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Sample records for soviet anthem low-key

  1. National Anthem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A montage of video clips over the years, footage shows the spacecrews, launch, and landing for different orbiters and missions. Clips include the Endeavour and Atlantis Orbiters and are shown to the music of the American National Anthem.

  2. National anthems and suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Gunn, John F

    2011-02-01

    In a sample of 18 European nations, suicide rates were positively associated with the proportion of low notes in the national anthems and, albeit less strongly, with students' ratings of how gloomy and how sad the anthems sounded, supporting a hypothesis proposed by Rihmer. PMID:21526589

  3. Schools Celebrate National Anthem Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Roger Lacher, instrumental music director at Murray Middle School in Ridgecrest, California, spearheaded a celebration of the national anthem attended by a descendant of Francis Scott Key. In a press release Lacher sent to the local media, he wrote: "Murray Middle School celebrated this event. We are blessed with having the great, great, great,…

  4. Teaching Social Studies with National Anthems Using the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Many national anthem lyrics focus on struggle and war between nations. Some, such as "The Star Spangled Banner," focus on a single battle or incident, like the War of 1812. Others stress the bravery, strength, and courage of the soldiers and sometimes the entire nation. Other anthems, such as Brazil's, focus on the beauty and…

  5. Singing the national anthem at major league baseball stadiums raises awareness of ALS.

    PubMed

    Herreria, J

    1998-01-01

    Mark Reiman, diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), is raising awareness of the disease, better known as Lou Gehrig's disease, by singing the national anthem at all the major league baseball stadiums in the U.S.

  6. Anthem simulational studies of the plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    For a deeper understanding of the physical processes governing the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) we use the ANTHEM 2D implicit simulation code to study: (1) ion dynamical effects on electrohydrodynamic (EHD) waves propagating along steep density interfaces in the switch plasmas. At radial interfaces where the density jumps toward the anode, these waves can drive a finger of magnetic field into the plasma toward the load. Ion dynamics can open the rear of such fingers into a wedge-like density gap. Then: (2) we examine ion effects in uniform switch plasmas. These first develop potential hill structures at the drive edge of the cathode from the competition between electron velocity advection and EHD magnetic exclusion waves. Magnetic pressure gradients at the hill periphery and EHD effects then establish a density gap propagating along the cathode with radial electron emission from its tip. Similar results are obtained under both multi-fluid and PIC modeling of the plasma components.

  7. Anthem simulational studies of the plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    For a deeper understanding of the physical processes governing the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) we use the ANTHEM 2D implicit simulation code to study: (1) ion dynamical effects on electrohydrodynamic (EHD) waves propagating along steep density interfaces in the switch plasmas. At radial interfaces where the density jumps toward the anode, these waves can drive a finger of magnetic field into the plasma toward the load. Ion dynamics can open the rear of such fingers into a wedge-like density gap. Then: (2) we examine ion effects in uniform switch plasmas. These first develop potential hill structures at the drive edge of the cathode from the competition between electron velocity advection and EHD magnetic exclusion waves. Magnetic pressure gradients at the hill periphery and EHD effects then establish a density gap propagating along the cathode with radial electron emission from its tip. Similar results are obtained under both multi-fluid and PIC modeling of the plasma components.

  8. 76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4731). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the.... D/B/A/Anthem Enterprise Provider Data Management Team (Pewaukee) Waukesha, Wisconsin TA-W-74,895D..., Inc., d/b/a Anthem, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team, (Pewaukee), Waukesha, Wisconsin...

  9. Soviet Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Elizabeth

    Recent social and political changes in the USSR have made available some 60 previously unreleased films, which were produced during the last 20 years and withheld from release by the Union of Soviet Filmmakers. In 1986, much of this group's leadership was removed leading to an atmosphere more favorable to wider distribution. Some of these films…

  10. O Say, They Can Sing! Teachers Share Their Tips for Teaching the National Anthem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Teresa K.

    2004-01-01

    Teachers who have made "The Star-Spangled Banner" a central part of their students' repertoire have found that students can learn it and take pride in staging this familiar song that even their parents consider too difficult. Many teachers recognize that the first obstacle in teaching the anthem is that students do not know the words or understand…

  11. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, Wisconsin (the subject firm... Employment and Training Administration Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice of Negative Determination...

  12. Modern Tools of Propaganda: Television Treatments of National Anthems in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidman, Mary Beth

    Because of the close proximity of countries in the Middle East, broadcast signals freely cross national boundaries, bringing not always friendly endemic populations into contact with each other through radio and television programming--a fact that has not been lost on the governments which fund broadcasting facilities. National anthems are…

  13. Evaluating Soviet ESP technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, W.J. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper evaluates Soviet ESP technology. The Soviet Union currently produces approximately half of its oil with electric submersible pumps (ESPs). Because of increasing water cuts in most mature fields, due in no small part to poor reservoir management, ESP use will probably continue to rise within the USSR. To meet this demand, the Soviets have developed the largest ESP manufacturing capacity in the world. Soviet ESPs offer some interesting features and are reported to have impressive running lives.

  14. Modern Soviet Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tishkov, Valery

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the Marxist theoretical bases and research objectives of modern Soviet historiography. Soviet historians concentrate on the historical developments of social organization and the analysis of laws governing progress in human society. The author describes current Soviet historical work on Russian, world, ancient, medieval, modern, and…

  15. Soviet American Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Services Administration, Washington, DC.

    This is a glossary of Russian and English terms related to building design and construction. It is intended for use by interpreters and specialists dealing with American and Soviet literature on buildings. The glossary consists of two parts: the Soviet-American section, which presents the Soviet terms written in Russian and the American equivalent…

  16. Soviet scientists speak out

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, D. )

    1993-05-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

  17. 76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... was published in the Federal Register on January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4731). The certification was amended... Provider Data Management Team Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services and Jacobsen Group, et...,895 Wellpoint, Inc., D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, Enterprise Provider Data Management...

  18. The Soviet Censorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhirst, Martin, Ed.; Farrell, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains the proceedings of a symposium which are intended to be a general survey on the nature of Soviet censorship, its effect on literature in the USSR, and the role of such censorship in the intellectual life of a large part of the world. Contents include: "What Is the Soviet Censorship?" which is an attempt to define the way in…

  19. Soviet Arts Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    This extensive curriculum guide was written in conjunction with the San Diego Arts Festival of Soviet Arts in 1989. It aimed to provide teachers with insights and ideas about arts in the Soviet Union before, during, and after the Arts Festival. A curriculum model is presented at the beginning of the guide to illustrate how the lessons were…

  20. Soviets looking beyond Phobos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    A senior Soviet space scientist revealed details of the U.S.S.R.'s ambitious Mars program at a conference last week, shedding light on that country's 20-year plan to send a manned mission to the planet.Vasilij Moroz of the Soviet Space Research Institute in Moscow spoke August 4 at the International Astronomical Union meeting in Baltimore about the two-spacecraft Phobos mission, now en route to Mars' larger moon after separate launches on July 7 and 12. He also provided new details about a revamped Soviet strategy for unmanned exploration of Mars. A 1992 mission has been scrapped in favor of a large, complex 1994 mission involving rovers, probes, and satellites the Soviets plan to launch on a single rocket. Moroz also gave his own views about priorities in the Soviet space program.

  1. Soviet attitudes toward regional security

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines Soviet views on the contemporary problems of regional security in the Third World. While there has been significant attention devoted to Western perceptions of regional security, there have been few corresponding efforts to understand the Soviet approach to issues of conflict and stability in the Third World. This volume provides a systematic examination of the strategic, political and ideological criteria which together shape Soviet policies in the developing world. The collection has been organized around particular themes and issues, with appropriate attention to both theoretical fundamentals in Soviet doctrine and Soviet actions in specific regions. CONTENTS: Forward; Introduction: Soviet Approach to Conflict and Stability in the Third World; Soviet Conception of Regional Security; Soviet Perceptions of US Involvement in Third World Disputes; Counterinsurgency in the Practice of Soviet Policy Towards the Third World; Soviet Views on the Relationship Between Local Disputes and International Tensions; Soviet Attitudes About Crisis Prevention Regimes for Third World Conflicts; The Third World in Soviet Military Thinking; Soviet Policy Towards the Middle East; The Formulation and Practice of Soviet Foreign Policy in South Asia; Soviet Policy in Latin America; Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Southern Africa; Soviet Views on the Proliferation of Nuclear Weaponry to the Third World; Conclusion.

  2. Atlas of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Harry F.

    This atlas consists of 20 maps, tables, charts, and graphs with complementary text illustrating Soviet government machinery, trade and political relations, and military stance. Some topics depicted by charts and graphs include: (1) Soviet foreign affairs machinery; (2) Soviet intelligence and security services; (4) Soviet position in the United…

  3. Soviet delays raise prices

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1992-01-15

    The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

  4. Fulbrights for Soviet Lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, Craig

    The Council for International Exchange of Scholars is still accepting applications for Fulbright awards to lecture in the sciences in the Soviet Union for academic year 1989-1990. Because the original deadline, September 15, has passed, applications will be processed immediately, and the 1989-1990 Fulbright Scholar Program Faculty Grants close when an adequate number of applicants is approved for nomination.Applications can be in the “Any Field” category or in the more specific categories sought by the Soviet Union, including geophysics at Tashkent; geology at the Gubkin Institute of Oil, Chemical, and Gas Industry; environmental sciences (cultivation of microalgae in sewage; continental shelf development, water resources protection, and economic aspects); and forest restoration technology. Awards are also available in chemistry, life sciences, and physics and astronomy.

  5. Quantum cryptography and authentication with low key-consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, A.; Pacher, C.; Lorünser, T.; Larsson, J.-Å.; Peev, M.

    2011-11-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD - also referred to as Quantum Cryptography) is a technique for secret key agreement. It has been shown that QKD rigged with Information-Theoretic Secure (ITS) authentication (using secret key) of the classical messages transmitted during the key distribution protocol is also ITS. Note, QKD without any authentication can trivially be broken by man-in-the-middle attacks. Here, we study an authentication method that was originally proposed because of its low key consumption; a two-step authentication that uses a publicly known hash function, followed by a secret strongly universal2 hash function, which is exchanged each round. This two-step authentication is not information-theoretically secure but it was argued that nevertheless it does not compromise the security of QKD. In the current contribution we study intrinsic weaknesses of this approach under the common assumption that the QKD adversary has access to unlimited resources including quantum memories. We consider one implementation of Quantum Cryptographic protocols that use such authentication and demonstrate an attack that fully extract the secret key. Even including the final key from the protocol in the authentication does not rule out the possibility of these attacks. To rectify the situation, we propose a countermeasure that, while not information-theoretically secure, restores the need for very large computing power for the attack to work. Finally, we specify conditions that must be satisfied by the two-step authentication in order to restore information-theoretic security.

  6. Yields of US and Soviet nuclear tests

    SciTech Connect

    Evernden, J.F.; Marsh, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    Failure to account properly for geological and seismological differences between the US and Soviet test sites has led to overestimates of the yields of Soviet tests and to incorrect claims of Soviet cheating on the treaty limit of 150 kilotons.

  7. Restructuring of Soviet foreign policy

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, A.

    1988-03-01

    Viewed historically, current Soviet attitudes toward foreign affairs, which suggest a more realistic Soviet adaptation to the international environment, may be interpreted as confirmation of a patient Western policy combining military strength and political flexibility. Ironically, many of the contemporary Soviet statements on mutual security and interdependence echo prevailing Western views of the early 1970s. In response to a series of aggressive projections of political-military power by the Soviets in the mid-to-late 1970s which culminated in the invasion of Afghanistan, the West - and especially the United States - quickly shed this rhetoric and downplayed arms control and collaborative security approaches. While the West remains transfixed by a late-1970s image of Soviet power, the Soviets are adopting approaches comparable to those widespread in the West in the early 1970s. To break this cycle, both sides must adapt creatively to the break that Gorbachev is making with important aspects of the Soviet past. The West can test the seriousness of Soviet initiatives by encouraging Moscow to continue developing negotiable proposals and practical approaches to issues of common security. 5 references

  8. Soviet military strategy in space

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the Soviet military space effort from its infancy in the 1950s to the spy craft and anti-satellite systems of today. It describes in detail the Soviet equivalents of the U.S. Star Wars program and explains technical and political issues in laymen's terms. A full text of major arms control agreements completes the volume.

  9. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  10. Re: Soviet river diversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Jas O.

    The paper on ‘Soviet River Diversions’ by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the northeast corner of the sea on a flight from Tashkent to Moscow when I got the impression that increasing irrigation development on the Syr Darya is likely to decrease the annual inflow even more than in the recent past. The same state of affairs has been going on in the Caspian Sea for years, as a result of irrigation development on the Volga. My impression was that the Aral Sea had shrunk considerably from the 26,000 odd square miles (67,304 km2) area quoted (from memory) in Encyclopaedia Britannica (edition circa 1970).

  11. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    PubMed

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective.

  12. Outlook for Soviet economic reform

    SciTech Connect

    Zycher, B.

    1990-12-01

    The central goal of the essay is presentation of the reasons for pessimism about the prospects for Soviet economic improvement in the short and medium terms. It first discusses some necessary conditions for real long-term growth in any economy; experience suggests that these underlying foundations will be difficult to attain in the Soviet context. Second, it turns to the short- and medium-term outlook for Soviet economic performance even if all the necessary policy changes and economic institutions were adopted. And, finally it addresses the Gorbachev reform program; this plan illustrates quite neatly the adverse constraints imposed by the past and the poor prospects for the future.

  13. Collectivity and Individuality in Soviet Educational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, James

    1980-01-01

    Urie Bronfenbrenner has characterized Soviet education as collective, and Amerian education as individualistic. Bronfenbrenner's suggestion, made 10 years ago, that the United States should adopt some of the Soviet methods, is still valid today. (GDC)

  14. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  15. Soviet Media in the Age of Glasnost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; And Others

    A study analyzed the content of "Pravda," the major newspaper of the Soviet Communist Party and "Vremya," the main evening news program of Soviet television for changes that could be attributed to Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev's policy of "glasnost" (openness). The "Pravda" sample consisted of 18 editions drawn systematically from the first…

  16. Soviet KIROV class strike cruiser

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, J.W.; Brower, K.S.; Meier, H.A.

    1981-04-01

    The major design concepts and basic characteristics of the Soviet KIROV Class ship, an impressive nuclear-powered Strike Cruiser which recently appeared while undergoing sea trials in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, are discussed. Highlights are presented of the KIROV's hull form, the weapons, electronics and aviation systems, machinery, as well as the cruiser's speed and range.

  17. The phenomenon of Soviet science.

    PubMed

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    The grand "Soviet experiment" constituted an attempt to greatly accelerate and even shortcut the gradual course of historical development on the assumption of presumed knowledge of the general laws of history. This paper discusses the parts of that experiment that directly concerned scientific research and, in fact, anticipated or helped define important global changes in the functioning of science as a profession and an institution during the twentieth century. The phenomenon of Soviet, or socialist, science is analyzed here from the comparative international perspective, with attention to similarities and reciprocal influences, rather than to the contrasts and dichotomies that have traditionally interested cold war-type historiography. The problem is considered at several levels: philosophical (Soviet thought on the relationship between science and society and the social construction of scientific knowledge); institutional (the state recognition of research as a separate profession, the rise of big science and scientific research institutes); demographic (science becoming a mass profession, with ethnic and gender diversity among scientists); and political (Soviet-inspired influences on the practice of science in Europe and the United States through the social relations of science movement of the 1930s and the Sputnik shock of the 1950s). PMID:18831319

  18. Kosmoljot - Soviet wings into space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrowman, G. L.

    1982-02-01

    Possible configurations for a Soviet Shuttle-style vehicle, called the Kosmoljot, are discussed, along with possible developmental lines for lifting body craft. The Kosmoljot is suggested to be a delta-wing vehicle with a 7.2 m wingspan and 10.6 m long, weighing 15,000 lb. The craft would be able to change course by using retrorockets to enter the fringes of the atmosphere, maneuver aerodynamically, then boost back into orbit. Similar tactics were investigated by Northrop in the mid-1960's and were called a synergetic plane change. Concomitant plans for reusable or even lifting-body boosters are discussed, with mention made of the Rogallo wing for the short flight back to base. Soviet statements are quoted as confirming the development of a piggy-back dual-delta wing Kosmoljot for a fully recoverable system, and the economic advantages of multiple use systems are stressed.

  19. Soviet launch vehicles - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. S.

    1982-02-01

    The different families of Soviet launch vehicles are described, along with a history of applications. The Sapwood family, which was used to launch the Moniya spacecraft, is the most often-used launch vehicle in the world. Like the Sapwood, the Sandal, Skean, and Scarp vehicles are all modifications of military rockets. Specific impulses, launch records, payloads, fuels, mass, length, and diameters are provided for launches in the period 1975-1981. The Proton series is the largest currently operational vehicle in the Soviet space program, although exact dimensions are not available. Manned space missions, space stations, and heavy satellites have been delegated to the Proton booster, which has also been used for the Luna 24 and Veneras 11 and 12 probes.

  20. Soviet Nuclear Strategy form Stalin to Gorbachev

    SciTech Connect

    Catudal, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book examines the nature of the Soviet nuclear threat and how it has evolved over the years. Too often in the past U.S. officials, in shaping and directing plans for American nuclear forces, have tended to see Soviet military forces and strategy as a reflection of their own stance or simply as projecting the worst plausible case of Soviet intentions and capabilities. The result has been a distorted if not dangerous portrayal of the real threat. Soviet nuclear strategy, as explained in this detailed book, has evolved significantly since the days when the Soviets first possessed nuclear weapons under Joseph Stalin. Today there is in development a new Soviet military and strategic doctrine reflected in Gorbachev's words, We require a radical break with traditions of political thinking. This new doctrine promises to have a profound impact on European security and the overall East-West relationship.

  1. The People of the Soviet Union. Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikofski, Joyce

    This sixth grade teaching unit covers Soviet propaganda, communism, relations with the United States, Soviet geography, Soviet arts, and Soviet life. Unit goals address the above content areas, map skills, and an attitudinal goal of helping students to develop a sense of respect for the life of Soviet citizens. Behavioral objectives are keyed to…

  2. Soviet military power: an assessment of the threat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Contents include: the nature of the Soviet threat--Soviet national-security policies; Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev; military resources allocation; Soviet strategic programs and space forces; Soviet conventional forces; an assessment of the threat--the strategic balance; regional and functional balances; research and development: the technological competition; collective security: our risks and responsibilities.

  3. War, Militarism and the Soviet State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, David

    This paper surveys obstacles to disarmament in the Soviet Union, with emphasis on the role of the military tradition in Russia and the centrality of the defense sector to Soviet society. The hypothesis is that, although the role of militarism is strong, there are potential forces for demilitarization, including, for example, the friction caused by…

  4. Technology and Soviet energy availability: Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    The course Soviet energy production will take if present policies in the West and the USSR remain unchanged is investigated. Opportunities and problems in the five primary Soviet energy industries: oil, gas, coal, nuclear, and electric power; equipment and technology requirements; and the implications of providing or withholding assistance are addressed.

  5. Industrial Safety Training for Soviet Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semenov, A.

    1978-01-01

    Various forms of worker training in industrial safety in the Soviet Union are described by a Soviet labor inspector, with special "industrial safety rooms" the principal means of inplant instruction. Safety education in vocational schools and "people's universities" is also touched on. (MF)

  6. Whither Soviet Studies: Back to Basics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    1981-01-01

    The author traces changes in American social studies teaching about the Soviet Union over the past 30 years. He finds that these changes parallel shifts in the political mentality from the Cold War, through detente, to America's renewed suspicion following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. (SJL)

  7. The Soviet Union: Population Trends and Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Murray

    1982-01-01

    Recent trends and differentials among the Soviet Union's 15 republics and major nationalities are reviewed, focusing on fertility, mortality and urbanization, the prospect for labor supplies and military manpower, emigration, and projected population growth to 2000. Estimated at 270 million as of mid-1982, the Soviet population is currently…

  8. Optoelectronics research in the former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, H. C., Jr.; Bishop, S. G.; Eichen, E.; Kazarinov, R. F.; Taylor, H. F.

    1992-05-01

    Optoelectronics research in the former Soviet Union has been examined in the areas of eptitaxial layer growth and device processing, photonic devices such as semiconductor laser and photodetectors, high-speed lasers, the integration of photonic devices and transistors for optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEIC's), optical amplifiers, optoelectronic switching, and optical communications. These devices are largely prepared with 3-5 compound semiconductors. The assessment by a panel of US experts is based on a review of the translated Soviet technical literature, supplemented by information from recent visits to the former Soviet Union. The majority of Soviet optoelectronic devices were fabricated on wafers prepared by liquid-phase epitaxy. The strongest area of Soviet optoelectronic device research has been semiconductor lasers. No reports of ER(3+)-doped fiber amplifiers were found in the Soviet literature. However, Er(3+)-doped fiber fabrication is extremely simple, and, given its traditional strengths in the area of glass fabrication, the former Soviet Union should have the capability to fabricate Er(3+)-doped optical-fiber amplifiers. The current turmoil in the former Soviet Union makes predictions of the future difficult. It is likely that researchers will be driven to develop funding ties with foreign entities, and they also will become better integrated into the world research community by publishing in foreign (mainly US) journals.

  9. Technology and Soviet energy availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    This study addresses in detail the significance of American petroleum equipment and technology to the U.S.S.R. and the resulting options for U.S. policy. It examines the problems and opportunities that confront the U.S.S.R. in its five primary energy industries: oil, gas, coal, nuclear, and electric power. It discusses plausible prospects for these industries in the next ten years; identifies the equipment and technology most important to the U.S.S.R.. In these areas; evaluates the extent to which the United States is the sole or preferred supplier of such items and analyzes the implications for both the entire Soviet bloc and the Western alliance of either providing or withholding Western equipment and technology.

  10. Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Weickhardt, G.C.

    1987-09-01

    For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

  11. Soviet free-electron laser research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassel, S.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate free-electron laser (FEL) research and development in the Soviet Union and to compare it with the corresponding activity in the U.S. In presenting this material, the intention is to acquaint U.S. researchers with the objectives, techniques, and results of their Soviet counterparts, as well as to provide the broad context of this area of Soviet R&D that consists of the organization, facilities, personalities, and leadership involved. The U.S. Soviet comparison has focused on the experimental programs, the most important area of this new technology. Section 2 compares individual experiments conducted by the USSR and the United States. In Section 3 the history of the theoretical development of FEL is presented, providing an insight into the conceptual issues that shaped FEL research in both countries. The remainder of the report is devoted primarily to the Soviet side of FEL research. Section 4 describes the organizational features of this research in terms of the performer institutes and leadership, focusing on the role of the Academy of Sciences, USSR. Section 5 analyzes the scientific objectives of Soviet FEL research, for the most part as discussed by Soviet reviewers of their research program. Section 6 presents conclusions.

  12. Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Sloss, L. Associates, Washington, DC )

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

  13. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  14. The Soviet Road to Olympus. Theory and Practice of Soviet Physical Culture and Sport. Occasional Papers/19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneidman, N. Norman

    Serving as an introduction to Soviet physical education which endeavors to give a concise outline of the organizational structure and the theoretical foundatons of Soviet sport, this book attempts to discuss Soviet physical education in relation to Soviet education and culture generally and to examine critically the practical applications of the…

  15. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Soviet doctrine cultivates C3I

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.E.

    1987-11-01

    Soviet military policymakers have divided the surface of the earth into space theaters of military operations, or TVDs, which are envisioned as encompassing the full range of military offensive and defensive activities, from reconnaissance to logistical support. It is presently suggested that the use of the term TVD implies that the Soviets are actively considering the development of a complete space-based warfighting capability, starkly contrasting with the purely defensive efforts envisioned by the guiding concept of SDI.

  17. U.S.-Soviet Scientific Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last month the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Soviet Academy of Sciences signed a tentative agreement to resume scientific exchanges. Scientific symposia involving both nations, first negotiated in the late 1950s, were suspended in 1980 after the exile of Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov. Individual scientist exchanges were not suspended and have continued without formal agreement between the two nations.

  18. Soviet Cybernetics Technology: XII. Time-Sharing in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doncov, Boris

    The only operational Soviet time-sharing systems are incorporated in special-purpose, fixed-application installations, most of which are intended for industrial applications of process control or management information. Despite the peculiar suitability of time-sharing to the Soviet economic system, with its heavy reliance on centralized planning…

  19. Revisiting Soviet oil subsidies to East Europe: System maintenance in the Soviet hegemony, 1970--1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Mark Andrew

    Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union sold oil shipments to the member-states of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) at a fraction of the world market price (wmp). Contrary to arguments made by previous scholars that it paid a subsidy, namely the difference between the wmp and the CMEA price, either as a reward for material contributions to Soviet foreign policy objectives or as a consequence of membership in a customs union, the Soviet Union provided subsidized oil shipments as a form of economic assistance in maintaining its hegemony. Using non-parametric statistical analysis of previous scholars' data and comparative case studies based on interviews of Soviet decision-makers and on archival research, this study shows that the Soviet Union acted as a hegemon, which created a protectionist trade regime, used oil policy as means of hegemonic maintenance. The CMEA, the embodiment of values espoused in the Soviet trade regime identified as "embedded supranationalism", stood as the institutional antithesis of a customs unions, which embodied the values of the Western liberal trade regime. Soviet leaders did not use oil subsidies or trade relations in general as means of calibrating CMEA member-states' domestic or foreign policy behavior. Soviet leaders used subsidized oil as a means of supporting East European national economic development with the ultimate goal of creating politically legitimate governments thereby ensuring political stability in its cordon sanitaire with the West.

  20. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  1. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1988-05-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 days) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight ito the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars.

  2. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1989-07-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior, and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 d) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight into the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars.

  3. Soviet interests in strategic arms reductions, 1981-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Kartchner, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation makes two contributions to the literature on Soviet arms control policy. First, it elaborates a framework for scaling Soviet interests in strategic arms reductions, distinguishing among: (1) Soviet interests in proposing arms control initiatives; (2) Soviet interests in negotiating arms control initiatives; (3) Soviet interest in concluding agreements on arms control initiatives; and (4) Soviet interests in complying with arms control initiatives. Second, this framework is applied to the US-Soviet strategic arms reduction talks /START/ during the first Reagan administration, yielding a conclusion that Soviet interest in reducing strategic nuclear weapons during this time were limited to negotiating the issue while stalling movement toward an agreement. In seeking to analyze the reasons for the lack of Soviet interest in a strategic arms reduction agreement during this period, it was found that historically, Soviet interest in arms control appears to have been highest when: (1) the Soviets perceived a substantial external threat to its existence; (2) the other side possessed sufficient negotiating leverage; (3) the Soviet leadership had survived a period of succession; and (4) Soviet foreign policy stressed openings to the West. Separate chapters examine each of these factors.

  4. Waning soviet threat: Implications for detente

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.

    1990-10-01

    The Soviet military has experienced unprecedented turmoil since Gorbachev entered office in March 1985. Indeed, it is fair to say that the High Command is facing its most profound institutional crisis in the 72 years of its existence. The indicators of this change are well known to any attentive reader of the newspaper. They include a shift to a more defensive orientation in the USSR's military doctrine; an end to the Soviet military involvement in Afghanistan; Gorbachev's announced unilateral cut of a half-million Soviet troops; associated moves to scale back weapons production and shift a sizeable portion of the defense industry to the civilian sector; and a general effort across a broad front to forge a more agreeable East-West relationship.

  5. Soviet Space Stations as Analogs, Second Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.; Helppie, Martha

    1986-01-01

    The available literature that discusses the various aspects of the Soviet Salyut 6 and Salyut 7 space staions are examined as related to human productivity. The methodology for this analog was a search of unclassified literature. Additional information was obtained in interviews with the cosmonauts and some Soviet space personnel. Topics include: general layout and design of the spacecraft system; cosmonauts role in maintenance and repair; general layout and design of the Mir complex; effects of the environment on personnel; information and computer systems; organization systems; personality systems; and physical conditin of the cosmonaut.

  6. Soviet concepts of ballistic missile defense. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Seavey, K.P.

    1988-06-01

    This thesis characterizes the Soviet concept of ballistic missile defense (BMD) in order to better understand and predict future Soviet BMD decision making. The Soviet concept of BMD is fundamentally different from that in the West. Soviet BMD is clearly an integral component of a much larger Soviet strategic defense effort which consists of strategic air defense as well as passive measures, such as mobility, deep underground command and control facilities, and civil defense. As the Soviet military literature demonstrates, Soviet strategic air defense encompasses defense against a continuum of threats -- from aircraft to ballistic missiles to satellites to 'space-strike weapons'. Soviet strategic air defense weapons therefore appear optimized to counter a wide range of airborne threats. In the Soviet view, surface-to-air missiles may be a primary tactical BMD weapon. Additionally, Soviet strategic BMD weapons may be a primary Soviet anti-satellite weapon. Furthermore, manned space platforms play a particularly significant role in Soviet thinking about the future of BMD and space warfare.

  7. Problems of Soviet Law and Socialist Legality in Legalistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samoshchenko, I. S.

    1978-01-01

    Notes that Soviet youth must be educated about Soviet law and their obligations as citizens to work, respect labor discipline, and defend the motherland. Lists functions of Soviet law as (1) shaping, mediating for, and protecting the middle class, (2) reinforcing socialist principles and the emancipation of women, and (3) guaranteeing…

  8. The Soviet Chemical Industry and the Gorbachev Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the reform of the industrial structure of the Soviet Union. Emphasizes the influence of the communist party on chemical production, research and education. Surveys the problems facing the Soviet chemical industry. Lists important officials in the Soviet chemical industry. Discusses joint ventures between the United States and the Soviet…

  9. Inside the World of the Soviet Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

  10. The Future of Soviet-American Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulam, Adam B.: And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents a wide spectrum of views by scholars of Soviet Affairs regarding recent American policy and predictions for the future course of international relations between the two super powers. Experts are Adam B. Ulam (Harvard University), Robert F. Byrnes (Indiana University), Stephen F. Cohen (Princeton University), Alexander Yanov (University of…

  11. Nature of Soviet operational art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Soviet operational art today provides a framework for, studying, understanding, preparing for, and conducting war. Together with strategy and tactics, it makes the study of war an academic discipline requiring intense research and scholarship on the part of those who write about and who would have to conduct war. As such, operational art performs distinct tasks associated with the conduct of war.

  12. AGB Helps Develop Soviet Higher Ed Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkisov, Pavel D.

    1991-01-01

    A cooperative experiment between the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges and the Soviet Union's Mendeleev Institute of Chemical Technology involves establishment of an international board of trustees. The board will seek funding from multiple sources, involve the surrounding community in its planning, and strengthen the…

  13. Economic Demise of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Teaching Economics, San Francisco, CA.

    This series of lesson plans and activities deals with the economic demise of the now-defunct Soviet Union. Each of the five lessons and six activities addresses identified standards and benchmarks from the Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics. The lesson plans also address the National History Content Standards, in terms of both the…

  14. Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1980-05-01

    The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book.

  15. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Soviet Cybernetics Review, Volume 3, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    Soviet efforts in designing third-generation computers are discussed in two featured articles which describe (1) the development and production of integrated circuits, and their role in computers; and (2) the use of amorphous chalcogenide glass in lasers, infrared devices, and semiconductors. Other articles discuss production-oriented branch…

  17. Soviet Security in Flux. Occasional Paper 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamgotch, Nish, Jr.

    If U.S. foreign policy is to be prudent and effective, it must cease relying on the doctrinaire images and cold war rhetoric of the past and take into account five intactable problems, none of them specifically military, that the Soviet Union faces. These problems are: (1) unabating deficiencies in its economy; (2) a precarious battle with…

  18. Undoing the Legacy of the Soviet Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sochocky, Christine M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the changes that have taken place in librarianship in the former Soviet Union. The discussion covers the advantages and disadvantages of centralized planning, the reorganization of library systems in Russia and the Ukraine, the effects of democratization on organization and librarian attitudes, and the remnants of Russification in…

  19. The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

    For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

  20. Suggestopedia and Soviet Sleep-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    This paper examines the parallels between suggestopedia and Soviet sleep-learning for learning foreign languages. Both systems are based on the idea that the acquisition of information can occur in states below the optimal level of consciousness. Hypnopedia makes use of the period of paradoxical or light sleep that usually occurs just as one is…

  1. The Soviet School System under Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaeva, Anna

    1990-01-01

    Describes changes at the three levels of the Soviet educational system (primary, basic, and secondary) brought about by Perestroika. The basic level offers a compulsive general studies program while a differentiated secondary curriculum offers more electives. Discusses the teacher's role and the establishment of public governing councils. (SLM)

  2. Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Martha C.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

  3. The father of Soviet Hydrogen Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Yu. A.

    1990-08-01

    The creation of Soviet Hydrogen bomb has been described.The main participants to the Physical and Computational parts of the projects were shown. The "Sloika " part of the Project, concerned to neutrons kinetic has been discussed. The contribution by A.D. Sakharov to main achievements has been ponted out.

  4. Leading Student Groups to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes student tours to the Soviet Union, discussing the benefits to be derived from such experiences by both students and leaders. In particular, discusses the organization of the tours, their types and costs, advertising strategies, suggested itineraries and guidebooks, student orientation and group composition, and problems encountered…

  5. Soviet oceanographic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research

    SciTech Connect

    Held, D.N.; Gasparovic, R.F.; Mansfield, A.W.; Melville, W.K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.L.; Zebker, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radar non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare (NAASW) became the subject of considerable scientific investigation and controversy in the West subsequent to the discovery by the Seasat satellite in 1978 that manifestations of underwater topography, thought to be hidden from the radar, were visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean. In addition, the Seasat radar produced images of ship wakes where the observed angle between the wake arms was much smaller than expected from classical Kelvin wake theory. These observations cast doubt on the radar oceanography community's ability to adequately explain these phenomena, and by extension on the ability of existing hydrodynamic and radar scattering models to accurately predict the observability of submarine-induced signatures. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW is indeed a potentially significant tool in detecting submerged operational submarines, then the Soviet capability, as evidenced throughout this report, will be somewhat daunting. It will be shown that the Soviets have extremely fine capabilities in both theoretical and experimental hydrodynamics, that Soviet researchers have been conducting at-sea radar remote sensing experiments on a scale comparable to those of the United States for several years longer than we have, and that they have both an airborne and spaceborne SAR capability. The only discipline that the Soviet Union appears to be lacking is in the area of digital radar signal processing. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW can have at most a minimal impact on the detection of submerged submarines, then the Soviet effort is of little consequence and poses not threat. 280 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.

    PubMed

    González Rey, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology. PMID:24548071

  7. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.

