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Sample records for soviet anthem low-key

  1. National Anthem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A montage of video clips over the years, footage shows the spacecrews, launch, and landing for different orbiters and missions. Clips include the Endeavour and Atlantis Orbiters and are shown to the music of the American National Anthem.

  2. National Anthem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A montage of video clips over the years, footage shows the spacecrews, launch, and landing for different orbiters and missions. Clips include the Endeavour and Atlantis Orbiters and are shown to the music of the American National Anthem.

  3. Schools Celebrate National Anthem Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Roger Lacher, instrumental music director at Murray Middle School in Ridgecrest, California, spearheaded a celebration of the national anthem attended by a descendant of Francis Scott Key. In a press release Lacher sent to the local media, he wrote: "Murray Middle School celebrated this event. We are blessed with having the great, great,…

  4. Schools Celebrate National Anthem Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Roger Lacher, instrumental music director at Murray Middle School in Ridgecrest, California, spearheaded a celebration of the national anthem attended by a descendant of Francis Scott Key. In a press release Lacher sent to the local media, he wrote: "Murray Middle School celebrated this event. We are blessed with having the great, great,…

  5. Teaching Social Studies with National Anthems Using the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Many national anthem lyrics focus on struggle and war between nations. Some, such as "The Star Spangled Banner," focus on a single battle or incident, like the War of 1812. Others stress the bravery, strength, and courage of the soldiers and sometimes the entire nation. Other anthems, such as Brazil's, focus on the beauty and…

  6. Teaching Social Studies with National Anthems Using the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Many national anthem lyrics focus on struggle and war between nations. Some, such as "The Star Spangled Banner," focus on a single battle or incident, like the War of 1812. Others stress the bravery, strength, and courage of the soldiers and sometimes the entire nation. Other anthems, such as Brazil's, focus on the beauty and…

  7. Word Use and Content Analysis of the First Verses of Six National Anthems: A Transcultural Aspect of Suicidal Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Voros, Viktor; Osvath, Peter; Vincze, Orsolya; Pusztay, Katalin; Fekete, Sandor; Rihmer, Zoltan

    2016-03-01

    Suicide is a major health concern worldwide, although suicide rates widely differ among different countries and cultures. Transcultural studies suggest that national anthems reflect national attitudes towards self-harming behaviour as well. Our aim was to analyse the linguistic characteristics of six national anthems, and compare these results with national suicide rates. Word use assessment and content analysis of six national anthems were performed. In the anthems of countries with similar historical or cultural background, similar linguistic patterns were found in word use and in content. Anthems of countries with lower suicide rates tend to contain relatively more positive contents, emotions and intentions, while in the anthems of countries with higher suicide rates more ambivalence, denial, loss or even aggressive and self-destructive implications were found. This transcultural analysis strengthens previous data that anthems could be indicators for national attitudes toward self-harm.

  8. Anthem simulational studies of the plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    For a deeper understanding of the physical processes governing the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) we use the ANTHEM 2D implicit simulation code to study: (1) ion dynamical effects on electrohydrodynamic (EHD) waves propagating along steep density interfaces in the switch plasmas. At radial interfaces where the density jumps toward the anode, these waves can drive a finger of magnetic field into the plasma toward the load. Ion dynamics can open the rear of such fingers into a wedge-like density gap. Then: (2) we examine ion effects in uniform switch plasmas. These first develop potential hill structures at the drive edge of the cathode from the competition between electron velocity advection and EHD magnetic exclusion waves. Magnetic pressure gradients at the hill periphery and EHD effects then establish a density gap propagating along the cathode with radial electron emission from its tip. Similar results are obtained under both multi-fluid and PIC modeling of the plasma components.

  9. Anthem simulational studies of the plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    For a deeper understanding of the physical processes governing the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) we use the ANTHEM 2D implicit simulation code to study: (1) ion dynamical effects on electrohydrodynamic (EHD) waves propagating along steep density interfaces in the switch plasmas. At radial interfaces where the density jumps toward the anode, these waves can drive a finger of magnetic field into the plasma toward the load. Ion dynamics can open the rear of such fingers into a wedge-like density gap. Then: (2) we examine ion effects in uniform switch plasmas. These first develop potential hill structures at the drive edge of the cathode from the competition between electron velocity advection and EHD magnetic exclusion waves. Magnetic pressure gradients at the hill periphery and EHD effects then establish a density gap propagating along the cathode with radial electron emission from its tip. Similar results are obtained under both multi-fluid and PIC modeling of the plasma components.

  10. Getting to no: how Kansas advocates derailed the Anthem steamroller.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    A battle royale has taken shape in Kansas about the future of its Blue Cross and Blue Shield plan. This past February, Kansas Insurance Commissioner Kathleen Sebelius rocked the corporate health care establishment by refusing to allow Anthem Insurance Company to buy the state's independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield plan. Then in June, a state judge overturned her decision. Now the case is headed to appeals court, where Sebelius will seek to have her decision reinstated. At the heart of the legal wrangling is the unprecedented manner in which advocates have asserted consumer interests, raising issues that will persist long after the courts hand down a final ruling. States of Health looks at how consumer advocates have responded to the proposed Blues transaction, a process that has strengthened the health consumer voice in Kansas--and offers important lessons for advocates in other states as well.

  11. 76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Provider Data Management Team Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services and Jacobsen Group, et...,895 Wellpoint, Inc., D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team... Wellpoint, Inc., D/B/A/Anthem Health Plans Of Kentucky, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team,...

  12. Modern Tools of Propaganda: Television Treatments of National Anthems in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidman, Mary Beth

    Because of the close proximity of countries in the Middle East, broadcast signals freely cross national boundaries, bringing not always friendly endemic populations into contact with each other through radio and television programming--a fact that has not been lost on the governments which fund broadcasting facilities. National anthems are…

  13. Eureka! Students Lead Sports Crowd in Anthem Singing: Helping Promote Music Education in Our Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Rosalind

    2005-01-01

    On March 10, 2005, MENC launched The National Anthem Project: Restoring America's Voice, which was nationally televised on Good Morning America from the U.S. Capitol grounds. If one goes to the project Web site, www.thenationalanthemproject.org, one will find ample evidence that music educators are already getting across the message of the…

  14. O Say, They Can Sing! Teachers Share Their Tips for Teaching the National Anthem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Teresa K.

    2004-01-01

    Teachers who have made "The Star-Spangled Banner" a central part of their students' repertoire have found that students can learn it and take pride in staging this familiar song that even their parents consider too difficult. Many teachers recognize that the first obstacle in teaching the anthem is that students do not know the words or understand…

  15. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, Wisconsin (the subject firm... Employment and Training Administration Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice of Negative Determination...

  16. Soviet Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Wayne M.

    1982-01-01

    Contains a collection of comments by Russians about their country and the U.S.; gives questions for discussion with secondary and college students. The statements serve to stimulate discussion and, together with additional study, may provide valuable information about the life style and living conditions in the Soviet Union. (AM)

  17. Soviet Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Elizabeth

    Recent social and political changes in the USSR have made available some 60 previously unreleased films, which were produced during the last 20 years and withheld from release by the Union of Soviet Filmmakers. In 1986, much of this group's leadership was removed leading to an atmosphere more favorable to wider distribution. Some of these films…

  18. 76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    .../Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Including On-Site Leased Workers... Health Plans of Kentucky Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Louisville, Kentucky TA-W-74,895B Wellpoint, Inc. Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Saint Louis, Missouri TA-W-74,895C Wellpoint,...

  19. Validation of a human cell based high-throughput genotoxicity assay 'Anthem's Genotoxicity screen' using ECVAM recommended lists of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Rajakrishna, Lakshmi; Krishnan Unni, Salini; Subbiah, Madhuri; Sadagopan, Sathish; Nair, Ayyappan R; Chandrappa, Ravindra; Sambasivam, Ganesh; Sukumaran, Sunil Kumar

    2014-02-01

    A novel high throughput-enabled human cell based screen, Anthem's Genotoxicity screen, was developed to achieve higher specificity for predicting in vivo genotoxins by an in vitro method. The assay employs engineered human colon carcinoma cell line; HCT116 cells that are stably engineered with three promoter-reporter cassettes such that an increased reporter activity reflects the activation of associated signaling events in a human cell. The current study focuses on the evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of Anthem's Genotoxicity screen using 62 compounds recommended by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). The concordance of Anthem's Genotoxicity screen with in vivo tests was 95.5% with sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity of 95.7%. Thus Anthem's Genotoxicity screen, a high-throughput mechanism based genotox indicator test can be employed by a variety of industries for rapid screening and early detection of potential genotoxins.

  20. Soviet Naval Infantry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-10

    of the Soviet homeland. An analysis of the 1976 statistics quite obviously tells a different story. The U.S. and Soviet Fleets are about equal in...Soviet marine force-even though they have not been the subject of much Western analysis . They are an integral part of Admiral Gorshkov’s naval power...Admiral of the Fleet, Sergei G. Gorshkov. This treatise contains a complete analysis of Soviet naval requirements as seen through the eyes of the prime

  1. Soviet scientists speak out

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, D. )

    1993-05-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

  2. Soviet Military Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    of the civilian transport sector. The impact of such a mobilization effort on the Soviet economy would cause severe dis- ruption of the normal...the full scope of Soviet Civil Defense. Extensive planning for the transition of the entire State and economy to a wartime pos- ture has been...components -. national economy and general porulation. such as industrial, transport, power and com- The Soviets regard passive defense as an es

  3. Soviet Tactical Air Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    34 Soviet Military Review, Vol. 9, September 1972, p. 22. 11. Ibid., p. 19. 12. William R. Taylor , Ed., Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft 1975-1976, London...Military Doctrine, Glencoe, The Free Press, 1953. ------- , Soviet Strategy in the Nuclear Age, New York, Federick A. Praeger, 1958. Green, William and John...Scott, Soviet Military Strategy, Third Edition, New York, Crane, Russack and Company, Inc., 1975. Taylor , William R., Ed., Jane’s All the World’s

  4. Recent Soviet Vocationalisation Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Felicity

    The Soviet Union is attempting to deal with the sometimes conflicting problems of efficient vocationalization and provision of equal opportunity. From the first class of general school, Soviet children have several "labor" lessons a week. Main components of these lessons are practical skills, socialization for work, and vocational…

  5. Soviet Arts Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    This extensive curriculum guide was written in conjunction with the San Diego Arts Festival of Soviet Arts in 1989. It aimed to provide teachers with insights and ideas about arts in the Soviet Union before, during, and after the Arts Festival. A curriculum model is presented at the beginning of the guide to illustrate how the lessons were…

  6. Soviet Arts Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    This extensive curriculum guide was written in conjunction with the San Diego Arts Festival of Soviet Arts in 1989. It aimed to provide teachers with insights and ideas about arts in the Soviet Union before, during, and after the Arts Festival. A curriculum model is presented at the beginning of the guide to illustrate how the lessons were…

  7. Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    agency of the Soviet Union. Permission for further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. SOVIET UNION MILITARY AFFAIRS CONTENTS...internationalists, it has always embodied the inviolable friendship of the peoples of the USSR. But are some of us not hypnotized by this principle

  8. Recent Soviet Vocationalisation Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Felicity

    The Soviet Union is attempting to deal with the sometimes conflicting problems of efficient vocationalization and provision of equal opportunity. From the first class of general school, Soviet children have several "labor" lessons a week. Main components of these lessons are practical skills, socialization for work, and vocational…

  9. The Soviet Censorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhirst, Martin, Ed.; Farrell, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains the proceedings of a symposium which are intended to be a general survey on the nature of Soviet censorship, its effect on literature in the USSR, and the role of such censorship in the intellectual life of a large part of the world. Contents include: "What Is the Soviet Censorship?" which is an attempt to define the…

  10. The Supreme Soviet and Soviet Defense Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    planning and threat assessment," appeared to increase.’ But as Stephen Foye points out, Mikhail Gorbachev’s coming to power and his policy of perestroika...it is also true of the military’s influence in determining defense policy.) Stephen Foye , "The Soviet Armed Forces in 1989," Report on the USSR... Foye points out that Yazov’s promotion, coming on the eve of celebrations marking the 45th anniversary of the Soviet victory in World War II

  11. Soviet Literature: The Library Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Jay

    1985-01-01

    This essay examines American awareness of Soviet literature and writers and vice versa and discusses problems involved in making Soviet literature available to Americans. Highlights include accessibility through public and private libraries and establishing and publicizing a Soviet writings library collection. Some Soviet publications and…

  12. Atlas of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Harry F.

    This atlas consists of 20 maps, tables, charts, and graphs with complementary text illustrating Soviet government machinery, trade and political relations, and military stance. Some topics depicted by charts and graphs include: (1) Soviet foreign affairs machinery; (2) Soviet intelligence and security services; (4) Soviet position in the United…

  13. Soviet ionospheric modification research

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, L.M.; Carlson, H.C.; Djuth, F.T.; Fejer, J.A.; Gerson, N.C.; Hagfors, T.; Newman, D.B. Jr.; Showen, R.L.

    1988-07-01

    Soviet published literature in ionospheric modification research by high-power radio waves is assessed, including an evaluation of its impact on and applications to future remote-sensing and telecommunications systems. This assessment is organized to place equal emphasis on basic research activities, designed to investigate both the natural geophysical environment and fundamental plasma physics; advanced research programs, such as those studying artificial ionization processes and oblique high-power radio propagation and practical system applications and operational limitations addressed by this research. The assessment indicates that the Soviet Union sustains high-quality theoretical and experimental research programs in ionospheric modification, with a breadth and level of effort greatly exceeding comparable Western programs. Soviet theoretical research tends to be analytical and intuitive, as compared to the Western emphasis on numerical simulation techniques. The Soviet experimental approach is less exploratory, designed principally to confirm theoretical predictions. Although limited by inferior diagnostic capabilities, Soviet experimental facilities are more numerous, operate on a more regular basis, and transmit radio wave powers exceeding those os Western facilities. Because of its broad scope of activity, the Soviet Union is better poised to quickly exploit new technologies and system applications as they are developed. This panel has identified several key areas of Soviet research activity and emerging technology that may offer long-term opportunities for remote-sensing and telecommunications advantages. However, we have found no results that suggest imminent breakthrough discoveries in these fields.

  14. Soviet strategic defense technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, E.

    1987-04-01

    The present status of the Soviet program suggests several observations that have a bearing on predicting the future of the Soviet strategic defense program and its implications for the US: 1. The Soviet Union appears to have a continuing interest in ABM defenses, although ASATs seem to be a much lower priority. 2. The Soviet technology fielded to date was well within the American grasp 10 years ago. Where advanced and as yet undeployed technologies are concerned, the difference seems to be smaller; perhaps as little as five or seven years, with approximate parity in particle-beam research. 3. The Soviet Union, possibly more sensitive to prestige considerations, appears to be much more inclined than the US to demonstrate and deploy a technology before it is actually fully operational, and to undertake field modifications later. They also are much more reluctant to retire aging and obsolete technologies. As a result, they presently possess the world's only deployed ASAT and ABM systems, however, doubtful their actual operational effectiveness might be. 4. Soviet strategic defenses tend to be more fragmentary in design, reflecting their difficulties with the supporting and integrative technologies such as sensing, signal processing, heavy-lift boosters, and computing hardware and software. 5. The Soviets should also be expected to explore alternative avenues of near-term response to SDI, for example by expanding their strategic nuclear arsenal. 28 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  15. The Soviet Economic Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabe, Alexander M.

    1974-01-01

    The nature of the Soviet economic challenge to the world and to the United States is described in relation to standard of living, political influence, hegemony of Eastern Europe, and military power (Author/KM)

  16. Soviet Nuclear Proliferation Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-05

    ratify the NPT. The Soviet press has been cautious about publically condemning NPT hold-outs, usually avoiding naming Third World nations, though it is...fissionable fuel for nuclear weapons. Furthermore, Brazil has not signed the NPT. Moscow has bitterly condemned this "deal of the century." The Soviet press ...equipment sent to a nonnuclear state. Germany, of course, is. France, however, has anounced its intention to observe the safeguard Provisions of the NPT

  17. Understanding Soviet Naval Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    capabilities: Third World the Soviets use the fleet to show the flag and enhance political contact with de- * large national resource providing valua...content obsolete almost overnight. Indeed, there is no more Soviet Union or Warsaw Pact. Despite the rapidly shifting political situation, however...have significant valu3 for the thoughtful student of international navies and the potential influence on world affairs these units represent. Rear

  18. Soviet Space Program Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    in advance and some events were even broadcast live. Immediately following the first success- ful launch of their new Energia space launch vehicle in...early 1988. Just as a handbook written a couple of years ago would need updating with Mir, Energia , and the SL-16, this handbook will one day need up...1986. Johnson, Nicholas L. The Soviet Year in Space 1983. Colorado Springs, CO: Teledyne Brown Engineering, 1984. Lawton, A. " Energia - Soviet Super

  19. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    time to really take advantage of the provisions of the document cited in practice. [Question] The "track of long - term prospects" which has taken...new, from which life will select the most viable." Not long ago at the Bureau of the Main Political Directorate of the Soviet Army and Navy, they...these people so that each works at full strength, with inspiration, with a perceptive vision of our great and long -range goals." Our Soviet classical

  20. Soviet uranium supply capability

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-01

    For many years, only limited information concerning uranium deposits in the USSR has been available from Soviet sources. The Soviet Union has, however, cooperated in some past efforts to promote interaction with the international scientific community. For example, in 1984 the Soviet Union hosted the 27th International Geological Congress (IGC). The uranium portion included 50 papers, primarily on uranium deposits in sandstone and metamorphic rocks, presented to about 300 members. The IGC sponsored almost 400 geology field trips, the most noteworthy of which was a five-day trip to the Krivoi Rog iron and uranium district in the south-central Ukraine, including visits to two open-pit iron mines and the underground Novaya uranium mine in Zholtye Vody. That conference was reported in detail on the October 1984 NUEXCO Monthly Report. Some other information that has been made available over the years is contained in the April 1985 Report discussion of uranium deposit classifications. Advanced processing technology, low-cost labor, by-product and co-product recovery, and the large existing production capacity enable MAEI to produce nuclear fuel at low cost. The Soviet Union`s reserve base, technological development, and production experience make it one of the world`s leading producers of nuclear fuel. As additional information is made available for publication, NUEXCO will present updated reports on the nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Soviet Union.

  1. Thinking about the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkovich, George

    In the United States, educators have had difficulty teaching about the Soviet Union. Students are often ignorant of the historical circumstances that have affected the U.S./Soviet relationship, and they are often miseducated by stereotypes they encounter in popular culture. This curriculum explores the government and economy of the Soviet Union,…

  2. Thinking about the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkovich, George

    In the United States, educators have had difficulty teaching about the Soviet Union. Students are often ignorant of the historical circumstances that have affected the U.S./Soviet relationship, and they are often miseducated by stereotypes they encounter in popular culture. This curriculum explores the government and economy of the Soviet Union,…

  3. Soviet psychology and psychophysiology.

    PubMed

    RAZRAN, G

    1958-11-14

    Pavlov's experiments, begun long before the revolution, have always been generously supported by the Soviet state. However, their far-reaching ontological and methodological implication gained an official and commanding position to Soviet biomedical and psychosocial (as distinct from socioeconomic) sciences only in 1950 with the Resolution of the 28 June-4 July Joint Pavlovian Session of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and Academy of Medical Sciences. In the biomedical sciences, present-day Soviet Pavlovianism may best be conceived of as (i) a doctrine of nervism (a Russian term)-the ubiquity of neural control of bodily reactions (neural, neurosomatic, neurovisceral, and neurohumoral) and (ii) a doctrine of what might be called concomitantism (my term )-the ready and radical modification of these reactions by concomitant reactions; or, viewed more generally and somewhat differently, as (iii) a far-reaching physicalistic psychosomaticism or, rather, a neuroviscerosomaticism. Psychophysiology-or higher nervous activity-is the key discipline here. With scores of research institutes, it is indeed a very well-established, wide-scoped, and faradvanced faradvanced science that, in both present achievements and future capabilities, is a challenge to American and Western equivalents. On the other hand, in the psychosocial sciences and the key discipline of psychology proper, unmitigated Pavlovian physicalism and objectivism is met head on by (i) the unbending postulate of dialectical materialism of "the specific emergent efficacy of consciousness and subjective conscious categories" as well as by (ii) the simple consideration that a consistent Pavlovianism is a fully autarchic psychology and needs no other science of psychology on top of it. A large portion of current Soviet psychological theory in psychology proper is thus primarily a textual and exegetic collation and conciliation of the views of Pavlov with those of Marx, Engels, and Lenin (until recently and, to some

  4. Soviet Military Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    military lpresence. To cite just one example, a Soviet Navy task force operated in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico from November 1982 to February 1985...year, Other Surface Combatants: Additionally, the Mi Prduction Naval Ship Cmo itlfon. . USSR and NATO USSR and NATO MI.l T6ype 1976’ 1979’ 1m, 101I...the Caribbean, Gulf of Soviet assistance to Grenada has taken the • Mexico and nearby portions of the Atlantic form of supplying weapons, construction

  5. Soviet debate on missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  6. Soviet ventures require careful structuring

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, J.A. )

    1991-06-03

    When the Soviet Union first opened its doors to foreign investment in 1987, the only legal entity for housing foreign investment was the joint venture or joint enterprise. Almost all foreign investments to date utilize this organizational form. Initially, non-Soviet investors were limited to a 49% equity participation. Currently, there are in excess of 2,000 such joint ventures officially registered in the Soviet Union. It is important to note, however, that notwithstanding that substantial number, the average non-Soviet investment is relatively small; indeed, recent calculations indicate that the average non-Soviet investment remains under $2 million. It was hoped that someday Soviet entities as well as foreign firms might be empowered to form thier own legal vehicles for investing in the Soviet Union. In part, that dream has come true.

  7. Soviet Studies Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

    International education is one of Minnesota's education priorities. This resource guide to materials dealing with the Soviet Union is intended to provide teachers with materials and guidance for preparing students for leadership and active citizenship in an increasingly international society. The introductory section provides statements by various…

  8. The Soviet Union and ballistic missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, B.

    1987-01-01

    In recent debate over strategic defense, the Soviet dimension has not been adequately examined. Based on an analysis of Soviet statements and Soviet weaponry, the study surveys Soviet perceptions of the shifting relationship between the superpowers and the effect of BMD on that relationship. The author then traces the evolution of Soviet policies toward ballistic missile defense and the introduction of weapons into space. After exploring the internal budgetary debates that will affect future Soviet decisions on BMD and space systems, the book outlines Soviet responses, political as well as military, to the Strategic Defense Initiative and concludes with recommendations for U.S. policy toward BMD and arms negotiations. Contents: The Central Issues; Soviet Views of the Geopolitical Context; Soviet Policy Toward Soviet BMD and the Military Uses of Space; The resource Allocation Debate and Soviet BMD Decisions; Soviet Responses to the Strategic Defense Initiative; U.S. Policy and the Future of the Superpower Arms Competition.

  9. Soviet Neurological Science Today

    PubMed Central

    Basmajian, J. V.

    1964-01-01

    Neurological sciences in the U.S.S.R. are healthy but have middle-age spread, as judged from an intensive personal tour of facilities as a guest of the Soviet Academy of Sciences during the autumn of 1963. Many of the recent Western enthusiasms in ultrastructure, cytogenetics and molecular genetics appear not to have inflamed many imaginations. However, Soviet neurologists are contributing to the same types of electrophysiological research as are current in the West. The full realization of the talents of many well-trained young investigators is hindered by the strong emphasis on Pavlovian theory and technique, the rigid multi-layered structure of research institutes, and the relative isolation from undergraduate medical schools of most research. PMID:14180527

  10. Soviet delays raise prices

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1992-01-15

    The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

  11. Soviet Military Doctrine: An Overview,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-02

    one of a series produced by the Directorate of Estimate’s Strategic Studies Division, provides a general overview of Soviet milifary d6ctrine. It...which differ fundamentally from our own. This assessment has avoided the pitfalls inher- ent in many Western studies which "mirror image" Soviet mili...and verifiable. Consequently, the Soviet military devotes consider- able resources to the study of past conflict in an effort to "discover and study

  12. Soviet Military Power 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    deployed in both a fixed and mobile ver- Kremlin should cease its massive military aid rrograms. sion. the mobile SS-25, and the new version of the...Libya. Angola, Vict- ability of mobile systems, coupled with greater yield and nam, Syria, and especially Cuba, which is only 90 miles accuracy of the...of severe repression in Poland, Moscow also deployed SS-20 intermediate-range mobile nuclear missiles that These apparent contradictions in Soviet

  13. The Soviet Airborne Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    30. IVMV, 4:295-99. 31. Sukhorukov, Sovetskie vozdusyno, 81. Erich von Estein* Lost Victories (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1958), claims that only...June 19/5), 6-33. 59. Ibid., 6-36, 6-37, 60. Ibid., 6-37. 61. Sukhorukov, Sovetskie vozdushno, 278-92; Oden and Steiner -t, "Soviet Airborne...voennom GGKIution in dele [The protl;ms e military affairs], - . : Voennoe Izdatel’stvo, 1965. - Manstein, Erich von. Lost Victories. Chicago

  14. Soviet Strategic Airlift.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    geography (15:81). Excluding Antartica , 62 percent of the world’s land is closer to the Soviet Union than to the U.S. (13:7). Also, most destinations of...world Land (less Antartica ) 62 69 Population 81 832 GNP 65 67 Proven oil1 resources 86 90 Natural gas 831 85 57 LhJ c LIP) 4 U LLi. -j0 LU 3 -. U, CfL

  15. Clausewitz and the Soviets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    Wiitary SeliiCe Or goverment agpucy. 0) 0 ULAUSEWITZ AND THE SOVIETS BY LC) LIEUTENANT COLONEL WILLIAlI 7. KARBOWS$Y, USAF DISTRIBUTTION STATEMENT A...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. AE LECh. JUL3 1 1 35 29 MARCH 1985 US ARMY WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PENNSYLVANIA 31...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS US Army War College Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013-5050 I1. CONTROLLING

  16. Soviet Youth Indoctrination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    careful scien- tific scrutiny and may appear as schemes with purely ideological or Marxist-Leninist foundations. Surely, as will be seen, the Soviets...forward the line of constant struggle, They must be careful when they justify things in terms of morality too. Universl morality is rejected by the...ind,)ctrina- tion of their own youth, we must be careful in our analyner of the forces behind the policies. In attempting to detemine Oomuniet objec

  17. The Soviet Counterpropaganda Campaign

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    counterpropaga~da as a psychological war ~o courter subvers:ve prc, paga ~da origlr~atir, g from the west. These efforts follow two basi- ~ prir;ciples...ogramn~ing. The television threat is viewed as a potential euture problem with denouncements of the threat of direcz b~oadcast television into all...34Contradictions in Soviet Socialism," Problems of Communism, Nov-Dec 1984, p. I. Quester, George. "Trans Boundary Television ," Problems of Communis m

  18. The Soviet Union in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Niiseki, K.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the recent transition in the Soviet Union's leadership, scholars worldwide have found it necessary to reevaluate Soviet domestic and foreign policy. In this book, prominent Japanese, U.S., and European experts examine changes within the USSR as well as Soviet reactions to changes in the rest of the world. They assess the immediate implications of change for such areas as technology, energy policy, and economic reform and deliver commentaries on current policy directions and historical backgrounds of Soviet policies. The Japan Institute of International Affairs held the symposium on which this volume is based to commemorate its silver jubilee and to add the valuable perspective of Japanese Soviet studies scholars to Western analyses. Contents: Introduction; The Soviet Union in a Changing World; East-West Relations: A European Perspective; ''Gorbachevism''-Simply Old Wine in a New Bottle. Implications of Leadership and Social Change for Soviet Policies; Soviet Economic Trends, with Special Emphasis on Investment and Energy Policies; Economic Reforms in China in Light of Soviet and Eastern European Experiences.

