Science.gov

Sample records for soviet anthem low-key

  1. National Anthem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A montage of video clips over the years, footage shows the spacecrews, launch, and landing for different orbiters and missions. Clips include the Endeavour and Atlantis Orbiters and are shown to the music of the American National Anthem.

  2. Schools Celebrate National Anthem Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Roger Lacher, instrumental music director at Murray Middle School in Ridgecrest, California, spearheaded a celebration of the national anthem attended by a descendant of Francis Scott Key. In a press release Lacher sent to the local media, he wrote: "Murray Middle School celebrated this event. We are blessed with having the great, great,…

  3. Teaching Social Studies with National Anthems Using the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Many national anthem lyrics focus on struggle and war between nations. Some, such as "The Star Spangled Banner," focus on a single battle or incident, like the War of 1812. Others stress the bravery, strength, and courage of the soldiers and sometimes the entire nation. Other anthems, such as Brazil's, focus on the beauty and…

  4. 76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Provider Data Management Team Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services and Jacobsen Group, et...,895 Wellpoint, Inc., D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team... Wellpoint, Inc., D/B/A/Anthem Health Plans Of Kentucky, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team,...

  5. O Say, They Can Sing! Teachers Share Their Tips for Teaching the National Anthem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Teresa K.

    2004-01-01

    Teachers who have made "The Star-Spangled Banner" a central part of their students' repertoire have found that students can learn it and take pride in staging this familiar song that even their parents consider too difficult. Many teachers recognize that the first obstacle in teaching the anthem is that students do not know the words or understand…

  6. Modern Tools of Propaganda: Television Treatments of National Anthems in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidman, Mary Beth

    Because of the close proximity of countries in the Middle East, broadcast signals freely cross national boundaries, bringing not always friendly endemic populations into contact with each other through radio and television programming--a fact that has not been lost on the governments which fund broadcasting facilities. National anthems are…

  7. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, Wisconsin (the subject firm... Employment and Training Administration Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice of Negative Determination...

  8. Political Socialization of Youth in the Soviet Union: Its Theory, Use, and Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    life.24 The correspondinig third grade reader opens to the Soviet national anthem, portrayed with bright pictures of Soviet accomplishments and the...students m M•sc• w in 1’-• .... "Ihis lack undoubtedly a/fected the training of the student•, .•,Jn.t.: lhr•ugh Ih•, [,r(,gram. B. ClVIL DEFENSE As...specifically geared to W •Sl’,itanie in their curriculum Fht’se wert’ ll’l•st, dev¢•ted to civil defense and militnrv training. These mainl\\’ ,,er\\’ed

  9. 76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    .../Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Including On-Site Leased Workers... Health Plans of Kentucky Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Louisville, Kentucky TA-W-74,895B Wellpoint, Inc. Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Saint Louis, Missouri TA-W-74,895C Wellpoint,...

  10. Validation of a human cell based high-throughput genotoxicity assay 'Anthem's Genotoxicity screen' using ECVAM recommended lists of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Rajakrishna, Lakshmi; Krishnan Unni, Salini; Subbiah, Madhuri; Sadagopan, Sathish; Nair, Ayyappan R; Chandrappa, Ravindra; Sambasivam, Ganesh; Sukumaran, Sunil Kumar

    2014-02-01

    A novel high throughput-enabled human cell based screen, Anthem's Genotoxicity screen, was developed to achieve higher specificity for predicting in vivo genotoxins by an in vitro method. The assay employs engineered human colon carcinoma cell line; HCT116 cells that are stably engineered with three promoter-reporter cassettes such that an increased reporter activity reflects the activation of associated signaling events in a human cell. The current study focuses on the evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of Anthem's Genotoxicity screen using 62 compounds recommended by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). The concordance of Anthem's Genotoxicity screen with in vivo tests was 95.5% with sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity of 95.7%. Thus Anthem's Genotoxicity screen, a high-throughput mechanism based genotox indicator test can be employed by a variety of industries for rapid screening and early detection of potential genotoxins.

  11. Soviet scientists speak out

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, D. )

    1993-05-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

  12. Soviet Military Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    of the civilian transport sector. The impact of such a mobilization effort on the Soviet economy would cause severe dis- ruption of the normal...the full scope of Soviet Civil Defense. Extensive planning for the transition of the entire State and economy to a wartime pos- ture has been...components -. national economy and general porulation. such as industrial, transport, power and com- The Soviets regard passive defense as an es

  13. Soviet Arts Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    This extensive curriculum guide was written in conjunction with the San Diego Arts Festival of Soviet Arts in 1989. It aimed to provide teachers with insights and ideas about arts in the Soviet Union before, during, and after the Arts Festival. A curriculum model is presented at the beginning of the guide to illustrate how the lessons were…

  14. Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    agency of the Soviet Union. Permission for further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. SOVIET UNION MILITARY AFFAIRS CONTENTS...internationalists, it has always embodied the inviolable friendship of the peoples of the USSR. But are some of us not hypnotized by this principle

  15. Recent Soviet Vocationalisation Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Felicity

    The Soviet Union is attempting to deal with the sometimes conflicting problems of efficient vocationalization and provision of equal opportunity. From the first class of general school, Soviet children have several "labor" lessons a week. Main components of these lessons are practical skills, socialization for work, and vocational…

  16. The Supreme Soviet and Soviet Defense Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    planning and threat assessment," appeared to increase.’ But as Stephen Foye points out, Mikhail Gorbachev’s coming to power and his policy of perestroika...it is also true of the military’s influence in determining defense policy.) Stephen Foye , "The Soviet Armed Forces in 1989," Report on the USSR... Foye points out that Yazov’s promotion, coming on the eve of celebrations marking the 45th anniversary of the Soviet victory in World War II

  17. Soviet ionospheric modification research

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, L.M.; Carlson, H.C.; Djuth, F.T.; Fejer, J.A.; Gerson, N.C.; Hagfors, T.; Newman, D.B. Jr.; Showen, R.L.

    1988-07-01

    Soviet published literature in ionospheric modification research by high-power radio waves is assessed, including an evaluation of its impact on and applications to future remote-sensing and telecommunications systems. This assessment is organized to place equal emphasis on basic research activities, designed to investigate both the natural geophysical environment and fundamental plasma physics; advanced research programs, such as those studying artificial ionization processes and oblique high-power radio propagation and practical system applications and operational limitations addressed by this research. The assessment indicates that the Soviet Union sustains high-quality theoretical and experimental research programs in ionospheric modification, with a breadth and level of effort greatly exceeding comparable Western programs. Soviet theoretical research tends to be analytical and intuitive, as compared to the Western emphasis on numerical simulation techniques. The Soviet experimental approach is less exploratory, designed principally to confirm theoretical predictions. Although limited by inferior diagnostic capabilities, Soviet experimental facilities are more numerous, operate on a more regular basis, and transmit radio wave powers exceeding those os Western facilities. Because of its broad scope of activity, the Soviet Union is better poised to quickly exploit new technologies and system applications as they are developed. This panel has identified several key areas of Soviet research activity and emerging technology that may offer long-term opportunities for remote-sensing and telecommunications advantages. However, we have found no results that suggest imminent breakthrough discoveries in these fields.

  18. Soviet strategic defense technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, E.

    1987-04-01

    The present status of the Soviet program suggests several observations that have a bearing on predicting the future of the Soviet strategic defense program and its implications for the US: 1. The Soviet Union appears to have a continuing interest in ABM defenses, although ASATs seem to be a much lower priority. 2. The Soviet technology fielded to date was well within the American grasp 10 years ago. Where advanced and as yet undeployed technologies are concerned, the difference seems to be smaller; perhaps as little as five or seven years, with approximate parity in particle-beam research. 3. The Soviet Union, possibly more sensitive to prestige considerations, appears to be much more inclined than the US to demonstrate and deploy a technology before it is actually fully operational, and to undertake field modifications later. They also are much more reluctant to retire aging and obsolete technologies. As a result, they presently possess the world's only deployed ASAT and ABM systems, however, doubtful their actual operational effectiveness might be. 4. Soviet strategic defenses tend to be more fragmentary in design, reflecting their difficulties with the supporting and integrative technologies such as sensing, signal processing, heavy-lift boosters, and computing hardware and software. 5. The Soviets should also be expected to explore alternative avenues of near-term response to SDI, for example by expanding their strategic nuclear arsenal. 28 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  19. Soviet Space Program Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    in advance and some events were even broadcast live. Immediately following the first success- ful launch of their new Energia space launch vehicle in...early 1988. Just as a handbook written a couple of years ago would need updating with Mir, Energia , and the SL-16, this handbook will one day need up...1986. Johnson, Nicholas L. The Soviet Year in Space 1983. Colorado Springs, CO: Teledyne Brown Engineering, 1984. Lawton, A. " Energia - Soviet Super

  20. Understanding Soviet Naval Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    Soviet fisheries research ship EKVATOR operating in the north Pacific Ocean. 109 The Soviet satellite tracking ship KOSMONAUT YURIY GAGARIN is one of a...materials to the many. These ships vary in size from small fabrication of finished weapon systems. coastal craft to the giant KOSMONAUT YURIY GAGARIN . a...cannon and up to eight SA-19 missiles,. replacing the cight 30mam Gatlig guns. The fourth unit of the class. YURI ANDROPOV. kkas launched in 1989. and a

  1. Soviet Nuclear Proliferation Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-05

    ratify the NPT. The Soviet press has been cautious about publically condemning NPT hold-outs, usually avoiding naming Third World nations, though it is...fissionable fuel for nuclear weapons. Furthermore, Brazil has not signed the NPT. Moscow has bitterly condemned this "deal of the century." The Soviet press ...equipment sent to a nonnuclear state. Germany, of course, is. France, however, has anounced its intention to observe the safeguard Provisions of the NPT

  2. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    time to really take advantage of the provisions of the document cited in practice. [Question] The "track of long - term prospects" which has taken...new, from which life will select the most viable." Not long ago at the Bureau of the Main Political Directorate of the Soviet Army and Navy, they...these people so that each works at full strength, with inspiration, with a perceptive vision of our great and long -range goals." Our Soviet classical

  3. Soviet uranium supply capability

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-01

    For many years, only limited information concerning uranium deposits in the USSR has been available from Soviet sources. The Soviet Union has, however, cooperated in some past efforts to promote interaction with the international scientific community. For example, in 1984 the Soviet Union hosted the 27th International Geological Congress (IGC). The uranium portion included 50 papers, primarily on uranium deposits in sandstone and metamorphic rocks, presented to about 300 members. The IGC sponsored almost 400 geology field trips, the most noteworthy of which was a five-day trip to the Krivoi Rog iron and uranium district in the south-central Ukraine, including visits to two open-pit iron mines and the underground Novaya uranium mine in Zholtye Vody. That conference was reported in detail on the October 1984 NUEXCO Monthly Report. Some other information that has been made available over the years is contained in the April 1985 Report discussion of uranium deposit classifications. Advanced processing technology, low-cost labor, by-product and co-product recovery, and the large existing production capacity enable MAEI to produce nuclear fuel at low cost. The Soviet Union`s reserve base, technological development, and production experience make it one of the world`s leading producers of nuclear fuel. As additional information is made available for publication, NUEXCO will present updated reports on the nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Soviet Union.

  4. Thinking about the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkovich, George

    In the United States, educators have had difficulty teaching about the Soviet Union. Students are often ignorant of the historical circumstances that have affected the U.S./Soviet relationship, and they are often miseducated by stereotypes they encounter in popular culture. This curriculum explores the government and economy of the Soviet Union,…

  5. Soviet psychology and psychophysiology.

    PubMed

    RAZRAN, G

    1958-11-14

    Pavlov's experiments, begun long before the revolution, have always been generously supported by the Soviet state. However, their far-reaching ontological and methodological implication gained an official and commanding position to Soviet biomedical and psychosocial (as distinct from socioeconomic) sciences only in 1950 with the Resolution of the 28 June-4 July Joint Pavlovian Session of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and Academy of Medical Sciences. In the biomedical sciences, present-day Soviet Pavlovianism may best be conceived of as (i) a doctrine of nervism (a Russian term)-the ubiquity of neural control of bodily reactions (neural, neurosomatic, neurovisceral, and neurohumoral) and (ii) a doctrine of what might be called concomitantism (my term )-the ready and radical modification of these reactions by concomitant reactions; or, viewed more generally and somewhat differently, as (iii) a far-reaching physicalistic psychosomaticism or, rather, a neuroviscerosomaticism. Psychophysiology-or higher nervous activity-is the key discipline here. With scores of research institutes, it is indeed a very well-established, wide-scoped, and faradvanced faradvanced science that, in both present achievements and future capabilities, is a challenge to American and Western equivalents. On the other hand, in the psychosocial sciences and the key discipline of psychology proper, unmitigated Pavlovian physicalism and objectivism is met head on by (i) the unbending postulate of dialectical materialism of "the specific emergent efficacy of consciousness and subjective conscious categories" as well as by (ii) the simple consideration that a consistent Pavlovianism is a fully autarchic psychology and needs no other science of psychology on top of it. A large portion of current Soviet psychological theory in psychology proper is thus primarily a textual and exegetic collation and conciliation of the views of Pavlov with those of Marx, Engels, and Lenin (until recently and, to some

  6. Soviet debate on missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  7. Soviet ventures require careful structuring

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, J.A. )

    1991-06-03

    When the Soviet Union first opened its doors to foreign investment in 1987, the only legal entity for housing foreign investment was the joint venture or joint enterprise. Almost all foreign investments to date utilize this organizational form. Initially, non-Soviet investors were limited to a 49% equity participation. Currently, there are in excess of 2,000 such joint ventures officially registered in the Soviet Union. It is important to note, however, that notwithstanding that substantial number, the average non-Soviet investment is relatively small; indeed, recent calculations indicate that the average non-Soviet investment remains under $2 million. It was hoped that someday Soviet entities as well as foreign firms might be empowered to form thier own legal vehicles for investing in the Soviet Union. In part, that dream has come true.

  8. The Soviet Union and ballistic missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, B.

    1987-01-01

    In recent debate over strategic defense, the Soviet dimension has not been adequately examined. Based on an analysis of Soviet statements and Soviet weaponry, the study surveys Soviet perceptions of the shifting relationship between the superpowers and the effect of BMD on that relationship. The author then traces the evolution of Soviet policies toward ballistic missile defense and the introduction of weapons into space. After exploring the internal budgetary debates that will affect future Soviet decisions on BMD and space systems, the book outlines Soviet responses, political as well as military, to the Strategic Defense Initiative and concludes with recommendations for U.S. policy toward BMD and arms negotiations. Contents: The Central Issues; Soviet Views of the Geopolitical Context; Soviet Policy Toward Soviet BMD and the Military Uses of Space; The resource Allocation Debate and Soviet BMD Decisions; Soviet Responses to the Strategic Defense Initiative; U.S. Policy and the Future of the Superpower Arms Competition.

  9. Soviet delays raise prices

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1992-01-15

    The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

  10. Soviet Youth Indoctrination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    careful scien- tific scrutiny and may appear as schemes with purely ideological or Marxist-Leninist foundations. Surely, as will be seen, the Soviets...forward the line of constant struggle, They must be careful when they justify things in terms of morality too. Universl morality is rejected by the...ind,)ctrina- tion of their own youth, we must be careful in our analyner of the forces behind the policies. In attempting to detemine Oomuniet objec

  11. Soviet Strategic Airlift.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    geography (15:81). Excluding Antartica , 62 percent of the world’s land is closer to the Soviet Union than to the U.S. (13:7). Also, most destinations of...world Land (less Antartica ) 62 69 Population 81 832 GNP 65 67 Proven oil1 resources 86 90 Natural gas 831 85 57 LhJ c LIP) 4 U LLi. -j0 LU 3 -. U, CfL

  12. Clausewitz and the Soviets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    Wiitary SeliiCe Or goverment agpucy. 0) 0 ULAUSEWITZ AND THE SOVIETS BY LC) LIEUTENANT COLONEL WILLIAlI 7. KARBOWS$Y, USAF DISTRIBUTTION STATEMENT A...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. AE LECh. JUL3 1 1 35 29 MARCH 1985 US ARMY WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PENNSYLVANIA 31...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS US Army War College Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013-5050 I1. CONTROLLING

  13. Soviet Military Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    original mutation was developed "could produce an effective prevention or cure. Each of these developments, as well as other efforts by the USSR to enhance...threat. We do not have to iook far to see evidence of that threat: to subjugated Eastern Europe , including Foland and the crushed Solidarity movement...strategic imbalance in ICBMs and con- .. • firm the Soviet advantage in the number of !,,•4 shorter range nuclear missiles, particularly in Europe . The

  14. Soviet Military Power 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    deployed in both a fixed and mobile ver- Kremlin should cease its massive military aid rrograms. sion. the mobile SS-25, and the new version of the...Libya. Angola, Vict- ability of mobile systems, coupled with greater yield and nam, Syria, and especially Cuba, which is only 90 miles accuracy of the...of severe repression in Poland, Moscow also deployed SS-20 intermediate-range mobile nuclear missiles that These apparent contradictions in Soviet

  15. The Soviet Union and China,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    eel)ly d is tulrbed by thle sp ic tarn L I a r , newt 1h o f t ht, Sax’ i vt - Cuban mitlitary role and Soviet political in I nnce in P%’rica m ici...perception is also fed by What the Chinese see as other symptoms of the incremental growth of the Soviet political and miii- tarv presence in the Trhird World...indefinitely poisoned . Soviet Economic Courting of Beijing. The net result of these experiences has been a long series of rebuffs to sporadic Soviet

  16. The Soviet Union in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Niiseki, K.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the recent transition in the Soviet Union's leadership, scholars worldwide have found it necessary to reevaluate Soviet domestic and foreign policy. In this book, prominent Japanese, U.S., and European experts examine changes within the USSR as well as Soviet reactions to changes in the rest of the world. They assess the immediate implications of change for such areas as technology, energy policy, and economic reform and deliver commentaries on current policy directions and historical backgrounds of Soviet policies. The Japan Institute of International Affairs held the symposium on which this volume is based to commemorate its silver jubilee and to add the valuable perspective of Japanese Soviet studies scholars to Western analyses. Contents: Introduction; The Soviet Union in a Changing World; East-West Relations: A European Perspective; ''Gorbachevism''-Simply Old Wine in a New Bottle. Implications of Leadership and Social Change for Soviet Policies; Soviet Economic Trends, with Special Emphasis on Investment and Energy Policies; Economic Reforms in China in Light of Soviet and Eastern European Experiences.

  17. A novel active contour model for unsupervised low-key image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jiangyuan; Si, Yulin; Karimi, Hamid; Gao, Huijun

    2013-06-01

    Unsupervised image segmentation is greatly useful in many vision-based applications. In this paper, we aim at the unsupervised low-key image segmentation. In low-key images, dark tone dominates the background, and gray level distribution of the foreground is heterogeneous. They widely exist in the areas of space exploration, machine vision, medical imaging, etc. In our algorithm, a novel active contour model with the probability density function of gamma distribution is proposed. The flexible gamma distribution gives a better description for both of the foreground and background in low-key images. Besides, an unsupervised curve initialization method is designed, which helps to accelerate the convergence speed of curve evolution. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through comparison with the CV model. Also, one real-world application based on our approach is described in this paper.

  18. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  19. Soviet Studies in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Article surveys the special theories and empirical studies of language acquisition carried out by Soviet psychologists, especially in the period since 1950. The basic principles of materialism, historicism and social reference characteristic of Soviet Marxist psychology are placed in contrast to certain current tendencies in American linguistics.…

  20. Soviet Style in War.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    the methods for firing while running’ " 355-and ingenuity in devising procedures for training: I 56 Soviet Style in War The commander of a regiment...under friendly fire... .. " In fact, one of the characteristics of the "Russian method of attacking" was "to break into the positions of the defense...battle. ° For this gain one should use all available detours and instruments, should "utilize," in General Epishev’s words, "all forms and methods of

  1. Soviet Military Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    study, but also provides comparative data on developments in US forces. These comparative data serve to highlight even more vividly the magnitude and the...into Western data .,,:•;. collection of foreign scientific and technolog- bases through a growing number of transna- :’’ " * ical information...stage of development. The BLACK- Year JACK is larger than the US B-1B, probably will fU date Inuiudr e-U, PU- Ill Soviet data nclude BiAR, be fr and

  2. Soviet Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Soviet-Israeli relations today. I. Israel’s Stance in the Cold War The first break in relations between the USSR and Israel occurred in early 1953 ...that put forward by Tat’yana Zaslavskaya, in an anthology of articles published as a book under the title Inogo ne dano in 1988. 37 (A discussion paper...37 T. Zaslavskaya, "On the Strategy of the Social Direction of Perestroika," in Yurii Afanas’ev (ed.), Inogo ne dano [There is no Alternative

  3. Soviet Techniques and Devices for Automating Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zender, Bryce Franklin, Jr.

