all pressure forms associated with the

  12. The abrupt installation of the euxinic environment as reflected by the unconsolidated sediments of the western slope of the Black Sea off the Romanian shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Oaie, Gheorghe; Bojar, Ana-Voica; Zinicovscaia, Inga; Culicov, Otilia-Ana; Frontasyeva, Marina V.; Gradinaru, Janet

    2016-04-01

    A 4,5 m long core containing unconsolidated sediments collected at a depth of 500 m on the western slope of the Black Sea, off Romanian shore was analyzed by Computed Tomography (CT), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in order to investigate the changes in the Black Sea environment during the past 10.5 - 12 ky. The most relevant information regarding unconsolidated sediments was furnished by the CT images, clearly indicating the moment when the euxinic environment settled on this sector of the Black Sea, presumably 2.7 ky ago. This event is represented by the sedimentation of a coccolithic mud consisting of alternation of dark and light thin laminae composed of terigenous and respectively coccoliths rich material. This type of mud is characteristic for the sedimentary unit 1, filling the uppermost 50 cm of the core. The observation was confirmed by subsequent XRF and INAA determinations, which show a high content of calcium carbonate related to accumulation of Emilliania huxley coccoliths as well as of minor elements such as iron, molybdenum and uranium, a typical characteristic of euxinic environment. For instance, the average content of Mo and U is 28 and respectively 4 time higher than the corresponding content of the Upper Continental Core (UCC), while the Fe/Al ratio is around 0.52. Moreover, the average chondrite normalized Ce content of sedimentary unite 1 is 1.37 ± 0.17, slightly higher than 1.22, the characteristic value for the UCC. The Ce data indicate a weak positive anomaly, characteristic also for an euxinic reducing environment. All these investigations confirm the abrupt installation at a depth of 500 m of an euxinic environment on the western slope of the Black Sea, euxinic environment persisting to present time.

  13. An interpretation of carbon and sulfur relationships in Black Sea sediments as indicators of environments of deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leventhal, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Syngenetic iron sulfides in sediments are formed from dissolved sulfide resulting from sulfate reduction and catabolism of organic matter by anaerobic bacteria. It has been shown that in recent marine sediments deposited below oxygenated waters there is a constant relationship between reduced sulfur and organic carbon which is generally independent of the environment of deposition. Reexamination of data from recent sediments from euxinic marine environments (e.g., the Black Sea) also shows a linear relationship between carbon and sulfur, but the slope is variable and the line intercepts the S axis at a value between 1 and 2 percent S. It is proposed that the positive S intercept is due to watercolumn microbial reduction of sulfate using metabolizable small organic molecules and the sulfide formed is precipitated and accumulates at the sediment-water interface. The variation in slope and intercept of the C to S plots for several cores and for different stratigraphic zones for the Black Sea can be interpreted in relation to thickness of the aqueous sulfide layer or thinness of the oxygen containing layer and to deposition rate, but also may be influenced by availability of iron, and perhaps the type of organic matter (Leventhal, 1979). ?? 1983.

  14. Serologic detection of antibodies against Fasciola hepatica in sheep in the middle Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Acici, Mustafa; Buyuktanir, Ozlem; Bolukbas, Cenk Soner; Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer; Gurler, Ali Tumay; Umur, Sinasi

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Samples from 213 sheep were collected randomly in Samsun, Tokat, and Sinop from September 2005 to January 2007 and tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis using F. hepatica excretory-secretory (E/S) antigens. The distribution of ELISA-positive samples for F. hepatica infections out of a total of 213 sheep serum samples was 23/71 (32.4%), 15/59 (25.4%), and 29/83 (34.9%) in Samsun, Sinop, and Tokat, respectively. The immunodominant proteins were determined by Western blot analysis using molecular weight markers of 14 kDa, 20 kDa, 24 kDa, 27 kDa, 33 kDa, 45 kDa, and 66 kDa and extracted from sera of sheep that were positive for Fasciola spp. eggs and also hyperimmune sera from rabbits immunized with E/S antigens. The ELISA-positive results were confirmed by Western blot analysis. As a result, seroprevalence of F. hepatica infection was found in 31.4% of sheep from the Karayaka breed in the Middle Black sea region of Turkey. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Ligophorus pilengas n. sp. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from the introduced So-iuy mullet, Mugil soiuy (Teleostei: Mugilidae), in the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Sarabeev, Volodimir Leonidovich; Balbuena, Juan Antonio

    2004-04-01

    The monogenean Ligophorus chabaudi was originally described on the gills of the flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus, and was subsequently reported on the So-iuy mullet, Mugil soiuy. However, the morphology of sclerotized parts and multivariate statistical analyses suggest that the form from the So-iuy mullet represents a new species. This study provides a description of the new species Ligophorus pilengas n. sp. and provides additional morphological data concerning the morphology of the ventral bar that might be useful for the diagnosis of Ligophorus. Ligophorus pilengas n. sp. is the second species of Ligophorus reported on the So-iuy mullet. Zoogeographical records indicate that L. pilengas n. sp. was probably introduced to the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov from the western Pacific Ocean together with its host.

  16. Investigating uplift in the South-Western Barents Sea using sonic and density well log measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Ellis, M.

    2014-12-01

    Sediments in the Barents Sea have undergone large amounts of uplift due to Plio-Pleistoncene deglaciation as well as Palaeocene-Eocene Atlantic rifting. Uplift affects the reservoir quality, seal capacity and fluid migration. Therefore, it is important to gain reliable uplift estimates in order to evaluate the petroleum prospectivity properly. To this end, a number of quantification methods have been proposed, such as Apatite Fission Track Analysis (AFTA), and integration of seismic surveys with well log data. AFTA usually provides accurate uplift estimates, but the data is limited due to its high cost. While the seismic survey can provide good uplift estimate when well data is available for calibration, the uncertainty can be large in areas where there is little to no well data. We estimated South-Western Barents Sea uplift based on well data from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. Primary assumptions include time-irreversible shale compaction trends and a universal normal compaction trend for a specified formation. Sonic and density logs from two Cenozoic shale formation intervals, Kolmule and Kolje, were used for the study. For each formation, we studied logs of all released wells, and established exponential normal compaction trends based on a single well. That well was then deemed the reference well, and relative uplift can be calculated at other well locations based on the offset from the normal compaction trend. We found that the amount of uplift increases along the SW to NE direction, with a maximum difference of 1,447 m from the Kolje FM estimate, and 699 m from the Kolmule FM estimate. The average standard deviation of the estimated uplift is 130 m for the Kolje FM, and 160 m for the Kolmule FM using the density log. While results from density logs and sonic logs have good agreement in general, the density log provides slightly better results in terms of higher consistency and lower standard deviation. Our results agree with published papers

  17. Searching for Sustainability in Teacher Education and Educational Research: Experiences from the Baltic and Black Sea Circle Consortium for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salite, Ilga

    2015-01-01

    The Baltic and Black Sea Circle Consortium for educational research (BBCC) was established at the beginning of the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005). BBCC has obtained its name in the "Third International Conference Sustainable Development, Culture, Education, in the University of Vechta" (Germany, 2005). The paper…

  18. Survival of the fittest: phosphorus burial in the sulfidic deep Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraal, Peter; Dijkstra, Nikki; Behrends, Thilo; Slomp, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    The Black Sea is characterized by permanently anoxic and sulfidic deep waters. Studies of the mechanisms of P burial in such a setting can be used to improve our understanding of P cycling in modern coastal systems undergoing eutrophication and ancient oceans during periods of anoxia in Earth's past. Here, we present phosphorus and iron (Fe) pools as determined in surface sediments along a transect from oxic shallow waters to sulfidic deep waters in the northwestern Black Sea, using a combination of bulk chemical analyses and micro-scale X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μXAS). We show that under oxic bottom water conditions, ferric iron oxides (Fe(III)ox) in surficial sediment efficiently scavenge dissolved phosphate from pore waters. Under these conditions, Fe(III)ox-bound P constitutes the main P pool at the sediment surface, but rapidly declines with depth in the sediment due to anoxic diagenesis. The transition from shallow (oxic) to deep (sulfidic) waters along the depth transect is reflected in a slight increase in the fraction of organic P. We also show evidence for authigenic calcium phosphate formation under sulfidic conditions at relatively low dissolved PO4 concentrations. Furthermore, we provide spectroscopic evidence for the presence of Fe(II)-Mn(II)-Mg-P minerals in sediments of the sulfidic deep basin. We hypothesize that these minerals are formed as a result of input of Fe(III)ox-P from shallower waters and subsequent transformation in either the water column or sediment. This finding suggests an unexpected strength of Fe-P shuttling from the shelf to the deep basin. While the presence of Fe-P species in such a highly sulfidic environment is remarkable, further analysis suggests that this P pool may not be quantitatively significant. In fact, our results indicate that some of the P that is interpreted as Fe-bound P based on chemical extraction may in fact be Ca-associated PO4 consisting of a combination of fish debris

  19. Effects of changing nutrient inputs on the ratio of small pelagic fish stock and phytoplankton biomass in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunev, Oleg A.; Velikova, Violeta; Carstensen, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    Significant increases in nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the Black Sea in the second half of the 20th century caused eutrophication and drastically decreasing Si:N and Si:P ratios. Combined with climate change, overfishing of top predators and a huge outbreak of the non-indigenous ctenophore Mnemiopsis, the pelagic food web was strongly modified and its efficiency for channeling primary production to higher trophic levels substantially reduced. We used the ratio between small pelagic fish stock and phytoplankton biomass on the Danube shelf and in the open Black Sea to investigate long-term changes in food web functioning. The ratio had 1) highest values for the pre-eutrophication period when diatoms and copepods dominated the pelagic food web ('muscle food chain'), 2) decreased during the eutrophication period with stronger prevalence of autotrophic pico- and nanophytoplankton, bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, microzooplankton, Noctiluca and jellyfish ('jelly food chain' with increased importance of the microbial loop), 3) lowest values during the ecological crisis (1989-1992), when small pelagic fish stocks collapsed, and 4) increased after 1993, indicating that the ecosystem went out of the crisis and exhibited a trend of recovery. However, in the last period (1993-2008) the ratio remained close to values observed in the middle eutrophication phase, suggesting that the ecosystem was far from fully recovered. Since early 2000s, fluctuating pelagic fish stocks, with a tendency to decreasing fish landing again, have been observed in the Black Sea. Additionally, the quality of food for the small pelagic fish has deteriorated due to warming trends and the legacy of eutrophication, giving support for the 'jelly food chain', exhibiting low energy transfer and prevalence of organisms with high respiration rate and low nutritional value.

  20. Geochronology and paleoceanographic history of Quaternary sediments from southwestern part of Pacific-Antarctic Ridge, the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, M.; Yagi, Y.; Mishima, T.; Horikawa, K.; Sagawa, T.; Kodama, K.; Kato, Y.; Minagawa, M.

    2006-12-01

    Paleoceanographic studies in the southern hemisphere high latitudes are important for understanding the global climate system. These detailed records of the oceanic response to various climate conditions are well- documented in marine sediments. The main goal of this study is to construct the precise chronostratigraphy and to reveal the paleocenographic and sedimentological changes in this region during Quaternary. A piston core SX-09 (65 10.79' S, 174 04.77' W, 3336 m water depth) which was recovered from southwestern part of Pacific-Antarctic Ridge, the Ross Sea, Antarctica during the R/V Hakuho-Maru KH02-4 cruise, was composed mainly of foraminifer bearing siliceous clay with ice-rafted debris (IRDs). To date, magnetostratigraphy and benthic foraminifer oxygen isotope were adopted. Remanent magnetization of the U-channel samples was measured with a 2G superconducting rock magnetometer. Stable characteristic remanent magnetization was isolated by subjecting the samples to progressive alternating field demagnezation. By referring the obtained magnetic polarity sequence with the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) by Cande and Kent (2005), we estimated the age of this core. Epoch boundary placed the Brouhes-Matuyama at 0.78 Ma was existed between 565 to 720 cmbsf. This suggested that the boundary was affected by IRDs distribution and/or by high sedimentation rate. The depth of 720 cmbsf to the bottom (1480 cm) was correlated with reverse of Matuyama Chron (Chrons C1r, ~2.58 Ma). Jaramillo Subchron (Chron C1r. 1n, 0.99-1.07 Ma) correlated clearly with the depths of 1012-1076 cmbsf. The average sedimentation rate calculated by the epoch boundary ages was approximately 0.7-1.5 cm/kyr. We will discuss more detail age control combined with d-18O data and the IRDs abundance corresponded to the glacial history in the Antarctic Sea.

  1. Organic-matter production and preservation and evolution of anoxia in the Holocene Black Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arthur, M.A.; Dean, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Dating of sediments collected in gravity cores during Leg 1 of the 1988 R/V Knorr expedition to the Black Sea suggests that the onset of water-column anoxia at ???7.5 ka was virtually synchronous across the basin over a depth range of ???200 - 2250 m. A finely laminated, organic carbon (OC) rich sapropel (unit II) was produced as a result of this anoxia. The trigger for increased OC production and development of anoxia was the spillover of saline waters through the Bosporus that probably began at ???9.0 ka and peaked between ???7.0 and 5.5 ka. This spillover enhanced vertical mixing and nutrient cycling and caused a short-term (2-3 kyr) burst in surface-water productivity during the early part of unit II deposition. Continued incursion of saline waters enhanced vertical stability and inhibited mixing of nutrients into surface waters, thus limiting primary production and decreasing the OC flux to sediments beginning ???5.5 ka. Concentration, accumulation rate, and degree of preservation of organic matter all decreased in the upper part of unit II as a result of decreasing productivity, but anoxia persisted throughout most of the water column. The end of unit II sapropel deposition was synchronous across the Black Sea as the result of the first blooms of the coccolith Emiliania huxleyi, which presumably marked an increase in surface-water salinity above 11 and the beginning of unit I deposition. The high coccolith-carbonate fluxes that occurred during deposition of unit I diluted the OC concentration in the sediments, but OC accumulation rates are about the same as those in upper part of unit II.

  2. Dating of coastal marine sediments: 210Pb versus 137Cs signal on the Danube-influenced Black Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; Laptev, Gennady

    2010-05-01

    Coastal marine sediments represent a natural archive of pelagic processes, coastal erosion and river discharge of suspended matter. Correct dating of those sediments is a prerequisite for chronological reconstruction of the flux of pollutants and organic matter from the water column to the sediments and hence, the reconstruction of the pollution and eutrophication events. In the reconstruction of the sedimentation history during the pre-industrial and industrial periods, which usually spans the past 100 years, the natural occurring radionuclide 210Pb and the artificial radionuclides 137Cs and 241Am are widely applied tracers. 137Cs is used as an independent time marker for end the atmospheric bomb test fallout in 1963 and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. As the 137Cs signal is often weakened due to its mobility in sediments, 241Am, less mobile than 137Cs and derived from decay the bomb fallout of 241Pu, is used as a second time marker of the 1963 event. The northwestern shelf of the Black Sea has been seriously affected by eutrophication and pollution from the late 1960's to the mid-1990's, largely triggered by Danube River input of nutrients and pollutants. The aim of our study is ultimately to reconstruct the eutrophication history and recycling of nutrients following the deposition of organic matter. The ‘memory effect' of sediment recycling plays a critical role in maintaining eutrophic conditions in enclosed seas such as the Black Sea. Here we present results from sediment cores taken within the Danube River plume on the shallow northwestern shelf of the Black Sea. The cores have been dated in two laboratories to rule out artifacts. The sediment record is repeatedly interrupted by so-called turbidites that consist of stiff clay. The clay horizons display a drop in unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs and a higher signal of supported 210Pb than the non-clay horizons. Below the turbidite, the unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs increase again to values above the turbidite. This

  3. Small river plumes off the northeastern coast of the Black Sea under average climatic and flooding discharge conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadchiev, Alexander; Korshenko, Evgeniya

    2017-06-01

    This study focuses on the impact of discharges of small rivers on the delivery and fate of fluvial water and suspended matter at the northeastern part of the Black Sea under different local precipitation conditions. Several dozens of mountainous rivers flow into the sea at the study region, and most of them, except for several of the largest, have little annual runoff and affect adjacent coastal waters to a limited extent under average climatic conditions. However, the discharges of these small rivers are characterized by a quick response to precipitation events and can significantly increase during and shortly after heavy rains, which are frequent in the considered area. The delivery and fate of fluvial water and terrigenous sediments at the study region, under average climatic and rain-induced flooding conditions, were explored and compared using in situ data, satellite imagery, and numerical modeling. It was shown that the point-source spread of continental discharge dominated by several large rivers under average climatic conditions can change to the line-source discharge from numerous small rivers situated along the coast in response to heavy rains. The intense line-source runoff of water and suspended sediments forms a geostrophic alongshore current of turbid and freshened water, which induces the intense transport of suspended and dissolved constituents discharged with river waters in a northwestern direction. This process significantly influences water quality and causes active sediment load at large segments of the narrow shelf at the northeastern part of the Black Sea compared to average climatic discharge conditions.

  4. Mono-, Di-, or Trimorphism in Black Sea Ammonia sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenbach, Alexander V.; Bassler, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    For the genus Ammonia, the size of proloculi was considered one of the valuable taxonomic landmarks, although it may split in first alternating generations. We analysed 140 living (stained) tests of Ammonia sp. from the outer shelf of the Black Sea, collected from 5 stations on a depth gradient (138 to 206 m water depth). Samples were treated by standard technologies, such as live staining, wet sieving, volume detection, counts, and measures by light microscopy. The size of the proloculi was detected, extended by biometric characterisations of 11 measures, 5 qualitative characters, and 4 numerical ratios. Surprisingly, the multitude of test parameters allows the definition of either one highly variable taxon, or several species, or either di- or trimorphism, exclusively resulting from the definition of 'decisive' or 'neglectable' parameters, or parameter subsets. We followed the general taxonomic definition for the species of the genera, and applied, discussed and rejected published criteria considered as taxonomically important. Surprisingly, in result none of the species described hitherto fully correlates with the morphological roundup observed. It is a new species. This conclusion mainly results from the balance of all morphologies, and not from the selection of an ultimate subset.

  5. Drivers, mechanisms and long-term variability of seasonal hypoxia on the Black Sea northwestern shelf - is there any recovery after eutrophication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capet, A.; Beckers, J.-M.; Grégoire, M.

    2013-06-01

    The Black Sea northwestern shelf (NWS) is a shallow eutrophic area in which the seasonal stratification of the water column isolates the bottom waters from the atmosphere. This prevents ventilation from counterbalancing the large consumption of oxygen due to respiration in the bottom waters and in the sediments, and sets the stage for the development of seasonal hypoxia. A three-dimensional (3-D) coupled physical-biogeochemical model is used to investigate the dynamics of bottom hypoxia in the Black Sea NWS, first at seasonal and then at interannual scales (1981-2009), and to differentiate its driving factors (climatic versus eutrophication). Model skills are evaluated by a quantitative comparison of the model results to 14 123 in situ oxygen measurements available in the NOAA World Ocean and the Black Sea Commission databases, using different error metrics. This validation exercise shows that the model is able to represent the seasonal and interannual variability of the oxygen concentration and of the occurrence of hypoxia, as well as the spatial distribution of oxygen-depleted waters. During the period 1981-2009, each year exhibits seasonal bottom hypoxia at the end of summer. This phenomenon essentially covers the northern part of the NWS - which receives large inputs of nutrients from the Danube, Dniester and Dnieper rivers - and extends, during the years of severe hypoxia, towards the Romanian bay of Constanta. An index H which merges the aspects of the spatial and temporal extension of the hypoxic event is proposed to quantify, for each year, the intensity of hypoxia as an environmental stressor. In order to explain the interannual variability of H and to disentangle its drivers, we analyze the long time series of model results by means of a stepwise multiple linear regression. This statistical model gives a general relationship that links the intensity of hypoxia to eutrophication and climate-related variables. A total of 82% of the interannual variability

  6. Evaluating the substantive effectiveness of SEA: Towards a better understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Doren, D. van; Driessen, P.P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl; Schijf, B.

    Evaluating the substantive effectiveness of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is vital in order to know to what extent the tool fulfills its purposes and produces expected results. However, the studies that have evaluated the substantive effectiveness of SEA produce varying outcomes as regards the tool's contribution to decision-making and have used a variety of approaches to appraise its effectiveness. The aim of this article is to discuss the theoretical concept of SEA substantive effectiveness and to present a new approach that can be applied for evaluation studies. The SEA effectiveness evaluation framework that will be presented is composed of conceptsmore » of, and approaches to, SEA effectiveness derived from SEA literature and planning theory. Lessons for evaluation can be learned from planning theory in particular, given its long history of analyzing and understanding how sources of information and decisions affect (subsequent) decision-making. Key concepts of this new approach are 'conformance' and 'performance'. In addition, this article presents a systematic overview of process and context factors that can explain SEA effectiveness, derived from SEA literature. To illustrate the practical value of our framework for the assessment and understanding of substantive effectiveness of SEA, three Dutch SEA case studies are examined. The case studies have confirmed the usefulness of the SEA effectiveness assessment framework. The framework proved helpful in order to describe the cumulative influence of the three SEAs on decision-making and the ultimate plan. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new framework to evaluate the substantive effectiveness of SEA is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The framework is based on two key concepts: 'conformance' and 'performance.' Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The practical applicability of the framework is demonstrated by three Dutch cases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The framework allows for a more

  7. [Centre of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Black Sea Fleet celebrates 75 years].