  19. The Soviet Union and China,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    eel)ly d is tulrbed by thle sp ic tarn L I a r , newt 1h o f t ht, Sax’ i vt - Cuban mitlitary role and Soviet political in I nnce in P%’rica m ici...perception is also fed by What the Chinese see as other symptoms of the incremental growth of the Soviet political and miii- tarv presence in the Trhird World...indefinitely poisoned . Soviet Economic Courting of Beijing. The net result of these experiences has been a long series of rebuffs to sporadic Soviet

  20. Soviet Studies in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Article surveys the special theories and empirical studies of language acquisition carried out by Soviet psychologists, especially in the period since 1950. The basic principles of materialism, historicism and social reference characteristic of Soviet Marxist psychology are placed in contrast to certain current tendencies in American linguistics.…

  1. Soviet military strategy in space

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the Soviet military space effort from its infancy in the 1950s to the spy craft and anti-satellite systems of today. It describes in detail the Soviet equivalents of the U.S. Star Wars program and explains technical and political issues in laymen's terms. A full text of major arms control agreements completes the volume.

  2. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  3. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-04

    K . Pikalov and N. T. Antoshkin—were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. Of course, some positive steps in renewing ideological activity...the new philosophy,« writes F. Engels in the second chapter of his book, »is the question of the relationship of thought to existence. ( K . Marx, F...Spirin, I. T. Chernyshov, G. I. Domanin, K . I. Mukhin, A. G. Zhoromskiy, V. S. Grigorkin, N. V. Gryaznov, V. N. Charkin, K . F. Pogorelov, V. I. Drakin

  4. Soviet Style in Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    unfavorable, look for a deficiency in the 8G. Smaglienko, PZh, 1979, No. 5, p. 40. 9G. Pavlov , K, 1972, No. 4, p. 20. 10E;ditorial, PZh, 1980, No. 16, p...remarkable commander of Soviet industry, Ivan Alekseevich Likhachev, loved the word drat’sya [knocking about]. He often declared, ’One must drat’sya...milling-machine operator, S. Vodkov, when he decided to work according to the method of the innovator-turner, Albert Pavlov . First he was supported

  5. Soviet Military Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    situations of crisis and instability in the Third World." Frnt the. Coilltuiliq fth NA TO Foreign Misbrs MeabuzIM AMay 1J9J Au,3 a F~i 1or tD I iC...helicopters. rates of production. Missile Production USSR Aircraft Production USSR Misile Type 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 ICBM. 300 300 200 200 200 Arcr...marines afloat during a crisis provides the ioned landing craft. The ROGOV can embark Soviet Union with a valuable political-military about 550 raval

  6. Soviet Military Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    study, but also provides comparative data on developments in US forces. These comparative data serve to highlight even more vividly the magnitude and the...into Western data .,,:•;. collection of foreign scientific and technolog- bases through a growing number of transna- :’’ " * ical information...stage of development. The BLACK- Year JACK is larger than the US B-1B, probably will fU date Inuiudr e-U, PU- Ill Soviet data nclude BiAR, be fr and

  7. Soviet Style in War.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    the methods for firing while running’ " 355-and ingenuity in devising procedures for training: I 56 Soviet Style in War The commander of a regiment...under friendly fire... .. " In fact, one of the characteristics of the "Russian method of attacking" was "to break into the positions of the defense...battle. ° For this gain one should use all available detours and instruments, should "utilize," in General Epishev’s words, "all forms and methods of

  8. A novel active contour model for unsupervised low-key image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jiangyuan; Si, Yulin; Karimi, Hamid; Gao, Huijun

    2013-06-01

    Unsupervised image segmentation is greatly useful in many vision-based applications. In this paper, we aim at the unsupervised low-key image segmentation. In low-key images, dark tone dominates the background, and gray level distribution of the foreground is heterogeneous. They widely exist in the areas of space exploration, machine vision, medical imaging, etc. In our algorithm, a novel active contour model with the probability density function of gamma distribution is proposed. The flexible gamma distribution gives a better description for both of the foreground and background in low-key images. Besides, an unsupervised curve initialization method is designed, which helps to accelerate the convergence speed of curve evolution. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through comparison with the CV model. Also, one real-world application based on our approach is described in this paper.

  9. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    PubMed

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective.

  10. Studies on Soviet Combat Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    and exercises, and frequently stressed in Soviet military publications. n CONTENTS Part n Paje EXECUTIVE SUMMARY /., i INTRODUCTION : V ...DECISIONS (Observations on the relevance of the study to presenttday Soviet views) 196 BIBLIOGRAPHY I .... , 204 ;• V : List of Maps 1. Plan...Viet SyStem °f COmmand and co^ I " comtot operations JecJs as we?? llfJ^ V l^ey °f a "Umber 0f Soviet studies °" rented Sb reoori It ]\\ intlnSn £ A

  11. IMPRESSIONS OF SOVIET PSYCHIATRY

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, George J.

    1960-01-01

    Psychiatry in the Soviet Union is essentially conservative, middle-of-the-road and eclectic. It rejects both extremes: radical surgical treatment such as prefrontal lobotomy, and Freudian psychoanalysis. It is Pavlovian and neurophysiological in its orientation and closely linked to Marxian philosophy; most personal problems are believed to be sociocultural in origin, and they are expected to diminish as the country moves closer toward its political and economic goals, making psychiatry progressively more circumscribed in its applications. The varieties of therapy include work therapy, aimed toward returning patients to society quickly and productively; electrosleep therapy and electroconvulsive therapy, both of which seem to be falling into disrepute; insulin-coma therapy, widely used in psychosis; hunger therapy; pharmacotherapy similar to our own but lacking in the large numbers of drugs we use; tissue therapy; psychotherapy, of limited depth and chiefly concerned with the rational, conscious elements in the patient's life. PMID:13783499

  12. Soviet Naval War Fighting Capabilities,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    This paper attempts to determine the levels of major Soviet combat forces in each of the ocean areas of the world and assess the capability of those forces to conduct warfighting operations from a standing, walking, or running start.

  13. Soviet Development Policy in Siberia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabad, Theodore

    1978-01-01

    Examines how Soviet economic planners and policymakers cope with the geographic dichotomy of a concentration of population and economic activity in European Russia and the concentration of natural resources in sparsely populated Siberia. (Author/DB)

  14. Soviet Development Policy in Siberia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabad, Theodore

    1978-01-01

    Examines how Soviet economic planners and policymakers cope with the geographic dichotomy of a concentration of population and economic activity in European Russia and the concentration of natural resources in sparsely populated Siberia. (Author/DB)

  15. Soviet health care and perestroika.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, D S; Rafferty, M P

    1990-01-01

    Health and health care in the Soviet Union are drawing special attention during these first years of perestroika, Mikhail Gorbachev's reform of Soviet political and economic life. This report briefly describes the current state of Soviet health and medical care, Gorbachev's plans for reform, and the prospects for success. In recent years the Soviet Union has experienced a rising infant mortality rate and declining life expectancy. The health care system has been increasingly criticized for its uncaring providers, low quality of care, and unequal access. The proposed measures will increase by 50 percent the state's contribution to health care financing, encourage private medicine on a small scale, and begin experimentation with capitation financing. It seems unlikely that the government will be able to finance its share of planned health improvements, or that private medicine, constrained by the government's tight control, will contribute much in the near term. Recovery of the Soviet economy in general as well as the ability of health care institutions to gain access to Western materials will largely determine the success of reform of the Soviet health care system. PMID:2297064

  16. A review of Soviet plasma engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The Soviet Union has maintained a substantial and successful electric propulsion research and development effort since the 1950s; however, American researchers are generally unfamiliar with the Soviet accomplishments. Sources of information about Soviet electric propulsion research are noted. The development of plasma engines, a subset of the electric propulsion effort, is reviewed using numerous Soviet sources. The operational principles and status of several engines of the closed electron drift and high-current types are discussed. With recognition of the limited knowledge of the current Soviet program, the Soviet and American programs are compared, revealing some differences in program formulation and emphasis.

  17. A review of Soviet plasma engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The Soviet Union has maintained a substantial and successful electric propulsion research and development effort since the 1950s; however, American researchers are generally unfamiliar with the Soviet accomplishments. Sources of information about Soviet electric propulsion research are noted. The development of plasma engines, a subset of the electric propulsion effort, is reviewed using numerous Soviet sources. The operational principles and status of several engines of the closed electron drift and high-current types are discussed. With recognition of the limited knowledge of the current Soviet program, the Soviet and American programs are compared, revealing some differences in program formulation and emphasis.

  18. Verbal Regulation of Motor Behavior-Soviet Research and Non-Soviet Replications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Soviet investigation of the development of verbal inhibition of preseverative manual behavior are reviewed. Non-soviet investigations of verbal-manual interaction are considered in relation to the Soviet view of the development of voluntary behavior; and it is argued, on the basis of this evidence, that the Soviet position need not stand or fall…

  19. Soviet gas processing expands

    SciTech Connect

    Sagers, M.J.

    1987-09-01

    The Soviet gas processing industry expanded with the recent completion of two new gas processing plants, the Krasnoleninskiy and Noyabr'sk plants, both located in West Siberia. Both process associated gas from nearby oil fields to remove valuable liquid hydrocarbons before putting the dry gas into pipelines; previously the gas was flared or vented. These plants represent part of a major program, ongoing since the 1970s, to increase the level of utilization of the tremendous amount of valuable associated gas now being produced in West Siberia. Another major effort to develop gas processing is under way in western Kazakhstan at the Tengiz and Zhanazhol' fields. At Zhanazhol', a small gas recovery plant went into operation in late 1984 in conjunction with a separation plant with a processing capacity of 1 million tons of oil per year. A much larger enterprise to refine oil and process associated gas is under construction at the Tengiz field. This enterprise is different from the major petrochemical operation planned to use feedstocks from Tengiz; the petrochemical operation will be constructed at Kulsary, 120 kilometers from Tengiz, and produce polyethylene, polypropylene, and other plastics.

  20. Collectivity and Individuality in Soviet Educational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, James

    1980-01-01

    Urie Bronfenbrenner has characterized Soviet education as collective, and Amerian education as individualistic. Bronfenbrenner's suggestion, made 10 years ago, that the United States should adopt some of the Soviet methods, is still valid today. (GDC)

  1. Proliferation and the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The report examines the whole range of consequences for proliferation of weapons of mass destruction of the Soviet Union's breakup and describes how U.S. assistance may reduce specific proliferation risks in the former Soviet Union.

  2. Political Attitudes Reflected in Soviet Elementary Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Votey, E. Scott

    1978-01-01

    Examines how Soviet elementary textbooks inculcate political attitudes about Lenin, history and current events, and the importance of the Soviet army. Excerpts from readers are included as illustrations of political instruction. (AV)

  3. Ozone mapper survives Soviet coup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-06

    NASA's latest satellite-borne monitor of the Earth's protective ozone layer went operational a little earlier than planned last month. The unprecedented launch - on a Soviet weather satellite - of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) took place on 15 August. Three days later so did the coup that has shaken the Soviet Union to its foundations. So, instead of waiting weeks to let the instrument adjust to space conditions, NASA engineers, who were in Moscow to monitor the launch, turned TOMS on before going home - just 5 days post-launch. No problems resulted, and the orbiting instrument, which for the first 2 months of its 2-year mission will track the formation of this year's Antarctic ozone hole, is now returning data to both US and Soviet ground stations. The launch of a new TOMS was an urgent imperative for US atmospheric researchers. The old one, now approaching its 13th year in orbit on the NASA satellite Nimbus-7, was showing its age and threatened to quit working. Because of the tight launch schedules following the Challenger disaster, NASA sought outside help to get TOMS off the ground. The Soviet Union turned out to be the best partner: it is developing a new network of Meteor meteorology satellites, and the 1987 US/USSR space cooperation agreement allowed the Soviet Cyclone booster to become the Americans' savior.

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-16

    of all the Soviet republics and autonomies has grown immeasurably, now that there is a natural rise in ethnic self-consciousness taking place...their nationality, and also that there are nationalities which do not have territorial autonomy . These are all realities of our multinational state...of democ- ratization presupposes a further improvement of Soviet federalism. In the past, the fact that the Soviet federation and Soviet autonomy

  5. The Soviet Economic Dilemma of Eastern Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    terms of trade, overinvestment, the hard currency debt crisis , and problems in adopting and diffusing new technologies. At times Soviet policies have...Surpluses with Eastern Europe ........... 31 10. Soviet Trade Surpluses with East European Countries in Crisis ...trade until 1979, and then again in 1981 dur- ing the Polish crisis . Moreover, Soviet terms of trade with Eastern Europe have improved very rapidly

  6. SOVIET LITERATURE ON LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This is the fifth in a report series reviewing Soviet developments in life support systems as reflected in Soviet publications. Items are selected from Soviet open literature and include scientific publications and literature of a popular type. The materials in this report deal with the following topics: space medicine and biology, space vehicle ecology, and instrumentation. (Author)

  7. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  8. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  9. Highly Cited Soviet Papers: An Exploratory Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narin, Fransic; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The bibliographic methodology of citation tabulation was applied to the problem of identifying highly cited Soviet scientific papers (in Science Citation Index). Findings indicate that lists generated are indicative of areas of strong Soviet research and that institutions producing these papers include the most important Soviet labs. (Author/JN)

  10. The End of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergesheimer, John

    1992-01-01

    Presents, as a supplement to social studies textbooks, a summary of recent Soviet Union developments. Begins with the rise of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and traces events through the dissolution of the USSR. Provides a Soviet history timeline, a vocabulary list, and a reproducible map of eastern Europe and central Asia. (SG)

  11. Soviet Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchetkov, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of the high energy physics program in the USSR during 1960s-1970s culminated with a decision to build the Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK) to carry out fixed target and colliding beam experiments. The UNK was to have three rings. One ring was to be built with conventional magnets to accelerate protons up to the energy of 600 GeV. The other two rings were to be made from superconducting magnets, each ring was supposed to accelerate protons up to the energy of 3 TeV. The accelerating rings were to be placed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of 21 km. As a 3 x 3 TeV collider, the UNK would make proton-proton collisions with a luminosity of 4 x 1034 cm-1s-1. Institute for High Energy Physics in Protvino was a project leading institution and a site of the UNK. Accelerator and detector research and development studies were commenced in the second half of 1970s. State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy of the USSR approved the project in 1980, and the construction of the UNK started in 1983. Political turmoil in the Soviet Union during late 1980s and early 1990s resulted in disintegration of the USSR and subsequent collapse of the Russian economy. As a result of drastic reduction of funding for the UNK, in 1993 the project was restructured to be a 600 GeV fixed target accelerator only. While the ring tunnel and proton injection line were completed by 1995, and 70% of all magnets and associated accelerator equipment were fabricated, lack of Russian federal funding for high energy physics halted the project at the end of 1990s.

  12. Determinants of Soviet emigration policies.

    PubMed

    Friedgut, T H

    1991-06-01

    "The object of this paper is the presentation and analysis of the political values that are expressed in Soviet emigration policy. Underlying this is an attempt to discern points of change in these values, in particular through the post-World War II history of the USSR. Our concluding point will be the new law on entry and exit from the USSR, pending before the Supreme Soviet [in 1991] with its passage promised in the nearest future." The study covers the period from the 1920s to the present.

  13. Soviet applications for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Reuben F.

    Consistent with Soviet historical practice in the fields of space vehicle design and aircraft procurement, a hypersonic-cruise aerospacecraft will be used only for specialized missions. Most Soviet surveillance of seas and landmasses will be conducted via satellite, while military missions will be carried out by conventional aircraft and ASAT missions will be performed by unmanned systems. An aerospace vehicle will fill the gaps that have ineluctably emerged between these established systems' capabilities due to their comparatively modest technological sophistication. It can be confidently expected that the aerospaceplane's design will involve the synergistic integration of existing technologies.

  14. The phenomenon of Soviet science.

    PubMed

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    The grand "Soviet experiment" constituted an attempt to greatly accelerate and even shortcut the gradual course of historical development on the assumption of presumed knowledge of the general laws of history. This paper discusses the parts of that experiment that directly concerned scientific research and, in fact, anticipated or helped define important global changes in the functioning of science as a profession and an institution during the twentieth century. The phenomenon of Soviet, or socialist, science is analyzed here from the comparative international perspective, with attention to similarities and reciprocal influences, rather than to the contrasts and dichotomies that have traditionally interested cold war-type historiography. The problem is considered at several levels: philosophical (Soviet thought on the relationship between science and society and the social construction of scientific knowledge); institutional (the state recognition of research as a separate profession, the rise of big science and scientific research institutes); demographic (science becoming a mass profession, with ethnic and gender diversity among scientists); and political (Soviet-inspired influences on the practice of science in Europe and the United States through the social relations of science movement of the 1930s and the Sputnik shock of the 1950s).

  15. Impressions of Soviet Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpes, Donald K.

    Based on a 2-week tour of Russia, this report describes some principal policies and practices of Soviet teacher education. After a brief introduction, the report presents new trends in education and the organization of teacher education as exemplified by the Hertzen Institute in Leningrad. In a description of teacher preparation programs,…

  16. Vzaimodeystviya--A Soviet Problem.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    necessary and Identify by block number) 241 ABST’RACr (Cthate at mewr ee ff nacmew an idemtlby by block nutbee) D OAMM72 IM7 EVITIO11 OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE...must exercise creativeness and initiative to make coordination work. As has been noted, in almost every article from the recent Soviet military press, a

  17. Soviet Weapon-System Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    available in theIWest, provides the central coordination and policy guidance for Soviet weapons acquisition and oversees all military-related research...Machine Building Nuclear weapons and high- (MISREDMASH), (MSM) energy lasers i Ministry of Ship Building Naval vessels and naval (MINSUDPROM), (MSP) weapons...MINRADPROM), (MRP) equipment, guidance -and- control systems, navigation 3 equipment, and military computers Ministry of Communications

  18. Soviet KIROV class strike cruiser

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, J.W.; Brower, K.S.; Meier, H.A.

    1981-04-01

    The major design concepts and basic characteristics of the Soviet KIROV Class ship, an impressive nuclear-powered Strike Cruiser which recently appeared while undergoing sea trials in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, are discussed. Highlights are presented of the KIROV's hull form, the weapons, electronics and aviation systems, machinery, as well as the cruiser's speed and range.

  19. Soviet military power: an assessment of the threat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Contents include: the nature of the Soviet threat--Soviet national-security policies; Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev; military resources allocation; Soviet strategic programs and space forces; Soviet conventional forces; an assessment of the threat--the strategic balance; regional and functional balances; research and development: the technological competition; collective security: our risks and responsibilities.

  20. The People of the Soviet Union. Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikofski, Joyce

    This sixth grade teaching unit covers Soviet propaganda, communism, relations with the United States, Soviet geography, Soviet arts, and Soviet life. Unit goals address the above content areas, map skills, and an attitudinal goal of helping students to develop a sense of respect for the life of Soviet citizens. Behavioral objectives are keyed to…

  1. The People of the Soviet Union. Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikofski, Joyce

    This sixth grade teaching unit covers Soviet propaganda, communism, relations with the United States, Soviet geography, Soviet arts, and Soviet life. Unit goals address the above content areas, map skills, and an attitudinal goal of helping students to develop a sense of respect for the life of Soviet citizens. Behavioral objectives are keyed to…

  2. Soviet Perspectives on Current Sino-Soviet Relations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    US an- ’TATC in a two-fr... r r losino its hold on Eastern Europe. Just as Usas-rous . - that, "...:after the d- estr -ction o Chirese ->’c’e-,r i- y...solidify the world communist -ove- ment and he a strong lever against the US. As the Soviets face a declining economy and labor pool, a . decrease in

  3. Soviet chemical propellant research and development

    SciTech Connect

    deButts, E.H.; Baum, K.; Beckstead, M.W.; Christe, K.O.; Hartman, K.O.; Jeffrey, W.A.

    1991-12-01

    In the second half of the 1980s, the Soviet Union had a strong and continuing research effort devoted to understanding the behavior of chemical propellants suitable to support development of advanced propellants for practical applications. Recent Soviet work concentrated on solid propellants, though liquid propellants powered the largest and most advanced deployed Soviet rockets. This assessment summarizes the Soviet state of the art in chemical propellants in the late 1980s and projects the trends of that period into the next decade. It is based on a broad and deep review of Soviet literature published in 1985--1991 and is presented in an unclassified report. Speculation about or prediction of the effects of recent political and social events on chemical propellant research and development in the old Soviet Union is outside the scope of this assessment, though the effects are likely to be profound.

  4. The Soviet Union: Political and military trends

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Garrity, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    On July 20, 1989, the Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a workshop on The Soviet Union: Political and Military Trends.'' The morning session was devoted to a discussion of the magnitude of the problems confronting the Soviet Union, the political and economic reforms designed to address those problems, and the repercussions of those reforms on Soviet foreign policy and defense spending. In the afternoon session, the Soviet view of the changing character of warfare, the technologies and force structures that the Soviets might develop and deploy to anticipate the battlefield of the future, and the role that conventional arms control might play in Soviet political and military strategy were examined.

  5. Soviet Nuclear Strategy form Stalin to Gorbachev

    SciTech Connect

    Catudal, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book examines the nature of the Soviet nuclear threat and how it has evolved over the years. Too often in the past U.S. officials, in shaping and directing plans for American nuclear forces, have tended to see Soviet military forces and strategy as a reflection of their own stance or simply as projecting the worst plausible case of Soviet intentions and capabilities. The result has been a distorted if not dangerous portrayal of the real threat. Soviet nuclear strategy, as explained in this detailed book, has evolved significantly since the days when the Soviets first possessed nuclear weapons under Joseph Stalin. Today there is in development a new Soviet military and strategic doctrine reflected in Gorbachev's words, We require a radical break with traditions of political thinking. This new doctrine promises to have a profound impact on European security and the overall East-West relationship.

  6. Keeping the Door Open: A Soviet-American Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, J. Daniel; Humes, Debra

    1988-01-01

    Provides a first-hand account of a Soviet-American theater arts exchange, the world premiere of Soviet playwright Gennadi Mamlin's "On the Edge," performed in the Soviet Union by the Louisville Children's Theatre. (MM)

  7. Soviet business chaos seen lasting 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-16

    This paper reports that companies seeking work in the collapsing Soviet Union can expect political uncertainty for another 5 years. PW discussed changes in the Soviet Union and offered advice on dealing with officials of the central government and Soviet republics at a recent meeting in Houston with executives of oil field service companies. That meeting preceded reports of the Russian federation, Ukraine, and Byelorussia agreeing to form a Slavic commonwealth.

  8. Overflights of Soviet Cosmodromes 1953-1961

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, B.

    Soviet cosmodromes were hidden from the world until comparatively recently. In reality, western intelligence obtained early knowledge of the three Soviet - period cosmodromes of Kapustin Yar, Tyuratam and Plesetsk. Information was collected by overflights of the cosmodromes by American and British pilots during the period 1953 to 1960. Although western intelligence agencies were primarily interested in the missile programme, they acquired an accurate picture of Soviet space capabilities.

  9. Soviet Involvement in the Korean War: A New View from the Soviet-era Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the Soviet Union's role in the Korean War using the resources of the Soviet-era archives in Russia. Provides historical background about the pre-Korean War era, the start of the war, the Soviet-Chinese relationship, the air and ground battles, and the reasons for ending the Korean War. (CMK)

  10. Soviet National Middle Atmosphere Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilov, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    Soviet national MAP program comprises seven projects: lower thermosphere (structure and dynamics); high latitude energetic sources and their effect on the structure and dynamics of the upper atmosphere under conditions of the polar night; climate of the stratosphere and mesosphere (effects of various energetic sources on its formation); winter variability in the lower ionosphere; noctilucent clouds (climatology, dynamics, nature, and genesis); wave processes and structure and dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; and dynamics of the ozone layer.

  11. Understanding Soviet Objectives and Behavior,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-17

    secondhand furniture and clothing ...8217.." . . ...... . .’ . ... ,. . ’.* - ..’,,’..’. .’,, . ,’,’, ’* *. ’ .,.’, .. ,. *- * - .*, %,* - -. , . . ,,,- ,.. . . * . *. daily standing in line to buy food and other consumer goods to support their families. And the chronic shortage of meat, which...has existed since before WW II, continues to plague Soviet consumers . Except for military hardware, farm machinery and machine tools the USSR

  12. Night Operations - The Soviet Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    cannons 4 - 5 Muzzle flashes from small arms 1.5 - 2 Bonfire 6 - 8 Flashlight up to 1.5 Lighted match up to 1.5 Lighted cigarette up to .8 Audibility...60,,.6o d-o "NORM NOT GIVEN DIRECTORS-SQUAD COMMANDERS Figure 3 Firing Range DDT -1100-128-76, Soviet Ground Porces, Night Operations,tMarch 1976

  13. Russian Culture and Soviet Science.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    Ref. 17: pp. 94-5]. This discretion is not total, however, as the national plan not only lists 200 to 250 basic science and technology problems of...American students do, few study basic science . (Ref. 23: p. 43] Thus, "... uncertainty is reduced by careful control over access to the basic-research...CONCLUSION Soviet work in basic science is described by some as "excellent, comparable to that in America or anywhere else" [Ref. 8: p. 3271 and

  14. Soviet Military Strategy towards 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    Virginia, Center for Naval Analyses [CNA] no. 87-1918, 1 October 1987), pp. 6-8. 8. A . Kokoshin and V . Larionov, "The Confrontation of General- Purpose...Views of V . I. Lenin and Soviet Military Science," in General-Major A . S. Milovidov (ed.), Voenno-teoreticheskoe nasledie V . I. Lenina i problemy...1987), p. 32. For uniformed political officers behind it, see Yu. Ya. Kirshin, V . M. Popov, and R. A . Savushkin, Politicheskoe soderzhanie sovremennykh

  15. Soviet Union`s Nuclear Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union`s nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry`s strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources.

  16. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1990-03-19

    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs.

  17. The Soviet Union: Population Trends and Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Murray

    1982-01-01

    Recent trends and differentials among the Soviet Union's 15 republics and major nationalities are reviewed, focusing on fertility, mortality and urbanization, the prospect for labor supplies and military manpower, emigration, and projected population growth to 2000. Estimated at 270 million as of mid-1982, the Soviet population is currently…

  18. Technology and Soviet energy availability: Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    The course Soviet energy production will take if present policies in the West and the USSR remain unchanged is investigated. Opportunities and problems in the five primary Soviet energy industries: oil, gas, coal, nuclear, and electric power; equipment and technology requirements; and the implications of providing or withholding assistance are addressed.