    Various Soviet conceptions of technology and their influence on the automation of instruction in the Soviet Union are examined, and the history of the development of Soviet programed instruction is sketched. Key principles and techniques from Soviet psychology, pedagogy, computer technology, and cybernetics are explained in terms of their…

  4. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    PubMed

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective.

  5. Soviet Development Policy in Siberia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabad, Theodore

    1978-01-01

    Examines how Soviet economic planners and policymakers cope with the geographic dichotomy of a concentration of population and economic activity in European Russia and the concentration of natural resources in sparsely populated Siberia. (Author/DB)

  6. Soviet Naval War Fighting Capabilities,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    This paper attempts to determine the levels of major Soviet combat forces in each of the ocean areas of the world and assess the capability of those forces to conduct warfighting operations from a standing, walking, or running start.

  7. Soviet health care and perestroika.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, D S; Rafferty, M P

    1990-01-01

    Health and health care in the Soviet Union are drawing special attention during these first years of perestroika, Mikhail Gorbachev's reform of Soviet political and economic life. This report briefly describes the current state of Soviet health and medical care, Gorbachev's plans for reform, and the prospects for success. In recent years the Soviet Union has experienced a rising infant mortality rate and declining life expectancy. The health care system has been increasingly criticized for its uncaring providers, low quality of care, and unequal access. The proposed measures will increase by 50 percent the state's contribution to health care financing, encourage private medicine on a small scale, and begin experimentation with capitation financing. It seems unlikely that the government will be able to finance its share of planned health improvements, or that private medicine, constrained by the government's tight control, will contribute much in the near term. Recovery of the Soviet economy in general as well as the ability of health care institutions to gain access to Western materials will largely determine the success of reform of the Soviet health care system. PMID:2297064

  8. A review of Soviet plasma engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The Soviet Union has maintained a substantial and successful electric propulsion research and development effort since the 1950s; however, American researchers are generally unfamiliar with the Soviet accomplishments. Sources of information about Soviet electric propulsion research are noted. The development of plasma engines, a subset of the electric propulsion effort, is reviewed using numerous Soviet sources. The operational principles and status of several engines of the closed electron drift and high-current types are discussed. With recognition of the limited knowledge of the current Soviet program, the Soviet and American programs are compared, revealing some differences in program formulation and emphasis.

  9. Verbal Regulation of Motor Behavior-Soviet Research and Non-Soviet Replications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Soviet investigation of the development of verbal inhibition of preseverative manual behavior are reviewed. Non-soviet investigations of verbal-manual interaction are considered in relation to the Soviet view of the development of voluntary behavior; and it is argued, on the basis of this evidence, that the Soviet position need not stand or fall…

  10. Proliferation and the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The report examines the whole range of consequences for proliferation of weapons of mass destruction of the Soviet Union's breakup and describes how U.S. assistance may reduce specific proliferation risks in the former Soviet Union.

  11. Collectivity and Individuality in Soviet Educational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, James

    1980-01-01

    Urie Bronfenbrenner has characterized Soviet education as collective, and Amerian education as individualistic. Bronfenbrenner's suggestion, made 10 years ago, that the United States should adopt some of the Soviet methods, is still valid today. (GDC)

  12. Political Attitudes Reflected in Soviet Elementary Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Votey, E. Scott

    1978-01-01

    Examines how Soviet elementary textbooks inculcate political attitudes about Lenin, history and current events, and the importance of the Soviet army. Excerpts from readers are included as illustrations of political instruction. (AV)

  13. Soviet Perceptions of War and Peace,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Soviet military will project by its policies and its hardware a massive and threatening image. Politics and War It is not necessary to present here a...the Soviet Union depends on massive Soviet military power. The Soviet view of war is thus a very "political" one, but it emanates from a simple and...intend to attack the territory of the adversary. Surprise, initiative, shock, and the momentum of a massive , well- coordinated offensive clearly

  14. Ozone mapper survives Soviet coup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-06

    NASA's latest satellite-borne monitor of the Earth's protective ozone layer went operational a little earlier than planned last month. The unprecedented launch - on a Soviet weather satellite - of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) took place on 15 August. Three days later so did the coup that has shaken the Soviet Union to its foundations. So, instead of waiting weeks to let the instrument adjust to space conditions, NASA engineers, who were in Moscow to monitor the launch, turned TOMS on before going home - just 5 days post-launch. No problems resulted, and the orbiting instrument, which for the first 2 months of its 2-year mission will track the formation of this year's Antarctic ozone hole, is now returning data to both US and Soviet ground stations. The launch of a new TOMS was an urgent imperative for US atmospheric researchers. The old one, now approaching its 13th year in orbit on the NASA satellite Nimbus-7, was showing its age and threatened to quit working. Because of the tight launch schedules following the Challenger disaster, NASA sought outside help to get TOMS off the ground. The Soviet Union turned out to be the best partner: it is developing a new network of Meteor meteorology satellites, and the 1987 US/USSR space cooperation agreement allowed the Soviet Cyclone booster to become the Americans' savior.

  15. The End of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergesheimer, John

    1992-01-01

    Presents, as a supplement to social studies textbooks, a summary of recent Soviet Union developments. Begins with the rise of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and traces events through the dissolution of the USSR. Provides a Soviet history timeline, a vocabulary list, and a reproducible map of eastern Europe and central Asia. (SG)

  16. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  17. Highly Cited Soviet Papers: An Exploratory Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narin, Fransic; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The bibliographic methodology of citation tabulation was applied to the problem of identifying highly cited Soviet scientific papers (in Science Citation Index). Findings indicate that lists generated are indicative of areas of strong Soviet research and that institutions producing these papers include the most important Soviet labs. (Author/JN)

  18. The Soviet Economic Dilemma of Eastern Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    terms of trade, overinvestment, the hard currency debt crisis , and problems in adopting and diffusing new technologies. At times Soviet policies have...Surpluses with Eastern Europe ........... 31 10. Soviet Trade Surpluses with East European Countries in Crisis ...trade until 1979, and then again in 1981 dur- ing the Polish crisis . Moreover, Soviet terms of trade with Eastern Europe have improved very rapidly

  19. Soviet Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchetkov, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of the high energy physics program in the USSR during 1960s-1970s culminated with a decision to build the Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK) to carry out fixed target and colliding beam experiments. The UNK was to have three rings. One ring was to be built with conventional magnets to accelerate protons up to the energy of 600 GeV. The other two rings were to be made from superconducting magnets, each ring was supposed to accelerate protons up to the energy of 3 TeV. The accelerating rings were to be placed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of 21 km. As a 3 x 3 TeV collider, the UNK would make proton-proton collisions with a luminosity of 4 x 1034 cm-1s-1. Institute for High Energy Physics in Protvino was a project leading institution and a site of the UNK. Accelerator and detector research and development studies were commenced in the second half of 1970s. State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy of the USSR approved the project in 1980, and the construction of the UNK started in 1983. Political turmoil in the Soviet Union during late 1980s and early 1990s resulted in disintegration of the USSR and subsequent collapse of the Russian economy. As a result of drastic reduction of funding for the UNK, in 1993 the project was restructured to be a 600 GeV fixed target accelerator only. While the ring tunnel and proton injection line were completed by 1995, and 70% of all magnets and associated accelerator equipment were fabricated, lack of Russian federal funding for high energy physics halted the project at the end of 1990s.

  20. Soviet applications for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Reuben F.

    Consistent with Soviet historical practice in the fields of space vehicle design and aircraft procurement, a hypersonic-cruise aerospacecraft will be used only for specialized missions. Most Soviet surveillance of seas and landmasses will be conducted via satellite, while military missions will be carried out by conventional aircraft and ASAT missions will be performed by unmanned systems. An aerospace vehicle will fill the gaps that have ineluctably emerged between these established systems' capabilities due to their comparatively modest technological sophistication. It can be confidently expected that the aerospaceplane's design will involve the synergistic integration of existing technologies.

  1. Determinants of Soviet emigration policies.

    PubMed

    Friedgut, T H

    1991-06-01

    "The object of this paper is the presentation and analysis of the political values that are expressed in Soviet emigration policy. Underlying this is an attempt to discern points of change in these values, in particular through the post-World War II history of the USSR. Our concluding point will be the new law on entry and exit from the USSR, pending before the Supreme Soviet [in 1991] with its passage promised in the nearest future." The study covers the period from the 1920s to the present.

  2. Soviet Weapon-System Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    available in theIWest, provides the central coordination and policy guidance for Soviet weapons acquisition and oversees all military-related research...Machine Building Nuclear weapons and high- (MISREDMASH), (MSM) energy lasers i Ministry of Ship Building Naval vessels and naval (MINSUDPROM), (MSP) weapons...MINRADPROM), (MRP) equipment, guidance -and- control systems, navigation 3 equipment, and military computers Ministry of Communications

  3. The phenomenon of Soviet science.

    PubMed

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    The grand "Soviet experiment" constituted an attempt to greatly accelerate and even shortcut the gradual course of historical development on the assumption of presumed knowledge of the general laws of history. This paper discusses the parts of that experiment that directly concerned scientific research and, in fact, anticipated or helped define important global changes in the functioning of science as a profession and an institution during the twentieth century. The phenomenon of Soviet, or socialist, science is analyzed here from the comparative international perspective, with attention to similarities and reciprocal influences, rather than to the contrasts and dichotomies that have traditionally interested cold war-type historiography. The problem is considered at several levels: philosophical (Soviet thought on the relationship between science and society and the social construction of scientific knowledge); institutional (the state recognition of research as a separate profession, the rise of big science and scientific research institutes); demographic (science becoming a mass profession, with ethnic and gender diversity among scientists); and political (Soviet-inspired influences on the practice of science in Europe and the United States through the social relations of science movement of the 1930s and the Sputnik shock of the 1950s).

  4. Impressions of Soviet Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpes, Donald K.

    Based on a 2-week tour of Russia, this report describes some principal policies and practices of Soviet teacher education. After a brief introduction, the report presents new trends in education and the organization of teacher education as exemplified by the Hertzen Institute in Leningrad. In a description of teacher preparation programs,…

  5. Soviet Military Doctrine: An Overview,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    toay, an gai best be summ~~aie savctigteetbhmn fmltr foce vlh anfgh, uviean ’na uur vt Duigte eid1r417, h oiesrpd- ul tary 1htorists ever since the mid...from even a marginal military superiority over one’s opponent. In 1972, retired Soviet Army Colonel V. M. Kulish noted: • • . it. must bj borne in

  6. Soviet KIROV class strike cruiser

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, J.W.; Brower, K.S.; Meier, H.A.

    1981-04-01

    The major design concepts and basic characteristics of the Soviet KIROV Class ship, an impressive nuclear-powered Strike Cruiser which recently appeared while undergoing sea trials in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, are discussed. Highlights are presented of the KIROV's hull form, the weapons, electronics and aviation systems, machinery, as well as the cruiser's speed and range.

  7. Soviet military power: an assessment of the threat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Contents include: the nature of the Soviet threat--Soviet national-security policies; Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev; military resources allocation; Soviet strategic programs and space forces; Soviet conventional forces; an assessment of the threat--the strategic balance; regional and functional balances; research and development: the technological competition; collective security: our risks and responsibilities.

  8. The People of the Soviet Union. Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikofski, Joyce

    This sixth grade teaching unit covers Soviet propaganda, communism, relations with the United States, Soviet geography, Soviet arts, and Soviet life. Unit goals address the above content areas, map skills, and an attitudinal goal of helping students to develop a sense of respect for the life of Soviet citizens. Behavioral objectives are keyed to…

  9. Soviet Perspectives on Current Sino-Soviet Relations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    US an- ’TATC in a two-fr... r r losino its hold on Eastern Europe. Just as Usas-rous . - that, "...:after the d- estr -ction o Chirese ->’c’e-,r i- y...solidify the world communist -ove- ment and he a strong lever against the US. As the Soviets face a declining economy and labor pool, a . decrease in

  10. Soviet Nuclear Strategy form Stalin to Gorbachev

    SciTech Connect

    Catudal, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book examines the nature of the Soviet nuclear threat and how it has evolved over the years. Too often in the past U.S. officials, in shaping and directing plans for American nuclear forces, have tended to see Soviet military forces and strategy as a reflection of their own stance or simply as projecting the worst plausible case of Soviet intentions and capabilities. The result has been a distorted if not dangerous portrayal of the real threat. Soviet nuclear strategy, as explained in this detailed book, has evolved significantly since the days when the Soviets first possessed nuclear weapons under Joseph Stalin. Today there is in development a new Soviet military and strategic doctrine reflected in Gorbachev's words, We require a radical break with traditions of political thinking. This new doctrine promises to have a profound impact on European security and the overall East-West relationship.

  11. Soviet chemical propellant research and development

    SciTech Connect

    deButts, E.H.; Baum, K.; Beckstead, M.W.; Christe, K.O.; Hartman, K.O.; Jeffrey, W.A.

    1991-12-01

    In the second half of the 1980s, the Soviet Union had a strong and continuing research effort devoted to understanding the behavior of chemical propellants suitable to support development of advanced propellants for practical applications. Recent Soviet work concentrated on solid propellants, though liquid propellants powered the largest and most advanced deployed Soviet rockets. This assessment summarizes the Soviet state of the art in chemical propellants in the late 1980s and projects the trends of that period into the next decade. It is based on a broad and deep review of Soviet literature published in 1985--1991 and is presented in an unclassified report. Speculation about or prediction of the effects of recent political and social events on chemical propellant research and development in the old Soviet Union is outside the scope of this assessment, though the effects are likely to be profound.

  12. The Soviet Union: Political and military trends

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Garrity, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    On July 20, 1989, the Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a workshop on The Soviet Union: Political and Military Trends.'' The morning session was devoted to a discussion of the magnitude of the problems confronting the Soviet Union, the political and economic reforms designed to address those problems, and the repercussions of those reforms on Soviet foreign policy and defense spending. In the afternoon session, the Soviet view of the changing character of warfare, the technologies and force structures that the Soviets might develop and deploy to anticipate the battlefield of the future, and the role that conventional arms control might play in Soviet political and military strategy were examined.

  13. The Validity of Soviet Military Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    references that were not mentioned by Gervasi. (1) Pergamon- Brassey is an international firm that publishes numerous books by defense analysts. (2) NATO...Soviet Military Balance 1980- 1985. McLean, VA: Oergamon- Brasseys International Defense Publishers, 1985, p. 204. 32International Institute for Strategic...49Jones, David R. Soviet Armed Forces Review Annual 1984- 1985. Gulf Breeze, FL: Academic International Press, 1986, p. 26. 5QJane’s Soviet Intelligence

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-15

    1920 PRAVDA and other newspapers carried an article by I. Stalin, RSFSR People’s Commissar for Nationality Affairs, " Long Live Soviet Armenia...are declared annulled. Nagornyy Karabakh, Zangezur and Nakhichevan are recognized as a part of the Armenian Socialist Republic. " Long live the...and all the benefits of the Soviet system will be extended to all Armenia’s citizens in equal measure. " Long live the brotherhood of the Soviet

  15. Soviet business chaos seen lasting 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-16

    This paper reports that companies seeking work in the collapsing Soviet Union can expect political uncertainty for another 5 years. PW discussed changes in the Soviet Union and offered advice on dealing with officials of the central government and Soviet republics at a recent meeting in Houston with executives of oil field service companies. That meeting preceded reports of the Russian federation, Ukraine, and Byelorussia agreeing to form a Slavic commonwealth.

  16. Soviet Tactical Doctrine for Urban Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    part was devoted to an extensive research into extant, open source Soviet literature. The second part was devoted to continuing research , an analysis...extensive research into extant, open source Soviet literature. The second part was devoted to continuing research , an analysis and report of findings...This Document Reproduced FromBest Available Copy AD-AO22 998 SOVIET TACTICAL DOCTRINE FOR URBAN WARFARE John C. Scharfen, et al Stanford Research

  17. Overflights of Soviet Cosmodromes 1953-1961

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, B.

    Soviet cosmodromes were hidden from the world until comparatively recently. In reality, western intelligence obtained early knowledge of the three Soviet - period cosmodromes of Kapustin Yar, Tyuratam and Plesetsk. Information was collected by overflights of the cosmodromes by American and British pilots during the period 1953 to 1960. Although western intelligence agencies were primarily interested in the missile programme, they acquired an accurate picture of Soviet space capabilities.

  18. Soviet National Middle Atmosphere Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilov, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    Soviet national MAP program comprises seven projects: lower thermosphere (structure and dynamics); high latitude energetic sources and their effect on the structure and dynamics of the upper atmosphere under conditions of the polar night; climate of the stratosphere and mesosphere (effects of various energetic sources on its formation); winter variability in the lower ionosphere; noctilucent clouds (climatology, dynamics, nature, and genesis); wave processes and structure and dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; and dynamics of the ozone layer.

  19. Soviet Military Strategy towards 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    Virginia, Center for Naval Analyses [CNA] no. 87-1918, 1 October 1987), pp. 6-8. 8. A . Kokoshin and V . Larionov, "The Confrontation of General- Purpose...Views of V . I. Lenin and Soviet Military Science," in General-Major A . S. Milovidov (ed.), Voenno-teoreticheskoe nasledie V . I. Lenina i problemy...1987), p. 32. For uniformed political officers behind it, see Yu. Ya. Kirshin, V . M. Popov, and R. A . Savushkin, Politicheskoe soderzhanie sovremennykh

  20. Soviet Union`s Nuclear Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union`s nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry`s strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources.

  1. Soviet Defense Spending: The Spartan Analogy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Sovietologists like Rush Greenslade , Henry Rowen. and Robert Gates. Amid growing dissatisfaction with recent efforts to model the Soviet economy and...spending. Rush Greenslade wrote in 1971, "The Soviet economic administration reimhle, the Spartvn one in interesting ways. Large parts of military

  2. Soviet International Finance in the Gorbachev Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    deal curious is that it sparked a dispute between the central government and the government of the Russian Federation over who had authority to offer...known and knowable about Soviet international financial practice from open sources. Most Western governments and central banks collect detailed...variety of sources: official publications of governments, central banks, and international organizations; public statements by Soviet and Western

  3. The Soviet Soldier - Premilitary and Political Training.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    FORCES, TAE AN OATH AND SOLEMNLY SWEAR M0 BE AN UPRIGHT, BRADE , DISCIPLINED, VIGILANT SOLDIER, M0 STRICTLY PRESERVE MILITARY AND GOVERNMET SECETS...Scituate, Mass.: 1973 Ivanov, Yu., Col., "Servicemen’s Code of Life", Soviet Military Review, February, 1982 Jones, David R., Soviet Arned Forces Review

  4. Technology and Soviet energy availability: Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    The course Soviet energy production will take if present policies in the West and the USSR remain unchanged is investigated. Opportunities and problems in the five primary Soviet energy industries: oil, gas, coal, nuclear, and electric power; equipment and technology requirements; and the implications of providing or withholding assistance are addressed.

  5. Soviet Strategic Airlift and Power Projection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-06

    Doder and Jay Ross, "Soviets, Cuba Double Ethiopia Force," Washington Post, 17 December 1977, p. Al; "Soviet Arms Airlift to Ethio- pia Violates Air...Bernard. Kissinger. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., Inc., 1974. Kirchner, Walther. History of Russia. New York: Barnes and Noble, Inc., 1963. 84 Lee, Asher

  6. Risk and Uncertainty in Soviet Deliberations about War.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    training, and inferences from known or suspected Soviet political practices, organizational characteristics , and operational concerns. I UNCLASSIFIED...training, and inferences from known or suspected Soviet political practices, organizational characteristics , and operational concerns. I This report is...uncertainties help reduce the image of Soviet military power to more human and manageable proportions. One indication of Soviet strategic uncertainty lies in

  7. Economic Bases for Lessening U.S.-Soviet Tensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how the increasing Soviet dependence on American grain can be used to reduce international tensions. Soviet agricultural policies could affect worker morale and the entire Soviet political system. President Reagan is well-positioned to engage the Soviets in serious discussions of reductions in both nuclear and conventional weapons. (AM)

  8. The Soviet Road to Olympus. Theory and Practice of Soviet Physical Culture and Sport. Occasional Papers/19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneidman, N. Norman

    Serving as an introduction to Soviet physical education which endeavors to give a concise outline of the organizational structure and the theoretical foundatons of Soviet sport, this book attempts to discuss Soviet physical education in relation to Soviet education and culture generally and to examine critically the practical applications of the…

  9. A National Anthem Is Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molotsky, Irvin

    2001-01-01

    Presents the story of the Star-Spangled Banner, explaining that Francis Scott Key's poem is not mere patriotic rhetoric, but is rooted in an important moment in U.S. history and in the joy that Key felt when the dawn revealed the American flag still flying over Fort McHenry following the destruction of Washington, D.C. and attack on Baltimore. (SM)

  10. Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Sloss, L. Associates, Washington, DC )

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

  11. Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Weickhardt, G.C.