    PubMed

    González Rey, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology.

  8. Rare and endangered species of plants--the soviet side.

    PubMed

    Elias, T S

    1983-01-01

    In late 1972, the Soviet Union embarked on a program to identify and document plant species that are threatened with extinction. Perhaps 2000 species in the Soviet Union are in need of monitoring or protective measures, while nearly 200 may be in immediate danger of extinction. Currently, the Soviet Union has an official, national list of endangered species, and each of the 15 republics has prepared a regional list. Once a revised national list is prepared, Soviet scientists hope that the Supreme Soviet will pass a law protecting those species. A corresponding law for endangered animals was passed in 1980. PMID:17734310

  9. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  10. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  11. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-07-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants {open_quotes}ATETs{close_quotes} optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled.

  12. Parallel processing research in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.; Snyder, L.; Wolcott, P.

    1992-03-01

    This technical assessment report examines strengths and weaknesses of parallel processing research and development in the Soviet Union from the 1980s to June 1991. The assessment was carried out by panel of US scientists who are experts on parallel processing hardware, software, algorithms, and applications, and on Soviet computing. Soviet computer research and development organizations have pursued many of the major avenues of inquiry related to parallel processing that the West has chosen to explore. But, the limited size and substantial breadth of their effort have limited the collective depth of Soviet activity. Even more serious limitations (and delays) of Soviet achievement in parallel processing research can be traced to shortcomings of the Soviet computer industry, which was unable to supply adequate, reliable computer components. Without the ability to build, demonstrate, and test embodiments of their ideas in actual high-performance parallel hardware, both the scope of activity and the success of Soviet parallel processing researchers were severely limited. The quality of the Soviet parallel processing research assessed varied from very sound and interesting to pedestrian, with most of the groups at the major hardware and software centers to which the work is largely confined doing good (or at least serious) research. In a few instances, interesting and competent parallel language development work was found at institutions not associated with hardware development efforts. Unlike Soviet mainframe and minicomputer developers, Soviet parallel processing researchers have not concentrated their efforts on reverse- engineering specific Western systems. No evidence was found of successful Soviet attempts to use breakthroughs in parallel processing technology to leapfrog'' impediments and limitations that Soviet industrial weakness in microelectronics and other computer manufacturing areas impose on the performance of high-end Soviet computers.

  13. Parallel processing research in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.; Snyder, L.; Wolcott, P.

    1992-03-01

    This technical assessment report examines strengths and weaknesses of parallel processing research and development in the Soviet Union from the 1980s to June 1991. The assessment was carried out by panel of US scientists who are experts on parallel processing hardware, software, algorithms, and applications, and on Soviet computing. Soviet computer research and development organizations have pursued many of the major avenues of inquiry related to parallel processing that the West has chosen to explore. But, the limited size and substantial breadth of their effort have limited the collective depth of Soviet activity. Even more serious limitations (and delays) of Soviet achievement in parallel processing research can be traced to shortcomings of the Soviet computer industry, which was unable to supply adequate, reliable computer components. Without the ability to build, demonstrate, and test embodiments of their ideas in actual high-performance parallel hardware, both the scope of activity and the success of Soviet parallel processing researchers were severely limited. The quality of the Soviet parallel processing research assessed varied from very sound and interesting to pedestrian, with most of the groups at the major hardware and software centers to which the work is largely confined doing good (or at least serious) research. In a few instances, interesting and competent parallel language development work was found at institutions not associated with hardware development efforts. Unlike Soviet mainframe and minicomputer developers, Soviet parallel processing researchers have not concentrated their efforts on reverse- engineering specific Western systems. No evidence was found of successful Soviet attempts to use breakthroughs in parallel processing technology to ``leapfrog`` impediments and limitations that Soviet industrial weakness in microelectronics and other computer manufacturing areas impose on the performance of high-end Soviet computers.

  14. The Soviet Union: population trends and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Feshbach, M

    1982-08-01

    Focus in this discussion of population trends and dilemmas in the Soviet Union is on demographic problems, data limitations, early population growth, geography and resources, the 15 republics of the Soviet Union and nationalities, agriculture and the economy, population growth over the 1950-1980 period (national trend, regional differences); age and sex composition of the population, fertility trends, nationality differentials in fertility, the reasons for fertility differentials (child care, divorce, abortion and contraception, illegitimacy), labor shortages and military personnel, mortality (mortality trends, life expectancy), reasons for mortality increases, urbanization and emigration, and future population prospects and projections. For mid-1982 the population of the Soviet Union was estimated at 270 million. The country's current rate of natural increase (births minus deaths) is about 0.8% a year, higher than current rates of natural increase in the U.S. (0.7%) and in developed countries as a whole (0.6%). Net immigration plays no part in Soviet population growth, but emigration was noticeable in some years during the 1970s, while remaining insignificant relative to total population size. National population growth has dropped by more than half in the last 2 decades, from 1.8% a year in the 1950s to 0.8% in 1980-1981, due mostly to declining fertility. The national fertility decline masks sharp differences among the 15 republics and even more so among the some 125 nationalities. In 1980, the Russian Republic had an estimated fertility rate of 1.9 births/woman, and the rate was just 2.0 in the other 2 Slavic republics, the Ukraine and Belorussia. In the Central Asian republics the rates ranged up to 5.8. Although the Russians will no doubt continue to be the dominant nationality, low fertility and a relatively higher death rate will reduce their share of the total population by less than half by the end of the century. Soviet leaders have launched a

  15. Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.C. )

    1991-04-01

    For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield An unanswerable first strike When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means.

  16. Reading for the Masses: Popular Soviet Fiction, 1976-80. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedberg, Maurice

    Noting that Soviet prose, drama, and poetry reveal the nuances of the moods and policies fostered by the Soviet government while reflecting the Soviet reading public's interests and aspirations, this report describes a study of the values and attitudes by which the Soviets live as reflected in the literature published in Soviet literary magazines…

  17. Astronauts Stafford and Slayton visit Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, left, NASA ASTP crew commander, and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot, visit the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft during the joint phase of the ASTP mission. They hold Soviet containers of borsh (beet soup) over which vodka labels have been pasted. This was the crew's way of toasting each other. The photo was taken in the Orbital Module portion of the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. The hatch to the Soyuz Descent Vehicle is in center background.

  18. Review of the transmissions of the Soviet helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the following aspects of Soviet helicopter transmissions is presented: transmitted power, weight, reduction ratio, RPM, design configuration, comparison of different type of manufacturing methods, and a description of the materials and technologies applied to critical transmission components. Included are mechanical diagrams of the gearboxes of the Soviet helicopters and test stands for testing gearbox and main shaft. The quality of Soviet helicopter transmissions and their Western counterparts are assessed and compared.

  19. A look at the Soviet space nuclear power program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    For the most part Soviet nuclear power sources have been low-power nuclear reactors using a thermoelectric conversion principle. Recently the Soviet Union has flown two satellites using a higher power reactor that employs a thermionic conversion system. Despite reentry of two of the earlier reactors on board Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402 and the recent potential accident involving Cosmos 1900, the evidence points toward a continued Soviet use of nuclear power sources in space. Information in the open literature on the Soviet space nuclear power program, including the Romashka Topaz, the new reactor based on the Topaz program, and the RORSAT reactor experience, is summarized.

  20. The Soviet military presence in Eastern Europe: A new equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Zinner, P.E.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze: (1) how the collapse of Communist regimes in Eastern Europe impacts on the Soviet military presence in this region and on Soviet security interests; (2) how political changes in Eastern Europe and Soviet troop reductions in this area affect the military forces and security interests of individual countries and the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO); and (3) how Soviet troop reductions reflect on political and economic relations between the countries affected by these reductions and the USSR. This study is one of a series of planned reports dealing with the causes and effects of a military force reductions in Europe.

  1. FASAC Technical Assessment Report: Soviet Space Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.; Henry, Richard C.; Klein, Harold P.; Masursky, Harold; Paulikas, George A.; Scaf, Frederick L.; Soffen, Gerald A.; Terzian, Yervant

    1986-01-01

    This report is the work of a panel of eight US scientists who surveyed and assessed Soviet research in the spare sciences. All of the panelists were very familiar with Soviet research through their knowledge of the published scientific literature and personal contacts with Soviet and other foreign colleagues. In addition, all of the panelists reviewed considerable additional open literature--scientific, and popular, including news releases. The specific disciplines of Soviet space science research examined in detail for the report were: solar-terrestrial research, lunar and planetary research, space astronomy and astrophysics, and, life sciences. The Soviet Union has in the past carried out an ambitious program in lunar exploration and, more recently, in studies of the inner planets, Mars and especially Venus. The Soviets have provided scientific data about the latter planet which has been crucial for studies of the planet's evolution. Future programs envision an encounter with Halley's Comet, in March 1986, and missions to Mars and asteroids. The Soviet programs in the life sciences and solar-terrestrial research have been long-lasting and systematically pursued. Much of the ground-based and space-based research in these two disciplines appears to be motivated by the requirement to establish long-term human habitation in near-Earth space. The Soviet contributions to new discoveries and understanding in observational space astronomy and astrophysics have been few. This is in significant contrast to the very excellent theoretical work contributed by Soviet scientists in this discipline.

  2. The Soviet Physical Fitness Tests: An Essential Aspect of the Soviet Organizational Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Reet

    This study analyzes the Soviet award system, in particular the Prepared for Word and Defense (PWD) program. The PWD program is composed of five stages and embraces people from ages 10 to 60. Each stage has a section of requirements and a section of norms, which take into consideration age variations. The norms section, which is the most important…

  3. The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of practicing physicians under the age of 65. RESULTS: Most physicians shared information with patients about treatment risks and alternatives, with the exception of cancer patients: only a third of physicians tell the patient when cancer is suspected. Current practice at the time of the survey left patients few options when physician negligence occurred; most physicians feel that under a reformed system physician negligence should be handled within the local facility rather than by the government. It was common practice for physicians to receive gifts, tips, or preferential access to scarce consumer goods from their patients. Responses varied somewhat by facility and physician nationality. CONCLUSION: The ethics of Soviet medical practice were different in a number of ways from generally accepted norms in Western countries. Physicians' attitudes about the need for ethical reform suggest that there will be movement in Estonia towards a system of medical ethics that more closely approximates those in the West. PMID:8932723

  4. Vospitanie and Regime Change: Teacher-Education Textbooks in Soviet and Post-Soviet Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogachenko, Tatiana; Perry, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the pedagogical dimension of vospitanie, or character formation, in communist and post-communist education. It explores how vospitanie is conceptualized in two teacher-education textbooks--one from each period--in Ukraine, a post-Soviet country. Comparative analysis shows how conceptualizations of vospitanie have evolved over…

  5. Understanding the Special Needs of Former Soviet Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoot, James L.; Bonkareva, Ella

    1992-01-01

    Describes characteristics of immigrant children from the former Soviet Union and implications of these characteristics for U.S. teachers. Considers differences between U.S. and Soviet schools in scheduling practices, bathroom routines, racial composition, meals, languages, clothing, naps, and parent/school relationships. (LB)

  6. Extraordinary Longevity in the Soviet Union: Fact or Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Neil G.; Garson, Lea Keil

    1986-01-01

    Describes an analysis of Soviet mortality and census data from 1959 and 1970, which provides significant evidence effectively negating previous claims of extraordinary Soviet longevity. Strongly suggests that the true number of centenarians is but a small fraction of that reported. (Author/ABB)

  7. Joint Soviet-American experiment on hypokinesia: Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burovskiy, N. N.

    1979-01-01

    Comprehensive results are reported from the Soviet portion of a joint Soviet-American experiment involving hypokinesia. The main emphases are on chemical analyses of blood and urine, functional tests, and examination of the cardiovascular system by electrocardiography, echocardiography, and plethysmography.

  8. Multilingualism in the Successor States of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreindler, Isabelle

    1997-01-01

    Major common language problems arising in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet bloc are outlined, as identified in recent literature, and pressing language-related issues in specific former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,…

  9. Scientific and Technological Information Systems in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirson, Benjamin L.

    1973-01-01

    Not much is known at present about the organization and structure of the Soviet Union's information systems. It is the purpose of the communication to objectively review and summarize the present state-of-the-art of scientific and technological information systems within the Soviet Union. (9 references) (Author)

  10. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  11. International Influences on Post-Soviet Armenian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the most recent international influences on Armenian education, illustrating how international standards are driving post-Soviet reform in the Armenian Secondary Schools. Since 1991, when Armenia became independent from the Soviet Union, organisations such as the World Bank and the Open Society Institute Assistance…

  12. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    SciTech Connect

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  13. The development of Soviet rocket engines (For strategic missiles)

    SciTech Connect

    Bolonkin, A.

    1991-01-01

    A first-hand account of developments in the Soviet rocket industry is presented. The organization and leadership of the rocket and missile industry are traced from its beginning in the 1920s. The development of the Glushko Experimental Design Bureau, where the majority of Soviet rocket engines were created, is related. The evolution of Soviet rocket engines is traced in regard to both their technical improvement and their application in missiles and space vehicles. Improved Glushko engines and specialized Isaev and Kosberg engines are discussed. The difficulties faced by the Soviet missile and space program, such as the pre-Sputnik failures, the oscillation problem of 1965/1966, which exposed a weakness in Soviet ICBM missiles, and the Nedelin disaster of 1960, which cost the lives of more than 200 scientists and engineers, as well as the Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Rocket Forces, Marshall Nedelin, are examined. 122 refs.

  14. Soviet Planetary Missions in the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntress, Wesley T., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    One of the great losses of the past decade in space exploration has been the disappearance of the Soviet/Russian from the scene in robotic lunar and planetary exploration. Soviet robotic missions to the Moon and planets were cloaked in secrecy until the early 1980s, and only after the collapse of the USSR has reliable information become available on the full history of Soviet lunar and planetary exploration missions. The author has compiled information on all lunar and planetary missions launched by the Soviet Union from 1958 to 1996, successes and failures, with the assistance of V. I. Moroz of the Institute of Space Research and I. L. Shevalev of the Lavochkin Association in Moscow. This paper will present a tabular compilation of these missions that is shortly to be published in Kosmicheskie issledovaniya. The Soviet program to explore the Solar System was bolder, more innovative, and more tragic than any contemporaries in the West could have imagined.

  15. About face; How the Soviets stopped planning for world war

    SciTech Connect

    MccGwire, M. )

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the Soviet Union has embarked on a series of unprecedented foreign-policy initiatives. Most of them would have been unthinkable five years ago. They include the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the December 1988 announcement of unilateral cuts of 500,000 Soviet troops within two years, and a readiness to accept heavily asymmetrical cuts in Warsaw Pact conventional forces in Europe. Skeptics can no longer dismiss these initiatives as empty propaganda. Nevertheless, according to the author, the response of the Western political-military establishment has been ambivalent. This article addresses the Soviet approach to war, outlining the evolution of Soviet military doctrine since WWII. The recent military cuts by the U.S.S.R. are discussed, and an analysis is made of the West's reaction to the Soviet initiatives.

  16. Skill Formation and Utilisation in the Post-Soviet Transition: Higher Education Planning in Post-Soviet Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvaramadze, Irakli

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the former Soviet system had a dramatic influence on higher education in Georgia. The main objective of the current article is to analyse implications of the post-Soviet transition for the skill formation and skill utilisation system in Georgia. In particular, the study analyses recent trends in Georgian higher education including…

  17. Sex, Urban/Rural and Minority Differences in Educational Attainment in Soviet and Post-Soviet Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the educational attainment of Tajikistani adults born between 1947 and 1989. Adults in the oldest cohorts completed school during the educational expansion of the Soviet period and the youngest cohorts completed their education in the post-Soviet period, which was marked by educational contraction. To date, there is not a clear…

  18. Soviet and post-Soviet environmental management: lessons from a case study on lead pollution.

    PubMed

    Thomas, V M; Orlova, A O

    2001-03-01

    Through a case study on lead pollution in the former Soviet Union, the linkage of policy, environmental science, and environmental management is explored, and compared with the US experience. Soviet bans on leaded gasoline and lead-based paint appear to have been effective. Regional governments, in cooperation with the petroleum industry, are taking the initiative in phasing out leaded gasoline, to some extent in defiance of federal policy. Problems with management of lead-acid batteries have been worsened by the collapse of the political system. Lack of reliable environmental data impedes reliable environmental assessment. The types of environmental measurements reflect an emphasis on multipollutant environmental contamination, rather than on human exposure to single pollutants.

  19. A social History of Soviet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomilin, K. A.

    The archive includes a great number of archive materials, recollections, interviews, letters, diaries, bibliography, internet sources concerning history of bolshevik and stalinist purges against scientists in the USSR since 1917 till 1968. The archive is categorized by few divisions: scientists, university teachers, associate professors, professors, members of the Academy of Science of the USSR, Corresponding-Members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. A great number of research articles and recollections by purged are included. The articles are written not only by historians of science but by scientists also. A great role by P.L. Kapitza in the saving of Soviet science from purges is underlined. The project was realized under the support by SOROS foundation (2000), Russian Foundation for fundamental Research (2002-2004) and Russian State National Foundation (2007).

  20. The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    It is a great pleasure for me to have been asked by Louis Rosen to tell you about the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE). This undertaking is a multi-institutional collaboration among scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (INR), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and several US universities. Its purpose is to measure the number of low-energy electron neutrinos emitted from the Sun that arrive at this planet. As such, it is an extremely important experiment, touching on fundamental physics issues as well as solar dynamics. In contrast to the strategic overviews, plans, and hopes for international collaboration presented earlier today, SAGE is an ongoing working effort with high hopes of producing the first measurement of the Sun's low-energy neutrino flux. This paper reviews this experiment. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Soviet women and the autonomous family.

    PubMed

    Imbrogno, S; Imbrogno, N I

    1989-01-01

    "The USSR family is changing in form from that of a social collectivity, a bedrock conception to socialism, to that of an autonomous family. Autonomy discloses a lack of homogeneity, an independence of choices over life-styles and a flexibility toward an interpretation given to the meaning of a socialistic state. Women are exceedingly active in making greater use of their legal rights to divorce and abortion and demanding equal status with men both in the workplace and in the home. Women are initiating major social changes, are readily adapting to changing relations and patterns in a complex society and are serving to spearhead changes in the family unit. These factors have generated major changes in the normative, behavioral and structural dimensions of marriage and family life in the Soviet Union." PMID:12281908

  2. Soviet military on SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative). Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, M.C.

    1987-08-01

    Numerous Western analysts have suggested that all American assessments of SDI should proceed not only from a consideration of American intentions, but also from the outlook of Soviet perceptions. Since 23 March 1983, the prevailing tone of Soviet military writings on SDI has been overwhelmingly negative. Myron Hedlin has concluded that this harsh reaction to a U.S. initiative still years from realization suggests both a strong concern about the ultimate impact of these plans on the strategic balance, and a perceived opportunity for scoring propaganda points. Indeed, the present review of Soviet writings since President Reagan's so-called Star Wars speech has yielded both objective Soviet concerns and regressions to psychological warfare. This, in turn, has necessitated a careful effort to separate rhetoric from more official assessments of SDI. While there has long been dispute in the West over the validity of Soviet statements, they have time and again been subsequently confirmed in Soviet hardware, exercises, and operational behavior. Some Western analysts will nonetheless contend that the Soviet statements under examination in this study are merely a commodity for export.

  3. Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  4. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Analysis Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (Water-cooled, Water-moderated Energy Reactor). The principle objective of this undertaking is to provide a basis to better understand the safety related features of the Soviet designed VVERs to be better prepared to respond domestically in the event of an accident at such a unit. The USDOE Team's analyses are presented together with supporting and background information. The report is structured to allow the reader to develop an understanding of safety related features of Soviet designed VVERs (as well as the probable behavior of these units under a variety of off normal conditions), to understand the USDOE Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs, and to formulate informed opinions.

  5. Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

  6. Soviet short-range nuclear forces: flexible response or flexible aggression. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.R.

    1987-03-23

    This essay takes a critical look at Soviet short-range nuclear forces in an effort to identify Soviet capabilities to fight a limited nuclear war with NATO. From an analysis of Soviet military art, weapon-system capabilities and tactics, the author concludes that the Soviets have developed a viable limited-nuclear-attack option. Unless NATO reacts to this option, the limited nuclear attack may become favored Soviet option and result in the rapid defeat of NATO.

  7. Emerging technology in the Soviet Union: Selected papers with analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on emerging Soviet technology are presented. The topics addressed are: economic considerations of emerging technology; aviation, motor, and space designs; new materials and components for IR lasers; electroslag technology for smelting high quality metals from scrap and for preparing ingots with differential properties; computer design and application in the USSR; advances in tribology: slideway design and unloading systems; analysis of emerging Soviet technology.

  8. Energy, economics, and foreign policy in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book has the merit of looking at the Soviet energy problem (oil, gas, coal, other) as a whole, something that Westen experts (and Soviet officials) have often failed to do. It makes fairly precise projections for the mid-1980s and cloudier ones for 1990. Hewett sees no crisis of the kind predicted by the CIA for the 1980s, but the Moscow will face hard decisions imposed by the rising cost of energy, competing economic demands, and political constraints.

  9. The persistent dream - Soviet plans for manned lunar missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Abeelen, L.

    Soviet hopes of achieving the supreme space `first' were crushed in July 1969 when an American became the first human on the Moon. Following the four unsuccessful flight tests of the N1 lunar booster, the Soviet manned lunar landing effort was officially suspended, but even as the Russians were denying they had ever planned to land a cosmonaut on the moon, NPO Energia was designing craft for a long-term scientific, even semi-industrial presence on the lunar surface.

  10. Signs of a Soviet shift: conventional forces in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, L.V.

    1987-12-01

    What should NATO do in anticipation of a possible Soviet unilateral withdrawal of armor. As yet, only NATO Secretary General Lord Carrington and the British and West German governments seem to be taking the Soviet signals seriously. Many in NATO seem to console themselves with the hope that since Soviet unilateral reductions might jeopardize control over Eastern Europe they will never happen. That is especially inappropriate in view of domestic political, manpower, and budgetary constraints within NATO that are likely to inhibit conventional force improvements. Instead of taking refuge in denial or defensiveness, NATO could get out ahead of any Soviet initiative by proposing to eliminate NATO's battlefield nuclear weapons and constrain aircraft modernization in return for a substantial withdrawal and demobilization of Soviet armor and elimination of Soviet battlefield nuclear weapons. Or NATO might prepare to reciprocate any unilateral move by the East with a gesture of its own, for instance, withdrawing another 1000 short-range nuclear weapons from Europe or modestly reducing conventional forces and delaying some planned improvements. That would help NATO regain the political high ground. It might also give the West time to assess the military implications of various reduction schemes and prepare a negotiating position of its own. 8 references.

  11. Assessment of potential Soviet responses to evolving theater nuclear systems. Master's thesis August 1986-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wightman, R.O.

    1987-06-05

    This study focuses on the Soviet perceptions and decision-making processes that influence Soviet reaction to US initiatives in modernizing or developing theater nuclear systems. Beginning with a discussion about the consequences of previous U.S. misperceptions of Soviet intentions, the study supports the need for ongoing analysis of Soviet actions from the Soviet perspective. The Soviet view of the world is examined in terms of Marxist-Leninist ideology, Soviet fears of encirclement and invasion, and the Soviet perception of world power relationships or correlation of forces . The affect of Soviet military theory on reactions and responses to the subject of U.S. military developments is assessed, specifically in the areas of military doctrine and military science. The influence of military art is discussed with emphasis on strategy and operational art. The Party political controls on Soviet military matters are described, including a breakdown of the military decision making process. Soviet responses to U.S. nuclear weapons initiatives, including the Pershing II, Ground Launched Cruise Missile and Enhanced Radiation Weapons, are discussed in terms of military and political reactions. Soviet use of propaganda is highlighted. The importance of superiority and technology as an integral part of that superiority are examined, as is the Soviet use of technology transfer. This study hypothesizes that any Soviet reaction to U.S. action is based upon unique Soviet perceptions which are strongly influenced by Marxist-Leninist ideology, insecurity, military theory, Party bureaucracy, and world correlation of forces.

  12. US-Soviet cooperation in environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    McClave, D.

    1989-03-01

    As the first and fourth largest countries in the world, the Soviet Union and the US together are custodians of almost one-quarter of Earth's inhabited area, the air above it, and large portions of the seas surrounding it. The management, therefore, of these two countries' environments has a profound impact far beyond their national boundaries and affects the quality of the biosphere as a whole. In the interests of enhancing joint trusteeship, this essay advocates focusing on selected pressing clean-up projects, most of which will positively affect the shared resources of the Earth. Some of these endeavors could be administered by jointly staffed environmental protection offices in the capitals of the two countries. Related activities would include taking the ecological vital signs of each country at various bases - monitoring, for example, ambient air quality in industrial centers, or pooling scientific and technical expertise in an attempt to make accurate and timely predictions of earthquakes. Problems associated with water use and abuse in the arid regions of both countries are serious enough, to merit emergency corrective measures. Additional projects could also be launched to further cooperation in other spheres.

  13. The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapoport, Z. TA.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-01-01

    In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  14. Performance of Soviet and US hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uljanov, Adolph A.; Demidov, Nikolai A.; Mattison, Edward M.; Vessot, Robert F. C.; Allan, David W.; Winkler, Gernot M. R.

    1990-01-01

    The frequencies of Soviet- and U.S.-built hydrogen masers located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) were compared with each other and, via Global Positioning System (GPS) common-view measurements, with three primary frequency-reference scales. The best masers were found to have fractional frequency stabilities as low as 6 times 10(exp -16) for averaging times of approximately 10(exp 4) s. Members of the USNO maser ensemble provided frequency prediction better than 1 times 10(exp 14) for periods up to a few weeks. The frequency residuals of these masers, after removal of frequency drift and rate of change of drift, had stabilities of a few parts in 10(exp -15), with serveral masers achieving residual stabilities well below 1 times 10(exp -15) for intervals from 10(exp 5)s to 2 times 10(exp 6)s. The fractional frequency drifts of the 13 masers studied, relative to the primary reference standards, ranged from -0.2 times 10(exp -15)/day to +9.6 times 10(exp -15)/day.

  15. Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapoport, Z. Ts.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    In the winter of 1983/1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project ``Winter in Northern Europe'' of the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP/WINE). Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron density in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratospheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during stratospheric warmings the westerly wind in wintertime becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron density and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  16. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  17. Penetration mechanics research in the former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbell, W. M.; Anderson, C. E.; Asay, J. R.; Bless, S. J.; Grady, D. E.

    1992-09-01

    Recently published papers by scientists from the former Soviet Union reveal to Western researchers a mature body of highly inventive and dedicated research. To analyze and assess this work, a group of six internationally recognized U.S. experts in the field of penetration mechanics and hypervelocity impact reviewed hundreds of unclassified documents. Five broad, sometimes overlapping, research areas were chosen for assessment: hypervelocity impact capabilities; penetration mechanics experiments at ordnance velocities; analytical penetration mechanics; material response to high-velocity impact and penetration; and numerical simulations of penetration physics. Both similarities and differences between Soviet and Western research were noted and characterized, with particular attention paid to potential breakthrough technologies. Leading Soviet scientists and their organizations were identified, as were areas of potentially fruitful collaboration between researchers from the former Soviet Union and the United States. Soviet breakthroughs in penetration mechanics technology that far out-distanced Western efforts were not found, though potential breakthroughs were noted in several areas, including penetration models of brittle materials (principally ceramics), superdeep penetration of particles, and very-high-velocity electromagnetic launchers.

  18. Russian, Soviet, and post-Soviet scientific migration: history and patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant scientists from other European countries (predominantly German) were crucial in establishing the tradition of modern science in the Russian Empire of the 18th and 19th centuries. Since the 1860s, however, outgoing waves of scientific migration started originating in Russia, bringing important innovations to international science. The scale and patterns of migration varied greatly with the turbulent time. The talk will describe several landmark stages of the proceess and their cultural consequences: from opening higher education possibilities for women during the late 19th century, to post-1917 academic refugees and Soviet defectors, to the 1960s brain drain provoked by the launch of Sputnik, and to what can be called the first truly global scientific diaspora of Russophone scientists after 1990.

  19. Soviet theater nuclear capabilities: the European nuclear balance in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.

    1983-08-31

    This memorandum examined the changing strategic and theater nuclear environment; Soviet theater nuclear force improvements and doctrine; the implications of Soviet theater nuclear buildup for deterrence and the defense of Europe; and NATO's response. The author concludes that the changing balance of theater capabilities has resulted in a devaluation of deterrence, a decline in Western self-confidence, and an increase in NATO's vulnerabilities. The author also contends that if the Soviet Union is unwilling to negotiate a significant reduction intermediate-range nuclear forces that now pose a serious threat to the West, the NATO deployment of Pershing II and cruise missiles will not only help to restore balance to the NATO/Warsaw Pact nuclear equation, but will also enhance deterrence, reduce NATO's vulnerabilities, and thus, will contribute to crisis stability in Europe.

  20. Comparison of Soviet and US space food and nutrition programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Selina

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet Space Food and Nutrition programs are compared with those of the U.S. The Soviets established the first Space Food programs in 1961, when one of the Soviet Cosmonauts experienced eating in zero gravity. This study indicates that some major differences exist between the two space food and nutrition programs regarding dietary habits. The major differences are in recommended nutrient intake and dietary patterns between the cosmonauts and astronauts. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are significantly higher in cosmonaut diets compared to astronauts. Certain mineral elements such as phosphorus, sodium and iron are also significantly higher in the cosmonauts' diets. Cosmonauts also experience intake of certain unconventional food and plant extracts to resist stress and increase stamina.

  1. Soviet and American ASTP crew sample candidate food items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Candidate food items being considered for the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission are sampled by three ASTP crewmen in bldg 4 at JSC. They are, left to right, Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet ASTP crew; Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American ASTP crew; and Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP crew. Kubasov is marking a food rating chart on which the crewmen mark their choices, likes and dislikes of the food being sampled. Brand is drinking orange juice from an accordian-like dispenser. Leonov is eating butter cookies.

  2. Forecasting mankind's future: a view from the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Bestuzhev-Lada, I.

    1981-08-01

    The author, a leading USSR sociologist and futurist, notes that Soviet forecasters see critical choices in the areas of population, energy, natural resources, and weapons. Soviet strategists recommend: (1) a two- to three-child family to help world population stabilize at zero growth; (2) the use of nuclear and thermonuclear power while mankind learns to use renewable energy sources; (3) a program of effective environmental protection; and (4) a concerted effort to halt the arms race. Each of these areas can prove catastrophic to mankinds future, but the author feels that each can, and could be fought for. 5 figures. (DCK)

  3. World Opinion and the Soviet Satellite: A Preliminary Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    Less than two weeks after the launch of Sputnik I, the United States Information Agency conducted an informal analysis of public opinion on this subject. The analysis yielded four clear conclusions: (1) Soviet claims of scientific and technological superiority were widely accepted in the United States; (2) U.S. allies were concerned about a shift in the balance of military power; (3) the overall credibility of Soviet propaganda was greatly strengthened; and (4) American prestige was dealt a severe blow. The report also concluded that the near-hysteria in the United States in turn increased the level of concern in countries friendly to the United States. An evaluation is presented.

  4. Pushkin to Shukshin: Complementary Strands in the Texture of Soviet Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevin, Patricia Ernenwein

    1980-01-01

    Discusses English reading texts used in the Soviet Union, which are English translations of Russian literature. Notes that such literature divides attention between the traditional and the progressive elements of Soviet culture. (DF)

  5. [Socioeconomic problems of regulating migration in the mountain regions of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic].

    PubMed

    Sulaberidze, A V

    1991-01-01

    Migration trends in the former Soviet republic of Georgia for the period 1959-1979 are analyzed and compared with those in other former Soviet republics. The influences of agriculture and kinship ties are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. Teaching the Canon? Nation-Building and Post-Soviet Kazakhstan's Literature Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanova, Jazira

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses Kazakhstan's new generation literature textbooks for Kazakh-medium schools, with a focus on national identity and citizenship constructs that the revised textbooks promote. By comparing the literature textbooks of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods, the paper discusses Soviet institutional and cultural legacies that continue to…

  7. Ideologies of Civic Participation in Central Asia: Liberal Arts in the Post-Soviet Democratic Ethos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.

    2010-01-01

    Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…

  8. Changing Conceptions of Development Assistance to Education in the International Discourse on Post-Soviet Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Tuomas; Piattoeva, Nelli

    2012-01-01

    The fall of the socialist system, and of the Soviet Union as a political entity, created a situation where external assistance to the transformation of the ex-Soviet countries into market economies and multi-party democracies became a domain of "development assistance". While the attractiveness of the ex-Soviet countries to the providers of…

  9. Soviet Higher Education: An Alternative Construct to the Western University Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuraev, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the university was an alien establishment for Russia, reflecting the political ambition of its leadership, not the organic impetus of Russian society. In Soviet academia, the notion of university education was replaced by the concept of vocational-technical training. As a creation of the Soviet government, Soviet higher education…

  10. The Station Relay. Facts and Views on Daily Life in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Stephen P., Ed.; Dunn, Ethel, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of five journal issues describing facts and daily life in the Soviet Union, the documents are intended to help people of the United States know about the people of the Soviet Union, their hopes, fears, and facts of their daily lives. Among the topics included in the publications are: Soviet consumers and the law; public health…

  11. U.S.-Soviet Relations: Testing Gorbachev's "New Thinking." Current Policy No. 985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armacost, Michael H.

    Forty years ago, George F. Kennan advanced the doctrine of containment against Soviet encroachment throughout the world. The Soviet Union has evolved from a Eurasian land power into a global superpower. In an effort to create an international environment congenial to domestic reforms, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev has sought greater tranquility…

  12. A State of the Art Review of Soviet Research in Cognitive Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertsch, James V.