  19. International Education--Focus: Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFerriere, Jake; Broyles, India

    From March 8 to March 11, 1989, student schedules at Lake Region High School in Bridgton, Maine were replaced by Soviet Union culture and history classes. The project was called "Focus: Soviet Union," and was intended as only the first of a series of International Education Days designed to increase United States understanding of other…

  20. War, Militarism and the Soviet State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, David

    This paper surveys obstacles to disarmament in the Soviet Union, with emphasis on the role of the military tradition in Russia and the centrality of the defense sector to Soviet society. The hypothesis is that, although the role of militarism is strong, there are potential forces for demilitarization, including, for example, the friction caused by…

  1. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, J. N.; Campanella, S. J.; Gordon, G. S.; McElroy, D. R.; Pritchard, W. L.

    1991-08-01

    The current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies are discussed. A panel of six U.S. scientists and engineers assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path, and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations such as Japan, Italy, and France. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions, using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although the published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. In response to decreased governmental support, the Soviet communications satellite industry is showing signs of some internal competition, is working on increasing communications satellite lifetime, and is also striving to develop joint ventures with Western firms.

  2. Learning about the Soviets: Selected Teaching Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educators for Social Responsibility, Cambridge, MA.

    Over 120 resources for teaching secondary and postsecondary level students about the Soviet Union, most of which have been produced since 1980, are listed in this guide. A resource list focusing on "Ten Things Soviets Say You Should Read to Understand Them" precedes annotated citations of articles; books; curricula; organizations…

  3. Whither Soviet Studies: Back to Basics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    1981-01-01

    The author traces changes in American social studies teaching about the Soviet Union over the past 30 years. He finds that these changes parallel shifts in the political mentality from the Cold War, through detente, to America's renewed suspicion following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. (SJL)

  4. Assisting science in the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The turmoil and economic hardships in the former Soviet Union have not bypassed its scientific community. Governments and scientists around the world bemoan the collapse of the Soviet science infrastructure and the potential loss of Soviet weapons scientists to untrustworthy nations. In joint research collaborations, many see both the chance to assist science in the former Soviet Union and a wellspring of potentially commercial technology.The biggest effort to date is a joint agreement among Russia, the European Community, Japan, and the United States to set up an International Science and Technology Center in Moscow. The center will act as a clearinghouse for proposals from the former Soviet Union to fund research for former weapons scientists. The member nations could support proposals either singularly or jointly. Although all the details have yet to be worked out, the United States has pledged $25 million to this effort so far.

  5. Soviet State Ergonomic Standards (GOST).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    D-A185 537 SOVIET STATE ERGONOMIC STANDARDS eGbST)(U) REPOT STORE i/ LAWRENCE KS B 0 WILLIAMS ET AL SEP 87 HEL-FI-3-87 UNCL7ASSIFIED DAL28 -- 34F/G...Laboratory U. S. Army LABCOM Contract No. DAAL02-87-P-3314 by Bernard 0. Williams, Ph.D. and Victor Merkin The Report Store Suite 602 910 Massachusetts...OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION (if applicable) The Report Store B. EL Field Office *V 61- ADDRESS (Oty, 50-1. -4 ZIP Code) 7b

  6. Economic Bases for Lessening U.S.-Soviet Tensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how the increasing Soviet dependence on American grain can be used to reduce international tensions. Soviet agricultural policies could affect worker morale and the entire Soviet political system. President Reagan is well-positioned to engage the Soviets in serious discussions of reductions in both nuclear and conventional weapons. (AM)

  7. Risk and Uncertainty in Soviet Deliberations about War.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    training, and inferences from known or suspected Soviet political practices, organizational characteristics , and operational concerns. I UNCLASSIFIED...training, and inferences from known or suspected Soviet political practices, organizational characteristics , and operational concerns. I This report is...uncertainties help reduce the image of Soviet military power to more human and manageable proportions. One indication of Soviet strategic uncertainty lies in

  8. The Soviet Road to Olympus. Theory and Practice of Soviet Physical Culture and Sport. Occasional Papers/19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneidman, N. Norman

    Serving as an introduction to Soviet physical education which endeavors to give a concise outline of the organizational structure and the theoretical foundatons of Soviet sport, this book attempts to discuss Soviet physical education in relation to Soviet education and culture generally and to examine critically the practical applications of the…

  9. Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Sloss, L. Associates, Washington, DC )

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

  10. Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Weickhardt, G.C.

    1987-09-01

    For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

  11. Price Index for Soviet Machinery, 1965-1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Soviet Economic Statistics, Duke University Press, 1972, pp. 357-362; and Abraham S. Becker, "The Price Level of Soviet Machinery in the 1960s," Soviet...34Are Soviet Industrial- Production Statistics Significantly Distorted by Hidden Inflation?") in Journal of Comparative Economics , 5(1981), pp. 185-199...34Measuring Inflation in the Soviet Machinebuilding Sector, 1960-1973," Journal of Comparative Economics , 5(1981), pp. 169-184; and CIA, USSR and the

  12. Review of Soviet ionospheric modification research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Lewis M.; Showen, Robert L.

    1990-10-01

    A technical assessment of Soviet research of the past five to tens years in ionospheric modification by high-power radio waves was reviewed and provided. This review includes a comprehensive survey of Soviet published literature, conference proceedings, and direct discussions with the involved Soviet researchers. The current state of the art for Soviet research in this field is evaluated, identifying areas of potential breakthrough discoveries, and discussing implications of this work for emerging technologies and future applications. This assessment is divided into the categories of basic research, advanced research, and applications. Basic research is further subdivided into studies of the modified natural geophysical environment, nonlinear plasma physics, and polar geophysical studies. Advanced research topics include the generation of artificial ionization mirrors and high-power oblique propagation effects. A separate comparative assessment of Soviet theoretical work is also included. The evaluation of practical and potential applications of this research discusses the utility of ionospheric modification in creating disturbed radio wave propagation environments, and its role in current and future remote-sensing and telecommunication systems. The Soviet effort in ionospheric modification sustains theoretical and experimental research at activity levels considerably greater than that found in comparable programs in the West. Notable strengths of the Soviet programs are its breadth of coverage, large numbers of scientific participation, theoretical creativity and insight, and its powerful radio wave transmitting facilities. Weakness in the Soviet effort include ccomputational limits in numerical analysis of nonlinear processes, inferior experimental diagnostic capabilities, and an apparent tendency of experimental program to validate theoretical predictions as opposed to exploring new phenomena. A recent review of Soviet ionospheric modification research is given

  13. Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans.

  14. Medicine in the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Lisa J.; Busing, Nicholas

    1992-01-01

    At the time this article was written, the Soviet Union was in a state of transition and turmoil. Its health care system was one of the areas most affected. This article is based on the observations the authors made during visits to the Soviet Union in 1990 and 1991. Although the situation in the Soviet Union seemed quite bleak, some very exciting initiatives for change were and still are under way, the result of which could be a system that provides more efficient and effective health care. PMID:21221331

  15. The Soviet Economy in the 1980s,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    3.6 IAgricultural output (Soviet official) 3.9 2.5 1.7 IAgricultural output (CIA) 3.6 2.2 1.4 IConsumption per capita 5.0 2.9 1.6 SOURCE: Bergson , 1981...Abram Bergson , "Soviet Technological Progress: Trends and Prospects," which is scheduled to appear as a chapter in a volume edited by Abram Bergson and...style GNP target of 4.0 percent a year. See Abram Bergson , "Soviet Economic Slowdown and the 1981-85 Plan," Problems of Communism, vol. XXX. no. 3 (May

  16. Technology and Soviet energy availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    This study addresses in detail the significance of American petroleum equipment and technology to the U.S.S.R. and the resulting options for U.S. policy. It examines the problems and opportunities that confront the U.S.S.R. in its five primary energy industries: oil, gas, coal, nuclear, and electric power. It discusses plausible prospects for these industries in the next ten years; identifies the equipment and technology most important to the U.S.S.R.. In these areas; evaluates the extent to which the United States is the sole or preferred supplier of such items and analyzes the implications for both the entire Soviet bloc and the Western alliance of either providing or withholding Western equipment and technology.

  17. Soviet Arctic yields big hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-10

    Despite the huge hydrocarbon resources lying in Arctic areas of the USSR, the Soviets are expected to postpone offshore development there until the 1990s, focusing primarily on more accessible onshore Arctic reserves. They have already shown impressive ability to develop Arctic gas fields - such as the Urengoi and Yamburg fields - drilling through thick permafrost into pay zones with abnormally high pressures. The key to continued gains in Arctic production lies in the development of high-capacity, large-diameter pipe that would greatly reduce the number of pipelines required to carry the gas to western markets. The USSR recently reported successful tests on a 56-in. laminar pipe designed for operating pressures of 1500-1800 psi instead of the conventional 1100 psi.

  18. Soviet leadership on nuclear war. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    FitzGerald, M.C.

    1987-04-01

    Throughout the last decade, the Soviet politico-military leadership has provided startling evidence of a new Soviet doctrine on nuclear war. Leading Soviet military thinkers have themselves traced the origin of this phenomenon to evolving technological developments in both nuclear and conventional arms. In his 1982 book--Always in Readiness to Defend the Fatherland, Ogarkov used provocative language to describe recent developments in military affairs: A profound and revolutionary in the full sense of the word, perevorot (revolution, turnabout, upheaval) in military affairs is occurring in our time.... He connected this revolution with rapid quantitative developments in nuclear weapons and delivery vehicles, and with the significantly qualitative upgrading of conventional means of destruction. In his 1985 post-transfer book--History Teaches Vigilance, hereafter cited as History--he stressed that his profound and revolutionary, in the full sense of the word, perevorot is continuing in our time.... This document presents opinions on Soviet leadership in nuclear war.

  19. Astronomical observatories of the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Dmitrii Nikolaevich

    Various types of astronomical instruments are described, including optical telescopes, radio telescopes, and radiation detectors. Soviet ground-based astronomical observatories are described as well as those aboard satellites and space stations.

  20. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  1. Growing Up Gifted in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the educational program for gifted students in the Soviet Union discusses student responsibilities, program admission, and specialized schools featuring foreign languages, mathematics and physics, music, ballet and arts, sports, and "little academics" (advanced studies). (CB)

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of party political work. Opinions are discussed and correct decisions are worked out together. Col A. PAVLOV , deputy chief of the social sciences...Marshal of the Soviet Union [MSU] Ivan Khristo- forovich Bagramyan.... They call him their son in Russia, in the Caucasus, in the Ukraine and in...Forces A. Babadzhanyan. The military biography of the twice Hero of the Soviet Union Ivan Khristoforovich Bagramyan, who would have been 90 years

  3. The Prospects for Modernizing Soviet Industry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    condi- tions under which weaving occurred in their plants. However, the manufacture of textiles is, in fact, one instance where it is possible to use... weaving plant. A Soviet textile producer may not be allowed even this simple expedient to use the new shuttleless looms more effectively. Delivery...system than appears likely at this time. ISteven W. Popper, Modernizing the Soviet Textile Industry: Implications for Peres- troika, R-3779, October

  4. The Validity of Soviet Military Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    regarding our national defense. Limitations. (1) Gervasi does not document any of his information with footnotes or end notes . He makes reference to several...DOD publication, this study is needed to properly evaluate his claims. S END NOTES CHAPTER ONE IDepartment of Defense Soviet Military Power 1987...does not provide the context for such an assessment." 14 19 END NOTES CHAPTER TWO LGervasi, Tom Soviet Military Power *The Pentagon’s Propaganda

  5. Soviet Economic Stringencies: External Reactions and Repercussions,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Western measures to ease these stringencies either as a direct emollient , or as a quid pro quo (i.e. the "linkage" variant). In general, I expect reactions...attitudes. Still others, like the author of this paper, believe that . economic stringencies will have no predictable effect on Soviet . attitudes, but...adopt a . similar position. They regard with favor the constricting effect that such stringencies will have on the ability of Soviet leadership to

  6. Soviet Strategy in the Red Sea Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    approximately 100 Soviet technicians. 6 In 17 1977 the Soviets extended a $100 million credit line to Ethiopia to increase the Assab refinery capacity by...miles to the west of the main shipping line from the Persian Gulf around the east coast of Africa". 10 The Somali topography is dominated by flat...earth satellite station, a microwave scatter sytem, a Communications College at Sana’a and roughly 14,000 telephone lines . Hodeida, Mocha and Salif

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    a peaceful sky above his head. Perhaps the highest form of well-being for a Soviet person, for the Soviet people, is, in my opinion, peaceful skies ...I would like to ask you both a question that can be formulated the following way: The question is one of the asymmetry in strategic thinking, if...from the basic direction of the attack. There was a slipup in the actions of the motorized infantrymen. Part of the targets were not hit. This

  8. The Defense Policy of the Soviet Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    34 further intensified the Soviet "siege mentality ." 7 Soviet statements since the end of World War II have left no doubt that the United States has become...Whatever their public declarations, the combination of military doctrinal incentive, residual siege mentality , and their likely convictions regarding the...Volkogonov, a former deputy chief of the Main Political Administration, " vegetarian pacifists" with little interest in the "martial traditions and

  9. The German Reunification Issue: A Soviet Perspective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    relations and constantly lays stress on its national interests. It is probable that Ceausescu is supported by a wide measure of agreement among his people...Reunification Issue: [A r t on ’o r A Soviet Perspective by Lynette Manning Tatsch Captain, United States Air Force - B.A., Purdue University, 1971 ...conflict over Germany would involve the American and Soviet forces * idirectly and would probably be fought with the most modern weapons avail- able

  10. Soviet-American Exchanges: Promises and Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    policy management and oversight, and that regular involvement of the CSCE in these matters can significantly contribute to making Soviet-American...system. 4 Literaturnava Gazeta, September 9, 1987. 5 Yu. Zamoshkin, "Yadernaya opasnost’ i faktor strakha," SShA. Ekonomika, Politika. Ideologiya. 1985...prestige), while conduct by ABA leaders, such as the one exhibited at the meeting with Mr. Gromyko, can earn us only contempt from the Soviets. A

  11. Visitor - Soviet Union Ambassador - Anatoliy Dobrynin - JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-17

    S75-28534 (17 July 1975) --- Anatoliy Dobrynin (right), Soviet Union ambassador to the United States, visits with a group of USSR ASTP flight controllers in the Mission Control Center during a tour of NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Dobrynin was at JSC on the day the Soviet Soyuz and the American Apollo spacecraft docked in Earth orbit. The group also includes a couple of American ASTP flight controllers.

  12. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Soviet International Finance in the Gorbachev Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Union’s foreign debt. Forty percent of all hard- currency export receipts are to be sold to VEB at the "commercial" exchange rate. The fraction of the...changes are the consequences of changes in currency exchange rates. Many Soviet assets and liabili- ties are denominated in currencies other than dollars...Soviet hard- currency holdings were nonetheless quite large relative to the official foreign exchange reserve holdings of other countries (see Table 4.3

  14. U.S.-Soviet Scientific Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last month the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Soviet Academy of Sciences signed a tentative agreement to resume scientific exchanges. Scientific symposia involving both nations, first negotiated in the late 1950s, were suspended in 1980 after the exile of Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov. Individual scientist exchanges were not suspended and have continued without formal agreement between the two nations.

  15. One Germany - A New Soviet Strategy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-12

    Research and Analysis Establishment, 1984. 60. Remnick , David . "If Perestroika Collapses, Soviets Could Still Muddle Through." The Washington Post, 4...GERMANY - A NEW SOVIET STRATEGY ? AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT by Lieutenant Colonel Robert B. Clarke, AD Colonel David T. Twining Project Advisor...I could make them. At the same time, the credibility of most well documented books and journal articles prepared as recently as two years ago by some

  16. American and Soviet Relations Since Detente

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Socialist Republics, the USSR. In it I will not explain the elements of grand strategy between the two super- powers, nor will I address the intrigues of the...location of Soviet diplomatic personnel, by any means. Elements of the official Soviet diplomatic community are at several Washington, DC, locations...items that are taken for granted at home. Americans being assigned to Moscow are told to bring huge quantities of toilet paper, toothpaste , hygienic

  17. Perestroika, Soviet oil, and joint ventures

    SciTech Connect

    Churkin, M. Jr.

    1991-08-01

    Glaznost, the freedom of expression in both the public and private sectors of the Soviet Union, has rapidly transformed the country form a largely isolated and closed society to one that is rapidly becoming more cosmopolitan and open to the West. Now that the Soviet Union is moving toward a free-market economy, a number of new laws are being generated to create a favorable environment for Western investment, especially joint ventures. First, crude oil sales have provided over 75% of much-needed hard currency, and oil has been the principal barter for manufactured goods produced in eastern Europe. Second, joint oil ventures with Western companies can reverse declining production levels and provide sufficient stimulus to turn around the economic recession. The Soviet Union has a very large inventory of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields. Most of these fields are difficult for the Soviets to produce technically, financially, and environmentally safely, and they are actively seeking appropriate Western partners. From an exploration point of view, the Soviet Union has probably the largest number of undrilled and highly prospective oil basins, which may replenish declining reserves in the West. Finally, the Soviet Union represents in the long term a large unsaturated market eager to absorb the surplus of goods and services in the Western world. Again, joint oil ventures could provide the convertible currency to increase East-West trade.

  18. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  19. Revisiting Soviet oil subsidies to East Europe: System maintenance in the Soviet hegemony, 1970--1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Mark Andrew

    Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union sold oil shipments to the member-states of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) at a fraction of the world market price (wmp). Contrary to arguments made by previous scholars that it paid a subsidy, namely the difference between the wmp and the CMEA price, either as a reward for material contributions to Soviet foreign policy objectives or as a consequence of membership in a customs union, the Soviet Union provided subsidized oil shipments as a form of economic assistance in maintaining its hegemony. Using non-parametric statistical analysis of previous scholars' data and comparative case studies based on interviews of Soviet decision-makers and on archival research, this study shows that the Soviet Union acted as a hegemon, which created a protectionist trade regime, used oil policy as means of hegemonic maintenance. The CMEA, the embodiment of values espoused in the Soviet trade regime identified as "embedded supranationalism", stood as the institutional antithesis of a customs unions, which embodied the values of the Western liberal trade regime. Soviet leaders did not use oil subsidies or trade relations in general as means of calibrating CMEA member-states' domestic or foreign policy behavior. Soviet leaders used subsidized oil as a means of supporting East European national economic development with the ultimate goal of creating politically legitimate governments thereby ensuring political stability in its cordon sanitaire with the West.

  20. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  1. The Soviet maps of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, D. F.

    1990-02-01

    The USSR began mapping parts of Venus almost six years ago and have published a series of scientific results, reaching a few limited conclusions about Venus. While based on the traditional second generation Venera orbiter design, Veneras 15 and 16 carried Polyus-V sidelooking synthetic-aperture radars which used the orbiter's motion over Venus to 'synthesize' an antenna of far larger size than could practically be carried to the planet. The resolution and coverage achieved is better than one kilometer over most of the surface compared with one tenth of a kilometer partial cover expected from the Venus Radar Mapper. The radar data will take years to analyze completely, but initial results have been released and the Soviet Union has compiled an atlas of radar images. Cartographers named two craters after American astronauts Judith Resnik and Sharon Christa McAuliffe. One of the conclusions is that Venus is not a 'single plate' planet, like the earth's moon or Mercury; its crust is distinctly broken into individual blocks with independent movements. It appears that extensive volcanism is a universal factor in the evolution of planets in the inner solar system.

  2. A National Anthem Is Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molotsky, Irvin

    2001-01-01

    Presents the story of the Star-Spangled Banner, explaining that Francis Scott Key's poem is not mere patriotic rhetoric, but is rooted in an important moment in U.S. history and in the joy that Key felt when the dawn revealed the American flag still flying over Fort McHenry following the destruction of Washington, D.C. and attack on Baltimore. (SM)

  3. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1988-05-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 days) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight ito the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars.

  4. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1989-07-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior, and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 d) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight into the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars.

  5. Constructing fertility tables for Soviet populations.

    PubMed

    Mazur, D P

    1976-02-01

    Because the 1970 Soviet Union census does not provide information on the age structure of men and women separately by sex and according to their ethnic affiliation, the 1959 USSR census data serve as the basis to infer knowledge about ethnic fertility. The model takes into account (1) the total number of births in 1960, estimated from the child-woman ratio in 1959, (2) the age structure of women in 1959, and (3) the assumed pattern of age-specific birth rates structured in terms of the modal age at childbearing and the length of the fertility age span. The results show that Ukrainians among the Slav populations ranked as the lowest with 2.07 children born per woman. Their total fertility contrasts with that of Kazakhs native to Central Asia, who reportedly according to Soviet sources had 7.46 children per woman in 1958-1959, and whose estimated rate is around 8.59 children. Extreme variations appear in the estimates of fertility among nationalities of the Caucasus region, Volga Basin, and to a lesser degree in Siberia. Official Soviet calculations of crude birth rates and age-specific rates for 15 Union Republics in 1967-1968 are transcribed and compared with the estimates for nationalities in 1959-1960. The same theoretical model used to generate the Soviet rates may be adapted under different assumptions to non-Soviet populations in other situations where the data are scanty or incomplete.

  6. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    Basic material on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is presented in this teachers' guide in such a way that teachers can incorporate it into the daily curriculum or utilize it through special units or projects. The guide is divided into two sections, one covering the Soviet Union, the other Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union section discusses…

  7. The Soviet Chemical Industry and the Gorbachev Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the reform of the industrial structure of the Soviet Union. Emphasizes the influence of the communist party on chemical production, research and education. Surveys the problems facing the Soviet chemical industry. Lists important officials in the Soviet chemical industry. Discusses joint ventures between the United States and the Soviet…

  8. Speaking "Common Sense" about the Soviet Threat: Reagan's Rhetorical Stance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Robert L.

    Although for the 15 years preceding his election as President of the United States Ronald Reagan muted his anti-Soviet rhetoric in order to achieve political power, since his election he has returned to anti-Sovietism in an effort to redirect American foreign policy against the Soviets. At the same time, however, he employs a rhetorical strategy…

  9. Perceptions Management: Soviet Deception and Its Implications for National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    34 the threatening bourgeois forces. The Soviet Union has an extremely successful record in the application of internal control over its population. From...Soviet Strategic Deception, Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1987, pp. 133-146. * Rees, S. Louise , "How the Soviet K.G.B. is Operating in America

  10. Teaching about the Soviet Union. ERIC Digest No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citti, Lori A.

    Given the global significance of Soviet-U.S. relations, elementary and secondary school students should learn about the Soviet Union, but most students graduate from high school with little knowledge and many misconceptions about this country. It is important to teach about the Soviet Union because of: (1) its emphasis in the U.S. media; (2) its…

  11. Soviet Women in the Life of Society: Achievements and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motroshilova, Nelya V.

    1983-01-01

    Women in the Soviet Union are guaranteed equal rights and opportunities and participate fully in the Soviet economy. Despite their achievements, Soviet women still have difficulties in entering and achieving high-level positions in traditionally male fields and in getting men to do their share of household work. (IS)

  12. Soviet concepts of ballistic missile defense. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Seavey, K.P.

    1988-06-01

    This thesis characterizes the Soviet concept of ballistic missile defense (BMD) in order to better understand and predict future Soviet BMD decision making. The Soviet concept of BMD is fundamentally different from that in the West. Soviet BMD is clearly an integral component of a much larger Soviet strategic defense effort which consists of strategic air defense as well as passive measures, such as mobility, deep underground command and control facilities, and civil defense. As the Soviet military literature demonstrates, Soviet strategic air defense encompasses defense against a continuum of threats -- from aircraft to ballistic missiles to satellites to 'space-strike weapons'. Soviet strategic air defense weapons therefore appear optimized to counter a wide range of airborne threats. In the Soviet view, surface-to-air missiles may be a primary tactical BMD weapon. Additionally, Soviet strategic BMD weapons may be a primary Soviet anti-satellite weapon. Furthermore, manned space platforms play a particularly significant role in Soviet thinking about the future of BMD and space warfare.

  13. The Soviet Chemical Industry and the Gorbachev Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the reform of the industrial structure of the Soviet Union. Emphasizes the influence of the communist party on chemical production, research and education. Surveys the problems facing the Soviet chemical industry. Lists important officials in the Soviet chemical industry. Discusses joint ventures between the United States and the Soviet…

  14. A window on Soviet marine geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crook, Keith A. W.; Malahoff, Alexander

    The Soviet marine geoscience community has for many years held biennial scientific meetings at Gelendzhik on the Black Sea coast south of Novorossisk, a few kilometers from the campus of the Southern Division of the Institute of Oceanology, Soviet Academy of Sciences. The ninth AU-Union School of Marine Geology, held October 15-20, 1990, was the first to specifically invite foreign scientists, and the eighteen who participated from nine countries look forward to more meetings of this kind. Total attendance was 203, including scientists from 20 centers in the USSR. Two-thirds of those present held Ph.D or D.Sc. degrees. The opportunity to meet and communicate with young Soviet scientists was mutually beneficial and much appreciated.

  15. Where the Soviet cosmonautics is going to?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avduevskii, V. S.; Leskov, L. V.

    1990-04-01

    The authors discusse some of the achievements of the Soviet Cosmonautics during the previous epoch. They underly that the Brezhnev epoch in Soviet Cosmonautics was a ideological one, in spite of some achievements. The main critics is addressed to absence of economical reasons for some of projects. They suggest, that the most important way to change the situation is to point on economical reasons of the Soviet (Russian ) cosmic programs. The authors cite the constructive critics by M.S. Gorbachev, to previous cosmic programs developed in the USSR, as well as his ideas to improve the situation. The use of cosmonautics in view of development of telephony, energetic programs, the populated by humans cosmos (including space stations) are under the review by authors. As a supplement the brochure include the description of the "Granat" Project, as well as a historical overview of the Space Shuttle.

  16. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.

    PubMed

    González Rey, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology.

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the slogan: "To Live and Work at an Prosper!" This hieroglyph cannot be translated into any Accelerated Pace"? Would you find something like this...reflection of reality. Take for instance this one: "The Soviet People Is I have heard that Eastern hieroglyphics have a hidden the Eternal Builder of...improved a great deal. people. They are our own hieroglyphs . "More Fertilizers from Our Plant Put More Variety on the Soviet People’s Table!" This is a

  18. Soviet Space Stations as Analogs, Second Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.; Helppie, Martha

    1986-01-01

    The available literature that discusses the various aspects of the Soviet Salyut 6 and Salyut 7 space staions are examined as related to human productivity. The methodology for this analog was a search of unclassified literature. Additional information was obtained in interviews with the cosmonauts and some Soviet space personnel. Topics include: general layout and design of the spacecraft system; cosmonauts role in maintenance and repair; general layout and design of the Mir complex; effects of the environment on personnel; information and computer systems; organization systems; personality systems; and physical conditin of the cosmonaut.