    1987-09-01

    For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

  12. The Soviet Economy in the 1980s,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    3.6 IAgricultural output (Soviet official) 3.9 2.5 1.7 IAgricultural output (CIA) 3.6 2.2 1.4 IConsumption per capita 5.0 2.9 1.6 SOURCE: Bergson , 1981...Abram Bergson , "Soviet Technological Progress: Trends and Prospects," which is scheduled to appear as a chapter in a volume edited by Abram Bergson and...style GNP target of 4.0 percent a year. See Abram Bergson , "Soviet Economic Slowdown and the 1981-85 Plan," Problems of Communism, vol. XXX. no. 3 (May

  13. Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans.

  14. Soviet Arctic yields big hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-10

    Despite the huge hydrocarbon resources lying in Arctic areas of the USSR, the Soviets are expected to postpone offshore development there until the 1990s, focusing primarily on more accessible onshore Arctic reserves. They have already shown impressive ability to develop Arctic gas fields - such as the Urengoi and Yamburg fields - drilling through thick permafrost into pay zones with abnormally high pressures. The key to continued gains in Arctic production lies in the development of high-capacity, large-diameter pipe that would greatly reduce the number of pipelines required to carry the gas to western markets. The USSR recently reported successful tests on a 56-in. laminar pipe designed for operating pressures of 1500-1800 psi instead of the conventional 1100 psi.

  15. Technology and Soviet energy availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    This study addresses in detail the significance of American petroleum equipment and technology to the U.S.S.R. and the resulting options for U.S. policy. It examines the problems and opportunities that confront the U.S.S.R. in its five primary energy industries: oil, gas, coal, nuclear, and electric power. It discusses plausible prospects for these industries in the next ten years; identifies the equipment and technology most important to the U.S.S.R.. In these areas; evaluates the extent to which the United States is the sole or preferred supplier of such items and analyzes the implications for both the entire Soviet bloc and the Western alliance of either providing or withholding Western equipment and technology.

  16. Astronomical observatories of the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Dmitrii Nikolaevich

    Various types of astronomical instruments are described, including optical telescopes, radio telescopes, and radiation detectors. Soviet ground-based astronomical observatories are described as well as those aboard satellites and space stations.

  17. Soviet leadership on nuclear war. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    FitzGerald, M.C.

    1987-04-01

    Throughout the last decade, the Soviet politico-military leadership has provided startling evidence of a new Soviet doctrine on nuclear war. Leading Soviet military thinkers have themselves traced the origin of this phenomenon to evolving technological developments in both nuclear and conventional arms. In his 1982 book--Always in Readiness to Defend the Fatherland, Ogarkov used provocative language to describe recent developments in military affairs: A profound and revolutionary in the full sense of the word, perevorot (revolution, turnabout, upheaval) in military affairs is occurring in our time.... He connected this revolution with rapid quantitative developments in nuclear weapons and delivery vehicles, and with the significantly qualitative upgrading of conventional means of destruction. In his 1985 post-transfer book--History Teaches Vigilance, hereafter cited as History--he stressed that his profound and revolutionary, in the full sense of the word, perevorot is continuing in our time.... This document presents opinions on Soviet leadership in nuclear war.

  18. Is Soviet Defense Policy Becoming Civilianized?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    Renames Yazov as Defense Minister," Washington Post, July 4, 1989, and Stephen Foye , "Yazov Survives Contentious Confirmation Debate," Radio Liberty...solution." 9Stephen Foye , "Intellectuals Attack the Military," Sovset News: The Electronic Newsletter of Soviet Studies, Vol. HI, No. 9, July 30, 1987...Arm. Control Poky. 47"on the Treatment in the Central Pree" of the Activity of the Soviet Armed Fores," Krasnaia zvesda, July 6, 1969. ’Stephen Foye

  19. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Soviet-American Exchanges: Promises and Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    policy management and oversight, and that regular involvement of the CSCE in these matters can significantly contribute to making Soviet-American...system. 4 Literaturnava Gazeta, September 9, 1987. 5 Yu. Zamoshkin, "Yadernaya opasnost’ i faktor strakha," SShA. Ekonomika, Politika. Ideologiya. 1985...prestige), while conduct by ABA leaders, such as the one exhibited at the meeting with Mr. Gromyko, can earn us only contempt from the Soviets. A

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the Estonian SSR Constitution (Basic Law)" and the Law "On Elections to the Local Soviets of People’s Deputies of the Estonian SSR ," issued 20 June... SSR Constitution (Basic Law)" and the Law "On Elections to the Local Soviets of People’s Deputies" are to be published for popular discussion in the...Legislative Proposals and the Commission for Developing a New Estonian SSR Constitution and Improvement of Constitutional Legislation. 4. Taking the

  2. Calling the Sino-Soviet Split

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    also had then looted Manchuria and heightened the USSR�s covert influence in China�s northwestern province of Sinkiang .44 Chinese anger on these scores...p., 155. Beijing later pub licly accused the Soviet Union of fomenting large-scale subversion and sabotage in Sinkiang , and warned the Soviets not to...to May 1969, along the Manchuria-Siberia and Sinkiang -Kazakhstan borders. 62. Whiting, to author, 19 October 1996. 63. Hilsmari, To Move a Nation: The

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    a peaceful sky above his head. Perhaps the highest form of well-being for a Soviet person, for the Soviet people, is, in my opinion, peaceful skies ...I would like to ask you both a question that can be formulated the following way: The question is one of the asymmetry in strategic thinking, if...from the basic direction of the attack. There was a slipup in the actions of the motorized infantrymen. Part of the targets were not hit. This

  4. U.S.-Soviet Scientific Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last month the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Soviet Academy of Sciences signed a tentative agreement to resume scientific exchanges. Scientific symposia involving both nations, first negotiated in the late 1950s, were suspended in 1980 after the exile of Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov. Individual scientist exchanges were not suspended and have continued without formal agreement between the two nations.

  5. American and Soviet Relations Since Detente

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    which arise out of their diverse histories, ide- ologies, and cultures. Burke, Virginia Manhattan , Kansas AMERICAN AND SOVIET RELATIONS SINCE DETENTE...Network ( CNN ) and the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) have both been in con- tact with Soviet officials from the State Committee for Television...computers and related Straiegic Technology 83 hardware and software, electro-optical sensors (such as underwater low-light television cameras), radars

  6. The German Reunification Issue: A Soviet Perspective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    relations and constantly lays stress on its national interests. It is probable that Ceausescu is supported by a wide measure of agreement among his people...Reunification Issue: [A r t on ’o r A Soviet Perspective by Lynette Manning Tatsch Captain, United States Air Force - B.A., Purdue University, 1971 ...conflict over Germany would involve the American and Soviet forces * idirectly and would probably be fought with the most modern weapons avail- able

  7. Civil Defense in Soviet Strategic Perceptions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    responses. It would also be costly and highly disruptive of Soviet social and economic life. The Soviets would have the option of announcing its imminent...priorities and sensitivities. o U.S. targeting doctrine and like methods of employment of media weapons. o The significance and possible political-military...dialectic process in the relationship between states with opposing social - political systems, i.e., communist and capitalist, and of the historically

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of party political work. Opinions are discussed and correct decisions are worked out together. Col A. PAVLOV , deputy chief of the social sciences...Marshal of the Soviet Union [MSU] Ivan Khristo- forovich Bagramyan.... They call him their son in Russia, in the Caucasus, in the Ukraine and in...Forces A. Babadzhanyan. The military biography of the twice Hero of the Soviet Union Ivan Khristoforovich Bagramyan, who would have been 90 years

  9. The Prospects for Modernizing Soviet Industry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    condi- tions under which weaving occurred in their plants. However, the manufacture of textiles is, in fact, one instance where it is possible to use... weaving plant. A Soviet textile producer may not be allowed even this simple expedient to use the new shuttleless looms more effectively. Delivery...system than appears likely at this time. ISteven W. Popper, Modernizing the Soviet Textile Industry: Implications for Peres- troika, R-3779, October

  10. Perestroika, Soviet oil, and joint ventures

    SciTech Connect

    Churkin, M. Jr.

    1991-08-01

    Glaznost, the freedom of expression in both the public and private sectors of the Soviet Union, has rapidly transformed the country form a largely isolated and closed society to one that is rapidly becoming more cosmopolitan and open to the West. Now that the Soviet Union is moving toward a free-market economy, a number of new laws are being generated to create a favorable environment for Western investment, especially joint ventures. First, crude oil sales have provided over 75% of much-needed hard currency, and oil has been the principal barter for manufactured goods produced in eastern Europe. Second, joint oil ventures with Western companies can reverse declining production levels and provide sufficient stimulus to turn around the economic recession. The Soviet Union has a very large inventory of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields. Most of these fields are difficult for the Soviets to produce technically, financially, and environmentally safely, and they are actively seeking appropriate Western partners. From an exploration point of view, the Soviet Union has probably the largest number of undrilled and highly prospective oil basins, which may replenish declining reserves in the West. Finally, the Soviet Union represents in the long term a large unsaturated market eager to absorb the surplus of goods and services in the Western world. Again, joint oil ventures could provide the convertible currency to increase East-West trade.

  11. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  12. Revisiting Soviet oil subsidies to East Europe: System maintenance in the Soviet hegemony, 1970--1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Mark Andrew

    Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union sold oil shipments to the member-states of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) at a fraction of the world market price (wmp). Contrary to arguments made by previous scholars that it paid a subsidy, namely the difference between the wmp and the CMEA price, either as a reward for material contributions to Soviet foreign policy objectives or as a consequence of membership in a customs union, the Soviet Union provided subsidized oil shipments as a form of economic assistance in maintaining its hegemony. Using non-parametric statistical analysis of previous scholars' data and comparative case studies based on interviews of Soviet decision-makers and on archival research, this study shows that the Soviet Union acted as a hegemon, which created a protectionist trade regime, used oil policy as means of hegemonic maintenance. The CMEA, the embodiment of values espoused in the Soviet trade regime identified as "embedded supranationalism", stood as the institutional antithesis of a customs unions, which embodied the values of the Western liberal trade regime. Soviet leaders did not use oil subsidies or trade relations in general as means of calibrating CMEA member-states' domestic or foreign policy behavior. Soviet leaders used subsidized oil as a means of supporting East European national economic development with the ultimate goal of creating politically legitimate governments thereby ensuring political stability in its cordon sanitaire with the West.

  13. The Soviet maps of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, D. F.

    1990-02-01

    The USSR began mapping parts of Venus almost six years ago and have published a series of scientific results, reaching a few limited conclusions about Venus. While based on the traditional second generation Venera orbiter design, Veneras 15 and 16 carried Polyus-V sidelooking synthetic-aperture radars which used the orbiter's motion over Venus to 'synthesize' an antenna of far larger size than could practically be carried to the planet. The resolution and coverage achieved is better than one kilometer over most of the surface compared with one tenth of a kilometer partial cover expected from the Venus Radar Mapper. The radar data will take years to analyze completely, but initial results have been released and the Soviet Union has compiled an atlas of radar images. Cartographers named two craters after American astronauts Judith Resnik and Sharon Christa McAuliffe. One of the conclusions is that Venus is not a 'single plate' planet, like the earth's moon or Mercury; its crust is distinctly broken into individual blocks with independent movements. It appears that extensive volcanism is a universal factor in the evolution of planets in the inner solar system.

  14. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1988-05-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 days) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight ito the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars.

  15. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1989-07-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior, and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 d) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight into the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars.

  16. Soviet Women in the Life of Society: Achievements and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motroshilova, Nelya V.

    1983-01-01

    Women in the Soviet Union are guaranteed equal rights and opportunities and participate fully in the Soviet economy. Despite their achievements, Soviet women still have difficulties in entering and achieving high-level positions in traditionally male fields and in getting men to do their share of household work. (IS)

  17. The Soviet Chemical Industry and the Gorbachev Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the reform of the industrial structure of the Soviet Union. Emphasizes the influence of the communist party on chemical production, research and education. Surveys the problems facing the Soviet chemical industry. Lists important officials in the Soviet chemical industry. Discusses joint ventures between the United States and the Soviet…

  18. Speaking "Common Sense" about the Soviet Threat: Reagan's Rhetorical Stance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Robert L.

    Although for the 15 years preceding his election as President of the United States Ronald Reagan muted his anti-Soviet rhetoric in order to achieve political power, since his election he has returned to anti-Sovietism in an effort to redirect American foreign policy against the Soviets. At the same time, however, he employs a rhetorical strategy…

  19. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    Basic material on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is presented in this teachers' guide in such a way that teachers can incorporate it into the daily curriculum or utilize it through special units or projects. The guide is divided into two sections, one covering the Soviet Union, the other Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union section discusses…

  20. Soviet concepts of ballistic missile defense. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Seavey, K.P.

    1988-06-01

    This thesis characterizes the Soviet concept of ballistic missile defense (BMD) in order to better understand and predict future Soviet BMD decision making. The Soviet concept of BMD is fundamentally different from that in the West. Soviet BMD is clearly an integral component of a much larger Soviet strategic defense effort which consists of strategic air defense as well as passive measures, such as mobility, deep underground command and control facilities, and civil defense. As the Soviet military literature demonstrates, Soviet strategic air defense encompasses defense against a continuum of threats -- from aircraft to ballistic missiles to satellites to 'space-strike weapons'. Soviet strategic air defense weapons therefore appear optimized to counter a wide range of airborne threats. In the Soviet view, surface-to-air missiles may be a primary tactical BMD weapon. Additionally, Soviet strategic BMD weapons may be a primary Soviet anti-satellite weapon. Furthermore, manned space platforms play a particularly significant role in Soviet thinking about the future of BMD and space warfare.

  1. Where the Soviet cosmonautics is going to?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avduevskii, V. S.; Leskov, L. V.

    1990-04-01

    The authors discusse some of the achievements of the Soviet Cosmonautics during the previous epoch. They underly that the Brezhnev epoch in Soviet Cosmonautics was a ideological one, in spite of some achievements. The main critics is addressed to absence of economical reasons for some of projects. They suggest, that the most important way to change the situation is to point on economical reasons of the Soviet (Russian ) cosmic programs. The authors cite the constructive critics by M.S. Gorbachev, to previous cosmic programs developed in the USSR, as well as his ideas to improve the situation. The use of cosmonautics in view of development of telephony, energetic programs, the populated by humans cosmos (including space stations) are under the review by authors. As a supplement the brochure include the description of the "Granat" Project, as well as a historical overview of the Space Shuttle.

  2. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.

    PubMed

    González Rey, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology.

  3. Soviet Space Stations as Analogs, Second Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.; Helppie, Martha

    1986-01-01

    The available literature that discusses the various aspects of the Soviet Salyut 6 and Salyut 7 space staions are examined as related to human productivity. The methodology for this analog was a search of unclassified literature. Additional information was obtained in interviews with the cosmonauts and some Soviet space personnel. Topics include: general layout and design of the spacecraft system; cosmonauts role in maintenance and repair; general layout and design of the Mir complex; effects of the environment on personnel; information and computer systems; organization systems; personality systems; and physical conditin of the cosmonaut.

  4. Productivity, Slack, and Time Theft in the Soviet Economy: Evidence from the Soviet Interview Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Abram Bergson , for example, has examined Soviet resource allocation practices that contribute to economic inefficiency (as evidenced by non-equalization...in the 1980s Problems and Prospects, Part I (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982), pp. 153-168; Abram Bergson , Technological...Progress," Abram Bergson and Herbert Levine (eds.), The Soviet Economy Toward the Year 2000 (Londcn: Allen &Unwin, 1983), pp.34-78. 2. For examples of the

  5. The father of Soviet Hydrogen Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Yu. A.

    1990-08-01

    The creation of Soviet Hydrogen bomb has been described.The main participants to the Physical and Computational parts of the projects were shown. The "Sloika " part of the Project, concerned to neutrons kinetic has been discussed. The contribution by A.D. Sakharov to main achievements has been ponted out.

  6. Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Martha C.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

  7. Inside the World of the Soviet Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

  8. Soviet Cybernetics Review, Volume 3, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    Soviet efforts in designing third-generation computers are discussed in two featured articles which describe (1) the development and production of integrated circuits, and their role in computers; and (2) the use of amorphous chalcogenide glass in lasers, infrared devices, and semiconductors. Other articles discuss production-oriented branch…

  9. Transforming Clients into Surrogates: The Soviet Experience.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    principle in remarks at a luncheon meeting of the Washington, D.C., -. Chapter of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , November 30...American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , November 30, 1983. ., . -31- the Soviets been willing to become major suppliers of

  10. The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

    For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

  11. Leading Student Groups to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes student tours to the Soviet Union, discussing the benefits to be derived from such experiences by both students and leaders. In particular, discusses the organization of the tours, their types and costs, advertising strategies, suggested itineraries and guidebooks, student orientation and group composition, and problems encountered…

  12. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the Trotskyites and later by the new opposition. But it was F.E. Dzerzhinskiy who came closest to grasping the problem of Thermidor. Just before he...of the departmental pincers and to transfer real power into the hands of the local soviet. It is high time for Snechkus to have its own boss, who

  13. AGB Helps Develop Soviet Higher Ed Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkisov, Pavel D.

    1991-01-01

    A cooperative experiment between the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges and the Soviet Union's Mendeleev Institute of Chemical Technology involves establishment of an international board of trustees. The board will seek funding from multiple sources, involve the surrounding community in its planning, and strengthen the…

  14. Soviet prediction of a major earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    On November 1, 1978, a magnitude 7 earthquake occurred north of the Pamir Mountains near the Tadjiskistan-Kirghizia border, 150 kilometers east of Garm in Soviet Central Asia. Although the earthquake was felt in Tashkent, Dushanbe, and the Fergana Valley, the epicentral area was uninhabited at that time of year, and no damage was reported. 

  15. The Future of Soviet-American Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulam, Adam B.: And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents a wide spectrum of views by scholars of Soviet Affairs regarding recent American policy and predictions for the future course of international relations between the two super powers. Experts are Adam B. Ulam (Harvard University), Robert F. Byrnes (Indiana University), Stephen F. Cohen (Princeton University), Alexander Yanov (University of…

  16. Surprise and Preemption in Soviet Nuclear Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    Ibid. , , ■ 31. Savkin, Rawtr Prinrlnles. p. 239. 32. Engr-Lieutenant Colonel H. Adam and Lieutenant Colonel R. Gebel ’, "Military...Part 1, p. 8. 39. Adam and Gebel ’, "Military Camouflage," o. 157. 40. Colonel A.A. Sidoronko, The Offensive, tirans. U.S. Air Force, Soviet Military

  17. Conversion and enrichment in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    1991-04-01

    In the Soviet Union, just as in the West, the civilian nuclear industry emerged from research work undertaken for nuclear weapons development. At first, researchers tried various techniques for physical separation of uranium isotopes: electromagnetic and molecular-kinetic thermo-diffusion methods; gaseous diffusion; and centrifuge methods. All of those methods, which are based primarily on differences in the atomic mass of uranium isotopes, called for extensive research and the development of new, technically unprecedented equipment. Gradually gaseous diffusion and gas centrifuge technology became recognized as most feasible for industrial use, so research on other methods was terminated. Industrial-scale uranium enrichment in the Soviet Union began in 1949 using the gaseous diffusion method; by the early 1960s, centrifuge technology was in use on an industrial scale. All Soviet production of highly-enriched, weapons-grade uranium was halted in 1987. The Soviet Union now has four enrichment plants in operation (at classified locations), solely for civilian nuclear power needs. All four enrichment plants have centrifuge modules, and enrichment provided by gaseous diffusion accounts for less than 5% of their total output. Two of the four enrichment plants also incorporate facilities for conversion to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}).

  18. Earthquake research in the Soviet Union

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    Henry Spall talked recently with Robert L. Wesson, the new Chief, Office of Earthquake Studies at the U.S Geological Survey National Center, Reston, Va. Wesson has spent altogether almost 1 year in the U.S.S.R, and 6 months of that time in the Garm area of Soviet Tadzhikistan in 1974. 