    This paper outlines the theoretical foundations of Soviet psychology, analyzes major themes based on these foundations, and identifies relevance of Soviet psychological research for American investigators. Basic social and political factors that influence Soviet research include centralization of all scientific and academic endeavors and…

  13. Educational Reforms in the Soviet Union. Special Studies in Comparative Education, Number Fourteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Delbert

    The Soviet school system is, and has been since its inception, a vital instrument of state policy. The Soviet political leaders of the 1980s, in an effort to improve their educational system, are implementing into the academic program the basic Soviet educational principles of: (1) promoting Communist Party policies; (2) coordinating school work…

  14. Bacteriophages as Therapeutic and Prophylactic Means: Summary of the Soviet and Post Soviet Experiences.

    PubMed

    Chanishvili, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage (from 'bacteria' and Greek φαγεῖν phagein "to devour" or bacterial eaters) are bacterial viruses that infect and kill bacteria. Bacteriophages (shortly "phages") are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. The estimated number of phages on earth is about 1032. Bacteriophages are often isolated from environmental sources, such as water samples, etc. Felix d'Herelle, one of the discoverers of bacteriophages, was the one who suggested them for therapy of human and animal bacterial infections. This idea was very popular in the world until the advent of antibiotics commercial after which production of therapeutic phages ceased in most of the Western countries, but not in the former Soviet Union. The application of antibiotics in the clinical practice, besides the well-known side effects, entails, in addition, the appearance of the forms of bacteria, resistant to newly synthesized preparations. It was concluded that a European and global strategy to address this gap is urgently needed. Now, faced with the alarming growth of a variety of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections, Western researchers and governments are giving phages a serious look. The phages nowadays are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria. The therapeutic action of bacteriophages significantly differs from antibiotics, which makes them still active against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. Bacteriophages have a number of other advantages in comparison with antibiotics. First of all, they are efficient against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the past and current experiences in the field of phage therapy in the countries where it has been traditionally applied in the clinical practice. Although the style and quality of old Soviet scientific publications dedicated to phage therapy are not challenging the international standards, there is still valuable information which

  15. Bacteriophages as Therapeutic and Prophylactic Means: Summary of the Soviet and Post Soviet Experiences.

    PubMed

    Chanishvili, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage (from 'bacteria' and Greek φαγεῖν phagein "to devour" or bacterial eaters) are bacterial viruses that infect and kill bacteria. Bacteriophages (shortly "phages") are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. The estimated number of phages on earth is about 1032. Bacteriophages are often isolated from environmental sources, such as water samples, etc. Felix d'Herelle, one of the discoverers of bacteriophages, was the one who suggested them for therapy of human and animal bacterial infections. This idea was very popular in the world until the advent of antibiotics commercial after which production of therapeutic phages ceased in most of the Western countries, but not in the former Soviet Union. The application of antibiotics in the clinical practice, besides the well-known side effects, entails, in addition, the appearance of the forms of bacteria, resistant to newly synthesized preparations. It was concluded that a European and global strategy to address this gap is urgently needed. Now, faced with the alarming growth of a variety of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections, Western researchers and governments are giving phages a serious look. The phages nowadays are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria. The therapeutic action of bacteriophages significantly differs from antibiotics, which makes them still active against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. Bacteriophages have a number of other advantages in comparison with antibiotics. First of all, they are efficient against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the past and current experiences in the field of phage therapy in the countries where it has been traditionally applied in the clinical practice. Although the style and quality of old Soviet scientific publications dedicated to phage therapy are not challenging the international standards, there is still valuable information which

  16. Analysis of VET in Ukraine Since the Soviet Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinser, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how vocational education and training (VET) in Ukraine has changed since the Soviet era; and to determine its structure, successes, and challenges. Design/methodology/approach: The author conducted interviews and tours at 15 vocational schools in seven cities in Ukraine. Findings: Ukraine is…

  17. U.S.-Soviet Relations Teacher's Guide: Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chibucos, Pamela E.

    This teacher's guide provides student objectives, motivational devices, terms and concepts to know, student activities, evaluation ideas, and suggestions for using an accompanying four-part videotape series. An activity for chapter 1, "Differing World Views," divides the class into groups that list U.S.-Soviet differences in economic systems,…

  18. Perestroyka in the Soviet Union. Occasional Paper No. 128.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhmoutov, Mirza Ismail

    This document presents the point of view that although socialism has produced benefits for the USSR, Soviet society has undertaken its own radical reconstruction. History shows that the natural basis of changes in every society tends to be objective technological revolutions. The first technological revolution was agrarian. The second was…

  19. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  20. How to Arrange Student Tours to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    The details of planning a student tour to the Soviet Union are described by an experienced tour organizer. Student tours of one to three weeks are presented as rewarding alternatives to lengthy overseas study. Recommendations are made regarding choice of tour type, length of tour, travel agencies, time of year to travel, advertising a tour,…

  1. Close Up Special Focus: U.S.-Soviet Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Jacqueline

    Designed to accompany a 4-part video series, this high school unit on U.S.-Soviet relations focuses on each nation's world view, political system, and ideologies. A student handbook and teacher's curriculum guide are included. The student handbook is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 examines the political and economic system of each country…

  2. Physicists for Human Rights in the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, Yuri

    2005-03-01

    In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent Human Rights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki Human Rights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for human rights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The human rights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.

  3. Russian and Soviet Studies in the United States: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, S. Frederick; Boisture, J. Bruce

    This study was prepared to provide a convenient compendium of data for those participating in a conference on "Russian and Soviet Studies in the United States" held at the Institute of Advanced Studies in Princeton, New Jersey, in May, 1972. The purpose of the conference and of the study was to assess the state of teaching and research on the…

  4. Three Historical Subcultures in Post-Soviet Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sogrin, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching and public dissemination of Russian history in post-Soviet historiography has been shaped by a variety of approaches, including state-sponsored interpretations, views expressed in mass culture, and the work of academic historians. In this article, the author employs a specific method of differentiation to distinguish his present…

  5. Detecting the Soviet bomb: Joe-1 in a rain barrel

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.; Lockhart, L.B.; Blifford, I.H.

    1996-11-01

    The Soviet Union made not announcement after its first atomic bomb test in 1949{endash}but the US did. This is the hitherto untold story of how the secret was extracted from rainwater. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Planning by Decree: The Soviet Language Policy in Central Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorish, M. Mobin

    1984-01-01

    Identifies some ideological and political forces contributing to the Soviet dilemma caused by requiring a standardized proletarian culture (and language) amidst a multilingual and multicultural socialist society. Also focuses on linguistic planning, language change, and language development in the Central Asian part of the USSR. (SL)

  7. Soviet Cineclubs: Baranov's Film/Media Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a historical form of media literacy education that is still insufficiently discussed in English language literature: Russian cineclubs. We focus on one particular cineclub that was created by a Soviet educator Oleg Baranov in the 1950s. We describe this cineclub's context and structure, and discuss its popularity among…

  8. Post-Soviet Moral Education: The Case of Kyrgyzstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misco, Thomas; Hamot, Gregory E.

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of Kyrgyzstan became a free and democratic state after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since that time, Kyrgyzstan has redefined and renegotiated what education in its society should be. Although numerous internal and external initiatives have sought to reshape Kyrgyzstan's curriculum and instructional strategies, these projects…

  9. U.S.-Soviet Relations. Close Up Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This booklet, part of a video and print educational unit consisting of a student text, a teacher's guide, and four 30-minute videotapes, focuses on the U.S.-Soviet relationship, attempting to distinguish what guides each nation's actions in the world as a whole and with each other. Chapter 1, "Differing World Views," examines how differing…

  10. Educational Revolution from Above: Thatcher's Britain and Gorbachev's Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Martin; Voskresenskaya, Natalia

    1991-01-01

    Educational revolutions in Great Britain and the former Soviet Union were initiated by charismatic national leaders, looked back to more "authentic" conditions where teachers and students dominated formal education, encouraged parent participation, and sought to destroy bureaucratic intermediary agencies in the educational decision-making process.…

  11. Yessis Review of Soviet Physical Education and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yessis, Michael, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The following articles on athletics in the Soviet Union are edited and translated for American readers: (1) "Isokinetic Exercises"; (2) "Breathing During the Execution of Precise Motor Acts"; (3) "Investigation of the Running of Pre-School Age Children"; (4) "Al Feuerback and V. Voikin in the Shot Put"; (5) "The Influence of Anthropometric…

  12. Moral Education in Contemporary Belarus: Return to a Soviet Past?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorovitch, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses moral education in contemporary Belarus. It offers an insight into the problem of educational change in post-Soviet societies in general and investigates the need for moral education reform in Belarus in particular. It provides a brief description of the situation with respect to moral education in some former Soviet…

  13. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  14. Face to Face: U.S.-Soviet Summitry. Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Allen, Ed.

    This document is the discussion guide for a four part video/print series designed to contribute to the understanding of the U.S.-Soviet relationship and the summitry process which has become such a visible part of it. Each of the four 30-minute programs interweaves archival material with informal discussions by distinguished scholars about…

  15. America, the Soviets and Nuclear Arms: Looking to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Karl; And Others

    Part of a larger project, "The U.S. and the USSR: Choices for the 21st Century," that is aimed at developing curricular materials for use at the secondary, undergraduate, and adult education levels, this book helps high school students to think through some of the complex issues surrounding U.S.-Soviet relations and the nuclear arms race as the…

  16. Soviet School Literature Teaching about World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Beatrice Beach

    1986-01-01

    This issue is a collection of recently written Russian literature commemorating the end of World War II. Included are diary excerpts, poems and photos along with suggestions for how this literature should be used in schools to help celebrate the Soviets' victory in what they term "the Great Patriotic War." (JDH)

  17. Aging in the Soviet Union: A West Siberian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demitri, Shimkin

    1989-01-01

    Presents ethnographic observations on the aged and aging from six months' residence in Siberian industrial city. Describes interactions with medical personnel and reviews scanty literature in Soviet Union. Notes integration of aged in families and respect given to older persons. Discusses problems of elderly caused by hard living conditions,…

  18. Themes for Teaching the Geography of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausladen, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Provides a framework for introducing students to the geography of the Soviet Union. Identifies basic themes for a geographical approach, including (1) advantages and disadvantages of size and location; (2) spatial impact of political economy; (3) paradox of economic development; (4) challenges of governing a multinational state; (5) integration…

  19. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  20. Resources for Russian Education: Soviet Strategies in Historical Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study examines Soviet strategies for education during its first four decades as they may be deduced from the resources put at its disposal. Despite the political importance for education and for proletarian empowerment at the workplace ("vydvizhenie"), the total enrolment ratio was only one-third higher than in the Tsarist period, although…

  1. Operating margin of Soviet RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.M.; Robinson, G.E. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hochreiter, L.E. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on a coupled thermal- hydraulic analysis that is performed for the Soviet-designed RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactor to assess the operating margin to critical heat flux (CHF); the Chernobyl-4 reactor serves as the principal model for this study. Calculations are performed using a simplified subchannel analysis. The overall analysis involves an iterative search to determine the individual subchannel flow rates, and a boiling transition analysis is performed to obtain a measure of the core operating margin. The operating margin is determined via two distinct methods. The first involves a calculation of the core critical power ratio (CPR) using an empirically derived correlation that the Soviets developed expressly for the RBMK-1000. Additionally, various subchannel CHF correlations typical of those used in the design of nuclear-powered reactors in the United States are also employed. When the Soviet critical power correlation is used, the calculations carried out for both normal operating and reference overpower conditions result in CPRs of 1.115 and 1.019, respectively. In most cases, the subchannel CHF correlations indicate that additional operating margin over that calculated by the Soviet critical power correlation exists for this design.

  2. Redefining Glasnost in the Soviet Media: The Recontextualization of Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Marilyn J.; Launer, Michael K.

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrates that a review of news coverage and an analysis of two documentary films in the context of Soviet cultural values and political stakes suggests that the rhetorical reconstruction of Chernobyl contributed to the legitimation of nuclear power and the environment as public issues. (PRA)

  3. Acculturation and Communicative Mobility Among Former Soviet Nationalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haarmann, Harald; Holman, Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the strategies that the former Soviet states are evolving to balance the interests of dominant ethnic groups with those of linguistic minorities while constructing a national identity, highlighting language policy in action and focusing on acculturation processes and geographic mobility among groups. A case study of Estonia is also…

  4. Visa Problems and Study Tours of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes the "study tour of the Soviet Union," for several years a feature of the three-week interim term at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. Discusses tour organization, related orientation activities and itineraries, dwelling at length on problems encountered, especially recent last-minute denials of visa to group leaders. (MES)

  5. Drawing of American ASTP crewmen searching for Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The American Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crewmen search the skies for the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in this humorous artwork by Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov. Astronauts Vance D. Brand, Donald K. Slayton and Thomas P. Stafford (left to right) sit astride the Apollo spacecraft and Docking Module ready to lasso Soyuz. Leonov, an accomplished artist, specializes in painting on space subjects.

  6. The Soviet Successor States and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    This document is a guide to provide teachers and curriculum consultants with an up to date overview of the histories, cultures, and current issues concerning the region of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. It is not intended as an in depth study of the area or people. The guide is divided into two parts. The first discusses the Soviet…

  7. Soviet books and publications on hydrology (continental) and hydrogeology: titles and some notes on obtaining Soviet monographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.

    1966-01-01

    A common method of publication for Soviet scientists, which partly supplants periodicals, is the publication of a collection of articles on a general area of research, frequently by members of a given institution. An extensive sampling of world geologic literature for 1961 (Hawkes, 1966) showed that 33 percent of Soviet titles appeared in periodicals whereas 55 percent of North American and 70 percent of Western European literature appeared in this form. The Soviet predilection for symposia and collections of papers makes searching for information on a given subject more difficult for Westerners because the monographs in question are often not included in exchange agreements (except informal personal ones) with Western libraries and institutions, because they may be primed in small editions, and because such publications frequently escape the notice of Western abstract journals. Unless one is fortunate enough to have many personal contacts in the Soviet Union, there seems to be little alternative to at least a rudimentary knowledge of Russian in order to stay abreast of work published as monographs and in collections.

  8. The prevalence of toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries.

    PubMed

    Sharov, Petr; Dowling, Russell; Gogishvili, Megi; Jones, Barbara; Caravanos, Jack; McCartor, Andrew; Kashdan, Zachary; Fuller, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Using a global database of contaminated sites, toxic hotspots in eight former Soviet countries were analyzed to identify the prevalence, types and sources of toxic pollution, as well as their associated potential public health impacts. For this analysis, polluted sites in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan were compiled and analyzed. The levels of contamination of seven key pollutants were assessed in each country. 424 contaminated sites were identified using data from Blacksmith Institute. Pesticides, lead (Pb), radioactive metals, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) were the most commonly identified key pollutants. Collectively, these sites pose health risks to an estimated 6.2 million residents. The existing data on toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries likely captures only a small percentage of actual contaminated sites, but suggests potentially severe public health consequences. Additional assessments are needed to understand the risks posed by toxic pollution in the region.

  9. The changing face of environmentalism in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Igor Izodorovich Altshuler and Ruben Artyomovich Mnatsakanyan are scientific researchers in the department of geography at Moscow State University and cofounders of the Association for the Support of Ecological initiatives established by the Soviet Foundation for Social Innovations. They authored a report on glasnost and ecology in the Soviet Union published in the December 1988 ENVIRONMENT. Recently, Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan visited ENVIRONMENT's offices in Washington, D.C., and talked at length about environmental problems and issues in the USSR. This paper presents excerpts of an interview of Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan conducted by Barbara Richman, managing editor of ENVIRONMENT. They discuss environmental problems, global climate change, agriculture, lack of information on the biggest polluters, transboundary pollution, impact of recent elections on environmental policy, the use of environmental impact assessments, public information about the environment, training of reporters, environmental organizations, and lack of money and political obstacles to environmental improvements.

  10. The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    2000-07-26

    During a period of some 23 years between 1965 and 1988, the Soviet Union's ''Program for the Utilization of Nuclear Explosions in the National Economy'' carried out 122 nuclear explosions to study and put into industrial use some 13 applications. In all, 128 explosives with yields ranging from 0.01 to 140 kt were used, with the vast majority being between 2 and 20 kt. Most peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the Soviet PNE Program were explored in depth with a number of tests, but unfortunately little has been reported on the technical results other than general outcomes. Two applications, deep seismic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle and the creation of underground cavities in salt for the storage of gas condensate, found widespread use, representing over 50% of all the explosions. Explosions to explore the technical possibilities of stimulating the production of oil and gas reservoirs accounted for an additional 17%.

  11. Jinneography: Post-Soviet passages of traumatic exemplarity.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    While Russia has historically and geographically close ties with Islam, the second most-practiced religion in its vast territories, the collapse of the USSR changed the terms of this relationship in significant ways. One key shift is the emergence of new immigration patterns between Russia and former Soviet states. Traversing distant lands from the peripheries of the Caucasus and Central Asia to mainland Russia in search of work, migrants have come to recognize each other as fellow Muslims dispersed in a theological geography on the ruins of the universal comradeship dreamed by the Soviet utopia. I propose to study the Islamic pedagogical practice of ibra in the context of sociohistorical dynamics of education and migration between Russia and Central Asia to further locate and analyze this shift in relation to current debates on post-Soviet subjectivity. By discussing the case of a spirit possession of a Tajik national performed in Russia, I argue that the collective participation in the session pedagogically invokes, ciphers, and extends the post-Soviet terrains of history as ibra, or exemplary passage of worldly events. To do so, I first locate the Quranic concept of ibra as a pedagogical paradigm in Islamic traditions as well as an ethnographic lens in the context of educational campaigns for the Muslims of Eurasia and then apply the concept to my analysis of the possession session in order to show that in the ritualistic incarnations of ghosts, or jinns, the civil war of Tajikistan and its continuing cycle of terror is ciphered into a desire for learning, as well as a focus on approximation to the divine.

  12. Post-Soviet transition: improving health services delivery and management.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Joseph; Phillips, Frank; Johnson, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    During the post-Soviet transition of the last 2 decades, ex-Communist countries of the Eastern Bloc, including eastern and central Europe, the Soviet Union, and its satellite and aligned states, have undergone major health system reforms. Many health systems of those countries--previously adopting a Soviet-type Semashko model--are currently called "in transition," as reform agendas, such as shifting to a Bismarck, Beveridge, or mixed financing scheme or adopting new health delivery management policies, are still in development. In this article, we first review common characteristics of Semashko health systems (the predominant health system of Communist countries during the Soviet era) and then discuss the "new public management" principles that ex-Communist countries have recently started to adopt with various degrees of success. We then illustrate experiences with these principles using 2 case studies, from Russia and Albania, and propose health policy options for both cases. Based on a review of the literature and on the our work experience in Russia and Albania, we found that the 2 ex-Semashko systems have not fully capitalized on expected positive outcomes of new public management principles due to low local healthcare financing levels, depreciated healthcare infrastructure and operational capacities, overlapping and contradicting ideology and policies of the former and newer health systems, and finally, lack of leadership that has successful experience with these principles. In the case of pharmaceutical pricing, reimbursement, and access in Russia, we show how a well-intentioned but suboptimally designed and managed pharmaceutical coverage scheme has suffered moral hazard and adverse selection and has adversely impacted the new public management promise of efficient medicine coverage. In the case of Albania, the delayed investment in human resource reform within a depreciated and underfinanced delivery system has adversely affected the implementation of new

  13. The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Allen

    1991-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

  14. Trends in the fight against tuberculosis in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Sillastu, H

    1990-02-01

    The problems of epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Soviet Union are analysed. The dominating trends in the fight against tuberculosis include: the decrease in the evidence, prevalence and mortality, the relatively high incidence among male persons who are capable of working in newly detected cases, the increase in patients with social deviations (mainly alcoholics), as well as the integration between specific and non-specific lung diseases in the form of respiratory medicine. PMID:2367491

  15. Jinneography: Post-Soviet passages of traumatic exemplarity.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    While Russia has historically and geographically close ties with Islam, the second most-practiced religion in its vast territories, the collapse of the USSR changed the terms of this relationship in significant ways. One key shift is the emergence of new immigration patterns between Russia and former Soviet states. Traversing distant lands from the peripheries of the Caucasus and Central Asia to mainland Russia in search of work, migrants have come to recognize each other as fellow Muslims dispersed in a theological geography on the ruins of the universal comradeship dreamed by the Soviet utopia. I propose to study the Islamic pedagogical practice of ibra in the context of sociohistorical dynamics of education and migration between Russia and Central Asia to further locate and analyze this shift in relation to current debates on post-Soviet subjectivity. By discussing the case of a spirit possession of a Tajik national performed in Russia, I argue that the collective participation in the session pedagogically invokes, ciphers, and extends the post-Soviet terrains of history as ibra, or exemplary passage of worldly events. To do so, I first locate the Quranic concept of ibra as a pedagogical paradigm in Islamic traditions as well as an ethnographic lens in the context of educational campaigns for the Muslims of Eurasia and then apply the concept to my analysis of the possession session in order to show that in the ritualistic incarnations of ghosts, or jinns, the civil war of Tajikistan and its continuing cycle of terror is ciphered into a desire for learning, as well as a focus on approximation to the divine. PMID:25969502

  16. Globalization, marine regime shifts and the Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Österblom, Henrik; Folke, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Regime shifts have been observed in marine ecosystems around the world, with climate and fishing suggested as major drivers of such shifts. The global and regional dynamics of the climate system have been studied in this context, and efforts to develop an analogous understanding of fishing activities are developing. Here, we investigate the timing of pelagic marine regime shifts in relation to the emergence of regional and global fishing activities of the Soviet Union. Our investigation of official catch statistics reflects that the Soviet Union was a major fishing actor in all large marine ecosystems where regime shifts have been documented, including in ecosystems where overfishing has been established as a key driver of these changes (in the Baltic and Black Seas and the Scotian Shelf). Globalization of Soviet Union fishing activities pushed exploitation to radically new levels and triggered regional and global governance responses for improved management. Since then, exploitation levels have remained and increased with new actors involved. Based on our exploratory work, we propose that a deeper understanding of the role of global fishing actors is central for improved management of marine ecosystems.

  17. Mosaic of Digital Raster Soviet Topographic Maps of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The data contained in this publication include scanned, geographically referenced digital raster graphics (DRGs) of Soviet 1:200,000 - scale topographic map quadrangles. The original Afghanistan topographic map series at 1:200,000 scale, for the entire country, was published by the Soviet military between 1985 and 1991(MTDGS, 85-91). Hard copies of these original paper maps were scanned using a large format scanner, reprojected into Geographic Coordinate System (GCS) coordinates, and then clipped to remove the map collars to create a seamless, topographic map base for the entire country. An index of all available topographic map sheets is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. This publication also includes the originial topographic map quadrangles projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection. The country of Afghanistan spans three UTM Zones: Zone 41, Zone 42, and Zone 43. Maps are stored as GeoTIFFs in their respective UTM zone projection. Indexes of all available topographic map sheets in their respective UTM zone are displayed here: Index_UTM_Z41.pdf, Index_UTM_Z42.pdf, Index_UTM_Z43.pdf. An Adobe Acrobat PDF file of the U.S. Department of the Army's Technical Manual 30-548, is available (U.S. Army, 1958). This document has been translated into English for assistance in reading Soviet topographic map symbols.

  18. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2006-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  19. Crisis in environmental management of the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabibullov, Marat

    1991-11-01

    The prevailing system of environmental management strongly depends on the economic and political structures of a country and is influenced by the current condition of them. Environmental degradation in the Soviet Union has been caused mainly by the political and economic misconceptions listed in this article. With the transformation of its state order to the model of Western democracies, the Soviet Union is experiencing a deep economic crisis of restructuring, reflected in a parallel crisis in its system of environmental management, which is manifest in the form of rapid transformation. This is characterized by the contradiction of the state’s old administrative institutions, which still exist, with the efforts to use market mechanisms of environmental control. Such methods include various fees and payments for the use of natural resources or for pollution and creation of specialized regional funds and banks to finance environmental programs. All these occur in the context of the strengthening of regional sovereignty, the introduction of self-accounting for economic units, the adoption of comprehensive legal enactments, and the setting up of an efficient administrative system of their enforcement. Public activism, as one of the principal actors in this structure, also has undergone quick maturation. Nevertheless the future development of the new Soviet system of environmental control remains uncertain because of the present unpredictability of the overall situation in the short run.

  20. Soviet exploitation of the nuclear winter hypothesis. Technical report, 8 May 1984-4 June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-05

    This study, which is based entirely on open Soviet sources, examines and analyzes Soviet views on and uses made by Soviet scientists of the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. In particular, the study seeks to ascertain whether Soviet scientists have in fact independently confirmed the TTAPS prediction of a Nuclear Winter phenomenon or have contributed independent data or scenarios to it. The findings of the study are that the Soviets view the Nuclear Winter hypothesis as a political and propaganda opportunity to influence Western scientific and public opinion and to restrain U.S. defense programs. Analysis of Soviet publications shows that, in fact, Soviet scientists have made no independent or new contributions to the study of the Nuclear Winter phenomenon, but have uncritically made use of the worst-case scenarios, parameters, and values published in the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio 1982) and the TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies, as well as models of atmospheric circulation borrowed from Western sources. Furthermore, current Soviet directives to scientists call for work on the further strengthening of the Soviet Union's military might, while it is also explained that the dire predictions of the possible consequences of a nuclear war in no way diminish the utility of the Soviet civil defense program and the need for its further improvement.

  1. American press coverage of US-Soviet relations, the Soviet Union, nuclear weapons, arms control, and national security: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, W.A.; Manoff, R.K.; Weeks, J.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography covers work that addresses coverage of nuclear and arms control issues, defense, the Soviet Union, and Soviet-American relations by the American news media between 1965 and 1988. Material selected for inclusion either discusses press performance or addresses conditions -- such as classification of information -- that directly impact on media coverage of such issues. Bodies of literature on media coverage of conflict elsewhere in the world lie outside the Center's current mandate (which has shaped the parameters of this bibliography) except insofar as such conflicts are presented by the news media specifically in the context of US-Soviet relations. Much the same is true of such issues as the North-South flow of information and the debate over calls for a New World Information Order. However, the authors have decided to include assessments of American media coverage of the Vietnam War as a case study of a watershed conflict that raised many of the issues discussed throughout this literature in a particularly compelling way.

  2. Soviet crisis relocation program. Final report 1 May 82-Jun 83

    SciTech Connect

    Goure, L.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes and analyzes, on the basis of open Soviet source materials, Soviet civil defense concepts, plans, organization, priorities, training programs, and capabilities pertaining to crisis relocation of residents of high-risk urban areas and workers of significant economic installations. Soviet sources indicate not only that crisis relocation continues to be an important element of the Soviet civil defense program, but also that there is a requirement for the relocation of leadership elements, essential workers, and urban civil defense forces regardless of the availability of shelters in the cities. Soviet civil defense has well developed, comprehensive plans for implementing a rapid relocation of the urban population of exurban areas in a highly organized and strictly controlled manner. While small-scale evacuation exercises are conducted throughout the USSR, it is uncertain how well Soviet plans, organization, and procedures will perform in an actual large-scale relocation.

  3. The Difficult Road to Mars: A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perminov, V. G.

    1999-01-01

    Perminov was the leading designer for Mars and Venus spacecraft at the Soviet Lavochkin design bureau in the early days of Martian exploration. In addition to competing with the U.S. to get to the Moon, the Soviets also struggled to beat the U.S. to Mars during the Cold War. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the Soviets attempted to send a number of robotic probes to Mars, but for a variety of reasons, most of these missions ended in failure. Despite these overall failures, the Soviets garnered a great deal of scientific and technical knowledge through these efforts. This monograph tells some fascinating, but little-known, stories.

  4. Theory, Practice, and the "Zone of Proximal Development" in Soviet Psychoeducational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Philosphical principles provide the context for the Soviets' psychological theory (in particular, the "zone of proximal development" concept); this theory then shapes psychoeducational practice. (GDC)

  5. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations. PMID:21485454

  6. High-Energy Astrophysics. American and Soviet Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, Walter H. G. (Editor); Clark, George W. (Editor); Sunyaev, Rashid A. (Editor); Trivers, Kathleen Kearney (Editor); Abramson, David M. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the American-Soviet high energy astrophysics workshop, which was held at the Institute for Space Research in Moscow and the Abastumani Laboratory and Observatory in the republic of Georgia from June 18 to July 1, 1989, is presented. Topics discussed at the workshop include the inflationary universe; the large scale structure of the universe, the diffuse x-ray background; gravitational lenses, quasars, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs); infrared galaxies (results from IRAS); Supernova 1987A; millisecond radio pulsars; quasi-periodic oscillations in the x-ray flux of low mass X-ray binaries; and gamma ray bursts.

  7. The political economy of oil in post-Soviet Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omarova, Saule Tarikhovna

    This dissertation examines the way in which the Kazakhstani state redefined its role in managing oil and gas resources between 1992 and 1998. The governments of hydrocarbon-rich post-Soviet republics such as Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan faced the common challenge of restructuring their petroleum industries to boost the export of oil and gas. This study argues that by 1998 three patterns have emerged, ranging from a more radical state retrenchment in Russia, to reinforced state monopoly in Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, to a "mixed" pattern of state participation in Kazakhstan, consisting of both large-scale privatization of oil assets and the formation of a fully state-owned national oil company, Kazakhoil. This dissertation analyzes the process of restructuring Kazakhstan's oil sector through comparison with the Russian petroleum industry. In Russia, several private, vertically integrated oil companies (VICs) were formed on the basis of existing oil-producing units and soon emerged as essential players in the Russian oil sector. By contrast, Kazakhstan's marginalized status within the Soviet system of oil production resulted in the absence of organizationally strong sectoral interests capable of claiming control over the industry after the independence. Privatization of Kazakhstan's oil enterprises, conducted by the government in spite of the resistance from local oil managers, transferred controlling stakes to foreign investors and further weakened domestic oil interests. Unencumbered state autonomy allowed the increasingly authoritarian Kazakhstani government to adopt relatively modern and investor-friendly petroleum legislation by decree. In Russia, the government's efforts to reform oil-related legislation were blocked by the leftist-dominated Duma, the democratically elected lower chamber of the Russian parliament. On the basis of these findings, this dissertation concludes that the dynamics of state withdrawal from the oil sector in post-Soviet

  8. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

  9. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations.

  10. Recent observations with the Soviet Union's GLONASS navigation satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, S. A.; Daly, P.

    An evaluation is made of the Soviet Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System, 'GLONASS', which is currently preoperational and exhibits parallels with the Navstar GPS. Attention is given to the GLONASS orbital features and RF signal characteristics and channelization. Although GLONASS carries a C/A code at L1 and a P code at both L1 and L2, as Navstar does, additional features take the form of spectral lines at the P-code nulls and, in some cases, a carrier at the L2 center frequency. Code length and rate, being only about half those of Navstar, indicate a rather inferior jamming margin and half the pseudorange resolution.

  11. Health world views of post-Soviet citizens.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Pamela A; Turmov, Sergei; Wallace, Claire

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union has had an adverse impact on the lives of the peoples of Russia and Ukraine. This paper reports on qualitative case studies including interviews, focus groups and children's essays from Russia and Ukraine, on the topics of everyday understanding of health and the factors influencing it. The majority report poor health and difficult material circumstances. Their understandings of health and illness are multifactorial and include emotional as well as descriptive elements. Whilst the most frequently cited definition of health is of people with/without health problems, it is evident that health is seen positively, as more than the absence of debilitating illness. There is a strong emphasis on individual responsibility for health and evidence that people are thought to have a moral responsibility to strive to be healthy. However, there is also a strong awareness that the major factors which cause ill health are beyond their control. The findings provide additional support for the health lifestyles theory that has been developed to provide a sociological understanding of the mortality crisis in the former Soviet Union. PMID:16005557

  12. Soviet association of Unix users and its first conference

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, S.D.; Leonas, V.V.

    1992-03-01

    On the initiative of a number of scientific-research and industrial-commercial organizations, including the IPI of the Academy of Sciences, the IPK of the Academy of Sciences USSR, INEUM, MTsNTI, Interkvadro, Antareks, and others, the Soviet Association for Unix users (SUUG) was formed in 1990. The association was officially registered on September 7, 1990. The association is a nonprofit volunteer organization whose members support the following goals: interchange of information among users of Unix-like operating systems by means of regular publications and other means, sponsorship of annual conferences, organization of networks, etc.; cooperation in the use of Unix-like operating systems in the USSR and recommendations for their development; maintenance of communications with interested foreign national and international organizations, exchange of information with them, and propagation of this information to the members of the association. The association does not intend to limit its interest to problems concerned with using specific operating systems. The ultimate goal is to construct an infrastructure for research and development in all areas of computer science. SUUG has been accepted as a member of EurOpen (the new name for EUUG, the European Association for Unix Users), which, after admitting the Spanish and Soviet associations, has 20 national associations from European countries as members. For members of SUUG, this means that now they are full members of the European community of developers and users of portable open systems.

  13. Impact of GRM: New evidence from the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnutt, M.

    1985-01-01

    Gravity information released by the Soviet Union allows the quantitative assessment of how the geopotential research mission (GRM) mission might effect the ability to use global gravity data for continental tectonic interpretation. The information is of an isostatic response spectra for eight individual tectonic units in the USSR. The regions examined include the Caroathians, Caucasus, Urals, Pamirs, Tien-Shan, Altal, Chersky Ridge, and East Siberian Platform. The 1 deg x 1 deg gravity data are used to calculate the admittances are used in two different sorts of tectonic studies of mountain belts in the USSR: (1) interpretation of isostatic responses in terms of plate models of compensation for mountainous terrain. Using geologic information concerning time of the orogeny, lithospheric plates involved, and polarity of subduction in collision zones, they convert the best-fitting flexural rigidity to an elastic plate thickness for the lithospheric plate inferred to underlie the mountains; the isostatic admittance functions is an attempt to directly model gravity and topography data for a few select regions in the Soviet Union. By knowing the value of the expected correlation between topography and gravity from the admittances, the Artemjev's map in mountainous areas can be calibrated, and the maps are converted back to Bouguer gravity. This procedure is applied to the Caucasus and southern Urals.

  14. Assimilation and ethnic boundaries: Israeli students' altitudes toward soviet immigrants.

    PubMed

    Shamai, S; Ilatov, Z

    2001-01-01

    The attitudes of Israeli students toward new immigrants from the former Soviet Union were examined against the theoretical framework of the sociology of ethnicity and sociology of education. The main research question explored was which ethnic relationship model (assimilation, pluralism, or separation) best described the attitudes and self-reported behavior of Israeli youth toward the new immigrants. Israeli students' changing attitudes toward their immigrant counterparts were also investigated, as well as actual Israeli educational practices (not only declared policies) regarding Soviet immigrants. The study was conducted in grades 4-11 at schools in northern Israel. The results indicated positive attitudes and openness of relations by the Israelis toward the new immigrant students in the first year following their immigration. However, the attitudes were less positive in the second year. Although the Israeli students manifested positive attitudes toward immigration and to the immigrants themselves, these views were largely assimilatory; Israeli cultural capital was obviously dominant, and it was expected to be accepted as such by the newcomers. The findings point to Israeli assimilatory educational practice; immigrants are expected to blend in, abandoning their past heritage and culture.