  19. Studying Soviet Low-Intensity Conflicts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Ca - S S -S 0: - S - S 0: -S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S Sa Sa S S S S S S S S S a S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S...learned now in Afghanistan, this is a recipe for disaster. Most American military analyses of Red Army operations concentrate on the conventional threat in...tsarist heritage in Soviet doctrine and strategy in both Europe and Afghanistan. 4 Since 1918, the Soviet army has fought partisan engagements of

  20. Understanding Soviet Foreign Policy. The Tradition of Change in Soviet Foreign Policy. Two Schools of Soviet Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    the works of Victor Hugo, :he Russian classics, and the works of other writers. Isaac Deutscher, Stalin: A Political Biography, New York, Oxford... panache and the scope of the gesture further rein- force the Soviet leader’s ascension and his auctoritas. It vastly adds to the feeling of confidence which

  1. Rare and endangered species of plants--the soviet side.

    PubMed

    Elias, T S

    1983-01-07

    In late 1972, the Soviet Union embarked on a program to identify and document plant species that are threatened with extinction. Perhaps 2000 species in the Soviet Union are in need of monitoring or protective measures, while nearly 200 may be in immediate danger of extinction. Currently, the Soviet Union has an official, national list of endangered species, and each of the 15 republics has prepared a regional list. Once a revised national list is prepared, Soviet scientists hope that the Supreme Soviet will pass a law protecting those species. A corresponding law for endangered animals was passed in 1980.

  2. Productivity, Slack, and Time Theft in the Soviet Economy: Evidence from the Soviet Interview Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Abram Bergson , for example, has examined Soviet resource allocation practices that contribute to economic inefficiency (as evidenced by non-equalization...in the 1980s Problems and Prospects, Part I (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982), pp. 153-168; Abram Bergson , Technological...Progress," Abram Bergson and Herbert Levine (eds.), The Soviet Economy Toward the Year 2000 (Londcn: Allen &Unwin, 1983), pp.34-78. 2. For examples of the

  3. Inside the World of the Soviet Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

  4. Earthquake research in the Soviet Union

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    Henry Spall talked recently with Robert L. Wesson, the new Chief, Office of Earthquake Studies at the U.S Geological Survey National Center, Reston, Va. Wesson has spent altogether almost 1 year in the U.S.S.R, and 6 months of that time in the Garm area of Soviet Tadzhikistan in 1974. 

  5. Soviet Cybernetics Review, Volume 3, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    Soviet efforts in designing third-generation computers are discussed in two featured articles which describe (1) the development and production of integrated circuits, and their role in computers; and (2) the use of amorphous chalcogenide glass in lasers, infrared devices, and semiconductors. Other articles discuss production-oriented branch…

  6. Neural networks in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Wunsch, D.C. II.

    1993-01-01

    A brief overview is given of neural networks activities in the former Soviet Union that have potential aerospace applications. Activities at institutes in Moscow, the former Leningrad, Kiev, Taganrog, Rostov-on-Don, and Krasnoyarsk are addressed, including the most important scientists involved. 21 refs.

  7. Soviet Strategic Airlift and Power Projection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-06

    tending interests of Ethiopia, Somalia, the Soviet Union, and the United States. In September 1974, Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I was de- posed in a...MIengistu Haile Mariam, believed firmly that MVarxism-Leninism was the only way to transform the feudal Ethiopian state into a truly revolutionary society

  8. The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

    For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

  9. Syllabus for Use in Soviet Russian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husum, Carol

    This syllabus outlines a one semester course intended to provide a comprehensive study of the Soviet Union today, and the relationship that Russian has with the United States and the rest of the world. Content covers Russia's history beginning with the fall of the Romanovs with emphasis on the revolutionary movement in Russia. The guide presents a…

  10. Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1980-05-01

    The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book.

  11. Suggestopedia and Soviet Sleep-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    This paper examines the parallels between suggestopedia and Soviet sleep-learning for learning foreign languages. Both systems are based on the idea that the acquisition of information can occur in states below the optimal level of consciousness. Hypnopedia makes use of the period of paradoxical or light sleep that usually occurs just as one is…

  12. The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

    For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

  13. The Costs of the Soviet Empire.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    17 -.26 -.17 -.12 -.07 -.11 -.06 Iran .04 -.05 - .05 .07 -.01 .19 .29 .21 .28 Iraq .10 .03 -.07 -.12 -.07 -.04 -.05 .39 .80 .33 Kuwait .02 .02 .01...ratios: ftee Barich A. Hazen, Soviet Propaganda: A Case Study of the Middl East Conflit , John Wiley & Son&, Now York and Toronto, 1975. 63 I 0 I I DO C

  14. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Conversion and enrichment in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    1991-04-01

    In the Soviet Union, just as in the West, the civilian nuclear industry emerged from research work undertaken for nuclear weapons development. At first, researchers tried various techniques for physical separation of uranium isotopes: electromagnetic and molecular-kinetic thermo-diffusion methods; gaseous diffusion; and centrifuge methods. All of those methods, which are based primarily on differences in the atomic mass of uranium isotopes, called for extensive research and the development of new, technically unprecedented equipment. Gradually gaseous diffusion and gas centrifuge technology became recognized as most feasible for industrial use, so research on other methods was terminated. Industrial-scale uranium enrichment in the Soviet Union began in 1949 using the gaseous diffusion method; by the early 1960s, centrifuge technology was in use on an industrial scale. All Soviet production of highly-enriched, weapons-grade uranium was halted in 1987. The Soviet Union now has four enrichment plants in operation (at classified locations), solely for civilian nuclear power needs. All four enrichment plants have centrifuge modules, and enrichment provided by gaseous diffusion accounts for less than 5% of their total output. Two of the four enrichment plants also incorporate facilities for conversion to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}).

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    returned to Stockholm from the opening of Moscow’s first golf course in an effusive and un-Swedish mood. He addressed every Soviet person in...Yagodovskiy] There is no question about it. A civil war would have erupted . Most of the people were either backers of or sympathizers with the

  17. AGB Helps Develop Soviet Higher Ed Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkisov, Pavel D.

    1991-01-01

    A cooperative experiment between the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges and the Soviet Union's Mendeleev Institute of Chemical Technology involves establishment of an international board of trustees. The board will seek funding from multiple sources, involve the surrounding community in its planning, and strengthen the…

  18. Soviet prediction of a major earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    On November 1, 1978, a magnitude 7 earthquake occurred north of the Pamir Mountains near the Tadjiskistan-Kirghizia border, 150 kilometers east of Garm in Soviet Central Asia. Although the earthquake was felt in Tashkent, Dushanbe, and the Fergana Valley, the epicentral area was uninhabited at that time of year, and no damage was reported. 

  19. Computers and Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zender, Bryce F., Ed.

    Recent decades in the Soviet Union have witnessed a prolific growth of technology. The school system has been under pressure to become more systematic and to supply more qualified candidates to meet the demand of industry. Computer technology has been introduced in order to facilitate more detailed attention to educational objectives.…

  20. American and Soviet Children's Attitudes toward Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, C. Dianne; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that examined the attitudes of 8- to 12-year-old U.S. and former Soviet children toward computers by comparing their responses to attitude statements and their drawings of computer users. Previous computer attitude studies are reviewed, and differences in gender and level of parental use of computers are discussed. (41…

  1. Leading Student Groups to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes student tours to the Soviet Union, discussing the benefits to be derived from such experiences by both students and leaders. In particular, discusses the organization of the tours, their types and costs, advertising strategies, suggested itineraries and guidebooks, student orientation and group composition, and problems encountered…

  2. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the Trotskyites and later by the new opposition. But it was F.E. Dzerzhinskiy who came closest to grasping the problem of Thermidor. Just before he...of the departmental pincers and to transfer real power into the hands of the local soviet. It is high time for Snechkus to have its own boss, who

  3. Undoing the Legacy of the Soviet Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sochocky, Christine M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the changes that have taken place in librarianship in the former Soviet Union. The discussion covers the advantages and disadvantages of centralized planning, the reorganization of library systems in Russia and the Ukraine, the effects of democratization on organization and librarian attitudes, and the remnants of Russification in…

  4. Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Martha C.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

  5. Transforming Clients into Surrogates: The Soviet Experience.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    principle in remarks at a luncheon meeting of the Washington, D.C., -. Chapter of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , November 30...American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , November 30, 1983. ., . -31- the Soviets been willing to become major suppliers of

  6. Glasnost and Secrecy in the Soviet Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-21

    protection of secrets in the mass media." In short, he would issue the kind of paralegal acts which until now have contributed greatl) to maintenance...visit to the Shikhany chemical weapons factory. The Soviets must have assumed that the West knew about the facility (just as the location of a biological

  7. The Future of Soviet-American Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulam, Adam B.: And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents a wide spectrum of views by scholars of Soviet Affairs regarding recent American policy and predictions for the future course of international relations between the two super powers. Experts are Adam B. Ulam (Harvard University), Robert F. Byrnes (Indiana University), Stephen F. Cohen (Princeton University), Alexander Yanov (University of…

  8. The father of Soviet Hydrogen Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Yu. A.

    1990-08-01

    The creation of Soviet Hydrogen bomb has been described.The main participants to the Physical and Computational parts of the projects were shown. The "Sloika " part of the Project, concerned to neutrons kinetic has been discussed. The contribution by A.D. Sakharov to main achievements has been ponted out.

  9. Surprise and Preemption in Soviet Nuclear Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    Ibid. , , ■ 31. Savkin, Rawtr Prinrlnles. p. 239. 32. Engr-Lieutenant Colonel H. Adam and Lieutenant Colonel R. Gebel ’, "Military...Part 1, p. 8. 39. Adam and Gebel ’, "Military Camouflage," o. 157. 40. Colonel A.A. Sidoronko, The Offensive, tirans. U.S. Air Force, Soviet Military

  10. Soviet Concepts of Ballistic Missile Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Gary Powers [Ref. 2:p. 191]. Sary Shagan is also located about a thousand miles downrange from the ballistic missile test center at Kapustin Yar. In...late 1961 the Soviet Union conducted a series of atmospheric nuclear tests, during which missiles were launched from Kapustin Yar towards an impact area

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-12

    direction of the European theatre , which means that SB will be maintained. This is a difficult theoretical problem which can only be resolved by...aura of romanticism surrounding service in the fleet. How is today’s generation of Soviet seamen coping with the ocean vigil? [Makarov] I for one

  12. Soviet Military Power: Prospects for Change 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    gaining access to technologies that technology fields, and are actively pursuing military can threaten regional stability, applications of these...Committee concessions to Armenians in the disputed the political system. region failed to end mass strikes ,d demornstrations. and the Soviets employed ev...countries, while discour- partly aimed at securing access to Western technology aging confrontational behavior by its existing regional and financial

  13. Russian/Soviet weapons secrets revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.S.

    1993-04-01

    Russia's Ministry of Atomic Energy has opened a museum at the Arzamas-16 nuclear weapon design laboratory with an exhibit on some early weapons. This exhibit and recent articles in the Russian press provide previously unknown details on the early Soviet nuclear program. This article compiles some of this information to provide a refined record of the development of the H-bomb.

  14. Soviet Cybernetics Review, Volume 3, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    Soviet efforts in designing third-generation computers are discussed in two featured articles which describe (1) the development and production of integrated circuits, and their role in computers; and (2) the use of amorphous chalcogenide glass in lasers, infrared devices, and semiconductors. Other articles discuss production-oriented branch…

  15. Inside the World of the Soviet Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

  16. Nuclear legacy of Soviet Union poses concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, W.

    1995-07-01

    The Russian Federation possesses all nuclear weapons design and production facilities of the former Soviet Union, reports William Potter, director of the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies. However, other former Soviet states, including Ukraine, boast other nuclear assets, including uranium mining and milling centers; training facilities; and research and commercial-power reactors, some of which are capable of producing weapons-grade plutonium. Potter insists that there is no assurance than these newly independent republics will not attempt to export their respective nuclear assets. {open_quotes}This export danger is heightened by the primitive state of export controls and compelling economic incentives to sell anything to anyone for the right price,{close_quotes} he says. Equally alarming as the absence of export control is the legacy of environmental degradation left by the Soviet nuclear program. {open_quotes}The magnitude of environmental damage caused by nuclear weapons production and testing only recently is coming to light,{close_quotes} Potter insists. Furthermore, writes Potter, {open_quotes}there is real danger that unemployed nuclear scientists in the former Soviet Union will accept offers from well-heeled renegade nations seeking to build nuclear weapons.{close_quotes}

  17. Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Martha C.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

  18. American Reporters/Soviet Reporters: A Convergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rilla Dean

    While the concept of "objective" reporting in the United States has been under attack from critics who demanded more interpretation from the press, a move in the opposite direction seems to be taking place in the Soviet Union, as the concept of journalist as strictly an advocate for the Communist party seems to be giving way to the…

  19. Reading for the Masses: Popular Soviet Fiction, 1976-80. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedberg, Maurice

    Noting that Soviet prose, drama, and poetry reveal the nuances of the moods and policies fostered by the Soviet government while reflecting the Soviet reading public's interests and aspirations, this report describes a study of the values and attitudes by which the Soviets live as reflected in the literature published in Soviet literary magazines…

  20. Parallel processing research in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.; Snyder, L.; Wolcott, P.

    1992-03-01

    This technical assessment report examines strengths and weaknesses of parallel processing research and development in the Soviet Union from the 1980s to June 1991. The assessment was carried out by panel of US scientists who are experts on parallel processing hardware, software, algorithms, and applications, and on Soviet computing. Soviet computer research and development organizations have pursued many of the major avenues of inquiry related to parallel processing that the West has chosen to explore. But, the limited size and substantial breadth of their effort have limited the collective depth of Soviet activity. Even more serious limitations (and delays) of Soviet achievement in parallel processing research can be traced to shortcomings of the Soviet computer industry, which was unable to supply adequate, reliable computer components. Without the ability to build, demonstrate, and test embodiments of their ideas in actual high-performance parallel hardware, both the scope of activity and the success of Soviet parallel processing researchers were severely limited. The quality of the Soviet parallel processing research assessed varied from very sound and interesting to pedestrian, with most of the groups at the major hardware and software centers to which the work is largely confined doing good (or at least serious) research. In a few instances, interesting and competent parallel language development work was found at institutions not associated with hardware development efforts. Unlike Soviet mainframe and minicomputer developers, Soviet parallel processing researchers have not concentrated their efforts on reverse- engineering specific Western systems. No evidence was found of successful Soviet attempts to use breakthroughs in parallel processing technology to ``leapfrog`` impediments and limitations that Soviet industrial weakness in microelectronics and other computer manufacturing areas impose on the performance of high-end Soviet computers.

  1. Parallel processing research in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.; Snyder, L.; Wolcott, P.

    1992-03-01

    This technical assessment report examines strengths and weaknesses of parallel processing research and development in the Soviet Union from the 1980s to June 1991. The assessment was carried out by panel of US scientists who are experts on parallel processing hardware, software, algorithms, and applications, and on Soviet computing. Soviet computer research and development organizations have pursued many of the major avenues of inquiry related to parallel processing that the West has chosen to explore. But, the limited size and substantial breadth of their effort have limited the collective depth of Soviet activity. Even more serious limitations (and delays) of Soviet achievement in parallel processing research can be traced to shortcomings of the Soviet computer industry, which was unable to supply adequate, reliable computer components. Without the ability to build, demonstrate, and test embodiments of their ideas in actual high-performance parallel hardware, both the scope of activity and the success of Soviet parallel processing researchers were severely limited. The quality of the Soviet parallel processing research assessed varied from very sound and interesting to pedestrian, with most of the groups at the major hardware and software centers to which the work is largely confined doing good (or at least serious) research. In a few instances, interesting and competent parallel language development work was found at institutions not associated with hardware development efforts. Unlike Soviet mainframe and minicomputer developers, Soviet parallel processing researchers have not concentrated their efforts on reverse- engineering specific Western systems. No evidence was found of successful Soviet attempts to use breakthroughs in parallel processing technology to leapfrog'' impediments and limitations that Soviet industrial weakness in microelectronics and other computer manufacturing areas impose on the performance of high-end Soviet computers.

  2. Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.C. )

    1991-04-01

    For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield An unanswerable first strike When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means.

  3. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  4. Insights from Mathematical Modeling in Soviet Mission Analysis. Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    actual procurement practices and to determine if actual procurement policy has been in line with what one woulo expect haG the Soviets been maximizing the...it seems, was the best for the United States -- initially a puzzling result. Interestingly, a force made up completely of SS-11s would have been...tLne best for the Soviets from the defensive perspective. This suggests several possibilities. First, the Soviets may not h.ave been very concerned about

  5. The Future of Soviet-North Korean Relations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    an effort to compel certain kinds of North Korean behavior. In the process, North Korea came to see the Soviets as more intrested in its subservience...for limiting much of what it did provide to second- rate and outdated equipment. It has also criticized the Soviets for "having sold equipment for a...behavior is not predictable and who could at any moment plunge the USSR into unforesen military confrontation with America. This Soviet sense of latent

  6. Soviet Central Decisionmaking and Economic Growth: A Summing Up.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    by three, while the latter decreased by four. 31 2 8Leslie Dienes, "Regional Economic Development," in Abram Bergson and Herbert S. Levine, The Soviet...inside the curve are inferior to those on the curve. Abram Bergson suggested that the systemic inefficiencies of the Soviet economy precluded... Bergson , Soviet National Income and Product n 1937. Columbia University Press, New York, 1953. Whether FF should be parallel to PP is an interesting

  7. Astronauts Stafford and Slayton visit Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, left, NASA ASTP crew commander, and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot, visit the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft during the joint phase of the ASTP mission. They hold Soviet containers of borsh (beet soup) over which vodka labels have been pasted. This was the crew's way of toasting each other. The photo was taken in the Orbital Module portion of the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. The hatch to the Soyuz Descent Vehicle is in center background.

  8. Nationalities in the Soviet Military: A Problem for Perestroika.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-31

    government qency. NATIONALITIES IN THE SOVIET MILITARY: - -, A PROBLEM FOR PERESTROIKA? BY COLONEL DONALD D. DALZIEL, CANADIAN FORCES . A mSTT.UT1oW TATOEWT k...GOVT ACCESSION NO. I RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Suhtitle)- TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Nationalities in the Soviet Military: A...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 11. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessery end Identify by block number) Nationalities , Soviet Military 20. ABST-RACT

  9. The Soviet Academy of Sciences and Technological Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    experimental aspects of Soviet research. 2 These Soviet departures from the norms and proportions character- izing Western technology, because they are...consideration of Soviet dispari- ties may establish the first line of defense against the hazard of "mirror-imaging," that is, of projecting Western norms and...was one of the Academy’s first institutes to build its own development and test fa- cilities for prototype production. The Institute of

  10. Astronauts Stafford and Slayton visit Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, left, NASA ASTP crew commander, and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot, visit the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft during the joint phase of the ASTP mission. They hold Soviet containers of borsh (beet soup) over which vodka labels have been pasted. This was the crew's way of toasting each other. The photo was taken in the Orbital Module portion of the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. The hatch to the Soyuz Descent Vehicle is in center background.

  11. Review of the transmissions of the Soviet helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the following aspects of Soviet helicopter transmissions is presented: transmitted power, weight, reduction ratio, RPM, design configuration, comparison of different type of manufacturing methods, and a description of the materials and technologies applied to critical transmission components. Included are mechanical diagrams of the gearboxes of the Soviet helicopters and test stands for testing gearbox and main shaft. The quality of Soviet helicopter transmissions and their Western counterparts are assessed and compared.

  12. Soviet Succession 198?; Continuity or Change.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Stalin who developed an economic model for the Soviet Union that has dogged it to the present and has skewed the resources of the society toward the...exclusion of dictatorship as a reasonable alternative. 12 Brezhnev’s style as a consensus politician, coupled with the fact that he has survived and...displayed much introspection or de- sire to do so, as to the reasons for its sorry state. The 1905 Revolution would have, one would think, shaken even

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-15

    committee or a commission. It is no less important that it be clearly formulated, and not set forth in the form of a general wish or simply a...critical comment. It seems that general debates should be opened only on the reports of the chairman of the USSR Supreme Soviet, the government, or the...applying it, and sanctions for nonfulfillment. Less about general principles—they are well-known. And propaganda has to be eliminated entirely

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-26

    on 23 May carries an 80-minute recorded telebridge program linking officials of the USSR Supreme Soviet in Moscow with U.S. Congress members in...meaning." Differences in social systems, language , traditions, views, values, and inter- ests are all real and we must not pretend they don’t exist...Ireland and the USSR signalled a successful development of business ties between the two countries in the field of air transport. [Text] [Moscow

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    contentious issues. A number of effective measures were outlined in connec- tion with this in the USSR Supreme Soviet resolution, "On Measures to...Army." But, as a matter of fact, the death of Private Grigoryan was related to a gross violation of safety measures at a construction site. The...communist leaders as one more measure for a "check mark." Having included in this group sergeants and soldiers of different nationalities (as a rule

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-27

    that many of our leaders in the economy, enterprise directors above all, lack experience and know- how in conducting business abroad...necessary to us. They include, for example, Cuban sugar, Polish ships, rubber from Vietnam, and Indian tea. It would seem that Soviet consumers will...degree deter- mines the conditions under which a number of other branches conduct their activity. Successful performance under the conditions of

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-13

    any farther, because they have quite a few problems of their own. And there are also those who have accused the Soviet Germans of group egoism , if...juridical examination of publications in the Saratov press and of leaflets distributed in the region. In some cases , one has the feeling that their...the discussion of the declaration. I am not trying to say that these deputies are against it. It is most probably a case of misunderstandings and old

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-04

    for All-Europe Economic Process [Yu Mikhaylov, N. Pomazkova; EKONOMICHESKIYE NAUKI No 5, May 88] 19 Editorial on Common European Home, ’Second...foreign-policy actions of the Soviet government, devoid of opportunities and not wishing to have an influence on the processes of formulating...of a sudden you are coming up against what’s going on here at home is not a simple process . So our social obligation is to help these young men

  19. The Soviet Involvement in the Ogaden War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    the Emperor Haile Selassie was replaced by a revolutionary military government.* By 1976, the increasingly pro-Soviet, anti- imperialist stance of the...1974 probably encouraqed the Kremlin to believe that "imperialism" in Africa and elsewhere was on the defensive.4 8 The fall of Haile Selassie and the...agreement by which Ethiopia was to receive second-line equipment like T-34 tanks. In February 1977, Mengistu Haile Mariam’s victory over the Derque’s moder

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-27

    Revolutionaries" by B. Pak; the conclud- ing part of I. Belyaev’s article "Egypt. The Revolution and the President" "Mahatmah Gandhi as Described by...O. Martyshin. Mahatmah Gandhi in the Evaluations of Soviet Researchers (p 22) Problems and Opinions VI. Li, G. Mirskiy. Socialist Orientation in...Scientific Life V. Rozhkov. A Forum for Mongolian Scholars (p 44) Culture, Literature, Art V. Ozhogin. Lev Tolstoy and Japanese Culture (p 46

  1. Background Information on the Soviet Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    slums. regimes in Africa in the late 1950s and early 1960s The FLNA was derived from a movement that presented apparent golden opportunities for the... Golden Age. seamier sides of reality. But artists are hard to The Era of Stalinism (1929-53).-At the end of control and in the continuous struggle between...Khrushchev, aided and abetted by the new giant had arrived on the Soviet literary scene. conservative literary jackals , launched such a hysterical attack

  2. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of other opinions, the sense of ultimatum and so forth? Speaking in Tartu my friend V. Palm said the following: there is a social psychology; it is...However, the impression is sometimes created that some democratic movements want to become an alternative to the party and soviet apparatus. And here...provides us with about 4,000 tons of yeast for fodder. This means that we shall again experience a shortfall of thousands of tons of meat since the

  3. Soviet Military thought - Concepts of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    became transformed into gruesome Oqmons . blood-sucking vampires , heart- devourinq witches ... . similar to ihose found in the 27 underworld of the...Finland in 1939, Hungary in 1956, Czechoslovakia" in 1968, and Afghanistan in 1979. This Orwellian I"double-think" permeates much of the Marxist-Leninist...or capitalistic in nature as the use cf Soviet armed forces "in fraternal aid to socialist elements" does not qualify, e.g., Hungary , Czechoslovakia

  4. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-17

    curability of the disease was assessed and convincingly would have come out in defense of the according to merit. Not more often than twice a month sea...Soviet Union Political Affairs JPRS-UPA-89-024 CONTENTS 17 APRIL 1989 PARTY, STATE AFFAIRS UkSSR CP Politburo Membership Chronicled IV. Ye. Melnichenko...85 JPRS-UPA-89-024 17 April 1989 PARTY, STATE AFFAIRS 1 UkSSR CP Politburo Membership Chronicled Rakovskiy, A.Ya. Shumskiy (member

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-30

    of Mariupol Greeks who have been living for nearly two and a half thousand years on what is today Soviet territory. I don’t speak Greek. Like...even languages are different. I’ve already mentioned the Mariupol community in the Ukraine. My fellow Greeks also live in the Crimea, the Caucasus...be reached today. Or we should have a plan for a stage by stage movement. Take, for example, the Mariupol Region where I was born. The Greek

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-27

    we had encountered a kind of mythological octopus with its single center, which for a long time had carefully prepared to overthrow the Soviet...34habitual criminals [vory v zakone]." We perceived as juridically incorrect his assertion that "the informals are camouflaged criminals." New...life, there is another statistic we’d like to know: are there now fewer ’habitual criminals’ at large, or ’ camouflaged ’ informals (who in fact are not

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-09

    agencies. Not only to allocate major mate- rial resources for this purpose, but also to receive, to warm, and to give them shelter. And the main...equipment and arms, when they did not require a large number of specialists and when considerably less mate- rial and financial expenditures were required...1982, and a Colonel General in 1987. He was married in Sumy. His wife Tamara Lvovna is a teacher by training. His son is an officer in the Soviet

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    perestroyka. Yu. Yuzelyunas expressed puzzlement at the fact that the Central Committee resolution adopted in 1948 on for- malism in music in connection...know little about the Soviet Union and Lithuania. This is very sad, because there are high achievements both in literature and in music , and they are...supporting all trips abroad and all direct ties. We have specific proposals to this effect. We are ready to organize a Baltic music and Baltic

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-18

    the fraternal socialist countries, the Warsaw Treaty Organisation , is a reliable proponent of the interests of peace and socialism . The Soviet Army...positive increase in the role of such social institutions of the army and navy as the general assembly of personnel and various categories of...word, as previously, remained with the commander. But this innovation noticeably increased the service and social activity of the servicemen: they

  11. Analysis of the Soviet Crisis Management Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-30

    between Congo (Zaire) and Portugual ; Congo charges that Tshombe opposition forces are . operating out of Portuguese Cabinda; Portugal charges that Congo has...regime (for example, South Vietnam, Rhodesia, Portuguese colonies in Africa), or denial of military access (that is, Western and Chinese). * The USSR was...172 601118 French paratroops intervene to aid pro-French regime in Gabon. *• 173 610315- The Soviet Union opposes continued Portuguese colonial

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-06

    necessary to us. They include, for example, Cuban sugar, Polish ships, rubber from Vietnam, and Indian tea . It would seem that Soviet consumers will... extrac - tion, more than 80 percent control the oil refining capacities, and 70 percent, the sale of oil and petroleum products. The situation is the...business- man, who has been given the " green light", is getting rich, since the taxes on his profits are no higher than those from state enterprises