    PubMed

    Goncharov, G V; Brashkov, A A

    2010-08-01

    The history of the Centre of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Black Sea Fleet begun in the 1 April 1935 when the sanitary-epidemiological laboratory was founded. The article is concerned with the different stages of vivid development of this institute during 75 years. During this period organization, establishment and the name were changed many times. Since 2002 it got the current name and represents the scientific-methods institution which can solve the issues of sanitary-hygienic and antiepidemic supply of military personnel of the navy. Special attention is given to the high-readiness force.

  8. Phorbin steryl esters in Black Sea sediment traps and sediments: A preliminary evaluation of their paleooceanographic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Linda L.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    1994-10-01

    The distributions of pyropheophorbide- a steryl esters in one-year deployments of sediment traps at two locations in the Black Sea are described. In nearly all our trap samples, phorbin steryl esters (PSEs) contribute a significant portion of the total phorbin flux. The relative abundances of sterols esterified to pyropheophorbide- a varied throughout the year, and we suggest these changes result from the observed seasonal variation of phytoplankton species in the overlying water column. The distribution of free sterols in a one-year composite sediment trap sample closely approximates the distribution of sterols derived from the hydrolysis of sedimentary PSEs collected at an adjacent site. From these results, we suggest that the distribution of sedimentary PSE sterols provides a record of sterol deposition to the sediment-water interface. Esterification of sterols to pyropheophorbide- a apparently prevents the preferential removal of 4-desmethyl sterols relative to 4-methyl sterols, and the reduction of stenols to stanols during degradation. Analysis of PSEs in a gravity core covering the last 8-10 Kyr shows that the abundance and distribution of PSEs change with downcore variations in sedimentology. Detailed analysis of PSEs in sediments may, therefore, provide a means to evaluate paleooceanographic changes in phytoplankton community structure and sterol early diagenesis. The synthesis, NMR, CI-MS, and visible spectroscopic properties of four abundant PSEs found in the Black Sea are also described.

  9. North Sea ecosystem change from swimming crabs to seagulls

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, C.; Beaugrand, G.; Lindley, J. A.; Dewarumez, J-M.; Dubois, P. J.; Kirby, R. R.

    2012-01-01

    A recent increase in sea temperature has established a new ecosystem dynamic regime in the North Sea. Climate-induced changes in decapods have played an important role. Here, we reveal a coincident increase in the abundance of swimming crabs and lesser black-backed gull colonies in the North Sea, both in time and in space. Swimming crabs are an important food source for lesser black-backed gulls during the breeding season. Inhabiting the land, but feeding mainly at sea, lesser black-backed gulls provide a link between marine and terrestrial ecosystems, since the bottom-up influence of allochthonous nutrient input from seabirds to coastal soils can structure the terrestrial food web. We, therefore, suggest that climate-driven changes in trophic interactions in the marine food web may also have ensuing ramifications for the coastal ecology of the North Sea. PMID:22764111

  10. North Sea ecosystem change from swimming crabs to seagulls.

    PubMed

    Luczak, C; Beaugrand, G; Lindley, J A; Dewarumez, J-M; Dubois, P J; Kirby, R R

    2012-10-23

    A recent increase in sea temperature has established a new ecosystem dynamic regime in the North Sea. Climate-induced changes in decapods have played an important role. Here, we reveal a coincident increase in the abundance of swimming crabs and lesser black-backed gull colonies in the North Sea, both in time and in space. Swimming crabs are an important food source for lesser black-backed gulls during the breeding season. Inhabiting the land, but feeding mainly at sea, lesser black-backed gulls provide a link between marine and terrestrial ecosystems, since the bottom-up influence of allochthonous nutrient input from seabirds to coastal soils can structure the terrestrial food web. We, therefore, suggest that climate-driven changes in trophic interactions in the marine food web may also have ensuing ramifications for the coastal ecology of the North Sea.

  11. Exogenic geomorphic processes dynamics at the Black Sea coast, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia; Tsvetkova, Daria

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays there is an obvious grow of anthropogenic load going on in many areas worldwide. Under such conditions, intensive activation of a number of exogenic geomorphic processes may be observed. Moreover, if natural environment is aggressive itself their dynamics and rates may reach enormous values. Our work is conducted at the Black Sea coast, known for its mountainous topography, wet subtropical climate and intensive anthropogenic development (especially during the last decade due to the recent Olympic games). We chose two key basins near Sochi, Russia to study a number of presented exogenic processes, including rill, gully and channel erosion, weathering, suffusion and piping, soil creep. A set of field study methods is used to monitor the processes dynamics since 2005 (and late 1970s for soil creep). In addition, soil erosion rates and landslide susceptibility were modelled to get information of the watersheds dynamics. This is ongoing work, but the results of the passed period of observations will be resented. Special attention is paid to the processes connectivity and their input into sediment redistribution over the river basins.

  12. Screening for Infectious Diseases among Newly Arrived Migrants: Experiences and Practices in Non-EU Countries of the Mediterranean Basin and Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Christian; Dente, Maria Grazia; Kärki, Tommi; Riccardo, Flavia; Rossi, Pasqualino; Declich, Silvia

    2015-12-08

    Changing migration dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea and differences in infectious diseases (ID) burden between the countries of origin have raised questions whether public health actions are needed to avoid the transmission of ID. Screening newly arrived migrants for ID is one health monitoring option, offering opportunities for prevention, early detection and treatment. The authors conducted a survey among country experts in non-European Union countries of the Mediterranean and Black Sea, in order to explore current ID screening practices and policies for newly arrived migrants. The association between the existence of guidelines and the proportion of refugees in the population was also estimated. Eighteen country experts responded (90%) out of the 20 invited. Eleven countries (61%) implemented screening programmes and six (38%) had national guidelines. Screening was performed most often for tuberculosis at the holding level. A higher proportion of refugees in the population was associated with the existence of guidelines for screening (p = 0.05). Fourteen experts (88%) considered screening among migrants useful. The results show that screening for ID in newly arrived migrants is relevant for non-EU countries of the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Common guidelines could be promoted focusing on both individual and public health benefits of screening programmes.

  13. Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofi, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    The Seismic atlas of the "Messinian Salinity Crisis" markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas - Volume 2 is a publication project in the framework of the study of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. It follows the publication of a first volume in 2011 (see Editors' websites: http://ccgm.free.fr & http://sgfr.free.fr) and aims to illustrate the seismic characteristics of the MSC markers over news study areas. The Messinian Salinity Crisis is a huge outstanding succession of events that deeply modified the Mediterranean area within a short time span at the geological scale. In 2011, a seismic atlas of the Messinian markers in the Mediterranean and Black seas has been published [1]. This collective work summarizes, in one publication with a common format, the most relevant seismic features related to this exceptional event in the offshore domain. It also proposes a new global and consistent terminology for the MSC markers in the entire offshore Mediterranean area in order to avoid nomenclatural problems. Throughout 13 study areas, the seismic facies, geometry and extend of the Messinian markers (bounding surfaces and depositional units) are described. The Atlas however does not provide a complete description of all what that is known about the MSC and about the geology of each study area. Accordingly, illustrations in the Atlas should be used for a global description of the offshore imprints of the MSC at a broad scale, or for local information or site-specific general interpretations. Interpreted seismic data were carefully selected according to their quality, position and significance. Raw and interpreted seismic profiles are available on CD-Rom. Volume 2 is currently under preparation with the objectives : (1) to image the Messinian seismic marker from margins and basins that have not been illustrated in the first volume and (2) to complete the extension map of the MSC markers in the offshore and onshore domains at the Mediterranean scale. As the first volume, Volume

  14. Distribution and sources of dissolved black carbon in surface waters of the Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, and the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakane, Motohiro; Ajioka, Taku; Yamashita, Youhei

    2017-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon, also called black carbon (BC), is an important component in the global carbon cycle. BC produced by biomass burning or fossil fuel combustion is transported to oceans by the atmosphere or rivers. However, environmental dynamics (i.e., major sources and sinks) of BC in marine environments have not been well documented. In this study, dissolved BC (DBC) collected from surface waters of the Chukchi Sea, the Bering Sea, and the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific were analyzed using the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method. The DBC concentration and the ratio of B5CA and B6CA to all BPCAs (an index of the DBC condensation degree) ranged from 4.8 to 15.5 µg-C L-1 and from 0.20 to 0.43, respectively, in surface waters of the Chukchi/Bering Seas and the North Pacific Ocean. The concentration and condensation degree of DBC in the Chukchi/Bering Seas were higher and more variable than those in the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, which implies that the major factors controlling DBC distribution were different in these marine provinces. In the Chukchi/Bering Seas, the DBC concentration was negatively correlated to salinity but positively correlated to chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) quantity and total dissolved lignin phenol concentration estimated by CDOM parameters. These correlations indicated that the possible major source of DBC in the Chukchi/Bering Seas was Arctic rivers. However, in the North Pacific, where riverine inputs are negligible for most sampling sites, DBC was possibly derived from the atmosphere. Although spectral slopes of CDOM at 275-295 nm (an index of the photodegradation degree of CDOM) differed widely between the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, the concentration and condensation degrees of DBC were similar between the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, which suggests that photodegradation was not the only major factor controlling DBC distribution. Therefore, DBC distributions of the

  15. Selected heavy metals and selenium in the blood of black sea turtle (Chelonia mydas agasiizzi) from Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ley-Quiñónez, C P; Zavala-Norzagaray, A A; Réndon-Maldonado, J G; Espinosa-Carreón, T L; Canizales-Román, A; Escobedo-Urías, D C; Leal-Acosta, M L; Hart, C E; Aguirre, A A

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, Mn) and selenium (Se) was analyzed in blood collected from 12 black turtles (Chelonia mydas agasiizzi) captured in Canal del Infiernillo, Punta Chueca, Mexico. The most abundant metals were Zn (63.58 μg g(-1)) and Se (7.66 μg g(-1)), and Cd was the lower (0.99 μg g(-1)). The sequential concentrations of trace metals were Zn > Se > Cu > Mn > Ni > Cd. In conclusion, this information is important as a baseline when using blood as tissue analysis of heavy metals; however, these levels could represent recent exposure in foraging grounds of black turtles in the Sea of Cortez.

  16. Drivers, mechanisms and long term variability of bottom seasonal hypoxia in the Black Sea north-western Shelf. Is there any recovery after eutrophication ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capet, Arthur; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2013-04-01

    The Black Sea North-western shelf (NWS) is a shallow eutrophic area in which seasonal stratification of the water column isolates bottom waters from the atmosphere and prevents ventilation to compensate for the large consumption of oxygen, due to respiration in the bottom waters and in the sediments. A 3D coupled physical biogeochemical model is used to investigate the dynamics of bottom hypoxia in the Black Sea NWS at different temporal scales from seasonal to interannual (1981-2009) and to differentiate the driving factors (climatic versus eutrophication) of hypoxic conditions in bottom waters. Model skills are evaluated by comparison with 14500 in-situ oxygen measurements available in the NOAA World Ocean Database and the Black Sea Commission data. The choice of skill metrics and data subselections orientate the validation procedure towards specific aspects of the oxygen dynamics, and prove the model's ability to resolve the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of oxygen concentration as well as the spatial location of the oxygen depleted waters and the specific threshold of hypoxia. During the period 1981-2009, each year exhibits seasonal bottom hypoxia at the end of summer. This phenomenon essentially covers the northern part of the NWS, receiving large inputs of nutrients from the Danube, Dniestr and Dniepr rivers, and extends, during the years of severe hypoxia, towards the Romanian Bay of Constanta. In order to explain the interannual variability of bottom hypoxia and to disentangle its drivers, a statistical model (multiple linear regression) is proposed using the long time series of model results as input variables. This statistical model gives a general relationships that links the intensity of hypoxia to eutrophication and climate related variables. The use of four predictors allows to reproduce 78% of hypoxia interannual variability: the annual nitrate discharge (N), the sea surface temperature in the month preceding stratification (T ), the

  17. Assessment of metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, and Pb) in seawater, sediment and biota samples in the coastal area of Eastern Black Sea, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baltas, Hasan; Sirin, Murat; Dalgic, Goktug; Bayrak, Esra Yilmaz; Akdeniz, Aysel

    2017-09-15

    This study investigated the contents of Cu, Zn and Pb in seawater, sediment, different shell sizes of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sea snail (Rapana venosa) samples collected from four different provinces of the Eastern Black Sea Region. With the exception of Zn, all the metal concentration values measured in the sea snail were observed to be higher than those of mussels in all stations. While the correlation between mussels and sea snail according to metal concentrations was found to be positive (p˂0.05), this relation was not observed between the other parameters, such as the shell sizes, salinity and pH (p˃0.05). Although the mean concentration values of Cu, Zn, and Pb for mussel and sea snail are significantly above the tolerable levels, the estimated daily intake values for mussel were below the daily intake recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Small river plumes near the north-eastern coast of the Black Sea under climatic mean and flooding discharge conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadchiev, Alexander; Korshenko, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    The study is focused on the impact of discharge from small rivers on propagation and final location of fluvial waters and suspended matter at the north-eastern part of the Black Sea under different local precipitation conditions. Several dozens of mountainous rivers inflow into the sea at the studied region and most of them, except the several largest of them, have small annual runoff and limitedly affect adjacent coastal waters under climatic mean conditions. However, discharges of these small rivers are characterized by quick response to precipitation events and can dramatically increase during and shortly after heavy rains, which are frequent in the area under consideration. Propagation and final location of fluvial waters and terrigenous sediments at the studied region under climatic mean and rain-induced flooding conditions were explored and compared using in situ data, satellite imagery and numerical modelling. It was shown that the point-source spread of continental discharge dominated by several large rivers during climatic mean conditions can change to the line-source discharge from numerous small rivers situated along the coast in response to heavy rains. Intense line-source runoff of water and suspended sediments form a geostrophic alongshore current of turbid and freshened water, which induces intense transport of suspended and dissolved constituents discharged with river waters in a north-western direction. This process significantly influences water quality and causes active sediment load at large segments of narrow shelf at the north-eastern part of the Black Sea as compared to climatic mean discharge conditions.

  19. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2012

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-09-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. In FY 2012, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $195 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Armymore » Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator« less

  20. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2011

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-04-01

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. In FY 2011, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $167 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Armymore » Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator« less

  1. Demography of black-tailed prairie dog populations reoccupying sites treated with rodenticide

    Treesearch

    R. P. Cincotta; Daniel W. Uresk; R. M. Hansen

    1987-01-01

    A rodenticide, zinc phosphide, was applied to remove black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) from 6 haofa prairie dog colony in southwestern South Dakota. Another adjacent 6 ha was left untreated. The removal experiment was repeated two consecutive years. Contingency table analysis showed that the resultant population was not homogeneous;...

  2. Diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance at 490 nm and its spectral characteristics in the Black Sea upper layer: modeling, in situ measurements and ocean color data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslin, V. V.; Slabakova, V. K.; Churilova, T. Ya.

    2017-11-01

    Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd(490), is one of the key parameter required for water quality modeling, hydrodynamic and biological processes in the sea. We showed that standard level-2 product of Kd(490) was underestimated in comparison with Kd(490) values simulated by the regional model during the diatom bloom in the Black Sea. Using data of SeaWiFS, MERIS and MODIS color scanners, a regional relationship between the model value of Kd(490) and the ratio of remote sensing reflectances has been obtained. Based on the bulgarian argo-bio-buoy dataset, the relationship between the attenuation coefficient of photosynthetically active radiation and attenuation coefficient at a wavelength of 490 nm is obtained. The simplified model, below as the S-model, of the diffuse attenuation coefficient spectrum for downwelling irradiance in the Black Sea upper layer is described. As a consequence of the S-model, the link between the depth of the euphotic zone and Kd(490) has been obtained. It is shown that the Kd(490) values, retrieved from ocean color data with using the regional link and from argo-bio-buoy measurements at depths between 6-20 m, are close to each other.

  3. Black Sea nitrogen cycling and the preservation of phytoplankton δ15N signals during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, James M.; Arthur, Michael A.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2012-06-01

    The stable isotopic compositions of bulk, clay-bound, organic, and compound-specific nitrogen were determined for mid to late Holocene Black Sea sediments from a set of box and gravity cores. The data demonstrate that cyanobacterial N2fixation provided ˜55% of phytoplankton-derived N preserved in the top 1-2 cm of the sediments. Prior to widespread agricultural and industrial development in the catchment, N2fixation was more prominent, providing 70-80% of phytoplankton N. Organic and clay-bound nitrogen fractions record different down-coreδ15N trends that reflect phytoplankton and detrital sources, respectively, and in samples with low organic matter content, the clay-bound fraction comprises up to 38% of bulk nitrogen. Compared with bulk samples, pyropheophytina (Pphe a), which is a chlorophyll a (Chl a) degradation product, provides a more accurate record of changing phytoplankton δ15N values during the Holocene. An examination of the δ15NPphe a values in light of published and new estimates of the isotopic difference between biomass and Chl a suggests that most of the preserved Pphe a was derived from eukaryotic algae, not cyanobacteria. We infer from these data that cyanobacterial biomass is rapidly recycled in the photic zone, with 15N-depleted NH4+ released during heterotrophy and assimilated by other phytoplankton. A conceptual model for N2 fixation in the Black Sea is presented, drawing upon water column nutrient and hydrographic data as well as regional climate variability to explain the proposed temporal variability in N2 fixation.

  4. Distribution and abundance of phytobenthic communities: Implications for connectivity and ecosystem functioning in a Black Sea Marine Protected Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berov, Dimitar; Todorova, Valentina; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Rinde, Eli; Karamfilov, Ventzislav

    2018-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of macroalgal communities in a Marine Protected Area (MPA) along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast were mapped and quantified, with particular focus on the previously unstudied P. crispa lower-infralittoral communities on Ostrea edulis biogenic reefs. Data from high resolution geophysical substrate mapping were combined with benthic community observations from georeferenced benthic photographic surveys and sampling. Multivariate analysis identified four distinct assemblages of lower-infralittoral macroalgal communities at depths between 10 and 17 m, dominated by Phyllophora crispa, Apoglossum ruscifoluim, Zanardinia typus and Gelidium spp. Maxent software analysis showed distinct preferences of the identified communities to areas with specific ranges of depth, inclination and curvature, with P. crispa more frequently occurring on vertical oyster biogenic reef structures. By combining production rates from literature, biomass measurements and the produced habitat maps, the highest proportion of primary production and DOC release was shown for the upper infralittoral Cystoseira barbata and Cystoseira bosphorica, followed by the production of the lower-infralittoral macroalgae. The observed distribution of P. crispa within the studied MPA was related to the network of Natura 2000 maritime MPAs along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, which indicated that the connectivity of the populations of the species within the established network is insufficient within this cell of ecosystem functioning.

  5. Assessing Withering Syndrome Resistance in California Black Abalone: Implications for Conservation and Restoration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-29

    worldwide. California Sea Grant College Program UC San Diego Title: Assessing withering syndrome resistance in California black abalone : Implications...Hunter S.(2009). Assessing withering syndrome resistance in California black abalone : Implications for conservation and restoration. UC San Diego...California Sea Grant College Program. Retrieved from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7c39q78n Keywords: black abalone , Haliotis cracherodii, captive breeding

  6. Phorbin steryl esters in Black Sea sediment traps and sediments: A preliminary evaluation of their paleooceanographic potential

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.L.; Repeta, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    The distributions of pyropheophorbide-a steryl esters in one-year deployments of sediment traps at two locations in the Black Sea are described. In nearly all trap samples, phorbin steryl esters (PSEs) contribute a significant portion of the total phorbin flux. The relative abundances of sterols esterified to pyropheophorbide-a varied throughout the year, and the authors suggest these changes result from the observed seasonal variation of phytoplankton species in the overlying water column. The distribution of free sterols in a one-year composite sediment trap sample closely approximates the distribution of sterols derived from the hydrolysis of sedimentary PSEs collected at an adjacentmore » site. From these results, they suggest that the distribution of sedimentary PSE sterols provides a record of sterol deposition to the sediment-water interface. Esterification of sterols to pyropheophorbide-a apparently prevents the preferential removal of 4-desmethyl sterols relative to 4-methyl sterols, and the reduction of stenols to stanols during degradation. Analysis of PSEs in a gravity core covering the last 8-10 Kyr shows that the abundance and distribution of PSEs change with downcore variations in sedimentology. Detailed analysis of PSEs in sediments may, therefore, provide a means to evaluate paleooceanographic changes in phytoplankton community structure and sterol early diagenesis. The synthesis, NMR, CI-MS, and visible spectroscopic properties of four abundance PSEs found in the Black Sea are also described.« less

  7. Phosphorus burial in sediments of the sulfidic deep Black Sea: Key roles for adsorption by calcium carbonate and apatite authigenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraal, Peter; Dijkstra, Nikki; Behrends, Thilo; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2017-05-01

    Sedimentary burial of the essential nutrient phosphorus (P) under anoxic and sulfidic conditions is incompletely understood. Here, we use chemical and micro-scale spectroscopic methods to characterize sedimentary P burial along a water column redox transect (six stations, 78-2107 m water depth) in the Black Sea from the shelf with its oxygenated waters to the anoxic and sulfidic deep basin. Organic P is an important P pool under all redox regimes, accounting for up to 60% of P burial. We find a general down-core increase in the relative importance of organic P, especially on the shelf where P bound to iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) (oxyhydr)oxides is abundant in the uppermost sediment but rapidly declines in concentration with sediment depth. Our chemical and spectroscopic data indicate that the carbonate-rich sediments (Unit I, ∼3000 years, ∼0-30 cm depth) of the sulfidic deep Black Sea contain three major P pools: calcium phosphate (apatite), organic P and P that is strongly associated with CaCO3 and possibly clay surfaces. Apatite concentrations increase from 5% to 25% of total P in the uppermost centimeters of the deep basin sediments, highlighting the importance of apatite formation for long-term P burial. Iron(II)-associated P (ludlamite) was detected with X-ray absorption spectroscopy but was shown to be a minor P pool (∼5%), indicating that lateral Fe-P transport from the shelf ("shuttling") likely occurs but does not impact the P burial budget of the deep Black Sea. The CaCO3-P pool was relatively constant throughout the Unit I sediment interval and accounted for up to 55% of total P. Our results highlight that carbonate-bound P can be an important sink for P in CaCO3-rich sediments of anoxic, sulfidic basins and should also be considered as a potential P sink (and P source in case of CaCO3 dissolution) when reconstructing past ocean P dynamics from geological records.