  15. VVER Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulou, Demetra

    2012-02-01

    VVER Soviet-designed reactors that operate in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics have heightened international concern for years due to major safety deficiencies. The governments of countries with VVER reactors have invested millions of dollars toward improving the safety of their nuclear power plants. Most of these reactors will continue to operate for the foreseeable future since they provide urgently-needed electrical power. Given this situation, this paper assesses the radiological consequences of a major nuclear accident in Eastern Europe. The paper also chronicles the efforts launched by the international nuclear community to improve the safety of the reactors and notes the progress made so far through extensive collaborative efforts in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine to reduce the risks of nuclear accidents. Western scientific and technical staff collaborated with these countries to improve the safety of their reactor operations by strengthening the ability of the regulator to perform its oversight function, installing safety equipment and technologies, investing time in safety training, and working diligently to establish an enduring safety culture. Still, continued safety improvement efforts are necessary to ensure safe operating practices and achieve timely phase-out of older plants.

  16. Contraceptive practice and attitudes in former Soviet women.

    PubMed

    Visser APh; Pavlenko, I; Remmenick, L; Bruyniks, N; Lehert, P

    1993-03-01

    For decades, abortion has been the principal birth control method for Soviet women. As indicated by some earlier local surveys, most couples use unreliable methods. Little is known about the latest trends in contraceptive use affected by the recent general liberalization of Soviet society, including more open attitudes about sex. A survey was conducted in 1991 via a questionnaire in the popular 'Health' magazine with national circulation. A total of 8059 women returned the questionnaire. The sample is selective with an overrepresentation of young and better educated urban residents, mostly from Russia and the Ukraine. Some 81% reported use of a contraceptive method during the last 5 years. Traditional methods still prevail (41% used withdrawal, rhythm and douche). Among women younger than 25 years there is a clear trend toward use of modern methods (IUD 35% and the pill 10%), although their notion of the 'pros" and 'cons' is biased. Of the respondents, 20% used a barrier method, mainly condom. The preferred method is the IUD (51%) and the pill (18%). Abortions resulting from contraceptive failure were reported by 60% of women. Eighty-nine percent considered pregnancy termination more dangerous than its prevention. For only 12% of respondents, a physician was the main source of contraceptive information, although 49% addressed him for advice. The results indicate a gap between conservative birth control practice and preferences of Russian women, with a positive general trend in the near future. PMID:8342450

  17. The Evolving Soviet Approach to Human Rights. Current Policy No. 929.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Warren

    The Soviet Union (USSR) is a different place from what it was two years ago. The essential nature of these differences is, however, not obvious and the picture remains mixed. Recent developments involving political prisoners, freedom to travel and emigrate, broadcast jamming, and Czechoslovak relations seem to indicate that the Soviet society is…

  18. Multilingualism in Post-Soviet Countries: Language Revival, Language Removal, and Sociolinguistic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    Since the post-Soviet context is not particularly well known to the majority of readers, the author uses this introduction to provide a general background against which developments in particular post-Soviet countries can be better understood. The author begins by placing these developments in the sociohistoric context of language policies of the…

  19. Rediscovery of Silenced Inner Wisdom of Spirituality: Teachers' Voice in the Contemporary Post-Soviet Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belousa, Inga

    2008-01-01

    The former Soviet Union countries share a unique educational perspective, based on numerous issues to be rediscovered. The current reality in former Soviet countries occurs in the context of increased interest in the role of spirituality in democratic society, and the gradually emerging discussions and methodological solutions of spirituality…

  20. An Evaluation of the Contribution of the Teacher-Innovators to Soviet Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suddaby, Avril

    1989-01-01

    Examines effects on Soviet education of ideas and teaching methods of Shatalov, Amonashvili, and others. Their ideas, focusing on cooperative relationships among teachers, students, and parents that create a successful learning environment and diminish students' fear of failure, have challenged the authority of the Soviet Academy of Pedagogical…

  1. Calculations of upper-mantle velocity from published Soviet earthquake data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriquez, Robert G.

    1965-01-01

    The lack of information on mantle velocities and crustal structure of the U.S.S.R. has led to a preliminary examination of published Soviet earthquake bulletins in the hope of deriving useful velocity and structure information from the data they contain. Mantle velocities deduced from earthquake data on several Russian earthquakes are in excellent agreement with results of Soviet deep seismic sounding.

  2. Mathematics Education. Anglo-Soviet Seminar (1st, Oxford, England, September 8-16, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bryan, Ed.

    This report presents 23 papers prepared for the first Anglo-Soviet Seminar on Mathematics Education, held in Oxford in September 1981. Ten leading British mathematics educators met with six Soviet participants for an intensive program of information sharing and discussion which covered the teaching and learning of mathematics at all school levels.…

  3. Making a New and Pliable Professor: American and Soviet Transformations in German Universities, 1945-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the history of American and Soviet transformations in German universities during the period of the Cold War, 1945-1990. Both American and Soviet policies were resisted by the university community, particularly by the conservative German professoriate, in both parts of the divided Germany. The article shows how and why both…

  4. Shaping Science and Math Curriculum in the Age of Glasnost: Reports from Soviet Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoloff, David L.

    This paper describes the changes in the science and mathematics curriculum in Soviet classrooms since the 1984 reforms and the "glasnostic" climate. The first section discusses the trends in Soviet education including the humanist, national, moral and materialistic trends. The second section examines variations in the science curriculum since the…

  5. Report to the Conference on Education in the Soviet Zone (October 22, 1933)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, K'ai

    1973-01-01

    The primary source document from the Kiangsi Soviet period of Chinese communist history discusses changes in the cultural and educational activities of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) as a result of the revolution. The USSR was used as a model to explain the Chinese communist's attempt to establish a large-scale mass education…

  6. American and Soviet Adolescent Archetypal Heroes of the Cold War. Professional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    This study explores the value-oriented behaviors associated with membership in prominent youth organizations in the Soviet Union and the United States of America during the Cold War. The archetypal heroic ideals and values of the Soviet Octoberists and Pioneers and the U.S. Boy Scout and Girl Scout organizations were examined. Key political,…

  7. Soviet children and the threat of nuclear war: a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Chivian, E.; Mack, J.E.; Waletzky, J.P.; Lazaroff, C.; Doctor, R.; Goldenring, J.M.

    1985-10-01

    This study, the first undertaken by Western researchers with Soviet children on the subject of nuclear weapons, compared the questionnaire responses of 293 Soviet youngsters with those of 201 age-matched Californians. Interviews were conducted to supplement the questionnaire findings. Similarities and differences between the two samples are discussed in the context of how young people today perceive the threat of nuclear war.

  8. Soviet Education Programs: Foundations; Curriculums, Teacher Preparation. Bulletin, 1960, No. 17. OE-14037. [Chapter V - Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, William K.; Lindquist, Clarence B.; Schmitt, Marshall L.

    1960-01-01

    The continuing interest which American educators and other citizens have attached to Soviet schools and their development has served to encourage the U.S. Office of Education in its efforts to provide the most complete and verified information obtainable on the subject. As expressed in "Soviet Commitment to Education, Report of the First Official…

  9. Learning from Each Other: A Meeting of U.S. and Soviet Children's Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Mary

    1990-01-01

    Describes a visit by American children's librarians to the Soviet Union for a formal colloquium on children's library services. The Soviet attitude toward children as reflected in the quality of facilities, services, and research is discussed, and the benefits of such cultural exchanges are stressed. (CLB)

  10. Physiological-behavioral coupling research in the Soviet science of higher nervous activity: a visitation report.

    PubMed

    Ray, R D

    1977-01-01

    Behavioral research paradigms presently used by Soviet scientists to explore relations between behavioral and physiological activities are discussed. Each laboratory represented was physically visited by the author during a six month exhange visit to the Soviet Union. Research ranging from central concommitants of language and meaning to biofeedback and peripheral autonomic functions are described. PMID:854371

  11. Technology and society: ideological implications of information and computer technologies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Weigle, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the impact of technology on the USSR's social system from the perspective of Soviet ideological development. The analysis of information and computer technologies within this framework de-emphasizes both modernization theories and those that assume unchallenged Communist Party control over technological development. Previous studies have examined the level of Soviet technological achievements and the gap between this level and those in the West, many referring to ideological boundaries of Soviet technological development without, however, systematically analyzing the resulting implications for the Soviet ideology of Marxism-Leninism. This study develops a framework for analyzing the impact of new technologies in the USSR in the fields of technology, ideology, and the scientific and technological revolution. On the basis of this framework, examination turns to the relevant Soviet theoretical and technical literature and debates among Soviety elites, concluding that the introduction of information and computer technologies and the organization of computer networks has exacerbated tensions in Soviety Marxism-Leninism.

  12. Energy in Soviet Policy. A study of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Different estimates of future Soviet oil production are examined. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is generally viewed as having the most-pessimistic assessment, foreseeing a gradual decline. If the CIA is correct, Soviet-bloc countries may become net energy importers later in this decade. The added pressure on world oil prices could then increase our own inflationary problems. Reduced Soviet energy production may lessen its hold on eastern Europe and heighten its interest in Middle Eastern supplies. At the optimistic extreme, the Economic Commission of Europe foresees steady or possibly somewhat increased Soviet oil production throughout the 80s. If the Commission is correct, the US will face another set of challenges and opportunities. The Soviets would not add to existing demand on the world petroleum market, but an exportable surplus of oil and gas could give them a powerful diplomatic tool. 22 references. (DCK)

  13. Soviet objectives in the INF negotiations and European security. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgardner, H.J.

    1987-12-01

    On 12 December 1979, NATO officials announced the decision to deploy 108 Pershing II nuclear missiles and 464 Ground Launched Cruise Missiles, in response to the Soviet deployment of SS-20 nuclear missiles. The NATO decision was met by a determined Soviet effort to prevent the deployment of the new missiles. The Soviet effort consisted of negotiations, diplomatic propaganda, and covert measures. When it was clear that the deployment was not going to be stopped, the Soviets agreed to formal INF arms-reduction talks. It is this author's opinion that the Soviet negotiation tactics, during the INF talks, supported the long-range goal of reducing the military effectiveness of NATO, and also supported the goal of reducing U.S. influence in Europe.

  14. 8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... § 1245.7 Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and...

  15. 8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... § 1245.7 Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and...

  16. 8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... § 1245.7 Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and...

  17. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and...

  18. 8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... § 1245.7 Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and...

  19. 8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... § 1245.7 Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and...

  20. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and...

  1. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  2. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D. )

    1993-04-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs.

  3. The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

  4. Astronomy and astronomical education in the FSU (Former Soviet Union)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, Nikolai G.

    The current situation in astronomy and astronomical education over the territory of the Former Soviet Union is traced. New facilities for radioastronomy are being put into work - the most important of them being the 2 coupled 32-m dishes, VLBI network "Quasar"; a number of observatories are acquiring an international status (in the frame of CIS); INTERNET is becoming available for an increasing number of astronomical institutions. Azerbaijan astronomers have overcome their isolation from the rest of the world and cooperate actively with the astronomical community. All-Russia and international olympics in astronomy for high school students are held and attract participants from increasing number of regions of Russia and other states. The outcome of the 9th JENAM in Moscow and of the events attached to the Meeting is presented.

  5. Space radiation dosimetry on US and Soviet manned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Benton, E. V.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation measurements obtained on board U.S. and Soviet spacecraft are presented and discussed. A considerable amount of data has now been collected and analyzed from measurements with a variety of detector types in low-Earth orbit. The objectives of these measurements have been to investigate the dose and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra within the complex shielding of large spacecraft. The shielding modifies the external radiation (trapped protons, electrons, cosmic ray nuclei) which, in turn, is quite dependent on orbital parameters (altitude, inclination). For manned flights, these measurements provide a crew exposure record and a data base for future spacecraft design and flight planning. For the scientific community they provide useful information for planning and analyzing data from experiments with high sensitivity to radiation. In this paper, results of measurements by both passive and active detectors are described. High-LET spectra measurements were obtained by means of plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's) while thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) measured the dose.

  6. Carbon in the Former Soviet Union: The Current Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodwell, G. M.; Stone, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    This work has been carried out in a period of great changes in Russia that have brought extreme hardships to the scientific community. We have been fortunate in establishing excellent relationships with the Russian scientific community and believe we have helped to retain coherence in circumstances where the continuation of research was in doubt. We have learned much and have been effective in advancing, even establishing, scholars and programs in Russia that might not otherwise have survived the transition. The vigor of the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA) is one sign of the value and success of these activities. Largely due to the current political and economic transitions in the former Soviet Union, the forests of much of the FSU are under reduced logging pressure. In addition, there is a decline in air pollution as heavy industry has waned, at least for now. Russian forestry statistics and our personal experience indicate a decline, perhaps as high as 60%, in forest harvesting over the last few years. But, new international market pressures on the forests exist in European Russia and in the Far East. The central government, still the "owner" of Russian forests, is having difficulty maintaining control over forest use and management particularly in the Far East and among the southern territories that have large, nonRussian ethnic populations. Extraordinarily large areas of mixed forest and grasslands, sparse or open forests, and mixed forests and tundra must be considered when calculating forest area It is insufficient to think of Russia as simply forest and nonforest Forest productivity, measured as growth of timber, appears to be in decline in all areas of Russia except in European Russia. Most information and publications on the recent history of these forests is heavily dependent on statistical data from the Soviet era. The interpretation of these data is very much open to debate. Anatoly Shwidenko, a long term collaborator and former

  7. Recent trends of the population in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Kono, S

    1990-10-01

    The author, who attended a UN seminar held in the USSR, reports on the recent trends of population dynamics in the host country, the 3rd most populous nation in the world. In 1989, the USSR's population was 286.72 million, up from 262.44 million in 1979. 51.4% of the population lives in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, an intriguing fact considering that there are a total of 15 republics in the USSR. Moreover, 3 republics (Russia, the Ukraine, and Byelorussia) account for 73.2% of the country's total population. The author questions reports that the Ukraine is seeking independence, noting the similarity in ethnicity and language between the Ukrainians and Russians. However, the author acknowledges cultural differences between Russia and the Baltic republics (latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia). Differences also exist between republics concerning fertility rates. While Russia, Byelorussia, and the Baltic states have a total fertility of 2.1 (net replacement fertility), minority republics in the southern region have dramatically higher fertility rates: 5.5 for Tajik, 4.7 for Uzbek and Turkemia, and 4.1 in Kyrgyz. Another significant fact of the USSR's population dynamics is its stagnant, or even retarded, life expectancy. Between 1960-70, life expectancy was 64.4 for men and 73.4 for women. Between 1979-80, these figures dropped to 62.2 and 72.5, respectively. They somewhat recovered during 1985-86, increasing to 64.2 for men and 73.3 for women. Throughout the USSR, but especially in Russia, there is a wide disparity in the life expectancy between men and women (as high as 11.5 years in Russia from (1979-80). In his visit, the author found that Soviet demographers and statisticians spoke candidly and openly, reflecting the changes brought about by perestroika and glasnost. PMID:12316754

  8. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-07-24

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  9. Climate and the Soviet Grain Crisis of 1928

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, Jean Edward

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation tests the premise that peasant hoarding of surplus grain supplies and the refusal of the rural Soviet peasants to sell grain to state procurement apparatus during the late New Economic Policy period, caused the Grain Crisis of 1928. The peasants' reluctance to sell grain and claims of peasant hoarding could only occur if sufficient grain surpluses existed during this period. The existence of these assumed grain surpluses is shown to be highly improbable. First, the large but inconsistent body of 1920s grain statistics was evaluated per se and related to two periods of pre-WWI data, the Witte and Stolypin years, on a practical comparison whenever possible. For both these pre-World War I periods, intensive links between rapid industrialization and agriculture had been established similar to the conditions of the 1920s. The climatic conditions of the two imperial and one Soviet period in the 1920s, especially drought in 1927, was analyzed, and its impact on grain production estimated and interpreted. The conclusion was reached that the cause of drop in grain production in 1927 was due to a long-term and persistent trend of regional drought affecting spring wheat yields, especially in the areas of the Middle Volga and Kazakhstan. Second, the resultant conclusion was reached that there was insufficient bread grain on a national basis in 1927 to meet the essential needs of the rural peasants, much less the increasing demands of the government procurements. Third, the government's 1927 policy of monopolizing all available "surpluses" on the grain market under the false assumption that these surpluses were abundant, demonstrated either naivete and incompetence, or political expediency. This monopolization contributed to a breakdown in the marketing distribution of available grain, and generally exacerbated the poor procurement situation which was publically and incorrectly blamed on the peasants' hoarding.

  10. Seismic Source Characteristics of Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. R.; Kitov, I. O.; Barker, B. W.; Sultanov, D. D.

    - During the period 1965 to 1988, the former Soviet Union (FSU) conducted over 120 peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE) at locations widely dispersed throughout the territories of the FSU. These explosions sample a much wider range of source conditions than do the historical explosions at the known nuclear test sites and, therefore, seismic data recorded from these PNE tests provide a unique resource for use in deriving improved quantitative bounds on the ranges of seismic signal characteristics which may require consideration in global monitoring of the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In this paper we summarize the results of a detailed statistical analysis of broadband seismic data recorded at the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory from 21 of these PNE tests at regional distances extending from about 7 to 19 degrees, as well as the results of theoretical waveform simulation analyses of near-regional (Δ<25km) seismic data observed from a selected sample of nine of these PNE tests. The results of these analyses have been found to be consistent with those of previous teleseismic investigations in that they indicate that the seismic source coupling efficiencies are very similar for explosions in a wide variety of hardrock and water-saturated media, while explosions in water-saturated clay are observed to have significantly higher coupling efficiencies. Moreover, the scaling of the seismic source function with explosion yield and depth of burial inferred from these analyses of the Soviet PNE data are shown to be generally consistent with the predictions of the Mueller/Murphy source model. These results suggest that the Mueller/Murphy source model can provide a reasonable basis for estimating the expected variation in regional phase spectral composition over a wide range of nuclear source conditions of potential interest in CTBT monitoring.

  11. A Summary History of Reusable Spaceplane Development in the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    Beginning the early years of space advocacy in the 1920s, the Soviets proposed a large number of winged space vehicle concepts as part of broader work on space transportation systems. These designs left an important legacy that has remained unexamined. In the 1920s, theorists and publicists such as Konstantin Tsiolkovskiy and Fridrikh Tsander were the earliest proponents of spaceplane designs. These were followed in the 1930s by the first concrete projects for rocket-propelled aircraft designed by the young Sergey Korolev. During World War II, the Soviets experimented with a number of rocket-planes, not for spaceflight, but for battle purposes. Subsequently, in the postwar years, the Soviet government for the first time funded a research project into a hypersonic winged vehicle for delivery of nuclear weapons. In later years, in the 1960s, with the growth of the Soviet space program, Soviet designers fielded a multitude of spaceplane programs that all culminated in the development of the famous Buran space shuttle. In this article, I will summarize all known hypersonic and spaceplane proposals during the Soviet era. Despite considerable funding, none of the spaceplane designs ever reached operational status. My goal is to highlight the technological lineage of Soviet and Russian reusable spaceplane concepts in the hope of illuminating design approaches that have continued to influence approaches to developing space transportation systems.

  12. This weapon called peace: The doctrine and strategy of Soviet arms control and disarmament policy

    SciTech Connect

    Trifan, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    The strategy of Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be summarized in what we have termed the ratchet strategy of peaceful coexistence, in which a strategic advance is achieved through the tactics of multiple and indirect lines of approach, legitimized through invocation of peaceful coexistence, and made permanent and irreversible both by treaties and agreements and by the increasing military capability of the Soviet Union and her allies. This strategy is unchanged from World War II until today. Soviet strategic thought is based on the writings of V. I. Lenin; and both Lenin's strategic concepts and Soviet disarmament and arms-control strategy bear a striking resemblance to the precepts expressed by the 4th-century B.C. Chinese strategist Sun Tzu in the Art of War. This dissertation examines not only the strategic content of this policy, but the doctrinal components of Soviet disarmament and arms control strategy. The doctrinal principles must be derived through examination of: authoritative political and strategic writings, records of negotiations and negotiating positions, treaties and agreements, data concerning weapons systems, and the relationship of these to observed political and strategic developments during the period under examination. The doctrinal principles behind this strategy are: (1) the primary purpose of peaceful coexistence is the undermining of imperialism, (2) any means are permissible in the pursuit of peace strategy, and (3) the motive force for this strategy is Marxist-Leninist ideology, with the ultimate goal being the worldwide imposition of socialism in its Soviet variety. Shifts in Soviet policy are tactical instead of strategic in nature; and in keeping with the Soviet idea of the correlation of forces this strategy can be termed a time-fluid two-player zero-sum game. Consequently, Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be a weapon called peace.

  13. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  14. Aspects of Medical Care of Soviet Jewish Emigrés

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, Mary E.; Brownstein, Harold; Kvitash, Vadim

    1983-01-01

    Soviet Jewish emigrés are a recently arrived refugee group in San Francisco and in other cities in the United States. They have frequently been perceived as a demanding and complaining population, particularly the elderly, often chronically ill members. These behaviors can also be seen as positive survival mechanisms that have evolved in response to the Soviet health care system and cultural background. An understanding of that background and system, together with time, greatly improves the interaction between Soviet Jewish patients and American physicians. PMID:6666107

  15. Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and The Space Race, 1945-1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, Asif A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is, in essence, sixteen years in the making. First attempted to compile a history of the Soviet space program in 1982 author put together a rough chronology of the main events. A decade later, while living on a couch in a college friend's apartment, he began writing what would be a short history of the Soviet lunar landing program. The first draft was sixty-nine pages long. Late the following year, he decided to expand the topic to handle all early Soviet piloted exploration programs. That work eventually grew into what you are holding in your hand now.

  16. [Diet for the first expedition of Soviet climbers to Mount Everest].

    PubMed

    Belakovskiĭ, M S; Voskoboĭnikov, V A; Guliaev, V N; Zakharenko, T S; Senkevich, Iu A

    1984-01-01

    Biomedical requirements for the diets to be used by the Soviet mountaineers during their Everest expedition have been determined, employing the experience of Soviet mountaineers who have ascended the highest summits in this country, dietary data accumulated by the mountaineers who have conquered the Himalaya Mountains and the Karakoram Range, as well as current concepts of human physiology and biochemistry in highlands. This paper presents the major nutritional parameters of the diets and the arrangement of meals. The Soviet mountaineers were on the whole happy with the diets and showed no disorders in the health state, gastrointestinal system or digestive function that can be of nutritional origin.

  17. Soviet Integration into the World Economy. Report of the Strategy for Peace, U.S. Foreign Policy Conference (29th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 13-15, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    Since coming to power, Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has undertaken an ambitious program to reform the Soviet economy. Perestroika touches every aspect of Soviet economic life, including relations with the international economy. Soviet specialists and international economists must find common ground so that they can successfully…

  18. Strategic-planning framework for predicting and evaluating Soviet interests in arms control. Volume 1. Final report, September 1987-August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kartchner, K.M.

    1988-08-01

    This report distinguishes between Soviet interest in (1) making arms control proposals; (2) negotiating arms control agreements; (3) signing arms control treaties; and (4) actually complying with agreements once signed. It suggests that four sets of factors condition Soviet arms control interests at each of these levels: (1) Soviet threat perceptions; (2) Soviet bargaining leverage; (3) Soviet leadership stability; and (4) Soviet foreign policy orientation. Specific reference is made to strategic nuclear arms control issues. Four conditions are identified as prerequisites for Soviet interest in reaching agreement on strategic arms reductions, thus providing a basis for policy forecasting.

  19. Soviet-U.S. Summit: Science Accords Open the Way to Joint Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Constance

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the agreements between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on cooperation in a number of scientific and technical fields signed during the 1972 Moscow summit meetings. (AL)

  20. Mutations in Soviet public health science: post-Lysenko medical genetics, 1969-1991.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    This paper traces the integration of human genetics with Soviet public health science after the Lysenko era. For nearly three decades, USSR biology pursued its own version of anti-bourgeois, Soviet 'creative Darwinism', departing from western, post-WWII scientific developments. After Lysenko was suspended, research niches of immunology, biophysics and mutation research formed the basis of new departments at the Institute of Medical Genetics, which was founded in 1969 as part of the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences. Focussing on early research activities and collaborations at the institute, I show how the concept of mutagenesis, a pivotal issue during the Cold War, became mobilized from Drosophila genetics to human heredity and to society as a whole. This mode of scaling up and down through population studies shaped not only Soviet human biology and genetics; it also brought about changes in clinical practice and public health as well as in the monitoring and regulation of mutagenic agents in the environment.

  1. Soviet Pedagogical Research: Classroom Studies: 1. Cognitive Theories of Development and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Janice T.

    1980-01-01

    Soviet teaching experiments, based on the research of P. Ia. Galperin and of V. V. Davydov, are described, in which children are taught abstract concepts before they are provided with concrete examples. (GDC)

  2. [Analysis of patenting vaccine-serum preparations in the Soviet Union].

    PubMed

    Shepelev, N P; Dzagurov, S G; Korovkin, V I

    1976-11-01

    Patenting practice of vaccine-serum preparations in the Soviet Union is not uniform. A compelx maintenance of the object, i.e. patenting of the preparation proper and the method of its production is of interest. PMID:1007724

  3. Observations of the snow cover in the southern part of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefedeva, Y. A.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the snow cover, as a function of various natural factors, in sectors of the southern part of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic were examined. The thawing process is also discussed.

  4. Space activities in the Soviet Union, Japan, and the People's Republic of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezell, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    The space programs of the Soviet Union, Japan, and China are discussed. The types of launch vehicles they used and the classes of spacecraft they launched are examined. The political motivations of these nations are analyzed.

  5. Large oil resource awaits exploitation in former Soviet Union's Muslim republics

    SciTech Connect

    Riva, J.P. Jr. )

    1993-01-04

    Throughout the dramatic breakup of the Soviet Union, most of the attention was focused on the Russian federation. This paper reports that less notice was paid to the republics of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, and Tadzhikistan that are located along the Soviet southern fringe. This region was known as the Northern Tier (of the Middle East) when the six republics were forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union by the Red Army after the revolution. The Russians were considered colonial rulers by the inhabitants of these Muslim states, whereas the Azeris, Turkmen, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Tajiks, Kyrgyzs, etc., were often regarded as backward by the Russians and given little autonomy. The Soviets, while proclaiming their efforts to improve public health and protect nature, relentlessly degraded both.

  6. Mutations in Soviet public health science: post-Lysenko medical genetics, 1969-1991.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    This paper traces the integration of human genetics with Soviet public health science after the Lysenko era. For nearly three decades, USSR biology pursued its own version of anti-bourgeois, Soviet 'creative Darwinism', departing from western, post-WWII scientific developments. After Lysenko was suspended, research niches of immunology, biophysics and mutation research formed the basis of new departments at the Institute of Medical Genetics, which was founded in 1969 as part of the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences. Focussing on early research activities and collaborations at the institute, I show how the concept of mutagenesis, a pivotal issue during the Cold War, became mobilized from Drosophila genetics to human heredity and to society as a whole. This mode of scaling up and down through population studies shaped not only Soviet human biology and genetics; it also brought about changes in clinical practice and public health as well as in the monitoring and regulation of mutagenic agents in the environment. PMID:24947269

  7. Lessons learned from the former Soviet biological warfare program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Debra A.

    The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.

  8. Nuclear winter: implications for US and Soviet nuclear strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, P.J.

    1984-12-01

    In November 1983 Dr. Carl Sagan and his colleagues reported to press on the results of their study of the atmospheric consequences of nuclear war. The TTAPS study found that for a wide range of possible U.S. -Soviet nuclear exchanges, including relatively small ones, the fires from nuclear detonations would inject into the stratosphere quantities of dust and soot that would obscure sunlight for months. Under the cloud, which would spread over most of the Northern Hemisphere, temperatures might drop scores of degrees, well below the freezing point of water; thus, nuclear winter. The TTAPS team's findings suggested that the consequences of a nuclear war might be even more gruesome than previously supposed, and the long-term climatic and biological results might be nearly as severe for a war of 100 megatons as for 5,000. From the point of view of informing policymakers and the public concerning the consequences of wars involving nuclear weapons, the politicization of the nuclear winter issue is unfortunate. We can hope that in the next few years the criticism and defense of the initial TTAPS work will give rise to significant additional analyses, to illuminate the question. Realistically, further study will probably include both confirmations and contradictions of the original findings, without necessarily resolving the issue. Sadly, the surrounding political atmosphere may obstruct sober consideration of the policy implications of the possibility of nuclear winter.

  9. Culture and the environment in the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1985-03-01

    The Soviet Union is one of the most physically and culturally diverse nations on earth. Its natural environment embraces a rich variety of resources and ecosystems, many of which, such as Lake Baikal, are of world significance. Culturally, it is comprised of over a hundred ethnic groups, belonging to eight major language groups and six major religions. However, two cultures are dominant: the Slavic group (which takes in 75% of the USSR population and 80% of its land area) and the Turkic-Islamic peoples who account for the large majority of the remainder. Owing to the highly centralized nature of the country's political-administrative system, however, the effect of culture or ethnic traditions in the resolution of national environmental issues is quite small. Major decisions regarding either specific conservation issues or basic environmental policies are made at the centralized level by ministerial, planning, and Communist Party officials, and are based on pragmatically refined ideological considerations, rather than on regional cultural attitudes. This pragmatic refining of ideological considerations will involve the weighing of specific economic and environmental imperatives, and deciding on appropriate trade-offs. To find cultural expression in environmental management, one would need to look closely at local projects and approaches in the various ethnic regions, particularly the non-Slavic ones.

  10. Soviets pin big energy hopes on natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-09

    The USSR hopes to boost its gas production to at least 35.3 trillion CF/yr by 2000, with some 2.5-2.8 TCF/yr possibly going to West European markets. Prospects are good that Soviet gas flow will equal the present US production rate of 20 TCF/yr by late 1984 and will exceed 25 TCF by 1990. Total gas exports are expected to reach 2 TCF in 1980 and perhaps surpass 5 TCF/yr by 2000. The basis for these projections is the huge reserves of western Siberia: The supergiant Urengoiskoye field, which went into production in 1978, is slated to reach an output of 2.1 TCF/yr in 1980 and ultimately peak at 7.1-8.8 TCF/yr. To ensure the transmission of these large volumes of gas from remote fields to distribution centers, pipeline designers have concentrated on developing high-strength pipe (capable of sustaining operating pressures of 1469-1763 psi) and methods of cooling the gas to increase the capacity of 56-in. lines. A unique double-walled pipe - with concrete filling its annular space - should solve pipeline-flotation problems in the swampy areas of Siberia while satisfying insulation needs in permafrost regions.

  11. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Westwick, Peter J.

    2014-05-09

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of 'space-strike weapons' - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: 'I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery.' 'I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics,' said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  12. [Richard Koch's life in national socialism and in Soviet emigration].

    PubMed

    Boltres, Daniela; Töpfer, Frank; Wiesing, Urban

    2006-01-01

    The Jewish historian and theorist of medicine, Richard Koch, teaching in Frankfurt/Main, fled in 1936 from National Socialist Germany to the USSR where he lived in the Caucasian spa Essentuki until his death in 1949. Here he worked as a doctor and continued his scientific work, especially on the foundations of medicine in natural philosophy. None of his works of this time were published. Koch was a scientific outsider in the USSR, and he was aware of this. However, he tried to make his views compatible with official doctrines. In 1947 he lost his employment at the medical clinic of Essentuki, and his material situation grew worse. It is still an open question whether this development was related to an increasingly anti-Jewish atmosphere in the USSR that was linked with the Stalinist "purges", as Koch himself appeared to believe. Before his flight from Germany Koch did not show any tendency towards communism or the political left at all. His attitude towards Soviet society and Stalin was mixed: cautious criticism was accompanied by strong expressions of commitment to Stalin and Koch's new Socialist home. The question to what extent Koch's comments showed his true convictions must remain without a definite answer. At least in part they can be understood as precautions in threatening circumstances. The opportunity of a remigration to Germany after 1945, however, was turned down by Koch.

  13. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwick, Peter J.

    2014-05-01

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of "space-strike weapons" - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: "I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery." "I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics," said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  14. US experiment flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1667

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Two male young-adult rhesus monkeys were flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1667 for seven days from July 10-17, 1985. Both animals were instrumented to record neurophysiological parameters. One animal, Gordyy, was additionally instrumented to record cardiovascular changes. Space capsule and environmental parameters were very similar to those of previous missions. On Cosmos 1514, which flew for five days in 1983, one animal was fitted with a left carotid artery cuff to measure blood pressure and flow velocity. An additional feature of Cosmos 1667 was a postflight control study using the flight animal. Intermittent postural tilt tests were also conducted before and after spaceflight and synchronous control studies, to simulate the fluid shifts associated with spaceflight. The experiment results support the conclusion derived from Cosmos 1514 that significant cardiovascular changes occur with spaceflight. The changes most clearly seen were rapid initial decreases in heart rate and further decreases with continued exposure to microgravity. The triggering mechanism appeared to be a headward shift in blood and tissue fluid volume which, in turn, triggered adaptive cardiovascular changes. Adaptive changes took place rapidly and began to stabilize after the first two days of flight. However, these changes did not plateau in the animal by the last day of the mission.

  15. International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Tompson, A F B

    2003-07-27

    The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10{sup 7} TBq (6.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the historical activities of

  16. Explosion Source Phenomena Using Soviet, Test-Era, Waveform Data

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Paul G.; Rautian, Tatyana G.; Khalturin, Vitaly I.; Phillips, W. Scott

    2006-04-12

    During the nuclear testing era, the former Soviet Union carried out extensive observations of underground nuclear explosions, recording both their own shots and those of foreign nuclear states. Between 1961 and 1989, the Soviet Complex Seismological Expedition deployed seismometers at time-varying subsets of over 150 sites to record explosions at regional distances from the Semipalatinsk and Lop Nor test sites and from the shot points of peaceful nuclear explosions. This data set included recordings from broadband, multi-channel ChISS seismometers that produced a series of narrow band outputs, which could then be measured to perform spectral studies. [ChISS is the Russian abbreviation for multichannel spectral seismometer. In this instrument the signal from the seismometer is passed through a system of narrow bandpass filters and recorded on photo paper. ChISS instruments have from 8 to 16 channels in the frequency range from 100 sec to 40 Hz. We used data mostly from 7 channels, ranging from 0.08 to 5 Hz.] Quantitative, pre-digital era investigations of high-frequency source scaling relied on this type of data. To augment data sets of central Central Asia explosions, we have measured and compiled 537 ChISS coda envelopes for 124 events recorded at Talgar, Kazakhstan, at a distance of about 750 km from Semipalatinsk. Envelopes and calibration levels were measured manually from photo paper records for seven bands between 0.08 and 5 Hz. We obtained from 2 to 10 coda envelope measurements per event, depending on the event size and instrument magnification. Coda lengths varied from 250 to 1400 s. For small events, only bands between 0.6 and 2.5 Hz could be measured. Envelope levels were interpolated or extrapolated to 500 s and we have obtained the dependence of this quantity on magnitude. Coda Q was estimated and found to increase from 232 at 0.08 Hz to 1270 at 5 Hz. These relationships were used to construct an average scaling law of coda spectra for Semipalatinsk

  17. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling.