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    79 ENERGY ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION Details of 1978 Fire at Beloyarsk AES Revealed [V. Kamenshchik; SOTSIAL1STICHESKAYA INDUSTRIYA, 21 Oct 88] 83...a state order and only the general director of the Bakstankoprom Association spoke out in behalf of retaining it in its former amount. Nobody...Economy" and the Ukase of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of 18 February 1987. What are the general features of these changes and what

  14. Soviet Partisan Warfare: Integral to the Whole,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-20

    irregular and regular warfare fail to grasp the inseparable nature of the two in Soviet thinking. I Table of Contents I . Introduction...additional corps of the 48th Army attacking north of Rogatchev. South of Bobruisk the other pincer of this attack was executed by the 65th and 28th...deep objectives to hasten the advance of the southern pincer while closing escape routes for the Germans. Roads to Bobruisk were cut. The partisans

  15. Civil Defense in Soviet Strategic Perceptions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    dialectic process in the relationship between states with opposing social- political systems, i.e., communist and capitalist, and of the historically...not underestimate the danger of war arising from imperialism " is not illogical in the light of Soviet characterization of present inter- national...that "peaceful co- existence" is intended to facilitate "the development of the world revolutionary process " and that it in no way serves to maintain

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-08

    war. This is an objective reality . By laying emphasis on land forces only, in particular on tanks and artillery, in solving the issues of removing...for the realities of army life in a friendly country, but nonethe- less on foreign territory. ...A few months ago, during the visit of the Soviet...victori- ous, were available in time. Nevertheless, there were virtually no offensive air units. The majority of pilots had not been trained for the

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    regulated market economy managers will face increased commercial risk. The article by V. Rubanov, ’"The Firm’s Secret’ and the Countrv’s Economic...economy and not hinder this. For this reason, under conditions of mass entry into the world market we must give Soviet enterprises, associa- tions...in the international division of labor, of a fuller participa- tion in the world market , of the creation on this basis of a modern competetive

  18. Economics of Defense - The Soviet Military Budget.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    1981. His career began at - Vurtsmith AFB, Michigan in 1972 as a Management Analysis Officer in the Comptroller career field. He was then assigned to HQ...Japan and the U. S. in high technology development and that the Soviet economic output is actually declining (7:36). These issues and more are causing...after WVII began to decline. Due to poor capital investment, a command economy, and poor resource development, the world is now seeing the maturity of

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-27

    that we will be openly soon in prom introduced adjustments into the capital invest- Nebit-Dag. We have created 11 cooperatives. We have ment plans for...oblast difficult to resolve the problem of providing the public soviets, are then adjusted at the republic’s Gosagroprom with consumer goods, although we...who is most competent in this allocated limits. matter-K. Dundurs, director of the Publishing House of the Latvian CP Central Committee. But even that

  20. Soviet Dissent and the American National Interest.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    reshape the beliefs of Soviet society along non-Leninist ethical, religious, intellectual and/or cultural ground. He is not interested in reaching an...and humanistic social critics. Instrumental-pragmatic ideologies represent competing interpretations of Marxism, alternative methods of regime...modernization and scientific progress, a commitment to free experimentation in all fields of human thought, and intellectual autonomy in scientific matters

  1. The Soviet-Cuban Relationship: Symbiotic Parasitic?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-05

    plus differences in respective approaches to African problems, most notably on policy towards the Eritrean question and the internal politics of... Caribbean island represents a Communist outpost in a Western Hemisphere once conceded to the hegemony of the United States. Cuba has also in recent years...the Caribbean nation could lead to adverse results for Soviet foreign policy objectives. Either extreme may have resulted either in American

  2. The Process of Soviet Weapons Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    system on the BMP from an early 1940s German design. But the validity and usefulness of a theory, especially one that makes predictions about the future...when the 1940 publication of a highly significant Soviet discovery of spontaneous fission resulted in a complete lack of an American response, the...taken from I. N. Golovin , I. V. Khurchatov, Atomizdat, Moscow, 1973, and from Herbert York, The Advisors. Oppenheimer, Teller, and the Superbomb, W. H

  3. The Soviet Union and German Reunification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-17

    supporters , but it also undermined the viability of the East German regime and destroyed whatever legitimacy it might have had. 2 1 Thus, just as...continued Soviet military presence in Germany and the creation of a viable Communist East German state. Accordingly, Zhdanov and his supporters were against...socialist state, to recommend to the Socialist Unity Party of Germany to abandon the slogan of the struggle to build socialism . The Central Committee

  4. JPRS Report: Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-03

    Defense Forces] and the Armed Forces had led me into researching the process of deciding to inter- The Soviet fighter pilots , including those based at...combat tasks and using up all the angle is chosen depending on His Highness the Time. fuel. Such was the situation. The pilots , the antiaircraftmissile...300 airliner that was dry bombing run. They made several approaches for destroyed by the Americans on 3 July 1988. ground target attacks. What did we

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-06

    Development Linked to Increase in Consumer Goods [S. Panasenko; SOTSIALISTICHESKAYA INDUSTRIYA, 1 Sep 88] 10 Bureaucrats Accused Of Violating Law On...fulfillment of the plans for economic and social development under conditions of economic accountability and self-financing in accordance with the...Chuyskiy Rayon Soviet of People’s Deputies to take concrete measures to ensure the fulfillment of the plans for economic and social development ; for

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Popular Discussion of Important Issues of State and Public Life in the Estonian SSR." 3. The Estonian SSR Supreme Soviet Presidium’s work group on...Conduct of Elections by Election Commissions Election commissions made up of representatives of public organizations and public movements, work col...election. Representatives to district election commissions are nominated by work collectives located within their jurisdiction, and by rayon or city

  7. Soviet Policy in Cuba and Chile.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-06

    Libro Blanco del Cambio de Gobierno en Chile. Santiago: Editorial Lord 23 Cochrane, 1973, pp. 103-108. See also Page 8 for a photograph of Allende...Rothenberg, Soviet Penetration, p. 144. 18. The letter in Castro’s handwriting is published in the Libro Blanco, p. 101- 102. In the UN debates after the...a Via Chilena a la Via Insurreccional, Santiago: Editorial del Pacifico, 1974, pp. 296ff. 19. Libro Blanco includes (pp. 192 and 197) what appear to

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-06

    USSR Trade Representative on Soviet-Cuban Ties [P.I. Kormilitsin ; LATINSKAY A AMERIKA No 4, Apr 90] 31 TV Marti Seen as Example of New...Interview with P.I. Kormilitsin , USSR trade represen- tative in Cuba, by unnamed LATINSKAYA AMERIKA correspondent, date and place not specified: "How... Kormilitsin , USSR trade representative in the Republic of Cuba. The text of the interview with him is published below. [Correspondent] Where do

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-05

    imperialistnature of integrationdepends to a considerable degree on the development of a regional counterstrategy for the workers movement and the availability... workers and engineers to more rapidly assimilate the production of air-cooled asynchronous power engines and to introduce new insulating materials...experience in organizing labor and production in the CEMA countries. For example, the use of a Soviet welding method, learned by a brigade of workers 11

  10. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-28

    mistrust, social apathy and polit- ical infantilism . The profound changes which began in the republic at the start of the second year of the five...organizations and a certain infantilism in the activities of a number of Soviets of varying rank, the insufficient elaboration of the economic mechanism and...of Cinema Art and USSR Goskino. The following can be considered attributes of a porno - graphic film: failure of the film makers to identify

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-20

    such as Disneyland , but of course with European traditions." H. Vogels continued, "For our part, we will try to attract our companies to this...parks. They have already designed systems for financing the most promising projects and ensuring they become commercially viable without delay. [V...that in the capacity of finance minister, I had the honor to sign the first Pakistan-Soviet agreement for the devel- opment of oil and gas

  12. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-07-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants {open_quotes}ATETs{close_quotes} optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled.

  13. Soviet military strategy towards 2010. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.M.

    1989-11-01

    This paper tries to identify significant current trends that may continue into the 21st century and shape Soviet military strategy. An arms control trend, stemming from the Soviet concept of reasonable sufficiency, seems slated to handicap the USSR severely in options for fighting and winning large-scale conventional and theater-nuclear wars. Moscow evidently feels the strategic nuclear sphere will be the key arena of military competition in the future. First, the USSR now shows a greater commitment to offensive counterforce than was true of the period before reasonable sufficiency. Second, Moscow's interest in the strategic nuclear sphere will be reinforced by a long-term trend toward space warfare. However, it may be possible to soften the competition in this sphere through arms control. Prominent Soviets have already begun to suggest that, if the U.S. will limit its SDI ambitions to a thin defense, Moscow might actually prefer mutual comprehensive ABM deployments to continued adherence to the 1972 ABM Treaty.

  14. FASAC Technical Assessment Report: Soviet Space Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.; Henry, Richard C.; Klein, Harold P.; Masursky, Harold; Paulikas, George A.; Scaf, Frederick L.; Soffen, Gerald A.; Terzian, Yervant

    1986-01-01

    This report is the work of a panel of eight US scientists who surveyed and assessed Soviet research in the spare sciences. All of the panelists were very familiar with Soviet research through their knowledge of the published scientific literature and personal contacts with Soviet and other foreign colleagues. In addition, all of the panelists reviewed considerable additional open literature--scientific, and popular, including news releases. The specific disciplines of Soviet space science research examined in detail for the report were: solar-terrestrial research, lunar and planetary research, space astronomy and astrophysics, and, life sciences. The Soviet Union has in the past carried out an ambitious program in lunar exploration and, more recently, in studies of the inner planets, Mars and especially Venus. The Soviets have provided scientific data about the latter planet which has been crucial for studies of the planet's evolution. Future programs envision an encounter with Halley's Comet, in March 1986, and missions to Mars and asteroids. The Soviet programs in the life sciences and solar-terrestrial research have been long-lasting and systematically pursued. Much of the ground-based and space-based research in these two disciplines appears to be motivated by the requirement to establish long-term human habitation in near-Earth space. The Soviet contributions to new discoveries and understanding in observational space astronomy and astrophysics have been few. This is in significant contrast to the very excellent theoretical work contributed by Soviet scientists in this discipline.

  15. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  16. A look at the Soviet space nuclear power program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    For the most part Soviet nuclear power sources have been low-power nuclear reactors using a thermoelectric conversion principle. Recently the Soviet Union has flown two satellites using a higher power reactor that employs a thermionic conversion system. Despite reentry of two of the earlier reactors on board Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402 and the recent potential accident involving Cosmos 1900, the evidence points toward a continued Soviet use of nuclear power sources in space. Information in the open literature on the Soviet space nuclear power program, including the Romashka Topaz, the new reactor based on the Topaz program, and the RORSAT reactor experience, is summarized.

  17. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  18. The politics of Soviet strategic defense: Political strategies, organization politics, and Soviet strategic thought. (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This study formulates three different unitary rational-actor models and an organizational model that can be used to explain Soviet policy in strategic defense from 1966-1980, then tests the models to determine which most successfully explains Soviet behavior. The only rational-actor model that can explain the Soviet force posture for air defense relies on demonstrably false assumptions. A well-formulated organizational model can explain these facts, as well as some organizational pathologies shown by the Soviet National Air Defense Forces. The findings suggest that military services, even when ostensibly closely directed by civilian and military superiors, often manage to pursue their own interests rather than the requirements of higher policy. Soviet civilian leaders generally had limited control over the formulation of military doctrine or over the force posture of Soviet military services, but arms control (especially the ABM Treaty) offered a policy handle which helped them to affect doctrine and force posture to a substantial degree.

  19. Soviet Operational Art: Will There be a Significant Shift in the Focus of Soviet Operational Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-06

    p. 234. *17Ibid., p. 493. I’Leitenberg, Milton . "United States-Soviet Strategic Arms Control: The Decade of Detente 1970-1980, nd A Look Ahead...34 Arms Control, (December, 1987), p. 242. 89Hansen, James. op. cit., p. 182. "OLeitenberg, Milton . op. cit., p. 241. 91Ibid., p. 239. 92Donnelly C. N...York: St. Majtin’s Press, 1987. Erickson , John and Feuchtwanger, E. J., ed. Soviet Military Power and Performance. Hamden: The Shoe String Press, 1979

  20. Soviet/Russian-American space cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karash, Yuri Y.

    This dissertation seeks to answer two questions: (1) what are the necessary conditions for the emergence of meaningful space cooperation between Russia and the United States, and (2) might this cooperation continue developing on its own merit, contributing to the further rapprochement between the two countries, even if the conditions that originated the cooperation were to change? The study examines the entire space era up to this point, 1957 to 1997, from the first satellite launch through the joint U.S.-Russian work on the ISS project. It focuses on the analysis of three distinct periods of possible and real cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia. The first possibility for a limited Soviet-American cooperation in space emerged in the late 1950s, together with the space age, and continued until the mid-1960s. The major potential joint project of this period was a human expedition to the Moon. The global competition/confrontation between the two countries prevented actual cooperation. The second period was from the late 1960s until 1985 with consideration of experimental docking missions, including the docking of a reusable U.S. shuttle to a Soviet Salyut-type station. The global U.S.-Soviet competition still continued, but the confrontation was replaced by detente for a brief period of time lasting from the end of 1960s until mid-1970s. Detente gave the first example of U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space---the Apollo-Soyuz joint space flight (ASTP) which took place in 1975. However, the lack of interest of political leaderships in continuation of broad-scale cooperation between the two countries, and the end of detente, removed ASTP-like projects out of question at least until 1985. The third period started together with Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika in 1985 and continues until now. It involves almost a hundred of joint space projects both at the governmental and at the private sectors levels. The mainstream of the joint activities

  1. The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of practicing physicians under the age of 65. RESULTS: Most physicians shared information with patients about treatment risks and alternatives, with the exception of cancer patients: only a third of physicians tell the patient when cancer is suspected. Current practice at the time of the survey left patients few options when physician negligence occurred; most physicians feel that under a reformed system physician negligence should be handled within the local facility rather than by the government. It was common practice for physicians to receive gifts, tips, or preferential access to scarce consumer goods from their patients. Responses varied somewhat by facility and physician nationality. CONCLUSION: The ethics of Soviet medical practice were different in a number of ways from generally accepted norms in Western countries. Physicians' attitudes about the need for ethical reform suggest that there will be movement in Estonia towards a system of medical ethics that more closely approximates those in the West. PMID:8932723

  2. Vospitanie and Regime Change: Teacher-Education Textbooks in Soviet and Post-Soviet Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogachenko, Tatiana; Perry, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the pedagogical dimension of vospitanie, or character formation, in communist and post-communist education. It explores how vospitanie is conceptualized in two teacher-education textbooks--one from each period--in Ukraine, a post-Soviet country. Comparative analysis shows how conceptualizations of vospitanie have evolved over…

  3. Vospitanie and Regime Change: Teacher-Education Textbooks in Soviet and Post-Soviet Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogachenko, Tatiana; Perry, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the pedagogical dimension of vospitanie, or character formation, in communist and post-communist education. It explores how vospitanie is conceptualized in two teacher-education textbooks--one from each period--in Ukraine, a post-Soviet country. Comparative analysis shows how conceptualizations of vospitanie have evolved over…

  4. The Soviet Physical Fitness Tests: An Essential Aspect of the Soviet Organizational Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Reet

    This study analyzes the Soviet award system, in particular the Prepared for Word and Defense (PWD) program. The PWD program is composed of five stages and embraces people from ages 10 to 60. Each stage has a section of requirements and a section of norms, which take into consideration age variations. The norms section, which is the most important…

  5. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  6. International Influences on Post-Soviet Armenian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the most recent international influences on Armenian education, illustrating how international standards are driving post-Soviet reform in the Armenian Secondary Schools. Since 1991, when Armenia became independent from the Soviet Union, organisations such as the World Bank and the Open Society Institute Assistance…

  7. Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union Versus Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Mart

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the role of non-Russian languages in the Soviet Union (USSR) focuses on the history of ethnic group languages and language policy in Estonia since the collapse of totalitarianism. A historical overview of Soviet Union language policy is offered, with attention given to the ideological goals influencing policy, and their realization…

  8. Multilingualism in the Successor States of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreindler, Isabelle

    1997-01-01

    Major common language problems arising in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet bloc are outlined, as identified in recent literature, and pressing language-related issues in specific former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,…

  9. The Soviet Union in the Third World: Successes and Failures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-20

    continued even after the fall of the pro-Soviet Indira Gandhi in 1977. Since 1965, India has relied upon the Soviet Union for its military arms to meet...stereotypes of the Russians ex- plains the basis for considerable animosity between both peoples. The Vietnamese see the Russians as alien, racist , barbarian

  10. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 1, January 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    million. An even greater effect is expected from the Mir station’s on-board gear. Using satellites of the Kosmos and Meteor-Priroda series along with...Soviet spacecraft and orbital stations, and using Soviet booster rockets to launch foreign satel- lites. It is common knowledge that the Kosmos

  12. Managing U.S.-Soviet Relations in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    34 The Soviet Union appeared a sick society as well as economi- cally stagnant. Alcoholism was rampant and, as we are learn- ing now, drug addiction...structure of the Soviet Union. The West should seek to determine what Gorbachev’s millennial visions may mean, into what they may be concretely

  13. Understanding the Special Needs of Former Soviet Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoot, James L.; Bonkareva, Ella

    1992-01-01

    Describes characteristics of immigrant children from the former Soviet Union and implications of these characteristics for U.S. teachers. Considers differences between U.S. and Soviet schools in scheduling practices, bathroom routines, racial composition, meals, languages, clothing, naps, and parent/school relationships. (LB)

  14. The History of Literature Teaching in the Soviet School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotkovitch, I. A.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the development of Soviet teaching methodology in literature from 1917 to the present. The document is written from the point of view of Soviet Marxist-Leninist criticism and covers the curriculum reform of the late 1960s. (Author/KC)

  15. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R. )

    1991-03-01

    The Soviet Union is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas. Soviet oil production averaged 12.1 million bbl per day in 1989 with gas production of 79 bcf per day. Estimates of Soviet proved reserves fall within the range of 50 to 80 billion bbl, which gives the Soviet Union the world's greatest concentration of proved conventional crude oil reserves outside the Persian Gulf. In addition, the Soviet Union contains estimated proved reserves of 1500 tcf of natural gas, constituting over 38% of the worldwide total. The basins of the Soviet Union can be generally separated into five categories based upon geography, geology, and exploration maturity. The southwestern flank of the Soviet Union, from the Carpathians to Central Asia, contains a series of late Mesozoic to Tertiary basins associated with the closing of the Tethys Ocean and the Tertiary Alpine Orogeny. Because these basins contain shallow production and are near population centers and in moderate climates, they were the first explored and provided virtually all Soviet production prior to the Second World War.

  16. The Politics of Clay: The American-Soviet Mural Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Lynn

    1990-01-01

    Describes a U.S.-Soviet mural project where citizens from Milwaukee, Wisconsin and citizens from Leningrad created two peace murals--one in the United States and the other in the Soviet Union. The murals were exchanged. Participants made their own clay using dry clay and water before creating their impressions of peace and friendship. (KM)

  17. The Food Connection: Transforming the U.S.-Soviet Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1982-01-01

    The increased dependence of the USSR on United States food exports may signal a major shift in the balance of power between the two nations. The impact of this shift on U.S.-Soviet relations, the Soviet agricultural system, and the world economic system is examined. (AM)

  18. Extraordinary Longevity in the Soviet Union: Fact or Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Neil G.; Garson, Lea Keil

    1986-01-01

    Describes an analysis of Soviet mortality and census data from 1959 and 1970, which provides significant evidence effectively negating previous claims of extraordinary Soviet longevity. Strongly suggests that the true number of centenarians is but a small fraction of that reported. (Author/ABB)

  19. The Politics of Clay: The American-Soviet Mural Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Lynn

    1990-01-01

    Describes a U.S.-Soviet mural project where citizens from Milwaukee, Wisconsin and citizens from Leningrad created two peace murals--one in the United States and the other in the Soviet Union. The murals were exchanged. Participants made their own clay using dry clay and water before creating their impressions of peace and friendship. (KM)

  20. Scientific and Technological Information Systems in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirson, Benjamin L.

    1973-01-01

    Not much is known at present about the organization and structure of the Soviet Union's information systems. It is the purpose of the communication to objectively review and summarize the present state-of-the-art of scientific and technological information systems within the Soviet Union. (9 references) (Author)

  1. International Influences on Post-Soviet Armenian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the most recent international influences on Armenian education, illustrating how international standards are driving post-Soviet reform in the Armenian Secondary Schools. Since 1991, when Armenia became independent from the Soviet Union, organisations such as the World Bank and the Open Society Institute Assistance…

  2. Multilingualism in the Successor States of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreindler, Isabelle

    1997-01-01

    Major common language problems arising in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet bloc are outlined, as identified in recent literature, and pressing language-related issues in specific former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,…

  3. The Study of Russian Impromptu Speech in Soviet Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonnqvist, Barbara

    Although spoken language was the subject of attention among Soviet linguists for a short period in the 1920s, it has not attracted much attention since then. The main concern of Soviet linguists has been the forms of written language. Only at the end of the 1960s did linguists begin to record spontaneous speech on tape and study its forms. The…

  4. The Significance of International Straits to Soviet Naval Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    capa - bility to produce sophisticated manufactured products. The Soviet Union is also rich in natural resources and, although the Soviets must import...Paria. Between Trinidad and Coast of 8 Venezuela. Between Aruba and Paraguana 15 Peninsula. Between Tierra del Fuego and Isla de 16 los Estados

  5. Security Assistance Rationales: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    function to defray the cost of Soviet arms development. 96 The linkage of arms sales and comercial sales is not a factor in Soviet arms transfer to Eastern...of plant, R&D institution representatives, and politica .’wer over the GOSPLAN mechanism, does have a feedback loop. _.Ae defense ministries must be

  6. Extraordinary Longevity in the Soviet Union: Fact or Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Neil G.; Garson, Lea Keil

    1986-01-01

    Describes an analysis of Soviet mortality and census data from 1959 and 1970, which provides significant evidence effectively negating previous claims of extraordinary Soviet longevity. Strongly suggests that the true number of centenarians is but a small fraction of that reported. (Author/ABB)

  7. Soviet Command and Control in an Historical Context.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    necessary. 34 ........ te know from one source that the Soviet border cC- Marlers had what would seem tc be a great deal of latitude, dele.ated to then on...206 - 213. 21. Polrar, Norman , ed., Soviet Naval Developrrents, Nautical and Aviation Publishin-7 Company of America, 1979. 22. Andersen, Yu.A

  8. Chronology of Soviet Dissidence: January 1970 through December 1982,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-17

    34* . 1970 * September 4 Soviet ballerina Natalya Makarova defected in London. October 10 Brief communique from the Secretariat of the USSR Writers...Soviet behavior. July 4 Ballerina Galina Chursina defected from Bolshoy Ballet troupe in Istanbul. 14-15 I. Grivnina, member of Psychiatric Abuses

  9. Changes in Economic Education in the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslund, Anders

    1992-01-01

    Reviews developments in economic education, economic research, and management training in the former Soviet Union since 1985. Contends that the demise of the Soviet command economy has left economics education in a shambles. Concludes that management training is blooming in the first stages of capitalism and will be a base for the renewal of…

  10. Joint Soviet-American experiment on hypokinesia: Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burovskiy, N. N.

    1979-01-01

    Comprehensive results are reported from the Soviet portion of a joint Soviet-American experiment involving hypokinesia. The main emphases are on chemical analyses of blood and urine, functional tests, and examination of the cardiovascular system by electrocardiography, echocardiography, and plethysmography.

  11. SOVIET LONG-RANGE SPACE-EXPLORATION PROGRAM: ANALYTICAL SURVEY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This analytical survey is based on Soviet open sources published 1956-1965. It is one of a series of reports dealing with the Soviet long-range space ... exploration program and is concerned, in particular, with lunar surface research. Information not directly related to this subject has been included

  12. About face; How the Soviets stopped planning for world war

    SciTech Connect

    MccGwire, M. )

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the Soviet Union has embarked on a series of unprecedented foreign-policy initiatives. Most of them would have been unthinkable five years ago. They include the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the December 1988 announcement of unilateral cuts of 500,000 Soviet troops within two years, and a readiness to accept heavily asymmetrical cuts in Warsaw Pact conventional forces in Europe. Skeptics can no longer dismiss these initiatives as empty propaganda. Nevertheless, according to the author, the response of the Western political-military establishment has been ambivalent. This article addresses the Soviet approach to war, outlining the evolution of Soviet military doctrine since WWII. The recent military cuts by the U.S.S.R. are discussed, and an analysis is made of the West's reaction to the Soviet initiatives.

  13. The development of Soviet rocket engines (For strategic missiles)

    SciTech Connect

    Bolonkin, A.

    1991-01-01

    A first-hand account of developments in the Soviet rocket industry is presented. The organization and leadership of the rocket and missile industry are traced from its beginning in the 1920s. The development of the Glushko Experimental Design Bureau, where the majority of Soviet rocket engines were created, is related. The evolution of Soviet rocket engines is traced in regard to both their technical improvement and their application in missiles and space vehicles. Improved Glushko engines and specialized Isaev and Kosberg engines are discussed. The difficulties faced by the Soviet missile and space program, such as the pre-Sputnik failures, the oscillation problem of 1965/1966, which exposed a weakness in Soviet ICBM missiles, and the Nedelin disaster of 1960, which cost the lives of more than 200 scientists and engineers, as well as the Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Rocket Forces, Marshall Nedelin, are examined. 122 refs.

  14. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    SciTech Connect

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  15. Researchers eager to see Soviet data

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1993-01-22

    Soviet data on a major environmental nuclear program disaster - Chelyabinsk in Siberia - is gradually being released. The Techa River was the dumping ground for radioactive sludge from the race to build the bomb and now the entire waterway is untouchable. A group of Russian doctors has been collecting information for years, unavailable until recently. Some of the initial findings appear to support a benign view of certain radiation effects, but validation of the date, new indices for examining the data, and just seeing the data present problems in a Russian preoccupied with survival.