  19. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Syllabus for Use in Soviet Russian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husum, Carol

    This syllabus outlines a one semester course intended to provide a comprehensive study of the Soviet Union today, and the relationship that Russian has with the United States and the rest of the world. Content covers Russia's history beginning with the fall of the Romanovs with emphasis on the revolutionary movement in Russia. The guide presents a…

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-09

    about the Soviet Armed Forces (though, the volume of the publish- ed military statistics has increased during the last 5-7 years). Of...3. See: Statisticheskiy Ezhegodnik Stran-Chlenov Soveta Ekonomicheskoy Vzaimopomoshchi [Annual Statistical Report by Participating Council of...pp 192-193. 6.See: Statisticheskiy Ezhegodnik Stran-Chlenov Soveta Ekonomicheskoy Vzaimopomoshchi [Annual Statistical Report by Participating

  2. Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1980-05-01

    The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book.

  3. Soviet Military Power: Prospects for Change 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    gaining access to technologies that technology fields, and are actively pursuing military can threaten regional stability, applications of these...Committee concessions to Armenians in the disputed the political system. region failed to end mass strikes ,d demornstrations. and the Soviets employed ev...countries, while discour- partly aimed at securing access to Western technology aging confrontational behavior by its existing regional and financial

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-12

    direction of the European theatre , which means that SB will be maintained. This is a difficult theoretical problem which can only be resolved by...aura of romanticism surrounding service in the fleet. How is today’s generation of Soviet seamen coping with the ocean vigil? [Makarov] I for one

  5. Soviet Concepts of Ballistic Missile Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Gary Powers [Ref. 2:p. 191]. Sary Shagan is also located about a thousand miles downrange from the ballistic missile test center at Kapustin Yar. In...late 1961 the Soviet Union conducted a series of atmospheric nuclear tests, during which missiles were launched from Kapustin Yar towards an impact area

  6. Neural networks in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Wunsch, D.C. II.

    1993-01-01

    A brief overview is given of neural networks activities in the former Soviet Union that have potential aerospace applications. Activities at institutes in Moscow, the former Leningrad, Kiev, Taganrog, Rostov-on-Don, and Krasnoyarsk are addressed, including the most important scientists involved. 21 refs.

  7. Nuclear legacy of Soviet Union poses concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, W.

    1995-07-01

    The Russian Federation possesses all nuclear weapons design and production facilities of the former Soviet Union, reports William Potter, director of the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies. However, other former Soviet states, including Ukraine, boast other nuclear assets, including uranium mining and milling centers; training facilities; and research and commercial-power reactors, some of which are capable of producing weapons-grade plutonium. Potter insists that there is no assurance than these newly independent republics will not attempt to export their respective nuclear assets. {open_quotes}This export danger is heightened by the primitive state of export controls and compelling economic incentives to sell anything to anyone for the right price,{close_quotes} he says. Equally alarming as the absence of export control is the legacy of environmental degradation left by the Soviet nuclear program. {open_quotes}The magnitude of environmental damage caused by nuclear weapons production and testing only recently is coming to light,{close_quotes} Potter insists. Furthermore, writes Potter, {open_quotes}there is real danger that unemployed nuclear scientists in the former Soviet Union will accept offers from well-heeled renegade nations seeking to build nuclear weapons.{close_quotes}

  8. American Reporters/Soviet Reporters: A Convergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rilla Dean

    While the concept of "objective" reporting in the United States has been under attack from critics who demanded more interpretation from the press, a move in the opposite direction seems to be taking place in the Soviet Union, as the concept of journalist as strictly an advocate for the Communist party seems to be giving way to the…

  9. Reading for the Masses: Popular Soviet Fiction, 1976-80. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedberg, Maurice

    Noting that Soviet prose, drama, and poetry reveal the nuances of the moods and policies fostered by the Soviet government while reflecting the Soviet reading public's interests and aspirations, this report describes a study of the values and attitudes by which the Soviets live as reflected in the literature published in Soviet literary magazines…

  10. Parallel processing research in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.; Snyder, L.; Wolcott, P.

    1992-03-01

    This technical assessment report examines strengths and weaknesses of parallel processing research and development in the Soviet Union from the 1980s to June 1991. The assessment was carried out by panel of US scientists who are experts on parallel processing hardware, software, algorithms, and applications, and on Soviet computing. Soviet computer research and development organizations have pursued many of the major avenues of inquiry related to parallel processing that the West has chosen to explore. But, the limited size and substantial breadth of their effort have limited the collective depth of Soviet activity. Even more serious limitations (and delays) of Soviet achievement in parallel processing research can be traced to shortcomings of the Soviet computer industry, which was unable to supply adequate, reliable computer components. Without the ability to build, demonstrate, and test embodiments of their ideas in actual high-performance parallel hardware, both the scope of activity and the success of Soviet parallel processing researchers were severely limited. The quality of the Soviet parallel processing research assessed varied from very sound and interesting to pedestrian, with most of the groups at the major hardware and software centers to which the work is largely confined doing good (or at least serious) research. In a few instances, interesting and competent parallel language development work was found at institutions not associated with hardware development efforts. Unlike Soviet mainframe and minicomputer developers, Soviet parallel processing researchers have not concentrated their efforts on reverse- engineering specific Western systems. No evidence was found of successful Soviet attempts to use breakthroughs in parallel processing technology to ``leapfrog`` impediments and limitations that Soviet industrial weakness in microelectronics and other computer manufacturing areas impose on the performance of high-end Soviet computers.

  11. Parallel processing research in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.; Snyder, L.; Wolcott, P.

    1992-03-01

    This technical assessment report examines strengths and weaknesses of parallel processing research and development in the Soviet Union from the 1980s to June 1991. The assessment was carried out by panel of US scientists who are experts on parallel processing hardware, software, algorithms, and applications, and on Soviet computing. Soviet computer research and development organizations have pursued many of the major avenues of inquiry related to parallel processing that the West has chosen to explore. But, the limited size and substantial breadth of their effort have limited the collective depth of Soviet activity. Even more serious limitations (and delays) of Soviet achievement in parallel processing research can be traced to shortcomings of the Soviet computer industry, which was unable to supply adequate, reliable computer components. Without the ability to build, demonstrate, and test embodiments of their ideas in actual high-performance parallel hardware, both the scope of activity and the success of Soviet parallel processing researchers were severely limited. The quality of the Soviet parallel processing research assessed varied from very sound and interesting to pedestrian, with most of the groups at the major hardware and software centers to which the work is largely confined doing good (or at least serious) research. In a few instances, interesting and competent parallel language development work was found at institutions not associated with hardware development efforts. Unlike Soviet mainframe and minicomputer developers, Soviet parallel processing researchers have not concentrated their efforts on reverse- engineering specific Western systems. No evidence was found of successful Soviet attempts to use breakthroughs in parallel processing technology to leapfrog'' impediments and limitations that Soviet industrial weakness in microelectronics and other computer manufacturing areas impose on the performance of high-end Soviet computers.

  12. Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.C. )

    1991-04-01

    For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield An unanswerable first strike When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means.

  13. Soviet Central Decisionmaking and Economic Growth: A Summing Up.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    by three, while the latter decreased by four. 31 2 8Leslie Dienes, "Regional Economic Development," in Abram Bergson and Herbert S. Levine, The Soviet...inside the curve are inferior to those on the curve. Abram Bergson suggested that the systemic inefficiencies of the Soviet economy precluded... Bergson , Soviet National Income and Product n 1937. Columbia University Press, New York, 1953. Whether FF should be parallel to PP is an interesting

  14. Area Handbook Series: Soviet Union: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Citizen: Character Forma- tion and Civic Training in Soviet Education. London: Croom Helm, 1987. Balzer, Harley D. "Education, Science, and Technology...University Press of America, 1986. McAuley, Alastair. Economic Welfare in the Soviet Union. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979. Matthews...Conference, University of Wisconsin , April 18-19, 1986.) Madison: 1986. D’Agostino, Anthony. Soviet Succession Struggles. Winchester, Mas- sachusetts

  15. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments. Number 70, March - April 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-12

    Report Distribitionf Availbihty Cojes- June 12, 1985 ’ a , ’ I or Dist A -I j:- Vice Director for Foreign Intelligence Defense Intelligence Agency This...Plasma 20. ABSTRACT >This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for March-April 1984, and is No. 70 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The...34 INTRODUCTION This bibliography has been compiled under an interagency agreement as a continuing effort to document current Soviet- bloc

  16. Astronauts Stafford and Slayton visit Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, left, NASA ASTP crew commander, and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot, visit the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft during the joint phase of the ASTP mission. They hold Soviet containers of borsh (beet soup) over which vodka labels have been pasted. This was the crew's way of toasting each other. The photo was taken in the Orbital Module portion of the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. The hatch to the Soyuz Descent Vehicle is in center background.

  17. Nationalities in the Soviet Military: A Problem for Perestroika.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-31

    government qency. NATIONALITIES IN THE SOVIET MILITARY: - -, A PROBLEM FOR PERESTROIKA? BY COLONEL DONALD D. DALZIEL, CANADIAN FORCES . A mSTT.UT1oW TATOEWT k...GOVT ACCESSION NO. I RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Suhtitle)- TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Nationalities in the Soviet Military: A...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 11. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessery end Identify by block number) Nationalities , Soviet Military 20. ABST-RACT

  18. Review of the transmissions of the Soviet helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the following aspects of Soviet helicopter transmissions is presented: transmitted power, weight, reduction ratio, RPM, design configuration, comparison of different type of manufacturing methods, and a description of the materials and technologies applied to critical transmission components. Included are mechanical diagrams of the gearboxes of the Soviet helicopters and test stands for testing gearbox and main shaft. The quality of Soviet helicopter transmissions and their Western counterparts are assessed and compared.

  19. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    crowned by a miracle-working name, although in fact this is far from the way it was. Talk is not documentary evidence, as they say, but although the... Jesuitically embel- lished saying: "You can’t make omelets without breaking eggs." It was good when, through the kindness of fate, people did not...tion and advertising materials to Soviet and foreign tourists and for making popular documentaries , radio and TV programs is inadequate compared

  1. Analysis of the Soviet Crisis Management Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-30

    between Congo (Zaire) and Portugual ; Congo charges that Tshombe opposition forces are . operating out of Portuguese Cabinda; Portugal charges that Congo has...regime (for example, South Vietnam, Rhodesia, Portuguese colonies in Africa), or denial of military access (that is, Western and Chinese). * The USSR was...172 601118 French paratroops intervene to aid pro-French regime in Gabon. *• 173 610315- The Soviet Union opposes continued Portuguese colonial

  2. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-10

    party and soviet officials dozens of times. In Baranov- ichskiy Rayon they have accumulated a lot of experience in intensive animal husbandry, in...party committee] be made suitable to the local leader. Such a modus operandi is paralyzing normal party work and creating an unhealthy situation in...years addressed from the most varied rostrums to the party’s rank and file. But here the time of a real test of position has approached, and it

  3. Soviet Economic Policy Towards Eastern Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    with Eastern Europe, Institute of International Studies , University of California, Berkeley, 1983. Marresc, Michael, and Jan Vanous, "Soviet Trade...of Trade with Eastern Europe, Institute of International Studies , University of California, Berkeley, 1983, p. 11. 25. Raimund Dietz, "Advantages...and for political support in international forums, yet it simultaneously wishes to maintain tight control.’ It also faces the economic dilemma of

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-08

    war. This is an objective reality . By laying emphasis on land forces only, in particular on tanks and artillery, in solving the issues of removing...for the realities of army life in a friendly country, but nonethe- less on foreign territory. ...A few months ago, during the visit of the Soviet...victori- ous, were available in time. Nevertheless, there were virtually no offensive air units. The majority of pilots had not been trained for the

  5. The Defense Policy of the Soviet Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    indicated his determination to divert substantial resources-financial, material, and human-from defense to other sectors of the Soviet economy . He...intercontinental ballistic missile IMEMO Institute of World Economy and International Relations INF Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force (Treaty) IUSAC Institute...ph, sed-array radar MAD mutual a.ssured destruction MEMO Mirovaia ekunomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia (World Economy and International Relations

  6. Soviet Partisan Warfare: Integral to the Whole,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-20

    irregular and regular warfare fail to grasp the inseparable nature of the two in Soviet thinking. I Table of Contents I . Introduction...additional corps of the 48th Army attacking north of Rogatchev. South of Bobruisk the other pincer of this attack was executed by the 65th and 28th...deep objectives to hasten the advance of the southern pincer while closing escape routes for the Germans. Roads to Bobruisk were cut. The partisans

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    perestroyka. Yu. Yuzelyunas expressed puzzlement at the fact that the Central Committee resolution adopted in 1948 on for- malism in music in connection...know little about the Soviet Union and Lithuania. This is very sad, because there are high achievements both in literature and in music , and they are...supporting all trips abroad and all direct ties. We have specific proposals to this effect. We are ready to organize a Baltic music and Baltic

  8. The Process of Soviet Weapons Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    system on the BMP from an early 1940s German design. But the validity and usefulness of a theory, especially one that makes predictions about the future...when the 1940 publication of a highly significant Soviet discovery of spontaneous fission resulted in a complete lack of an American response, the...taken from I. N. Golovin , I. V. Khurchatov, Atomizdat, Moscow, 1973, and from Herbert York, The Advisors. Oppenheimer, Teller, and the Superbomb, W. H

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    regulated market economy managers will face increased commercial risk. The article by V. Rubanov, ’"The Firm’s Secret’ and the Countrv’s Economic...economy and not hinder this. For this reason, under conditions of mass entry into the world market we must give Soviet enterprises, associa- tions...in the international division of labor, of a fuller participa- tion in the world market , of the creation on this basis of a modern competetive

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-13

    related to the restoration of the rights of Soviet Germans," but its activity has been as hazy as its name. Meanwhile, the population of the Volga River ...concerned with the clean up of small rivers and the restoring the Dnieper to its original state. The Dnieper lowlands after the artificial release of...the CPSU’s right to property as a social organization is established in Article 10 of the USSR Constitution, in the articles of the RSFSR Civil Code

  11. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  12. JPRS Report: Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    they would [ Letter to Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin, chairman of the have to wait at least two months for a meeting with you RSFSR Supreme Soviet, from...are protecting. Neither Gorbachev, nor Yazov, nor the party compelled me or asked me to write this letter . Your deception Officers’ Assemblies...Created at Various Levels compelled me to do this. And in this letter I express the 91 UM0449C Moscow KRASNA YA ZVEZDA opinion of the Russian soldiers of

  13. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the NFA, and other movements are springing up, but as yet there has been no political- ideological demarcation. Let us not forget that we are all...its regular spring and fall sessions by the Chairman of the Azerbaijan Supreme Soviet. Special sessions are called by the Chairman of the Azerbaijan...conducted by means of a personal questionnaire. Opinions in the northeast of the republic did not differ strongly from the general opinion. The

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-27

    Revolutionaries" by B. Pak; the conclud- ing part of I. Belyaev’s article "Egypt. The Revolution and the President" "Mahatmah Gandhi as Described by...O. Martyshin. Mahatmah Gandhi in the Evaluations of Soviet Researchers (p 22) Problems and Opinions VI. Li, G. Mirskiy. Socialist Orientation in...Scientific Life V. Rozhkov. A Forum for Mongolian Scholars (p 44) Culture, Literature, Art V. Ozhogin. Lev Tolstoy and Japanese Culture (p 46

  15. The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Strategic Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    Iranians, Chinese, and Americans . In truth, the Americans had not yet begun supporting the Islamic insurgency in Afghanistan. Nevertheless, “Cold War...logic” would assume Americans were definitely involved. The Politburo meeting lasted four days and concluded with a decision to provide military aid... Americans from Iran, the Soviets knew that the U.S. would be seeking another foothold on their southern border. Amin’s U.S. education and

  16. Soviet Policy in Cuba and Chile.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-06

    Libro Blanco del Cambio de Gobierno en Chile. Santiago: Editorial Lord 23 Cochrane, 1973, pp. 103-108. See also Page 8 for a photograph of Allende...Rothenberg, Soviet Penetration, p. 144. 18. The letter in Castro’s handwriting is published in the Libro Blanco, p. 101- 102. In the UN debates after the...a Via Chilena a la Via Insurreccional, Santiago: Editorial del Pacifico, 1974, pp. 296ff. 19. Libro Blanco includes (pp. 192 and 197) what appear to

  17. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    instinctively evokes associations with the bad memory of orders by sex, age, sectors, and so forth in the elections to the old Supreme Soviet. There clearly...monument, and there " Memorial " openly screams at a 3-hour rally about Jews and Latvians and everyone who should be hanged right then and there. The...overcoming, the outbursts of nationality conflicts remain in their social memory for a long time to come. More than one generation is doomed to mutual

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    enormous creative poten- great strength. The historical memory of the people is tial of the Soviet people into the good of socialism. But being...Plenum held in This rayon is famous from former times. Its name has October of 1986 removed from their positions and emblazoned itself in my memory from...and class anything who is not ready to be deceived. Hypnosis does fight, not work on a person who does not want to be hypno- fight, tized. Trotskiy was

  19. Economics of Defense - The Soviet Military Budget.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    1981. His career began at - Vurtsmith AFB, Michigan in 1972 as a Management Analysis Officer in the Comptroller career field. He was then assigned to HQ...Japan and the U. S. in high technology development and that the Soviet economic output is actually declining (7:36). These issues and more are causing...after WVII began to decline. Due to poor capital investment, a command economy, and poor resource development, the world is now seeing the maturity of

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of big financially than those whose output financiers and state-monopoly group- finds no market . ings. Speeding up the...have now been joined by the CIA and the Pentagon. These agencies are now openly pointing out the growing depen- dence of the U.S. market on Japanese...lop and broaden cooperation in cuHure, health car*, educa- tion, the mass media , tourism and sports. The Soviet mission of peace evoked broad

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-27

    we had encountered a kind of mythological octopus with its single center, which for a long time had carefully prepared to overthrow the Soviet...34habitual criminals [vory v zakone]." We perceived as juridically incorrect his assertion that "the informals are camouflaged criminals." New...life, there is another statistic we’d like to know: are there now fewer ’habitual criminals’ at large, or ’ camouflaged ’ informals (who in fact are not

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-26

    on 23 May carries an 80-minute recorded telebridge program linking officials of the USSR Supreme Soviet in Moscow with U.S. Congress members in...meaning." Differences in social systems, language , traditions, views, values, and inter- ests are all real and we must not pretend they don’t exist...Ireland and the USSR signalled a successful development of business ties between the two countries in the field of air transport. [Text] [Moscow

  3. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  4. FASAC Technical Assessment Report: Soviet Space Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.; Henry, Richard C.; Klein, Harold P.; Masursky, Harold; Paulikas, George A.; Scaf, Frederick L.; Soffen, Gerald A.; Terzian, Yervant

    1986-01-01

    This report is the work of a panel of eight US scientists who surveyed and assessed Soviet research in the spare sciences. All of the panelists were very familiar with Soviet research through their knowledge of the published scientific literature and personal contacts with Soviet and other foreign colleagues. In addition, all of the panelists reviewed considerable additional open literature--scientific, and popular, including news releases. The specific disciplines of Soviet space science research examined in detail for the report were: solar-terrestrial research, lunar and planetary research, space astronomy and astrophysics, and, life sciences. The Soviet Union has in the past carried out an ambitious program in lunar exploration and, more recently, in studies of the inner planets, Mars and especially Venus. The Soviets have provided scientific data about the latter planet which has been crucial for studies of the planet's evolution. Future programs envision an encounter with Halley's Comet, in March 1986, and missions to Mars and asteroids. The Soviet programs in the life sciences and solar-terrestrial research have been long-lasting and systematically pursued. Much of the ground-based and space-based research in these two disciplines appears to be motivated by the requirement to establish long-term human habitation in near-Earth space. The Soviet contributions to new discoveries and understanding in observational space astronomy and astrophysics have been few. This is in significant contrast to the very excellent theoretical work contributed by Soviet scientists in this discipline.

  5. A look at the Soviet space nuclear power program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    For the most part Soviet nuclear power sources have been low-power nuclear reactors using a thermoelectric conversion principle. Recently the Soviet Union has flown two satellites using a higher power reactor that employs a thermionic conversion system. Despite reentry of two of the earlier reactors on board Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402 and the recent potential accident involving Cosmos 1900, the evidence points toward a continued Soviet use of nuclear power sources in space. Information in the open literature on the Soviet space nuclear power program, including the Romashka Topaz, the new reactor based on the Topaz program, and the RORSAT reactor experience, is summarized.

  6. The politics of Soviet strategic defense: Political strategies, organization politics, and Soviet strategic thought. (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This study formulates three different unitary rational-actor models and an organizational model that can be used to explain Soviet policy in strategic defense from 1966-1980, then tests the models to determine which most successfully explains Soviet behavior. The only rational-actor model that can explain the Soviet force posture for air defense relies on demonstrably false assumptions. A well-formulated organizational model can explain these facts, as well as some organizational pathologies shown by the Soviet National Air Defense Forces. The findings suggest that military services, even when ostensibly closely directed by civilian and military superiors, often manage to pursue their own interests rather than the requirements of higher policy. Soviet civilian leaders generally had limited control over the formulation of military doctrine or over the force posture of Soviet military services, but arms control (especially the ABM Treaty) offered a policy handle which helped them to affect doctrine and force posture to a substantial degree.