    PubMed

    Healey, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice.

  18. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling.

    PubMed

    Healey, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice. PMID:24128434

  19. Possible cause of plumes from Bennett Island, Soviet Far Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W.; Amand, P.S.; Matson, M.

    1986-05-01

    Since 1974, NOAA satellites have shown more than 150 plumes coming from the vicinity of Bennett Island in the Soviet far Arctic (long 149/sup 0/3'E, lat 76/sup 0/7'N). These plumes, which may be hundreds of kilometers long and as much as 30 km wide at the origin, start and end abruptly. Multiple sources occur. Infrared imagery indicates that the plumes are as cold as -45/sup 0/C. The geologic section on Bennett Island suggests that the region is gas prone. Lower Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks lie unconformably on Cambrian-Ordovician sedimentary rocks. At the base of the Cretaceous is a 20-m thick section of sandstone, dark shale, and coal beds. Bennett Island is now 500 km from mainland Siberia; however, during most of the last 5 m.y., it was part of the mainland, and the nearest sea was 350 km north. Permafrost would have developed throughout this entire area. Within this permafrost zone, methane derived from the Cretaceous coal beds would have gone into the hydrate form. With the relatively recent melting of the great continental ice sheets and accompanying rise in sea level, the region around Bennett Island has been covered by tens of meters of water. Permafrost and associated hydrates are unstable under such conditions and have begun to break up. The authors propose that methane, released by breakup of the permafrost and accompanying hydrate, escapes periodically into the atmosphere, expands adiabatically, and in the process entrains particles of hydrate, water, and clay. These particles cause condensation of atmospheric moisture, forming the plumes that are observed by the satellites.

  20. Research and analytical evaluation of the Soviet Union and modernization of nuclear weapons forces in Europe. Final report, 15 May 80-30 Mar 82

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberg, M.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides an indepth of the Soviet campaign against NATO nuclear modernization. It examines the background of Soviet efforts against NATO since its inception, with particular emphasis on precursor Soviet campaigns against NATO nuclear armaments. It surveys in detail Soviet views and actions against the 1979 NATO decision on deployment of Pershing II and cruise missiles in Europe, analyzes Soviet concerns about the possibility of such deployment, and explores likely Soviet countermoves before, immediately after and for an extended period following implementation of the NATO decision.

  1. The specter of post-communism: women and alcohol in eight post-Soviet states.

    PubMed

    Hinote, Brian Philip; Cockerham, William C; Abbott, Pamela

    2009-04-01

    Because men have borne the heaviest burden of premature mortality in the former Soviet Union, women have for the most part been overlooked in studies of the health crisis in this part of the world. A considerable body of research points to alcohol consumption among males as a primary lifestyle cause of premature mortality. However, the extent to which alcohol use has penetrated the female population following the collapse of communism and how this consumption is associated with other social factors is less well-understood. Accordingly, this paper investigates alcohol consumption in eight republics of the former USSR - Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine using data collected in 2001. More specifically, discussion of gender role transformations and the historical experiences of women during the Soviet era emphasize two potentially important social influences examined in this analysis: psychological distress and Soviet political ideology. Findings suggest that distress is only weakly statistically associated with frequent drinking behavior among women, but results for political ideology show that this factor is statistically and significantly associated with drinking behaviors. Alcohol consumption was not particularly common among women under communism, but trends have been changing. Our discussion suggests that, after the collapse of the Soviet state, women are more able to embrace behavioral practices related to alcohol, and many may do so as an overt rejection of traditional Soviet norms and values. Findings are also discussed within the context of current epidemiological trends and future research directions in these eight republics.

  2. Historical aspects of the early Soviet/Russian manned space program.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2001-10-01

    Human spaceflight was one of the great physiological and engineering triumphs of the 20th century. Although the history of the United States manned space program is well known, the Soviet program was shrouded in secrecy until recently. Konstantin Edvardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) was an extraordinary Russian visionary who made remarkable predictions about space travel in the late 19th century. Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (1907-1966) was the brilliant "Chief Designer" who was responsible for many of the Soviet firsts, including the first artificial satellite and the first human being in space. The dramatic flight of Sputnik 1 was followed within a month by the launch of the dog Laika, the first living creature in space. Remarkably, the engineering work for this payload was all done in less than 4 wk. Korolev's greatest triumph was the flight of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934-1968) on April 12, 1961. Another extraordinary feat was the first extravehicular activity by Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov (1934-) using a flexible airlock that emphasized the entrepreneurial attitude of the Soviet engineers. By the mid-1960s, the Soviet program was overtaken by the United States program and attempts to launch a manned mission to the Moon failed. However, the early Soviet manned space program has a preeminent place in the history of space physiology.

  3. Historical aspects of the early Soviet/Russian manned space program.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2001-10-01

    Human spaceflight was one of the great physiological and engineering triumphs of the 20th century. Although the history of the United States manned space program is well known, the Soviet program was shrouded in secrecy until recently. Konstantin Edvardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) was an extraordinary Russian visionary who made remarkable predictions about space travel in the late 19th century. Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (1907-1966) was the brilliant "Chief Designer" who was responsible for many of the Soviet firsts, including the first artificial satellite and the first human being in space. The dramatic flight of Sputnik 1 was followed within a month by the launch of the dog Laika, the first living creature in space. Remarkably, the engineering work for this payload was all done in less than 4 wk. Korolev's greatest triumph was the flight of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934-1968) on April 12, 1961. Another extraordinary feat was the first extravehicular activity by Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov (1934-) using a flexible airlock that emphasized the entrepreneurial attitude of the Soviet engineers. By the mid-1960s, the Soviet program was overtaken by the United States program and attempts to launch a manned mission to the Moon failed. However, the early Soviet manned space program has a preeminent place in the history of space physiology. PMID:11568130

  4. MENC and the National Anthem: From the Early 1900s to Today's National Anthem Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontiff, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the history of the United States, music educators have played an important role in building national unity by teaching students to sing the songs of their country. Beginning with the entire May-June 1942 issue of "Music Educators Journal" devoted to the nation's war effort following the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, MENC set the…

  5. Political Repression Against Soviet Astronomers in the 1930s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremmeva, A. I.

    1993-12-01

    The Soviet government's repression of the Russian intelligentsia in the late 1930s had a devastating effect on astronomy. This period was marked by the strengthening of a rigid ideology in society and a growing atmosphere of suspicion, fear, and spy mania. Under these conditions the international nature of astronomy--in particular the need for foreign contacts--became the excuse for accusations of "wrecking" against astronomers. The fate of individual astronomers and institutions depended greatly, however, on local circumstances. For example, the general political repression of the 1930s began in Leningrad at a time when Pulkovo Observatory director B. P. Gerasimovich was engaged in a sharp conflict with a small group of junior staff led by V. A. Ambartsumian. In addition, the very first arrest of a Leningrad astronomer--namely the arrest of B. V. Numerov--appears to have initiated a cascading series of arrests that spread like an avalanche through the close-knit com- munity of Leningrad astronomers. These two factors led to the devastating ruin of Pulkovo. Completely different circumstances saved GAISh. This was a com- paratively young institute whose junior staff had spent its formative years at GAISh rather than joining the staff from out- side (as had been the case at Pulkovo). Thus the GAISh staff had a greater degree of homogeneity and solidarity, and this, in turn, may explain why the ideological department at GAISh (the "partburo") conducted itself in a manner that differed sharply from that of the "partburo" at Pulkovo. Thanks to these circum- stances not even one arrest occurred at GAISh. The directors of Pulkovo and GAISh came from very similar back- grounds, but the different conditions at Pulkovo and GAISh led to dramatic differences in their fates: execution for B. P. Gerasimovich in 1937 and "only" the persecution of GAISh director V. G. Fesenkov. The persecution of V. G. Fesenkov included his dismissal from the post of chairman of the Astronomical

  6. Scientific basis for the Soviet and Russian radiofrequency standards for the general public.

    PubMed

    Repacholi, Michael; Grigoriev, Yuri; Buschmann, Jochen; Pioli, Claudio

    2012-12-01

    The former Soviet Union (USSR) and the USA were the first countries to introduce standards limiting exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. However, the exposure limits in the USSR standards were always much lower than those in the USA and other countries. The objective of this article is to provide a history of the development of the Soviet and Russian RF standards. In addition, we summarize the scientific evidence used to develop the original USSR RF and subsequent Russian public health standards, as well as the mobile telecommunications standard published in 2003, but we do not critique them. We also describe the protective approaches used by the Soviet and Russian scientists for setting their limits. A translation of the papers of the key studies used to develop their standards is available in the online version of this publication.

  7. Mapping the Moon, Venus and Mars - The Soviet Lunar and Planetary Photographic and Map Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, B.

    The Soviet Union engaged in an extensive programme for the exploration of the moon, Mars and Venus from 1958 to 1989. Most attention has focused on the engineering and political aspects of these missions. It is sometimes overlooked that one of the principal objectives of these missions was to compile maps and atlases of these solar system bodies, this being done through a variety of photographic devices and radar. Here we review the Soviet project to map the moon, Mars and Venus and the key role played in the project by Yuri Lipsky and the Sternberg Astronomical Institute. This paper reviews the methods used, the mapping outcomes of the missions and the Soviet photographic collection; and questions whether there are still archived images that we have yet to see.

  8. Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Leo S.

    1999-06-04

    During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic.

  9. The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task".

    PubMed

    Latypov, Alisher B

    2011-12-30

    This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not) to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1].

  10. The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task"

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not) to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1]. PMID:22208726

  11. Effects of the Cosmos 1129 Soviet paste diet on body composition in the growing rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.; Pitts, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    Six Simonsen albino rats (45 days of age) were placed on a regimen of 40 g/day the semipurified Soviet paste diet used in the 18.5 day Cosmos 1129 spacecraft was to support the rats for various experiments on the physiological effects of weightlessness. The animals were maintained on the Soviet paste diet for 35 days, metabolic rate was measured and body composition was determined by direct analysis. The results were compared with a control group of rates of the same age, which had been kept on a standard commercial grain diet during the same period of time.

  12. [The negative consequences of the joint session of the 2 Academies in Soviet biological psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Kostandov, E A

    1990-12-01

    The liquidation of the scientific school in the brain pathology based by distinguished psychiatrist A. S. Shmar'ian, serves as an example of the negative role in the development of Soviet psychiatry played by the joint session of the USSR Acad. Sci. and Acad. Med. Sci. dedicated to the problems of I. P. Pavlov's physiological theory (June-July, 1950), and the joint session of the Presidium of the USSR Acad. Med. Sci. and the National Society of Neurologists and Psychiatrists (October, 1951). The absurd fight against dissidence in science harmed the studies in neuropsychiatry, where Soviet school had been among the most advanced world schools.

  13. Soviet Jews in the United States: an analysis of their linguistic and economic adjustment.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, B R

    1993-01-01

    "This article reviews the literature and analyzes 1980 Census data to study English language fluency and earnings among Soviet Jews [in the United States]. The literature review reveals: 1) the importance of employment and attaining premigration occupational status for self-esteem; 2) the difficulty of adjusting to the wide range of choices in the United States; 3) the greater difficulty and economic importance of learning English; and 4) the rapid linguistic and economic mobility. The multivariate analysis supports the latter two points. Soviet Jews have a difficult initial adjustment, but after five years in the United States they achieve parity in English fluency and earnings with other European immigrants, ceteris paribus."

  14. The apocalypse of Western technology: Transforming American ingenuity into a resource of the Soviet state

    SciTech Connect

    Revo, L.E.; Figelski, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the threat facing the United States and other Westsern societies from the intelligence services of the Soviet Union and their surrogates among the Eastern European services. We will discuss some of their methodology for acquiring the high technology often lacking in the Soviet Union. We will also outline a basic Operations Security (OPSEC) program, that provides measures for increasing employee awareness of the threat and the consequences which can result from the loss or compromise of classified or sensitive information to those services.

  15. Soviet Revolutionary Films in America (1926-1935). Part One: The Theoretical Impact. Part Two: The Practical Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petric, Vladimir K.

    In order to test the hypothesis that Soviet revolutionary films influenced American film makers' attitudes concerning the importance of form and structure through editing, this dissertation explores the areas of affinity and contrast between the two national cinemas during the period when Soviet silent films were originally released in the United…

  16. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fee prescribed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1) and in accordance with the form instructions. (b) Aliens eligible... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for Fiscal...

  17. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fee prescribed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1) and in accordance with the form instructions. (b) Aliens eligible... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for Fiscal...

  18. 76 FR 32388 - Determination and Waiver Relating to Assistance for the Independent States of the Former Soviet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination and Waiver Relating to Assistance for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union... of the Former Soviet Union. Pursuant to the authority vested in me as Deputy Secretary of...

  19. Initial stages of the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet union (60 years from the Invention of the Transistor)

    SciTech Connect

    Stafeev, V. I.

    2010-05-15

    The most important results of the early work of Soviet scientists in the research and development in the fields of semiconductors and semiconductor devices are reported, including results that are almost unknown now but played an important role in the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet Union.

  20. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fee prescribed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1) and in accordance with the form instructions. (b) Aliens eligible... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for Fiscal...

  1. Dosimetric investigations of cosmic radiation aboard the Kosmos-936 AES (joint Soviet-American experiment K-206)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Kovalyev, Y. Y.; Dudkin, V. Y.

    1980-01-01

    The Soviet and American parts of the experiment are described separately. Particular attention was given to the following problems: placement of the detectors; study of neutron radiation within the biosatellite; and studies of fragmentation of heavy nuclei on accelerators. Unified methods were developed for the calibration of Soviet and American detectors.

  2. "Least Known to Americans": Content Materials about the Soviet Union in the 1940s and 1950s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Anatoli

    2006-01-01

    In December 1984 when the Soviet Union still was an "evil empire" and the United States "encroached on the achievements of Socialism," Ira Jay Winn wrote, "students who scream "Kill the Russkies" or who believe that the Soviets fought against us in World War II... are not simply ignorant of historical facts or the power of words; they are living…

  3. [History of the management of medical supply system of the Soviet army during the World War II 1941-1945].

    PubMed

    Radysh, Ia F

    2004-01-01

    The article considers the management of medical care in the soviet army during the World War II 1941-1945. One of the main reasons of an ineffective management of medical care in the soviet army, after the author's opinion, was heavy tolls among medical care staff as well as medical military personnel hadn't any protection from the International Genevan Convention.

  4. Teaching a Course on the Soviet Press: Some Pedagogical Applications and Recommendations for Increasing our Russian Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kevin J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes benefits of teaching a course on the Soviet press to Russian language students, including the opportunity to integrate practical considerations of reading and conversation skills with theoretical considerations of philosophy and principles of mass communication in the Soviet Union. (Author/BK)

  5. A comparative study of soviet versus western helicopters. Part 2: Evaluation of weight, maintainability and design aspects of major components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.; Shinn, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed comparative insight into design and operational philosophies of Soviet vs. Western helicopters is provided. This is accomplished by examining conceptual approaches, productibility and maintainability, and weight trends/prediction methodology. Extensive use of Soviet methodology (Tishchenko) to various weight classes of helicopters is compared to the results of using Western based methodology.

  6. The Russian Identity and Values in the Post-Soviet Era: Learning from the Past to Reinvent the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.; Herman, Bryan K.; Sanatullova-Allison, Elvira

    2007-01-01

    This paper employed a psychological-historical framework for an analytical examination of the Russian identity during the Soviet period through the fall of the Soviet Union and the transitional period that led to an establishment of the Russian Federation. A theoretical model is provided for the analysis of Russian identity that can be generalized…

  7. United States Security and the Soviet Challenge. Report of a Wingspread Briefing (Racine, Wisconsin, June 29, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLain, Douglas, Jr.

    Six presentations, an introduction, and a summary discussion are included in this publication, which focuses on the various complex factors involved in the negotiation of arms control agreements with the Soviet Union. Titles of the six presentations are: (1) Critical Issues in the United States-Soviet Relationship; (2) Basic Elements of Strategic…

  8. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (water-cooled water-moderated atomic energy reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document contains apprendices A through P of this report. Topics discussed are: a cronyms and technical terms, accident analyses reactivity control; Soviet safety regulations; radionuclide inventory; decay heat; operations and maintenance; steam supply system; concrete and concrete structures; seismicity; site information; neutronic parameters; loss of electric power; diesel generator reliability; Soviet codes and standards; and comparisons of PWR and VVER features. (FI)

  9. Breakup of the Soviet State and Disintegration of the Renowned Sport System. The Future of Athletics in the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zibberman, Victor; Andersen, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    Two articles examine athletics in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The first discusses the disintegration of the Soviet sport system following the Soviet Union's breakup. The second examines the future of CIS athletics which, it is claimed, may never again reach the stature achieved by the Soviet Union. (SM)

  10. Teaching Place, Assembling the Nation: Local Studies in Soviet Ukrainian Schools during the 1920s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauly, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the Soviet introduction of local studies to Ukrainian schools during the 1920s. It argues that, through their efforts at pedagogical reform, educational planners sought a fundamental re-imagining of place. The Ukrainian Commissariat of Education asked teachers and their students to engage the "productive" world surrounding…

  11. Teacher Collaboration, Mentorship, and Intergenerational Gap in Post-Soviet Ukrainian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the interconnections between mentoring and teacher collaboration in view of the intergenerational gap between experienced and novice educators in the post-Soviet Ukraine. The conceptual framework utilized a constructive postmodern perspective as an analytical lens and examined mentorship as a collaborative form of teacher…

  12. Soviet Education: A Bibliography of English-Language Materials. Bulletin, 1964, No. 29. OE-14101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apanasewicz, Nellie

    1964-01-01

    The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to provide researchers, analysts, teachers, and advanced students interested in various aspects of Soviet education with a body of reference materials covering the large number of relevant articles and monographs which have been published since the late 1950s. The bibliography includes 281 titles,…

  13. Microfossils in conophyton from the soviet union and their bearing on precambrian biostratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Schopf, J W; Sovietov, Y K

    1976-07-01

    Silicified specimens of the Vendian (late Precambrian) "index fossil" Conophyton gaubitza from South Kazakstan contain a diverse assemblage of well-preserved cyanophytic and apparently eukaryotic algae, the first stromatolitic microbiota to be reported from the Soviet Union. Unlike the stromatolites in which they occur, the microorganisms that apparently built this form of Conophyton did not become extinct at the end of the Precambrian.

  14. Acculturation, School Context, and School Outcomes: Adaptation of Refugee Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickett, Edison J.; Birman, Dina

    2005-01-01

    A differentiated model of acculturation was used to assess the relationship of acculturative styles to school adaptation among a group of 110 refugee adolescents from the former Soviet Union. Acculturation was assessed with respect to both American and Russian cultures and, within each culture, distinguished among language competence, behavior,…

  15. Internationalization of Higher Education in Post-Soviet Small States: Realities and Perspectives of Moldova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnarenko, Valentyna; Cojocari, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Internationalization of higher education has become a priority for many universities in post-Soviet small states. Focusing on international communication networks, student mobility, or international curriculum development, universities invest human and financial resources to prepare graduates to meet global challenges. Globalization and…

  16. Critical Thinking as Culture: Teaching Post-Soviet Teachers in Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the question of whether critical thinking can eventually become part of the cultural fabric in Kazakhstan, a country whose Soviet educational system not only trained teachers to memorise, lecture and intimidate students but also created a culture in educational institutions fraught with many fear-based behaviours engendering…

  17. Infant mortality in Kyrgyzstan before and after the break-up of the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Michel; Lim, So-Jung; Torgasheva, Liudmila; Denisenko, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    There is a great deal of uncertainty over the levels of, and trends in, infant mortality in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. As a result, the impact of the break-up of the Soviet Union on infant mortality in the region is not known, and proper monitoring of mortality levels is impaired. In this paper, a variety of data sources and methods are used to assess levels of infant mortality and their trend over time in one Central Asian republic, Kyrgyzstan, between 1980 and 2010. An abrupt halt to an already established decline in infant mortality was observed to occur during the decade following the break-up of the Soviet Union, contradicting the official statistics based on vital registration. Infants of Central Asian ethnicity and those born in rural areas were also considerably more at risk of mortality than suggested by the official sources. We discuss the implications of these findings, both for health policy in this seldom studied part of the former Soviet Union and for our understanding of the health crisis which it currently faces.

  18. Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York State…

  19. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis STI, a Sterne-Like Georgian/Soviet Vaccine Strain.

    PubMed

    Okinaka, Richard T; Challacombe, Jean; Drees, Kevin; Birdsell, Dawn N; Janke, Nicolette; Naumann, Amber; Seymour, Meagan; Hornstra, Heidie; Schupp, James; Sahl, Jason; Foster, Jeffrey T; Pearson, Talima; Turnbull, Peter; Keim, Paul

    2014-09-18

    The Bacillus anthracis strain STI is a Soviet vaccine strain that lacks the pXO2 plasmid. Previous data indicate that this isolate forms a new branch within the B. anthracis sub-group originally identified as A. Br.008/009.

  20. Identity Loss and Recovery in the Life Stories of Soviet World War II Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Peter G.; Podolskij, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the adjustment to societal change following the fall of communism in a group of Soviet war veterans from Russia and the Ukraine. The focus of the study was on the dynamics of identity development, and especially generativity, in a period of intense social upheaval. Design and Methods: We administered measures of self-esteem,…

  1. [THE FORMATION OF HEALTHY LIFE-STYLE OF SOVIET YOUTH IN 1920S-1930s YEARS].

    PubMed

    Sakharov, V A; Sakharova, L G

    2015-01-01

    The article considers analysis of social pedagogical aspects of problem of formation of healthy life-style in youth in the Soviet Russia in 1920-1930s years in the course of public policy and as well as in theory and practice of national pedagogics.

  2. Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

  3. Suicide in Inmates in Nazis and Soviet Concentration Camps: Historical Overview and Critique.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Cuerda-Galindo, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL), Soviet special camps, and gulags, providing some preliminary data for our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment of death penalty), while available data on Soviet gulags are contradictory. However, data interpretation is very controversial, because, for example, the Nazi KL authorities used to cover-up the murder victims as suicides. Most of the suicides were committed in the first years of imprisonment, and the method of suicide most commonly used was hanging, although other methods included cutting blood vessels, poisoning, contact with electrified wire, or starvation. It is possible to differentiate two behaviors when committing suicide; impulsive behavior (contact with electrified barbed wire fences) or premeditated suicide (hanging up or through poison). In Soviet special camps, possible motives for suicides could include feelings of guilt for crimes committed, fear of punishment, and a misguided understanding of honor on the eve of criminal trials. Self-destructive behaviors, such as self-mutilation in gulag camps or prisoners who let themselves die, have been widely reported. Committing suicide in concentration camps was a common practice, although precise data may be impossible to obtain.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories interactions with organizations in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, G.H.; Nokes, K.D.

    1994-03-01

    This document describes Sandia National Laboratories involvement with scientists and engineers at various organizations within the states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The purpose of these interactions is twofold: first, to acquire technical information to enhance United States technology and second, to assist FSU states in converting their defense-oriented industry to civilian, market- oriented business.

  5. De-Sovietizing Educational Systems: Learning from Past Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Cathy C.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the ending of reform efforts in the former Soviet Union immediately prior to the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Indicates that inadequate facilities and resources, lack of trained personnel, promotion on noneducational grounds, economic hardship, and bureaucratic resistance hindered these reforms. (15 references)…

  6. The Antifascist Classroom: Denazification in Soviet-Occupied Germany, 1945-1949

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blessing, Benita

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the history of the "new school" that developed in the immediate postwar period and its role in communicating antifascism to young people in the Soviet zone. Blessing traces how the decisions about how to educate young people after twelve years of a National Socialist dictatorship became part of a broader discussion about the…

  7. Earthquake prediction in the Soviet Union; an interview with I. L. Nersesov

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1980-01-01

    Dr. I. L. Nersesov is a seismologist with the Institute of Physics of the Earth, Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R., Moscow. He is one of the leaders in the Soviet national program of earthquake prediction. 

  8. The development of soviet optics and spectroscopy during the past fifty years.

    PubMed

    Frish, S

    1967-11-01

    A history of Soviet spectroscopy is given, with special emphasis on various areas indicating the earliest workers in each specialty and their principal successors; for example, the work of Rozhdestvenskii (anomalous dispersion); Fok (self-consistant field calculations), Terenin (photochemistry, atomic beams), Mandelstam (combination scattering), Vavilov (luminescence, quantum properties of light), Cerenkov (radiation), Chaika (atomic lifetimes), Gross (excitons), and Volkenstein (molecular vibrations).

  9. An Enigmatic Embrace: Problems of Regulating the Effects of New Communication Technologies in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Eric

    The telecommunication revolution in the USSR is creating structural change in the culture, encompassing media, societal, and ideological systems. In the process, it is replacing traditional Soviet collectivist values with individualist, western values. Increasingly easy access to western ideas through VCRs, direct broadcast satellites (DBS), and…

  10. Recent Developments in Soviet Research on the Verbal Control of Voluntary Motor Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Larry

    The study of verbal behavior has a long history in the Soviet Union, and some of the studies, especially those related to verbal conditioning and learning, have had considerable impact on Western research, particularly in the United States. The view set forth in this paper is that "voluntary behavior" is only that behavior which is verbally…

  11. Changes in Estonian General Education from the Collapse of the Soviet Union to EU Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Edgar; Trasberg, Karmen

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces and discusses the nature and development of Estonian system of general education in the period of last thirty years. The main focus is paid on the changes resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the period of integration leading up to EU entry. Also changes in other spheres of education and social life are…

  12. The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

  13. Adolescents Educated in Israel and in the Soviet Union: Differences in Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Moral judgments of Israeli and Soviet educated adolescents who had recently arrived in Israel were compared on a relativistic-realistic dimension, using a specially designed instrument - the Morality Shifting in Adolescence Questionnaire. Soviety educated adolescents were significantly more realistically oriented in moral judgment and in both…

  14. Human Capital--Economic Growth Nexus in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the role and impact of higher education on per capita economic growth in the Former Soviet Bloc. It attempts to estimate the significance of educational levels for initiating substantial economic growth that now takes place in these two countries. This study estimates a system of linear and log-linear equations that account for…

  15. The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kourotchkina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review…

  16. Suicide in Inmates in Nazis and Soviet Concentration Camps: Historical Overview and Critique

    PubMed Central

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Cuerda-Galindo, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL), Soviet special camps, and gulags, providing some preliminary data for our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment of death penalty), while available data on Soviet gulags are contradictory. However, data interpretation is very controversial, because, for example, the Nazi KL authorities used to cover-up the murder victims as suicides. Most of the suicides were committed in the first years of imprisonment, and the method of suicide most commonly used was hanging, although other methods included cutting blood vessels, poisoning, contact with electrified wire, or starvation. It is possible to differentiate two behaviors when committing suicide; impulsive behavior (contact with electrified barbed wire fences) or premeditated suicide (hanging up or through poison). In Soviet special camps, possible motives for suicides could include feelings of guilt for crimes committed, fear of punishment, and a misguided understanding of honor on the eve of criminal trials. Self-destructive behaviors, such as self-mutilation in gulag camps or prisoners who let themselves die, have been widely reported. Committing suicide in concentration camps was a common practice, although precise data may be impossible to obtain. PMID:27303312

  17. Soviet Education Policy 1917-1935: From Ideology to Bureaucratic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon

    1988-01-01

    Examining early Soviet educational policy, Lauglo analyzes the initial expression of Marxist humanist values, popular participation, and the value of productive work for general education. Discusses the routinization into a Stalinist pattern of bureaucratically controlled utilitarianism and comments briefly on recent indications of change in…

  18. Microfossils in Conophyton from the Soviet Union and their bearing on Precambrian biostratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. W.; Sovetov, Iu. K.

    1976-01-01

    Silicified specimens of the Vendian (late Precambrian) 'index fossil' Conophyton gaubitza from South Kazakstan contain a diverse assemblage of well-preserved cyanophytic and apparently eukaryotic algae, the first stromatolitic microbiota to be reported from the Soviet Union. Unlike the stromatolites in which they occur, the microorganisms that apparently built this form of Conophyton did not become extinct at the end of the Precambrian.

  19. The Revival of Agrarian Youth Organizations in the Former Soviet Union: Lithuania--One Country's Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, M. Craig; Thuemmel, William L.; Kisieliene, Sonata

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of the origin of young farmers' organizations in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s and their second beginning since the fall of communism, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the regaining of Lithuania's independence in the 1990s. (Author/JOW)

  20. Redefining Schooling and Community in Post-Soviet Kazakstan: Tokash Bokin and the School at Aikkanar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J.; Nadirbekyzy, Bakhytkul

    Since the Soviet Union disbanded in 1991, the schools of the new Republic of Kazakstan have focused on rediscovering national history and culture, while the form and structure of schooling have also undergone major changes. This paper describes the current situation at a rural school--Tokash Bokin--in the context of the history of Russian and…

  1. From Brezhnev Doctrine to New Thinking: Soviet Reforms and European Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaszewski, Witold J.

    Mikhail Gorbachev has drastically altered the foreign policy of the Soviet Union, and in so doing has also brought about a new international political reality for all of Europe. This paper contrasts Gorbachev's "New Thinking" in foreign policy with the Brezhnev Doctrine (an approach associated with former USSR leader Leonid Brezhnev that…

  2. When Things Fall Apart: Qualitative Studies of Poverty in the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudwick, Nora, Ed.; Gomart, Elizabeth, Ed.; Marc, Alexandre, Ed.; Kuehnast, Kathleen, Ed.

    Using qualitative methods, the studies in this volume highlight certain aspects of the dynamics of poverty in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and the interactions of poverty with gender, age, and ethnicity. They deepen understanding of how poor people in these countries experience and cope with the shock of sudden poverty, worsening…

  3. Neighborhood Immigrant Concentration, Acculturation, and Cultural Alienation in Former Soviet Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arlene Michaels; Birman, Dina; Zenk, Shannon; Wang, Edward; Sorokin, Olga; Connor, Jorgia

    2009-01-01

    Several acculturation theories note the importance of surrounding context, but few studies describe neighborhood influences on immigrant adaptation. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among neighborhood immigrant concentration, acculturation, and alienation for 151 women aged 44-80 from the former Soviet Union who lived in the…

  4. Radiological Weapons Control: A Soviet and US Perspective. Occasional Paper 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issraelyan, Victor L.; Flowerree, Charles C.

    Two international diplomats from the Soviet Union and the United States focus on the need for a treaty to ban the use of radiological weapons. Radiological weapons are those based on the natural decay of nuclear material such as waste from military or civilian nuclear reactors. Such devices include both weapons and equipment, other than a nuclear…

  5. On the history of the development of solid-propellant rockets in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pobedonostsev, Y. A.

    1977-01-01

    Pre-World War II Soviet solid-propellant rocket technology is reviewed. Research and development regarding solid composite preparations of pyroxyline TNT powder is described, as well as early work on rocket loading calculations, problems of flight stability, and aircraft rocket launching and ground rocket launching capabilities.

  6. Soviet Industrial Strategy and Reforms in Vocational Education, 1984-88: Policy Implications and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowtis, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    In 1984, Soviet educational reforms increased the number of vocational secondary schools, introduced pupils to vocational education at an earlier age, and strengthened vertical integration between local enterprises and schools. Unintended consequences may be occupational rigidity, course offerings based on obsolete manpower needs, and…

  7. Library Education and Research in the Soviet Union Compared with Scandinavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaisen, Johan L.

    1987-01-01

    Compares the philosophy of librarianship in the Soviet Union, where libraries are subordinate to the goals of the Communist party, and Scandinavia, where libraries maintain political neutrality. A brief history of library education in both countries is given and the current state of library education and research is described. (CLB)

  8. ESTIMATING THE TERRESTIAL CARBON POOLS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CONTERMINOUS U.S., AND BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrestrial-carbon (C) pool sizes are of interest in relation to quantifying current sources and sinks of C, and evaluating the possibilities for future C sequestration or release by the biosphere. In this study, the C pools in the terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Unio...

  9. Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…

  10. [Flight problems in Soviet aviation medicine in the 1920s and 1930s].

    PubMed

    Munipov, V M

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes multifaceted investigations of the flying work by Soviet aviation medicine in the 1920-30s. It examines the early stages of the professional activity that is at present termed ergonomic foundations of the design, manufacture and use of the aircraft. The paper discusses one of the first formulations of the problem of standardization of the human factors.

  11. Green Revolutions: Environmental Reconstruction in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Worldwatch Paper 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Hilary F.

    The focus of this paper is environmental issues facing Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union as they struggle with the momentous tasks of economic and political reform. Given the important role that environmental protest played in the upheavals, environmentalists have claimed a mandate for strong environmental controls. The state of the environment…

  12. The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

  13. Naming Patterns of Recent Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union to Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Edwin D.; Glushkovskaya, Irina

    To identify patterns of first names over three generations, two samples of 100 Jewish families representing over 1,400 individuals from the former Soviet Union were interviewed. Sample 1 came mainly from Ukraine and European Russia; Sample 2 came from Uzbekistan and Tadzhikistan. Individuals in the samples were born between 1886 and 1992. Both…

  14. Authenticity, Autonomy, and Authority: Feminist Jewish Learning among Post-Soviet Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lisa D.

    2008-01-01

    This articles explores how a group of women in the Former Soviet Union grapple with questions of Jewish identity and Jewish "authenticity" as they participate in adult Jewish learning program that employs methods of feminist pedagogy and transformative learning. The study reflects on areas of dissonance between the transformational learning…

  15. International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to reproduce or transform…

  16. Progressive Educational Actions in a Post-Soviet Republic: Meaningful Collaborations and Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnisch, Delywn L.; Guetterman, Timothy C.; Samofalova, Olga; Kussis, Yelena

    2013-01-01

    As the last Soviet republic to become an independent nation, Kazakhstan has worked diligently to transform and develop its educational system including systemic changes related to decentralization, financing changes, and the shift to a credit system. A professional health sciences education workshop delivered in Kazakhstan exemplifies progressive…

  17. Realization of Didactic Principles in Foreign Language Teaching in Soviet Schools. Research Bulletin 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronkonen, Lyyli

    The didactic principles determining the structure, general direction, methods, and results of the process of foreign language instruction in the Soviet Union are outlined and discussed. Didactics are defined as the branch of pedagogy concerning the process of teaching in relation to its content and giving a scientific basis to teaching practice.…

  18. Some Historical Aspects of Educational Change in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anweiler, Oskar

    1992-01-01

    Reviews developments in the educational systems of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe since the end of the Cold War. Contends that nationalism and religion have had an important impact on education. Asserts that former beliefs and structures of the old system will continue to influence education for many years. (CFR)

  19. The CYTOS biological experiments carried out on the Soviet orbital station Salyut 6.

    PubMed

    Tixador, R; Richoilley, G; Raffin, J; Bost, R; Kojarinov, V; Lepskye, A

    1981-08-01

    Two biological experiments (CYTOS programme) were performed aboard the Soviet orbital Station Salyut 6. For these experiments we have developed several original devices. In this paper we give the technical characteristics of this specialized hardware and the experimental methods used to carry out these experiments.