  16. Perestroika and Change in Soviet Weapons Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    hold down prices; such asymmetry in "*V. K.., ’M Lb.UB=A a 8S CommUnte h DAjee md ONO See*- ftr Q2u00000 Q104 #a Opeim BabdjgW kNuWM* 20@mk Oftbs 14...apparently surfacing in the 1970. but seem to have reached crisis proportions in the 19809. The Deputy Defense Minister for Armaments, General...States. Nevertheless, the tenor of the Soviet writ- ings suggests that they perceive a reliability crisis . 19D. Yasov "uInresmig the Return ftom Military

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-03

    an oath to Jehovah , but not to his homeland! Religion, the officers marveled. "First you go through the course for the young soldier," they had...defender from his labor collective, the suffering faces of his brothers and sisters in Jehovah , his parents, who had condemned their son with a single...is inspired by a foreign center, and in many ways is not in conformity with Soviet laws. JPRS-UMA-88-008 3 May 1988 21 ARMED FORCES Jehovah did

  18. Calling the Sino-Soviet Split

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    discord. Titled Esau studies, the group chose that name expli~itly to reflect the younger brother�s undercutting of the older broth~r�s birthright. In...mid-1959, the first Esau study, �The Soviet Atti tude Toward Communes,� chiefly examined Moscow�s attitude toward the USSR�s own experience with...comncunes.16 The SSSG produced five mote Esau studies in 1959. All focus~d on China�s launching of its own (ill-fated) commune program. And all emphasized

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    English students. Everyone knew that this was why K. Simonov and A. Perventsev had come from Moscow to this meeting. Zoshchenko’s behavior in front of for...which, of course, "served the class enemy." As Druzin said, Zosh- chenko’s behavior in general had become a "class strug- gle in open form." It...hacks," "bootlicking behavior on demand," and "has lost the dignity of a Soviet man." I knew that Zoshchenko was in the hall. Somewhere in the front

  20. Development of Soviet State Ergonomic Standards (GOST).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    D-A185 536 DEVELOPMENT OF SOVIET STATE ERGONOMIC STANDARDS (GOST) i/l (U) REPORT STORE LAWRENCE KS N S GALTON ET AL. AUG 87 7 IHEL-FI-2-87 DAAL82-87...and Bernard 0. Williams, Ph.D. The Report Store Suite 602 910 Massachusetts Street Lawrence, Kansas 66044 August, 1987 C +DTIC OCT kj/ , .".". S...NUMBER(S) NA HEL-FI-2-87 6.. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 71. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION The Report Store (Nf appkabio) HEL

  1. Soviet Railroad Troops: An Updated Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    322 . 23 Zotov, D. "Development Of The Country’s Transportation System". Planovoye Khozyaystvo, No. 6, June 1978, pp.17-26 as translated in The Current Digest Of The Soviet Press, Vol. XXX, No. 30, p . 8 . -I 4 24 ...DOCUMENTATION PAGE If * READ INSTRUCTIONSBEFORE COMPLETING FORMI I. REPORT NUMBER 12 GVACCESSION NO. J.RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. Ti TL E (end Subsidle) 5...GD’.&r Commanding DTIC T43 ’ Justif/icaIclon_ By_ " _~Distribit lo Dfor/ Dis I P I"𔃻 SUMMARY This paper

  2. The Implications of Soviet Civil Defense.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    writers on the history of war, whose +l~inlring was S stimulated by HsgeJ . AM it was always the stand- point of ) krx and ~~gels, who reprded any war...believe that a nuclear exchange would mean the end, of the world. Critics of the Defense Budget continu- ously complain that the United States has...nuclear capability, a nuclear exchange between the United S States and the Soviet Union today would result in the destruc- tion of the United States

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    other, but rather to express their attitude toward it. You’ll admit, that’s necessary. Otherwise we will not be able to understand one another for a...received a reply. How is one to understand such an attitude toward a party member’s letters? JPRS-UPA-88-048 26 October 1988 S3 REGIONAL ISSUES...INSPECTED Q Soviet Union Political Affairs JPRS-UPA-88-048 CONTENTS 26 OCTOBER 1988 CULTURE OKTYABR, ZNAMYA Editors Describe Publishing Plans

  4. Sex, Urban/Rural and Minority Differences in Educational Attainment in Soviet and Post-Soviet Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the educational attainment of Tajikistani adults born between 1947 and 1989. Adults in the oldest cohorts completed school during the educational expansion of the Soviet period and the youngest cohorts completed their education in the post-Soviet period, which was marked by educational contraction. To date, there is not a clear…

  5. Sex, Urban/Rural and Minority Differences in Educational Attainment in Soviet and Post-Soviet Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the educational attainment of Tajikistani adults born between 1947 and 1989. Adults in the oldest cohorts completed school during the educational expansion of the Soviet period and the youngest cohorts completed their education in the post-Soviet period, which was marked by educational contraction. To date, there is not a clear…

  6. Universal Higher Education and Positional Advantage: Soviet Legacies and Neoliberal Transformations in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolentseva, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The great expansion of participation in higher education in Russia in the post-Soviet period was the layered and contradictory result of both conditions established in the Soviet period, and the structuring of reforms after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992. The Soviet government was strongly committed to the expansion of education across…

  7. Research Survey of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, E. Glyn

    The state of the art of bilingual education in the Soviet Union is surveyed. The social context of Soviet bilingualism is discussed with reference to sources of heterogeneity, modernization as a motivating factor, political dimensions, and Soviet bases of research. The sociolinguistic paradigm of Soviet society is viewed as a function of the need…

  8. Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  9. Research Survey of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, E. Glyn

    The state of the art of bilingual education in the Soviet Union is surveyed. The social context of Soviet bilingualism is discussed with reference to sources of heterogeneity, modernization as a motivating factor, political dimensions, and Soviet bases of research. The sociolinguistic paradigm of Soviet society is viewed as a function of the need…

  10. The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1988-01-01

    Reproduces chapter 1 ("The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy") from Ele Isaench Monoszon's 1987 book, "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Traces early history of Soviet Union. Reviews foundations of Soviet educational system, highlighting…

  11. Soviet military on SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative). Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, M.C.

    1987-08-01

    Numerous Western analysts have suggested that all American assessments of SDI should proceed not only from a consideration of American intentions, but also from the outlook of Soviet perceptions. Since 23 March 1983, the prevailing tone of Soviet military writings on SDI has been overwhelmingly negative. Myron Hedlin has concluded that this harsh reaction to a U.S. initiative still years from realization suggests both a strong concern about the ultimate impact of these plans on the strategic balance, and a perceived opportunity for scoring propaganda points. Indeed, the present review of Soviet writings since President Reagan's so-called Star Wars speech has yielded both objective Soviet concerns and regressions to psychological warfare. This, in turn, has necessitated a careful effort to separate rhetoric from more official assessments of SDI. While there has long been dispute in the West over the validity of Soviet statements, they have time and again been subsequently confirmed in Soviet hardware, exercises, and operational behavior. Some Western analysts will nonetheless contend that the Soviet statements under examination in this study are merely a commodity for export.

  12. Nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    McKenney, B.L.; Krafsig, J. ); Abarbanel, H.D.I. . Dept. of Physics); Abraham, N.B. . Dept. of Physics); Fraser, A.M. ); Moon, F.C. . Sibley Scho

    1992-08-01

    This assessment of nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union was performed by seven US scientists and engineers active in the fields examined. The topics covered include: solid-state systems and circuits, information theory and signal analysis, chaos in mechanical systems, turbulence and vortex dynamics, ocean processes, image processing, and lasers and nonlinear optics. The field of nonlinear dynamics and chaos blossomed in academic settings in both the West and the former Soviet Union during the 1980s. The field went from mathematical abstraction to interesting engineering application areas. Several generalizations can be drawn from the review of Soviet work: Soviet work generally began earlier than Western work, and, in areas that do not require extensive computational resources, that work has kept up with, and often leads, the West. This is especially true in the mathematical analysis of nonlinear phenomena. Soviet researchers have shown an ability to combine numerical or analytic ideas with laboratory experimentation in a smoother, less erratic fashion than Western researchers. Furthermore, contrary to Western practice, the same researchers often do both theoretical and experimental work. In areas that require numerical verification of ideas in the field, the Western work is leading that of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true in the areas of signal processing, simulations of turbulence, and communications. No evidence was found of any significant penetration of ideas of nonlinear dynamics into technological applications of a military or commercial area in the former Soviet Union. Opportunities abound, but specific applications are not apparent.

  13. Soviet and post-Soviet environmental management: lessons from a case study on lead pollution.

    PubMed

    Thomas, V M; Orlova, A O

    2001-03-01

    Through a case study on lead pollution in the former Soviet Union, the linkage of policy, environmental science, and environmental management is explored, and compared with the US experience. Soviet bans on leaded gasoline and lead-based paint appear to have been effective. Regional governments, in cooperation with the petroleum industry, are taking the initiative in phasing out leaded gasoline, to some extent in defiance of federal policy. Problems with management of lead-acid batteries have been worsened by the collapse of the political system. Lack of reliable environmental data impedes reliable environmental assessment. The types of environmental measurements reflect an emphasis on multipollutant environmental contamination, rather than on human exposure to single pollutants.

  14. Transformation of the Soviet space program after the cold war

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, M.V.

    1994-08-01

    Changes in the management of the space program and the operational status of various systems in the former Soviet Union are examined with particular emphasis on defense-related space systems. After the break-up of the Soviet Union, Russia assumed general responsibility for the entire scope of Soviet space activity. Space program management was re-organized to separate military and civilian activities. Russia is committed to maintaining military space capabilities, however, its top priority is now the conversion of military space technology for civilian uses, including global environmental problems.

  15. A Comprehensive Examination of the Soviet Naval Infantry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-11

    diet of a Soviet soldier and a typical daily menu for a Soviet soldier is presented to, at least, show an approximate idea of what a Soviet Marine might...eat, The daily diet would Includes ~34 150 ,r:Iin:; 1) r •, * 1U() v’iih; ol ’ h, 11 grami o’ tuL ,’r, U , 01’ vgetabie oil. 30 grurna-, uI’ :ii i m...dry jolly arid spices. A typical daily mcrius Breakfast - boll,11: meat :tntl pe:arl-barley porridiu. butLer, sugar, tea and Lunch - Cabbage salad. Cat

  16. V. I. Lenin and Soviet Military Science (Selected Portion)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-07

    guided by the resolutions of the CC CPSU and Soviet government for military questions, Soviet military science correctly opened the character of modern...character of modern war, the essence of processes and laws governing the revolution in military science , to investigate the most important problems of...r LEVEL F.’.-rv, ,•S)T-14J47-81 I ; i FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION 0 N V.I. LENIN AND SOVIET MILITARY SCIENCE (Selected Portion) by N. N. Azovtsev C

  17. Background precipitation chemistry monitoring in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Artz, R S; Lavrinenko, R F

    1993-05-01

    An overview is given of the precipitation chemistry field and laboratory programs of the former U.S.S.R. World Meteorological Organization Background Air Pollution Monitoring Program (WMO BAPMoN). Field and laboratory procedures are discussed, siting criteria are examined, station histories are documented, and four Soviet quality assurance techniques are discussed. Comparison of data from three Soviet BAPMoN stations with data from three U.S. BAPMoN stations indicate that sulfate concentrations are comparable but that U.S. samples are typically much more acidic. Soviet samples tend to have higher concentrations of cations of soil origin and higher concentrations of ammonium.

  18. Assessment of potential Soviet responses to evolving theater nuclear systems. Master's thesis August 1986-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wightman, R.O.

    1987-06-05

    This study focuses on the Soviet perceptions and decision-making processes that influence Soviet reaction to US initiatives in modernizing or developing theater nuclear systems. Beginning with a discussion about the consequences of previous U.S. misperceptions of Soviet intentions, the study supports the need for ongoing analysis of Soviet actions from the Soviet perspective. The Soviet view of the world is examined in terms of Marxist-Leninist ideology, Soviet fears of encirclement and invasion, and the Soviet perception of world power relationships or correlation of forces . The affect of Soviet military theory on reactions and responses to the subject of U.S. military developments is assessed, specifically in the areas of military doctrine and military science. The influence of military art is discussed with emphasis on strategy and operational art. The Party political controls on Soviet military matters are described, including a breakdown of the military decision making process. Soviet responses to U.S. nuclear weapons initiatives, including the Pershing II, Ground Launched Cruise Missile and Enhanced Radiation Weapons, are discussed in terms of military and political reactions. Soviet use of propaganda is highlighted. The importance of superiority and technology as an integral part of that superiority are examined, as is the Soviet use of technology transfer. This study hypothesizes that any Soviet reaction to U.S. action is based upon unique Soviet perceptions which are strongly influenced by Marxist-Leninist ideology, insecurity, military theory, Party bureaucracy, and world correlation of forces.

  19. Soviet Naval Operational Art: The Soviet Approach to Naval War Fighting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    chapter could be identified as the advanced sea denial maneuver with the Iceland opening gambit . Within the super scenario of an extended conventional...34mental surprise" against NATO opponents whom they continue to gauge as superior technicians. Having already been introduced to the Iceland gambit ...34the dialogue." In this technique a tactical-technical expert on the subject of Soviet naval warfare links up with a linguist fluent in Russian and with

  20. Soviet Naval Interaction with the United States and Its Influence on Soviet Naval Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-10-01

    rmle of the interaction phenomenon in the area of strategy -foreign policy-nilitary posture. For parposes of presenta- tioa, the paper is set in a...emerged from World War II without coherent long-term strategies for competing with each other as the dominant military powers of the postwar era. These...the Korean War. Duriug the fiiti half of the period the United States and the Soviet Union began to revise their strategies and to redirect their

  1. The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    It is a great pleasure for me to have been asked by Louis Rosen to tell you about the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE). This undertaking is a multi-institutional collaboration among scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (INR), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and several US universities. Its purpose is to measure the number of low-energy electron neutrinos emitted from the Sun that arrive at this planet. As such, it is an extremely important experiment, touching on fundamental physics issues as well as solar dynamics. In contrast to the strategic overviews, plans, and hopes for international collaboration presented earlier today, SAGE is an ongoing working effort with high hopes of producing the first measurement of the Sun's low-energy neutrino flux. This paper reviews this experiment. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Encephalitis lethargica in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Vilensky, Joel A; Mukhamedzyanov, Ravil Z; Gilman, Sid

    2008-01-01

    Although encephalitis lethargica (EL) appeared in epidemic form in the Soviet Union during the 1920s as it did in most of the world, the Western literature, particularly English, contains little information about the manifestations of the disease there. Here we summarize articles by prominent Russian neurologists who wrote about the disease as they viewed it during the epidemic period. As in the West, Russian clinicians found EL to be remarkably polymorphic, although some signs and symptoms, especially those pertaining to the psychological aspects of the disease, seemed to be more prevalent or were described better and perhaps more frequently by these clinicians. Some Russian clinicians emphasized an increased prevalence of EL among Jews and a relationship with illness and trauma, whereas others found strong evidence for contagion, especially in rural areas. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. [Medicine in the Soviet labor camps].

    PubMed

    Supady, J

    1998-01-01

    The existence of medical attention in Soviet labour camps was dictated not by humane reasons but by economical motives. It was just a wish to regenerate physical strength of some labour camp's slaves in order to exploit them to work out definite production as well as ideological plans. However, despite the lack of medicines, equipment, proper housing conditions and qualified staff, employed in labour camp's medical service people--doctors, hospital attendants, nurses, etc.--that were mostly recruited from amongst prisoners, showed a great deal of kindness and did their best to come to unwell and ill patients' assistance. Prisoners' lives were not uncommonly saved through exemption from work by a doctor's decision sending to hospital or transfer to another health category. In comparison with gehenna of labour camp's slave everyday life a sojourn in camp hospital seemed a paradise and a rescue from death to prisoners.

  4. Soviets ready new boosters at Tyuratam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-08-01

    The capabilities and design characteristics of two new launch vehicles and Shuttle-type vehicles believed to be under preparation at the Soviet Tyuratam launch site are described. The boosters, photographed on launch pads, are Saturn 5 and 1B class vehicles. Indications have been detected that a heavy Shuttle vehicle equipped to use strap-on boosters and slush H2 fuel is being readied for launch. A mini-Shuttle is also being tested, and has two flights behind it that culminated in water landings. NASA-Langley wind tunnel tests of the small spaceplane configuration suggested that it reenters the atmosphere in its own bow shock, thus exposing it to temperatures much lower than vehicles with wings which extend beyond the shock wave. The small spaceplane may have a sublimating plastic coating to shed reentry heat. The boosters have 30,000 and 330,000 lb payload-to-orbit capabilities.

  5. Soviet women and the autonomous family.

    PubMed

    Imbrogno, S; Imbrogno, N I

    1989-01-01

    "The USSR family is changing in form from that of a social collectivity, a bedrock conception to socialism, to that of an autonomous family. Autonomy discloses a lack of homogeneity, an independence of choices over life-styles and a flexibility toward an interpretation given to the meaning of a socialistic state. Women are exceedingly active in making greater use of their legal rights to divorce and abortion and demanding equal status with men both in the workplace and in the home. Women are initiating major social changes, are readily adapting to changing relations and patterns in a complex society and are serving to spearhead changes in the family unit. These factors have generated major changes in the normative, behavioral and structural dimensions of marriage and family life in the Soviet Union." excerpt

  6. Nuclear power in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power are as follows: safety requirements and expectations have been increased; and public opinion is negative. A program of nuclear power generation has been developed. New techniques are being implemented to increase safety and enhance operations of different types of nuclear power plants. Its should be obvious in the future that a nuclear power plant has better economic and environmental parameters than existing methods of power generation.

  7. A social History of Soviet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idlis, G. M.; Tomilin, Konstantin

    The archive includes a great number of archive materials, recollections, interviews, letters, diaries, bibliography, internet sources concerning history of bolshevik and stalinist purges against scientists in the USSR since 1917 till 1968. The archive is categorized by few divisions: scientists, university teachers, associate professors, professors, members of the Academy of Science of the USSR, Corresponding-Members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. A great number of research articles and recollections by purged are included. The articles are written not only by historians of science but by scientists also. A great role by P.L. Kapitza in the saving of Soviet science from purges is underlined. The project was realized under the support by SOROS foundation (2000), Russian Foundation for fundamental Research (2002-2004) and Russian State National Foundation (2007).

  8. Current Soviet exploration plays: Success and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Soviet hydrocarbon exploration in the 1980s took four distinct directions. First was extension exploration and the search for smaller new fields in discrete traps in traditional producing regions, such as the Apsheron Peninsula, North Caucasus, and Volga-Urals. This strategy produced a large number of small discoveries close to established infrastructure. Second was new field exploration in West Siberia in the stratigraphically complex Jurassic and the lower Neocomian sections. Third was expansion of the prolific gas plays in northern West Siberia. Exploratory success in West Siberia has created a backlog of several hundred discoveries awaiting full delineation and development. Most of these fields are distant from the established oil production center in the Middle Ob region and, therefore, may remain in inventory. Fourth was initial tests of new exploration frontiers, most important, the Paleozoic and Mesozoic plays of the Barents and Kara seas and the subsalt plays of the North Caspian basin. While these plays have yielded very important discoveries, significant technological barriers impede their development. The outlook for Soviet oil exploration in the 1990s is for significant opportunities for discovery of large volumes of oil, but at radically increasing exploration and production costs. In established regions, these costs arise from small field sizes and low well productivities. In frontier regions, exploitation of new fields will require technology not currently available in the USSR. The outlook for gas exploration continues to be very bright, as the onshore northern West Siberia is not fully explored and initial results from the Barents and Kara seas promise more very large gas discoveries.

  9. Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

  10. The Ethnic Factor in the Soviet Armed Forces: Preliminary Findings,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Literally, "non-Russian" used pejoratively to denote someone of inferior culture and .race. ZHELTOE GAVNO : Literally, "yellow shit." Aimed at Soviet Asians. ZHID: Like "yid" connoting "dirty Jew." rP

  11. Could This Be the Mars Soviet 3 Lander?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-11

    This set of images shows what might be hardware from the Soviet Union 1971 Mars 3 lander, seen in a pair of images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment HiRISE camera on NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  12. Art Education in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusov, Boris

    1978-01-01

    Describes different systems of art education for different student populations, professional art training, historical changes in art education, art education research, aesthetic education, and art education as it is currently practiced in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (RK)

  13. Astronomic-Geodetic Highlights from the Soviet Union,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report is a translation of an article in the German language periodical Austrian Journal of Geodesy , written by K. Ledersteger, published in Vienna in 1959. It concerns Astronomic-Geodetic highlights in the Soviet Union.

  14. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Analysis Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (Water-cooled, Water-moderated Energy Reactor). The principle objective of this undertaking is to provide a basis to better understand the safety related features of the Soviet designed VVERs to be better prepared to respond domestically in the event of an accident at such a unit. The USDOE Team's analyses are presented together with supporting and background information. The report is structured to allow the reader to develop an understanding of safety related features of Soviet designed VVERs (as well as the probable behavior of these units under a variety of off normal conditions), to understand the USDOE Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs, and to formulate informed opinions.

  15. The Soviet Army, Counterinsurgency, and the Afghan War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    1981 Soviet military activity in Afghanistan evolved into three primary kinds of operations: static defense of key centers, securing lines of...counterinsurgency required correspondingly specific and unique tactical solutions.’ To be more precise, the Soviets identified seven primary features of...stresses the destruction of the enemy as the primary goal of armed conflict. Terrain was judged important, but only one of many factors that

  16. On some faulty concepts in Soviet urban studies.

    PubMed

    Agafonov, N T; Lavrov, S B; Khorev, B S

    1983-03-01

    "The authors attack what they call 'superurbanism' and 'agglocentrism,' an excessive preoccupation among some Soviet geographers with urbanization and the formation of urban agglomerations. The authors advocate what is known in Soviet geography as a 'unified system of settlement,' meaning a harmonious blend of both urban and rural forms. The 'agglocentrists' are said to derive their ideas from Western models, and the authors [note the growing] disenchantment with excessive urbanism in the West."

  17. Energy, economics, and foreign policy in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book has the merit of looking at the Soviet energy problem (oil, gas, coal, other) as a whole, something that Westen experts (and Soviet officials) have often failed to do. It makes fairly precise projections for the mid-1980s and cloudier ones for 1990. Hewett sees no crisis of the kind predicted by the CIA for the 1980s, but the Moscow will face hard decisions imposed by the rising cost of energy, competing economic demands, and political constraints.

  18. Soviet Operational Maneuver in a Period of Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    of Sovietworks dealingwith mobile tinuities has been Soviet dedication to, and group (operational. maneuver group) opera- faith in, the utility of...while the Red Army suffered griev-ous losses, the Soviet High Command painstak- ingly reconstructed its mobile forces and experimented with their...combat use. By July conditions, which were created by improve- 1943, a modem Red Army had emerged, ments in mobility , firepower and communica- formed

  19. Soviet Military Power: An Assessment of the Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    The reputation of Soviet arms has suffered in the the peace process. Middle East, The quality of Soviet training and maintenance is not well regarded...planning percent in 1987 roughly two and one-half times and management system in the maintenance of mili- that of’ the UJnited States. Even more telling...longer testing. The SS-18 Follow-On, a more accurate version liteL and require less maintenance ), and are fully mobile, than its predecessor, has been

  20. Soviet Officer Initiative: a Myth or a Reality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    the balance between the rigid fulfillment of regu- " :lations and orders, and the tempering of such rigidity with a sprinkling of officer initiative. 4...Soviet authors of numerous articles is necessary in order to gain a more balanced image of the modern Soviet officer who has the capability of displaying...of regulations, and a willingness to assume responsibility. A freshness appears in the later definitions with the attempt to balance off the

  1. Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties

    SciTech Connect

    Rhinelander, J.B.; Bunn, G.

    1991-12-01

    A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into Under international law, the obligations of a state are not affected by even such dramatic changes in government. No one yet knows, however, what the end result of the ongoing devolution of power in the erstwhile Soviet Union will be. As illustrations of what could happen to Soviet arms control obligations - not predictions of the future - the authors pose two alternative scenarios. In the first, they assume that most of the current 12 republics, including all of the big four where substantial nuclear forces and the largest conventional forces are located (Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Belarus), ultimately form a loose confederation with sufficient central authority to be called a nation-state and to carry out the essence of Soviet obligations under major arms control treaties. In the second, they assume that the union disintegrates further, with these four key republics seceding entirely and recognizing one another as independent states - a step which is apparently one of the US criteria for granting its own recognition. In this scenario, the Russian republic maintains its basic territory and replaces the central government as the power center for military and foreign affairs. In each of these cases, they will describe the general issues affecting the Soviet Union's international obligations, and consider specifically the two most important arms control agreements now in force - the multilateral nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty.

  2. Gorbachev and the New Soviet Agenda in the Third World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    January-February 1987, p. 21. 61bid., p. 20. 7For a good account of earlier Soviet-Argentine relations, see Aldo Cesar Vacs, "Soviet Policy Toward...minister, Bernardo Sepulveda Amor, was given a lavish reception in Moscow in early May 1987, and was received personally by Gorbachev. By contrast, the...with Sepulveda , Izvestiya, March 22, 1987. 12Unpublished paper by Brian Latell, "The USSR and Mexico." 13William R. Long, "Shevarnadze to Begin Trip

  3. The Tenth Period of Soviet Third World Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    Mexican foreign minister, Bernardo Sepulveda Amor, received a lavish reception in Moscow in early May 1987 and was received personally by Gorbachev, at...consular delegation arrived in Jerusalem in July.23 20See interview with Sepulveda , Izvestiya, March 22, 1987. 21William R. Long, "Shevardnadze to Begin...fuller account of Soviet-Argentine trade, see Aldo Cesar Vacs, "Soviet Policy Toward Argentina and the Southern Cone," The Annals of the American Academy

  4. The Soviet Coup: A Command, Control, and Communications Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    reactionary Soyuz faction of the Supreme Soviet and by Pavlov and the Cabiijet of Ministers. The attempts were suppressed by Gorbachev, but effective...someone alongside me I can trust". (Hitchings, 91, p. 622) b. Valentin Sergeevich Pavlov Valentin Pavlov was appointed as Prime Minister by Gorbachev in...January 1991. Formerly the Soviet Finance Minister, Pavlov had a reputation as an old-style bureaucrat with little faith in free market reforms. His

  5. Observations on a Recent Trip to the Former Soviet Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-26

    NPS-NS-92-012 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA AD-A255 891 J6 0- & R A D b OBSERVATIONS ON A RECENT TRIP TO THE FORMER SOVIET UNION BY...Include Security Classification) OBSERVATIONS ON A RECENT TRIP TO THE FORMER SOVIET UNION 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) TRITTEN, JAMES JOHN 13a. TYPEOFREPORT...ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) (8 A -C) ADDITIONAL SPONSOR, INTELLIGENCE PLANS & INTEGRATION DIRECTORATE

  6. The Post-Soviet Archives: Organization, Access, and Declassification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Soviet military, the USSR Cabinet of Ministers, and the Supreme Soviet launched a coup to oust President Mikhail Gorbachev and reverse the course of...6Mms mea apasa sammanca 3 ’IETmflRW saxe BpeuemIc - 46- 4. wM UOCTOMO. PeiONezO od STOMA rtpxU8TcR pYKOoicT3s Uen’zpe. rpftxaUs.e apiim Ywp Aamseu

  7. The Soviet Union in Afghanistan: Benefits and Costs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-12

    COLLEGE Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania THE SOVIET NION IN4FGHANISTAN: S BENFITS AND COSTS, by SS-hirin/Fahir-Kheli ,/;/ 12 June480./ -/ . DISTRIBUTION...1973. The Soviet Union committed itself to 20 major projects in agriculture, irrigation, electric power, oil and gas exploration , mineral and metal...regime spread, Pak-Afghan relations deteriorated. Pakistan counted 56 violations of its air and ground space (penetratioins of up to three miles above

  8. Emerging technology in the Soviet Union: Selected papers with analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on emerging Soviet technology are presented. The topics addressed are: economic considerations of emerging technology; aviation, motor, and space designs; new materials and components for IR lasers; electroslag technology for smelting high quality metals from scrap and for preparing ingots with differential properties; computer design and application in the USSR; advances in tribology: slideway design and unloading systems; analysis of emerging Soviet technology.

  9. Soviet Inroads in the Middle East - A Historical Perspective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-16

    the country. It was shortly after the Johnson letter that Turkey initiated negotiations with the Soviet Union on trade and agri- cultural exchanges...in 1957. In August 1956, the government signed a cultural agreement with Russia which provided for Syrian students to attend Soviet and satellite...universities, and for the exchange of scholars, artists, and cultural missions between the two countries.3 6 This was followed, in September of that year

  10. The persistent dream - Soviet plans for manned lunar missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Abeelen, L.