  8. The benthoneuston of the Black Sea: Composition and environmental factors influencing its nocturnal dynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Anokhina, Ludmila L.

    2017-05-01

    Plankton fauna nocturnally migrating from the sea-floor or near-bottom layer to the uppermost surface layer (benthoneuston) links benthic, benthopelagic, pelagic, and neustonic realms. We conducted five intervals of sampling (every 1-2 h during five nights) synchronously in the neustal (surface to 10-cm depth layer) and in the water column below to examine which taxa concentrate in the neustal, and under which circumstances they do so. We tested the following environmental factors: sea-floor biotope type, temperature, time after sunset, time to midnight, moon phase, and moon altitude. Of the 77 taxa recorded, about half (41) were found in the neustal. Among these, less than half (16) of the taxa showed a quantified attraction (by L-index) to the neustal and may be called the true benthoneuston. In contrast to the benthopelagic zone, where the contribution of the characteristic benthopelagic fauna exceeded 50%, the neustal was not dominated by a specific benthoneuston fauna. Nocturnal dynamics of the benthoneuston was mainly controlled by the proximity of the twilight time, then by the sea-floor biotope type and time to midnight. Neustonic taxa were more affected by moon illumination (moon phase and moon altitude) than those in the water column below. The benthoneuston in the studied area was represented by either juveniles or reproducing adults. This component of plankton communities is thus temporary and seasonal, at least in the temperate Black Sea. In the "high" summer-autumn season, contribution of benthoneuston to the coastal plankton communities is significant, whilst in winter this contribution may be negligible. The next step in the understanding of the role of benthoneuston should be associated with tropical areas where seasonal changes in reproduction are less distinctive and this group may represent an important permanent component of coastal communities.

  9. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001–2012)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 sam...

  10. Walrus areas of use in the Chukchi Sea during sparse sea ice cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Kochnev, Anatoly A.

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens feeds on benthic invertebrates on the continental shelf of the Chukchi and Bering Seas and rests on sea ice between foraging trips. With climate warming, ice-free periods in the Chukchi Sea have increased and are projected to increase further in frequency and duration. We radio-tracked walruses to estimate areas of walrus foraging and occupancy in the Chukchi Sea from June to November of 2008 to 2011, years when sea ice was sparse over the continental shelf in comparison to historical records. The earlier and more extensive sea ice retreat in June to September, and delayed freeze-up of sea ice in October to November, created conditions for walruses to arrive earlier and stay later in the Chukchi Sea than in the past. The lack of sea ice over the continental shelf from September to October caused walruses to forage in nearshore areas instead of offshore areas as in the past. Walruses did not frequent the deep waters of the Arctic Basin when sea ice retreated off the shelf. Walruses foraged in most areas they occupied, and areas of concentrated foraging generally corresponded to regions of high benthic biomass, such as in the northeastern (Hanna Shoal) and southwestern Chukchi Sea. A notable exception was the occurrence of concentrated foraging in a nearshore area of northwestern Alaska that is apparently depauperate in walrus prey. With increasing sea ice loss, it is likely that walruses will increase their use of coastal haul-outs and nearshore foraging areas, with consequences to the population that are yet to be understood.

  11. Fungal genomes that influence basic physiological processes of black grama and fourwing saltbush in arid southwestern rangelands

    Treesearch

    J.R. Barrow; M. Lucero; P. Osuna-Avila; I. Reyes-Vera; R.E. Aaltonen

    2007-01-01

    Symbiotic fungi confer multiple benefits such as enhanced photosynthetic rates and drought tolerance in host plants. Shrubs and grasses of southwestern deserts are colonized by symbiotic fungi that cannot be removed by conventional sterilization methods. These fungi were extensively studied in Bouteloua eriopoda (Torr.) Torr. and Atriplex...

  12. On the origin of salt in the Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esin, Nikolay; Esin, Nikolay V.; Yanko-Hombach, Valentina

    2017-04-01

    A very serious problem associated with the evolution of the Caspian Sea, is the appearance of salt in it with a chemical composition that is different from the ocean salt (Svitoch, 2014). There are several hypotheses proposed to explain the specified properties. In each of them states that the salt entered the sea from the Arctic or Indian oceans or from the Mediterranean Sea, and then it was subsequently reworked by numerous evaporations. But they do not explain the mechanism of salt accumulation in the Caspian lowlands and its chemical composition changes. In recent years, our studies have shown that after Paratethys disconnecting from the Mediterranean Sea the transgressions of the Black and Caspian seas occurred as a result of periodic melting of the continental ice. The flow of water through the mountain range from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea led to the formation of the Bosphorus Strait. The erosive lowering of the river bed flowing out of the Black Sea is gradually lowered limit of the possible filling of the seas Paratethys descendants. A mathematical reconstruction of the Sarmatian Sea in current relief showed that the theoretical contours of the sea very well coincide with the contours obtained according to the natural geological research. This shows that over the past 14 million years the significant changes in the landscape of the Black Sea-Caspian lowlands in the whole did not happen. The results allow creating a new understanding of the dynamics of the coasts and seas levels, and the origin of salt in the Caspian Sea. In our opinion the oceanic salt in the Caspian Sea remained since Paratethys connection with the Mediterranean Sea. As a result of tectonic processes of the Alps formation there was a gradual separation of the Paratethys from the Mediterranean Sea. As a result of negative freshwater balance the water in the Caspian depression evaporated with continuous (some time) inflow of salt water from the ocean. Thus, water evaporated and

  13. Southwestern Power Administration Update, October- December 2004

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2004-12-01

    On October 29, 2004, Southwestern and Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) reached agreement on interim arrangements to be implemented after the October 31, 2004, expiration of the membership agreement between the two parties. According to Jim McDonald, Director of Southwestern’s Division of Customer Service, the interim agreement forged between Southwestern and SPP seeks to minimize impacts to SPP as well as to Southwestern and its customers while Southwestern and SPP work on a seams/coordination agreement to succeed the expired membership agreement.

  14. Quantification of Microbial Communities in Subsurface Marine Sediments of the Black Sea and off Namibia.

    PubMed

    Schippers, Axel; Kock, Dagmar; Höft, Carmen; Köweker, Gerrit; Siegert, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Organic-rich subsurface marine sediments were taken by gravity coring up to a depth of 10 m below seafloor at six stations from the anoxic Black Sea and the Benguela upwelling system off Namibia during the research cruises Meteor 72-5 and 76-1, respectively. The quantitative microbial community composition at various sediment depths was analyzed using total cell counting, catalyzed reporter deposition - fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR). Total cell counts decreased with depths from 10(9) to 10(10) cells/mL at the sediment surface to 10(7)-10(9) cells/mL below one meter depth. Based on CARD-FISH and Q-PCR analyses overall similar proportions of Bacteria and Archaea were found. The down-core distribution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (16S and 18S rRNA) as well as functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes was quantified using Q-PCR. Crenarchaeota and the bacterial candidate division JS-1 as well as the classes Anaerolineae and Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi were highly abundant. Less abundant but detectable in most of the samples were Eukarya as well as the metal and sulfate-reducing Geobacteraceae (only in the Benguela upwelling influenced sediments). The functional genes cbbL, encoding for the large subunit of RuBisCO, the genes dsrA and aprA, indicative of sulfate-reducers as well as the mcrA gene of methanogens were detected in the Benguela upwelling and Black Sea sediments. Overall, the high organic carbon content of the sediments goes along with high cell counts and high gene copy numbers, as well as an equal abundance of Bacteria and Archaea.

  15. Where the Danube Meets the Black Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Acquired February 5, 2013 The Danube River is the largest in the European Union, its watershed draining 801,463 square kilometers (309,447 square miles) of land across 19 countries. Where that great river reaches the Black Sea, a remarkable delta has formed—the “Everglades” of Europe. The Danube Delta is home to more than 300 species of bird and 45 species of freshwater fish. The Danube Delta has been home to human settlements since the end of the Stone Age (the Neolithic Period), and the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines all built trading ports and military outposts along this coast. Today, the border between Romania and Ukraine cuts through the northern part of the delta. The area is a United Nations World Heritage Site, both for its natural and human history, and for the traditional maritime culture that persists in its marshes. All the while, the landscape has been shaped and re-shaped by nature and man. The image above was acquired on February 5, 2013, by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. The Danube Delta has a number of lobes formed over the past several thousand years, and this image is focused largely on the northernmost Chilia (or Kilia) lobe. It is the youngest section of the delta—somewhere between 300 to 400 years old—and lies mostly within Ukraine. Much of the land in the image above is officially considered part of the Danube Biosphere Reserve. Near the center of the image, the small city of Vylkove is known as the “Ukranian Venice,” due to its canals. To the lower left, the older Sulina lobe of the delta stretches to the south and further inland into Romania. White and brown curved lines reveal beach ridges and former shorelines, with the whiter ridges composed almost entirely of pure quartz sand in high dunes. To the east of the ridges, most of the landscape is flat marshland that is mostly brown in the barren days of winter. The Bystroye Canal through the center of the Chilia lobe has

  16. Seasonal dynamics of marine litter along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Simeonova, Anna; Chuturkova, Rozalina; Yaneva, Velika

    2017-06-15

    In this study marine litter (ML) surveys were conducted in 8 beaches along the Bulgarian Black Sea coastline within 4 seasons for 2015-2016. The monitoring applied OSPAR guideline, classifying ML in eight categories and 167 types. The results exhibited predominance of artificial polymer materials - 84.3%. ML densities ranged from 0.0587±0.005 to 0.1343±0.008 n/m 2 , highest on the urban beaches. The seasonal dynamics of most top 10 ML showed highest quantities in summer than the other seasons, as the differences are of high statistical significance (0.001≤P≤0.05). Top 1 ML item for most of the beaches was cigarette butts and filters reaching 1008±10.58 nos. in summer and from 19±3.41 to 89±7.81 nos. during the rest of the seasons (P<0.001). For the pronounced seasonality contributed the recreational activities, increased tourist flow and the wild camping. The investigation will enrich data scarcity for Descriptor 10 "Marine litter". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial distribution of earthquake hypocenters in the Crimea—Black Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmin, V. Yu; Shumlianska, L. O.

    2018-03-01

    Some aspects of the seismicity the Crime—Black Sea region are considered on the basis of the catalogued data on earthquakes that have occurred between 1970 and 2012. The complete list of the Crimean earthquakes for this period contains about 2140 events with magnitude ranging from -1.5 to 5.5. Bulletins contain information about compressional and shear waves arrival times regarding nearly 2000 earthquakes. A new approach to the definition of the coordinates of all of the events was applied to re-establish the hypocenters of the catalogued earthquakes. The obtained results indicate that the bulk of the earthquakes' foci in the region are located in the crust. However, some 2.5% of the foci are located at the depths ranging from 50 to 250 km. The new distribution of foci of earthquakes shows the concentration of foci in the form of two inclined branches, the center of which is located under the Yalto-Alushta seismic focal zone. The whole distribution of foci in depth corresponds to the relief of the lithosphere.

  18. Free, esterified and residual bound sterols in Black Sea Unit I sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, J. W.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Schenck, P. A.; Volkman, J. K.

    1983-03-01

    Detailed compositional data for the sterols isolated from a surface, Unit I, sediment from the Black Sea are reported. A procedure based on digitonin precipitation has been used to separate the more abundant free sterols from those occurring in esterified forms. Saponification of the solvent extracted sediment residue liberated only a small quantity of residual bound sterols in contrast to studies of other sediments. 4-Methylsterols are much more abundant than 4-desmethylsterols in both the free and esterified sterol fractions which we attribute to a major dinoflagellate input, as in deeper Unit II sediment. The desmethylsterol fraction appears to derive from a variety of sources including dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, diatoms, terrigenous detritus and perhaps invertebrates. 5α(H)-Stanols are particularly abundant in the free sterol fraction. An analysis of the stanol/stenol ratios suggests that the 4-desmethyl-5α(H)-stanols are the result of specific microbial reductions of Δ 5-sterols and/or the reflection of a contribution of stanol containing source organisms.

  19. New discovered Izmir and Busan Mud Volcanoes and Application of Seismic Attributes and AVO Analysis in the Easternmost Black Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okay, S.; Cifci, G.; Ozel, S.; Atgin, O.; Ozel, O.; Barin, B.; Er, M.; Dondurur, D.; Kucuk, M.; Gurcay, S.; Choul Kim, D.; Sung-Ho, B.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, the continental margins of Black Sea became important for its gas content. There are no scientific researches offshore Trabzon-Giresun area except the explorations of oil companies. This is the first survey that performed in that area. 1700 km high resolution multichannel seismic and chirp data simultaneously were collected onboard R/V K.Piri Reis . The seismic data reveal BSRs, bright spots and acoustic maskings especially on the eastern part of the survey area. The survey area in the Eastern Black Sea includes continental slope, apron and deep basin. Two mud volcanoes are discovered and named as Busan and Izmir. The observed fold belt is believed to be the main driving force for the growth of mud volcanoes.Faults are developed at the flanks of diapiric uplift. Seismic attributes and AVO analysis are applied to 9 seismic sections which have probable gassy sediments and BSR zones. In the seismic attribute analysis high amplitude horzions with reverse polarity are observed in instantaneous frequency, envelope and apparent polarity sections also with low frequency at instantaneous frequency sections. These analysis verify existence of gas accumulations in the sediments. AVO analysis and cross section drawing and Gradient analysis show Class 1 AVO anomaly and indicate gas in sediments. Keywords: BSR, Bright spot, Mud volcano, Seismic Attributes, AVO

  20. The nitrogen cycle in anaerobic methanotrophic mats of the Black Sea is linked to sulfate reduction and biomass decomposition.

    PubMed

    Siegert, Michael; Taubert, Martin; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen-Tomm, Martin; Basen, Mirko; Bastida, Felipe; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) mats host methane-oxidizing archaea and sulfate-reducing prokaryotes. Little is known about the nitrogen cycle in these communities. Here, we link the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) to the nitrogen cycle in microbial mats of the Black Sea by using stable isotope probing. We used four different (15)N-labeled sources of nitrogen: dinitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium. We estimated the nitrogen incorporation rates into the total biomass and the methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR). Dinitrogen played an insignificant role as nitrogen source. Assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction occurred. High rates of nitrate reduction to dinitrogen were stimulated by methane and sulfate, suggesting that oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfides was necessary for AOM with nitrate as electron acceptor. Nitrate reduction to dinitrogen occurred also in the absence of methane as electron donor but at six times slower rates. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium was independent of AOM. Ammonium was used for biomass synthesis under all conditions. The pivotal enzyme in AOM coupled to sulfate reduction, MCR, was synthesized from nitrate and ammonium. Results show that AOM coupled to sulfate reduction along with biomass decomposition drive the nitrogen cycle in the ANME mats of the Black Sea and that MCR enzymes are involved in this process. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface and mid-water sources of organic carbon by photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic production in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Ayşen; Çoban-Yıldız, Yeşim; Telli-Karakoç, Fatma; Bologa, Alexandru

    2006-08-01

    The multilayered surface waters of the Black Sea contain aerobic, suboxic and anoxic layers that support both photoautotrophic (PP) and chemoautotrophic (ChP) biological production. During the R/V Knorr cruise in May-June 2001, phytoplankton biomass (represented as chlorophyll- a), photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic production (ChP) rates were determined in the western Black Sea. Integrated chlorophyll- a concentrations in the euphotic zone were as low as 2.2 mg m -2 in the central gyre, while they were as high as 19.9 mg m -2 in the NW shelf region. Integrated photoautotrophic production rates ranged from 112 to 355 mg C m -2 d -1. The lowest values were determined in the central gyre and the highest values were found at the shelf-break station near the Bosphorus, the NW shelf/shelf-break area and in the Sevastopol eddy. Primary production and chlorophyll- a data revealed that post-bloom conditions existed during this sampling period. Bioassay experiments showed that under optimum light conditions, photoautotrophic production was nitrogen-limited. ChP increased in the redox transition zone and coincided with the lower boundary of the fine particle layer. The maximum values were shallower (at σθ=16.25) in the central gyre and deeper (at σθ=16.5) in the shelf-break region near Sakarya Canyon. Integrated ChP rates were 63 and 1930 mg C m -2 d -1, which were equivalent to 30% and 89% of the overall water-column production for the central gyre and Sakarya Canyon regions, respectively.

  2. A web platform for landuse, climate, demography, hydrology and beach erosion in the Black Sea catchment

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Anthony; Guigoz, Yaniss; Ray, Nicolas; Mancosu, Emanuele; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Rouholahnejad Freund, Elham; Allenbach, Karin; De Bono, Andrea; Fasel, Marc; Gago-Silva, Ana; Bär, Roger; Lacroix, Pierre; Giuliani, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The Black Sea catchment (BSC) is facing important demographic, climatic and landuse changes that may increase pollution, vulnerability and scarcity of water resources, as well as beach erosion through sea level rise. Limited access to reliable time-series monitoring data from environmental, statistical, and socio-economical sources is a major barrier to policy development and decision-making. To address these issues, a web-based platform was developed to enable discovery and access to key environmental information for the region. This platform covers: landuse, climate, and demographic scenarios; hydrology and related water vulnerability and scarcity; as well as beach erosion. Each data set has been obtained with state-of-the-art modelling tools from available monitoring data using appropriate validation methods. These analyses were conducted using global and regional data sets. The data sets are intended for national to regional assessments, for instance for prioritizing environmental protection projects and investments. Together they form a unique set of information, which lay out future plausible change scenarios for the BSC, both for scientific and policy purposes. PMID:28675383

  3. A web platform for landuse, climate, demography, hydrology and beach erosion in the Black Sea catchment.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Anthony; Guigoz, Yaniss; Ray, Nicolas; Mancosu, Emanuele; Abbaspour, Karim C; Rouholahnejad Freund, Elham; Allenbach, Karin; De Bono, Andrea; Fasel, Marc; Gago-Silva, Ana; Bär, Roger; Lacroix, Pierre; Giuliani, Gregory

    2017-07-04

    The Black Sea catchment (BSC) is facing important demographic, climatic and landuse changes that may increase pollution, vulnerability and scarcity of water resources, as well as beach erosion through sea level rise. Limited access to reliable time-series monitoring data from environmental, statistical, and socio-economical sources is a major barrier to policy development and decision-making. To address these issues, a web-based platform was developed to enable discovery and access to key environmental information for the region. This platform covers: landuse, climate, and demographic scenarios; hydrology and related water vulnerability and scarcity; as well as beach erosion. Each data set has been obtained with state-of-the-art modelling tools from available monitoring data using appropriate validation methods. These analyses were conducted using global and regional data sets. The data sets are intended for national to regional assessments, for instance for prioritizing environmental protection projects and investments. Together they form a unique set of information, which lay out future plausible change scenarios for the BSC, both for scientific and policy purposes.

  4. Quantitative analysis of Paratethys sea level change during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Vara, Alba; Meijer, Paul; van Baak, Christiaan; Marzocchi, Alice; Grothe, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    At the time of the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the Mediterranean Sea (i.e., the Pontian stage of the Paratethys), the Paratethys sea level dropped also. Evidence found in the sedimentary record of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea has been interpreted to indicate that a sea level fall occurred between 5.6 and 5.5 Ma. Estimates for the magnitude of the fall range between tens of meters to more than 1500 m. The purpose of this study is to provide quantitative insight into the sensitivity of the water level of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea to the hydrologic budget, for the case that the Paratethys is disconnected from the Mediterranean. Using a Late Miocene bathymetry based on a palaeographic map by Popov et al. (2004) we quantify the fall in sea level, the mean salinity, and the time to reach equilibrium for a wide range of negative hydrologic budgets. By combining our results with (i) estimates derived from a recent global Late Miocene climate simulation and (ii) reconstructed basin salinities, we are able to rule out a drop in sea level of the order of 1000 m in the Caspian Sea during this time period. In the Black Sea, however, such a large sea level fall cannot be fully discarded.

  5. Temperature profile in apricot tree canopies under the soil and climate conditions of the Romanian Black Sea Coast.

    PubMed

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Chitu, Emil

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the temperature profiles determined by thermal imagery in apricot tree canopies under the semi-arid conditions of the Black Sea Coast in a chernozem of Dobrogea Region, Romania. The study analyzes the thermal vertical profile of apricot orchards for three representative cultivars during summertime. Measurements were done when the soil water content (SWC) was at field capacity (FC) within the rooting depth, after intense sprinkler irrigation applications. Canopy temperature was measured during clear sky days at three heights for both sides of the apricot trees, sunlit (south), and shaded (north). For the SWC studied, i.e., FC, canopy height did not induce a significant difference between the temperature of apricot tree leaves (Tc) and the ambient air temperature (Ta) within the entire vertical tree profile, and temperature measurements by thermal imagery can therefore be taken at any height on the tree crown leaves. Differences between sunlit and shaded sides of the canopy were significant. Because of these differences for Tc-Ta among the apricot tree cultivars studied, lower base lines (LBLs) should be determined for each cultivar separately. The use of thermal imagery technique under the conditions of semi-arid coastal areas with low range of vapor pressure deficit could be useful in irrigation scheduling of apricot trees. The paper discusses the implications of the data obtained in the experiment under the conditions of the coastal area of the Black Sea, Romania, and neighboring countries with similar climate, such as Bulgaria and Turkey.