  20. Psychological Abilities of Primary School Children in Learning Mathematics. Soviet Studies in Mathematics Education. Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davydov, V. V., Ed.

    This is volume 6 of the series of translations of books from the Soviet literature on research in the psychology of mathematics instruction and on teaching methods influenced by the research. This book contains both a theoretical examination of the connection between instruction and the development of children, and experimental data on a definite…

  1. Soviet Russian Literature in English: A Checklist Bibliography. Cornell Research Papers in International Studies, VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibian, George

    Selected works in translation currently available by and about 33 Soviet Russian authors comprise the major portion of this annotated bibliography. Approximately 850 items published between 1920 and 1966 are included. Materials relating to Sholokhov, Leonov, and Esenin are especially well represented. Separate sections provide references to…

  2. Russia/Soviet Union: A Guide to Print Materials for Teachers. Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Elizabeth

    This supplement updates the 1985 "Russia/Soviet Union: A Guide to Print Materials for Teachers," a guide to literature for middle and high school teachers. Each entry includes author, title, pages, a physical description, identifying numbers, imprint, price, and a brief evaluative summary. Section 1, "Reference Books," contains six items of a…

  3. Food Label Use and Food Label Skills among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubman, Nadia; Doak, Colleen; Jasti, Sunitha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and skills; acculturation; and socioeconomic and…

  4. Role of Scientific and Technical Libraries in Education and Technical Creative Work of the Soviet People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyshkevich, N. I.

    Emphasis is placed on the role of scientific and technical libraries in the education of Soviet workers. One of the main tasks of technical libraries is to educate workers to respect their professions, and to maintain communistic attitudes towards labor. Librarians acquaint younger workers with literature on the history of their plants with…

  5. Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Petrov, Georgy

    2004-01-01

    Many observers have noted that corruption in higher education is widespread in the states of the former Soviet Union. Little empirical evidence is available, however. This article examines some theoretical approaches to the study of corruption, and presents empirical data on corruption in higher education from Russia and Azerbaijan, collected by…

  6. The Soviet Library System and Its Planning. Reaction Paper by Alphonse F. Trezza.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serov, V. V.

    The mechanics of the Soviet library system, the availability of libraries to the citizenry, organizational components, and the development and planning principles of librarianship as they follow Leninist national policy are discussed in this paper by V.V. Serov, Head of the Main Library Directorate, USSR Ministry of Culture. A program of library…

  7. Space Race Propaganda: U.S. Coverage of the Soviet Sputniks in 1957.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlin, Cheryl L.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes coverage of the Soviet Sputniks in 1957 by three news magazines--"U.S.News and World Report,""Newsweek," and "Time." Reports that "Time" and "U.S. News" covered the issue in Cold War terms, whereas "Newsweek" put emphasis on the prospects for space exploration. (MM)

  8. The United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1965. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Ira

    Intended for college-preparatory students at the high school level, this unit investigates the changing tides in U.S.-Soviet diplomatic relations and the reasons for the change. The focus of the unit is on a series of particular episodes such as the questions of famine relief in the 1920's, diplomatic recognition in the 1930's, World War II, the…

  9. Non-Formal Education and Civil Society in Post-Soviet Russia: What Is the Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, W. John; Kliucharev, Grigori A.

    2011-01-01

    The article describes collaborative research into the relationship between non-formal education and civil society in post-Soviet Russia. It shows how through social survey data and case studies of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other civil society organisations (CSOs), using a combination of social science perspectives, much can be…

  10. Nurses across borders: displaced Russian and Soviet nurses after World War I and World War II.

    PubMed

    Grant, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Russian and Soviet nurse refugees faced myriad challenges attempting to become registered nurses in North America and elsewhere after the World War II. By drawing primarily on International Council of Nurses refugee files, a picture can be pieced together of the fate that befell many of those women who left Russia and later the Soviet Union because of revolution and war in the years after 1917. The history of first (after World War I) and second (after World War II) wave émigré nurses, integrated into the broader historical narrative, reveals that professional identity was just as important to these women as national identity. This became especially so after World War II, when Russian and Soviet refugee nurses resettled in the West. Individual accounts become interwoven on an international canvas that brings together a wide range of personal experiences from women based in Russia, the Soviet Union, China, Yugoslavia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere. The commonality of experience among Russian nurses as they attempted to establish their professional identities highlights, through the prism of Russia, the importance of the history of the displaced nurse experience in the wider context of international migration history.

  11. Suicide in Inmates in Nazis and Soviet Concentration Camps: Historical Overview and Critique.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Cuerda-Galindo, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL), Soviet special camps, and gulags, providing some preliminary data for our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment of death penalty), while available data on Soviet gulags are contradictory. However, data interpretation is very controversial, because, for example, the Nazi KL authorities used to cover-up the murder victims as suicides. Most of the suicides were committed in the first years of imprisonment, and the method of suicide most commonly used was hanging, although other methods included cutting blood vessels, poisoning, contact with electrified wire, or starvation. It is possible to differentiate two behaviors when committing suicide; impulsive behavior (contact with electrified barbed wire fences) or premeditated suicide (hanging up or through poison). In Soviet special camps, possible motives for suicides could include feelings of guilt for crimes committed, fear of punishment, and a misguided understanding of honor on the eve of criminal trials. Self-destructive behaviors, such as self-mutilation in gulag camps or prisoners who let themselves die, have been widely reported. Committing suicide in concentration camps was a common practice, although precise data may be impossible to obtain. PMID:27303312

  12. From "Inheritance" to Individualization: Disembedding Working-Class Youth Transitions in Post-Soviet Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charlie

    2009-01-01

    Despite the impoverishment of prospects for those employed in the industrial and agricultural sectors in post-Soviet Russia, young people in vocational education colleges continue to be trained for "poor work" in traditional large-scale enterprises. This article draws upon qualitative, case-study research in exploring young people's subjective…

  13. Issues in Post-Soviet Secondary School Reform: The Case of Kazakstan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J.; Balzhan, Suzhikova

    The Republic of Kazakstan--the world's ninth largest country--is one of five central Asian nations created in 1991 upon the demise of the former Soviet Union. Never a separate political state in the past, Kazakstan now faces a myriad of curricular and educational organization problems related to contemporary economic and political developments, as…

  14. Activities for Teaching Russian and Soviet Studies in the High School. Updated Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A., Ed.; Vaillant, Janet G., Ed.

    These teacher-developed activities help the student to gain a greater awareness of the richness of Russian history and the Soviet past. New materials have been added from the original version and much has been updated. The volume is not a full curriculum but can be integrated into existing study of the world region. The book is divided into five…

  15. National Security and U.S.-Soviet Relations. Occasional Paper 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Walter C., Jr.

    This paper provides an analytical look at the evolving relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. The author explores the prospects for international security and advocates a number of policies which would benefit both societies. The first section in the booklet discusses how U.S. security cannot be assured even if the Congress…

  16. Damned Lies. And Statistics. Otto Neurath and Soviet Propaganda in the 1930s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chizlett, Clive

    1992-01-01

    Examines the philosophical and historical context in which Otto Neurath (1882-1945) worked. Examines critically (in the light of descriptive statistics) the principles of his Isotype Picture Language. Tests Neurath's personal credibility and scientific integrity by looking at his contributions to Soviet propaganda in the early 1930s. (SR)

  17. Adjustment Issues Affecting Employment for Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Anastasia Dimun; Lucas, Margaretha S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes major issues, including culture shock and loss of status, that affect general adjustment of immigrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union who are resettling in the United States. Issues that affect career and employment adjustment are described and the interrelatedness of general and career issues is explored. (Contains 39…

  18. Cultural Transitions in First-Generation Immigrants: Acculturation of Soviet Jewish Refugee Adolescents and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briman, Dina; Trickett, Edison J.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed Soviet Jewish adolescents and parents regarding language, behavior, and identity acculturation. Acculturation occurred in a linear pattern over time for most dimensions of acculturation, with acculturation to the American culture increasing and to the Russian culture decreasing. There were acculturation gaps between parents and children…

  19. Older immigrants from the former Soviet Union and their use of complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Van Son, Catherine R; Stasyuk, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    The population of older immigrants in the United States is growing and they bring their health beliefs and practices with them. Older immigrants from the former Soviet Union use a variety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) remedies which includes in part: 1) foods to which medicinal properties are attributed, 2) herbs, 3) external treatments, and 4) pharmaceuticals manufactured in the former Soviet Union and available over-the-counter. These remedies vary in their efficacy and are often used in combination with or in lieu of prescribed allopathic (Western) medications. Health beliefs regarding medicine in the United States has led older Slavic immigrant to distrust their US health care providers and system. Nurses are in a key position to inquire and work with older Slavic immigrants to safely use their CAM and provide more information about prescribed allopathic medications and the harmful effects of combining remedies without consultation.

  20. Learning disabilities theory and Soviet psychology: a comparison of basic assumptions.

    PubMed

    Coles, G S

    1982-09-01

    Critics both within and outside the Learning Disabilities (LD) field have pointed to the weaknesses of LD theory. Beginning with the premise that a significant problem of LD theory has been its failure to explore fully its fundamental assumptions, this paper examines a number of these assumptions about individual and social development, cognition, and learning. These assumptions are compared with a contrasting body of premises found in Soviet psychology, particularly in the works of Vygotsky, Leontiev, and Luria. An examination of the basic assumptions of LD theory and Soviet psychology shows that a major difference lies in their respective nondialectical and dialectical interpretation of the relationship of social factors and cognition, learning, and neurological development. PMID:7142423

  1. Before the long journey: Development of Soviet space biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazenko, O. G.

    1978-01-01

    Academician O. Gazenko, Chief of the Institute of Biomedical Problems, USSR Ministry of Public Health, reviewed the short but intense history of Soviet research in space biology and medicine. The solid academic approach of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in giving a good start at the very beginning of the space age is stressed and key people and institutions who initiated these studies are named. The basic feature of the first period of space biology is seen as the search for answers to a few fundamental questions of survival in space. It is pointed out that the initiated investigations were replaced by refined, in-depth studies of the biological, biophysical, and biochemical processes in human organism in the space environment and the search for methods which should enable cosmonaut crews to live in space for several years during interplanetary journeys. Discussing the typical problems of this effort, Gazenko each time showed how they benefit medical science and practice in general.

  2. Comparison of seismic and hydrodynamic yield determinations for the Soviet joint verification experiment of 1988.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L R; Ekström, G

    1989-05-01

    Seismic magnitudes determined from surface and body waves for the Soviet underground nuclear explosion of September 14, 1988, are used to calculate the yield of that event from previously derived calibration curves. The yield obtained by combining the two seismic estimates is 113 kilotons, which is very close to those obtained by hydrodynamic measurements made on-site. This comparison substantiates previous conclusions about the sizes of past Soviet weapons tests and compliance with the Threshold Test Ban Treaty. The factor of uncertainty in the combined seismic yield is 1.28 at the 68% and 1.62 at the 95% confidence levels, demonstrating that accuracies considerably better than a factor of 2 can be obtained by combining seismic determinations of yield.

  3. The development of medical sociology in the post-Soviet society: the case of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kaminskas, Raimundas; Peicius, Eimantas

    2007-06-01

    This article explores the historical development of medical sociology and analyses the social problems that have had impacted the changes of health care institutionalization particularly in Lithuania during the Soviet and post-soviet period. Approaching the interaction between sociology and public health sciences, it is intended to apply the concept of medical sociology and its determinants in the context of health care and education systems. By analyzing the case past of medical sociology in Lithuania, we claim that its prospects should be associated with the study of new challenges in the biomedical sciences. In order to improve the importance of medical sociology in developing democracies we should focus on the questions, for instance, to what extent modern biotechnologies should be applied, how to improve the situation with patients' rights, and how to combine the knowledge of social sciences and biomedicine in order to improve the quality of healthcare services and to ensure better functioning of the healthcare system in particular district.

  4. Love-hate for man-machine metaphors in Soviet physiology: from Pavlov to "physiological cybernetics".

    PubMed

    Gerovitch, Slava

    2002-06-01

    This article reinterprets the debate between orthodox followers of the Pavlovian reflex theory and Soviet "cybernetic physiologists" in the 1950s and 60s as a clash of opposing man-machine metaphors. While both sides accused each other of "mechanistic," reductionist methodology, they did not see anything "mechanistic" about their own central metaphors: the telephone switchboard metaphor for nervous activity (the Pavlovians), and the analogies between the human brain and a computer (the cyberneticians). I argue that the scientific utility of machine analogies was closely intertwined with their philosophical and political meanings and that new interpretations of these metaphors emerged as a result of political conflicts and a realignment of forces within the scientific community and in society at large. I suggest that the constant travel of man-machine analogies, back and forth between physiology and technology has blurred the traditional categories of the "mechanistic" and the "organic" in Soviet neurophysiology, as perhaps in the history of physiology in general.

  5. Tectonic and geodynamic setting of oil and gas basins of the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Khain, V.E.; Sokolov, B.A. ); Kleshchev, K.A.; Shein, V.S. )

    1991-02-01

    Within the territory of the Soviet Union and its off-shore economic zone are about 70 sedimentary basins containing oil and gas. The basins include almost all basin types described in present-day plate-tectonic classifications, namely (1) intracontinental and pericontinental rifts, suprarift syneclises, and zones of pericratonic downwarps; (2) ancient passive margins of continents with adjacent overthrust fold system; (3) modern passive margins of continents; (4) zones of convergence of lithospheric plates (i.e., zones of subduction of oceanic plates below continental plates); and (5) zones of collision of continental lithospheric plates. So, far, the only type of basin not identified within the territory of the Soviet Union is the pull-apart basin. The location and distribution of oil and gas deposits in the section of a basin, prevailing types of traps, and scale of potential resources are all features influenced by the geodynamic type of the basin.

  6. The Level of Education in Post-Soviet Russia: A Contradictory Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkevich, Mikhail Nikolaevich

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the development of the level of education of the inhabitants of Russia is analyzed based on the materials of "post-Soviet Russia," in which there are two clearly marked different stages: the 1990s and the beginning of the present century. On the whole, this period has to be seen as one in which "capitalism was restored" in Russia.…

  7. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: L D Landau in the Soviet Atomic Project: a documentary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, G. V.

    2008-09-01

    The article presents information about the participation of Academician L D Landau in the Soviet Atomic Project and is based on a study of archive documents of the First Main Directorate. Their analysis points to L D Landau's important contribution to the development of the theory of heterogeneous nuclear reactors and to the computational justification of the first designs of atomic and hydrogen bombs. Many of the quoted documents have never been published before.

  8. Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ulikpan, Anar; Mirzoev, Tolib; Jimenez, Eliana; Malik, Asmat; Hill, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS) countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context. The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more effective development

  9. A comparative study of Soviet versus Western helicopters. Part 1: General comparison of designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.

    1983-01-01

    This document provides a general comparison of the state of the art of Soviet helicopter design vs. that of the West (U.S. in particular). It includes both commonalities and differences in conceptual design philosophies by addressing design parameters and design effectiveness according to accepted criteria. The baseline for comparison is by design gross weight which is presented in four categories: under 12,000 lb, 30-100,000 lb, and greater than 100,000 lb.

  10. [Survey of the perceived quality of healthcare in some countries of the former Soviet block].

    PubMed

    Pancoha, Marycica; Bonvini, Daniele; Vanhaecht, Kris; Panella, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    The health systems of countries of the Former Soviet Union are all based on Semashko's system, which is no longer active since 1991 when the fall of communism occurred. Post-soviet states have tried to create new healthcare systems that maintain universal access to care. The goal of this descriptive study, conducted from August 2009 to June 2012, was to investigate the perceived quality of healthcare services in selected post-Soviet states. A questionnaire was administered by trained staff, to samples of adult healthcare service users in five countries (Belarus, Moldova, the Baltic States, Romania, and Ukraine), to investigate different aspects of the health care systems in these countries. Results were analysed by gender, profession, age and country of origin. Overall, 470 subjects participated in the study. Perceived quality of healthcare varied among different countries but an overall negative and pessimistic view of the future was identified. Gender, age group and profession were found to be determinants of perceived quality (p <0.05). The observed variations do not seem to be directly explained by the model of healthcare system adopted, rather by respondents' different socioeconomic and demographical standings.

  11. Teaching evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Telen, Marilyn J

    2014-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named "eminence-based medicine." After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union?

  12. HIV/AIDS in the countries of the former Soviet Union: societal and attitudinal challenges.

    PubMed

    Rechel, Bernd

    2010-06-01

    For several years, some of the countries of the former Soviet Union have experienced the fastest growing HIV epidemic in the world, with the vast majority of reported infections contracted through injecting drug use. However, most governments of the region have been slow to recognize the severity of the problem. The scope and coverage of governmental HIV/AIDS programmes have remained very limited. Harm reduction programmes are mainly financed by external donors, while substitution treatment remains illegal in Russia and unavailable in some other countries of the region. Being based on a review of published and grey literature, this paper explores attitudinal and societal barriers to scaling up HIV programmes in the countries of the former Soviet Union. A major challenge in many countries is negative public attitudes towards people living with HIV, as well as towards those most at risk of contracting the disease: injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. This extends to the actions of state authorities which often pursue a punitive approach to drug users, with high rates of incarceration for minor drug offences. While many of the findings reported here relate to the Russian Federation, there is reason to believe that similar challenges exist in many other countries of the former Soviet Union. More needs to be done to document challenges to HIV prevention and treatment programmes across the region, so that policy interventions can be more effective.

  13. [History and current status of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia and former Soviet Union].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Yang; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Lei, Yan

    2012-10-01

    A brief history and new developments of acupuncture moxibustion in the former Soviet Union is provided in this paper, as well as in Russia. Science of acupuncture-moxibustion was introduced into Russia after the 10th Century. After the foundation of People's Republic of China, acupuncture-moxibustion therapy has drawn widespread attention in the former Soviet Union and Russia since the 1950s. Notably, acupuncture moxibustion therapy was legalized and popularized in mid 1950s in the Soviet Union, which was gradually accepted as a part of the country's medical system. In the latest 20 years, Federal health departments have paid attention to acupuncture-moxibustion therapy and issued laws and regulations on acupuncture reflexotherapy. The number of books and journals about acupuncture-moxibustion has been increasing; clinical application of acupuncture-moxibustion has been spreading and is welcomed by people. Academic exchanges between China and Russia are more frequent, which promoted the development of science of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia.

  14. Post-soviet placebos: epistemology and authority in Russian treatments for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Raikhel, Eugene

    2010-03-01

    The dominant modalities of treatment for alcoholism in Russia are suggestion-based methods developed by narcology-the subspecialty of Russian psychiatry which deals with addiction. A particularly popular method is the use of disulfiram-an alcohol antagonist-for which narcologists commonly substitute neutral substances. Drawing on 14 months of fieldwork at narcological clinics in St. Petersburg, this article examines the epistemological and institutional conditions which facilitate this practice of "placebo therapy." I argue that narcologists' embrace of such treatments has been shaped by a clinical style of reasoning specific to a Soviet and post-Soviet psychiatry, itself the product of contested Soviet politics over the knowledge of the mind and brain. This style of reasoning has facilitated narcologists' understanding of disulfiram as a behavioral, rather than a pharmacological, treatment and has disposed them to amplify patients' responses through attention to the performative aspects of the clinical encounter and through management of the treatment's broader reputation as an effective therapy. Moreover, such therapies have generally depended upon, and helped to reinforce, clinical encounters premised on a steeply hierarchical physician-patient relationship.

  15. [Survey of the perceived quality of healthcare in some countries of the former Soviet block].

    PubMed

    Pancoha, Marycica; Bonvini, Daniele; Vanhaecht, Kris; Panella, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    The health systems of countries of the Former Soviet Union are all based on Semashko's system, which is no longer active since 1991 when the fall of communism occurred. Post-soviet states have tried to create new healthcare systems that maintain universal access to care. The goal of this descriptive study, conducted from August 2009 to June 2012, was to investigate the perceived quality of healthcare services in selected post-Soviet states. A questionnaire was administered by trained staff, to samples of adult healthcare service users in five countries (Belarus, Moldova, the Baltic States, Romania, and Ukraine), to investigate different aspects of the health care systems in these countries. Results were analysed by gender, profession, age and country of origin. Overall, 470 subjects participated in the study. Perceived quality of healthcare varied among different countries but an overall negative and pessimistic view of the future was identified. Gender, age group and profession were found to be determinants of perceived quality (p <0.05). The observed variations do not seem to be directly explained by the model of healthcare system adopted, rather by respondents' different socioeconomic and demographical standings. PMID:24091846

  16. Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine in The Former Soviet Union: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Telen, Marilyn J.

    2014-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named “eminence-based medicine.” After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union? PMID:25125721

  17. The Soviet-Russian space suits a historical overview of the 1960's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; Abramov, Isaac P.; Stoklitsky, Anatoly Y.; Doodnik, Michail N.

    2002-07-01

    The development of protective suits for space use started with the Vostok-suit SK-1, first used by Yu. Gagarin on April 12, 1961, and then used on all subsequent Vostok-flights. The technical background for the design of these suits was the work on full pressure protective suits for military pilots and stratospheric flights in the 1930's through 50's. The Soviet-Russian space programme contains a large number of 'firsts', and one of the most well known is the first EVA by Leonov in 1965. This event is also the starting point for a long series of space suit development for Extravehicular Activities over the last 35 years. The next step to come was the transfer in void space of crew members between the two spacecraft Soyuz 4 and 5 in 1969. As has later become known this was an essential element in the planned Soviet lunar exploration programme, which in itself required a new space suit After the termination of the lunar programme in 1972, the space suit development concentrated on suits applicable to zero-gravity work around the manned space stations Salyut 6, Salyut 7 and MIR. These suits have become known as the ORLAN-family of suits, and an advanced version of this suit (ORLAN-M) will be used on the International Space Station together with the American EMU. This paper covers the space suit development in the Soviet Union in the 1960's and the experience used from the pre-space era.

  18. The Soviet-Russian space suits a historical overview of the 1960's.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A Ingemar; Abramov, Isaac P; Stoklitsky, Anatoly Y; Doodnik, Michail N

    2002-01-01

    The development of protective suits for space use started with the Vostok-suit SK-1, first used by Yu. Gagarin on April 12, 1961, and then used on all subsequent Vostok-flights. The technical background for the design of these suits was the work on full pressure protective suits for military pilots and stratospheric flights in the 1930's through 50's. The Soviet-Russian space programme contains a large number of 'firsts', and one of the most well known is the first EVA by Leonov in 1965. This event is also the starting point for a long series of space suit development for Extravehicular Activities over the last 35 years. The next step to come was the transfer in void space of crew members between the two spacecraft Soyuz 4 and 5 in 1969. As has later become known this was an essential element in the planned Soviet lunar exploration programme, which in itself required a new space suit. After the termination of the lunar programme in 1972, the space suit development concentrated on suits applicable to zero-gravity work around the manned space stations Salyut 6, Salyut 7 and MIR. These suits have become known as the ORLAN-family of suits, and an advanced version of this suit (ORLAN-M) will be used on the International Space Station together with the American EMU. This paper covers the space suit development in the Soviet Union in the 1960's and the experience used from the pre-space era.

  19. A preliminary study of the Soviet civil space program. Volume 1: Organization and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, Elizabeth K.

    1990-01-01

    The organization, planning, and personnel is focused of Soviet space, advantage is taken of glasnost and improved foreign relations to explore a hitherto obscure subject. The way in which the civil space program obtains approval and funding is altered. Missions must be approved before the Supreme Soviet, and public opinion is beginning to play a greater role in the legislature's budget decision. The Soviet civil space program remains a collection of disparate elements, not unified by any national, centralized space agency. An attempt was made to catalog and delineate the relationships between the components proves helpful. There is little or no coordination of independent associations' efforts, and the planning process relied on previously to set priorities and allocate resources appears to be currently inoperative or in a state of flux. The civil space program is moving in new directions: toward budget tautness, more international interactions, an emphasis on civilian over military applications, commercialization, and fiscal accountability. This study is a snapshot of a dynamic subject, but hopefully on which has highlighted the critical elements to track.

  20. Elder knowledge and sustainable livelihoods in post-Soviet Russia: finding dialogue across the generations.

    PubMed

    Crate, Susan A

    2006-01-01

    Russia's indigenous peoples have been struggling with economic, environmental, and socio-cultural dislocation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. In northern rural areas, the end of the Soviet Union most often meant the end of agro-industrial state farm operations that employed and fed surrounding rural populations. Most communities adapted to this loss by reinstating some form of pre-Soviet household-level food production based on hunting, fishing, and/or herding. However, mass media, globalization, and modernity challenge the intergenerational knowledge exchange that grounds subsistence practices. Parts of the circumpolar north have been relatively successful in valuing and integrating elder knowledge within their communities. This has not been the case in Russia. This article presents results of an elder knowledge project in northeast Siberia, Russia that shows how rural communities can both document and use elder knowledge to bolster local definitions of sustainability and, at the same time, initiate new modes of communication between village youth and elders.

  1. Teaching evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Telen, Marilyn J

    2014-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named "eminence-based medicine." After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union? PMID:25125721

  2. How have nuclear weapons affected the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. Individual study report

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddie, R.D.

    1991-04-05

    As mankind enters the final decade of the 20th century, it faces a world of unprecedented political and military change. Events in Central Europe and in the Soviet Union over the past two years have been truly remarkable and have forced the United States to reevaluate its nation's security strategy. Some feel the potential for a war with the Soviets has diminished. Others feel that the Soviets' capability is the same now as it has been in the past. How can the United States take advantage of the new relationship with the Soviet Union. If the US strategy needs to be changed, the historical perspective of the US-USSR relationship becomes extremely important. Nuclear weapons have been a significant part of the super power relationship since 1945. In fact many feel the Soviets are in a super power status now only as a result of their military and its huge nuclear arsenal. The following analysis describes how nuclear weapons became a part of the United States' national security strategy and how that policy affected the US-USSR relationship. The analysis starts with the end of World War II. It traces important events and confrontations between the two nations, pointing out the significant implications made by nuclear weapons. The conclusion presents this questions, Has the Soviet military threat changed and if so, how should the United States change its strategic forces to take advantage of the new relationship developing between the two super powers, both politically and economically.

  3. Planetary Contamination II: Soviet and U.S. Practices and Policies.

    PubMed

    Murray, B C; Davies, M E; Eckman, P K

    1967-03-24

    The accompanying article of Horo witz et al. concluded with the view that the COSPAR recommendations re garding Mars should be adjusted to re flect new environmental information. Specifically, it was concluded that viable terrestrial microorganisms which are transported to Mars inside solid components in sealed spaces have a low probability of being released to the sur face or atmosphere, and that, if any are released, they are not likely to in fect the planet. We suggest, in addition, that both the COSPAR recommenda tions and U.S. planetary quarantine policy should be altered to take into account past and continuing Soviet prac tice regarding the. exploration of Mars and Venus. No amount of analysis by COSPAR, or of costly, self-imposed restrictions by the U.S. on its own planetary exploration program, can reduce the probability of contamination of either Venus or Mars below what the Soviets have already made it, or will make it as they continue their large planetary effort. All that U.S. policy can accomplish is to insure that U.S. efforts do not significantly increase the probability above that level. Any rec ommended policy which would require the U.S. to apply significantly more stringent restrictions is illogical in that, in effect, the U.S. would be asked to increase greatly the cost and complexity of its planetary program without achieving any significant reduction in the probability of actual contamination. There exists some parallelism be tween the problem of planetary quaran tine and that of radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear testing, al though the desirable solution to the quarantine problem is not merely to stop all activity. Both are multilateral problems, and individual national policy necessarily must reflect the policy of other nations. Thus, the real questions that must be faced by COSPAR, and by the U.S., are, (i) What is the prob able number of viable terrestrial micro organisms alreadyr transported to Venus and to Mars? and (ii) What

  4. Update of Soviet research on and exploitation of nuclear winter, 1984-1986. Technical report, 1 June 1984-16 September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Goure, L.

    1986-09-16

    The analysis of Soviet source materials shows that Soviet scientists have made only minimal contributions to nuclear winter research and that much of the published work has continued to be based on worst-case war scenarios, parameters and values, and projection of climatic changes derived from seriously flawed 1983 models and computations in the U.S. and Soviet Union. For political and propaganda reasons, most Soviet open sources on nuclear winter have continued to ignore new Western and even some Soviet projections of more-moderate climatic effects. It appears that Soviet efforts to model nuclear winter have run their course and that more emphasis will be placed on the synergistic effects of nuclear war on the ecology and atmosphere.

  5. Soviet post-strike civil defense rescue, damage-limiting, repair and restoration operations. Final report 13 aug 81-12 aug 82

    SciTech Connect

    Goure, L.

    1982-08-01

    This report describes and analyzes, on the basis of open Soviet source material, Soviet civil defense concepts, organization, priorities, operational plans and capabilities pertaining to post-strike rescue, damage-limiting, emergency repair and restoration operations in centers of nuclear destruction. Soviet sources indicate that a great deal of importance is attributed to post-strike operations and that the overwhelming majority of civilian and military civil defense forces of over some 20 million are assigned to this mission.

  6. Evidence and ideology as a rationale for light-therapy in Russia: from the Soviet Union to the present day.

    PubMed

    Kühlbrandt, Charlotte; McKee, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Light therapy is still used to treat a number of common diseases in Russia. The practice is firmly anchored in history: Soviet clinical practice was divorced from the emerging field of evidence-based medicine. Medical researchers were cut off from international medical research and scientific literature, with much Soviet scientific activity based on a particular socialist ideology. In this study, the use of light therapy serves as a case study to explore tensions between international evidence-based medicine and practices developed in isolation under the Soviet Union, the legacy of which is to the detriment of many patients today. We used four different search methods to uncover scientific and grey literature, both historical and contemporary. We assessed the changing frequency of publications over time and contrasted the volume of literature on light therapy with more orthodox treatments such as statins and painkillers. Our search found an increasing number and comparatively large body of scientific publications on light therapy in the Russian language, and many publications emanating from prestigious Russian institutions. Combined with our analysis of the historical literature and our appraisal of 22 full text articles, this leads us to suggest that light therapy entered mainstream Soviet medical practice before the Stalinist period and still occupies an important position in contemporary Russian clinical practice. We propose that this outdated treatment survives in Russia in part due to the political, economic and social forces that helped to popularize it during Soviet times, and by the seeming justification offered by poorly executed studies.

  7. Structure for a knowledge-based system to estimate Soviet tactics in the air-land battle. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, A.M.

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to build a prototype decision aid that can use knowledge about Soviet military doctrine and tactics to infer when, where, and how the Soviet Army plans to attack NATO defenses given intelligence data about Soviet (Red) military units, terrain data, and the positions of the NATO (Blue) defenses. Issues are raised that must be resolved before such a decision aid, which is part of the Rapid Application of Air Power concept, can become operational. First examined is the need to shorten the C2 decision cycle in order for the ATOC staff to keep pace with the tempo of modern warfare. The Rapid Application of Air Power is a concept that includes automating various steps in the decision cycle to allow air power to be applied proactively to stop Soviet forces before they obtain critical objectives. A structure is presented for automating the second step in the decision cycle, assessing and clarifying the situation, through a knowledge-based decision aid for interpreting intelligence data from the perspective of Soviet (Red) doctrine and estimating future Red tactical objectives and maneuvers.

  8. Evidence and ideology as a rationale for light-therapy in Russia: from the Soviet Union to the present day

    PubMed Central

    Kühlbrandt, Charlotte; McKee, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Light therapy is still used to treat a number of common diseases in Russia. The practice is firmly anchored in history: Soviet clinical practice was divorced from the emerging field of evidence-based medicine. Medical researchers were cut off from international medical research and scientific literature, with much Soviet scientific activity based on a particular socialist ideology. In this study, the use of light therapy serves as a case study to explore tensions between international evidence-based medicine and practices developed in isolation under the Soviet Union, the legacy of which is to the detriment of many patients today. We used four different search methods to uncover scientific and grey literature, both historical and contemporary. We assessed the changing frequency of publications over time and contrasted the volume of literature on light therapy with more orthodox treatments such as statins and painkillers. Our search found an increasing number and comparatively large body of scientific publications on light therapy in the Russian language, and many publications emanating from prestigious Russian institutions. Combined with our analysis of the historical literature and our appraisal of 22 full text articles, this leads us to suggest that light therapy entered mainstream Soviet medical practice before the Stalinist period and still occupies an important position in contemporary Russian clinical practice. We propose that this outdated treatment survives in Russia in part due to the political, economic and social forces that helped to popularize it during Soviet times, and by the seeming justification offered by poorly executed studies. PMID:24040492

  9. A major challenge. Entrepreneurship characterizes the work of the Soviet Family Health Association.

    PubMed

    Manuilova, I A

    1991-09-01

    The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA. PMID:12284294

  10. Phage therapy--history from Twort and d'Herelle through Soviet experience to current approaches.

    PubMed

    Chanishvili, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Felix d'Herelle proposed the use of bacteriophages for the therapy of human and animal bacterial infections at the beginning of the 20th century. This approach, however, was not widely accepted in the West. After the emergence of antibiotics in 1940s, phage research was diverted to a more fundamental level. At the same time, phage therapy was widely practiced in the Soviet Union due to collaboration of Felix d'Herelle with his Georgian colleagues. The majority of the articles dedicated to this subject are from the 1930s and 1940s. The old Soviet literature indicates that phage therapy was used extensively to treat a wide range of bacterial infections in the areas of dermatology (Beridze, 1938), ophthalmology (Rodigina, 1938), urology (Tsulukidze, 1938), stomatology (Ruchko and Tretyak, 1936), pediatrics (Alexandrova et al., 1935; Lurie, 1938), otolaryngology (Ermolieva, 1939), and surgery (Tsulukidze, 1940, 1941). These articles were published in Russian and thus were not readily available to Western scientists. The Western skepticism toward phage therapy itself was again followed by renewed interest and reappraisal, mainly due to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. Often the experiments described in the old Soviet articles were not designed properly: the use of placebos and the coding of preparations were absent from most of the studies, number of patients in the experimental and control groups was unequal or missing, sometimes no control groups were used at all, or patients treated previously unsuccessfully with antibiotics were employed as an experimental group and as control. The results obtained and the efficiency of phage prophylaxis were estimated by comparing with results obtained in previous years. In most publications, phage titers and descriptions of methods used for evaluation of the results are not specified. Nevertheless, past experience indicates some effectiveness of phage therapy and prophylaxis. Therefore, these clinical results should not

  11. Post-Soviet farmland abandonment, forest recovery, and carbon storage potential in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, P.; Kuemmerle, T.; Baumann, M.; Radeloff, V. C.; Woodcock, C. E.; Hostert, P.