    Soviet hopes of achieving the supreme space `first' were crushed in July 1969 when an American became the first human on the Moon. Following the four unsuccessful flight tests of the N1 lunar booster, the Soviet manned lunar landing effort was officially suspended, but even as the Russians were denying they had ever planned to land a cosmonaut on the moon, NPO Energia was designing craft for a long-term scientific, even semi-industrial presence on the lunar surface.

  11. Toward a Profile of Soviet Behavior in International Financial Markets,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    and currency trading operations. Thus, Moscow Narodny could account for something well less than $800 million in hidden lending to the Soviet Union...the foreign exchange markets seems far to exceed what would be required for the simple settlement of trade accounts. It appears that Soviet currency ...the breakdown (o’ fixed exchange rates in the West opened the way for large-scale currency trading. Early on, a currency trading team was establishe(d

  12. Soviet Reactions to Follow-On-To-Lance (FOTL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-26

    Affairs. This book provides a broad review on an international scale of Soviet thinking (early 1970’ s ) on the subject of scientific Alanning...34What Does Moscow Think?" Foreign Policy (Summer, 1985). Rybkin, Y. and Karteenan, S . "Military Parity as a Factor of Security." International ...Technology International Vol. 2 No. 1 (1987 Yearbook and Buyers Guide). Shapiro, Leonard. "The International Department of the CPSU: Key to Soviet

  13. Application of Influence Diagrams in Identifying Soviet Satellite Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    predictive model was produced with data pub- lished in The Soviet Year in Space, by Nicholas L. Johnson, the Advisory Scientist for Teledyne Brown...direct quote Mr. Johnson obtained from a Soviet national paper , U.S.S.R., Second United Nations Confrrencc on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of...engmrnrr and biological reserch , -1 condluct operatons in, th construction of the manned space platform (18:62). 35 4.3.14.4 Progress. Unmanned

  14. The Soviet Response to Korean Air Lines Flight 007.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-07

    34 Defense & Foreign 22 . .. .*..- Affairs, November 1983, pp. 3 5-3 8 . 17 Steven J. Cimbala, "Why Did the Soviets Attack the Korean Airliner...135 returning to Alaska while the Korean flight continued on towards Petropavlovsk. Ogarkov commented, "It was natural that the Soviet Air Defense ...unable to do so.S4 When Western newspapers began reporting the Korean Air Lines disaster, several interviews were made with US dignitaries and defense

  15. Ingroup biases and the US-Soviet conflict

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    International tension and the nuclear arms race are constant threats to human civilization, and the distrust that infects U.S.-Soviet relations has undermined the peace process. From a social-psychological viewpoint, this distrust may originate with people's tendency to derogate and stereotype the group they are in conflict with. Ingroup biases may lead to the selective processing of information according to preexisting cognitive categories and may consequently lead people to perceive and encode only that information which confirms the stereotype. In this way, people find justification for their defensive actions. These hypotheses were investigated in a survey research study, conducted with a sample of American community college adults. The results of the data analyses confirmed the hypothesis that U.S. citizens favor their country, over the Soviet Union and tend to interpret government actions in ways that preserve their positive views of the U.S. and negative views of the U.S.S.R. Americans' perceptions of the Soviets were found to influence how Soviet actions were interpreted and the interpretation of Soviet actions was related to policy support with more negative interpretations of Soviet actions being associated with greater support for the Strategic Defense Initiative and increased U.S. defense spending.

  16. Reconstructing the Soviet National Economic Balance, 1965 - 1984: An Alternative Approach to Estimating Soviet Military Expenditures. Volume 1. Technical Discussion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-11

    based method of estimating military expenditures differs3 considerably from the method by proposed Western researchers who, like Soviet 1-9 I I academic... researchers , the problem of inflation would still be open to competing interpretations since one can design different, equally valid methods , for...I-1 1.2 Comparison of Soviet Accounting Methods ......................................... 1-4 1.3 The NEB Coverage of Military Expenditures

  17. The Voroshilov Lectures. Materials from the Soviet General Staff Academy. Volume 1. Issues of Soviet Military Strategy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    responsibility . He was imprisoned again twice (and tortured) and finally allowed to retire by order of the Minister of Defense. During this period, he...Programs Soviet Research Team. Lieutenant Colonel (Ret.) John G. Hines: Senior Research Analyst, Rand Corporation , Washington, D.C. Colonel Ali Amad...dialectical response from other senior military personnel in subsequent articles, the Gastilovich article posited radical changes for the Soviet Armed

  18. An Evaluation of the Anti-Soviet Guerrilla Warfare Potential in Soviet Estonia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-15

    der Waffen-S[., p. 95. 21 42. Arnold Purre, "Saksa-NÖuk. Liidu soja uldjooni," in Eestl Rllk ja Rahvas Telses Maallmasojas, Vol. 7, ed. by...Purre, "Saksa-Nouk. Liidu söja uldjooni," p. 35. 45. Hausser, pp. 95-96. 46. Purre, "Saksa-Nouk. Liidu soja uldjooni," p. 35. 47. Ibid. p. 36...of Estot.ia and life under the Soviet occupation.) 10. Maasing, Richard, et al. Ecsti Rilk Ja Rahvas Telses Maallma- sojas . Vol. 1

  19. Population change in the former Soviet Republics.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1994-12-01

    Demographic trends in the former Soviet Republics and Russia are summarized and discussed in this publication. The former Soviet Republics in Europe as well as Georgia and Armenia had completed or almost completed their demographic transition before October 1991. Other Central Asian republics experienced reduced mortality, but, despite rapid declines, fertility is still above replacement level (at 3-4 children per woman). The economic and social dislocation of the breakup of the republics has hastened fertility decline. The annual population growth rate of the USSR in the mid-1980s was 0.9%; this rate declined to 0.4% in 1991, and the decline has continued. The 1991 population of the USSR was 289.1 million. Between 1989 and 1991, the crude birth rate was 18/1000 population, and the crude death rate was 10/1000. The net migration rate of -4/1000 helped to reduce growth. Total fertility in the USSR was 2.3 children in 1990. In Russia, fertility declined from 1.9 in 1990 to 1.4 in 1993. The preferred family size in Russia was 1.9 in 1990 and 1.5 in 1993. This decline occurred due to lack of confidence in the economy and insufficient income. Only 19% of women used contraception in 1990. Marriages declined after 1990. Age pyramids were similar in the republics in that there was a narrowing in the proportion aged 45-49 years, and the male population aged over 65 years was diminished, due to the effect of World War II. The cohort of those aged 20-24 years in 1992 was very small due to the small parental birth cohort. The differences in the republics was characterized as broad-based in the younger ages because of high fertility. The number of childbearing women will remain large. Life expectancy has been 70 years since the 1950s and has declined in some republics due to substandard health care, lack of job safety measures, and alcoholism. Some republics experienced increased life expectancy, but, after 1991, mortality increased. Tajikistan had the highest infant mortality

  20. Medical Libraries of the Soviet Union *

    PubMed Central

    Morozov, A.

    1964-01-01

    Medical libraries are a part of the Soviet library system. The total number of medical libraries in the country is more than 4,000, with a collection of over 42,000,000 volumes that are used by over a million readers. The State Central Medical Library occupies a special place among these libraries. It carries out the functions of a methodological, bibliographic, and coordinating center. It has a collection of over 1,000,000 units of books and periodicals. All the bibliographic work of medical libraries as well as any other work is provided to help medical institutions. Libraries prepare special bibliographies of medical literature for publication according to a plan. The libraries also conduct reference and information work. The methodological work helps to solve the most important problems that arise in libraries with reference to the specific character of their work and tasks. The chief means of rendering methodological guidance are to analyze the work of various libraries, to hold conferences, to exchange visits with libraries, to give both field and correspondence consultations, and to organize qualification courses for librarians and bibliographers. PMID:14119299

  1. Performance of Soviet and US hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uljanov, Adolph A.; Demidov, Nikolai A.; Mattison, Edward M.; Vessot, Robert F. C.; Allan, David W.; Winkler, Gernot M. R.

    1990-01-01

    The frequencies of Soviet- and U.S.-built hydrogen masers located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) were compared with each other and, via Global Positioning System (GPS) common-view measurements, with three primary frequency-reference scales. The best masers were found to have fractional frequency stabilities as low as 6 times 10(exp -16) for averaging times of approximately 10(exp 4) s. Members of the USNO maser ensemble provided frequency prediction better than 1 times 10(exp 14) for periods up to a few weeks. The frequency residuals of these masers, after removal of frequency drift and rate of change of drift, had stabilities of a few parts in 10(exp -15), with serveral masers achieving residual stabilities well below 1 times 10(exp -15) for intervals from 10(exp 5)s to 2 times 10(exp 6)s. The fractional frequency drifts of the 13 masers studied, relative to the primary reference standards, ranged from -0.2 times 10(exp -15)/day to +9.6 times 10(exp -15)/day.

  2. The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapoport, Z. TA.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-01-01

    In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  3. Pushkin to Shukshin: Complementary Strands in the Texture of Soviet Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevin, Patricia Ernenwein

    1980-01-01

    Discusses English reading texts used in the Soviet Union, which are English translations of Russian literature. Notes that such literature divides attention between the traditional and the progressive elements of Soviet culture. (DF)

  4. Pushkin to Shukshin: Complementary Strands in the Texture of Soviet Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevin, Patricia Ernenwein

    1980-01-01

    Discusses English reading texts used in the Soviet Union, which are English translations of Russian literature. Notes that such literature divides attention between the traditional and the progressive elements of Soviet culture. (DF)

  5. The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, A J

    1980-04-01

    Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning.

  6. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  7. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  8. Secondary Mathematics Education in the Soviet Union, an Individual Study Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-14

    emtics FUication in the Soviet Union of Soviet Socialist wbli. Columbus, Ohio: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics and Environmental Education , 1979...and Environmental Education , 1979. pp. 37- 46. Davis, R. B. and Romberg, T. A. Ccumon Practices in Present Soviet Schools. In R. B. Davis, T. A. Ramerg...for Science, Mathematics and Environmental Education , 1979. pp. 5-30. Filippov, F. R. The Role of Higher Education in Changing the Structure of Soviet

  9. All Features Grate and Stall. Soviet Strategic Vulnerabilities and the Future of Deterrence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-15

    territory. This latter thrust will impose a real cost upon the East European Pact allies and reduce their solidarity with the Soviet Union . To the extent that...Soviet weaknesses and vulnerabilities. It is the author’s opinion that there can be no doubt that the Soviet Union is and will continue to be the...this paper examines economic, political, demographic and military vulnerabilities and weaknesses of the Soviet Union which affect its domestic and

  10. Analysis of the Soviet response to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Student report

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.E.

    1987-04-01

    Since President Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) in March 1983, the Soviet Union has consistently condemned it. This study examines the Soviet response to SDI and provides an explanation for their response. The study identifies military, political, and economic factors that influence the Soviet response to SDI. The author concludes that the Soviets have a genuine concern about SDI, and they will continue their attempts to stop the SDI program at the arms-control negotiations.

  11. Soviet-West European Relations: Recent Trends and Near-Term Prospects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    chilly reception from the Soviet leadership. Indeed, his Soviet hosts reminded him that the volcanic destruction of Pompeii paled in comparison with a...single nuclear warhead, and are reported to have threatened that "we will turn Italy into a Pompeii " if Italy contin- ued with INF deployments on...threatens to turn Italy "into a Pompeii " May 7, 1984 Soviet Union announces decision to boycott Olympics May 14, 1984 Soviet Union announces movement of

  12. Maintaining Heavy Force Training Focus in the Age of ’New Soviet Thinking’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-30

    Go Home". 4 !David Ignatius , "Yes, It’s Real: How Gorby Is Cutting the Soviet Threat," Washinaton Post, 5 November 1989, p. C1. 2Don Oberdorfer...well. Comparing the abysmal economic condition of the Soviet Union and its client states with the -Ibid, pp. 37-50. 3Christopher Donnelly , Red Banner...Covington, Stephen R. "The Soviet Military Prospects for Change." Soviet Studies Research Centre, RMA Sandurst, November 1988. 13. Donnelly , Christopher

  13. Soviet Psycho-educational Research on Learning Disabilities: Implications for American Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Robert H.

    The implications of Soviet psychoeducational research on learning disabilities (LD) and its relevance to American research and practice are discussed. The first section provides an overview of the general perspective of Soviet special education, with particular reference to LD and its relationship to Soviet psychology and philosophy. The second…

  14. The Soviet System of Education. A PIER World Education Series Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovych, Erika; Levin-Stankevich, Brian

    This volume endeavors to provide comprehensive factual information on the Soviet system of education. Chapter 1 offers basic information on the Soviet Republics. Chapter 2 describes the foundations of Soviet Education. Chapter 3 describes preschool through upper secondary education including academic calendars and curriculum. Chapter 4,…

  15. The Soviets: What is the Conflict about? 1985 National Issues Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Keith; Landau, David

    Appropriate for secondary school social studies or community programs, this publication considers United States-Soviet conflict. The first of four sections, "US-Soviet Relations at the Crossroads," looks at different American perceptions of the Soviet Union. "Regional Conflicts, Global Ambitions" focuses on Nicaragua as a case…

  16. Changing Conceptions of Development Assistance to Education in the International Discourse on Post-Soviet Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Tuomas; Piattoeva, Nelli

    2012-01-01

    The fall of the socialist system, and of the Soviet Union as a political entity, created a situation where external assistance to the transformation of the ex-Soviet countries into market economies and multi-party democracies became a domain of "development assistance". While the attractiveness of the ex-Soviet countries to the providers…

  17. Soviet Higher Education: An Alternative Construct to the Western University Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuraev, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the university was an alien establishment for Russia, reflecting the political ambition of its leadership, not the organic impetus of Russian society. In Soviet academia, the notion of university education was replaced by the concept of vocational-technical training. As a creation of the Soviet government, Soviet higher education…

  18. Trouble in the Backyard: Soviet Media Reporting on the Afghanistan Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of Soviet media coverage of Afghanistan from 1979 to 1986, showing that several familiar themes, from unpopular guerrillas to national security, are used to justify the Soviet presence in Afghanistan. Compares Soviet press coverage of Afghanistan with U.S. coverage of El Salvador, revealing several parallels. (ARH)

  19. Ideologies of Civic Participation in Central Asia: Liberal Arts in the Post-Soviet Democratic Ethos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.

    2010-01-01

    Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…

  20. Soviet Psycho-educational Research on Learning Disabilities: Implications for American Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Robert H.

    The implications of Soviet psychoeducational research on learning disabilities (LD) and its relevance to American research and practice are discussed. The first section provides an overview of the general perspective of Soviet special education, with particular reference to LD and its relationship to Soviet psychology and philosophy. The second…

  1. A State of the Art Review of Soviet Research in Cognitive Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertsch, James V.

    This paper outlines the theoretical foundations of Soviet psychology, analyzes major themes based on these foundations, and identifies relevance of Soviet psychological research for American investigators. Basic social and political factors that influence Soviet research include centralization of all scientific and academic endeavors and…

  2. THE SOVIET POLICY TOWARDS INDONESIA IN THE WEST IRIAN AND THE MALAYSIAN DISPUTES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Indonesians by their policy toward Malaysia presented the Soviets with hard choices. Soviet support of the Indonesian confrontation with Malaysia on...which did not exist earlier), and it would have foreclosed the possibility of useful Soviet relations with Malaysia in the future. Open opposition to

  3. Structure and Decision-Making in Soviet Education. Bulletin, 1964, No. 2. OE-14094

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudman, Herbert C.

    1964-01-01

    The study and analysis of Soviet political, social, and economic systems is as old as the Soviet Union itself, but an intensive study of its educational system is a recent development. Many scholars have turned their attention to the Soviet Union's educational system and have studied the curriculums, teaching methods, textbooks, and other…

  4. A State of the Art Review of Soviet Research in Cognitive Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertsch, James V.

    This paper outlines the theoretical foundations of Soviet psychology, analyzes major themes based on these foundations, and identifies relevance of Soviet psychological research for American investigators. Basic social and political factors that influence Soviet research include centralization of all scientific and academic endeavors and…

  5. Narrating Surroundings and Suppression: The Role of School in Soviet Childhood Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugin, Raili; Jõesalu, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The article explores how people born in Estonia in the 1970s contextualize their memories about their Soviet childhood in the context of school. Focusing on small group of people who grew up in the Soviet Estonia, we argue that in biographical narratives, school is treated as the representative of the Soviet regime. Nostalgic reminiscences from…

  6. Soviet Higher Education: An Alternative Construct to the Western University Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuraev, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the university was an alien establishment for Russia, reflecting the political ambition of its leadership, not the organic impetus of Russian society. In Soviet academia, the notion of university education was replaced by the concept of vocational-technical training. As a creation of the Soviet government, Soviet higher education…

  7. The Soviet System of Education. A PIER World Education Series Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovych, Erika; Levin-Stankevich, Brian

    This volume endeavors to provide comprehensive factual information on the Soviet system of education. Chapter 1 offers basic information on the Soviet Republics. Chapter 2 describes the foundations of Soviet Education. Chapter 3 describes preschool through upper secondary education including academic calendars and curriculum. Chapter 4,…

  8. Fragmenting pastoral mobility: Changing grazing patterns in Post-Soviet Kazakhstan

    Treesearch

    Carol Kerven; Ilya Ilych Alimaev; Roy Behnke; Grant Davidson; Nurlan Malmakov; Aidos Smailov; Iain Wright

    2006-01-01

    Kazak nomads were seasonally mobile in the pre-Soviet period, in response to climate variability and landscape heterogeneity. The scale of these movements was interrupted during the Soviet period, but some degree of mobility remained. Mobility virtually ceased in the post-Soviet 1990s, but is reemerging as flock numbers rebound from the mid 1990s population crash.

  9. Ideologies of Civic Participation in Central Asia: Liberal Arts in the Post-Soviet Democratic Ethos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.

    2010-01-01

    Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…

  10. Teaching the Canon? Nation-Building and Post-Soviet Kazakhstan's Literature Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanova, Jazira

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses Kazakhstan's new generation literature textbooks for Kazakh-medium schools, with a focus on national identity and citizenship constructs that the revised textbooks promote. By comparing the literature textbooks of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods, the paper discusses Soviet institutional and cultural legacies that continue to…

  11. Changing Conceptions of Development Assistance to Education in the International Discourse on Post-Soviet Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Tuomas; Piattoeva, Nelli

    2012-01-01

    The fall of the socialist system, and of the Soviet Union as a political entity, created a situation where external assistance to the transformation of the ex-Soviet countries into market economies and multi-party democracies became a domain of "development assistance". While the attractiveness of the ex-Soviet countries to the providers…

  12. Trouble in the Backyard: Soviet Media Reporting on the Afghanistan Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of Soviet media coverage of Afghanistan from 1979 to 1986, showing that several familiar themes, from unpopular guerrillas to national security, are used to justify the Soviet presence in Afghanistan. Compares Soviet press coverage of Afghanistan with U.S. coverage of El Salvador, revealing several parallels. (ARH)

  13. Narrating Surroundings and Suppression: The Role of School in Soviet Childhood Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugin, Raili; Jõesalu, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The article explores how people born in Estonia in the 1970s contextualize their memories about their Soviet childhood in the context of school. Focusing on small group of people who grew up in the Soviet Estonia, we argue that in biographical narratives, school is treated as the representative of the Soviet regime. Nostalgic reminiscences from…

  14. Educational Reforms in the Soviet Union. Special Studies in Comparative Education, Number Fourteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Delbert

    The Soviet school system is, and has been since its inception, a vital instrument of state policy. The Soviet political leaders of the 1980s, in an effort to improve their educational system, are implementing into the academic program the basic Soviet educational principles of: (1) promoting Communist Party policies; (2) coordinating school work…

  15. Friends to the End: "The New York Times" and the Soviet Union, 1943-1945.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Donald O.

    From 1939 to 1943 the United States went from a period of total opposition to the Soviets to a gradual acceptance of its new ally. The "New York Times" editorial page shared in this trend: moving cautiously from complete rejection of the Soviets to acceptance of the Russian people, next the Red Army, and finally the Soviet government.…

  16. The Station Relay. Facts and Views on Daily Life in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Stephen P., Ed.; Dunn, Ethel, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of five journal issues describing facts and daily life in the Soviet Union, the documents are intended to help people of the United States know about the people of the Soviet Union, their hopes, fears, and facts of their daily lives. Among the topics included in the publications are: Soviet consumers and the law; public health…

  17. U.S.-Soviet Relations: Testing Gorbachev's "New Thinking." Current Policy No. 985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armacost, Michael H.

    Forty years ago, George F. Kennan advanced the doctrine of containment against Soviet encroachment throughout the world. The Soviet Union has evolved from a Eurasian land power into a global superpower. In an effort to create an international environment congenial to domestic reforms, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev has sought greater tranquility…

  18. Comparison of Soviet and US space food and nutrition programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Selina

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet Space Food and Nutrition programs are compared with those of the U.S. The Soviets established the first Space Food programs in 1961, when one of the Soviet Cosmonauts experienced eating in zero gravity. This study indicates that some major differences exist between the two space food and nutrition programs regarding dietary habits. The major differences are in recommended nutrient intake and dietary patterns between the cosmonauts and astronauts. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are significantly higher in cosmonaut diets compared to astronauts. Certain mineral elements such as phosphorus, sodium and iron are also significantly higher in the cosmonauts' diets. Cosmonauts also experience intake of certain unconventional food and plant extracts to resist stress and increase stamina.

  19. Soviet theater nuclear capabilities: the European nuclear balance in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.

    1983-08-31

    This memorandum examined the changing strategic and theater nuclear environment; Soviet theater nuclear force improvements and doctrine; the implications of Soviet theater nuclear buildup for deterrence and the defense of Europe; and NATO's response. The author concludes that the changing balance of theater capabilities has resulted in a devaluation of deterrence, a decline in Western self-confidence, and an increase in NATO's vulnerabilities. The author also contends that if the Soviet Union is unwilling to negotiate a significant reduction intermediate-range nuclear forces that now pose a serious threat to the West, the NATO deployment of Pershing II and cruise missiles will not only help to restore balance to the NATO/Warsaw Pact nuclear equation, but will also enhance deterrence, reduce NATO's vulnerabilities, and thus, will contribute to crisis stability in Europe.

  20. Soviet Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchetkov, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    During 1980s and 1990s a proton-proton collider named the Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK) was under construction in the Soviet Union and then in Russia. The collider was supposed to be built in a 21 km long underground tunnel at the site of Institute for High Energy Physics in Protvino. With a design collision energy of 6 TeV and a luminosity of 4 x 1034 cm-1s-1, the UNK was planned to be become a primary energy frontier facility to further expand national high energy physics program, as well as to strengthen global scientific outreach and collaborations. The UNK was to be realized in 3 rings. The first ring, built from conventional magnets, was planned to be used for fixed target experiments with proton beam energies up to 600 GeV, and as an injector to the second and the third rings. The second and the third superconducting magnet rings were designed for either 3 TeV beam energy fixed target experiments or 6 TeV collider experiments. The top magnetic field of 1 T of the first ring was to be supplied by 2196 dipoles and 503 quadrupoles. Each of the second and the third superconducting rings would have needed 2192 dipoles and 474 quadrupoles to reach the top field of 5 T. ``Neptun'' experiment was supposed to be a centerpiece of the initial physics program at the UNK. 1560 conventional dipoles and 473 conventional quadrupoles were fabricated as a part of the first ring infrastructure. Several test versions of the superconducting magnets were produced, as well. While the tunnel and a proton injection line were completed by 1995, the reduction of Russian federal funding for high energy physics halted the project at the end of 1990s.

  1. Soviet and American ASTP crew sample candidate food items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Candidate food items being considered for the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission are sampled by three ASTP crewmen in bldg 4 at JSC. They are, left to right, Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet ASTP crew; Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American ASTP crew; and Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP crew. Kubasov is marking a food rating chart on which the crewmen mark their choices, likes and dislikes of the food being sampled. Brand is drinking orange juice from an accordian-like dispenser. Leonov is eating butter cookies.

  2. World Opinion and the Soviet Satellite: A Preliminary Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    Less than two weeks after the launch of Sputnik I, the United States Information Agency conducted an informal analysis of public opinion on this subject. The analysis yielded four clear conclusions: (1) Soviet claims of scientific and technological superiority were widely accepted in the United States; (2) U.S. allies were concerned about a shift in the balance of military power; (3) the overall credibility of Soviet propaganda was greatly strengthened; and (4) American prestige was dealt a severe blow. The report also concluded that the near-hysteria in the United States in turn increased the level of concern in countries friendly to the United States. An evaluation is presented.

  3. Military Geography of the Sino-Soviet Border.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-31

    Junggar Basin itself is a triangular wedge of mostly steppe land lying between the Tian Shan and the Altay ( Altai ) mountains to the north along the...Impe’rilI Soviet control of all rrIor east kit t he IUri I Mountains .) Al though of less immediate conciern, Rirso;isir strateistu; datinog from...determined by the huge salt lent represe’nted by Mongolia , a Soviet ally. To thle West, on tile Chinesew side are the X1in j ang-Uygpr (Sinkiang-Uighur) and

  4. Soviet Theater Nuclear Capabilities: The European Nuclear Balance in Transition,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-31

    womernn~laryI -Ir ofOnSovie1 Union ; NATO sms ame all system amlgiied to So Europea theater. Fiendh in lS. w*4ii not a part of NATO, have bean...confidence, and an increase in NATO’s vulnerabilities. In response, the author contends that if the Soviet Union is unwilling to negotiate a serious...senior researcher at the Strategic Studies Institute. SUMMARY Over the last decade and a half, the Soviet Union has been methodically improving the

  5. Submarine Rescue. Mooring and Salvage Ships of the Soviet Navy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-13

    the sail. Fig. 5: The ELBRUS , the latest Soviet development realized in this category of ships (submarine rescue). The two cranes can be noted between...u(’ e& 3 m * a DIML OIntr 13 OM IP TIL JILY I WIPP ITH14 4 X 57 M AA CUL ATION PO T OF THE DEVEWPNE T: THE ELBRUS In December 1951 a new Soviet...auxiliary ship type attracted the attention of the technical comunity, as its lead ship ELBRUS coming from the Black Sea passed through the Bosporus. Listed

  6. Soviet and American ASTP crew sample candidate food items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Candidate food items being considered for the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission are sampled by three ASTP crewmen in bldg 4 at JSC. They are, left to right, Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet ASTP crew; Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American ASTP crew; and Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP crew. Kubasov is marking a food rating chart on which the crewmen mark their choices, likes and dislikes of the food being sampled. Brand is drinking orange juice from an accordian-like dispenser. Leonov is eating butter cookies.