  6. Analysis of prestorm situations in the Florida Straight and Golubaya Bay in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grankov, A. G.; Marechek, S. V.; Milshin, A. A.; Novichikhin, E. P.; Shelobanova, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    We consider some peculiarities of the behavior of thermal and radio thermal (microwave radiation) characteristics of the atmosphere during prestorm situations in water areas monitored directly and remotely. The objects of research are (a) a region of the SMKF1 station (Sombrero Key) in the Florida Straight in August 2005 and (b) Golubaya Bay in the Black Sea (Gelendzhik, the territory of the Southern Branch of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences) in September 2010, several days before an intensive storm. Using meteorological and satellite microwave radiometric data, we have studied some common and specific features in the behavior of surface air temperature and humidity, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, total heat and water vapor content of the atmosphere, and microwave radiation characteristics of the "water surface-atmosphere" system during time periods preceding the approach of Hurricane Katrina to the region of SMKF1 and development of the sea storm near the Golubaya Bay. In both cases the effect of the accumulation of the latent heat of water vapor in the atmosphere was observed during the prestorm periods (of several days).

  7. Atmospheric and oceanic forcing of Weddell Sea ice motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottmeier, C.; Sellmann, Lutz

    1996-09-01

    The data from sea ice buoys, which were deployed during the Winter Weddell Sea Project 1986, the Winter Weddell Gyre Studies 1989 and 1992, the Ice Station Weddell in 1992, the Antarctic Zone Flux Experiment in 1994, and several ship cruises in Austral summers, are uniformly reanalyzed by the same objective methods. Geostrophic winds are derived after matching of the buoy pressure data with the surface pressure fields of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. The ratio between ice drift and geostrophic wind speeds is reduced when winds and currents oppose each other, when the atmospheric surface layer is stably stratified, and when the ice is under pressure near coasts. Over the continental shelves, the spatial inhomogeneity of tidal and inertial motion effectively controls the variability of divergence for periods below 36 hours. Far from coasts, speed ratios, which presumably reflect internal stress variations in the ice cover, are independent of drift divergence on the spatial scale of 100 km. To study basin-scale ice dynamics, all ice drift data are related to the geostrophic winds based on the complex linear model [Thorndike and Colony, 1982] for daily averaged data. The composite patterns of mean ice motion, geostrophic winds, and geostrophic surface currents document cyclonic basin-wide circulations. Geostrophic ocean currents are generally small in the Weddell Sea. Significant features are the coastal current near the southeastern coasts and the bands of larger velocities of ≈6 cm s-1 following the northward and eastward orientation of the continental shelf breaks in the western and northwestern Weddell Sea. In the southwestern Weddell Sea the mean ice drift speed is reduced to less than 0.5% of the geostrophic wind speed and increases rather continuously to 1.5% in the northern, central, and eastern Weddell Sea. The linear model accounts for less than 50% of the total variance of drift speeds in the southwestern Weddell Sea and up to 80

  8. Black carbon in deep-sea sediments from the northeastern equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Hyeong, K.; Yoo, C.

    2011-12-01

    Deep-sea sediment core is a good archive for understanding the land-ocean interactions via atmosphere, due to it is little influenced by fluvial and continental shelf processes. This study dealt with black carbon(BC) in a 328 cm-long piston core collected from the northeastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (16°12'N, 125°59'W), covering the last 15 Ma (Hyeong at al., 2004). BC is a common name of carbon continuum formed by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and plant materials. Though it may react with ozone and produce water-soluble organic carbon, BC has commonly refractory nature. Thus BC in preindustrial sediment can be a tracer of forest-fire events. BC is purely terrestrial in origin, and is transported to marine environments by atmospheric and fluvial processes. Therefore, distribution of BC in deep-sea sediments could be used to understand atmospheric circulation. Chemical oxidation was used to determine BC in this study following Lim and Cachier (1996). Concentration of BC varies from 0.010% to 0.233% of total sediments. Mass accumulation rate (MAR) of BC ranged between 0.077 mg/cm^2/1000 yrs and 47.49 mg/cm^21000 yrs. It is noted that MAR in sediments younger than 8 Ma (av. 9.0 mg/cm^2/1000 yrs) is higher than that in sediments older than 8 Ma (av. 3.2 mg/cm^2/1000 yrs). Stable carbon isotope value of BC increases with time from the low δ13C value near 13 Ma until it reaches the highest value near 4 Ma. Change of MAR seems to be related to the meridional migration of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) at around 8 Ma in the study area (cf., Hyeong at al., 2004). Accordingly, higher BC content in sediment younger than 8 Ma seems to be accounted for by its derivation from the Northern Hemisphere compared to that from the Southern Hemisphere in older sediment. Increase of carbon isotope value with time seems to be related to expansion of C4 grassland. C4 grassland expansion might have been caused by change of atmosphreic cycle, which moved dry subtropical

  9. Microbial diversity from chlorophyll maximum, oxygen minimum and bottom zones in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Silva, Renata; de Oliveira, Rafael R.; Pivel, Maria A. G.; Borges, Luiz G. A.; Simão, Taiz L. L.; Pereira, Leandro M.; Trindade, Fernanda J.; Augustin, Adolpho H.; Valdez, Fernanda P.; Eizirik, Eduardo; Utz, Laura R. P.; Groposo, Claudia; Miller, Dennis J.; Viana, Adriano R.; Ketzer, João M. M.; Giongo, Adriana

    2018-02-01

    Conspicuous physicochemical vertical stratification in the deep sea is one of the main forces driving microbial diversity in the oceans. Oxygen and sunlight availability are key factors promoting microbial diversity throughout the water column. Ocean currents also play a major role in the physicochemical stratification, carrying oxygen down to deeper zones as well as moving deeper water masses up towards shallower depths. Water samples within a 50-km radius in a pockmark location of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean were collected and the prokaryotic communities from different water depths - chlorophyll maximum, oxygen minimum and deep-sea bottom (down to 1355 m) - were described. At phylum level, Proteobacteria were the most frequent in all water depths, Cyanobacteria were statistically more frequent in chlorophyll maximum zone, while Thaumarchaeota were significantly more abundant in both oxygen minimum and bottom waters. The most frequent microorganism in the chlorophyll maximum and oxygen minimum zones was a Pelagibacteraceae operational taxonomic unit (OTU). At the bottom, the most abundant genus was the archaeon Nitrosopumilus. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing data uncovered in this study shows high spatial heterogeneity among water zones communities. Our data brings important contribution for the characterisation of oceanic microbial diversity, as it consists of the first description of prokaryotic communities occurring in different oceanic water zones in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

  10. Nannofossils in upper quaternary bottom sediments of back-arc basins in the southwestern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrenko, O. B.

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of calcareous nannoplankton assemblages in bottom sediments sampled during Cruise 21 of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in three areas located in back-arc basins of the southwestern Pacific (western Woodlark in the Solomon Sea, Manus in the Bismarck Sea, Central Lau) reveal that they belong to the Emiliania huxleyi Acme Zone, the most detailed one in the Gartner's scale of 1977. The content of coccoliths and their taxonomic composition indicate warm subtropical-tropical conditions. Long cores demonstrate a decrease in species diversity reflecting the transition from the cold late Pleistocene to the Holocene. The changes in species diversity and presence/absence of thermophilic representatives indicate transformation of depositional environments with unstable conditions in the water column and bottom layer, seismic activity, and widely developed processes of sediment redistribution and reworking.

  11. Towards A Modern Calibration Of The 238U/235U Paleoredox Proxy: Apparent Uranium Isotope Fractionation Factor During U(VI)-U(IV) Reduction In The Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolison, J. M.; Stirling, C. H.; Middag, R.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; De Baar, H. J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The isotopic compositions of redox-sensitive metals, including uranium (U), in marine sediments have recently emerged as powerful diagnostic tracers of the redox state of the ancient ocean-atmosphere system. Interpretation of sedimentary isotopic information requires a thorough understating of the environmental controls on isotopic fractionation in modern anoxic environments before being applied to the paleo-record. In this study, the relationship between ocean anoxia and the isotopic fractionation of U was investigated in the water column and sediments of the Black Sea. The Black Sea is the world's largest anoxic basin and significant removal of U from the water column and high U accumulation rates in modern underlying sediments have been documented. Removal of U from the water column occurs during the redox transition of soluble U(VI) to relatively insoluble U(IV). The primary results of this study are two-fold. First, significant 238U/235U fractionation was observed in the water column of the Black Sea, suggesting the reduction of U induces 238U/235U fractionation with the preferential removal of 238U from the aqueous phase. Second, the 238U/235U of underlying sediments is related to the water column through the isotope fractionation factor of the reduction reaction but is influenced by mass transport processes. These results provide important constraints on the use of 238U/235U as a proxy of the redox state of ancient oceans.

  12. Satellite captures trichodesmium blooms in the southwestern tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupouy, Cécile; Neveux, Jacques; Subramaniam, Ajit; Mulholland, Margaret R.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Campbell, Lisa; Carpenter, Edward J.; Capone, Douglas G.

    Obtaining a true estimate of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria in the oceans, mainly Trichodesmium, is an important step toward understanding the entire nitrogen cycle in the tropical ocean. This strictly anaerobic process, which has a high Fe requirement, could regulate atmospheric CO2 over geological time. For example, during interglacial periods, N2 fixation would be too low (low Fe) to balance denitrification and the ocean would lose its fixed nitrogen [Falkowski, 1997]. Has the level of marine nitrogen fixation been underestimated until now? High N2 fixation rates measured on Trichodesmium spp. communities have led to an upward revision of this marine flux [Capone et al, 1997]. Recent modeling studies and observations predict that N2 fixation could regulate the long-term N:P equilibrium in the oceans and balance denitrification [Tyrell, 1999; J L. Sarmiento and N. Gruber, manuscript in preparation, 1999].The major nitrogen fixer, Trichodesmium spp., which are filamentous, nonheterocystous N2-fixing cyanobacteria, has a nearly ubiquitous distribution in the euphotic zone of tropical and subtropical seas and could play a major role in bringing new N to these oligotrophic systems. Satellite images from Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFs), the recently launched ocean color sensor, and data from a recent cruise, provide further evidence of the importance of Trichodesmium in the southwestern tropical Pacific Ocean.

  13. Murzuk Sand Sea, Sahara Desert, Libya, Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-01-19

    STS054-152-189 (13-19 Jan. 1993) --- This near-vertical color photograph shows the very diverse landscape that is part of the great Sahara Desert of north Africa. Specifically, the vast expanse of sand dunes, located in the extreme southwestern corner of Libya, is known as the Murzuk Sand Sea. Close inspection of this photograph shows the agricultural village of Murzuk as evidenced by the numerous center pivot irrigation patterns at the edge of the Murzuk Sand Sea. The very rugged, dissected terrain to the west of this sand sea is the eastern tip of the Tassili N'ajjer Mountains and the Tadrart Plateau that are in neighboring Algeria. Several smaller areas of sand dunes are interspersed between the major areas of rock outcrops. The photograph was taken with a Linhof camera.

  14. On the Subsurface Chlorophyll Maximum layer in the Black Sea Romanian shelf waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliu, Dan; Gomoiu, Marian-Traian; Secrieru, Dan; Caraus, Ioan; Balan, Sorin

    2013-04-01

    By analyzing data recorded in 38 sampling stations (bottom depths between 16 and 200 m) covering the entire Romanian shelf, from the Danube's mouths to the southern part of the coast, the authors study Subsurface Chlorophyll Maximum (SCM) from May 2009 to April 2011. Chlorophyll a (Chla), seawater temperature, salinity, sigma T, dissolved oxygen, ph, beam attenuation, were measured over the water column depth with the CTD probe and averaged over 1-db intervals (about 1 m depth). Nutrients and phytoplankton qualitative and quantitative parameters were recorded from different depths according to water masses stratification (inscribed in the research protocol of the cruise). In late winter/early spring, due to strong mixing processes of water masses, SCM was not observed in the Black Sea shelf waters. In spring (May), the Danube's increased discharges, characteristic to that period, strongly affected the vertical distribution of Chla, particularly in the area of the Danube's direct influence, where Chla reached maximum in the surface layer (19.76 - 30.39 µg.l-1). In the deeper sampling stations, a relatively weak SCM (Chla within 0.77 - 1.21 µg.l-1) was observed, mainly at the lower limit of the euphotic zone (between 30 and 40 m depths). Here, the position and magnitude of SCM seemed to be controlled mainly by the light conditions; the seasonal thermocline was not well contoured yet. In the warm season, once the stratification becomes stronger, the magnitude of SCM increased (Chla varies between 1.45 - 2.12 µg.l-1). The SCM was well pronounced below the upper boundary of thermocline, at depths between 20 and 25 m, where the dissolved oxygen concentrations have also reached the highest values (>10 mg.l-1 O2), thus suggesting strong photosynthetic processes, where both nutrient and light conditions are favorable. A particular situation was found in July 2010, when abnormally high discharges from the Danube led to a well pronounced SCM (3.23 - 6.87 µg.l-1 Chla

  15. The translocated Liza haematocheila (Teleostei: Mugilidae) as a new host of four species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae) within its invasive range in the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Pankov, Plamen; Gibson, David I; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents the first documented record of four species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 in Liza haematocheila (Temminck & Schlegel) in its invasive Pontic range. S. papernai Overstreet, 1977, S. dimitrovi Blasco-Costa, Pankov, Gibson, Balbuena, Raga, Sarabeev & Kostadinova, 2006, S. minutus Blasco-Costa, Pankov, Gibson, Balbuena, Raga, Sarabeev & Kostadinova, 2006 and Saturnius sp. are described and compared with existing data by means of multivariate morphometric analysis. The morphological and morphometric similarities between the specimens of Saturnius sp. from L. haematocheila and a small form of S. papernai from L. aurata indicate the possible existence of another, cryptic species. Although having acquired at least three species of Saturnius since its establishment in the Black Sea region, there is no evidence that a Pacific congener has been introduced with this fish. This is the first report of S. minutus from the Black Sea.

  16. Spatial distribution of common Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) as an indication of a biological hotspot in the East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dasom; An, Yong Rock; Park, Kyum Joon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Dabin; Joo, Hui Tae; Oh, Young Geun; Kim, Su Min; Kang, Chang Keun; Lee, Sang Heon

    2017-09-01

    The minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) is the most common baleen whale among several marine mammal species observed in Korea. Since a high concentrated condition of prey to whales can be obtained by physical structures, the foraging whale distribution can be an indicator of biological hotspot. Our main objective is verifying the coastal upwelling-southwestern East Sea as a productive biological hotspot based on the geographical distribution of minke whales. Among the cetacean research surveys of the National Institute of Fisheries Science since 1999, 9 years data for the minke whales available in the East Sea were used for this study. The regional primary productivity derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used for a proxy of biological productivity. Minke whales observed during the sighting surveys were mostly concentrated in May and found mostly (approximately 70%) in the southwestern coastal areas (< 300 m) where high chlorophyll concentrations and primary productivity were generally detected. Based on MODIS-derived primary productivity algorithm, the annual primary production (320 g C m-2 y-1) estimated in the southwestern coastal region of the East Sea belongs to the highly productive coastal upwelling regions in the world. A change in the main spatial distribution of minke whales was found in recent years, which indicate that the major habitats of mink whales have been shifted into the north of the common coastal upwelling regions. This is consistent with the recently reported unprecedented coastal upwelling in the mid-eastern coast of Korea. Based on high phytoplankton productivity and high distribution of minke whales, the southwestern coastal regions can be considered as one of biological hotspots in the East Sea. These regions are important for ecosystem dynamics and the population biology of top marine predators, especially migratory whales and needed to be carefully managed from a resource management perspective.

  17. Invasion pathway of the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Ghabooli, Sara; Shiganova, Tamara A; Briski, Elizabeta; Piraino, Stefano; Fuentes, Veronica; Thibault-Botha, Delphine; Angel, Dror L; Cristescu, Melania E; Macisaac, Hugh J

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton outbreaks have increased globally owing to a number of human-mediated factors, including food web alterations and species introductions. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi entered the Black Sea in the early 1980s. The invasion was followed by the Azov, Caspian, Baltic and North Seas, and, most recently, the Mediterranean Sea. Previous studies identified two distinct invasion pathways of M. leidyi from its native range in the western Atlantic Ocean to Eurasia. However, the source of newly established populations in the Mediterranean Sea remains unclear. Here we build upon our previous study and investigate sequence variation in both mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I) and nuclear (Internal Transcribed Spacer) markers in M. leidyi, encompassing five native and 11 introduced populations, including four from the Mediterranean Sea. Extant genetic diversity in Mediterranean populations (n = 8, N a = 10) preclude the occurrence of a severe genetic bottleneck or founder effects in the initial colonizing population. Our mitochondrial and nuclear marker surveys revealed two possible pathways of introduction into Mediterranean Sea. In total, 17 haplotypes and 18 alleles were recovered from all surveyed populations. Haplotype and allelic diversity of Mediterranean populations were comparable to populations from which they were likely drawn. The distribution of genetic diversity and pattern of genetic differentiation suggest initial colonization of the Mediterranean from the Black-Azov Seas (pairwise F ST = 0.001-0.028). However, some haplotypes and alleles from the Mediterranean Sea were not detected from the well-sampled Black Sea, although they were found in Gulf of Mexico populations that were also genetically similar to those in the Mediterranean Sea (pairwise F ST = 0.010-0.032), raising the possibility of multiple invasion sources. Multiple introductions from a combination of Black Sea and native region sources

  18. Invasion Pathway of the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ghabooli, Sara; Shiganova, Tamara A.; Briski, Elizabeta; Piraino, Stefano; Fuentes, Veronica; Thibault-Botha, Delphine; Angel, Dror L.; Cristescu, Melania E.; MacIsaac, Hugh J.

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton outbreaks have increased globally owing to a number of human-mediated factors, including food web alterations and species introductions. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi entered the Black Sea in the early 1980s. The invasion was followed by the Azov, Caspian, Baltic and North Seas, and, most recently, the Mediterranean Sea. Previous studies identified two distinct invasion pathways of M. leidyi from its native range in the western Atlantic Ocean to Eurasia. However, the source of newly established populations in the Mediterranean Sea remains unclear. Here we build upon our previous study and investigate sequence variation in both mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I) and nuclear (Internal Transcribed Spacer) markers in M. leidyi, encompassing five native and 11 introduced populations, including four from the Mediterranean Sea. Extant genetic diversity in Mediterranean populations (n = 8, N a = 10) preclude the occurrence of a severe genetic bottleneck or founder effects in the initial colonizing population. Our mitochondrial and nuclear marker surveys revealed two possible pathways of introduction into Mediterranean Sea. In total, 17 haplotypes and 18 alleles were recovered from all surveyed populations. Haplotype and allelic diversity of Mediterranean populations were comparable to populations from which they were likely drawn. The distribution of genetic diversity and pattern of genetic differentiation suggest initial colonization of the Mediterranean from the Black-Azov Seas (pairwise F ST = 0.001–0.028). However, some haplotypes and alleles from the Mediterranean Sea were not detected from the well-sampled Black Sea, although they were found in Gulf of Mexico populations that were also genetically similar to those in the Mediterranean Sea (pairwise F ST = 0.010–0.032), raising the possibility of multiple invasion sources. Multiple introductions from a combination of Black Sea and native region sources

  19. 25 CFR 38.15 - Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute. 38.15 Section 38.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.15 Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute. (a) The Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute has...

  20. 25 CFR 38.15 - Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute. 38.15 Section 38.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.15 Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute. (a) The Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute has...

  1. 25 CFR 38.15 - Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute. 38.15 Section 38.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.15 Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute. (a) The Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute has...

  2. 25 CFR 38.15 - Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute. 38.15 Section 38.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.15 Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute. (a) The Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute has...

  3. 25 CFR 38.15 - Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute. 38.15 Section 38.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.15 Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute. (a) The Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute has...