    2010-12-01

    Land use is a critical factor in the global carbon cycle, but land use effects on carbon fluxes are poorly understood in many regions. One such region is the former Eastern Bloc, where land use intensity decreased substantially after the collapse of the Soviet Union, resulting in widespread farmland abandonment and forest regrowth. The aim of this study was to examine how land use trends altered net carbon fluxes in Western Ukraine (57,000 km2) for the communist (1945-1991) and the post-communist period (1991-2007), and to assess the regions’ future carbon sequestration potential. Forest disturbance and farmland abandonment between 1988 to 2007 was estimated from Landsat imagery in former study. Historical land use change rates were obtained from forest inventories to reconstruct forest trends back to the mid-1800s. Using a carbon book-keeping model, we quantified net carbon fluxes from land use change and assessed potential future carbon fluxes for a range of reforestation and logging scenarios. Our results suggest that the low-point in forest cover occurred in the 1920s. Forest expansion in the second half of the 20th century turned the region from a carbon source to a sink, despite heavy logging during Soviet times. The current land-use related sink strength is about 1.5 Tg of carbon per year. Sequestration potential on abandoned farmland is enormous, even when assuming that only a minor fraction of the currently abandoned land will revert to forests. Beyond our study area, farmland abandonment has been widespread throughout Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, suggesting that a substantial proportion of the regions’ industrial carbon emissions may be offset by reforesting farmland.

  12. Los Alamos National Laboratory scientific interactions with the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    White, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has a wide-ranging set of scientific interactions with technical institutes in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Many of these collaborations, especially those in pure science, began long before the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union. This overview will, however, focus for the most part on those activities that were initiated in the last few years. This review may also serve both to indicate the broad spectrum of US government interests that are served, at least in part, through these laboratory initiatives, and to suggest ways in which additional collaborations with the FSU may be developed to serve similar mutual interests of the countries involved. While most of the examples represent programs carried out by Los Alamos, they are also indicative of similar efforts by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. There are indeed other Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and many of them have active collaborative programs with FSU institutes. However, the laboratories specifically identified above are those with special nuclear weapons responsibilities, and thus have unique technical capabilities to address certain issues of some importance to the continuing interests of the United States and the states of the Former Soviet Union. Building on pre-collapse scientific collaborations and contacts, Los Alamos has used the shared language of science to build institutional and personal relationships and to pursue common interests. It is important to understand that Los Alamos, and the other DOE weapons laboratories are federal institutions, working with federal funds, and thus every undertaking has a definite relationship to some national objective. The fertile areas for collaboration are obviously those where US and Russian interests coincide.

  13. Oil and gas basins of the Pacific margin of the Soviet Union: Proven and probable

    SciTech Connect

    Khain, V.E.; Burlin, Yu.K. )

    1990-05-01

    The Pacific margin of the Soviet Union comprises a large number of sedimentary basins, many of rather small size, but some more extensive, of which five contain already proven hydrocarbon reserves: Sakhalin, Tartar Strait, West Kamchatka, Khatyrka, and Anadyr. The intensely folded and partly metamorphosed basement of the sedimentary basins of the region consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks, accreted in the late Mesozoic and Paleogene to the ancient, Precambrian continental blocks of Arctica (Hyerborea), Siberia, Bureya-Khanka continents and comprising Okhotsk and Central Kamchatka microcontinents. The sedimentary infill of the basin is represented mainly by terrigeneous and siliceous deposits of Late Cretaceous and, principally, of Cenozoic age, with some addition of volcaniclastic material. The thickness of sediments attains many thousands meters. By their geodynamic nature, the sedimentary basins of the Pacific margin of the Soviet Union belong to different types of basins recognized in active margin environment. Some are of the fore-arc type, among them Navarin Khatyrka, and North and East Sakhalin; others are of the back-arc type: West Kamchatka, Tartar Strait, and others. In the rear part of the margin the authors recognize the northern continuation of a huge continental rift system which includes the North China Bohai Bay and Sunliao basins. In the Soviet Union, this system comprises the Zeya-Bureya, Middle Amur, North Okhotsk, Markovo, and Anadyr basins. The basal strata of the basin's sedimentary infill, as a rule, gets younger from the mainland to the ocean. These sedimentary basins were subjected to rather moderate folding and high-angle faulting, which occurred mainly in the Pliocene and even the Pleistocene, and involved all the sequence of the basin infill. The traps are mostly structural, anticlinal or fault bounded. Reservoir rocks are represented by sandstones or fractured siliceous shales.

  14. A major challenge. Entrepreneurship characterizes the work of the Soviet Family Health Association.

    PubMed

    Manuilova, I A

    1991-09-01

    The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA.

  15. The anti-plague system and the Soviet biological warfare program.

    PubMed

    Zilinskas, Raymond A

    2006-01-01

    The USSR possessed a unique national public health system that included an agency named "anti-plague system." Its mission was to protect the country from highly dangerous diseases of either natural or laboratory etiology. During the 1960s, the anti-plague system became the lead agency of a program to defend against biological warfare, codenamed Project 5. This responsibility grew and by the middle 1970s came to include undertaking tasks for the offensive biological warfare program, codenamed Ferment. This article describes the anti-plague system's activities relevant to both aspects of the Soviet Union's biological warfare program, offense and defense, and analyzes its contributions to each.

  16. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Logan, John R; Rivera Drew, Julia A

    2011-02-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants.

  17. Intentions and capabilities: Estimates on soviet strategic forces, 1950-1983

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The documents in this volume -- a selection of 41 National Intelligence Estimates on Soviet strategic capabilities and intentions from the 1950s until 1983 -- pertain to the US Intelligence Community`s performance of its most critical mission during the Cold War. The purpose in producing the volume is simply to make more readily accessible to scholars, and to the public, records that shed light on the history of American intelligence and foreign policy as well as on the history of the USSR and Russia.

  18. Flux stability and power control in the Soviet RBMK-1000 reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Meriwether, G.H.; McNeece, J.P.

    1993-08-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident, the Soviets have studied and implemented various design changes to improve the safety of the RBMK reactors. The safety measurements include modifications of the control rod configuration, fuel enrichment increase from 2.0 to 2.4 weight percent U-235, and installation of additional supplemental absorbers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of increased fuel enrichment, different control rod positions, and supplemental absorber loadings on reactivity control, power distribution within the large RBMK core, and relative stability against power oscillations.

  19. Characteristics of seismic waves from Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Adushkin, V.V.; Kaazik, P.B.; Kostyuchenko, V.N.; Kuznetsov, O.P.; Nedoshivin, N.I.; Rubinshtein, K.D.; Sultanov, D.D.

    1995-04-01

    The report is carried out by the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres, Russian Academy of Sciences under contract NB280344 with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California. The work includes investigation of seismic waves generation and propagation from Soviet peaceful underground nuclear explosions in salt based on the data from temporary and permanent seismic stations. The explosions were conducted at the sites Azgir and Vega within the territory of the Caspian depression of the Russian platform. The data used were obtained in the following conditions of conduction: epicentral distance range from 0 to 60 degrees, yields from 1 to 65 kt and depths of burial from 160 to 1500 m.

  20. The anti-plague system and the Soviet biological warfare program.

    PubMed

    Zilinskas, Raymond A

    2006-01-01

    The USSR possessed a unique national public health system that included an agency named "anti-plague system." Its mission was to protect the country from highly dangerous diseases of either natural or laboratory etiology. During the 1960s, the anti-plague system became the lead agency of a program to defend against biological warfare, codenamed Project 5. This responsibility grew and by the middle 1970s came to include undertaking tasks for the offensive biological warfare program, codenamed Ferment. This article describes the anti-plague system's activities relevant to both aspects of the Soviet Union's biological warfare program, offense and defense, and analyzes its contributions to each. PMID:16610337

  1. The trial of the new woman: citizens-in-training in the new Soviet Republic.

    PubMed

    Wood, E A

    2001-01-01

    This essay examines the texts of Soviet plays from the 1920s known as agitation trials that deal with issues of women's emancipation and participation in the public sphere. It argues that, far from showing women to be men's equals (the ostensible purpose of the plays), the trials give a shocking portrayal of their heroines' faults, from passivity and meddling to gossip and lack of discipline. Given these weaknesses, the women delegates are supposed to recognise their need for tutelage from the new authorities. Their citizenship is thus held, at best, on contingent approval from those authorities. PMID:18271131

  2. The Role of Human Intelligence in the USAs 1960s Efforts to Understand Soviet Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesavento, P.

    Recent declassification of material from the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP) and the archives of the US State Department provide several new insights into US intelligence's knowledge of Soviet Space Activities and sources of that knowledge. It is apparent that there was a significant human intelligence source providing information on subjects such as the USSR's Voskhod 3 mission and manned lunar program activities. This new understanding shows that US intelligence was employing the complete panoply of intelligence tools and that human intelligence appears to have provided many key understandings

  3. The Chernobyl papers. Volume 1. Doses to the Soviet population and early health effects studies

    SciTech Connect

    Merwin, S.E.; Balonov, M.I.

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this Volume 1 of a series, discuss studies initiated following the nuclear reactor accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4. All authored by scientists of the former Soviet Union. Included in Volume 1 are considerations of the internal and external radiation doses received by the inhabitants of the regions recording the highest levels of radioactive contamination (the republics of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine). Also included are three papers presenting data and analysis pretaining to actual and potential health effects from the accident.

  4. Summary of radiation dosimetry results on U.S. and Soviet manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of the radiation environment aboard U.S. and Soviet manned spacecraft are reviewed and summarized. Data obtained mostly from passive and some active radiation detectors now exist for the case of low-earth-orbit missions. Major uncertainties still exist for space exposure in high-altitude, high-inclination geostationary orbits, in connection with solar effects and that of shielding. Data from active detectors flown in Spacelabs 1 and 2 suggest that a variety of phenomena must be understood before the effects of long-term exposure at the Space Station type of orbit and shielding can be properly assessed.

  5. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Rivera Drew, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants. PMID:24009398

  6. Summary of radiation dosimetry results on U.S. and Soviet manned spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Benton, E V

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of the radiation environment aboard U.S. and Soviet manned spacecraft are reviewed and summarized. Data obtained mostly from passive and some active radiation detectors now exist for the case of low Earth-orbit missions. Major uncertainties still exist for space exposure in high altitude, high inclination, geostationary orbits, in connection with solar effects and that of shielding. Data from active detectors flown in Spacelabs 1 and 2 suggest that a variety of phenomena must be understood before the effects of long-term exposure at the space-station type of orbit and shielding can be properly assessed. PMID:11537239

  7. Body or soul: representing lesbians in post-soviet Russian culture.

    PubMed

    Baer, Brian James

    2011-01-01

    This article examines representations of lesbians in contemporary Russian literature and film as expressions of a host of post-Soviet anxieties over the social, political, and economic turmoil following the fall of communism. In particular, the author examines three recurrent motifs: the lesbian as narcissist; the lesbian as prostitute; and the lesbian as predator. While many authors and filmmakers present these qualities as a threat to the (patriarchal) social order, others celebrate those very attributes as a liberating alternative to the narrow roles traditionally available to Russian women, which stress their qualities of maternal love and self-sacrifice.

  8. Environmental conditions in the Rudnaya River watershed--a compilation of Soviet and post-Soviet era sampling around a lead smelter in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Kachur, Anatoly N; Arzhanova, Valentina S; Yelpatyevsky, Pavel V; von Braun, Margrit C; von Lindern, Ian H

    2003-02-15

    The Rudnaya River valley in the Russian Far East contains a rich reserve of lead, zinc and boron and has been mined for nearly 100 years. Environmental contamination related to the area's mines and lead smelter was studied for over 30 years during the Soviet era, by members of the Pacific Geographic Institute (PGI). Due to government restrictions, much of the sampling focused on contamination of the river, the air, forests, vegetation, agricultural products and soil. Source-specific samples, such as stack emissions from the smelter, and blood lead levels from the residents and smelter workers could not be obtained or were classified as State secrets. However, the data do describe the extent and severity of the environmental contamination and related public health concerns. Water discharged from the smelter averages 2900 m(3)/day (containing 100 kg of lead (Pb) and 20 kg of arsenic (As)) and leachate from area mine dumps and other industrial processes contaminates the Rudnaya River. Annual air emissions include 85 tonnes of particulates (containing 50 tonnes of Pb and 0.5 tonnes of As) and 250000 m(3) of gases high in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)). Vegetative stress is severe and much of this area is denuded. Pb and other metals in agricultural products suggest local produce may be dangerous for human consumption, although it is a major food source for the community. Public and occupational health indicators of basophilic stippling, respiratory disease and hair lead levels further suggest the severity of the problem. Although, descriptions of complete methodologies and procedures are often lacking, these data describe how sampling was conducted during the Soviet era and document a site with severe heavy metals contamination, especially lead, and the likelihood of related public health problems. They are relevant today as investigators employ state-of-the-art-sampling techniques and explore cleanup options under a new

  9. In situ radiation measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, W.J.

    1996-06-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted a series of in situ radiological measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, during the period of July 21-30, 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at selected areas on the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. The survey was part of a cooperative effort between the United States team and teams of radiation scientists from the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. In addition to in situ radiation measurements made by the United States and Russian teams, soil samples were collected and analyzed by the Russian and Kazakhstani teams. All teams conducted their measurements at ten locations within the test site. The United States team also made a number of additional measurements to locate and verify the positions of three potential fallout plumes containing plutonium contamination from nonnuclear tests. In addition, the United States team made several measurements in Kurchatov City, the housing area used by personnel and their families who work(ed) at the test sites. Comparisons between the United States and Russian in situ measurements and the soil sample results are presented as well as comparisons with a Soviet aerial survey conducted in 1990-1991. The agreement between the different types of measurements made by all three countries was quite good.

  10. Soviet Nordic nuclear-weapon free-zone proposal. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsden, C.A.

    1990-06-01

    This thesis examines the Soviet proposal and its ramifications for the United States and the West. The central theme running through each Soviet proposal has been removal of American nuclear guarantees. Preservation of US national security interests and hence US ability to extend its forward defense would be gravely threatened by such a NWFZ. However, unilateral agreement on a NWFZ is unlikely by the anticipated members of the Nordic NWFZ the US, USSR, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greenland, and Sweden. The US has military installations in Iceland and Greenland and banning of nuclear weapons during wartime is inconceivable. The question then arises as to which nation or groups of nations will dominate and which will acquiesce. Inevitably the debate breaks down to a tug of war between the two superpowers. It is really the politics surrounding the nuclear weapons that is the heart of the nuclear-free-zone debate. Changing world politics demand that the West develop a unified strategy toward the USSR. Through NATO it must preserve its vital economic political and military objectives in the Northern Flank. Flexible naval forces and strong political and economic ties to the governments of the nations bordering the Baltic are essential. Strong NATO naval forces operating in the Baltic Sea must be seen as guarantors of the West's strategic aims and interests. A Nordic NWFZ would prevent this.

  11. Migrant selection and the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil K; Elo, Irma T

    2012-05-01

    Few prior studies have investigated the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Utilizing data from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2000-2007 National Health Interview Survey (NIHS), we compare levels of disability of FSU immigrants with U.S.-born whites (ages 50-84). Our findings suggest an "epidemiologic paradox" in that FSU immigrants possess higher levels of education compared with U.S.-born whites, but report considerably higher disability with and without adjustment for education. Nonetheless, FSU immigrants report lower levels of smoking and heavy alcohol use compared with U.S.-born whites. We further investigate disability by period of arrival among FSU immigrants. Changes in Soviet emigration policies conceivably altered the level of health selectivity among émigrés. We find evidence that FSU immigrants who emigrated during a period when a permission to emigrate was hard to obtain (1970-1986) displayed less disability compared with those who emigrated when these restrictions were less stringent (1987-2000). Finally, we compare disability among Russian-born U.S. immigrants with that of those residing in Russia as a direct test of health selectivity. We find that Russian immigrants report lower levels of disability compared with Russians in Russia, suggesting that they are positively selected for health despite their poor health relative to U.S.-born whites.

  12. Mental health inequalities in 9 former Soviet Union countries: evidence from the previous decade.

    PubMed

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In the previous two decades, countries of the former Soviet Union underwent substantive economic and social changes. While there has been some limited evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic well-being and mental health in the developing and transitional economies, the evidence on economic inequalities in mental health has so far been scarce. In this paper, we analyse two unique datasets collected in 2001 (N = 18,428) and in 2010 (N = 17,998) containing data on 9 countries of the former Soviet Union, exploring how mental health inequalities have changed between 2001 and 2010. Using regression analysis, as well as the indirect standardization approach, we found that mental health appears to have substantially improved in most studied countries during the past decade. Specifically, both the proportion of people with poor mental health, as well as wealth-related inequalities in poor mental health, decreased in almost all countries, except Georgia. Hence, we did not find evidence of a trade-off between changes in average and distributional mental health indicators between 2001 and 2010. Our findings give ground for optimism that at least on these measures, the most difficult times associated with the transition to a market economy in this region may be coming to an end.

  13. [Neurosciences and the ravings of the Soviet era. Spanish Republican physicians, a set of privileged witnesses].

    PubMed

    Marco-Igual, Miguel

    2011-08-16

    This study analyses the links between the Russian and Soviet neurosciences and their Spanish counterpart, especially with regard to the experiences of the Spanish Republican physicians exiled in the USSR. The Russian neurosciences, which date back to the second half of the 19th century, followed a path that ran parallel to the discipline throughout the rest of Europe and finally displayed signs of being influenced by the German and French schools. Important figures include Alexei Kojevnikov and Vladimir Bekhterev in neurology, Sergei Korsakov in psychiatry, Ivan Pavlov and his disciple Piotr Anojin in neurophysiology, Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria in neuropsychology, and Nikolai Burdenko in neurosurgery. When the Bolsheviks came to power, they brought with them a progressive conception of health care, which was modified during the Stalinist era to serve political interests, above all in the case of psychiatry. During the first third of the 20th century, Spanish scientists became interested in Pavlov's reflexology and the Soviets took a similar interest in Spanish histology. Among the 4500 Spanish Republicans who emigrated to the USSR because of the Spanish Civil War, there were several dozen physicians who were privileged witnesses of the madness that shook the science and the health care of that period. Relevant names worth citing here from the field of the neurosciences include Juan Planelles and Ramon Alvarez-Buylla in neurophysiology, Federico Pascual and Florencio Villa Landa in psychiatry, Angel Escobio and Maria Perez in neurology, Julian Fuster in neurosurgery and Manuel Arce in neuroimaging.

  14. Soviet psychiatrists under Stalinist duress: the design for a new Societ psychiatry and its demise.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1999-09-01

    A Scientific Session of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences met in 1950 in Moscow, to comply with the order of I.V. Stalin to institutionalize the theory of higher nervous activity of I.P. Pavlov. This Scientific Session decreed that annual scientific conferences should be held to consider problems related to Pavlovian physiology. In response to this call, a session on the Physiological Teachings of the Academician I. P. Pavolv on Psychiatry and Neuropathology was convened in Moscow in 1951. Certain influential Soviet psychiatrists - V.A. Giliarovski, M.O. Gurevich and A. S. Shmarian were condemned for adhering to anti-Marxist ideology and to psychiatric theories conceived by Western psychiatrists. The named psychiatrists acknowledged the correctness of the accusations, admitted their errors, and promised in the future to follow Pavlov's teachings on psychiatry. The session's Presidium urged the development of a New Soviet Psychiatry based upon experimental and clinical findings and consistent with the Pavlovian conceptualization of higher nervous activity, which considered pychiatric and neurotic syndromes in terms of the dynamic localization of the brain's functions. Long-range consequences of the 1951 session are considered. PMID:11624008

  15. Love-hate for man-machine metaphors in Soviet physiology: from Pavlov to "physiological cybernetics".

    PubMed

    Gerovitch, Slava

    2002-06-01

    This article reinterprets the debate between orthodox followers of the Pavlovian reflex theory and Soviet "cybernetic physiologists" in the 1950s and 60s as a clash of opposing man-machine metaphors. While both sides accused each other of "mechanistic," reductionist methodology, they did not see anything "mechanistic" about their own central metaphors: the telephone switchboard metaphor for nervous activity (the Pavlovians), and the analogies between the human brain and a computer (the cyberneticians). I argue that the scientific utility of machine analogies was closely intertwined with their philosophical and political meanings and that new interpretations of these metaphors emerged as a result of political conflicts and a realignment of forces within the scientific community and in society at large. I suggest that the constant travel of man-machine analogies, back and forth between physiology and technology has blurred the traditional categories of the "mechanistic" and the "organic" in Soviet neurophysiology, as perhaps in the history of physiology in general. PMID:12467273

  16. Soviet psychiatrists under Stalinist duress: the design for a new Societ psychiatry and its demise.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1999-09-01

    A Scientific Session of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences met in 1950 in Moscow, to comply with the order of I.V. Stalin to institutionalize the theory of higher nervous activity of I.P. Pavlov. This Scientific Session decreed that annual scientific conferences should be held to consider problems related to Pavlovian physiology. In response to this call, a session on the Physiological Teachings of the Academician I. P. Pavolv on Psychiatry and Neuropathology was convened in Moscow in 1951. Certain influential Soviet psychiatrists - V.A. Giliarovski, M.O. Gurevich and A. S. Shmarian were condemned for adhering to anti-Marxist ideology and to psychiatric theories conceived by Western psychiatrists. The named psychiatrists acknowledged the correctness of the accusations, admitted their errors, and promised in the future to follow Pavlov's teachings on psychiatry. The session's Presidium urged the development of a New Soviet Psychiatry based upon experimental and clinical findings and consistent with the Pavlovian conceptualization of higher nervous activity, which considered pychiatric and neurotic syndromes in terms of the dynamic localization of the brain's functions. Long-range consequences of the 1951 session are considered.

  17. Bibliography on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Smallidge, E.R.

    1997-08-01

    In 1993 a pilot project between the Defense Technical Information Center and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory resulted in a proposal to conduct a state-of-the-art review of technology and techniques for building, operating, and maintaining arctic natural gas and liquid petroleum pipelines in the former Soviet Union. The objectives of the pipeline review were to (1) Review the design, construction, operation, and maintenance procedures of oil and gas pipelines in the permafrost areas of eastern and western Siberia. (2) Assemble data on the evolution of Siberian pipelines, reflecting changes in size, modes of construction, and age. (3) Assemble data on maintenance procedures and practices, including inspection techniques with respect to corrosion, pipe wrinkling, and metal fatigue. (4) Assemble data on pipeline failures and attempt to predict life expectancy of different pipelines under the harsh arctic environment. (5) Evaluate the environmental impact of different pipeline construction techniques and relate it to ruptures and breaks. In conjunction with the study objectives, a literature search was conducted on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. References were compiled on dates of construction, location, route conditions, design, construction, maintenance, environmental impact, accidents, production management, and other pertinent facts. In the resulting bibliography, references are separated into three categories: Oil and Gas Pipelines, Construction, and Accidents. There is some repetition of references between the categories because some are relevant to more than one of the subject categories.

  18. US monkey and rat experiments flown on the Soviet Satellite Cosmos 1514

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mains, R. C. (Editor); Gomersall, E. W. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    On December 14, 1983, the U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos 1514, an unmanned spacecraft carrying biological and radiation physics experiments from nine countries, including five from the United States. This was the fourth flight with U.S. experiments aboard one of the Soviet unmanned spacecraft. The Cosmos 1514 flight was limited to five days duration because it was the first nonhuman primate flight. Cosmos 1514 marked a significant departure from earlier flights both in terms of Soviet goals and the degree of cooperation between the U.S.S.R. and the United States. This flight included more than 60 experiments on fish, crawfish eggs, plants and seeds, 10 Wistar pregnant rats, and 2 young adult rhesus monkeys as human surrogates. United States specialist participated in postflight data transfer and specimen transfer, and conducted rat neonatal behavioral studies. An overview of the mission is presented focusing on preflight, on-orbit, and postflight activites pertinent to the five U.S. experiments aboard Cosmos.

  19. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The development of the first Soviet atomic bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, German A.; Ryabev, Lev D.

    2001-01-01

    In the late 1930s and early 1940s, two remarkable physical phenomena — the fission of heavy nuclei and the chain fission reaction — were discovered, implying that a new powerful source of energy (nuclear fission energy) might become a practical possibility for mankind. At that time, however, the political situation in the world made the development of the atomic bomb the main objective of nuclear energy research in the countries involved. The first atomic bombs, notoriously used in the war against Japan, were produced by the United States of America only six and a half years after the discovery of fission. Four years later, the first Soviet atomic bomb was tested. This was a major step toward the establishment of nuclear parity which led to stability and global peace and thus greatly influenced the destiny of human kind. Based on documentary materials covering the period from 1939 to 1949, this paper traces the origin and evolution of the physical ideas behind the first Soviet atomic bomb and discusses the most important events associated with the project.

  20. Critical thinking as culture: Teaching post-Soviet teachers in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat R.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the question of whether critical thinking can eventually become part of the cultural fabric in Kazakhstan, a country whose Soviet educational system not only trained teachers to memorise, lecture and intimidate students but also created a culture in educational institutions fraught with many fear-based behaviours engendering competitiveness, intolerance and other hostile behaviours antithetical to critical thinking and an open, democratic society. While educational reform can have profound effects on a nation, education is but one system in a complex network of governmental and cultural systems, and change must be borne by many. This paper reviews literature and presents qualitative data gathered through interviews with Soviet-trained teachers. The authors recommend that teachers should embrace student-centred techniques and critical thinking methodologies, as well as shift from a fear-based, authoritarian, top-down system of relating to students and colleagues to one of cooperation, openness and fairness. Such a reform will take repetitive, intensive and experiential training as well as regular assessments of progress.

  1. [Neurosciences and the ravings of the Soviet era. Spanish Republican physicians, a set of privileged witnesses].

    PubMed

    Marco-Igual, Miguel

    2011-08-16

    This study analyses the links between the Russian and Soviet neurosciences and their Spanish counterpart, especially with regard to the experiences of the Spanish Republican physicians exiled in the USSR. The Russian neurosciences, which date back to the second half of the 19th century, followed a path that ran parallel to the discipline throughout the rest of Europe and finally displayed signs of being influenced by the German and French schools. Important figures include Alexei Kojevnikov and Vladimir Bekhterev in neurology, Sergei Korsakov in psychiatry, Ivan Pavlov and his disciple Piotr Anojin in neurophysiology, Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria in neuropsychology, and Nikolai Burdenko in neurosurgery. When the Bolsheviks came to power, they brought with them a progressive conception of health care, which was modified during the Stalinist era to serve political interests, above all in the case of psychiatry. During the first third of the 20th century, Spanish scientists became interested in Pavlov's reflexology and the Soviets took a similar interest in Spanish histology. Among the 4500 Spanish Republicans who emigrated to the USSR because of the Spanish Civil War, there were several dozen physicians who were privileged witnesses of the madness that shook the science and the health care of that period. Relevant names worth citing here from the field of the neurosciences include Juan Planelles and Ramon Alvarez-Buylla in neurophysiology, Federico Pascual and Florencio Villa Landa in psychiatry, Angel Escobio and Maria Perez in neurology, Julian Fuster in neurosurgery and Manuel Arce in neuroimaging. PMID:21780075

  2. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Bibliographic Guide to Recommended Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and School Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Stephan M.

    Intended to aid librarians in small- and medium-sized libraries and media centers, this annotated bibliography lists 1,555 books focusing on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The book is divided into four parts: (1) "General and Interrelated Themes--Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Eastern European Countries"; (2) "Russian Empire…

  3. History of Education and the Struggle for Intellectual Liberation in Post-Soviet Baltic Space after the Fall of the Berlin Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestere, Iveta

    2014-01-01

    This study on a "new" history of education is written from the perspective of a participant in the process of discarding Soviet intellectual and physical boundaries. The fall of the Berlin Wall has, over the past two decades, become a continuous process in post-Soviet societies, when the now liberated historians of education were faced…

  4. Education and postgraduate education of psychiatrists in the Soviet Union and their integration into a new milieu. A view from the present to the past of former Soviet psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Vladimir; Frolova, Katherine; Witztum, Eliezer

    2007-01-01

    The article presents the problems and difficulties that psychiatrists from the former Soviet Union (FSU) have to cope with in Israel. Immigration and acculturation in a new milieu is a complex process and even more complicated for those whose specialty is medicine and particularly psychiatry. There is a wide gap between the skills and knowledge that new immigrants brought with them from the FSU and the professional demands in the new country. Psychiatry and psychiatric education in the FSU were determined by the cultural practices and traditions of the region and the organizational principles of the USSR which were very different than those of western society and the State of Israel. In comparison to the West, postgraduate psychiatric training in the USSR was shorter and less rigorous with an emphasis on biological therapy. Soviet "psychotherapy" was more reality oriented and more authoritarian than in the West, stressing "collective" group therapy. We describe the basic principles of Soviet medical education and the radically different social, intellectual and political history of the former Soviet Union. We relate the experiences of psychiatrists in the FSU in learning dynamic psychotherapy and the difficulties connected with this education. Moreover, the process of educating psychiatric residents is described from a supervisor's point of view. This complex process led to some major difficulties. In order to cope with the difficulties the supervisor employed a broad variety of means and techniques: an introductory course and a basic seminar about fundamental cornerstones of psychotherapy were offered.

  5. Family Formation in Post-Soviet Ukraine: Changing Effects of Education in a Period of Rapid Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perelli-Harris, Brienna

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on post-Soviet Ukraine, this paper examines how social transformations changed family formation, leading to the world's lowest fertility rate. The findings show that before Ukraine gained independence, highly educated women had higher first birth rates after controlling for school enrollment and marriage. After independence, highly…

  6. Teacher Collaboration in Times of Uncertainty and Societal Change: The Case Study of Post-Soviet Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The work of teachers is subject to changing not only policies and reforms but also the complexities and contradictions of societal transformations. This paper examines teachers' perceptions of the impact of post-Soviet transformations on teacher collaboration amid the changing education policies and reforms in Ukraine. Drawing on qualitative…

  7. The Unintended and Intended Academic Consequences of Educational Reforms: The Cases of Post-Soviet Estonia, Latvia and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khavenson, Tatiana; Carnoy, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we try to unravel some of the unintended and intended academic effects associated with post-Soviet educational reforms by focusing on three cases: Estonia, Latvia and Russia. We have chosen this comparison because a unique "natural experiment" in the three countries allows us to compare the changing academic performance on…

  8. Russians in Post-Soviet Central Asia: More "Cold" than the Others? Exploring (Ethnic) Identity under Different Sociopolitical Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmarskaya, Natalya

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the identity and the social/political behaviour of Russians in post-Soviet Central Asia through a comparison with the Baltic countries via a "hot and cold ethnicity" paradigm. Central Asian Russians are more likely, ceteris paribus, to be found at the "cold" end of the spectrum of "ethnic…

  9. Glories of the Soviet Past or Dim Visions of the Future: Russian Teacher Education as the Site of Historical Becoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydarova, Olena

    2015-01-01

    In the 2000s, the Russian Ministry of Education introduced educational modernization reforms built on neoliberal principles. This critical ethnographic study examines how the memories of the Soviet past are being re-narrated to assess the current educational reforms. I use Bakhtin's theory of historical becoming to analyze how the vestiges of the…

  10. Theological Media Literacy Education and Hermeneutic Analysis of Soviet Audiovisual Anti-Religious Media Texts in Students' Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This article realized the Russian way of theological media education literacy and hermeneutic analysis of specific examples of Soviet anti-religious audiovisual media texts: a study of the process of interpretation of these media texts, cultural and historical factors influencing the views of the media agency/authors. The hermeneutic analysis…

  11. Pre-Revolutionary in Form, Soviet in Content?: Wartime Educational Reforms and the Postwar Quest for Normality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livschiz, Ann

    2006-01-01

    The war and the postwar years were an important and generally underestimated phase in the history of the Soviet educational system, since the school system created during this period continued to the end of the regime with some modifications. Although many of the reforms were discussed and planned during the 1930s, the war proved an ideal time for…

  12. Soviet Studies in the Psychology of Learning and Teaching Mathematics, Volume XIV: Teaching Arithmetic in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooten, Joseph R., Ed.; And Others

    This is one of a series that is a collection of translations from the extensive Soviet literature of the past 25 years on research in the psychology of mathematics instruction. It also includes works on methods of teaching mathematics directly influenced by the psychological research. Selected papers and books considered to be of value to the…

  13. Direct measurement of source RDP`s and yields from near-field Soviet seismic data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, C.K.; McLaren, J.P.; Helmberger, D.V.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the source characteristics represented in the form of a reduced displacement potential (RDP) of Soviet nuclear explosions and was based on the availability of in-country near-field data. At the start of the project, it was thought that data would be readily accessible to us with the start of the open exchange of seismic data between the US and the Soviet Union. In fact, we did receive near-field waveforms of two Soviet nuclear explosions from Azghir test site near the Caspian Sea following which the transfer of data stopped till the end of the project. Consequently, the research effort was descoped. Only recently, some additional data have become available at CSS (Center for Seismic Studies). We have undertaken a thorough investigation of the limited data available from a large coupled shot (64 kT) in Azghir followed five years later by a decoupled shot (8 kT). We have successfully modeled the near-field data from these events to determine their source RDP`s and establish a decoupling factor of 15 using a time-domain waveform modeling technique. The results of this study are presented in the enclosed manuscript: Analysis of near-field data from a Soviet decoupling experiment.