  7. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-07-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants {open_quotes}ATETs{close_quotes} optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled.

  8. Soviet military strategy towards 2010. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.M.

    1989-11-01

    This paper tries to identify significant current trends that may continue into the 21st century and shape Soviet military strategy. An arms control trend, stemming from the Soviet concept of reasonable sufficiency, seems slated to handicap the USSR severely in options for fighting and winning large-scale conventional and theater-nuclear wars. Moscow evidently feels the strategic nuclear sphere will be the key arena of military competition in the future. First, the USSR now shows a greater commitment to offensive counterforce than was true of the period before reasonable sufficiency. Second, Moscow's interest in the strategic nuclear sphere will be reinforced by a long-term trend toward space warfare. However, it may be possible to soften the competition in this sphere through arms control. Prominent Soviets have already begun to suggest that, if the U.S. will limit its SDI ambitions to a thin defense, Moscow might actually prefer mutual comprehensive ABM deployments to continued adherence to the 1972 ABM Treaty.

  9. Soviet/Russian-American space cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karash, Yuri Y.

    This dissertation seeks to answer two questions: (1) what are the necessary conditions for the emergence of meaningful space cooperation between Russia and the United States, and (2) might this cooperation continue developing on its own merit, contributing to the further rapprochement between the two countries, even if the conditions that originated the cooperation were to change? The study examines the entire space era up to this point, 1957 to 1997, from the first satellite launch through the joint U.S.-Russian work on the ISS project. It focuses on the analysis of three distinct periods of possible and real cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia. The first possibility for a limited Soviet-American cooperation in space emerged in the late 1950s, together with the space age, and continued until the mid-1960s. The major potential joint project of this period was a human expedition to the Moon. The global competition/confrontation between the two countries prevented actual cooperation. The second period was from the late 1960s until 1985 with consideration of experimental docking missions, including the docking of a reusable U.S. shuttle to a Soviet Salyut-type station. The global U.S.-Soviet competition still continued, but the confrontation was replaced by detente for a brief period of time lasting from the end of 1960s until mid-1970s. Detente gave the first example of U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space---the Apollo-Soyuz joint space flight (ASTP) which took place in 1975. However, the lack of interest of political leaderships in continuation of broad-scale cooperation between the two countries, and the end of detente, removed ASTP-like projects out of question at least until 1985. The third period started together with Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika in 1985 and continues until now. It involves almost a hundred of joint space projects both at the governmental and at the private sectors levels. The mainstream of the joint activities

  10. The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of practicing physicians under the age of 65. RESULTS: Most physicians shared information with patients about treatment risks and alternatives, with the exception of cancer patients: only a third of physicians tell the patient when cancer is suspected. Current practice at the time of the survey left patients few options when physician negligence occurred; most physicians feel that under a reformed system physician negligence should be handled within the local facility rather than by the government. It was common practice for physicians to receive gifts, tips, or preferential access to scarce consumer goods from their patients. Responses varied somewhat by facility and physician nationality. CONCLUSION: The ethics of Soviet medical practice were different in a number of ways from generally accepted norms in Western countries. Physicians' attitudes about the need for ethical reform suggest that there will be movement in Estonia towards a system of medical ethics that more closely approximates those in the West. PMID:8932723

  11. Vospitanie and Regime Change: Teacher-Education Textbooks in Soviet and Post-Soviet Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogachenko, Tatiana; Perry, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the pedagogical dimension of vospitanie, or character formation, in communist and post-communist education. It explores how vospitanie is conceptualized in two teacher-education textbooks--one from each period--in Ukraine, a post-Soviet country. Comparative analysis shows how conceptualizations of vospitanie have evolved over…

  12. The Soviet Physical Fitness Tests: An Essential Aspect of the Soviet Organizational Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Reet

    This study analyzes the Soviet award system, in particular the Prepared for Word and Defense (PWD) program. The PWD program is composed of five stages and embraces people from ages 10 to 60. Each stage has a section of requirements and a section of norms, which take into consideration age variations. The norms section, which is the most important…

  13. Extraordinary Longevity in the Soviet Union: Fact or Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Neil G.; Garson, Lea Keil

    1986-01-01

    Describes an analysis of Soviet mortality and census data from 1959 and 1970, which provides significant evidence effectively negating previous claims of extraordinary Soviet longevity. Strongly suggests that the true number of centenarians is but a small fraction of that reported. (Author/ABB)

  14. Soviet Command and Control in an Historical Context.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    necessary. 34 ........ te know from one source that the Soviet border cC- Marlers had what would seem tc be a great deal of latitude, dele.ated to then on...206 - 213. 21. Polrar, Norman , ed., Soviet Naval Developrrents, Nautical and Aviation Publishin-7 Company of America, 1979. 22. Andersen, Yu.A

  15. Joint Soviet-American experiment on hypokinesia: Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burovskiy, N. N.

    1979-01-01

    Comprehensive results are reported from the Soviet portion of a joint Soviet-American experiment involving hypokinesia. The main emphases are on chemical analyses of blood and urine, functional tests, and examination of the cardiovascular system by electrocardiography, echocardiography, and plethysmography.

  16. International Influences on Post-Soviet Armenian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the most recent international influences on Armenian education, illustrating how international standards are driving post-Soviet reform in the Armenian Secondary Schools. Since 1991, when Armenia became independent from the Soviet Union, organisations such as the World Bank and the Open Society Institute Assistance…

  17. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R. )

    1991-03-01

    The Soviet Union is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas. Soviet oil production averaged 12.1 million bbl per day in 1989 with gas production of 79 bcf per day. Estimates of Soviet proved reserves fall within the range of 50 to 80 billion bbl, which gives the Soviet Union the world's greatest concentration of proved conventional crude oil reserves outside the Persian Gulf. In addition, the Soviet Union contains estimated proved reserves of 1500 tcf of natural gas, constituting over 38% of the worldwide total. The basins of the Soviet Union can be generally separated into five categories based upon geography, geology, and exploration maturity. The southwestern flank of the Soviet Union, from the Carpathians to Central Asia, contains a series of late Mesozoic to Tertiary basins associated with the closing of the Tethys Ocean and the Tertiary Alpine Orogeny. Because these basins contain shallow production and are near population centers and in moderate climates, they were the first explored and provided virtually all Soviet production prior to the Second World War.

  18. The Politics of Clay: The American-Soviet Mural Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Lynn

    1990-01-01

    Describes a U.S.-Soviet mural project where citizens from Milwaukee, Wisconsin and citizens from Leningrad created two peace murals--one in the United States and the other in the Soviet Union. The murals were exchanged. Participants made their own clay using dry clay and water before creating their impressions of peace and friendship. (KM)

  19. Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union Versus Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Mart

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the role of non-Russian languages in the Soviet Union (USSR) focuses on the history of ethnic group languages and language policy in Estonia since the collapse of totalitarianism. A historical overview of Soviet Union language policy is offered, with attention given to the ideological goals influencing policy, and their realization…

  20. Security Assistance Rationales: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    function to defray the cost of Soviet arms development. 96 The linkage of arms sales and comercial sales is not a factor in Soviet arms transfer to Eastern...of plant, R&D institution representatives, and politica .’wer over the GOSPLAN mechanism, does have a feedback loop. _.Ae defense ministries must be

  1. Soviet Theater Nuclear Capabilities: The European Nuclear Balance in Transition,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-31

    there may have been little fear of the massive Soviet invasion,’ Western European states were concerned that the vastly superior Soviet forces would...gun arnd the 2dbvw nomras as well as the Mann m n to Eser Europe. it iseeoal to aomu. Visit at beat 150 152mm gun hie a nuclear uk mimo . PNM V- pr

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 1, January 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    million. An even greater effect is expected from the Mir station’s on-board gear. Using satellites of the Kosmos and Meteor-Priroda series along with...Soviet spacecraft and orbital stations, and using Soviet booster rockets to launch foreign satel- lites. It is common knowledge that the Kosmos

  3. Understanding the Special Needs of Former Soviet Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoot, James L.; Bonkareva, Ella

    1992-01-01

    Describes characteristics of immigrant children from the former Soviet Union and implications of these characteristics for U.S. teachers. Considers differences between U.S. and Soviet schools in scheduling practices, bathroom routines, racial composition, meals, languages, clothing, naps, and parent/school relationships. (LB)

  4. The Food Connection: Transforming the U.S.-Soviet Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1982-01-01

    The increased dependence of the USSR on United States food exports may signal a major shift in the balance of power between the two nations. The impact of this shift on U.S.-Soviet relations, the Soviet agricultural system, and the world economic system is examined. (AM)

  5. Multilingualism in the Successor States of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreindler, Isabelle

    1997-01-01

    Major common language problems arising in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet bloc are outlined, as identified in recent literature, and pressing language-related issues in specific former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,…

  6. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  7. About face; How the Soviets stopped planning for world war

    SciTech Connect

    MccGwire, M. )

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the Soviet Union has embarked on a series of unprecedented foreign-policy initiatives. Most of them would have been unthinkable five years ago. They include the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the December 1988 announcement of unilateral cuts of 500,000 Soviet troops within two years, and a readiness to accept heavily asymmetrical cuts in Warsaw Pact conventional forces in Europe. Skeptics can no longer dismiss these initiatives as empty propaganda. Nevertheless, according to the author, the response of the Western political-military establishment has been ambivalent. This article addresses the Soviet approach to war, outlining the evolution of Soviet military doctrine since WWII. The recent military cuts by the U.S.S.R. are discussed, and an analysis is made of the West's reaction to the Soviet initiatives.

  8. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    SciTech Connect

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  9. The development of Soviet rocket engines (For strategic missiles)

    SciTech Connect

    Bolonkin, A.

    1991-01-01

    A first-hand account of developments in the Soviet rocket industry is presented. The organization and leadership of the rocket and missile industry are traced from its beginning in the 1920s. The development of the Glushko Experimental Design Bureau, where the majority of Soviet rocket engines were created, is related. The evolution of Soviet rocket engines is traced in regard to both their technical improvement and their application in missiles and space vehicles. Improved Glushko engines and specialized Isaev and Kosberg engines are discussed. The difficulties faced by the Soviet missile and space program, such as the pre-Sputnik failures, the oscillation problem of 1965/1966, which exposed a weakness in Soviet ICBM missiles, and the Nedelin disaster of 1960, which cost the lives of more than 200 scientists and engineers, as well as the Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Rocket Forces, Marshall Nedelin, are examined. 122 refs.

  10. Sex, Urban/Rural and Minority Differences in Educational Attainment in Soviet and Post-Soviet Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the educational attainment of Tajikistani adults born between 1947 and 1989. Adults in the oldest cohorts completed school during the educational expansion of the Soviet period and the youngest cohorts completed their education in the post-Soviet period, which was marked by educational contraction. To date, there is not a clear…

  11. Transformation in Russian and Soviet Military History,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    NJ: Princeton University Pi-ess, 1985. (on order) Golovin , Nikolai N. The Russian army in the World War. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1931...S45 1973) Shaskol’skii, Igor P. Bor’ba russkogo naroda za nevskie berega. Moskva: Gos. voen. izd-vo, 1940 . (DK 51.7 S53) Smith, Clarence J. The...perspective. Newport, bI: Naval War 2ol~e re, 1973. (AD-A044 938/9) 9 II. The Development of Soviet Military Doctrine (1918- 1940 ) Based upon her rich

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-25

    features in social organization and work methods. It consists of imparting to socialism the most up-to-date forms, and it is a relatively pro- longed ...victory—they overthrew the Dashnak govern- ment and established Soviet power. The people, having found long -sought freedom, entered onto the high...environment in the ArSSR. At the behest of the ArSSR Party Central Committee, the ArSSR Council of Ministers is developing a long -term state program for the

  13. Perestroika and Change in Soviet Weapons Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    hold down prices; such asymmetry in "*V. K.., ’M Lb.UB=A a 8S CommUnte h DAjee md ONO See*- ftr Q2u00000 Q104 #a Opeim BabdjgW kNuWM* 20@mk Oftbs 14...apparently surfacing in the 1970. but seem to have reached crisis proportions in the 19809. The Deputy Defense Minister for Armaments, General...States. Nevertheless, the tenor of the Soviet writ- ings suggests that they perceive a reliability crisis . 19D. Yasov "uInresmig the Return ftom Military

  14. Further Development of Soviet Perceptions Content Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-17

    34 yP^iB^BgpW?BWgPgggS!«W™WW^^^^ V^./\\.i^.l. WASHINGTON, D.C. OFFICES FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT FURTHER METHODOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOVIET...JJYlfifl1 Tiirvii - »at^sijeasÄÄS ■-"^nf-^^wrnriwswOT—^T^-"^^ PREFACE This report describes further research efforts undertaken by CACI, Inc., to...0013, Modification P00002. The report consists of one volume that contains an Executive Sum- mary, a Technical Discussion, and Appendices. The

  15. Soviet Railroad Troops: An Updated Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    322 . 23 Zotov, D. "Development Of The Country’s Transportation System". Planovoye Khozyaystvo, No. 6, June 1978, pp.17-26 as translated in The Current Digest Of The Soviet Press, Vol. XXX, No. 30, p . 8 . -I 4 24 ...DOCUMENTATION PAGE If * READ INSTRUCTIONSBEFORE COMPLETING FORMI I. REPORT NUMBER 12 GVACCESSION NO. J.RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. Ti TL E (end Subsidle) 5...GD’.&r Commanding DTIC T43 ’ Justif/icaIclon_ By_ " _~Distribit lo Dfor/ Dis I P I"𔃻 SUMMARY This paper

  16. Research Survey of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, E. Glyn

    The state of the art of bilingual education in the Soviet Union is surveyed. The social context of Soviet bilingualism is discussed with reference to sources of heterogeneity, modernization as a motivating factor, political dimensions, and Soviet bases of research. The sociolinguistic paradigm of Soviet society is viewed as a function of the need…

  17. Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  18. The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1988-01-01

    Reproduces chapter 1 ("The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy") from Ele Isaench Monoszon's 1987 book, "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Traces early history of Soviet Union. Reviews foundations of Soviet educational system, highlighting…

  19. Soviet military on SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative). Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, M.C.

    1987-08-01

    Numerous Western analysts have suggested that all American assessments of SDI should proceed not only from a consideration of American intentions, but also from the outlook of Soviet perceptions. Since 23 March 1983, the prevailing tone of Soviet military writings on SDI has been overwhelmingly negative. Myron Hedlin has concluded that this harsh reaction to a U.S. initiative still years from realization suggests both a strong concern about the ultimate impact of these plans on the strategic balance, and a perceived opportunity for scoring propaganda points. Indeed, the present review of Soviet writings since President Reagan's so-called Star Wars speech has yielded both objective Soviet concerns and regressions to psychological warfare. This, in turn, has necessitated a careful effort to separate rhetoric from more official assessments of SDI. While there has long been dispute in the West over the validity of Soviet statements, they have time and again been subsequently confirmed in Soviet hardware, exercises, and operational behavior. Some Western analysts will nonetheless contend that the Soviet statements under examination in this study are merely a commodity for export.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    McKenney, B.L.; Krafsig, J. ); Abarbanel, H.D.I. . Dept. of Physics); Abraham, N.B. . Dept. of Physics); Fraser, A.M. ); Moon, F.C. . Sibley Scho

    1992-08-01

    This assessment of nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union was performed by seven US scientists and engineers active in the fields examined. The topics covered include: solid-state systems and circuits, information theory and signal analysis, chaos in mechanical systems, turbulence and vortex dynamics, ocean processes, image processing, and lasers and nonlinear optics. The field of nonlinear dynamics and chaos blossomed in academic settings in both the West and the former Soviet Union during the 1980s. The field went from mathematical abstraction to interesting engineering application areas. Several generalizations can be drawn from the review of Soviet work: Soviet work generally began earlier than Western work, and, in areas that do not require extensive computational resources, that work has kept up with, and often leads, the West. This is especially true in the mathematical analysis of nonlinear phenomena. Soviet researchers have shown an ability to combine numerical or analytic ideas with laboratory experimentation in a smoother, less erratic fashion than Western researchers. Furthermore, contrary to Western practice, the same researchers often do both theoretical and experimental work. In areas that require numerical verification of ideas in the field, the Western work is leading that of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true in the areas of signal processing, simulations of turbulence, and communications. No evidence was found of any significant penetration of ideas of nonlinear dynamics into technological applications of a military or commercial area in the former Soviet Union. Opportunities abound, but specific applications are not apparent.

  1. Assessment of potential Soviet responses to evolving theater nuclear systems. Master's thesis August 1986-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wightman, R.O.

    1987-06-05

    This study focuses on the Soviet perceptions and decision-making processes that influence Soviet reaction to US initiatives in modernizing or developing theater nuclear systems. Beginning with a discussion about the consequences of previous U.S. misperceptions of Soviet intentions, the study supports the need for ongoing analysis of Soviet actions from the Soviet perspective. The Soviet view of the world is examined in terms of Marxist-Leninist ideology, Soviet fears of encirclement and invasion, and the Soviet perception of world power relationships or correlation of forces . The affect of Soviet military theory on reactions and responses to the subject of U.S. military developments is assessed, specifically in the areas of military doctrine and military science. The influence of military art is discussed with emphasis on strategy and operational art. The Party political controls on Soviet military matters are described, including a breakdown of the military decision making process. Soviet responses to U.S. nuclear weapons initiatives, including the Pershing II, Ground Launched Cruise Missile and Enhanced Radiation Weapons, are discussed in terms of military and political reactions. Soviet use of propaganda is highlighted. The importance of superiority and technology as an integral part of that superiority are examined, as is the Soviet use of technology transfer. This study hypothesizes that any Soviet reaction to U.S. action is based upon unique Soviet perceptions which are strongly influenced by Marxist-Leninist ideology, insecurity, military theory, Party bureaucracy, and world correlation of forces.

  2. Transformation of the Soviet space program after the cold war

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, M.V.

    1994-08-01

    Changes in the management of the space program and the operational status of various systems in the former Soviet Union are examined with particular emphasis on defense-related space systems. After the break-up of the Soviet Union, Russia assumed general responsibility for the entire scope of Soviet space activity. Space program management was re-organized to separate military and civilian activities. Russia is committed to maintaining military space capabilities, however, its top priority is now the conversion of military space technology for civilian uses, including global environmental problems.

  3. V. I. Lenin and Soviet Military Science (Selected Portion)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-07

    guided by the resolutions of the CC CPSU and Soviet government for military questions, Soviet military science correctly opened the character of modern...character of modern war, the essence of processes and laws governing the revolution in military science , to investigate the most important problems of...r LEVEL F.’.-rv, ,•S)T-14J47-81 I ; i FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION 0 N V.I. LENIN AND SOVIET MILITARY SCIENCE (Selected Portion) by N. N. Azovtsev C

  4. Soviets ready new boosters at Tyuratam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-08-01

    The capabilities and design characteristics of two new launch vehicles and Shuttle-type vehicles believed to be under preparation at the Soviet Tyuratam launch site are described. The boosters, photographed on launch pads, are Saturn 5 and 1B class vehicles. Indications have been detected that a heavy Shuttle vehicle equipped to use strap-on boosters and slush H2 fuel is being readied for launch. A mini-Shuttle is also being tested, and has two flights behind it that culminated in water landings. NASA-Langley wind tunnel tests of the small spaceplane configuration suggested that it reenters the atmosphere in its own bow shock, thus exposing it to temperatures much lower than vehicles with wings which extend beyond the shock wave. The small spaceplane may have a sublimating plastic coating to shed reentry heat. The boosters have 30,000 and 330,000 lb payload-to-orbit capabilities.

  5. [Medicine in the Soviet labor camps].

    PubMed

    Supady, J

    1998-01-01

    The existence of medical attention in Soviet labour camps was dictated not by humane reasons but by economical motives. It was just a wish to regenerate physical strength of some labour camp's slaves in order to exploit them to work out definite production as well as ideological plans. However, despite the lack of medicines, equipment, proper housing conditions and qualified staff, employed in labour camp's medical service people--doctors, hospital attendants, nurses, etc.--that were mostly recruited from amongst prisoners, showed a great deal of kindness and did their best to come to unwell and ill patients' assistance. Prisoners' lives were not uncommonly saved through exemption from work by a doctor's decision sending to hospital or transfer to another health category. In comparison with gehenna of labour camp's slave everyday life a sojourn in camp hospital seemed a paradise and a rescue from death to prisoners.