  4. Review of critical factors for SEA implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jie, E-mail: jasmine@plan.aau.dk; Christensen, Per; Kornov, Lone

    . The paper identifies some of the critical factors for effective SEA implementation, but further research is still needed to conclude which factors are more critical than others, just as the contingencies on which they depend are not easy to unravel. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The research on critical factors influencing SEA implementation is fragmented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The critical factors are used to discuss 'hot-spots' in the implementation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical factors are just as broad as the concept of effectiveness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both stage and general factors are relevant in explaining the effectiveness of SEA.« less

  5. Particle Flux in the Western Black Sea in the Present and over the Last 5,000 Years: Temporal Variability, Sources, Transport Mechanisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    the species Emiliania huxleyi, diatoms, and silicoflagellates) and , terrigenous matter from the Danube and nearby local rivers. The relative...this time period for the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi to exist. The Black Sea was a fresh water environment before more than 5,000 years ago...and gradually became brackish; Emiliania huxleyi becameJ .. 4 established after the salinity exceeded 11 %o. The terrigenous matter supply remained

  6. Tsunamis hazard assessment and monitoring for the Back Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partheniu, Raluca; Ionescu, Constantin; Constantin, Angela; Moldovan, Iren; Diaconescu, Mihail; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Radulian, Mircea; Toader, Victorin

    2016-04-01

    NIEP has improved lately its researches regarding tsunamis in the Black Sea. As part of the routine earthquake and tsunami monitoring activity, the first tsunami early-warning system in the Black Sea has been implemented in 2013 and is active during these last years. In order to monitor the seismic activity of the Black Sea, NIEP is using a total number of 114 real time stations and 2 seismic arrays, 18 of the stations being located in Dobrogea area, area situated in the vicinity of the Romanian Black Sea shore line. Moreover, there is a data exchange with the Black Sea surrounding countries involving the acquisition of real-time data for 17 stations from Bulgaria, Turkey, Georgia and Ukraine. This improves the capability of the Romanian Seismic Network to monitor and more accurately locate the earthquakes occurred in the Black Sea area. For tsunamis monitoring and warning, a number of 6 sea level monitoring stations, 1 infrasound barometer, 3 offshore marine buoys and 7 GPS/GNSS stations are installed in different locations along and near the Romanian shore line. In the framework of ASTARTE project, few objectives regarding the seismic hazard and tsunami waves height assessment for the Black Sea were accomplished. The seismic hazard estimation was based on statistical studies of the seismic sources and their characteristics, compiled using different seismic catalogues. Two probabilistic methods were used for the evaluation of the seismic hazard, the Cornell method, based on the Gutenberg Richter distribution parameters, and Gumbel method, based on extremes statistic. The results show maximum values of possible magnitudes and their recurrence periods, for each seismic source. Using the Tsunami Analysis Tool (TAT) software, a set of tsunami modelling scenarios have been generated for Shabla area, the seismic source that could mostly affect the Romanian shore. These simulations are structured in a database, in order to set maximum possible tsunami waves that could be

  7. Prevalence of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Orhan, F; Karakas, T; Cakir, M; Aksoy, A; Baki, A; Gedik, Y

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of adverse reactions to food in childhood in Turkey is not known. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of IgE-mediated food allergies (FAs) in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study recruited 3500 of the randomly selected 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren from the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey during 2006. Following a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents and the child, consenting children were invited for skin prick tests (SPTs) and oral food challenges. Children with suspected IgE-mediated FA were skin prick tested with a predefined panel of food allergens (milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat, peanut, fish, and hazelnut), aeroallergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, cat, dog, Alternaria, grass pollen mix, weed pollen mix, and tree pollen mix), and food allergens reported in the questionnaire. All children with a positive SPT to any food were invited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). The prevalence of IgE-mediated FA was established using DBPCFCs. The response rate to the questionnaire was 78.2% (2739/3500). The estimated prevalence of parental-reported IgE-mediated FA was 5.7% (156/2739) [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.83-6.57%]. The rate of sensitization to the food allergens was 33.1% (48/145) in the parental-reported group. The confirmed prevalence of IgE-mediated FA by means of DBPCFC in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren living in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey was 0.80% (22/2739) (95% CI, 0.47-1.13%). The most common allergenic foods were beef (31.8%), cow's milk (18.1%), cocoa (18.1%), hen's egg (13.6%), and kiwi (13.6%). The rate of reported IgE-mediated FA was significantly higher than clinically confirmed FA by means of DBPCFC (odds ratio, 7.46; 95% CI, 4.67-12.01; P<0.0001). The order of allergenic foods was different and somewhat unique to the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey when compared with western

  8. Lightning fires in southwestern forests

    Treesearch

    Jack S. Barrows

    1978-01-01

    Lightning is the leading cause of fires in southwestern forests. On all protected private, state and federal lands in Arizona and New Mexico, nearly 80 percent of the forest, brush and range fires are ignited by lightning. The Southwestern region leads all other regions of the United States both in total number of lightning fires and in the area burned by these fires...

  9. Are iron-phosphate minerals a sink for phosphorus in anoxic Black Sea sediments?

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Nikki; Kraal, Peter; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Schnetger, Bernhard; Slomp, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a key nutrient for marine organisms. The only long-term removal pathway for P in the marine realm is burial in sediments. Iron (Fe) bound P accounts for a significant proportion of this burial at the global scale. In sediments underlying anoxic bottom waters, burial of Fe-bound P is generally assumed to be negligible because of reductive dissolution of Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides and release of the associated P. However, recent work suggests that Fe-bound P is an important burial phase in euxinic (i.e. anoxic and sulfidic) basin sediments in the Baltic Sea. In this study, we investigate the role of Fe-bound P as a potential sink for P in Black Sea sediments overlain by oxic and euxinic bottom waters. Sequential P extractions performed on sediments from six multicores along two shelf-to-basin transects provide evidence for the burial of Fe-bound P at all sites, including those in the euxinic deep basin. In the latter sediments, Fe-bound P accounts for more than 20% of the total sedimentary P pool. We suggest that this P is present in the form of reduced Fe-P minerals. We hypothesize that these minerals may be formed as inclusions in sulfur-disproportionating Deltaproteobacteria. Further research is required to elucidate the exact mineral form and formation mechanism of this P burial phase, as well as its role as a sink for P in sulfide-rich marine sediments.

  10. Middle Tertiary continental rift and evolution of the Red Sea in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Dwight Lyman; Hadley, Donald G.; Brown, Glen F.

    1983-01-01

    Throughout early Tertiary time, the Arabian Shield erosion surface remained near sea level. First-stage uplift of the Red Sea Escarpment began during middle Miocene time, as evidenced by the coarse polymictic boulder conglomerate of the Bathan formation. Second-stage scarp uplift and second-stage sea-floor spreading followed during Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene time.

  11. Net sea-air CO2 fluxes and modelled pCO2 in the southwestern subtropical Atlantic continental shelf during spring 2010 and summer 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Rosane Gonçalves; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Tavano, Virginia Maria

    2016-05-01

    Sea-air CO2 fluxes over continental shelves vary substantially in time on both seasonal and sub-seasonal scales, driven primarily by variations in surface pCO2 due to several oceanic mechanisms. Furthermore, coastal zones have not been appropriately considered in global estimates of sea-air CO2 fluxes, despite their importance to ecology and to productivity. In this work, we aimed to improve our understanding of the role played by shelf waters in controlling sea-air CO2 fluxes by investigating the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (21-35°S) region, where physical, chemical and biological measurements were made on board the Brazilian R. V. Cruzeiro do Sul during late spring 2010 and early summer 2011. Features such as discharge from the La Plata River, intrusions of tropical waters on the outer shelf due to meandering and flow instabilities of the Brazil Current, and coastal upwelling in the Santa Marta Grande Cape and São Tomé Cape were detected by both in situ measurements and ocean colour and thermal satellite imagery. Overall, shelf waters in the study area were a source of CO2 to the atmosphere, with an average of 1.2 mmol CO2 m-2 day-1 for the late spring and 11.2 mmol CO2 m-2 day-1 for the early summer cruises. The spatial variability in ocean pCO2 was associated with surface ocean properties (temperature, salinity and chlorophyll-a concentration) in both the slope and shelf waters. Empirical algorithms for predicting temperature-normalized surface ocean pCO2 as a function of surface ocean properties were shown to perform well in both shelf and slope waters, except (a) within cyclonic eddies produced by baroclinic instability of the Brazil Current as detected by satellite SST imagery and (b) in coastal upwelling regions. In these regions, surface ocean pCO2 values were higher as a result of upwelled CO2-enriched subsurface waters. Finally, a pCO2 algorithm based on both sea surface temperature and surface chlorophyll-a was developed that enabled the spatial

  12. Distribution of (137)Cs in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea Coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baltas, H; Kiris, E; Dalgic, G; Cevik, U

    2016-06-15

    This study presents the results of (137)Cs and (40)K radionuclide concentrations in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) samples collected during the period of February-November 2014 from twelve different stations within the border of the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Also, these radionuclide concentrations were determined in sea water and sediment samples. The activity concentrations in seawater, sediment and mussel tissue samples were between 1.12-1.69mBqL(-1), 3.26-30.74 and 1.61-3.16Bqkg(-1) for (137)Cs and 231.41-399.49mBqL(-1), 215.71-450.07 and 286.84-382.16Bqkg(-1) for (40)K, respectively. These values are also in accordance with the concentrations reported for similar regions. Additionally, radiological impact parameters such as daily intake of (137)Cs and (40)K, annual committed effective dose and carcinogenic risk due to the consumption of mussel were calculated and compared with the international data. Lifetime cancer risk values are lower than the limit of 10(-3). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sulfur Isotope Fractionation in Marine Pore waters from the Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, T. L.; Chen, N. C.; Wang, B. S.; Lin, L. H.; Yang, T. F.; Chen, Y. G.; Shen, C. C.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we selected two marine sediment cores, 474cm C11 and 252cm EN1, with different sulfate reduction rate due to anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in offshore southwestern Taiwan, to clarify the regional sulfur biogeochemical process. Sulfur isotopic composition in pore waters was determined on a multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometer, Thermo NEPTUNE, with 2-sigma reproducibility of ±0.18‰. Our results show that correlation between δ34S values of 21.7-40.6‰ and 21.5-54.3‰, and sulfate contents of 7.1-26.6 and 1.2-27.6mM follows a closed system Rayleigh fractionation model above the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) at depths of 172.5 cm for core C11 and 212.5 cm for core EN1 below sea floor. At the SMTZ, δ34S reaches the summit of 40.6 ‰, followed by a decreasing trend to 16-20‰ at depth of 172.5-470.0 cm for core C11. Our results suggest that sulfur in pore fluids offshore southwestern Taiwan is controlled by multiple processes including microbial sulfate reduction, barite dissolution and clay dehydration.

  14. Surficial geologic map of the Dillingham quadrangle, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2018-05-14

    The geologic map of the Dillingham quadrangle in southwestern Alaska shows surficial unconsolidated deposits, many of which are alluvial or glacial in nature. The map area, part of Alaska that was largely not glaciated during the late Wisconsin glaciation, has a long history reflecting local and more distant glaciations. Late Wisconsin glacial deposits have limited extent in the eastern part of the quadrangle, but are quite extensive in the western part of the quadrangle. This map and accompanying digital files are the result of the interpretation of black and white aerial photographs from the 1950s as well as more modern imagery. Limited new field mapping in the area was conducted as part of a bedrock mapping project in the northeastern part of the quadrangle; however, extensive aerial photographic interpretation represents the bulk of the mapping effort.

  15. Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In mid-December last year, a mysterious black water overtook the normally bluish green waters of Florida Bay. Over the course of the winter, the extent of the water grew to encompass an area as big as Lake Okeechobee, Florida, before subsiding over the last few weeks. These images taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite, show the progression of the black water over the last three months. The affected water sits along the southeastern coast of Florida about fifty miles north of the Florida Keys. As of now, scientists do not know why the water appears black in satellite and aerial images or whether the water is harming the wildlife. They speculate that it could be due to an exotic algae bloom, an underwater fountain pushing up sediments from the ocean floor, or possibly chemical and sediment run-off from the nearby Shark River. Researchers at the Florida Marine Research Institute in St. Petersburg and the Mote Marine Research Institute in Sarasota are running tests to determine the chemical make-up of the water. No big fish kills have been reported in the area. But fishermen say the catch has been low this winter. In addition, the black water sits just north of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, which is home to one of the largest coral reef habitats in the United States. Toxic run-off from the Florida coastline and motor boats in the area have already destroyed many of Florida's reefs. Scientists are concerned that if the extent of the black water grows again, it could endanger these reefs. Information provided by the Naples Daily News. For up-to-date images of the area, view these SeaWiFS Images of Florida Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  16. Study of distribution of halcophile elements in the Black Sea area adjacent to Chorokhi river mouth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvakharia, V.; Machitadze, N.; Khargelia, R.; Girgvliani, D.; Khukhunia, T.; Elashvili, M.

    2003-04-01

    The river Chorokhi catchment areacomprises the mountainous regions of north-east Turkey and south-west Georgia. The catchment area totals 2000 km2. Annual quantity of the drift according to the various reference data makes 7-11 mil t. Amount of the drift material is conditioned by warm, humid climate and abundance of precipitation which is related to high denudation indices. It is well known that within the last 15-20 years exploitation of the deposits (Murguli, Çayeli, Lahanos, etc.) located in Artvini District of Turkey expanded. The Artvini deposits represent continuation of the south Caucasian province and, by the structure and ore composition are close to the well known deposits in Georgia (Madneuli, Merisi, etc.). Geochemistry and metalogenesis of the latter is well known to Georgian scholars. Terrigeneous material accumulated in the limits of withering horizons of various type of sulphate deposits is notable for specific composition. They are characterized with high content of halcophile elements which, because of they toxicity impose the risk to river and sea ecosystems. In the limits of mentioned areas of the coastal zone and in the limits of Batumi sea port content of halcophile metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, As) and their distribution by grain fractions the river and sea bottom sediments has been studied. Positive correlation of the mentioned elements in the sea bottom sediments is revealed. As well as the river and in particular the sea bottom sediments are good indicators of heavy metal pollution. It should be noted that the impact of Chorokhi River on ecological status of the Black Sea is less studied. No complex studies of ecology of the Chorokhi River itself are performed. The study of ecological status of the Chorokhi River basin as transboundary region is of great importance because of expanding development of industries on the both sides of the border, which calls forth increase in the impact on environment. In order to evaluate the current ecological

  17. First results of the campaign of biooptical measurments from the platform in the Black sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenko, G.; Korotaev, G. K.; Chami, M.; Lee, M.; Martynov, O.; Shibanov, E.; Bersenieva, G.; Churilova, T.

    2003-04-01

    In the framework of the CNES project devoted to validation of the MERIS products we have performed an extended set of biooptical measurements from the oceanographic platform located in the Black Sea at the distance of 600~m from the the southern coast of Crimea in the summer 2002 (26 July-14August). The set of observations included: the measurements by above-water radiometer SIMBAD-A of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness in 11 spectral bands corresponding to wavelegths of MERIS; measurements of downwelling and waterliving radiance at 5 wavelenths of SeaWifs (in-water radiometer SATLANTIC); Spectral measurments of bi-directional reflectance ratio (MHI-spectrophotometer), the spectral measurements (443, 490, 555, 620 nm) of the seawater volume scattering function in the the range of angles 0,3~-~178,2 degrees (VSF-meter, MHI). Seawater samples, collected on a few lelels over 5 depth steps are used to determine the concentration of the Chlorophyll, light absorption by the phytoplankton pigments, dissolved and particulate organics (350 - 750 nm, resolution 1 nm). We have observed a fivefold increment (up to 2~mg/m^3) of the chlorophyll concentration and corresponding significant variation of the water transparency during the campaign. In situe observations are analysed and compared with remote sensing data.

  18. First record of a trophonema in black corals (Cnidaria: Antipatharia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretta, Daniel; Wagner, Daniel; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.

    2018-06-01

    The gametes of many groups of anthozoans contain a funnel-shaped cluster of specialized cells that facilitate the transport of nutritive substances, known as the trophonema. This structure has been found within all orders of anthozoans, with the exception of pennatulaceans, scleractinians, and antipatharians, the latter of which are commonly known as black corals. Based on the histological study of eight specimens of the black coral Dendrobathypathes grandis Opresko (Zool Med Leiden 76(22):411-442, 2002) from the southwestern Atlantic, we report for the first time the presence of a trophonema within the order Antipatharia. A trophonema was found only in oocytes from one of the seven female specimens studied. Since D. grandis contains the largest oocytes among antipatharians that have been studied to date, it remains unknown whether the presence of a trophonema is an exceptional case, or whether these structures have simply been overlooked in other black corals.

  19. Distribution of trace metals, aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment cores from the Sicily Channel and the gulf of Tunis (south-western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Mzoughi, Nadia; Chouba, Lassaad

    2011-01-01

    Under the framework of the IAEA's Technical Co-operation project RAF7/004, international research cruises were carried out in 2004 to assess the distribution of radionuclides and micropollutants in the south-western Mediterranean Sea. Sediments samples had variable concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ranging from 0.2 to 1.8 microg g(-1) and 26.9 to 364.4 ng g(-1), respectively, in the Sicily Channel and from 0.7 to 2.8 microg g(-1) and 14.7 to 618.1 ng g(-1), respectively, in the open sea of the Gulf of Tunis. Hydrocarbon concentrations changed with depth and were relatively high at 3 cm and 10 cm depths. The use of 'fingerprint' ratios of certain isomeric pairs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the proportion of 2-3 ring and 4-5 ring PAH concentrations showed that the main origins are characteristic of petroleum sources. The ranges of trace metal concentrations, expressed in microgg(-1), in the Sicily Channel and in the Gulf of Tunis, respectively, were: Hg 0.009-0.2 and 0.02-0.1; Pb 9.9-26.1 and 21.2-32.5; Cd 0.06-0.1 and 0.07-0.33; Fe 23.7-28.1 and 29.9-36.2p; Zn 83-99.5 and 83-104; Mn 309.2-752.5 and 651-814; Cu 17.1-18.5 and 33.5-51.3. Sediment metal abundances were in the order: Mn > Zn > Fe > Cu > Pb > Cd > Hg. The results showed significant differences (p < 0.001) for trace metal and hydrocarbon mean concentrations between the two cores. These concentrations are generally similar to the background levels from the Mediterranean Sea and could be affected by physico-chemical conditions and sedimentation rate as well as biodegradation.

  20. Status, ecology, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch; Scott H. Stoleson

    2000-01-01

    This publication was prepared in response to a need expressed by southwestern agencies and organizations for a comprehensive assessment of the population status, history, biology, ecology, habitats, threats, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). The southwestern willow flycatcher was federally listed as...

  1. Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: Mean seasonal cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linghan; McClean, Julie L.; Miller, Arthur J.; Eisenman, Ian; Hendershott, Myrl C.; Papadopoulos, Caroline A.

    2014-12-01

    The seasonal cycle of sea ice variability in the Bering Sea, together with the thermodynamic and dynamic processes that control it, are examined in a fine resolution (1/10°) global coupled ocean/sea-ice model configured in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The ocean/sea-ice model consists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE). The model was forced with time-varying reanalysis atmospheric forcing for the time period 1970-1989. This study focuses on the time period 1980-1989. The simulated seasonal-mean fields of sea ice concentration strongly resemble satellite-derived observations, as quantified by root-mean-square errors and pattern correlation coefficients. The sea ice energy budget reveals that the seasonal thermodynamic ice volume changes are dominated by the surface energy flux between the atmosphere and the ice in the northern region and by heat flux from the ocean to the ice along the southern ice edge, especially on the western side. The sea ice force balance analysis shows that sea ice motion is largely associated with wind stress. The force due to divergence of the internal ice stress tensor is large near the land boundaries in the north, and it is small in the central and southern ice-covered region. During winter, which dominates the annual mean, it is found that the simulated sea ice was mainly formed in the northern Bering Sea, with the maximum ice growth rate occurring along the coast due to cold air from northerly winds and ice motion away from the coast. South of St Lawrence Island, winds drive the model sea ice southwestward from the north to the southwestern part of the ice-covered region. Along the ice edge in the western Bering Sea, model sea ice is melted by warm ocean water, which is carried by the simulated Bering Slope Current flowing to the northwest, resulting in the S-shaped asymmetric ice edge. In spring and fall, similar thermodynamic and dynamic

  2. Century-scale high-resolution black carbon records in sediment cores from the South Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Hong, Yuehui; Zhou, Qianzhi; Liu, Jinzhong; Yuan, Lirong; Wang, Jianghai

    2018-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) has received increasing attention in the last 20 years because it is not only an absorbent of toxic pollutants but also a greenhouse substance, preserving fire-history records, and more importantly, acting as an indicator of biogeochemical cycles and global changes. By adopting an improved chemothermal oxidation method (WXY), this study reconstructed the century-scale high-resolution records of BC deposition from two fine-grained sediment cores collected from the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass in the South Yellow Sea. The BC records were divided into five stages, which exhibited specific sequences with three BC peaks at approximately 1891, 1921, and 2007 AD, representing times at which the first heavy storms appeared just after the termination of long-term droughts. The significant correlation between the times of the BC peaks in the cores and heavy storms in the area of the Huanghe (Yellow) River demonstrated that BC peaks could result from markedly strengthened sedimentation due to surface runoff, which augmented the atmospheric deposition. Stable carbon isotope analysis indicated that the evident increase in carbon isotope ratios of BC in Stage 5 might have resulted from the input of weathered rock-derived graphitic carbon cardinally induced by the annual anthropogenic modulation of water-borne sediment in the Huanghe River since 2005 AD. Numerical calculations demonstrated that the input fraction of graphitic carbon was 22.97% for Stage 5, whereas no graphitic carbon entered during Stages 1 and 3. The obtained data provide new and important understanding of the source-sink history of BC in the Yellow Sea.

  3. Isoprenoid quinones resolve the stratification of microbial redox processes in a biogeochemical continuum from the photic zone to deep anoxic sediments of the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kevin W; Elling, Felix J; Schröder, Jan M; Lipp, Julius S; Goldhammer, Tobias; Zabel, Matthias; Elvert, Marcus; Overmann, Jörg; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2018-03-09

    The stratified water column of the Black Sea serves as a model ecosystem for studying the interactions of microorganisms with major biogeochemical cycles. Here we provide detailed analysis of isoprenoid quinones to study microbial redox processes in the ocean. In a continuum from the photic zone through the chemocline into deep anoxic sediments of the southern Black Sea, diagnostic quinones and inorganic geochemical parameters indicate niche segregation between redox processes and corresponding shifts in microbial community composition. Quinones specific for oxygenic photosynthesis and aerobic respiration dominate oxic waters, while quinones associated with thaumarchaeal ammonia-oxidation and bacterial methanotrophy, respectively, dominate a narrow interval in suboxic waters. Quinone distributions indicate highest metabolic diversity within the anoxic zone, with anoxygenic photosynthesis being a major process in its photic layer. In the dark anoxic layer, quinone profiles indicate occurrence of bacterial sulfur and nitrogen cycling, archaeal methanogenesis, and archaeal methanotrophy. Multiple novel ubiquinone isomers, possibly originating from unidentified intra-aerobic anaerobes, occur in this zone. The respiration modes found in the anoxic zone continue into shallow subsurface sediments, but quinone abundances rapidly decrease within the upper 50 cm below sea floor, reflecting the transition to lower energy availability. In the deep subseafloor sediments, quinone distributions and geochemical profiles indicate archaeal methanogenesis/methanotrophy and potentially bacterial fermentative metabolisms. We observed that sedimentary quinone distributions track lithology, which supports prior hypotheses that deep biosphere community composition and metabolisms are determined by environmental conditions during sediment deposition. Importance Microorganisms play crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles. Yet, we have only a fragmentary understanding of the diversity

  4. Geochemistry of the Black Sea during the last 15 kyr: A protracted evolution of its hydrography and ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, David Z.