  14. Engineering a Business School in a Former Soviet-Era Closed City: The Case of Omsk, Siberia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chukhlomin, Valeri; Chukhlomina, Irina

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a modernization project undertaken by a nationally accredited Russian university located in Omsk, Siberia, and aimed at developing a new international business school. A unique feature of the project is that it was successfully implemented in a former Soviet-era closed city. Until 1991, the university hadn't had any…

  15. Soviet Espionage Effort Have Targeted U.S. Research Libraries and Staffs since 1962, FBI Charges in Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Judith Axler

    1988-01-01

    Soviet intelligence agents have been collecting scientific and technical documents in research libraries to identify emerging technology before its components become classified or restricted. Librarians are also recruited as spies. However, asking librarians to identify suspicious library users would violate ethics and intellectual freedom. (MSE)

  16. Languages of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. A Survey of Materials for the Study of the Uncommonly Taught Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dora E.; And Others

    This is an annotated bibliography of basic tools of access for the study of the uncommonly taught languages of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. It is one of eight fascicles which constitute a revision of "A Provisional Survey of Materials for the Study of the Neglected Languages" (CAL 1969). Although the focus is on materials for the…

  17. Business Plans in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union. Digest Number 97-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipilov, Andrew

    The concept of business planning is new to business professionals in the states of the former Soviet Union. Although Russian publications on business and economics have responded to the increased demand for knowledge of business planning, Western ideas of business planning should be integrated into Russian business management concepts in order to…

  18. The Breakup of the Soviet Union and How It Will Affect U.S. Foreign Policy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Tim

    This student booklet and teacher's guide examine the causes and the aftermath of the disintegration of the Soviet Union. The first two sections of the student booklet briefly summarize the Cold War and describe the unfulfilled promises of Mikhail Gorachev's "perestroika," the rising discontent among the people, and the birth of nationalism within…

  19. Education in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union in a Period of Revolutionary Change: An Approach to Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitter, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the educational system and developments in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union since World War II. Contends that reforms that brought intellectual freedom and pluralistic thinking have led to demands for autonomy from government control. Concludes that education is still linked to socio-economic, cultural, and political struggles…

  20. Report of an Exchange Between the United States and the Soviet Union in the Area of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldmesser, Robert A., Ed.

    The papers and discussion generated by exchange visits of American and Soviet educators are reprinted or summarized. The purpose of the visits was to exchange information and to study each country's system of higher education. Seminars held in the United States concentrated on two topics: selection and guidance of students in higher education, and…

  1. Green Youth of Russia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine: After-School Naturalist Programs in Post-Soviet Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinnikov, Mikhail S.; Lindsey, Jason Royce

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the status of young naturalist after-school programs in three post-Soviet republics: Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. In the past, the region's environmental teachers, leaders and activists have emerged from such youth programs. Thus, the health of these programs is a leading indicator for the long-term viability of broader…

  2. Risky Sexual Behaviors in Immigrant Adolescent Girls from the Former Soviet Union: Role of Natal and Host Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeltova, Ida; Fish, Marian C.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, schools have been increasingly involved in youth's health-related behavior, particularly risky health behaviors (e.g., HIV/AIDS and pregnancy prevention programs). This study examined how acculturation processes among adolescent girls who are recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) affect their practices of risky…

  3. Multiple Identities of Jewish Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union: An Exploration of Salience and Impact of Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Dina; Persky, Irena; Chan, Wing Yi

    2010-01-01

    The current paper explores the salience and impact of ethnic and national identities for immigrants that are negotiating more than two cultures. Specifically, we were interested in the ways in which Jewish immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union integrate their Russian, Jewish, and American identities, and to what extent identification…

  4. International Science in the Cold War: The Politics of U.S.-Soviet Astronomy, 1950-1961

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doel, R.

    1993-12-01

    During the height of the Cold War, scientific relations between American and Soviet astronomers grew deeply strained. Polemical statements by Soviet astronomers in the early 1950s caused American astronomers, including Otto Struve, Fred L. Whipple, and Leo Goldberg, to worry that political coercion had breached the integrity of the Soviet astronomical community. At the same time, Struve, Goldberg, and other U.S. astronomers faced growing pressure from State Department officials to adhere to American foreign policy objectives, including restrictions on contacts between American and Soviet scientists. By the late 1950s, American astronomers participated in a significant yet little-known effort to challenge State Department policy towards international science. Nevertheless, the close relation between U.S. scientists and the state after 1945 limited the options that American astronomers had in maintaining international cooperation in astronomy. Understanding this political and intellectual framework provides new insights into how the Cold War influenced American astronomy in the 1950s. Priority debates, competition over disciplinary leadership, and national loyalties also strongly shaped international scientific cooperation during this period.

  5. Communication and Academic Challenges in Early Adolescence for Children Who Have Been Adopted from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Brenda L.; McGuinness, Teena M.; Blanton, Debra J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This was a Time II survey of outcomes for children, now ages 9 to 13 years, who were almost 4 years old on average when they were adopted from the former Soviet Union. Method: As part of a larger study (see T. McGuinness, R. Ryan, & C. Broadus Robinson, 2005), parents of 55 children (M age = 11 years) were surveyed regarding their…

  6. Ethnic Clusters in Public Housing and Independent Living of Elderly Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, Andrey; Trickett, Edison J

    2015-12-01

    The study examines the effects of ethnic clusters and independent living arrangements on adaptation of elderly immigrants from the Former Soviet Union. The multigenerational living arrangements were compared with independent living in a dispersed ethnic community and in an ethnic cluster of public housing. The residents of the ethnic clusters of public housing reported poorer health, were more reliant on government resources, and experienced greater acculturative hassles. However, public housing residents reported significantly larger Russian-speaking and American social networks, greater American acculturation, higher social support from neighbors, as well as lower cultural alienation. In contrast, the multigenerational living arrangements were related to greater social support from extended family and higher extended family satisfaction. While, the independent living in the dispersed ethnic community was associated with smaller American social networks and higher levels of cultural alienation. The results highlight how the ecologies of different living arrangements are reflected in the nature of acculturative, social, and psychological experiences of elderly immigrants. PMID:26310209

  7. Professor Georgy Nestorovich Speransky (1873-1969): A great soviet paediatrician.

    PubMed

    Sher, Stella

    2015-08-01

    This paper is a biography of a great Soviet paediatrician, Professor Georgy Nestorovich Speransky, known as the founder of Russian neonatology. He was the organizer, Director and scientific leader of the first State Research Institute of Maternity and Infant Care in the USSR which later was reorganized as the State Research Institute of Paediatrics of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR. He organized the first Russian medical department of childhood diseases at the Central Institute of Continuing Education for Medical Doctors, where he and his colleagues taught physiology and pathology. He was one of the initiators of a free state system of maternity and infant health care and infant mortality was decreased tenfold.

  8. Ethnic Clusters in Public Housing and Independent Living of Elderly Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, Andrey; Trickett, Edison J

    2015-12-01

    The study examines the effects of ethnic clusters and independent living arrangements on adaptation of elderly immigrants from the Former Soviet Union. The multigenerational living arrangements were compared with independent living in a dispersed ethnic community and in an ethnic cluster of public housing. The residents of the ethnic clusters of public housing reported poorer health, were more reliant on government resources, and experienced greater acculturative hassles. However, public housing residents reported significantly larger Russian-speaking and American social networks, greater American acculturation, higher social support from neighbors, as well as lower cultural alienation. In contrast, the multigenerational living arrangements were related to greater social support from extended family and higher extended family satisfaction. While, the independent living in the dispersed ethnic community was associated with smaller American social networks and higher levels of cultural alienation. The results highlight how the ecologies of different living arrangements are reflected in the nature of acculturative, social, and psychological experiences of elderly immigrants.

  9. The cultural context of smoking among immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Baker, Cathy J; Fortney, Christine A; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Ahijevych, Karen L

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to gain understanding of the cultural context of smoking among immigrants from former Soviet Union countries now living in the Midwest United States. Semistructured interviews were conducted in focus group or individual settings (N = 14), including smokers and former smokers recruited from community settings. Social factors and stress management strongly motivated smoking behavior. Personal willpower was the most helpful cessation strategy, with firm lack of openness to pharmacologic approaches. Top past stressors included food insecurity and societal unrest, with the top current stressors being acculturative issues. The importance of social connectedness and the relatively low priority of prevention were also themes. Based on these interviews, interventions should include acculturative stress management and maintaining social connectedness, while addressing life experiences in the insecurity of basic needs. Smoking cessation interventions that are tailored beyond just language use and address these specific issues are suggested.

  10. Thirty years together: A chronology of U.S.-Soviet space cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, David S. F.

    1993-01-01

    The chronology covers 30 years of cooperation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union (and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States, of which the Russian Federation is the leading space power). It tracks successful cooperative projects and failed attempts at space cooperation. Included are the Dryden-Blagonravov talks; the UN Space Treaties; the Apollo Soyuz Test Project; COSPAS-SARSAT; the abortive Shuttle-Salyut discussions; widespread calls for joint manned and unmanned exploration of Mars; conjectural plans to use Energia and other Russian space hardware in ambitious future joint missions; and contemporary plans involving the U.S. Shuttle, Russian Mir, and Soyuz-TM. The chronology also includes events not directly related to space cooperation to provide context. A bibliography lists works and individuals consulted in compiling the chronology, plus works not used but relevant to the topic of space cooperation.

  11. [Preclinical study of the safety of the new Soviet tranquilizer gindarin].

    PubMed

    Arzamastsev, E V; Mironova, M I; Krepkova, L V; Bortnikova, V V; Kuznetsov, Iu V

    1983-01-01

    The Soviet plant tranquilizer gindarin (an isoquinoline series alkaloid I-tetrahydropalmatine) isolated from the tubers of Stephania glabra Miers was subjected to a preclinical study. As regards the toxicity measured during a single administration to the laboratory animals, gindarin may be classified with moderately toxic substances. Daily intragastric administration of gindarin to rats in doses of 20 and 60 mg/kg for 3 months is likely to give rise to the changes in functions of the CNS, liver and blood. In doses of 1--50 mg/kg gindarin does not exhibit any allergizing, mutagenic or teratogenic properties. Administration of the drug in doses of 1--50 mg/kg from the 1st to the 20th day of pregnancy has shown it to produce marked embryotoxic action. In view of this fact gindarin is contraindicated in pregnancy.

  12. Identity processes and statuses in post-Soviet Georgia: Exploration processes operate differently.

    PubMed

    Skhirtladze, Nino; Javakhishvili, Nino; Schwartz, Seth J; Beyers, Wim; Luyckx, Koen

    2016-02-01

    Identity formation is one of the main developmental tasks of emerging adulthood. Based on quantitative data on a five-dimensional model of identity formation, we concluded that the identity formation process has some different features in the Republic of Georgia than it does in many Western countries. Results obtained from young Georgian adults (N = 295, 82.6% female) yielded four exploration processes instead of three, which is in line with the recent Swiss findings. A key difference between Georgia and the Western contexts, however, is that exploration in breadth is highly correlated with ruminative exploration. Cluster analysis, which produced six identity clusters, also supported this pattern. Achievement, the most adjusted cluster in Western contexts, was relatively low on exploration in breadth. We discuss ways in which the Georgian transition from Soviet communism to a more globalized society may contribute to limited opportunities for identity exploration and may add some tension to the identity development process. PMID:26346125

  13. 1995: the year of reckoning for American and Soviet energy policies

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, K.M.

    1980-01-17

    The author agrees with a premise enunciated by former Secretary of Energy James R. Schlesinger that ''a crisis born in the persisting conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States has the power to determine the political destiny of mankind....The West, all free nations, indeed freedom itself, remain for the immediate future dependent upon access to the oil resources of this (Middle East) region.'' The author supports the idea that an excessive dependence on other nations for strategic commodities, when coupled with the precariousness of the supply sources, leaves ample opportunity for internal supply manipulation and external disruptions and curtailments. Although the overtones are grim, his conclusion is that free and enlightened people should be able to take the actions necessary for their own survival.

  14. {open_quotes}Radon{close_quotes} - the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.; Reisman, A.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1997-07-01

    The Soviet Union established a system of specialized regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of radioactive waste they process these are research and industrial organizations, medical and agricultural institution and other activities not related to nuclear power. Waste handled by these facilities is mainly beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides with half lives of less than 30 years. The long-lived and alpha-emitting isotopic content is insignificant. Most of the radwaste has low and medium radioactivity levels. The facilities also handle spent radiation sources, which are highly radioactive and contain 95-98 percent of the activity of all the radwaste buried at these facilities.

  15. The cultural context of smoking among immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Baker, Cathy J; Fortney, Christine A; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Ahijevych, Karen L

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to gain understanding of the cultural context of smoking among immigrants from former Soviet Union countries now living in the Midwest United States. Semistructured interviews were conducted in focus group or individual settings (N = 14), including smokers and former smokers recruited from community settings. Social factors and stress management strongly motivated smoking behavior. Personal willpower was the most helpful cessation strategy, with firm lack of openness to pharmacologic approaches. Top past stressors included food insecurity and societal unrest, with the top current stressors being acculturative issues. The importance of social connectedness and the relatively low priority of prevention were also themes. Based on these interviews, interventions should include acculturative stress management and maintaining social connectedness, while addressing life experiences in the insecurity of basic needs. Smoking cessation interventions that are tailored beyond just language use and address these specific issues are suggested. PMID:21311086

  16. Energy efficiency: Policies for technology transfer in Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and China

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, W.U.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Hamburger, J.; Bashmakov, I. |

    1993-10-01

    This paper summarizes the energy-efficiency potential in three major regions of the world -- the Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China and discusses policy measures that might stimulate adoption of technologies that constitute that potential. The authors suggest that major gains in energy efficiency are indeed possible, and that capturing this potential would provide a major reduction in future levels of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. The authors indicate, however, that the requisite technological improvement -- often referred to as technology transfer -- is unlikely without the stimulus of strong policy measures. These measures include the rapid introduction of market mechanisms as well as policy intervention to overcome significant market barriers. Moreover, we observe that strong policies -- heavy taxes and performance standards are becoming increasingly unpopular and problematic, but can be replaced to some extent by incentive, market-pull, and research and development programs.

  17. MOXE: An X-ray all-sky monitor for Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priedhorsky, W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Moss, C. E.; Kelley, R. L.; Holt, S. S.

    1989-01-01

    A Monitoring Monitoring X-Ray Equipment (MOXE) is being developed for the Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma Mission. MOXE is an X-ray all-sky monitor based on array of pinhole cameras, to be provided via a collaboration between Goddard Space Flight Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives are to alert other observers on Spectrum-X-Gamma and other platforms of interesting transient activity, and to synoptically monitor the X-ray sky and study long-term changes in X-ray binaries. MOXE will be sensitive to sources as faint as 2 milliCrab (5 sigma) in 1 day, and cover the 2 to 20 KeV band.

  18. Administering and managing the u.s. And soviet space programs.

    PubMed

    Kohler, F D; Harvey, D L

    1970-09-11

    This raises a fundamental question about the management, in its largest sense, of the U.S. space program and the other activities undertaken in response to the Sputnik experience. Has the whole operation represented but another highly successful one-shot exercise in crisis management, or has it represented incorporation into American society of a new way to organize, systematically and purposefully, the development and use of scientific and technological resources to the furtherance of national goals? It is too early to discern the answer to this question. But how it is answered will heavily weight any final appraisal of the comparative results of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. PMID:17832260

  19. Identity processes and statuses in post-Soviet Georgia: Exploration processes operate differently.

    PubMed

    Skhirtladze, Nino; Javakhishvili, Nino; Schwartz, Seth J; Beyers, Wim; Luyckx, Koen

    2016-02-01

    Identity formation is one of the main developmental tasks of emerging adulthood. Based on quantitative data on a five-dimensional model of identity formation, we concluded that the identity formation process has some different features in the Republic of Georgia than it does in many Western countries. Results obtained from young Georgian adults (N = 295, 82.6% female) yielded four exploration processes instead of three, which is in line with the recent Swiss findings. A key difference between Georgia and the Western contexts, however, is that exploration in breadth is highly correlated with ruminative exploration. Cluster analysis, which produced six identity clusters, also supported this pattern. Achievement, the most adjusted cluster in Western contexts, was relatively low on exploration in breadth. We discuss ways in which the Georgian transition from Soviet communism to a more globalized society may contribute to limited opportunities for identity exploration and may add some tension to the identity development process.

  20. Prosthetic Manhood in the Soviet Union at the End of World War II.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Millions of Soviet soldiers were disabled as a direct consequence of their service in the Second World War. Yet despite its expressions of gratitude for their sacrifices, the state evinced a great deal of discomfort regarding their damaged bodies. The countless armless and legless veterans were a constant reminder of the destruction suffered by the country as a whole, an association increasingly incompatible with the postwar agenda of wholesale reconstruction. This article focuses on a key strategy for erasing the scars of war, one with ostensibly unambiguous benefit for the disabled themselves: the development of prostheses. In addition to fostering independence from others and ultimately from the state, artificial limbs would facilitate the veterans' return to the kinds of socially useful labor by which the country defined itself. In so doing, this strategy engendered the establishment of a new model of masculinity: a prosthetic manhood.

  1. Exploring the impact of foreign direct investment on tobacco consumption in the former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is the single largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world; in the former socialist bloc tobacco kills twice as many men as in the west. Although evidence shows that liberalisation of the cigarette trade through the elimination of import barriers leads to significant increases in consumption, far less is known about the impact of foreign direct investment on cigarette consumption. This paper seeks to explore the impact that the substantial transnational tobacco company investments have had on patterns of tobacco trade and consumption in the former Soviet Union. Design: Routine data were used to explore trends in cigarette trade and consumption in the 15 countries of the former Soviet Union from the 1960s to the present day. Comparisons were made between trends in countries that have received substantial investment from the tobacco transnationals and countries that have not. Results: Between 1991 and 2000 cigarette production increased by 96% in countries receiving industry investment and by 11% in countries that did not. Over the same period cigarette consumption increased by 40%; the increase was concentrated in countries receiving investments. Despite these investments, cigarette imports still outweigh exports and no trade surplus has yet to result. Conclusions: The findings suggest that liberalisation of inward investment has a significant and positive impact on cigarette consumption and that without appropriate safeguards, market liberalisation may have long term negative impacts on health. Specific trade rules are needed to govern trade and investment in this uniquely harmful product. Implementation of effective tobacco control policies should precede tobacco industry privatisation. International financial organisations pressing for privatisation should ensure this occurs. PMID:15735295

  2. Bleeding babies in Badakhshan. Symbolism, materialism, and the political economy of traditional medicine in post-Soviet Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2006-03-01

    The bleeding of infants via the skin (pile) and the roof of the mouth (qüm) is practiced in Badakhshan, the easternmost province of Tajikistan. Like folk practices elsewhere, pilé and qüm exist at the interstices of modern society and reflect a complex religious, historical, and social response to poverty, marginality, and the global processes associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union. In this article, I attempt to move beyond an ethnomedical analysis by examining these bloodletting practices in the context of their contemporary meaning, as a moral response to suffering and to the social changes that have taken place in the post-Soviet period.

  3. Publication Rates and Trends in International Collaborations for Astronomers in Developing Countries, Eastern European Countries, and the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, James C., II

    1992-06-01

    I surveyed two major astronomical journals for the thirty-year period 1960 to 1989 looking for papers with either principal or co-authors from developing countries, formerly communist Eastern European countries, and the former Soviet Union. The number of papers with authors from these areas has increased during the period surveyed, but the percentage of papers with such authors is less than 10% of the total number of papers over the period. The number of papers by collaborations between astronomers from developing countries and industrialized countries was found to be approximately the same as the number of papers by astronomers from developing countries only. Astronomers from Eastern European countries and the former Soviet Union, however, were found to either prefer or require collaborations with Western astronomers. (SECTION: Astronomical Sociology)

  4. Building under cold climates and on permafrost. Collection of papers from a US-Soviet Joint Seminar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    The building of homes and other structures in cold weather poses special design and logistical problems for architects, urban planners, and construction engineers. As the United States expands development in the Arctic and Subarctic regions of North America, access to the research and achievements of other nations experienced in cold weather construction becomes increasingly important. The Soviet Union, with so much of its vast territory lying in the far north, performs about 85 percent of the world's research in this field. For this reason, experts at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have actively cooperated with Soviet experts under the framework of the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Housing and Other Construction. The articles in this collection have been classified into the following five sections: Aspects of Architectural Planning, Construction and Environmental Considerations; Principles of Foundation Design and Behavior; Foundation Stabilization; Concrete Construction; and Excavation Techniques.

  5. Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions from seismic surface waves: Compliance with the Threshold Test Ban Treaty.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L R; Cifuentes, I L

    1984-03-01

    Magnitudes of the larger Soviet underground nuclear weapons tests from the start of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty in 1976 through 1982 are determined for short- and long-period seismic waves. Yields are calculated from the surface wave magnitude for those explosions at the eastern Kazakh test site that triggered a small-to-negligible component of tectonic stress and are used to calibrate body wave magnitude-yield relationship that can be used to determine the sizes of other explosions at that test site. The results confirm that a large bias, related to differential attenuation of P waves, exists between Nevada and Central Asia. The yields of the seven largest Soviet explosions are nearly identical and are close to 150 kilotons, the limit set by the Threshold Treaty.

  6. Epizootic of vesicular disease in pigs caused by coxsackievirus B4 in the Soviet Union in 1975.

    PubMed

    Lomakina, Natalia F; Yu Shustova, Elena; Strizhakova, Olga M; Felix Drexler, Jan; Lukashev, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) emerged around 1960 from a human enterovirus ancestor, coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), and caused a series of epizootics in Europe and Asia. We characterized a coxsackievirus B4 strain that caused an epizootic involving 24 488 pigs in the Soviet Union in 1975. Phylogenetic evidence suggested that the swine virus emerged from a human ancestor between 1945 and 1975, almost simultaneously with the transfer of CVB5.

  7. The Development of Mobile Melt-Dilute Technology for the Treatment of Former Soviet Union Research Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.

    2003-10-09

    On-site application of the MMD process offers an economical method for converting weapons usable Former Soviet Union (FSU) High Enriched Uranium (HEU) research reactor fuel to a safe and secure Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) ingot. The objective of the MMD Project is to develop the mobile melt and dilute technology in preparation for active equipment deployment in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the FSU.

  8. The professional structure of Soviet medical care: the relationship between personal characteristics, medical education, and occupational setting for Estonian physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Using the Estonian example, this study provides data to describe the ways in which personal, educational, and occupational factors interacted to determine the professional structure of the Soviet health care system. METHODS. The study analyzes data gathered from a survey of 20% of the physicians in Estonia. It measures the frequencies of pertinent personal and occupational factors, and uses multivariate analysis to explore relationships between these factors. RESULTS. Most physicians in Estonia are women and work in urban settings. About half of the physicians work in hospitals, and one third work in large outpatient clinics called polyclinics. About one third work in primary care. Gender affects education, specialty, type of workplace, and administrative duties; nationality affects education and administrative duties. CONCLUSIONS. The Soviet system of health care derived its professional structure from a combination of personal and occupational factors. Those considering options for reform of the health care systems of the newly independent states that once constituted the Soviet Union should appreciate the nature of these structural forces. PMID:7892922

  9. Changing Patterns of Human Anthrax in Azerbaijan during the Post-Soviet and Preemptive Livestock Vaccination Eras

    PubMed Central

    Kracalik, Ian; Abdullayev, Rakif; Asadov, Kliment; Ismayilova, Rita; Baghirova, Mehriban; Ustun, Narmin; Shikhiyev, Mazahir; Talibzade, Aydin; Blackburn, Jason K.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed spatial and temporal changes in the occurrence of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during 1984 through 2010. Data on livestock outbreaks, vaccination efforts, and human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, preemptive livestock vaccination were analyzed. To evaluate changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of anthrax, we used a combination of spatial analysis, cluster detection, and weighted least squares segmented regression. Results indicated an annual percent change in incidence of +11.95% from 1984 to 1995 followed by declining rate of −35.24% after the initiation of livestock vaccination in 1996. Our findings also revealed geographic variation in the spatial distribution of reporting; cases were primarily concentrated in the west early in the study period and shifted eastward as time progressed. Over twenty years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the distribution of human anthrax in Azerbaijan has undergone marked changes. Despite decreases in the incidence of human anthrax, continued control measures in livestock are needed to mitigate its occurrence. The shifting patterns of human anthrax highlight the need for an integrated “One Health” approach that takes into account the changing geographic distribution of the disease. PMID:25032701

  10. Changing patterns of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during the post-Soviet and preemptive livestock vaccination eras.

    PubMed

    Kracalik, Ian; Abdullayev, Rakif; Asadov, Kliment; Ismayilova, Rita; Baghirova, Mehriban; Ustun, Narmin; Shikhiyev, Mazahir; Talibzade, Aydin; Blackburn, Jason K

    2014-07-01

    We assessed spatial and temporal changes in the occurrence of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during 1984 through 2010. Data on livestock outbreaks, vaccination efforts, and human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, preemptive livestock vaccination were analyzed. To evaluate changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of anthrax, we used a combination of spatial analysis, cluster detection, and weighted least squares segmented regression. Results indicated an annual percent change in incidence of (+)11.95% from 1984 to 1995 followed by declining rate of -35.24% after the initiation of livestock vaccination in 1996. Our findings also revealed geographic variation in the spatial distribution of reporting; cases were primarily concentrated in the west early in the study period and shifted eastward as time progressed. Over twenty years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the distribution of human anthrax in Azerbaijan has undergone marked changes. Despite decreases in the incidence of human anthrax, continued control measures in livestock are needed to mitigate its occurrence. The shifting patterns of human anthrax highlight the need for an integrated "One Health" approach that takes into account the changing geographic distribution of the disease.

  11. Maturation of bone and dentin matrices in rats flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. J.; Grynpas, M. D.; Rosenberg, G. D.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the chemistry, hydroxyapatite crystal size, and maturational changes in bone and dentin from rats exposed to microgravity for 12 days in a Soviet biosatellite (Cosmos 1887). Bone ash was reduced in vertebrae (L5) but not in the non-weight-bearing calvaria or mandibles. All tissues had a relatively normal percentage composition of Ca, P, and Mg. Nevertheless, flight rat calvaria and vertebral tissues tended to exhibit lower Ca/P and higher Ca/Mg ratios that any of their weight-matched controls groups, and gradient density analysis (calvaria) indicated a strong shift to the fractions lower specific gravity that was commensurate with impaired rates of matrix-mineral maturation. X-ray diffraction data were confirmatory. Bone hydroxyapatite crystal growth in the mandibles of flight rats was preferentially altered in such a way as to reduce their size (C-axis dimension). But in the mandibular diastemal region devoid of muscle attachments, flight rat bone and dentin were normal with respect to the Ca, P, Mg, and Zn concentrations and Ca/P and Ca/Mg ratios of age-matched controls. These observations affirm the concept that while microgravity most adversely affects the maturation of newly formed matrix and mineral moieties in weight-bearing bone, such effects occur throughout the skeleton.

  12. Foregoing medicines in the former Soviet Union: changes between 2001 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Footman, Katharine; Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Alimbekova, Gulzhan; Pachulia, Merab; Rotman, David; Gasparishvili, Alexander; McKee, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Pharmaceutical costs dominate out-of-pocket payments in former Soviet countries, posing a severe threat to financial equity and access to health services. Nationally representative household survey data collected in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine were analysed to compare the level of population having to forego medicines in 2001 and 2010. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess differences between populations of different economic status, and rural and urban populations. A substantial proportion of the population did forego medicines in 2010, from 29.2% in Belarus to 72.9% in Georgia. There was a decline in people foregoing medicines between 2001 and 2010; the greatest decline was seen in Moldova [rate ratio (RR)=0.67 (0.63; 0.71)] and Kyrgyzstan [RR=0.63 (0.60; 0.67)], while very little improvement took place in countries with a higher Gross National Income (GNI) per capita and greater GNI growth over the decade such as Armenia [RR=0.92 (0.87; 0.96)] and Georgia [RR=0.95 (0.92; 0.98)]. Wealthier, urban populations have benefited more than poorer, rural households in some countries. Countries experiencing the greatest improvement over the study period were those that have implemented policies such as price controls, expanded benefits packages, and encouragement of rational prescribing. Greater commitment to pharmaceutical reform is needed to ensure that people are not forced to forego medicines.

  13. Rapid declines of large mammal populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Bragina, Eugenia V; Ives, A R; Pidgeon, A M; Kuemmerle, T; Baskin, L M; Gubar, Y P; Piquer-Rodríguez, M; Keuler, N S; Petrosyan, V G; Radeloff, V C

    2015-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that socioeconomic shocks strongly affect wildlife populations, but quantitative evidence is sparse. The collapse of socialism in Russia in 1991 caused a major socioeconomic shock, including a sharp increase in poverty. We analyzed population trends of 8 large mammals in Russia from 1981 to 2010 (i.e., before and after the collapse). We hypothesized that the collapse would first cause population declines, primarily due to overexploitation, and then population increases due to adaptation of wildlife to new environments following the collapse. The long-term Database of the Russian Federal Agency of Game Mammal Monitoring, consisting of up to 50,000 transects that are monitored annually, provided an exceptional data set for investigating these population trends. Three species showed strong declines in population growth rates in the decade following the collapse, while grey wolf (Canis lupus) increased by more than 150%. After 2000 some trends reversed. For example, roe deer (Capreolus spp.) abundance in 2010 was the highest of any period in our study. Likely reasons for the population declines in the 1990s include poaching and the erosion of wildlife protection enforcement. The rapid increase of the grey wolf populations is likely due to the cessation of governmental population control. In general, the widespread declines in wildlife populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union highlight the magnitude of the effects that socioeconomic shocks can have on wildlife populations and the possible need for special conservation efforts during such times.

  14. United States-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Bouville, A.

    1995-12-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic: studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance.

  15. Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F.; Ebel, P.E.

    1996-08-01

    Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy`s program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC&A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC&A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC&A Programs.

  16. Two late quaternary pollen records from the upper Kolyma region, Soviet Northeast: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.M.; Brubaker, L.; Andreev, A.A.; Chernenky, B.I.; Federova, I.N.

    1992-03-01

    Pollen records from Sosednee and Elikchan Lakes provide the first continuous late Quaternary vegetation history for the upper Kolyma drainage of the Soviet Northeast. Full-glacial spectra at these sites are similar to those from Eastern Beringia, with high percentages of grass, sedge, and wormwood pollen indicative of herb tundra. In the Elikchan area at approximately 12,500 B.P., herb tundra was replaced by a stone pine-larch forest, perhaps similar to forests in the modern region. In contrast, the herb tundra near Sosednee Lake was succeeded by a birch-alder shrub tundra followed by a larch woodland. Stone pine increased in the region after larch and prior to 8600 B.P. A Holocene decline in stone pine, which is evident at Elikchan Lake, is less marked or absent at Sosednee Lake. The differences in these pollen records is somewhat surprising given the proximity of the two sites. Such differences indicate that numerous well-dated sites will be needed to describe the vegetation and climate histories of Western Beringia.

  17. Informal payments for health care in the Former Soviet Union: some evidence from Kazakstan.

    PubMed

    Ensor, T; Savelyeva, L

    1998-03-01

    An important feature of the health care system of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Central and Eastern Europe is the presence of informal or under-the-table payments. It is generally accepted that these represent a significant contribution to the income of medical staff. Discussions with medical practitioners suggest that for certain specialities in certain hospitals a doctor might obtain many times his official income. Yet little empirical work has been done in this area. Informal payments can be divided into those paid to health care providers and those that go directly to practitioners. They can be further divided into monetary and non-monetary. The complexity of these payments make obtaining estimates using quantitative survey techniques difficult. Estimates on contributions to the costs of medicines in Kazakstan suggest that they may add 30% to national health care expenditure. Payments to staff are likely to add substantially to this figure, although few reliable statistics exist. Research in this area is important since informal payment is likely to impact on equity in access to medical care and the efficiency of provision. The impact of attempts to reform systems using Western ideas could be reduced unless account is taken of the effect and size of the informal payment system. PMID:10178184

  18. Health Care Reform in the Former Soviet Union: Beyond the Transition

    PubMed Central

    Balabanova, Dina; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess accessibility and affordability of health care in eight countries of the former Soviet Union. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collection conducted in 2010 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Study Design Cross-sectional household survey using multistage stratified random sampling. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were collected using standardized questionnaires with subjects aged 18+ on demographic, socioeconomic, and health care access characteristics. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were used. Principal Findings Almost half of respondents who had a health problem in the previous month which they viewed as needing care had not sought care. Respondents significantly less likely to seek care included those living in Armenia, Georgia, or Ukraine, in rural areas, aged 35–49, with a poor household economic situation, and high alcohol consumption. Cost was most often cited as the reason for not seeking health care. Most respondents who did obtain care made out-of-pocket payments, with median amounts varying from $13 in Belarus to $100 in Azerbaijan. Conclusions Access to health care and within-country inequalities appear to have improved over the past decade. However, considerable problems remain, including out-of-pocket payments and unaffordability despite efforts to improve financial protection. PMID:22092004

  19. Prospects for Ukrainian ferrous metals in the post-soviet period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levine, R.M.; Bond, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Two specialists on the mineral industries of the countries of the former USSR survey current problems confronting producers of ferrous metals in Ukraine and future prospects for domestic production and exports. A series of observations documenting the importance of ferrous metals production to Ukraine's economy is followed by sections describing investment plans and needs in the sector, and the role played by Ukraine within the iron and steel industry of the Soviet Union. The focus then turns to assessment of the current regional and global competitive position of Ukrainian producers for each of the major commodities of the sector-iron ore, manganese ore, ferroalloys, steel, and the products of the machine manufacturing and metal working industries. In conclusion, the paper discusses a potential regional industrial integration strategy analogous to that employed in the United States' Great Lakes/Midwest region, which possesses similar types of iron ore deposits and similar transport cost advantages and metallurgical and manufacturing industries. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: F14, L61, L72. 1 table, 26 references.

  20. Health sector reform in the former Soviet Republics of Central Asia.

    PubMed

    McKee, M; Figueras, J; Chenet, L

    1998-01-01

    Health services in the former Soviet Republics of Central Asia face many challenges, not least a rising burden of disease and severe economic constraints. Each government has developed proposals for reform. This paper describes the key elements of the proposals developed in each country. They have many features in common, such as financing based on social insurance, although they also have many differences, reflecting national political, economic and historical circumstances. While most attention so far has concentrated on the design of the proposed systems, it is argued here that there has been inadequate attention to the obstacles to implementation. These stem from the many adverse factors in the context within which reforms are taking place, weaknesses in the process of reform, and failure to involve the groups whose actions will be necessary for success. It is argued that governments and those advising them must place greater emphasis on the challenges of implementation, including the development of a much better understanding of the context within which change must take place.