  6. Nuclear power in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power are as follows: safety requirements and expectations have been increased; and public opinion is negative. A program of nuclear power generation has been developed. New techniques are being implemented to increase safety and enhance operations of different types of nuclear power plants. Its should be obvious in the future that a nuclear power plant has better economic and environmental parameters than existing methods of power generation.

  7. A social History of Soviet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idlis, G. M.; Tomilin, Konstantin

    The archive includes a great number of archive materials, recollections, interviews, letters, diaries, bibliography, internet sources concerning history of bolshevik and stalinist purges against scientists in the USSR since 1917 till 1968. The archive is categorized by few divisions: scientists, university teachers, associate professors, professors, members of the Academy of Science of the USSR, Corresponding-Members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. A great number of research articles and recollections by purged are included. The articles are written not only by historians of science but by scientists also. A great role by P.L. Kapitza in the saving of Soviet science from purges is underlined. The project was realized under the support by SOROS foundation (2000), Russian Foundation for fundamental Research (2002-2004) and Russian State National Foundation (2007).

  8. Astronomic-Geodetic Highlights from the Soviet Union,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report is a translation of an article in the German language periodical Austrian Journal of Geodesy , written by K. Ledersteger, published in Vienna in 1959. It concerns Astronomic-Geodetic highlights in the Soviet Union.

  9. Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

  10. The Ethnic Factor in the Soviet Armed Forces: Preliminary Findings,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Literally, "non-Russian" used pejoratively to denote someone of inferior culture and .race. ZHELTOE GAVNO : Literally, "yellow shit." Aimed at Soviet Asians. ZHID: Like "yid" connoting "dirty Jew." rP

  11. The persistent dream - Soviet plans for manned lunar missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Abeelen, L.

    Soviet hopes of achieving the supreme space `first' were crushed in July 1969 when an American became the first human on the Moon. Following the four unsuccessful flight tests of the N1 lunar booster, the Soviet manned lunar landing effort was officially suspended, but even as the Russians were denying they had ever planned to land a cosmonaut on the moon, NPO Energia was designing craft for a long-term scientific, even semi-industrial presence on the lunar surface.

  12. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 44 November - December 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-13

    OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED S BLIOGRAPHY OF .VIET SER EWLOPMENTS, 4 -- Vl 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR( a ) 0. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMUER(s...1979, and is No. 44 ii a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical...Introduction This bibliography has been compiled under an interagency agreement as a continuing effort to document current Soviet-bloc developments in

  13. Observations on a Recent Trip to the Former Soviet Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-26

    NPS-NS-92-012 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA AD-A255 891 J6 0- & R A D b OBSERVATIONS ON A RECENT TRIP TO THE FORMER SOVIET UNION BY...Include Security Classification) OBSERVATIONS ON A RECENT TRIP TO THE FORMER SOVIET UNION 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) TRITTEN, JAMES JOHN 13a. TYPEOFREPORT...ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) (8 A -C) ADDITIONAL SPONSOR, INTELLIGENCE PLANS & INTEGRATION DIRECTORATE

  14. Soviet Reactions to Follow-On-To-Lance (FOTL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-26

    Affairs. This book provides a broad review on an international scale of Soviet thinking (early 1970’ s ) on the subject of scientific Alanning...34What Does Moscow Think?" Foreign Policy (Summer, 1985). Rybkin, Y. and Karteenan, S . "Military Parity as a Factor of Security." International ...Technology International Vol. 2 No. 1 (1987 Yearbook and Buyers Guide). Shapiro, Leonard. "The International Department of the CPSU: Key to Soviet

  15. The Soviet Union in Afghanistan: Benefits and Costs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-12

    COLLEGE Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania THE SOVIET NION IN4FGHANISTAN: S BENFITS AND COSTS, by SS-hirin/Fahir-Kheli ,/;/ 12 June480./ -/ . DISTRIBUTION...1973. The Soviet Union committed itself to 20 major projects in agriculture, irrigation, electric power, oil and gas exploration , mineral and metal...regime spread, Pak-Afghan relations deteriorated. Pakistan counted 56 violations of its air and ground space (penetratioins of up to three miles above

  16. Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties

    SciTech Connect

    Rhinelander, J.B.; Bunn, G.

    1991-12-01

    A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into Under international law, the obligations of a state are not affected by even such dramatic changes in government. No one yet knows, however, what the end result of the ongoing devolution of power in the erstwhile Soviet Union will be. As illustrations of what could happen to Soviet arms control obligations - not predictions of the future - the authors pose two alternative scenarios. In the first, they assume that most of the current 12 republics, including all of the big four where substantial nuclear forces and the largest conventional forces are located (Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Belarus), ultimately form a loose confederation with sufficient central authority to be called a nation-state and to carry out the essence of Soviet obligations under major arms control treaties. In the second, they assume that the union disintegrates further, with these four key republics seceding entirely and recognizing one another as independent states - a step which is apparently one of the US criteria for granting its own recognition. In this scenario, the Russian republic maintains its basic territory and replaces the central government as the power center for military and foreign affairs. In each of these cases, they will describe the general issues affecting the Soviet Union's international obligations, and consider specifically the two most important arms control agreements now in force - the multilateral nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty.

  17. Soviet Military Power: An Assessment of the Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    the US or its allies with a nuclear attack on the leadership. training, and morale, factor into the analysis . Soviet Union, As the 1950s ended, however...Defense Coun- parative analysis of US and Soviet military capabilities cil and the Warsaw Pact are, of course, shrouded in across the spectrum of conflict... FOFA ) as part of an overall defensive naval operations against NATO’s Central Region. As strategy which recognizes the importance of second with all

  18. Emerging technology in the Soviet Union: Selected papers with analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on emerging Soviet technology are presented. The topics addressed are: economic considerations of emerging technology; aviation, motor, and space designs; new materials and components for IR lasers; electroslag technology for smelting high quality metals from scrap and for preparing ingots with differential properties; computer design and application in the USSR; advances in tribology: slideway design and unloading systems; analysis of emerging Soviet technology.

  19. The Post-Soviet Archives: Organization, Access, and Declassification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Soviet military, the USSR Cabinet of Ministers, and the Supreme Soviet launched a coup to oust President Mikhail Gorbachev and reverse the course of...6Mms mea apasa sammanca 3 ’IETmflRW saxe BpeuemIc - 46- 4. wM UOCTOMO. PeiONezO od STOMA rtpxU8TcR pYKOoicT3s Uen’zpe. rpftxaUs.e apiim Ywp Aamseu

  20. Energy, economics, and foreign policy in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book has the merit of looking at the Soviet energy problem (oil, gas, coal, other) as a whole, something that Westen experts (and Soviet officials) have often failed to do. It makes fairly precise projections for the mid-1980s and cloudier ones for 1990. Hewett sees no crisis of the kind predicted by the CIA for the 1980s, but the Moscow will face hard decisions imposed by the rising cost of energy, competing economic demands, and political constraints.

  1. Soviet Officer Initiative: a Myth or a Reality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    the balance between the rigid fulfillment of regu- " :lations and orders, and the tempering of such rigidity with a sprinkling of officer initiative. 4...Soviet authors of numerous articles is necessary in order to gain a more balanced image of the modern Soviet officer who has the capability of displaying...of regulations, and a willingness to assume responsibility. A freshness appears in the later definitions with the attempt to balance off the

  2. On some faulty concepts in Soviet urban studies.

    PubMed

    Agafonov, N T; Lavrov, S B; Khorev, B S

    1983-03-01

    "The authors attack what they call 'superurbanism' and 'agglocentrism,' an excessive preoccupation among some Soviet geographers with urbanization and the formation of urban agglomerations. The authors advocate what is known in Soviet geography as a 'unified system of settlement,' meaning a harmonious blend of both urban and rural forms. The 'agglocentrists' are said to derive their ideas from Western models, and the authors [note the growing] disenchantment with excessive urbanism in the West."

  3. Soviet Operational Maneuver in a Period of Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    of Sovietworks dealingwith mobile tinuities has been Soviet dedication to, and group (operational. maneuver group) opera- faith in, the utility of...while the Red Army suffered griev-ous losses, the Soviet High Command painstak- ingly reconstructed its mobile forces and experimented with their...combat use. By July conditions, which were created by improve- 1943, a modem Red Army had emerged, ments in mobility , firepower and communica- formed

  4. The Soviet Response to Korean Air Lines Flight 007.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-07

    34 Defense & Foreign 22 . .. .*..- Affairs, November 1983, pp. 3 5-3 8 . 17 Steven J. Cimbala, "Why Did the Soviets Attack the Korean Airliner...135 returning to Alaska while the Korean flight continued on towards Petropavlovsk. Ogarkov commented, "It was natural that the Soviet Air Defense ...unable to do so.S4 When Western newspapers began reporting the Korean Air Lines disaster, several interviews were made with US dignitaries and defense

  5. Ingroup biases and the US-Soviet conflict

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    International tension and the nuclear arms race are constant threats to human civilization, and the distrust that infects U.S.-Soviet relations has undermined the peace process. From a social-psychological viewpoint, this distrust may originate with people's tendency to derogate and stereotype the group they are in conflict with. Ingroup biases may lead to the selective processing of information according to preexisting cognitive categories and may consequently lead people to perceive and encode only that information which confirms the stereotype. In this way, people find justification for their defensive actions. These hypotheses were investigated in a survey research study, conducted with a sample of American community college adults. The results of the data analyses confirmed the hypothesis that U.S. citizens favor their country, over the Soviet Union and tend to interpret government actions in ways that preserve their positive views of the U.S. and negative views of the U.S.S.R. Americans' perceptions of the Soviets were found to influence how Soviet actions were interpreted and the interpretation of Soviet actions was related to policy support with more negative interpretations of Soviet actions being associated with greater support for the Strategic Defense Initiative and increased U.S. defense spending.

  6. The Voroshilov Lectures. Materials from the Soviet General Staff Academy. Volume 1. Issues of Soviet Military Strategy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    responsibility . He was imprisoned again twice (and tortured) and finally allowed to retire by order of the Minister of Defense. During this period, he...Programs Soviet Research Team. Lieutenant Colonel (Ret.) John G. Hines: Senior Research Analyst, Rand Corporation , Washington, D.C. Colonel Ali Amad...dialectical response from other senior military personnel in subsequent articles, the Gastilovich article posited radical changes for the Soviet Armed

  7. Reconstructing the Soviet National Economic Balance, 1965 - 1984: An Alternative Approach to Estimating Soviet Military Expenditures. Volume 1. Technical Discussion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-11

    based method of estimating military expenditures differs3 considerably from the method by proposed Western researchers who, like Soviet 1-9 I I academic... researchers , the problem of inflation would still be open to competing interpretations since one can design different, equally valid methods , for...I-1 1.2 Comparison of Soviet Accounting Methods ......................................... 1-4 1.3 The NEB Coverage of Military Expenditures

  8. An Evaluation of the Anti-Soviet Guerrilla Warfare Potential in Soviet Estonia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-15

    der Waffen-S[., p. 95. 21 42. Arnold Purre, "Saksa-NÖuk. Liidu soja uldjooni," in Eestl Rllk ja Rahvas Telses Maallmasojas, Vol. 7, ed. by...Purre, "Saksa-Nouk. Liidu söja uldjooni," p. 35. 45. Hausser, pp. 95-96. 46. Purre, "Saksa-Nouk. Liidu soja uldjooni," p. 35. 47. Ibid. p. 36...of Estot.ia and life under the Soviet occupation.) 10. Maasing, Richard, et al. Ecsti Rilk Ja Rahvas Telses Maallma- sojas . Vol. 1

  9. Population change in the former Soviet Republics.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1994-12-01

    Demographic trends in the former Soviet Republics and Russia are summarized and discussed in this publication. The former Soviet Republics in Europe as well as Georgia and Armenia had completed or almost completed their demographic transition before October 1991. Other Central Asian republics experienced reduced mortality, but, despite rapid declines, fertility is still above replacement level (at 3-4 children per woman). The economic and social dislocation of the breakup of the republics has hastened fertility decline. The annual population growth rate of the USSR in the mid-1980s was 0.9%; this rate declined to 0.4% in 1991, and the decline has continued. The 1991 population of the USSR was 289.1 million. Between 1989 and 1991, the crude birth rate was 18/1000 population, and the crude death rate was 10/1000. The net migration rate of -4/1000 helped to reduce growth. Total fertility in the USSR was 2.3 children in 1990. In Russia, fertility declined from 1.9 in 1990 to 1.4 in 1993. The preferred family size in Russia was 1.9 in 1990 and 1.5 in 1993. This decline occurred due to lack of confidence in the economy and insufficient income. Only 19% of women used contraception in 1990. Marriages declined after 1990. Age pyramids were similar in the republics in that there was a narrowing in the proportion aged 45-49 years, and the male population aged over 65 years was diminished, due to the effect of World War II. The cohort of those aged 20-24 years in 1992 was very small due to the small parental birth cohort. The differences in the republics was characterized as broad-based in the younger ages because of high fertility. The number of childbearing women will remain large. Life expectancy has been 70 years since the 1950s and has declined in some republics due to substandard health care, lack of job safety measures, and alcoholism. Some republics experienced increased life expectancy, but, after 1991, mortality increased. Tajikistan had the highest infant mortality

  10. Pushkin to Shukshin: Complementary Strands in the Texture of Soviet Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevin, Patricia Ernenwein

    1980-01-01

    Discusses English reading texts used in the Soviet Union, which are English translations of Russian literature. Notes that such literature divides attention between the traditional and the progressive elements of Soviet culture. (DF)

  11. Performance of Soviet and US hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uljanov, Adolph A.; Demidov, Nikolai A.; Mattison, Edward M.; Vessot, Robert F. C.; Allan, David W.; Winkler, Gernot M. R.

    1990-01-01

    The frequencies of Soviet- and U.S.-built hydrogen masers located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) were compared with each other and, via Global Positioning System (GPS) common-view measurements, with three primary frequency-reference scales. The best masers were found to have fractional frequency stabilities as low as 6 times 10(exp -16) for averaging times of approximately 10(exp 4) s. Members of the USNO maser ensemble provided frequency prediction better than 1 times 10(exp 14) for periods up to a few weeks. The frequency residuals of these masers, after removal of frequency drift and rate of change of drift, had stabilities of a few parts in 10(exp -15), with serveral masers achieving residual stabilities well below 1 times 10(exp -15) for intervals from 10(exp 5)s to 2 times 10(exp 6)s. The fractional frequency drifts of the 13 masers studied, relative to the primary reference standards, ranged from -0.2 times 10(exp -15)/day to +9.6 times 10(exp -15)/day.

  12. The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapoport, Z. TA.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-01-01

    In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  13. All Features Grate and Stall. Soviet Strategic Vulnerabilities and the Future of Deterrence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-15

    territory. This latter thrust will impose a real cost upon the East European Pact allies and reduce their solidarity with the Soviet Union . To the extent that...Soviet weaknesses and vulnerabilities. It is the author’s opinion that there can be no doubt that the Soviet Union is and will continue to be the...this paper examines economic, political, demographic and military vulnerabilities and weaknesses of the Soviet Union which affect its domestic and

  14. Maintaining Heavy Force Training Focus in the Age of ’New Soviet Thinking’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-30

    Go Home". 4 !David Ignatius , "Yes, It’s Real: How Gorby Is Cutting the Soviet Threat," Washinaton Post, 5 November 1989, p. C1. 2Don Oberdorfer...well. Comparing the abysmal economic condition of the Soviet Union and its client states with the -Ibid, pp. 37-50. 3Christopher Donnelly , Red Banner...Covington, Stephen R. "The Soviet Military Prospects for Change." Soviet Studies Research Centre, RMA Sandurst, November 1988. 13. Donnelly , Christopher

  15. Soviet-West European Relations: Recent Trends and Near-Term Prospects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    chilly reception from the Soviet leadership. Indeed, his Soviet hosts reminded him that the volcanic destruction of Pompeii paled in comparison with a...single nuclear warhead, and are reported to have threatened that "we will turn Italy into a Pompeii " if Italy contin- ued with INF deployments on...threatens to turn Italy "into a Pompeii " May 7, 1984 Soviet Union announces decision to boycott Olympics May 14, 1984 Soviet Union announces movement of

  16. The Finnish Campaigns: Failure of Soviet Operational Art in World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-02

    also referenced by Savkin, is available in Selected Readings in the History of Soviet Operational Art compiled by Harold S. Orenstein for Soviet Army...of Choice: The Troubled German-Finnish Coalition in World War II. Havertown: Casemate, 2011. Mawdsley, Evan . In Thunder in the East:The Nazi-Soviet...Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993. Orenstein , Harold S. Selected Readings in the History of Soviet Operational Art. Fort Leavenworth: United

  17. Analysis of the Soviet response to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Student report

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.E.

    1987-04-01

    Since President Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) in March 1983, the Soviet Union has consistently condemned it. This study examines the Soviet response to SDI and provides an explanation for their response. The study identifies military, political, and economic factors that influence the Soviet response to SDI. The author concludes that the Soviets have a genuine concern about SDI, and they will continue their attempts to stop the SDI program at the arms-control negotiations.

  18. The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, A J

    1980-04-01

    Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning.

  19. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  20. Ideologies of Civic Participation in Central Asia: Liberal Arts in the Post-Soviet Democratic Ethos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.

    2010-01-01

    Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…

  1. Changing Conceptions of Development Assistance to Education in the International Discourse on Post-Soviet Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Tuomas; Piattoeva, Nelli

    2012-01-01

    The fall of the socialist system, and of the Soviet Union as a political entity, created a situation where external assistance to the transformation of the ex-Soviet countries into market economies and multi-party democracies became a domain of "development assistance". While the attractiveness of the ex-Soviet countries to the providers…

  2. Soviet Psycho-educational Research on Learning Disabilities: Implications for American Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Robert H.

    The implications of Soviet psychoeducational research on learning disabilities (LD) and its relevance to American research and practice are discussed. The first section provides an overview of the general perspective of Soviet special education, with particular reference to LD and its relationship to Soviet psychology and philosophy. The second…

  3. Trouble in the Backyard: Soviet Media Reporting on the Afghanistan Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of Soviet media coverage of Afghanistan from 1979 to 1986, showing that several familiar themes, from unpopular guerrillas to national security, are used to justify the Soviet presence in Afghanistan. Compares Soviet press coverage of Afghanistan with U.S. coverage of El Salvador, revealing several parallels. (ARH)

  4. Narrating Surroundings and Suppression: The Role of School in Soviet Childhood Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugin, Raili; Jõesalu, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The article explores how people born in Estonia in the 1970s contextualize their memories about their Soviet childhood in the context of school. Focusing on small group of people who grew up in the Soviet Estonia, we argue that in biographical narratives, school is treated as the representative of the Soviet regime. Nostalgic reminiscences from…

  5. A State of the Art Review of Soviet Research in Cognitive Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertsch, James V.

    This paper outlines the theoretical foundations of Soviet psychology, analyzes major themes based on these foundations, and identifies relevance of Soviet psychological research for American investigators. Basic social and political factors that influence Soviet research include centralization of all scientific and academic endeavors and…

  6. Soviet Higher Education: An Alternative Construct to the Western University Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuraev, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the university was an alien establishment for Russia, reflecting the political ambition of its leadership, not the organic impetus of Russian society. In Soviet academia, the notion of university education was replaced by the concept of vocational-technical training. As a creation of the Soviet government, Soviet higher education…

  7. The Soviet System of Education. A PIER World Education Series Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovych, Erika; Levin-Stankevich, Brian

    This volume endeavors to provide comprehensive factual information on the Soviet system of education. Chapter 1 offers basic information on the Soviet Republics. Chapter 2 describes the foundations of Soviet Education. Chapter 3 describes preschool through upper secondary education including academic calendars and curriculum. Chapter 4,…

  8. The Soviets: What is the Conflict about? 1985 National Issues Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Keith; Landau, David

    Appropriate for secondary school social studies or community programs, this publication considers United States-Soviet conflict. The first of four sections, "US-Soviet Relations at the Crossroads," looks at different American perceptions of the Soviet Union. "Regional Conflicts, Global Ambitions" focuses on Nicaragua as a case…

  9. Educational Reforms in the Soviet Union. Special Studies in Comparative Education, Number Fourteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Delbert

    The Soviet school system is, and has been since its inception, a vital instrument of state policy. The Soviet political leaders of the 1980s, in an effort to improve their educational system, are implementing into the academic program the basic Soviet educational principles of: (1) promoting Communist Party policies; (2) coordinating school work…

  10. Friends to the End: "The New York Times" and the Soviet Union, 1943-1945.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Donald O.

    From 1939 to 1943 the United States went from a period of total opposition to the Soviets to a gradual acceptance of its new ally. The "New York Times" editorial page shared in this trend: moving cautiously from complete rejection of the Soviets to acceptance of the Russian people, next the Red Army, and finally the Soviet government.…

  11. U.S.-Soviet Relations: Testing Gorbachev's "New Thinking." Current Policy No. 985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armacost, Michael H.