    2016-01-01

    The Black Sea is a 2200 m deep anoxic, marine sea connected to the Mediterranean Sea via the Dardanelles Strait, Marmara Sea, and the 3 km wide, 35 m deep Bosphorus Strait. The biogeochemistry of sediment from the Anatolia slope has recorded changes to the hydrography leading up to and following the input of Mediterranean water at ~9.4 ka (103 years B.P.), when global sea level rose to the level of the Bosphorus sill and high-salinity water from the Mediterranean began to spill into the then brackish lake. The water initially mixed little with the lake water but cascaded to the bottom where it remained essentially isolated for ~1.6 kyr, the time required to fill the basin from the bottom up at its present input rate. The accumulation of Mo in the seafloor sediments, a proxy of bottom-water anoxia, increased sharply at ~8.6 ka, when bacterial respiration in the bottom water advanced to SO42− reduction by the oxidation of organic detritus that settled out of the photic zone. Its accumulation remained elevated to ~5.6 ka, when it decreased 60%, only to again increase slightly at ~2.0 ka. The accumulation of Corg, a proxy of primary productivity, increased threefold to fourfold at ~7.8 ka, when upward mixing of the high-salinity bottom water replaced the then thin veneer of the brackish photic zone in less than 50 years. From that time onward, the accumulation of Corg, Mo, and additional trace metals has reflected the hydrography of the basin and Bosphorus Strait, controlled largely by climate.

  5. Impact of the Gulf of California SST on simulating precipitation and crop productivity in the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Kim, J.; Prasad, A. K.; Stack, D. H.; El-Askary, H. M.; Kafatos, M.

    2012-12-01

    Like other ecosystems, agricultural productivity is substantially affected by climate factors. Therefore, accurate climatic data (i.e. precipitation, temperature, and radiation) is crucial to simulating crop yields. In order to understand and anticipate climate change and its impacts on agricultural productivity in the Southwestern United States, the WRF regional climate model (RCM) and the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) were employed for simulating crop production. 19 years of WRF RCM output show that there is a strong dry bias during the warm season, especially in Arizona. Consequently, the APSIM crop model indicates very low crop yields in this region. We suspect that the coarse resolution of reanalysis data could not resolve the relatively warm Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the Gulf of California (GC), causing the SST to be up to 10 degrees lower than the climatology. In the Southwestern United States, a significant amount of precipitation is associated with North American Monsoon (NAM). During the monsoon season, the low-level moisture is advected to the Southwestern United States via the GC, which is known to be the dominant moisture source. Thus, high-resolution SST data in the GC is required for RCM simulations to accurately represent a reasonable amount of precipitation in the region, allowing reliable evaluation of the impacts on regional ecosystems.and evaluate impacts on regional ecosystems. To evaluate the influence of SST on agriculture in the Southwestern U.S., two sets of numerical simulations were constructed: a control, using unresolved SST of GC, and daily updated SST data from the MODIS satellite sensor. The meteorological drivers from each of the 6 year RCM runs were provided as input to the APSIM model to determine the crop yield. Analyses of the simulated crop production, and the interannual variation of the meteorological drivers, demonstrate the influence of SST on crop yields in the Southwestern United States.

  6. Drought in Southwestern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The southwestern United States pined for water in late March and early April 2007. This image is based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite from March 22 through April 6, 2007, and it shows the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, for the period. In this NDVI color scale, green indicates areas of healthier-than-usual vegetation, and only small patches of green appear in this image, near the California-Nevada border and in Utah. Larger areas of below-normal vegetation are more common, especially throughout California. Pale yellow indicates areas with generally average vegetation. Gray areas appear where no data were available, likely due to persistent clouds or snow cover. According to the April 10, 2007, update from the U.S. Drought Monitor, most of the southwestern United Sates, including Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, experienced moderate to extreme drought. The hardest hit areas were southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Writing for the Drought Monitor, David Miskus of the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility reported that March 2007 had been unusually dry for the southwestern United States. While California's and Utah's reservoir storage was only slightly below normal, reservoir storage was well below normal for New Mexico and Arizona. In early April, an international research team published an online paper in Science noting that droughts could become more common for the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, as these areas were already showing signs of drying. Relying on the same computer models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in early 2007, the researchers who published in Science concluded that global warming could make droughts more common, not just in the American Southwest, but also in semiarid regions of southern Europe, Mediterranean northern Africa, and the Middle East.

  7. Seasonal Dynamics of Biogeochemical Processes in the Water Column of the Northeastern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanov, I. I.; Lein, A. Yu.; Makkaveev, P. N.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Ivanov, M. V.; Flint, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    Integrated studies on the hydrochemistry and water column rates of microbial processes in the eastern sector of the Black Sea along a standard 100-miles transect off Gelendzhik from the coast to the central part of the sea at water depths of 100-2170 m show that a series of warm winters and the absence of intense convective winter mixing resulted in a relatively low content of suspended particulate matter (SPM), particulate organic carbon (POC), and nutrients in the water column in March 2009. The relatively high SPM concentrations and the presence of isotopically light POC at the offshore station are indicative of the supply of terrigenous material from land and low contributions of phytoplanktonic organic matter to the composition of SPM. This may explain the low rates of biogeochemical processes in the water column near the coast. The surface layer at deep-water stations is dominated by isotopically heavy phytoplanktonic organic matter. This suggests that the supply of terrigenous material from land was insufficient in offshore deep-water areas. Therefore, warm winters and insufficient nutrient supply do not prevent photosynthesis in the photic layer of the deep-water zone, which generates organic substrates for heterotrophic aquatic communities. The results of isotopic analysis of POC, measurements of the rates biogeochemical processes, and the hydrochemical characteristics of the water column can be used to determine the nature and seasonal variability of the POC composition.

  8. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001-2012).

    PubMed

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Spackman, Erica; Smith, Diane; Rula, Oleksandr; Muzyka, Nataliia; Stegniy, Borys

    2016-05-01

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and eight orders for virus isolation. From these samples, 69 AIVs belonging to 15 of the 16 known hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and seven of nine known neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were isolated. No H14, N5, or N9 subtypes were identified. In total, nine H6, eight H1, nine H5, seven H7, six H11, six H4, five H3, five H10, four H8, three H2, three H9, one H12, one H13, one H15, and one H16 HA subtypes were isolated. As for the NA subtypes, twelve N2, nine N6, eight N8, seven N7, six N3, four N4, and one undetermined were isolated. There were 27 HA and NA antigen combinations. All isolates were low pathogenic AIV except for eight highly pathogenic (HP) AIVs that were isolated during the H5N1 HPAI outbreaks of 2006-08. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes revealed epidemiological connections between the Azov-Black Sea regions and Europe, Russia, Mongolia, and Southeast Asia. H1, H2, H3, H7, H8, H6, H9, and H13 AIV subtypes were closely related to European, Russian, Mongolian, and Georgian AIV isolates. H10, H11, and H12 AIV subtypes were epidemiologically linked to viruses from Europe and Southeast Asia. Serology conducted on serum and egg yolk samples also demonstrated previous exposure of many wild bird species to different AIVs. Our results demonstrate the great genetic diversity of AIVs in wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region as well as the importance of this region for monitoring and studying the ecology of influenza viruses. This information furthers our understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild bird species.

  9. Optimizing habitat location for black-tailed prairie dogs in southwestern South Dakota

    Treesearch

    John Hof; Michael Bevers; Daniel W. Uresk; Gregory L. Schenbeck

    2002-01-01

    A spatial optimization model was formulated and used to maximize black-tailed prairie dog populations in the Badlands National Park and the Buffalo Gap National Grassland in South Dakota. The choice variables involved the strategic placement of limited additional protected habitat. Population dynamics were captured in formulations that reflected exponential population...

  10. In situ autonomous optical radiometry measurements for satellite ocean color validation in the Western Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibordi, G.; Mélin, F.; Berthon, J.-F.; Talone, M.

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of primary satellite ocean color data products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on-board Aqua (MODIS-A) and the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is investigated in the Western Black Sea using in situ measurements from the Gloria site included in the ocean color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC). The analysis is also extended to an additional well-established AERONET-OC site in the northern Adriatic Sea characterized by optically complex coastal waters exhibiting similarities to those observed at the Gloria site. Results from the comparison of normalized water-leaving radiance LWN indicate biases of a few percent between satellite-derived and in situ data at the center wavelengths relevant for the determination of chlorophyll a concentrations (443-547 nm, or equivalent). Remarkable is the consistency between the annual cycle determined with time series of satellite-derived and in situ LWN ratios at these center wavelengths. Contrarily, the differences between in situ and satellite-derived LWN are pronounced at the blue (i.e., 412 nm) and red (i.e., 667 nm, or equivalent) center wavelengths, confirming difficulties in confidently applying satellite-derived radiometric data from these spectral regions for quantitative analysis in optically complex waters.

  11. In situ autonomous optical radiometry measurements for satellite ocean color validation in the Western Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibordi, G.; Mélin, F.; Berthon, J.-F.; Talone, M.

    2014-12-01

    The accuracy of primary satellite ocean color data products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on-board Aqua (MODIS-A) and the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), is investigated in the Western Black Sea using in situ measurements from the Gloria site included in the Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC). The analysis is also extended to an additional well-established AERONET-OC site in the northern Adriatic Sea characterized by optically complex coastal waters exhibiting similarities with those observed at the Gloria site. Results from the comparison of normalized-water leaving radiance LWN indicate biases of a few percent between satellite derived and in situ data at the center-wavelengths relevant for the determination of chlorophyll a concentration (443-547 nm, or equivalent). Remarkable is the consistency among the annual cycle determined with time series of satellite-derived and in situ LWN ratios at these center-wavelengths. Contrarily, the differences between in situ and satellite-derived LWN are pronounced at the blue (i.e., 412 nm) and red (i.e., 667 nm, or equivalent) center-wavelengths, suggesting difficulties in confidently applying satellite-derived radiometric data from these spectral regions for quantitative analysis in optically complex waters.

  12. New data on the lithology of coastal facies of the Turtas formation (Upper Oligocene, Southwestern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, P. V.; Konstantinov, A. O.; Aleksandrova, G. N.; Kuzmina, O. B.; Shurygin, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    Peculiarities of the material composition and microstructure of coastal facies of Turtas Lake-Sea were studied in its marginal southwestern part for the first time. Interpretation of the lithological data showed that the deposits considered were formed under the conditions of a slightly saline basin and nearby full-flow river network. Based on the lithological, geochemical, and micropaleontological studies of clay-siliceous rocks of the Lower Turtas Formation (the boundary zone between the Tyumen and Sverdlovsk regions), additional support for the freshwater lake regime of the Late Oligocene Turtas basin is given.

  13. Freshwater impacts recorded in tetraunsaturated alkenones and alkenone sea surface temperatures from the Okhotsk Sea across millennial-scale cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Naomi; Sato, Miyako; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko

    2008-09-01

    We present records of phytoplankton-produced alkenones down a long piston core, which reveal changes of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) in the southwestern Okhotsk Sea over the past 120 ka. Between 20 and 60 ka B.P., alkenone-derived temperatures typically increased by 6°C-8°C from periods corresponding, within a few hundred years, to stadials to those corresponding to interstadials recorded in Greenland ice cores. The abundance of C37:4 alkenone relative to total C37 alkenones (percent C37:4), a possible proxy for salinity, indicated that during most low SSS was associated with high SST. The warm freshwater events might be related to (1) a decline in the supply of saline water entering the Okhotsk Sea through the Soya Strait; (2) strengthening of the freshwater supply from the Amur River and precipitation over the Okhotsk Sea, associated mainly with increased Asian summer monsoon activity; and (3) the effect of melting sea ice. These findings increase our understanding of the close linkage between high and low latitudes in relation to climate change and the synchronicity of climate changes within a few centuries between the Pacific and the Atlantic sides of the Northern Hemisphere.

  14. Reconnaissance for uranium in black shale, Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, 1953

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mapel, W.J.

    1954-01-01

    Reconnaissance examinations for uranium in 22 formations containing black shale were conducted in parts of Montana, North Dakota, Utah, Idaho, and Oregon during 1953. About 150 samples from 80 outcrop localities and 5 oil and gas wells were submitted for uranium determinations. Most of the black shale deposits examined contain less than 0.003 percent uranium; however, thin beds of black shale at the base of the Mississippian system contain 0.005 percent uranium at 2 outcrop localities in southwestern Montana and as much as 0.007 percent uranium in a well in northeastern Montana. An eight-foot bed of phosphatic black shale at the base of the Brazer limestone of Late Mississippian age in Rich County, Utah, contains as much as 0.009 percent uranium. Commercial gamma ray logs of oil and gas wells drilled in Montana and adjacent parts of the Dakotas indicate that locally the Heath shale of Late Mississippian age contains as much as 0.01 percent equivalent uranium, and black shales of Late Cretaceous age contain as much as 0.008 percent equivalent uranium.

  15. The role of forcing agents on biogeochemical variability along the southwestern Adriatic coast: The Gulf of Manfredonia case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specchiulli, Antonietta; Bignami, Francesco; Marini, Mauro; Fabbrocini, Adele; Scirocco, Tommaso; Campanelli, Alessandra; Penna, Pierluigi; Santucci, Angela; D'Adamo, Raffaele

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates how multiple forcing factors such as rivers, surface marine circulation and winds affect hydrology and biogeochemical processes in the Gulf of Manfredonia and the seas around the Gargano peninsula, in the south-western Adriatic Sea. The study adopted an integrated approach, using in situ and remote sensing data, as well as the output of current models. The data reveal variability in the area's hydrography induced by local freshwater sources, the Western Adriatic Current (WAC) flowing from the north along the Italian coast, and the current patterns under different wind regimes. Specifically, exchange with offshore waters in the gulf induces variability in salinity and biogeochemical content, even within the same season, i.e. winter, in our case. This strong dependence on physical and biogeochemical factors makes the Manfredonia-Gargano ecosystem vulnerable to climate change, which could compromise its important role as a nursery area for the Adriatic Sea.

  16. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine (2010-2011).

    PubMed

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Spackman, Erica; Stegniy, Borys; Rula, Oleksandr; Shutchenko, Pavlo

    2012-12-01

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. From September 2010 to September 2011, a wild bird surveillance study was conducted in these regions to identify avian influenza viruses. Biological samples consisting of cloacal and tracheal swabs and fecal samples were collected from wild birds of different ecological groups, including waterfowl and sea- and land-based birds, in places of mass bird accumulations in Sivash Bay and the Utlyuksky and Molochniy estuaries. The sampling covered the following wild bird biological cycles: autumn migration, wintering, spring migration, nesting, and postnesting seasons. A total of 3634 samples were collected from 66 different species of birds. During the autumn migration, 19 hemagglutinating viruses were isolated, 14 of which were identified as low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus subtypes H1N?, H3N8, H5N2, H7N?, H8N4, H10N7, and H11N8. From the wintering samples, 45 hemagglutinating viruses were isolated, 36 of which were identified as LPAI virus subtypes H1N1, H1N? H1N2, H4N?, H6N1, H7N3, H7N6, H7N7, H8N2, H9N2, H10N7, H10N4, H11N2, H12N2, and H15N7. Only three viruses were isolated during the spring migration, nesting, and postnesting seasons (serotypes H6, H13, and H16). The HA and NA genes were sequenced from the isolated H5 and N1 viruses, and the phylogenetic analysis revealed possible ecological connections between the Azov and Black Sea regions and Europe. The LPAI viruses were isolated mostly from mallard ducks, but also from shellducks, shovelers, teals, and white-fronted geese. The rest of the 14 hemagglutinating viruses isolated were identified as different serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses (APMV-1, APMV-4, APMV-6, and APMV-7). This information furthers our understanding

  17. Development of a Web-based GIS monitoring and environmental assessment system for the Black Sea: application in the Danube Delta area.

    PubMed

    Tziavos, Ilias N; Alexandridis, Thomas K; Aleksandrov, Borys; Andrianopoulos, Agamemnon; Doukas, Ioannis D; Grigoras, Ion; Grigoriadis, Vassilios N; Papadopoulou, Ioanna D; Savvaidis, Paraskevas; Stergioudis, Argyrios; Teodorof, Liliana; Vergos, Georgios S; Vorobyova, Lyudmila; Zalidis, Georgios C

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the development of a Web-based GIS system for the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea is presented. The integrated multilevel system is based on the combination of terrestrial and satellite Earth observation data through the technological assets provided by innovative information tools and facilities. The key component of the system is a unified, easy to update geodatabase including a wide range of appropriately selected environmental parameters. The collection procedure of current and historical data along with the methods employed for their processing in three test areas of the current study are extensively discussed, and special attention is given to the overall design and structure of the developed geodatabase. Furthermore, the information system includes a decision support component (DSC) which allows assessment and effective management of a wide range of heterogeneous data and environmental parameters within an appropriately designed and well-tested methodology. The DSC provides simplified and straightforward results based on a classification procedure, thus contributing to a monitoring system not only for experts but for auxiliary staff as well. The examples of the system's functionality that are presented highlight its usability as well as the assistance that is provided to the decision maker. The given examples emphasize on the Danube Delta area; however, the information layers of the integrated system can be expanded in the future to cover other regions, thus contributing to the development of an environmental monitoring system for the entire Black Sea.

  18. Seasonal signatures in SFG vibrational spectra of the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (SW Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laß, K.; Bange, H. W.; Friedrichs, G.

    2013-02-01

    The very thin sea surface nanolayer on top of the sea surface microlayer, sometimes just one monomolecular layer thick, forms the interface between ocean and atmosphere. Due to the small dimension and tiny amount of substance, knowledge about the development of the layer in the course of the year is scarce. In this work, the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (BE), southwestern Baltic Sea, has been investigated over a period of three and a half years. Surface water samples were taken monthly by screen sampling and were analyzed in terms of organic content and composition by sum frequency generation spectroscopy, which is specifically sensitive to interfacial layers. A yearly periodicity has been observed with a pronounced abundance of sea surface nanolayer material (such as carbohydrate-rich material) during the summer months. On the basis of our results we conclude that the abundance of organic material in the nanolayer at Boknis Eck is not directly related to phytoplankton abundance. We suggest that indeed sloppy feeding of zooplankton together with photochemical and/or microbial processing of organic precursor compounds are responsible for the pronounced seasonality.

  19. Seasonal signatures in SFG vibrational spectra of the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (SW Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laß, K.; Bange, H. W.; Friedrichs, G.

    2013-08-01

    The very thin sea surface nanolayer on top of the sea surface microlayer, sometimes just one monomolecular layer thick, forms the interface between ocean and atmosphere. Due to the small dimension and tiny amount of substance, knowledge about the development of the layer in the course of the year is scarce. In this work, the sea surface nanolayer at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (BE), southwestern Baltic Sea, has been investigated over a period of three and a half years. Surface water samples were taken monthly by screen sampling and were analyzed in terms of organic content and composition by sum frequency generation spectroscopy, which is specifically sensitive to interfacial layers. A yearly periodicity has been observed with a pronounced abundance of sea surface nanolayer material (such as carbohydrate-rich material) during the summer months. On the basis of our results we conclude that the abundance of organic material in the nanolayer at Boknis Eck is not directly related to phytoplankton abundance alone. We speculate that indeed sloppy feeding of zooplankton together with photochemical and/or microbial processing of organic precursor compounds is responsible for the pronounced seasonality.

  20. Fast monitoring of dissolved organic and suspended matter using data of beam attenuation coefficient in Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankovskaya, E. V.; Korchemkina, E. N.; Latushkin, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    A method allowing to obtain estimates of dissolved organic and suspended matter content in Black Sea waters using beam attenuation coefficient (BAC) measurements in two spectral channels is proposed. It makes possible to assess the composition, bio-productivity and ecological state of waters in real time, and to validate the data of satellite scanners. The method is based on retrieval the spectral distribution of BAC by orthogonal functions. Full spectral distribution in range 416 - 677 nm allows to select spectral sites with a dominant contribution of certain substance in BAC and to obtain the content of yellow substance and suspended matter using specially designed optimization technique. Calculated values are in good agreement with the satellite data obtained from MODIS scanner.

  1. Robustness of observation-based decadal sea level variability in the Indo-Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidheesh, A. G.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Unnikrishnan, A. S.; Meyssignac, B.; Hamlington, B.; de Boyer Montegut, C.

    2017-07-01

    We examine the consistency of Indo-Pacific decadal sea level variability in 10 gridded, observation-based sea level products for the 1960-2010 period. Decadal sea level variations are robust in the Pacific, with more than 50% of variance explained by decadal modulation of two flavors of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (classical ENSO and Modoki). Amplitude of decadal sea level variability is weaker in the Indian Ocean than in the Pacific. All data sets indicate a transmission of decadal sea level signals from the western Pacific to the northwest Australian coast through the Indonesian throughflow. The southern tropical Indian Ocean sea level variability is associated with decadal modulations of ENSO in reconstructions but not in reanalyses or in situ data set. The Pacific-independent Indian Ocean decadal sea level variability is not robust but tends to be maximum in the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean. The inconsistency of Indian Ocean decadal variability across the sea level products calls for caution in making definitive conclusions on decadal sea level variability in this basin.