  7. The Soviet Population Policy Debate: Actors and Issues,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    113 THE SOVIET POPULATION POLICY DEOTE: ACTOS AD I SSUES 1/2 (U) RAND CORP SATA MONICA CR N FESHBACH DEC 86 RN/ N -2472-RF F49620-86-C-BNS UN CLSIFIED...Corporation 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138 0 I1 ~I A RAND NOTE N -2472-AF The Soviet Population Policy Debate: Actors and Issues...8 5 t I 4 61 - PP ~ V’V ~V /./( N % 4 wW f VW ... .. in,1 ix - TABLES 1. Benchmark Dates

  8. Russian, Soviet, and post-Soviet scientific migration: history and patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant scientists from other European countries (predominantly German) were crucial in establishing the tradition of modern science in the Russian Empire of the 18th and 19th centuries. Since the 1860s, however, outgoing waves of scientific migration started originating in Russia, bringing important innovations to international science. The scale and patterns of migration varied greatly with the turbulent time. The talk will describe several landmark stages of the proceess and their cultural consequences: from opening higher education possibilities for women during the late 19th century, to post-1917 academic refugees and Soviet defectors, to the 1960s brain drain provoked by the launch of Sputnik, and to what can be called the first truly global scientific diaspora of Russophone scientists after 1990.

  9. Organizing for Coalition Warfare: The Role of East European Warsaw Pact Forces in Soviet Military Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Central Army Group (NATO) CFM Committee of Foreign Ministers (WTO) C-in-C Commander-in-Chief CP Communist Party CPSU Communist Party of the Soviet Union CWC...8217 4,100 832 2 Navies Major and minor warships 300W Few’ < 1 SOURCES: D. . Ustinov, Marshal of the Soviet Union , Chairman of the Main Editorial Commission...of Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSFG) disions with Northern Tier East Europea divisions Soviet armored division, Category 1 1.00 Soviet MD

  10. Soviet News and Propaganda Analysis Based on RED STAR (The Official Newspaper of the Soviet Defense Establishment), 1 - 31 January 1982. Volume 2, Number 1, 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Czechoslovakian military training during a recent joint exercise in Western Czechoslovakia - DRUZHBA -82. In several feature articles Soviet propagandists...emphasized: "Czechoslovakian, Hungarian and Soviet military units excel in joint DRUZHBA -82 training in Western Czecho- slovakia." "President Husak of...Czechoslovakia welcomed the Warsaw Pact Chief, Marshall Kulikov. They discussed joint CZECH-SOVIET training in exercise DRUZHBA -82. They also

  11. Reconstructing the Soviet National Economic Balance, 1965 - 1984: An Alternative Approach to Estimating Soviet Military Expenditures. Volume 2. Compilation of Working Tables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-21

    ECONOMIC BALANCE, 1965-1984: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO ESTIMATING SOVIET MILITARY EXPENDITURESI Volume Ih: Compilation of Working Tables DRAFT DTIC I S0...Final: MARCH 1986 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 FUNDING NUMBERS RECONSTRUCTING THE SOVIET NATIONAL ECONOMIC BALANCE, 1965-1984: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO...accounts, called the National Economic Balance. for the years 1965-1984. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15 NUMBER OF PAGES 92 Soviet Union Economy Defense Spending

  12. Soviet oil trade from 1950 to 1976 in the context of the regime perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    Application of insights from international political economy (IPE) to the study of the Soviet Union and other communist countries should be useful both to students of IPE and to students of those countries. This study applies an IPE perspective, regime theory, to the Soviet oil trade. The subject area was chosen both because it is an area important to the Soviet Union and because a strong regime has been identified in this area by theorists. The focus is the interaction of the Soviet Union with a regime which had been established, and was controlled by, Western actors. The study asks how the Soviet Union related to the regime and how, if at all, it attempted to pursue its alternative vision of trade, as well as at how the regime, in turn, affected the Soviet Union in its day-to-day trading relations and in its trade policy. The study concludes that application of regime theory to the examination of the Soviet oil trade is valuable both to IPE and to Soviet studies. Viewing Soviet activities in the regime context helped explain both overall Soviet trade policy and day-to-day Soviet trade decisions such as pricing and choice of trade partners.

  13. Soviet Cineclubs: Baranov's Film/Media Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a historical form of media literacy education that is still insufficiently discussed in English language literature: Russian cineclubs. We focus on one particular cineclub that was created by a Soviet educator Oleg Baranov in the 1950s. We describe this cineclub's context and structure, and discuss its popularity among…

  14. Problem behaviors of children adopted from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Pallansch, Leona

    2007-01-01

    Although current meta-analyses of problem behavior of internationally adopted children exist, few children adopted from the former Soviet Union have been included in these reports. A significant concern is that 13 children adopted from the former Soviet Union have died at the hands of their American adoptive parents since 1996. A cohort of 105 children adopted from the former Soviet Union has been assessed at two points in time by telephone and postal surveys to measure the impact of risk and protective factors on problem behavior. Pre-adoptive risk factors have declined in importance (except for birth weight) and protective factors (operationalized as aspects of family environment) have increased in influence over time. Problem behavior scores declined slightly at Time 2, despite the children having entered adolescence. Families play a significant role in the behavior of children adopted from the former Soviet Union. Nurses should counsel families to shape the child's environment during the transition from orphanage to homes in the United States, especially for children who are low birth weight.

  15. Resources for Russian Education: Soviet Strategies in Historical Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study examines Soviet strategies for education during its first four decades as they may be deduced from the resources put at its disposal. Despite the political importance for education and for proletarian empowerment at the workplace ("vydvizhenie"), the total enrolment ratio was only one-third higher than in the Tsarist period,…

  16. Economic Leverage on the Soviet Union in the 1980s.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    administration’s position is certainly not mercantilist in the sense of striving for a larger U.S. esport surplus; the concern is with the efect of Soviet...and the value of hard currency esports that would have to be forgone to the @I*" wsrere I dIne ’away from export sectors. (An Padma Duda pointed

  17. Soviet Military Intentions in the German Democratic Republic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    of infection . By 1969 the Ulbricht regime was in a secure and more confident posture vis-a-vis the remainder of the Soviet Bloc and· was on the...Willie Staph was named Def- ense Minister. The army, navy, and air police became the army, navy, and air forces totalling 120,000 men. The Interior

  18. Moral Education in Contemporary Belarus: Return to a Soviet Past?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorovitch, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses moral education in contemporary Belarus. It offers an insight into the problem of educational change in post-Soviet societies in general and investigates the need for moral education reform in Belarus in particular. It provides a brief description of the situation with respect to moral education in some former Soviet…

  19. The Soviet Successor States and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    This document is a guide to provide teachers and curriculum consultants with an up to date overview of the histories, cultures, and current issues concerning the region of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. It is not intended as an in depth study of the area or people. The guide is divided into two parts. The first discusses the Soviet…

  20. Three Historical Subcultures in Post-Soviet Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sogrin, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching and public dissemination of Russian history in post-Soviet historiography has been shaped by a variety of approaches, including state-sponsored interpretations, views expressed in mass culture, and the work of academic historians. In this article, the author employs a specific method of differentiation to distinguish his present…

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 12, December 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    tissue. The results of experiments on animals carried out during flights of Kosmos series biosatellites made it possible to efficiently schedule...ration are a good means of protecting against accelera- tions after weightlessness. Soviet biosatellites of the Kosmos series are making a noticeable...tal research aboard Kosmos biosatellites, Interkosmos satellites and manned orbiting stations. Working together with specialists of the GDR

  2. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 11, November 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Yeliseyev’s Ram" first two paragraphs are AVIATSIYA I KOSMO - NAVTIKA introduction] [Text] "Dear editor," write officers G. Ivovlev and V. Degtyarev...edition of the wall newspaper APOGEY devoted to the joint Soviet-Syrian space flight was posted in Kosmo - navt Hotel. An artist painted the "Heroes

  3. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  4. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  5. Soviet SDI Rhetoric: The "Evil Empire" Vision of Mikhail Gorbachev.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Colleen E.

    The symbolic presence of Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) has been and continues to be the pivot point in all summitry rhetoric between the American President and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev. To examine some of the rhetorical choices made by Gorbachev to dramatize his vision of why Ronald Reagan refuses to…

  6. Review of the Soviet oil industry in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Shabad, T.

    1986-01-01

    A sharp decline in Soviet oil production was probably one of the most striking developments in the energy sphere in 1985. The Soviet Union relies on exports of crude oil and refined products for about 60% of its hard-currency revenue from the Western countries, and a decline in oil exports cut sharply into the hard-currency earnings in 1985. The continued decline of the price of oil on the world market also contributed to the fall of Soviet export earning in the West. The problem area in Soviet oil production has now become West Siberia, which over the last 20 years has emerged as the nation's main oil producing region, accounting in 1985 for 62% of national output. To maintain production smaller fields are being put into operation, which, given the climate and terrain of West Siberia, is causing slowdowns. The administrations of the oil fields are also a problem, which is discussed in some detail. Oil production from Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan is also described. Two potential new development areas are also mentioned: Barent Sea coast and East Siberia. The slowdown in the oil industry is also evident in plans for the construction of pipelines and refineries. The 12th five-year plan schedules the construction of 5900 km of crude oil pipelines and 7300 km of product pipelines. It appears that no further refinery capacity is needed for the time being.

  7. Controversy in Soviet R&D: The Airship Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-10-01

    possible Soviet defense use, such as troop and equipment carriers. 1 By February 1970, volunteer design bureaus had been set up in Irkusk and Bratsk ...Irkutsk and Bratsk , Siberia. Fourteen ministries support this work. ["Dirigibles," 1970] Article by M. Sergeev V. B. Murychev, Leader of the Leningrad

  8. Planning of Map and Atlas Work in Soviet Scientific Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koslova, A. V.; Kodes, I. I.

    The cartography departments of the leading Soviet libraries--the Lenin State Library of the USSR, the Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library, and the Library of the USSR Academy of Sciences--perform a wide range of operations on cartographic works for reader service and for the development of reference tools and techniques to be used by other…

  9. Recent Audio-Visual Materials on the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Edith Campbell

    1981-01-01

    Identifies and describes audio-visual materials (films, filmstrips, and audio cassette tapes) about the Soviet Union which have been produced since 1977. For each entry, information is presented on title, time required, date of release, cost (purchase and rental), and an abstract. (DB)

  10. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  11. The Soviet School System during Nazi Occupation (1941-1944)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinko, Evgeny Fedorovich

    2016-01-01

    The article explores Soviet schooling in the occupied territory of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. The author considers such issues as the reduction in the number of schools, changes in curricular content, and problems in the organization of schooling and the work of teachers. The article notes the effects of various factors on the…

  12. Chronology of US-Soviet-CIS nuclear relations

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    Since the signing of the first Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I), a number of important events related to nuclear weapons in the former Soviet Union have taken place. A chronology of key developments over the past three years is discussed.

  13. Safeguarding nuclear materials in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Erkkila, B.

    1995-12-31

    This article is a discussion of the safeguarding of nuclear materials in the states of the former Soviet Union. Several issues have been identified and improvements are being pursued at many facilities. These issues include: (1) improvements to existing computerized accounting systems, (2) access control, and (3) control of material movement.

  14. The Soviet School System during Nazi Occupation (1941-1944)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinko, Evgeny Fedorovich

    2016-01-01

    The article explores Soviet schooling in the occupied territory of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. The author considers such issues as the reduction in the number of schools, changes in curricular content, and problems in the organization of schooling and the work of teachers. The article notes the effects of various factors on the…

  15. Perestroyka in the Soviet Union. Occasional Paper No. 128.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhmoutov, Mirza Ismail

    This document presents the point of view that although socialism has produced benefits for the USSR, Soviet society has undertaken its own radical reconstruction. History shows that the natural basis of changes in every society tends to be objective technological revolutions. The first technological revolution was agrarian. The second was…

  16. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  17. U.S.-Soviet Relations Teacher's Guide: Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chibucos, Pamela E.

    This teacher's guide provides student objectives, motivational devices, terms and concepts to know, student activities, evaluation ideas, and suggestions for using an accompanying four-part videotape series. An activity for chapter 1, "Differing World Views," divides the class into groups that list U.S.-Soviet differences in economic…

  18. U.S.-Soviet Relations. Close Up Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This booklet, part of a video and print educational unit consisting of a student text, a teacher's guide, and four 30-minute videotapes, focuses on the U.S.-Soviet relationship, attempting to distinguish what guides each nation's actions in the world as a whole and with each other. Chapter 1, "Differing World Views," examines how…

  19. Yessis Review of Soviet Physical Education and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yessis, Michael, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The following articles on athletics in the Soviet Union are edited and translated for American readers: (1) "Isokinetic Exercises"; (2) "Breathing During the Execution of Precise Motor Acts"; (3) "Investigation of the Running of Pre-School Age Children"; (4) "Al Feuerback and V. Voikin in the Shot Put"; (5)…

  20. The Strategic Defense Initiative in Soviet Planning and Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    American domestic debate, little attention has been paid to the Soviet side of the equation . Granted, considerable efforts have been expended to...contrary, it would be one that proceeded roughly in the direction originally intenc I in President Reagan’s March 1983 speech, even though the

  1. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  2. Russian and Soviet Studies in the United States: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, S. Frederick; Boisture, J. Bruce

    This study was prepared to provide a convenient compendium of data for those participating in a conference on "Russian and Soviet Studies in the United States" held at the Institute of Advanced Studies in Princeton, New Jersey, in May, 1972. The purpose of the conference and of the study was to assess the state of teaching and research…

  3. Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Greece and Turkey: Contrast within Coherence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    may have been motivated on the Greek side by wariness of the apparent courtship of the Soviet Union being undertaken by Greece’s traditional rival...Ulam, Adam B., The Rivals, Penguin Books, 1971. 11. Couloumbis, T.A., Petropulos, J.A. Psomiades, H.J., Foreign Interference in Greek Politics, Pella

  4. Soviet Cineclubs: Baranov's Film/Media Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a historical form of media literacy education that is still insufficiently discussed in English language literature: Russian cineclubs. We focus on one particular cineclub that was created by a Soviet educator Oleg Baranov in the 1950s. We describe this cineclub's context and structure, and discuss its popularity among…

  5. A Case in Point: The Soviet Experience with Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desheriyev, Yunus; Mikhalchenko, Vita Youozovna

    1976-01-01

    Describes the Soviet Union's attempt to devise a national educational system which will both develop the 130 languages spoken by the peoples of the USSR and increase the use of the Russian language as the language of international communication. (Author/DB)

  6. Analysis of VET in Ukraine Since the Soviet Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinser, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how vocational education and training (VET) in Ukraine has changed since the Soviet era; and to determine its structure, successes, and challenges. Design/methodology/approach: The author conducted interviews and tours at 15 vocational schools in seven cities in Ukraine. Findings: Ukraine is…

  7. Redefining Glasnost in the Soviet Media: The Recontextualization of Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Marilyn J.; Launer, Michael K.

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrates that a review of news coverage and an analysis of two documentary films in the context of Soviet cultural values and political stakes suggests that the rhetorical reconstruction of Chernobyl contributed to the legitimation of nuclear power and the environment as public issues. (PRA)

  8. How to Arrange Student Tours to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    The details of planning a student tour to the Soviet Union are described by an experienced tour organizer. Student tours of one to three weeks are presented as rewarding alternatives to lengthy overseas study. Recommendations are made regarding choice of tour type, length of tour, travel agencies, time of year to travel, advertising a tour,…

  9. Soviet Computers and Cybernetics: Shortcomings and Military Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Soviet Military Decision Making, Thesis (Delivered to the Ninth National Conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , October...Thesis. Ninth NatLonal Conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , October 1978. Myagi, A. "Problemi khozrascheta VTs

  10. Soviet Computer Education in Dreams and in Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leasure, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Gives an overview of past, present, and future developments of computer use in Soviet education. Emphasis is on new legislation permitting increased interaction between eastern and western parts of the globe which would allow information sharing. Joint partnerships would aid in the manufacturing of computers in sufficient numbers for use in…

  11. Former Soviet Republic capabilities in space and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavan, G. H.

    1993-02-01

    Recent Department of Commerce, US Space Council, and Strategic Defense Initiative Organization missions to the Former Soviet Republics (FSR's) provided an opportunity to view FSR capabilities in space and science and explore possibilities for cooperation in developing the dual-use capabilities of distributed remote sensing. The trips are summarized and promising areas for cooperation are suggested.

  12. Attitude Change of American Tourists in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothe, Peter

    Pre- and post-travel questionnaires mailed to American tourists visiting the Soviet Union record attitude change and serve as the basis for this eight-chapter research project report. Most of the report considers the relation of various factors to attitude change, including education, level of information, language ability, sex, age, occupation,…

  13. Three Historical Subcultures in Post-Soviet Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sogrin, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching and public dissemination of Russian history in post-Soviet historiography has been shaped by a variety of approaches, including state-sponsored interpretations, views expressed in mass culture, and the work of academic historians. In this article, the author employs a specific method of differentiation to distinguish his present…

  14. U.S.-Soviet Cooperation in Space. A Technical Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report consists of an executive summary and five chapters. Chapter 1, an introduction, discusses the potential advantages and disadvantages of cooperation in space. Chapter 2 outlines the history of United States-Soviet cooperation in space, and the policy debates which have taken place in the U.S. since the beginning of the space age. It…

  15. Key Personnel and Organizations of the Soviet Military High Command.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    United Sft Air Fore...IfICept lor; I t i t tie In wartime, members of the Defense Council would probably constitute a unified strategic leadership organ similar to the State ...Hungary)--ensure Lhat the Eastern European states remain under Soviet political rule and provide a forward-based military capability for offensive

  16. Higher Education Correspondence Study in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Alexander J.

    Soviet education is designed not only to produce specialists whose skills will be more useful to the State, but also to reshape the character of the person so that it is compatible with Communist ideology. The study attempts to investigate and describe the development of higher education correspondence study in the U.S.S.R. Subproblems…

  17. U.S.-Soviet Relations Teacher's Guide: Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chibucos, Pamela E.

    This teacher's guide provides student objectives, motivational devices, terms and concepts to know, student activities, evaluation ideas, and suggestions for using an accompanying four-part videotape series. An activity for chapter 1, "Differing World Views," divides the class into groups that list U.S.-Soviet differences in economic…

  18. U.S.-Soviet Relations. Close Up Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This booklet, part of a video and print educational unit consisting of a student text, a teacher's guide, and four 30-minute videotapes, focuses on the U.S.-Soviet relationship, attempting to distinguish what guides each nation's actions in the world as a whole and with each other. Chapter 1, "Differing World Views," examines how…

  19. Post-Soviet Moral Education: The Case of Kyrgyzstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misco, Thomas; Hamot, Gregory E.

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of Kyrgyzstan became a free and democratic state after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since that time, Kyrgyzstan has redefined and renegotiated what education in its society should be. Although numerous internal and external initiatives have sought to reshape Kyrgyzstan's curriculum and instructional strategies, these projects…

  20. Female Academic Leadership in the Post-Soviet Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzhabekova, Aliya; Almukhambetova, Ainur

    2017-01-01

    Using a qualitative interview approach, this study analyzes the experiences of women in academic leadership positions in post-Soviet Kazakhstan. An exploration of the extent of the relevance of Western research on female academic leadership is used to explain the experiences of female leaders in Kazakhstan. The results of the study are consistent…

  1. Operating margin of Soviet RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.M.; Robinson, G.E. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hochreiter, L.E. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on a coupled thermal- hydraulic analysis that is performed for the Soviet-designed RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactor to assess the operating margin to critical heat flux (CHF); the Chernobyl-4 reactor serves as the principal model for this study. Calculations are performed using a simplified subchannel analysis. The overall analysis involves an iterative search to determine the individual subchannel flow rates, and a boiling transition analysis is performed to obtain a measure of the core operating margin. The operating margin is determined via two distinct methods. The first involves a calculation of the core critical power ratio (CPR) using an empirically derived correlation that the Soviets developed expressly for the RBMK-1000. Additionally, various subchannel CHF correlations typical of those used in the design of nuclear-powered reactors in the United States are also employed. When the Soviet critical power correlation is used, the calculations carried out for both normal operating and reference overpower conditions result in CPRs of 1.115 and 1.019, respectively. In most cases, the subchannel CHF correlations indicate that additional operating margin over that calculated by the Soviet critical power correlation exists for this design.

  2. Themes for Teaching the Geography of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausladen, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Provides a framework for introducing students to the geography of the Soviet Union. Identifies basic themes for a geographical approach, including (1) advantages and disadvantages of size and location; (2) spatial impact of political economy; (3) paradox of economic development; (4) challenges of governing a multinational state; (5) integration…

  3. Soviet Union, Military Affairs. Data, Diagrams of Ground Forces Weaponry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-16

    in the Great Patriotic War. Soviet snipers destroyed tens of thousands of Hitlerites. Lyudmila Pavlichenko , for example, rapidly mastered the art of...soldiers and officers—that is, she succeeded in putting almost a battalion of enemy in- fantry out of action. Lyudmila Pavlichenko was awarded the great

  4. Physicists for Human Rights in the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, Yuri

    2005-03-01

    In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent Human Rights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki Human Rights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for human rights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The human rights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.

  5. Analysis of VET in Ukraine Since the Soviet Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinser, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how vocational education and training (VET) in Ukraine has changed since the Soviet era; and to determine its structure, successes, and challenges. Design/methodology/approach: The author conducted interviews and tours at 15 vocational schools in seven cities in Ukraine. Findings: Ukraine is…

  6. Educational Exchanges between the United States and the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altenberger, Alicja

    1989-01-01

    Following a brief introductory discussion concerning organizations, activities, and agreements that promote exchanges between the United States and the Soviet Union, this document provides: (1) an annotated bibliography of 18 ERIC documents and books on cultural, scientific, and educational exchanges between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.; and (2) a…

  7. The Soviet Union and Nuclear Proliferation: Policy at a Crossroads.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-02

    blackmarket . 5. Joseph L. Nogee, Soviet Nuclear Proliferation Policy, US Army War College Monograph, 1980, p. 20. 6. Nogee, pp. 3-8. 7. Nogee, p. 3. 8...is an example of clandestine trade ongoing in the nuclear blackmarket . Pakistan obtained the expertise to build a bomb from agents in West Germany

  8. Redefining Glasnost in the Soviet Media: The Recontextualization of Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Marilyn J.; Launer, Michael K.

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrates that a review of news coverage and an analysis of two documentary films in the context of Soviet cultural values and political stakes suggests that the rhetorical reconstruction of Chernobyl contributed to the legitimation of nuclear power and the environment as public issues. (PRA)

  9. SOVIET POLITICAL SCHOOLS, THE COMMUNIST PARTY ADULT INSTRUCTION SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MICKIEWICZ, ELLEN PROPPER

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF SOVIET ADULT POLITICAL EDUCATION MAINLY AS IT APPLIES TO RUSSIAN URBAN AREAS, WHERE THE SYSTEM IS MOST HIGHLY DEVELOPED. THIS SYSTEM, AN AGENCY FOR TRANSMITTING POLITICAL DOCTRINE, FORMS A PART OF THE VAST NETWORK OF FORMAL POLITICAL COMMUNICATION, WHICH INCLUDES THE MASS MEDIA, AGITATION, AND COMMUNIST PARTY LEADERSHIP…

  10. Physical Education and Sport in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maetozo, Matthew G.

    The author presents perceptions of the world of sport and physical education gained during a study-tour of the Soviet Union in 1977. This broad overview of individual and governmental involvement in physical activities includes the following--a survey of physical education and public participation in sport in tsarist Russia, governmental policy…

  11. Planning of Map and Atlas Work in Soviet Scientific Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koslova, A. V.; Kodes, I. I.

    The cartography departments of the leading Soviet libraries--the Lenin State Library of the USSR, the Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library, and the Library of the USSR Academy of Sciences--perform a wide range of operations on cartographic works for reader service and for the development of reference tools and techniques to be used by other…

  12. Soviet Cinema and State Control: Lenin's Nationalization Decree Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepley, Vance, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a revisionist account of the immediate conditions and consequences of the 1919 Soviet cinema nationalization decree. Argues that nationalization was the least successful of a set of stop-gap measures; that it dispersed and diluted control; and that it actually retarded the growth of the film industry. (KEH)

  13. Lenin's Grandchildren: Preschool Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kitty D.

    The Soviets have long been devoting educational and institutional energies to the field of early childhood education. This book stresses what Russian preschool education does rather than what its theorists claim it does for children aged 2 months to 6 years who are in group care. Children, teachers and parents tell their own stories. Obviously…

  14. Education in the Soviet Union: Has "Perestroika" Met Its Match?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Gerald Howard

    1989-01-01

    In late 1988, the Soviet Union's "perestroika" entered a new stage aimed at developing human resources and fostering democratic processes. Educators' and parents' discontent with the centralized bureaucracy and rigid educational administrative structure will press officials to formulate a comprehensive new education theory to achieve 19…

  15. America, the Soviets and Nuclear Arms: Looking to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Karl; And Others

    Part of a larger project, "The U.S. and the USSR: Choices for the 21st Century," that is aimed at developing curricular materials for use at the secondary, undergraduate, and adult education levels, this book helps high school students to think through some of the complex issues surrounding U.S.-Soviet relations and the nuclear arms race…

  16. Potential Soviet compromise on ballistic missile defense. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.P.

    1989-11-01

    The body of this research memorandum was written before the Baker-Shevardnadze meeting in Wyoming. It presented evidence suggesting that the Soviet Union might agree to a compromise at the Wyoming meeting that defers the issue of ballistic missile defense (BMD) negotiations to a later stage in arms reductions, thus facilitating a first-stage cut in offensive arms without an explicit Soviet endorsement of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Through this compromise, offensive arms reductions should first be delinked from an agreement on BMD, and then be relinked during the second stage of deeper cuts. Therefore, negotiations on limiting BMD systems, though deterred, are deemed inevitable if the U.S. persists in deploying a strategic defense system (SDS). Moreover, some Soviet arms controllers already look beyond the first stage to the prospect of negotiated transition into a strategic defense environment (i.e., a reliance on defensive deterrence). In this approach, Wyoming, then, was expected to be only a first move in the Soviet negotiating strategy for a grand compromise on strategic defense. As explained in the afterword added to the paper, the actual events at Wyoming seem consistent with that interpretation.

  17. American News Media and Soviet Diplomacy, 1934-41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Thomas R.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of the coverage given by 35 newspapers to United States-Soviet Union relations during 1934-41 reveals that newspapers with the most interest in foreign affairs expressed the opinion that Stalin had abandoned the idea of world revolution, while those with less interest viewed him as an imperialist. (FL)

  18. Perceptual and Cognitive Development of Preschoolers in Soviet Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, Herbert L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments on the cognitive and perceptual development of three- to seven-year-old Soviet children are described, especially the work of L. A. Venger, N. N. Poddyakov, and D. B. El'Konin. Visual-action and visual-image thinking are illustrated. (GDC)

  19. The Soviet Union's Experience in the Elimination of Adult Illiteracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraevskii, Volodar V.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Soviet Union's success in eradicating illiteracy and the role that adult education made in that effort. Elimination of illiteracy began in 1919 and was achieved by 1959, when 99.3 percent of males and 97.3 percent of females between the ages of 9 and 49 were literate. (JOW)

  20. SOVIET LONG-RANGE SPACE-EXPLORATION PROGRAM: ANALYTICAL SURVEY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This is one of a series of reports containing a selection of Sovient technical papers and attempting to give the Soviet view of some space ... exploration programs as they existed at the end of 1965. The problems treated here are divided into six sections as follows: (I) Life in the universe; (II