    Forty years ago, George F. Kennan advanced the doctrine of containment against Soviet encroachment throughout the world. The Soviet Union has evolved from a Eurasian land power into a global superpower. In an effort to create an international environment congenial to domestic reforms, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev has sought greater tranquility…

  12. The Station Relay. Facts and Views on Daily Life in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Stephen P., Ed.; Dunn, Ethel, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of five journal issues describing facts and daily life in the Soviet Union, the documents are intended to help people of the United States know about the people of the Soviet Union, their hopes, fears, and facts of their daily lives. Among the topics included in the publications are: Soviet consumers and the law; public health…

  13. Comparison of Soviet and US space food and nutrition programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Selina

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet Space Food and Nutrition programs are compared with those of the U.S. The Soviets established the first Space Food programs in 1961, when one of the Soviet Cosmonauts experienced eating in zero gravity. This study indicates that some major differences exist between the two space food and nutrition programs regarding dietary habits. The major differences are in recommended nutrient intake and dietary patterns between the cosmonauts and astronauts. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are significantly higher in cosmonaut diets compared to astronauts. Certain mineral elements such as phosphorus, sodium and iron are also significantly higher in the cosmonauts' diets. Cosmonauts also experience intake of certain unconventional food and plant extracts to resist stress and increase stamina.

  14. Soviet Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchetkov, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    During 1980s and 1990s a proton-proton collider named the Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK) was under construction in the Soviet Union and then in Russia. The collider was supposed to be built in a 21 km long underground tunnel at the site of Institute for High Energy Physics in Protvino. With a design collision energy of 6 TeV and a luminosity of 4 x 1034 cm-1s-1, the UNK was planned to be become a primary energy frontier facility to further expand national high energy physics program, as well as to strengthen global scientific outreach and collaborations. The UNK was to be realized in 3 rings. The first ring, built from conventional magnets, was planned to be used for fixed target experiments with proton beam energies up to 600 GeV, and as an injector to the second and the third rings. The second and the third superconducting magnet rings were designed for either 3 TeV beam energy fixed target experiments or 6 TeV collider experiments. The top magnetic field of 1 T of the first ring was to be supplied by 2196 dipoles and 503 quadrupoles. Each of the second and the third superconducting rings would have needed 2192 dipoles and 474 quadrupoles to reach the top field of 5 T. ``Neptun'' experiment was supposed to be a centerpiece of the initial physics program at the UNK. 1560 conventional dipoles and 473 conventional quadrupoles were fabricated as a part of the first ring infrastructure. Several test versions of the superconducting magnets were produced, as well. While the tunnel and a proton injection line were completed by 1995, the reduction of Russian federal funding for high energy physics halted the project at the end of 1990s.

  15. World Opinion and the Soviet Satellite: A Preliminary Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    Less than two weeks after the launch of Sputnik I, the United States Information Agency conducted an informal analysis of public opinion on this subject. The analysis yielded four clear conclusions: (1) Soviet claims of scientific and technological superiority were widely accepted in the United States; (2) U.S. allies were concerned about a shift in the balance of military power; (3) the overall credibility of Soviet propaganda was greatly strengthened; and (4) American prestige was dealt a severe blow. The report also concluded that the near-hysteria in the United States in turn increased the level of concern in countries friendly to the United States. An evaluation is presented.

  16. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 75, January - February 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    122 FISCHER L 27 DASHKEVICH V 1 76 DOTSENKO A V 21 FISCHER P 77 DAVTYAN A M 68 DOVGIY B P 36 FISHER V I 118 DAVYDOV V 1 62 D0VGIY YA 0 27 FISHIMAN I S...Defens Inteligence Agency V rTW~RMON STAVEMENT A DST-270OZ-003-86 May 19 6 88 3 09 u94 )- -- DST-2700Z-003-86 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOVIET LASER DEVELOPMENTS No... a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components

  17. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 82, March - April 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    40 DOTSENKO V 1 56 BRODIN M S 24,94 CHOJNACKA A 17 DOYNIXOVA E S 61 BRODSKAYA R M 94 CHUDAKOV V S 74,76,78,79 DRACHEV V P 64 BRUECKNER V 82 CHUDINOV... a ) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT. TASK Defense Intelligence Agency AREA...Interaction, Laser Plasma 20. ABSTRACT This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for March-April 1986, and is No. 82 in a continuing series on Soviet laser

  18. A Comprehensive Examination of the Soviet Naval Infantry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-11

    330,(00 men1 and had participated in 1i3 amphibious operations. 2 The Naval Infantry had earned their place in Soviet naval history by their courage and...War 1939, and World War II 1941-1945)15; but did manage to gain fame and a hero’s share of Russian/ Soviet history, particularly in their 113...wui!t banner with earned military decorations at all ceremonial occasions, including the Marine’s oath of allegipnce and military parades (these are

  19. Soviet and American ASTP crew sample candidate food items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Candidate food items being considered for the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission are sampled by three ASTP crewmen in bldg 4 at JSC. They are, left to right, Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet ASTP crew; Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American ASTP crew; and Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP crew. Kubasov is marking a food rating chart on which the crewmen mark their choices, likes and dislikes of the food being sampled. Brand is drinking orange juice from an accordian-like dispenser. Leonov is eating butter cookies.

  20. The Soviet Population Policy Debate: Actors and Issues,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    113 THE SOVIET POPULATION POLICY DEOTE: ACTOS AD I SSUES 1/2 (U) RAND CORP SATA MONICA CR N FESHBACH DEC 86 RN/ N -2472-RF F49620-86-C-BNS UN CLSIFIED...Corporation 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138 0 I1 ~I A RAND NOTE N -2472-AF The Soviet Population Policy Debate: Actors and Issues...8 5 t I 4 61 - PP ~ V’V ~V /./( N % 4 wW f VW ... .. in,1 ix - TABLES 1. Benchmark Dates

  1. Russian, Soviet, and post-Soviet scientific migration: history and patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant scientists from other European countries (predominantly German) were crucial in establishing the tradition of modern science in the Russian Empire of the 18th and 19th centuries. Since the 1860s, however, outgoing waves of scientific migration started originating in Russia, bringing important innovations to international science. The scale and patterns of migration varied greatly with the turbulent time. The talk will describe several landmark stages of the proceess and their cultural consequences: from opening higher education possibilities for women during the late 19th century, to post-1917 academic refugees and Soviet defectors, to the 1960s brain drain provoked by the launch of Sputnik, and to what can be called the first truly global scientific diaspora of Russophone scientists after 1990.

  2. Soviet oil trade from 1950 to 1976 in the context of the regime perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    Application of insights from international political economy (IPE) to the study of the Soviet Union and other communist countries should be useful both to students of IPE and to students of those countries. This study applies an IPE perspective, regime theory, to the Soviet oil trade. The subject area was chosen both because it is an area important to the Soviet Union and because a strong regime has been identified in this area by theorists. The focus is the interaction of the Soviet Union with a regime which had been established, and was controlled by, Western actors. The study asks how the Soviet Union related to the regime and how, if at all, it attempted to pursue its alternative vision of trade, as well as at how the regime, in turn, affected the Soviet Union in its day-to-day trading relations and in its trade policy. The study concludes that application of regime theory to the examination of the Soviet oil trade is valuable both to IPE and to Soviet studies. Viewing Soviet activities in the regime context helped explain both overall Soviet trade policy and day-to-day Soviet trade decisions such as pricing and choice of trade partners.

  3. Redefining Glasnost in the Soviet Media: The Recontextualization of Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Marilyn J.; Launer, Michael K.

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrates that a review of news coverage and an analysis of two documentary films in the context of Soviet cultural values and political stakes suggests that the rhetorical reconstruction of Chernobyl contributed to the legitimation of nuclear power and the environment as public issues. (PRA)

  4. The Soviet and the Falklands War: Opportunity in Latin America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    newly independent state of the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata (forerunner of Argentina) dispatched a frigate to the islands to claim them as part...Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The attack, which took place on Christmas Eve, invoked anger in President Carter, and resulted in the consideration

  5. Soviet Computer Education in Dreams and in Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leasure, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Gives an overview of past, present, and future developments of computer use in Soviet education. Emphasis is on new legislation permitting increased interaction between eastern and western parts of the globe which would allow information sharing. Joint partnerships would aid in the manufacturing of computers in sufficient numbers for use in…

  6. Soviet Cineclubs: Baranov's Film/Media Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a historical form of media literacy education that is still insufficiently discussed in English language literature: Russian cineclubs. We focus on one particular cineclub that was created by a Soviet educator Oleg Baranov in the 1950s. We describe this cineclub's context and structure, and discuss its popularity among…

  7. Soviet Computers and Cybernetics: Shortcomings and Military Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Soviet Military Decision Making, Thesis (Delivered to the Ninth National Conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , October...Thesis. Ninth NatLonal Conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , October 1978. Myagi, A. "Problemi khozrascheta VTs

  8. Operating margin of Soviet RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.M.; Robinson, G.E. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hochreiter, L.E. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on a coupled thermal- hydraulic analysis that is performed for the Soviet-designed RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactor to assess the operating margin to critical heat flux (CHF); the Chernobyl-4 reactor serves as the principal model for this study. Calculations are performed using a simplified subchannel analysis. The overall analysis involves an iterative search to determine the individual subchannel flow rates, and a boiling transition analysis is performed to obtain a measure of the core operating margin. The operating margin is determined via two distinct methods. The first involves a calculation of the core critical power ratio (CPR) using an empirically derived correlation that the Soviets developed expressly for the RBMK-1000. Additionally, various subchannel CHF correlations typical of those used in the design of nuclear-powered reactors in the United States are also employed. When the Soviet critical power correlation is used, the calculations carried out for both normal operating and reference overpower conditions result in CPRs of 1.115 and 1.019, respectively. In most cases, the subchannel CHF correlations indicate that additional operating margin over that calculated by the Soviet critical power correlation exists for this design.

  9. Themes for Teaching the Geography of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausladen, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Provides a framework for introducing students to the geography of the Soviet Union. Identifies basic themes for a geographical approach, including (1) advantages and disadvantages of size and location; (2) spatial impact of political economy; (3) paradox of economic development; (4) challenges of governing a multinational state; (5) integration…

  10. Soviet Union, Military Affairs. Data, Diagrams of Ground Forces Weaponry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-16

    in the Great Patriotic War. Soviet snipers destroyed tens of thousands of Hitlerites. Lyudmila Pavlichenko , for example, rapidly mastered the art of...soldiers and officers—that is, she succeeded in putting almost a battalion of enemy in- fantry out of action. Lyudmila Pavlichenko was awarded the great

  11. Agriculture of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebelsky, Ihor

    1985-01-01

    Food production in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is described; the opportunities and limitations of the region's land resources for agriculture are examined; and the evolution of the institutional structures of agriculture are discussed. Recent developments to improve the food supply are outlined. (RM)

  12. Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Greece and Turkey: Contrast within Coherence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    may have been motivated on the Greek side by wariness of the apparent courtship of the Soviet Union being undertaken by Greece’s traditional rival...Ulam, Adam B., The Rivals, Penguin Books, 1971. 11. Couloumbis, T.A., Petropulos, J.A. Psomiades, H.J., Foreign Interference in Greek Politics, Pella

  13. Former Soviet Republic capabilities in space and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavan, G. H.

    1993-02-01

    Recent Department of Commerce, US Space Council, and Strategic Defense Initiative Organization missions to the Former Soviet Republics (FSR's) provided an opportunity to view FSR capabilities in space and science and explore possibilities for cooperation in developing the dual-use capabilities of distributed remote sensing. The trips are summarized and promising areas for cooperation are suggested.

  14. Analysis of VET in Ukraine Since the Soviet Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinser, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how vocational education and training (VET) in Ukraine has changed since the Soviet era; and to determine its structure, successes, and challenges. Design/methodology/approach: The author conducted interviews and tours at 15 vocational schools in seven cities in Ukraine. Findings: Ukraine is…

  15. U.S.-Soviet Cooperation in Space. A Technical Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report consists of an executive summary and five chapters. Chapter 1, an introduction, discusses the potential advantages and disadvantages of cooperation in space. Chapter 2 outlines the history of United States-Soviet cooperation in space, and the policy debates which have taken place in the U.S. since the beginning of the space age. It…

  16. The Soviet School System during Nazi Occupation (1941-1944)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinko, Evgeny Fedorovich

    2016-01-01

    The article explores Soviet schooling in the occupied territory of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. The author considers such issues as the reduction in the number of schools, changes in curricular content, and problems in the organization of schooling and the work of teachers. The article notes the effects of various factors on the…

  17. Chronology of US-Soviet-CIS nuclear relations

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    Since the signing of the first Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I), a number of important events related to nuclear weapons in the former Soviet Union have taken place. A chronology of key developments over the past three years is discussed.

  18. Safeguarding nuclear materials in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Erkkila, B.

    1995-12-31

    This article is a discussion of the safeguarding of nuclear materials in the states of the former Soviet Union. Several issues have been identified and improvements are being pursued at many facilities. These issues include: (1) improvements to existing computerized accounting systems, (2) access control, and (3) control of material movement.

  19. How to Arrange Student Tours to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    The details of planning a student tour to the Soviet Union are described by an experienced tour organizer. Student tours of one to three weeks are presented as rewarding alternatives to lengthy overseas study. Recommendations are made regarding choice of tour type, length of tour, travel agencies, time of year to travel, advertising a tour,…

  20. Physicists for Human Rights in the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, Yuri

    2005-03-01

    In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent Human Rights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki Human Rights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for human rights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The human rights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.

  1. Controversy in Soviet R&D: The Airship Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-10-01

    possible Soviet defense use, such as troop and equipment carriers. 1 By February 1970, volunteer design bureaus had been set up in Irkusk and Bratsk ...Irkutsk and Bratsk , Siberia. Fourteen ministries support this work. ["Dirigibles," 1970] Article by M. Sergeev V. B. Murychev, Leader of the Leningrad

  2. Three Historical Subcultures in Post-Soviet Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sogrin, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching and public dissemination of Russian history in post-Soviet historiography has been shaped by a variety of approaches, including state-sponsored interpretations, views expressed in mass culture, and the work of academic historians. In this article, the author employs a specific method of differentiation to distinguish his present…

  3. U.S.-Soviet Relations Teacher's Guide: Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chibucos, Pamela E.

    This teacher's guide provides student objectives, motivational devices, terms and concepts to know, student activities, evaluation ideas, and suggestions for using an accompanying four-part videotape series. An activity for chapter 1, "Differing World Views," divides the class into groups that list U.S.-Soviet differences in economic…

  4. U.S.-Soviet Relations. Close Up Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This booklet, part of a video and print educational unit consisting of a student text, a teacher's guide, and four 30-minute videotapes, focuses on the U.S.-Soviet relationship, attempting to distinguish what guides each nation's actions in the world as a whole and with each other. Chapter 1, "Differing World Views," examines how…

  5. The Strategic Defense Initiative in Soviet Planning and Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    American domestic debate, little attention has been paid to the Soviet side of the equation . Granted, considerable efforts have been expended to...contrary, it would be one that proceeded roughly in the direction originally intenc I in President Reagan’s March 1983 speech, even though the

  6. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  7. A Case in Point: The Soviet Experience with Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desheriyev, Yunus; Mikhalchenko, Vita Youozovna

    1976-01-01

    Describes the Soviet Union's attempt to devise a national educational system which will both develop the 130 languages spoken by the peoples of the USSR and increase the use of the Russian language as the language of international communication. (Author/DB)

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 12, December 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    tissue. The results of experiments on animals carried out during flights of Kosmos series biosatellites made it possible to efficiently schedule...ration are a good means of protecting against accelera- tions after weightlessness. Soviet biosatellites of the Kosmos series are making a noticeable...tal research aboard Kosmos biosatellites, Interkosmos satellites and manned orbiting stations. Working together with specialists of the GDR

  9. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 11, November 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Yeliseyev’s Ram" first two paragraphs are AVIATSIYA I KOSMO - NAVTIKA introduction] [Text] "Dear editor," write officers G. Ivovlev and V. Degtyarev...edition of the wall newspaper APOGEY devoted to the joint Soviet-Syrian space flight was posted in Kosmo - navt Hotel. An artist painted the "Heroes

  10. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  11. Moral Education in Contemporary Belarus: Return to a Soviet Past?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorovitch, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses moral education in contemporary Belarus. It offers an insight into the problem of educational change in post-Soviet societies in general and investigates the need for moral education reform in Belarus in particular. It provides a brief description of the situation with respect to moral education in some former Soviet…

  12. The Soviet Successor States and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    This document is a guide to provide teachers and curriculum consultants with an up to date overview of the histories, cultures, and current issues concerning the region of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. It is not intended as an in depth study of the area or people. The guide is divided into two parts. The first discusses the Soviet…

  13. A New Look at an Old Foe - The Soviet Officer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    graduation.4 3 in addition to the professional schools, all officers are required to continue their political education . This aspect of an officer’s...Boston: Allen and Unwin, 1985), p. 85. 2. Ibid. 3. Brenda Atkinson, Political Education in the Army of the Soviet Union (Fort Belvoir, Va.: United

  14. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  15. Soviet SDI Rhetoric: The "Evil Empire" Vision of Mikhail Gorbachev.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Colleen E.

    The symbolic presence of Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) has been and continues to be the pivot point in all summitry rhetoric between the American President and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev. To examine some of the rhetorical choices made by Gorbachev to dramatize his vision of why Ronald Reagan refuses to…

  16. Physical Education and Sport in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maetozo, Matthew G.

    The author presents perceptions of the world of sport and physical education gained during a study-tour of the Soviet Union in 1977. This broad overview of individual and governmental involvement in physical activities includes the following--a survey of physical education and public participation in sport in tsarist Russia, governmental policy…

  17. Planning of Map and Atlas Work in Soviet Scientific Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koslova, A. V.; Kodes, I. I.

    The cartography departments of the leading Soviet libraries--the Lenin State Library of the USSR, the Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library, and the Library of the USSR Academy of Sciences--perform a wide range of operations on cartographic works for reader service and for the development of reference tools and techniques to be used by other…

  18. Soviet Cinema and State Control: Lenin's Nationalization Decree Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepley, Vance, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a revisionist account of the immediate conditions and consequences of the 1919 Soviet cinema nationalization decree. Argues that nationalization was the least successful of a set of stop-gap measures; that it dispersed and diluted control; and that it actually retarded the growth of the film industry. (KEH)

  19. Lenin's Grandchildren: Preschool Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kitty D.

    The Soviets have long been devoting educational and institutional energies to the field of early childhood education. This book stresses what Russian preschool education does rather than what its theorists claim it does for children aged 2 months to 6 years who are in group care. Children, teachers and parents tell their own stories. Obviously…

  20. Perceptual and Cognitive Development of Preschoolers in Soviet Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, Herbert L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments on the cognitive and perceptual development of three- to seven-year-old Soviet children are described, especially the work of L. A. Venger, N. N. Poddyakov, and D. B. El'Konin. Visual-action and visual-image thinking are illustrated. (GDC)

  1. Potential Soviet compromise on ballistic missile defense. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.P.

    1989-11-01

    The body of this research memorandum was written before the Baker-Shevardnadze meeting in Wyoming. It presented evidence suggesting that the Soviet Union might agree to a compromise at the Wyoming meeting that defers the issue of ballistic missile defense (BMD) negotiations to a later stage in arms reductions, thus facilitating a first-stage cut in offensive arms without an explicit Soviet endorsement of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Through this compromise, offensive arms reductions should first be delinked from an agreement on BMD, and then be relinked during the second stage of deeper cuts. Therefore, negotiations on limiting BMD systems, though deterred, are deemed inevitable if the U.S. persists in deploying a strategic defense system (SDS). Moreover, some Soviet arms controllers already look beyond the first stage to the prospect of negotiated transition into a strategic defense environment (i.e., a reliance on defensive deterrence). In this approach, Wyoming, then, was expected to be only a first move in the Soviet negotiating strategy for a grand compromise on strategic defense. As explained in the afterword added to the paper, the actual events at Wyoming seem consistent with that interpretation.

  2. Education in the Soviet Union: Has "Perestroika" Met Its Match?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Gerald Howard

    1989-01-01

    In late 1988, the Soviet Union's "perestroika" entered a new stage aimed at developing human resources and fostering democratic processes. Educators' and parents' discontent with the centralized bureaucracy and rigid educational administrative structure will press officials to formulate a comprehensive new education theory to achieve 19…

  3. MENC and the National Anthem: From the Early 1900s to Today's National Anthem Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontiff, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the history of the United States, music educators have played an important role in building national unity by teaching students to sing the songs of their country. Beginning with the entire May-June 1942 issue of "Music Educators Journal" devoted to the nation's war effort following the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, MENC set…

  4. Regional analysis of Former Soviet Union peaceful nuclear explosions recorded in the Former Soviet Union. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adushkin, V.C.