  2. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Stienen, Eric W M; Desmet, Peter; Aelterman, Bart; Courtens, Wouter; Feys, Simon; Vanermen, Nicolas; Verstraete, Hilbran; de Walle, Marc Van; Deneudt, Klaas; Hernandez, Francisco; Houthoofdt, Robin; Vanhoorne, Bart; Bouten, Willem; Buijs, Roland-Jan; Kavelaars, Marwa M; Müller, Wendt; Herman, David; Matheve, Hans; Sotillo, Alejandro; Lens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5 million occurrences, recorded by 101 GPS trackers mounted on 75 Lesser Black-backed Gulls and 26 Herring Gulls breeding at the Belgian and Dutch coast. The trackers were developed by the University of Amsterdam Bird Tracking System (UvA-BiTS, http://www.uva-bits.nl). These automatically record and transmit bird movements, which allows us and others to study their habitat use and migration behaviour in great detail. Our bird tracking network is operational since 2013. It is funded for LifeWatch by the Hercules Foundation and maintained in collaboration with UvA-BiTS and the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ). The recorded data are periodically released in bulk as open data (http://dataset.inbo.be/bird-tracking-gull-occurrences), and are also accessible through CartoDB and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  3. 3D multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics on the Black Sea north-western shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB

  4. Eddy resolving modelling of the Gulf of Lions and Catalan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garreau, Pierre; Garnier, Valérie; Schaeffer, Amandine

    2011-07-01

    The generation process of strong long-lived eddies flowing southwestwards along the Catalan slope was revealed through numerical modelling and in situ observations. Careful analyses of a particular event in autumn 2007 demonstrated a link between a "LATEX" eddy, which remained in the southwestern corner of the Gulf of Lions and a "CATALAN" eddy, which moved along the Catalan Shelf, since the death of the former gave birth to the latter. The origin of such eddies was found to be an accumulation of potential energy in the southwestern corner of the Gulf of Lions: under the influence of the negative wind stress curl associated with the Tramontane, a warm and less dense water body can be isolated and fed by a coastal current carrying warm water from the Catalan Sea. In summer, this structure can grow and intensify to generate a strong anticyclonic eddy. After a long period of Tramontane, a burst of southeasterlies and northerlies appeared to detach the "LATEX" eddy, which flowed out of the Gulf of Lions, migrating along the Catalan continental slope and continued into the Balearic Sea as the "CATALAN" eddy.

  5. Shrinking Aral Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    (Aral Sea: left 2014 and right 2000, 1960 extent black line) In the 1960s, the Soviet Union undertook a major water diversion project on the arid plains of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. The region’s two major rivers, fed by snowmelt and precipitation in faraway mountains, were used to transform the desert into farms for cotton and other crops. Before the project, the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya rivers flowed down from the mountains, cut northwest through the Kyzylkum Desert, and finally pooled together in the lowest part of the basin. The lake they made, the Aral Sea, was once the fourth largest in the world. Although irrigation made the desert bloom, it devastated the Aral Sea. This series of images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite documents the changes. At the start of the series in 2000, the lake was already a fraction of its 1960 extent (black line). The Northern Aral Sea (sometimes called the Small Aral Sea) had separated from the Southern (Large) Aral Sea. The Southern Aral Sea had split into eastern and western lobes that remained tenuously connected at both ends. By 2001, the southern connection had been severed, and the shallower eastern part retreated rapidly over the next several years. Especially large retreats in the eastern lobe of the Southern Sea appear to have occurred between 2005 and 2009, when drought limited and then cut off the flow of the Amu Darya. Water levels then fluctuated annually between 2009 and 2014 in alternately dry and wet years. Dry conditions in 2014 caused the Southern Sea’s eastern lobe to completely dry up for the first time in modern times. Continue reading: 1.usa.gov/1nLX9Ku Read more: 1.usa.gov/1pqEnDj Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in

  6. A New Inter-Hemispheric Teleconnection Increases Predictability of Winter Precipitation in Southwestern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamalakis, A.; Yu, J. Y.; Randerson, J. T.; AghaKouchak, A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2017-12-01

    Early and reliable prediction of seasonal precipitation in the southwestern US (SWUS) remains a challenge with significant implications for the economy, water security and ecosystem management of the region. Traditional drivers of winter precipitation in the SWUS have been linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), decadal/multidecadal oscillations of the sea surface temperature in northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, and persistent high-pressure ridges over the Gulf of Alaska. However, ENSO as well as other climate modes exhibit weak statistical relationships with precipitation and low predictability as lead time increases. Grounded on the hypothesis that still undiscovered relationships between large-scale atmosphere-ocean dynamics and SWUS precipitation might exist, here we followed a diagnostic approach by which instead of restricting ourselves to the established teleconnections, we analyzed systematically the correlation of global sea surface temperature (SST) and geopotential height (GPH) with winter precipitation amounts in all climatic divisions in the SWUS, for 1950-2015. Our results show that late-summer persistent SST and GPH anomalies in the subtropical southwestern Pacific are strongly connected with winter precipitation in most climatic divisions, exhibiting higher correlation values than ENSO, and thus increasing the potential for earlier and more accurate precipitation prediction. Cross validation and 30-year running average analysis starting in 1950 suggest an amplification of the detected teleconnections over the past three to four decades. The latter is most likely a result of the reported expansion of the tropics, which has started after the 1980s, and allows SST or GPH variability at lower latitudes to affect the meridional atmospheric circulation. Our work highlights the need to understand the dynamic nature of the coupled atmosphere-ocean system in a changing climate for improving future predictions of regional precipitation.

  7. Diverse origin of mitochondrial lineages in Iron Age Black Sea Scythians

    PubMed Central

    Juras, Anna; Krzewińska, Maja; Nikitin, Alexey G.; Ehler, Edvard; Chyleński, Maciej; Łukasik, Sylwia; Krenz-Niedbała, Marta; Sinika, Vitaly; Piontek, Janusz; Ivanova, Svetlana; Dabert, Miroslawa; Götherström, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Scythians were nomadic and semi-nomadic people that ruled the Eurasian steppe during much of the first millennium BCE. While having been extensively studied by archaeology, very little is known about their genetic identity. To fill this gap, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Scythians of the North Pontic Region (NPR) and successfully retrieved 19 whole mtDNA genomes. We have identified three potential mtDNA lineage ancestries of the NPR Scythians tracing back to hunter-gatherer and nomadic populations of east and west Eurasia as well as the Neolithic farming expansion into Europe. One third of all mt lineages in our dataset belonged to subdivisions of mt haplogroup U5. A comparison of NPR Scythian mtDNA linages with other contemporaneous Scythian groups, the Saka and the Pazyryks, reveals a common mtDNA package comprised of haplogroups H/H5, U5a, A, D/D4, and F1/F2. Of these, west Eurasian lineages show a downward cline in the west-east direction while east Eurasian haplogroups display the opposite trajectory. An overall similarity in mtDNA lineages of the NPR Scythians was found with the late Bronze Age Srubnaya population of the Northern Black Sea region which supports the archaeological hypothesis suggesting Srubnaya people as ancestors of the NPR Scythians. PMID:28266657

  8. Environmental influences and ontogenetic differences in vertical habitat use of black marlin (Istiompax indica) in the southwestern Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Sean R.; Pepperell, Julian G.; Domeier, Michael L.; Bennett, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    The black marlin (Istiompax indica) is a highly migratory billfish that occupies waters throughout the tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific. To characterize the vertical habitat use of I. indica, we examined the temperature-depth profiles collected using 102 pop-up satellite archival tags deployed off the east coast of Australia. Modelling of environmental variables revealed location, sea-surface height deviation, mixed layer depth and dissolved oxygen to all be significant predictors of vertical habitat use. Distinct differences in diel movements were observed between the size classes, with larger size classes of marlin (greater than 50 kg) undertaking predictable bounce-diving activity during daylight hours, while diving behaviour of the smallest size class occurred randomly during both day and night. Overall, larger size classes of I. indica were found to use an increased thermal range and spend more time in waters below 150 m than fish of smaller size classes. The differences in the diving behaviour among size classes were suggested to reflect ontogenetic differences in foraging behaviour or physiology. The findings of this study demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, ontogenetic differences in vertical habitat in a species of billfish, and further the understanding of pelagic fish ecophysiology in the presence of global environmental change. PMID:29291060

  9. Observing the advection of sea ice in the Weddell Sea using buoy and satellite passive microwave data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massom, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    Data from four buoys tracked by Nimbus 6 and concurrent ice concentrations retrieved from Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer data are used to investigate the progress and behavior of an area of sea ice as it drifts from the southwestern Weddell Sea. The overall drift characteristics and their relationship to ice edge displacement are examined within the framework of four zones. Three phases are identified in the large-scale behavior of the Weddell Sea ice cover, namely, a rapid equatorward and eastward advance, a quasi-equilibrium phase, and a period of rapid recession. Outbreaks of cold continental air alternate with incursions of relatively warm air from the north; warm conditions are recorded as far as 1200 km in from the ice edge in winter. Closed loops in the buoy trajectories, which are clockwise to the south of 63 deg S, reverse to become anticlockwise to the north. A coherence is observed in the response of the buoys to the passage of storms, even though the buoys separated by a distance of over 100 km.

  10. Intensified dust storm activity and Valley fever infection in the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Daniel Q.; Wang, Julian X. L.; Gill, Thomas E.; Lei, Hang; Wang, Binyu

    2017-05-01

    Climate models have consistently projected a drying trend in the southwestern United States, aiding speculation of increasing dust storms in this region. Long-term climatology is essential to documenting the dust trend and its response to climate variability. We have reconstructed long-term dust climatology in the western United States, based on a comprehensive dust identification method and continuous aerosol observations from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network. We report here direct evidence of rapid intensification of dust storm activity over American deserts in the past decades (1988-2011), in contrast to reported decreasing trends in Asia and Africa. The frequency of windblown dust storms has increased 240% from 1990s to 2000s. This dust trend is associated with large-scale variations of sea surface temperature in the Pacific Ocean, with the strongest correlation with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We further investigate the relationship between dust and Valley fever, a fast-rising infectious disease caused by inhaling soil-dwelling fungus (Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii) in the southwestern United States. The frequency of dust storms is found to be correlated with Valley fever incidences, with a coefficient (r) comparable to or stronger than that with other factors believed to control the disease in two endemic centers (Maricopa and Pima County, Arizona).

  11. Natural and human land-sea interactions: Burgas Case Study, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Palazov, Atanas; Krastev, Anton

    2017-04-01

    The Directive 2014/89/ of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 2014 establishing a framework for maritime spatial planning sets the land-sea interactions as one of the minimum requirements for Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP). Coastal areas are interconnected with the sea in both human use and natural values and many human activities on marine areas are functionally linked to the coast and vice versa. This research was elaborated in the frame of MARSPLAN-BS Project (DG MARE EU Commission) focused on a case study of land-sea interactions in Burgas Bay, south Bulgarian coast. The main goal of the project is to support the implementation of MSP for Black Sea. Burgas is one of the most important ports at the Black Sea with significant infrastructure for supporting the economic activities and it is the largest Bulgarian Black Sea harbour. Burgas has a modern international airport, which handles most of the tourist flow during the peak summer season. The city is a center of culture, science and art of national importance and is distinguished with rapid developments over the recent years. In the surroundings of the study area there are valuable natural protected areas (Natura 2000) and wetlands, important Ramsar sites, such as: lakes of Atanasovsko, Burgas and Mandra. These lakes, together with the Pomorie Lake (adjacent in north direction) form the largest wetland in the country with exceptional conservation value of international and national importance. The intensity of both coastal and maritime activities in the study area have been constantly increased and new activities have been initiated or planned over the recent years, that area is often in conflict with other activities or the objectives of environmental protection. In this context, the necessity of performing such an investigation at the area of Burgas comes up as a current challenge for sustainable economic development and protection of all wetlands and effective use of natural resources

  12. SITE FIDELITY AND EPHEMERAL HABITAT OCCUPANCY: NORTHERN WATERTHRUSH USE OF PUERTO RICAN BLACK MANGROVES DURING THE NONBREEDING SEASON.

    Treesearch

    LEONARD REITSMA; PAMELA HUNT; SHERMAN L. BURSON III; BENJAMIN B. STEELE

    2002-01-01

    We studied the dispersion of Northern Waterthrushes (Seiurus novaboracensis) in southwestern Puerto Rico during four nonbreeding seasons, 1996–1999. Densities were high (up to 13 birds/ha) on a 3-ha mature black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) study plot, but were significantly lower during periods of high water levels. Individuals exhibited site fidelity within and...

  13. Predation mechanisms of Rapana venosa (Gastropoda: Muricidae) in different biotopes along the Black Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Kosyan, Alisa

    2016-01-30

    Mechanisms of feeding by the invasive gastropod Rapana venosa from different biotopes of 11 sites along the Black Sea coast are discussed. Two methods--edge-drilling and suffocation--are used, but the prevailing method in a particular biotope depends on the type of bivalve prey. Drill signs were present on almost all shells of Chamelea gallina, captured by rapa whelks in field conditions, while in a field experiment, only 11% of all empty Mytilus galloprovincialis had drilling signatures. The degree of radula abrasion was also dependent on the available bivalves: it was the highest in biotopes with C. gallina and juvenile mussels, and the lowest in biotopes with large mussels. Intermediate degrees of abrasion were observed in biotopes with mixed prey: C. gallina and Anadara kagoshimensis, C. gallina and mussels, or small and large mussels. Since we observed only initial signs of drilling, simultaneous application of boring and suffocation could take place. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifying controlling factors of ground-level ozone levels over southwestern Taiwan using a decision tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hone-Jay; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Liau, Churn-Jung; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2012-12-01

    Kaohsiung City and the suburban region of southwestern Taiwan have suffered from severe air pollution since becoming the largest center of heavy industry in Taiwan. The complex process of ozone (O3) formation and its precursor compounds (the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions), accompanied by meteorological conditions, make controlling ozone difficult. Using a decision tree is especially appropriate for analyzing time series data that contain ozone levels and meteorological and explanatory variables for ozone formation. Results show that dominant variables such as temperature, wind speed, VOCs, and NOx can play vital roles in describing ozone variations among observations. That temperature and wind speed are highly correlated with ozone levels indicates that these meteorological conditions largely affect ozone variability. The results also demonstrate that spatial heterogeneity of ozone patterns are in coastal and inland areas caused by sea-land breeze and pollutant sources during high ozone episodes over southwestern Taiwan. This study used a decision tree to obtain quantitative insight into spatial distributions of precursor compound emissions and effects of meteorological conditions on ozone levels that are useful for refining monitoring plans and developing management strategies.

  15. The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea

    PubMed Central

    Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401

  16. The environmental impact of a Wave Dragon array operating in the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Diaconu, Sorin; Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.

  17. Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, Southeastern Interior, & Southwestern Interior Elevations, Floor Plan, and Eastern Corner Detail - Manatoc Reservation, Vale Edge Adirondack, 1075 Truxell Road, Peninsula, Summit County, OH

  18. Geochronology and sources of heavy metal pollution in sediments of Istanbul Strait (Bosporus) outlet area, SW Black Sea, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarı, Erol; Çağatay, M Namık; Acar, Dursun; Belivermiş, Murat; Kılıç, Önder; Arslan, Tuğçe Nagihan; Tutay, Ali; Kurt, Mehmet Ali; Sezer, Narin

    2018-08-01

    Geochemical and sedimentological analyses and radionuclide ( 210 Pb and 137 Cs) dating of three cores from the Bosporus outlet area of the Black Sea, north of Istanbul, were conducted to assess the sources and history of heavy metal pollution. The sedimentary succession in the shelf core KD12-01 consists mainly of clay (49-80%) and silt (15-41%). Radionuclide dating of the core indicates that it consists of old sediments that are uncontaminated with heavy metals. In contrast, cores KD12-04 and KD12-07 recovered from -350 m and -304 mm in the upper slope area represent sediments consisting of silt and clay that were deposited since at least the last 120 years and 60 years, respectively. The latter core contains two mass-flow units represented by relatively old sedimentary material according to the low 210 Pb activity and relatively low heavy metal contents. The upper 40 and 48 cm of cores KD 12-04 and KD 12-07 represent sediments deposited since 1970s and 1980s that are significantly polluted with Cu, Ni, Zn, Mo, Pb and Cr, Cu, Co, Ni, Mo, Pb, Zn, respectively. However, high Pb and Cr concentrations with high TOC contents date back to early part of the 20th century in core KD 12-04. The geochemical data, together with the high 137 Cs concentrations of the contaminated sediments, strongly suggest that the pollution is mainly delivered to the western and north western Black Sea by the large European rivers, from there transported to the study area by the rim current, and deposited in the sediments under anoxic conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rates of total oxygen uptake of sediments and benthic nutrient fluxes measured using an in situ autonomous benthic chamber in the sediment of the slope off the southwestern part of Ulleung Basin, East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Seong; An, Sung-Uk; Park, Young-Gyu; Kim, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongseon; Kwon, Jung No; Kang, Dong-Jin; Noh, Jae-Hoon

    2015-09-01

    We have developed a new autonomous benthic lander for deep-sea research, the Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) Belc II and Belp II. The benthic lander was successfully tested at 950 and 1450 m water depths on the slope off the southwestern part of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea of Korea. The ex situ measurements of the total oxygen uptake (TOU) rates at all the stations exceeded the in situ measurement values, and may indicate artificial effects from onboard incubation. The TOU rates were estimated to be 5.80 mmol m-2 d-1 and 3.77 mmol m-2 d-1 at water depths of 950 m and 1450 m, respectively. The benthic nutrient fluxes were also higher at water depths of 950 m, which indicates a partitioning of organic degradation with water depth. In addition, the negative phosphate and nitrogen benthic flux ratios and the higher nitrate removal flux via the sediment-water interface at the slope imply that the nitrogen in the bottom water may be preferentially removed via microbial respiration processes in the sediments, and may be coupled with the low nitrogen-to-phosphate ratio found in the deep water. Although our measurements comprised just two experiments in the slope sediment, the robust in situ measurement of the benthic fluxes in the slope sediment is a forerunner for new research into the biogeochemical cycles across the shelf edge-slope-basin system in the East Sea.

  20. Rates of total oxygen uptake of sediments and benthic nutrient fluxes measured by an in situ autonomous benthic chamber in the sediment of the slope off the southwestern part of Ulleung Basin, East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; An, S. U.; Park, Y. G.; Kim, E.; Kim, D.; Kwon, J. N.; Kang, D. J.; Noh, J. H.

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a new autonomous benthic lander for deep-sea research, the Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) BelcII and BelpII. The benthic lander was successfully tested at 950 and 1450 m water depths on the slope off the southwestern part of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea of Korea. The ex situ measurements of the total oxygen uptake (TOU) rates at all the stations exceeded the in situ measurement values, and may indicate artificial effects from onboard incubation. The TOU rates were estimated to be 5.80 mmol m-2 d-1 and 3.77 mmol m-2 d-1 at water depths of 950 m and 1450 m, respectively. The benthic nutrient fluxes were also higher at water depths of 950 m, which indicates a partitioning of organic degradation with water depth. In addition, the negative phosphate and nitrogen benthic flux ratios and the higher nitrate removal flux via the sediment-water interface at the slope imply that the nitrogen in the bottom water may be preferentially removed via microbial respiration processes in the sediments, and may be coupled with the low nitrogen-to-phosphate ratio found in the deep water. Although our measurements comprised just two experiments in the slope sediment, the robust in situ measurement of the benthic fluxes in the slope sediment is a forerunner for new research into the biogeochemical cycles across the shelf edge- slope-basin system in the East Sea.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Black and Mexican American Residential Segregation in Southwestern Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Michael; Feagin, Joe

    Discrimination, poverty, and ethnic attachment or choice have been identified as 3 factors that might explain residential segregation. This paper purported: (1) to comparatively document the nature and extent of metropolitan segregation of Mexican Americans and Blacks in the Southwest; (2) to perform an exploratory analysis of the significance of…

  2. Some lessons in artificial regeneration from southwestern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    William I. Stein

    1955-01-01

    Natural reproduction has often proved undependable for restocking cutovers and burns in the mixed-conifer forest types of southwestern Oregon. These types, covering 6,000 square miles of productive forest land in the five southwestern Oregon counties, are composed of many species--principally Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco;...

  3. Variation of Seismicity and Stresses in Southwestern Taiwan under the Transition from Active to Incipient Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, T.; Jian, P.; Liang, W.

    2012-12-01

    Taiwan is formed by oblique convergence between NW moving Philippine Sea Plate and NE striking Eurasia continental margin. The central part of Taiwan still under active collision, but south of the island seismicity already shows eastward subdcution along the Mania Trench. Southwestern Taiwan is a unique location to observe this transition. In this study, we analyze the focal mechanisms earthquakes with ML greater than 3.5 that occurred in the southwestern Taiwan since 1996 (including 2010 M6.4 Jiashian and 2012 M6.1 Wutai earthquakes). The best moment tensor solutions and centroidal depths are constrained by modeling of regional waveform data. The results show detail variations of stress pattern. The Jiashan sequence and those thrusting earthquakes nearby to the south occur mainly at depth of 20-25 km in the mid-lower crust with average ENE-WSW principal compression, which is almost perpendicular to the direction of convergence. It can be distinguished from the shallower thrust events with ESE-WNW compression right north of Jiashan where the upper crust (10-20 km) is more seismically active and seismic stress is consistent with the geodetic stress. Further west near the deformation front, a group of strike-slip events at depth ~15 km shows average compression similar to Jiashan group, suggesting a possible link between them in the middle crust. Interestingly, the crust southwest of Jiasian has much lower seismic rate, however, several deep (>30km) earthquakes beneath Pingtung foredeep basin clearly show E-W extension, which is inconsistent with the E-W compression from present geodetic and Quaternary stress. Surface extrusion proposed by several studies may still exist, although the lower crust and upper mantle beneath this region is probably decoupled from above. These normal events can be explained by the plate bending as the leading South China Sea subducts beneath Philippine Sea. The Jiashian and Wutai earthquakes may be related to the continent-ocean boundary

  4. Abrupt transitions of the top-down controlled Black Sea pelagic ecosystem during 1960 2000: Evidence for regime-shifts under strong fishery exploitation and nutrient enrichment modulated by climate-induced variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguz, Temel; Gilbert, Denis

    2007-02-01

    Functioning of the Black Sea ecosystem has profoundly changed since the early 1970s under cumulative effects of excessive nutrient enrichment, strong cooling/warming, over-exploitation of pelagic fish stocks, and population outbreak of gelatinous carnivores. Applying a set of criteria to the long-term (1960-2000) ecological time-series data, the present study demonstrates that the Black Sea ecosystem was reorganised during this transition phase in different forms of top-down controlled food web structure through successive regime-shifts of distinct ecological properties. The Secchi disc depth, oxic-anoxic interface zone, dissolved oxygen and hydrogen sulphide concentrations also exhibit abrupt transition between their alternate regimes, and indicate tight coupling between the lower trophic food web structure and the biogeochemical pump in terms of regime-shift events. The first shift, in 1973-1974, marks a switch from large predatory fish to small planktivore fish-controlled system, which persisted until 1989 in the form of increasing small pelagic and phytoplankton biomass and decreasing zooplankton biomass. The increase in phytoplankton biomass is further supported by a bottom-up contribution due to the cumulative response to high anthropogenic nutrient load and the concurrent shift of the physical system to the "cold climate regime" following its ˜20-year persistence in the "warm climate regime". The end of the 1980s signifies the depletion of small planktivores and the transition to a gelatinous carnivore-controlled system. By the end of the 1990s, small planktivore populations take over control of the system again. Concomitantly, their top-down pressure when combined with diminishing anthropogenic nutrient load and more limited nutrient supply into the surface waters due to stabilizing effects of relatively warm winter conditions switched the "high production" regime of phytoplankton to its background "low production" regime. The Black Sea regime

  5. Geology of the Devonian black shales of the Appalachian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roen, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Black shales of Devonian age in the Appalachian Basin are a unique rock sequence. The high content of organic matter, which imparts the characteristic lithology, has for years attracted considerable interest in the shales as a possible source of energy. The recent energy shortage prompted the U.S. Department of Energy through the Eastern Gas Shales Project of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center to underwrite a research program to determine the geologic, geochemical, and structural characteristics of the Devonian black shales in order to enhance the recovery of gas from the shales. Geologic studies by Federal and State agencies and academic institutions produced a regional stratigraphic network that correlates the 15 ft black shale sequence in Tennessee with 3000 ft of interbedded black and gray shales in central New York. These studies correlate the classic Devonian black shale sequence in New York with the Ohio Shale of Ohio and Kentucky and the Chattanooga Shale of Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic markers in conjunction with gamma-ray logs facilitated long-range correlations within the Appalachian Basin. Basinwide correlations, including the subsurface rocks, provided a basis for determining the areal distribution and thickness of the important black shale units. The organic carbon content of the dark shales generally increases from east to west across the basin and is sufficient to qualify as a hydrocarbon source rock. Significant structural features that involve the black shale and their hydrocarbon potential are the Rome trough, Kentucky River and Irvine-Paint Creek fault zone, and regional decollements and ramp zones. ?? 1984.

  6. Myxosporean parasites of Ceratomyxa merlangi and Myxidium gadi in whiting Merlangius merlangus: a comparative epizootiological analysis based on samples from two localities off southern and northern coasts of the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Özer, A; Yurakhno, V; Öztürk, T; Kornyychuk, Y M

    2017-09-01

    Totally 690 and 423 whiting Merlangius merlangus samples were collected from two localities off Southern (Sinop) and Northern coasts (Balaklava Bay) of the Black Sea, respectively, and examined for myxosporeans in the period from May 2011 to March 2014. Ceratomyxa merlangi and Myxidium gadi were the only myxosporean parasites identified in the content of gall bladder and their infection indices of prevalence (%) and intensity were calculated for length classes and sex of fish as well as for the seasons at both sampling localities. Overall infection prevalence of C. merlangi was 22.6% in Sinop and 27.9% in Balaklava samples while those values of M. gadi were 18.4% and 28.6% in Sinop and Balaklava samples, respectively. Both parasite species were also found to be co-existed in whiting samples. This is the first comprehensive epizootiological study yielded comparable data on C. merlangi and M. gadi infections in whiting in the southern and northern coasts of the Black Sea.

  7. The light absorption by suspended particles, phytoplankton and dissolved organic matter in deep-and coastal waiters of the Black Sea impact on algorithms for remote sensing of chlorophyll -a-.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churilova, T.; Suslin, V.; Berseneva, G.; Georgieva, L.

    At present time for the analysis and prediction of marine ecosystem state Chlorophyll and Primary production models based on optical satellite data are widely used. However, the SeaWiFS algorithms providing the transformation of color images to chlorophyll maps give inaccurate estimation of chlorophyll "a" (Chl "a") concentration in the Black Sea - an overestimation approximately two times in summer and an underestimation - ~1,5 times during the large diatom bloom in winter-spring. A development of the regional Chl "a" algorithm requires an estimation of spectral characteristics of all light absorbing components and their relationships with Chl "a" concentration. With this aim bio-optical monitoring was organized in two fixed stations in deep-water central western part of the Black Sea and in shelf waters near the Crimea. The weekly monitoring in deep-waters region allowed to determine phytoplankton community succession: seasonal dynamics of size and taxonomic structure, development of large diatoms blooming in March and coccolithophores - in June. The significant variability in pigment concentration and species content of phytoplankton is accompanied by high variability in shape of the phytoplankton absorption spectra and in values of chl a-specific absorption coefficients. This variability had seasonal character depending mostly on the optical status of phytoplankton cells and partly on taxonomic structure of phytoplankton. The pigment packaging parameter fluctuated from 0.64-0.68 (October-December) to 0.95-0.97 (April-May). The package effect depended on intracellular pigment concentration and the size and geometry of cells, which change significantly over the year, because of extremely different environmental conditions. The relationships between phytoplankton specific absorption coefficients (at 412, 443, 490, 510, 555, 678 nm) and Chl "a" concentration have been described by power functions. The contribution of detritus to total particulate absorption

  8. Climate effects on fire regimes and tree recruitment in Black Hills ponderosa pine forests.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter M

    2006-10-01

    Climate influences forest structure through effects on both species demography (recruitment and mortality) and disturbance regimes. Here, I compare multi-century chronologies of regional fire years and tree recruitment from ponderosa pine forests in the Black Hills of southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming to reconstructions of precipitation and global circulation indices. Regional fire years were affected by droughts and variations in both Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Fires were synchronous with La Niñas, cool phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and warm phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). These quasi-periodic circulation features are associated with drought conditions over much of the western United States. The opposite pattern (El Niño, warm PDO, cool AMO) was associated with fewer fires than expected. Regional tree recruitment largely occurred during wet periods in precipitation reconstructions, with the most abundant recruitment coeval with an extended pluvial from the late 1700s to early 1800s. Widespread even-aged cohorts likely were not the result of large crown fires causing overstory mortality, but rather were caused by optimal climate conditions that contributed to synchronous regional recruitment and longer intervals between surface fires. Synchronous recruitment driven by climate is an example of the Moran effect. The presence of abundant fire-scarred trees in multi-aged stands supports a prevailing historical model for ponderosa pine forests in which recurrent surface fires affected heterogenous forest structure, although the Black Hills apparently had a greater range of fire behavior and resulting forest structure over multi-decadal time scales than ponderosa pine forests of the Southwest that burned more often.

  9. Propagation of uncertainties through the oil spill model MEDSLIK-II: operational application to the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Lecci, Rita

    2017-04-01

    In operational oil spill modeling, MEDSLIK-II (De Dominicis et al., 2013) focuses on the reliability of the oil drift and fate predictions routinely fed by operational oceanographic and atmospheric forecasting chain. Uncertainty calculations enhance oil spill forecast efficiency, supplying probability maps to quantify the propagation of various uncertainties. Recently, we have developed the methodology that allows users to evaluate the variability of oil drift forecast caused by uncertain data on the initial oil spill conditions (Liubartseva et al., 2016). One of the key methodological aspects is a reasonable choice of a way of parameter perturbation. In case of starting oil spill location and time, these scalars might be treated as independent random parameters. If we want to perturb the underlying ocean currents and wind, we have to deal with deterministic vector parameters. To a first approximation, we suggest rolling forecasts as a set of perturbed ocean currents and wind. This approach does not need any extra hydrodynamic calculations, and it is quick enough to be performed in web-based applications. The capabilities of the proposed methodology are explored using the Black Sea Forecasting System (BSFS) recently implemented by Ciliberti et al. (2016) for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (http://marine.copernicus.eu/services-portfolio/access-to-products). BSFS horizontal resolution is 1/36° in zonal and 1/27° in meridional direction (ca. 3 km). Vertical domain discretization is represented by 31 unevenly spaced vertical levels. Atmospheric wind data are provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecasts, at 1/8° (ca. 12.5 km) horizontal and 6-hour temporal resolution. A great variety of probability patterns controlled by different underlying flows is represented including the cyclonic Rim Current, flow bifurcations in anticyclonic eddies (e.g., Sevastopol and Batumi), northwestern shelf circulation, etc

  10. The fibres and polyphenols in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) extraction residues delay postprandial lipemia.

    PubMed

    Linderborg, Kaisa M; Lehtonen, Henna-Maria; Järvinen, Riikka; Viitanen, Matti; Kallio, Heikki

    2012-06-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) response to fatty meals containing dried and crushed berries or berry extraction residues was studied in a postprandial cross-over study with healthy normal-weight male volunteers. The berry material included sea buckthorn berries, sea buckthorn CO₂ extraction residue (CO₂-sea buckthorn) and sea buckthorn or black currant CO₂ and ethanol extraction residue (CO₂-EtOH-sea buckthorn, CO₂-EtOH-black currant). Extraction residues were used in order to advance the potential use of valuable side stream components containing polyphenols and fibre as human food. Compared to the berry-depleted control, all berry meals delayed lipemia, whereas there were no differences in the total area under the TAG response curve. The lipemic delay largely derived from the fibre rather than from the polyphenols. Even so, the effect of polyphenols may be complementary since sea buckthorn and CO₂-sea buckthorn showed significant differences in relation to control in a wider range of TAG areas than polyphenol-depleted CO₂-EtOH-sea buckthorn.

  11. Estimating the gas hydrate recovery prospects in the western Black Sea basin based on the 3D multiphase flow of fluid and gas components within highly permeable paleo-channel-levee systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burwicz, Ewa; Zander, Timo; Rottke, Wolf; Bialas, Joerg; Hensen, Christian; Atgin, Orhan; Haeckel, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Gas hydrate deposits are abundant in the Black Sea region and confirmed by direct observations as well as geophysical evidence, such as continuous bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). Although those gas hydrate accumulations have been well-studied for almost two decades, the migration pathways of methane that charge the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) in the region are unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the most probable gas migration scenarios within a three-dimensional finite element grid based on seismic surveys and available basin cross-sections. We have used the commercial software PetroMod(TM) (Schlumberger) to perform a set of sensitivity studies that narrow the gap between the wide range of sediment properties affecting the multi-phase flow in porous media. The high-resolution model domain focuses on the Danube deep-sea fan and associated buried sandy channel-levee systems whereas the total extension of the model domain covers a larger area of the western Black Sea basin. Such a large model domain allows for investigating biogenic as well as thermogenic methane generation and a permeability driven migration of the free phase of methane on a basin scale to confirm the hypothesis of efficient methane migration into the gas hydrate reservoir layers by horizontal flow along the carrier beds.

  12. Potential impacts of climate change on the primary production of regional seas: A comparative analysis of five European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jason; Schrum, Corinna; Cannaby, Heather; Daewel, Ute; Allen, Icarus; Artioli, Yuri; Bopp, Laurent; Butenschon, Momme; Fach, Bettina A.; Harle, James; Pushpadas, Dhanya; Salihoglu, Baris; Wakelin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Regional seas are potentially highly vulnerable to climate change, yet are the most directly societally important regions of the marine environment. The combination of widely varying conditions of mixing, forcing, geography (coastline and bathymetry) and exposure to the open-ocean makes these seas subject to a wide range of physical processes that mediates how large scale climate change impacts on these seas' ecosystems. In this paper we explore the response of five regional sea areas to potential future climate change, acting via atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial vectors. These include the Barents Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Celtic Seas, and are contrasted with a region of the Northeast Atlantic. Our aim is to elucidate the controlling dynamical processes and how these vary between and within these seas. We focus on primary production and consider the potential climatic impacts on: long term changes in elemental budgets, seasonal and mesoscale processes that control phytoplankton's exposure to light and nutrients, and briefly direct temperature response. We draw examples from the MEECE FP7 project and five regional model systems each using a common global Earth System Model as forcing. We consider a common analysis approach, and additional sensitivity experiments. Comparing projections for the end of the 21st century with mean present day conditions, these simulations generally show an increase in seasonal and permanent stratification (where present). However, the first order (low- and mid-latitude) effect in the open ocean projections of increased permanent stratification leading to reduced nutrient levels, and so to reduced primary production, is largely absent, except in the NE Atlantic. Even in the two highly stratified, deep water seas we consider (Black and Baltic Seas) the increase in stratification is not seen as a first order control on primary production. Instead, results show a highly heterogeneous picture of positive and negative change

  13. Phenology and drivers of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom in the open Black Sea: The application of Sverdrup's hypothesis and its refinements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikaelyan, Alexander S.; Chasovnikov, Valeriy K.; Kubryakov, Arseny A.; Stanichny, Sergey V.

    2017-02-01

    The phenology of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom in the Black Sea was investigated on the basis of the satellite-derived chlorophyll concentration (Chl) for the recent 18-year period. Data for the 8-day Chl were analysed, together with changes in the nutrient concentration, sea surface temperature (SST), photosynthetically available radiation, wind velocity and duration. Based on Sverdrup's Critical Depth hypothesis and its recent refinements, the Pulsing-Bloom hypothesis was proposed for the highly stratified waters of the Black Sea. This hypothesis relates the biological response to physical forcing and chemical fluxes to the photic zone and predicts the pulsing growth of phytoplankton and different patterns of phytoplankton changes in the upper layer in winter-spring during cold and regular years. The hypothesis was supported by Chl dynamics and several Chl peaks were observed during winter-spring. Normally, the highest Chl occurred in winter and a spring peak was absent, whereas in cold years, a relatively low Chl in winter was followed by a spring bloom. These events were observed only in 15% of cases and the magnitude of the bloom was associated with the intensity of winter convection that was revealed by the negative inter-annual correlation between the March Chl and the February SST. In contrast, the February Chl was positively correlated with the SST. The proposed hypothesis provides an explanation of this phenomenon on the basis of an alternation between the low-turbulence and deep-mixing regimes. This mechanism was confirmed by the positive relationships between Chl and the duration of light wind during the current period and strong wind in the previous period. Inorganic nitrogen was depleted disproportionately during the winter-spring, whereas the phosphate concentration remained relatively high. Following a cold winter, the highest phosphate concentration and extremely low nitrogen-to-phosphorus molar ratios (2) were observed in the upper 25-m

  14. Environmental dose rate distribution along the Romanian Black Sea shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Margineanu, Romul M.; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Gomoiu, Claudia; Bercea, Sorin

    2013-04-01

    The radiometric investigation of the natural radioactivity dose rate distribution along the most important Romanian Black Sea tourist resorts showed values between 34 and 54 nSv/h, lower than the 59 nSv/h, the average background reported for the entire Romanian territory. At the same time we have noticed that the experimental dose rates monotonously increase northward, reaching a maximum in the vicinity of Vadu and Corbu beaches, both on the southern part of the Chituc sandbank. Concurrent gamma ray spectrometric measurements, performed at the Slanic-Prahova Low-Background Radiation Laboratory for sand samples collected from the same location, have shown that the natural radionuclides have a major contribution to background radiation while anthropogenic Cs-137 plays, 26 years after Chernobyl catastrophe, a negligible role. The experimental values of activity concentrations of all radionuclides present in sand samples were used to calculate the corresponding values of dose rates to which, by adding the contribution of cosmic rays, we have obtained values coincident, within experimental uncertainties, with the experimental ones. At the same time, on Chituc sandbank, a transverse profile of dose rate distribution revealed the presence of some local maxima, two to thee times higher then the average ones. Subsequent gamma ray spectrometry showed an increased content of natural radionuclides, most probably due to a local accumulation of heavy minerals, a common occurrence in the vicinity of river deltas, in our case the Danube Delta. In such a way, the monitoring of local dose rate distribution could be very useful not only in attesting the environmental quality of various resorts and beaches, but also, in signaling the presence of heavy minerals, with beneficent economic consequences.

  15. In God We Trust. The Black Experience Beyond the Red Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lawrence N.

    1976-01-01

    Notes that blacks are becoming more and more millenarian in that they tend to believe that only God can bring in a reign of justice and peace in America. Also suggests that a decline in religious participation of black youth contributes to the visible deterioration in the quality of life in their communities. (Author/AM)

  16. Southwestern Grassland Ecology

    Treesearch

    Paulette L. Ford; Deborah U. Potter; Rosemary Pendleton; Burton Pendleton; Wayne A. Robbie; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2004-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief overview, and selected in-depth coverage, of the factors and processes that have formed, and continue to shape, our Southwestern grasslands. In general, this chapter looks at how distributions of grasslands are regulated by soils and climate, and modified by disturbance (natural and/or anthropogenic). The attendant ecological components of...

  17. Persistence of Pristine Deep-Sea Coral Gardens in the Mediterranean Sea (SW Sardinia)

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Angiolillo, Michela; Calcagnile, Lucio; Canese, Simonepietro; Cannas, Rita; Cau, Alessandro; D’Elia, Marisa; D’Oriano, Filippo; Follesa, Maria Cristina; Quarta, Gianluca; Cau, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Leiopathes glaberrima is a tall arborescent black coral species structuring important facies of the deep-sea rocky bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea that are severely stifled by fishing activities. At present, however, no morphological in vivo description, ecological characterization, age dating and evaluation of the possible conservation actions have ever been made for any population of this species in the basin. A dense coral population was reported during two Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) surveys conducted on a rocky bank off the SW coasts of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean Sea). L. glaberrima forms up to 2 m-tall colonies with a maximal observed basal diameter of nearly 7 cm. The radiocarbon dating carried out on a colony from this site with a 4 cm basal diameter revealed an approximately age of 2000 years. Considering the size-frequency distribution of the colonies in the area it is possible to hypothesize the existence of other millennial specimens occupying a supposedly very stable ecosystem. The persistence of this ecosystem is likely guaranteed by the heterogeneous rocky substrate hosting the black coral population that represents a physical barrier against the mechanical impacts acted on the surrounding muddy areas, heavily exploited as trawling fishing grounds. This favorable condition, together with the existence of a nursery area for catsharks within the coral ramifications and the occurrence of a meadow of the now rare soft bottom alcyonacean Isidella elongata in small surviving muddy enclaves, indicates that this ecosystem have to be considered a pristine Mediterranean deep-sea coral sanctuary that would deserve special protection. PMID:25790333

  18. An interhemispheric tropical sea level seesaw due to El Niño Taimasa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widlansky, M. J.; Timmermann, A.; McGregor, S.; Stuecker, M. F.; Cai, W.

    2013-12-01

    During strong El Niño events, sea level drops around some tropical western Pacific islands by up to 20-30 cm. Such extreme events (referred to as ';taimasa' in Samoa) expose shallow reefs, thereby damaging associated coastal ecosystems and contributing to the formation of ';flat topped coral heads' often referred to as microatolls. We show that during the termination of strong El Niño events, a southward movement of weak trade winds and development of an anomalous anticyclone in the Philippine Sea force an interhemispheric sea level seesaw in the tropical Pacific which enhances and prolongs extreme low sea levels in the southwestern Pacific. Spectral features, in addition to wind forced linear shallow water ocean model experiments, identify an interaction between El Niño and the annual cycle as the main cause of these sea level anomalies. Given the well established seasonal prediction skill for El Niño events and their seasonally paced termination, our analysis suggests that long-duration extreme sea level drops may also be highly predictable.

  19. Assessment of big floods in the Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yüksek, Ömer; Kankal, Murat; Üçüncü, Osman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, general knowledge and some details of the floods in Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey are presented. Brief hydro-meteorological analysis of selected nine floods and detailed analysis of the greatest flood are given. In the studied area, 51 big floods have taken place between 1955-2005 years, causing 258 deaths and nearly US $500,000,000 of damage. Most of the floods have occurred in June, July and August. It is concluded that especially for the rainstorms that have caused significantly damages, the return periods of the rainfall heights and resultant flood discharges have gone up to 250 and 500 years, respectively. A general agreement is observed between the return periods of rains and resultant floods. It is concluded that there has been no significant climate change to cause increases in flood harms. The most important human factors to increase the damage are determined as wrong and illegal land use, deforestation and wrong urbanization and settlement, psychologica