    1995-11-11

    Until the late 80`s information on Soviet underground nuclear explosions, let alone seismic recording on Soviet soil, were not generally available to the seismological community. The dramatic changes since then have resulted in access to a wide variety of seismic data from Soviet explosions. In this report the author presents a data set, unique to the field of seismic verification. The data includes a large number of waveforms from in-country seismological station Borovoye for the Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions with announced yields and origin times, some with physical and mechanical conditions at the test site. The waveforms were recorded by digital station of different types. In this report the author has summarized and reviewed information on 122 explosions, and 55 waveforms in this data set, which contains recordings obtained in the course of more than 15 years. As the characteristics of recording instruments were changing during this period of time available information on instrument calibrations is also described and reviewed. The author also has attempted to describe the observed peculiarities of P-wave by using a simple source function and magnitude correction which take in attention such parameters as the velocity of longitudinal wave, density, moisture, gas content and depth of explosion. More detail analysis was conducted for the explosions conducted in salt as there is representative sample and they were observed on local distances.

  5. Soviet books and publications on hydrology (continental) and hydrogeology: titles and some notes on obtaining Soviet monographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.

    1966-01-01

    A common method of publication for Soviet scientists, which partly supplants periodicals, is the publication of a collection of articles on a general area of research, frequently by members of a given institution. An extensive sampling of world geologic literature for 1961 (Hawkes, 1966) showed that 33 percent of Soviet titles appeared in periodicals whereas 55 percent of North American and 70 percent of Western European literature appeared in this form. The Soviet predilection for symposia and collections of papers makes searching for information on a given subject more difficult for Westerners because the monographs in question are often not included in exchange agreements (except informal personal ones) with Western libraries and institutions, because they may be primed in small editions, and because such publications frequently escape the notice of Western abstract journals. Unless one is fortunate enough to have many personal contacts in the Soviet Union, there seems to be little alternative to at least a rudimentary knowledge of Russian in order to stay abreast of work published as monographs and in collections.

  6. Soviet exploitation of the nuclear winter hypothesis. Technical report, 8 May 1984-4 June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-05

    This study, which is based entirely on open Soviet sources, examines and analyzes Soviet views on and uses made by Soviet scientists of the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. In particular, the study seeks to ascertain whether Soviet scientists have in fact independently confirmed the TTAPS prediction of a Nuclear Winter phenomenon or have contributed independent data or scenarios to it. The findings of the study are that the Soviets view the Nuclear Winter hypothesis as a political and propaganda opportunity to influence Western scientific and public opinion and to restrain U.S. defense programs. Analysis of Soviet publications shows that, in fact, Soviet scientists have made no independent or new contributions to the study of the Nuclear Winter phenomenon, but have uncritically made use of the worst-case scenarios, parameters, and values published in the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio 1982) and the TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies, as well as models of atmospheric circulation borrowed from Western sources. Furthermore, current Soviet directives to scientists call for work on the further strengthening of the Soviet Union's military might, while it is also explained that the dire predictions of the possible consequences of a nuclear war in no way diminish the utility of the Soviet civil defense program and the need for its further improvement.

  7. Bacteriophages as Therapeutic and Prophylactic Means: Summary of the Soviet and Post Soviet Experiences.

    PubMed

    Chanishvili, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage (from 'bacteria' and Greek φαγεῖν phagein "to devour" or bacterial eaters) are bacterial viruses that infect and kill bacteria. Bacteriophages (shortly "phages") are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. The estimated number of phages on earth is about 1032. Bacteriophages are often isolated from environmental sources, such as water samples, etc. Felix d'Herelle, one of the discoverers of bacteriophages, was the one who suggested them for therapy of human and animal bacterial infections. This idea was very popular in the world until the advent of antibiotics commercial after which production of therapeutic phages ceased in most of the Western countries, but not in the former Soviet Union. The application of antibiotics in the clinical practice, besides the well-known side effects, entails, in addition, the appearance of the forms of bacteria, resistant to newly synthesized preparations. It was concluded that a European and global strategy to address this gap is urgently needed. Now, faced with the alarming growth of a variety of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections, Western researchers and governments are giving phages a serious look. The phages nowadays are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria. The therapeutic action of bacteriophages significantly differs from antibiotics, which makes them still active against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. Bacteriophages have a number of other advantages in comparison with antibiotics. First of all, they are efficient against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the past and current experiences in the field of phage therapy in the countries where it has been traditionally applied in the clinical practice. Although the style and quality of old Soviet scientific publications dedicated to phage therapy are not challenging the international standards, there is still valuable information which

  8. Soviet crisis relocation program. Final report 1 May 82-Jun 83

    SciTech Connect

    Goure, L.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes and analyzes, on the basis of open Soviet source materials, Soviet civil defense concepts, plans, organization, priorities, training programs, and capabilities pertaining to crisis relocation of residents of high-risk urban areas and workers of significant economic installations. Soviet sources indicate not only that crisis relocation continues to be an important element of the Soviet civil defense program, but also that there is a requirement for the relocation of leadership elements, essential workers, and urban civil defense forces regardless of the availability of shelters in the cities. Soviet civil defense has well developed, comprehensive plans for implementing a rapid relocation of the urban population of exurban areas in a highly organized and strictly controlled manner. While small-scale evacuation exercises are conducted throughout the USSR, it is uncertain how well Soviet plans, organization, and procedures will perform in an actual large-scale relocation.

  9. Soviet Union and the Strategic Defense Initiative: preliminary findings and impressions. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.

    1986-06-01

    This note provides a background against which to evaluate possible Soviet alternatives for dealing with the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) in the decade ahead. Without speculating about what the Soviets will ultimately do in response to SDI, the note (1) examines Moscow's statements on SDI to date, (2) reviews the highlights of Soviet doctrine and programs related to strategic defense, (3) considers the real concerns that may underline the Kremlin's public posturing on SDI, and (4) outlines the key political and strategic factors that will constrain the Soviets' eventual response. The author suggests that, assuming SDI does lead to a deployable U.S. ballistic missile defense, the Soviets will be driven to counter that threat within the limits of their economic and technical resources. Forecasting the technical details of their response at this time, however, is complicated by uncertainty not only about Soviet concerns, motivations, and intentions, but also about what the United States will eventually do with SDI.

  10. Possible Soviet response to the Strategic Defense Initiative: a functionally organized taxonomy. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.N.

    1986-07-01

    In the wake of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), much effort has been devoted to estimating potential Soviet responses to it. There is general agreement that the Soviet response will (1) consist of attempts to stop, circumvent, emulate, and neutralize the SDI; (2) include political, military, and strategic efforts; and (3) vary over time, depending on several factors. Setting aside Soviet technological options, this note considers various factors that might interest or influence senior Soviet decision makers as they consider a range of programmatic, strategic, and political options for responding to the SDI. Its goal is to identify generic categories of Soviet response options rather than the specific forms those options may take. Contents include: Precursors to any Taxonomy of Soviet Responses to SDI; Primarily Military or Technological Steps; Primarily Grand Strategic Steps; and Primarily Political Steps.

  11. Selling the Russians the Rope? Soviet Technology Policy and U.S. Export Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    be met simultaneously. Soviet managers have every incentive to concentrate on the ones that will earn them their bonuses and preserve their jobs...Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The study undertakes a systematic analysis of Soviet management of technological innovation, particularly in...implications for export-control policy. Five Soviet experiments in the management of innova- tion stand out as especially significant: (1) full-cycle planning

  12. Soviet-Afghan War (December 1979 to September 1989): Success Leads to Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    COG ANALYSIS 34 APPENDIX H SOVIET WAR LOSSES 36 APPENDIX I SOVIET ORDER OF BATTLE 37 BIBLIOGRAPHY 39 v Preface This paper addresses how and why the...national power for others to interpret and study. The Soviet-Afghan war deserves further analysis to adequately tackle the successes and failures in...approach. This is particularly true when addressing a continually complex , changing situation like that of Iraq in 2006.4 2 Carl von Clausewitz, in his

  13. Soviet Strategic Air Defense: A Long Past and an Uncertain Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    grateful to Rose Gottemoeller and Edward L. Warner of RAND for their careful readings and detailed comments. Laura Zakaris provided many useful editorial...Technical History of the Beginnings of Radar, Peter Peregrinus, 1986. The post-war situation is described in Alexander Steinhaus , The Beginnings of Soviet...34, Review of Soviet Ground Forces, Defense Intelligency Agency, April 1982, pp. 7-8. See also Edward L. Warner, III, Soviet Concepts and Capabilities for

  14. The Polish Air Force’s Conversion to the F-16: Emergence from the Soviet Legacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    system remains very much a part of the psyche of those who lived through it [77]. This expression applies quite accurately to the present air force... the syllabus ” [27]. This description of the Soviet pilot training environment goes a long way in explaining the performance of Soviet MiG-21 pilots... The Polish Air Force’s Conversion to the F-16: Emergence from the Soviet Legacy By Philip Cali WSISR/KE/MA/3/04/05

  15. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations, No. 7, July 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-UWE-87-011 ft SEPTEMBER 1987 314081 !■■■■■ AH r##i FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS tit Soviet Union WORLD ECONOMY...permission of the copyright agency of the Soviet Union . Permission for further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. SOVIET UNION WORLD...Vital Partnership’ (pp 139-141) (not translated) M. Korneyeva Review of ’Report of the Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development

  16. Soviet Perceptions of U.S. Antisubmarine Warfare Capabilities. Volume II. Analysis and Conclusions. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Countries Rear and Supply of the Combat Course of the Soviet Soviet Armed Forces Navy (1st, 2nd, and 3rd Technology and Armaments editions) World Economics...Military Knowledge We Are From the Nuclear-powered Shipbuilding Submarines Little Flame Aircraft Carriers and New Technology -Youth Helicopter Carriers...Shipbuilding (Dmitriyev) Technology and Armaments Aviation and Cosmonautics Soviet Warrior Communist Rear and Supply The qualitative content analysis involved a

  17. The prevalence of toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries.

    PubMed

    Sharov, Petr; Dowling, Russell; Gogishvili, Megi; Jones, Barbara; Caravanos, Jack; McCartor, Andrew; Kashdan, Zachary; Fuller, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Using a global database of contaminated sites, toxic hotspots in eight former Soviet countries were analyzed to identify the prevalence, types and sources of toxic pollution, as well as their associated potential public health impacts. For this analysis, polluted sites in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan were compiled and analyzed. The levels of contamination of seven key pollutants were assessed in each country. 424 contaminated sites were identified using data from Blacksmith Institute. Pesticides, lead (Pb), radioactive metals, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) were the most commonly identified key pollutants. Collectively, these sites pose health risks to an estimated 6.2 million residents. The existing data on toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries likely captures only a small percentage of actual contaminated sites, but suggests potentially severe public health consequences. Additional assessments are needed to understand the risks posed by toxic pollution in the region.

  18. Artificial satellite break-ups. I - Soviet ocean surveillance satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. L.

    1983-02-01

    An analysis of the breakup patterns of eight Soviet Kosmos series ocean surveillance satellites is presented. It is noted that half of the 4700 objects presently detected in earth orbit are shards from destroyed objects. The locations and heading of each Soviet satellite breakup were tracked by the Naval Space Survelliance System. All events in the eastern hemisphere occurred in the ascending phase, while western hemisphere breakups happened in the descending phase. Gabbard (1971) diagrams of altitude vs. period are plotted as a function of a fragment's orbital period. The diagrams have been incorporated into a NASA computer program to backtrack along the fragments' paths to determine the pattern of the breakup. Although objects have been projected to have separated from some of the satellites before breakup, a discussion of the evidence leads to the conclusion that even though the satellites may have exploded no purpose can yet be discerned for the actions.

  19. The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    2000-07-26

    During a period of some 23 years between 1965 and 1988, the Soviet Union's ''Program for the Utilization of Nuclear Explosions in the National Economy'' carried out 122 nuclear explosions to study and put into industrial use some 13 applications. In all, 128 explosives with yields ranging from 0.01 to 140 kt were used, with the vast majority being between 2 and 20 kt. Most peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the Soviet PNE Program were explored in depth with a number of tests, but unfortunately little has been reported on the technical results other than general outcomes. Two applications, deep seismic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle and the creation of underground cavities in salt for the storage of gas condensate, found widespread use, representing over 50% of all the explosions. Explosions to explore the technical possibilities of stimulating the production of oil and gas reservoirs accounted for an additional 17%.

  20. The Sino-Soviet Rivalry and Chinese Security Debate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    also garnered a large share of the state budget. Despite the serious disruption of the Chinese economy during the Cultural Revolution, PRC defense ex...Western Europe assume vital importance in Deng’s political calcula- tions. Deng has sought to justify these ties on the following bases: " Shared interests...earlier assertions of closely shared U.S.-Chinese interests. The Soviet leadership noted these signs of growing instability in U.S.-Chinese relations

  1. Soviet Policy Toward Western Europe Objectives, Instruments, Results.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    34declaratory measures." Kissinger recalls that at the May 1972 Mos- cow summit, Brezhnev told him that he regarded the joint declaration 65For background...the West German province of Schleswig- Holstein , thereby excluding the possibility that actions by Denmark and the other Nordic countries alone could...occurred with the onset of d6tente. In economic terms, the change in Western policy is probably seen in Mos- cow less as a "gain" for the Soviet Union than

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, Republic Language Legislation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    phonetics and grammar, takes into consideration the suggestions of the citizens of the republic and is called upon to promote the elimination of...state committees, departments, and ispolkoms of rayon and city Soviets of People’s Deputies To the extent necessary introduce suggestions to the...Ukrainian, it will be translated into Russian. Article 19. The Language of Procuratorial Oversight Acts of Ukrainian SSR procuratorial oversight will

  3. The Soviet Coup: A Command, Control, and Communications Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    sentiment in the non-Russian republics. ( Foye , 91, p. 12) d. Vladimir Aleksandrovich Kryuchkov Vladimir Kryuchkov was appointed as Chairman of the KGB by...in the KGB and MVD. ( Foye , 91, p. 14) d. Lt. Gen Yuri Plekhanov Chief of the KGB Security Service for Soviet Leaders, Plekhanov was an essential figure...Soldiers, nominally under the control of the coup leaders, repeatedly told reporters that they would not fire on civilians ( Foye , 91, p. 7). 4. August 20

  4. The Attentive Public for Soviet Science and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-05

    CiAUNiz PLh A A LU 2o iSis, o. 2- - Gerald Holton , Daniel Yankelovich and others dispute the validity of the concept of attentiveness which, they argue... James R. Millar, Principal Investigator. The analysis and interpretations In this study are those of the author, not necessarily of the sponsors...National Council of Soviet and East European Research to the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaiqn, James R. Millar, Principal Investiqator. The analysis

  5. Jinneography: Post-Soviet passages of traumatic exemplarity.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    While Russia has historically and geographically close ties with Islam, the second most-practiced religion in its vast territories, the collapse of the USSR changed the terms of this relationship in significant ways. One key shift is the emergence of new immigration patterns between Russia and former Soviet states. Traversing distant lands from the peripheries of the Caucasus and Central Asia to mainland Russia in search of work, migrants have come to recognize each other as fellow Muslims dispersed in a theological geography on the ruins of the universal comradeship dreamed by the Soviet utopia. I propose to study the Islamic pedagogical practice of ibra in the context of sociohistorical dynamics of education and migration between Russia and Central Asia to further locate and analyze this shift in relation to current debates on post-Soviet subjectivity. By discussing the case of a spirit possession of a Tajik national performed in Russia, I argue that the collective participation in the session pedagogically invokes, ciphers, and extends the post-Soviet terrains of history as ibra, or exemplary passage of worldly events. To do so, I first locate the Quranic concept of ibra as a pedagogical paradigm in Islamic traditions as well as an ethnographic lens in the context of educational campaigns for the Muslims of Eurasia and then apply the concept to my analysis of the possession session in order to show that in the ritualistic incarnations of ghosts, or jinns, the civil war of Tajikistan and its continuing cycle of terror is ciphered into a desire for learning, as well as a focus on approximation to the divine.

  6. The Soviet Academy of Sciences and Technological Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    institutions of the Academy system falling into the first group are designated " Big Science," those of the second group, "Little Science." These designations...Some Big Science institutes may be limited to work of local significance. The RSFSR, represented by the Academy of Sciences, USSR, forms the main...com- ponent of Big Science. However, the regional affiliates of the USSR Soviet Outlays on R&D in 1960 and 1968, The Rand Corporation, R-1207- DDRE

  7. The New Economic Togetherness: American and Soviet Reactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-12-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Charles Wolf, Jr., and Robert E. Klitgaard of the Rand staff have greatly con- tributed to this report by numerous and important...what the Soviets would have had to pay to other suppliers. "To permit wheat and forbid machine tools," C. P. Kindleberger observes, "makes no sense...service organizations abroad.ඁ For Ambassador Charles Bohlen "the domestic situation in a [communist] country tends to respond to trade by producing

  8. Application of Influence Diagrams in Identifying Soviet Satellite Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    ultimate goal of a manned landing and return to Earth. During 1988, the Soviets launched Mars probes Phobos 1 and Phobos 2. According to Krasnaya...Zvezda, as mentioned by Mr. Johnson, Phobos 1 was lost due to an attitude control failure. In orbit around Mars, Phobos 2 began rotating which degraded...return of samples from the Mars moon, Phobos , followed by a 1998 mission to conduct soil analyses of the planet through the use of rovers. 4.3.16 Launch

  9. The Soviet Nordic Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Proposal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Intelligence stated that, "The Soviet Union under Gorbachev is also paying increased attention to international proposals for naval arms controls and...American nuclear guarantee for many reasons, one being that NATO refuses to pay the price for substitutes. 4 0 "Nonnuclear Zones: Important Factor of...They do not want to destroy them. Success in the cold war a( nieves this. The hot war may lose all this and more too... the loss of Western Europe or

  10. Soviet Interests in Afghanistan and Implications upon Withdrawal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    to them, just as the politics of the Caribbean and Central American countries are to the United 17 States.’ Fred Halliday , commenting on the...pursuit of its foreign objectives. Fred Halliday says: Though the level has certainly increased in recent years, such an expansion in military capacity...importance, and its special set of values and traditions. 32 ENDNOTES . Fred Halliday , Soviet Policy in the Arc of Crisis, Institute for Policy Studies

  11. The Soviet Construction Sector: Implications for Recovery Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    and reorganization of the administration and management of construction activity has played a primary role in Soviet attempts to improve the...machinery and equipment.1 The three primary indicators for fulfillment by the general-contracting construction organization are commissioned...sought is a careful orchestration of planning, financing and incentive measures to insure that each participant in the process has an interest in optimal

  12. Post-Soviet transition: improving health services delivery and management.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Joseph; Phillips, Frank; Johnson, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    During the post-Soviet transition of the last 2 decades, ex-Communist countries of the Eastern Bloc, including eastern and central Europe, the Soviet Union, and its satellite and aligned states, have undergone major health system reforms. Many health systems of those countries--previously adopting a Soviet-type Semashko model--are currently called "in transition," as reform agendas, such as shifting to a Bismarck, Beveridge, or mixed financing scheme or adopting new health delivery management policies, are still in development. In this article, we first review common characteristics of Semashko health systems (the predominant health system of Communist countries during the Soviet era) and then discuss the "new public management" principles that ex-Communist countries have recently started to adopt with various degrees of success. We then illustrate experiences with these principles using 2 case studies, from Russia and Albania, and propose health policy options for both cases. Based on a review of the literature and on the our work experience in Russia and Albania, we found that the 2 ex-Semashko systems have not fully capitalized on expected positive outcomes of new public management principles due to low local healthcare financing levels, depreciated healthcare infrastructure and operational capacities, overlapping and contradicting ideology and policies of the former and newer health systems, and finally, lack of leadership that has successful experience with these principles. In the case of pharmaceutical pricing, reimbursement, and access in Russia, we show how a well-intentioned but suboptimally designed and managed pharmaceutical coverage scheme has suffered moral hazard and adverse selection and has adversely impacted the new public management promise of efficient medicine coverage. In the case of Albania, the delayed investment in human resource reform within a depreciated and underfinanced delivery system has adversely affected the implementation of new

  13. Nuclear energy safety challenges in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Fifteen nuclear reactors of the type that exploded at Chernobyl in April 1986 are still operating in Russia, Ukraine, and Lithuania. The West, concerned about safety of operations, wants these reactors shut down, but the host nations refuse. The electricity these reactors supply is nuch too important for their economies, so the argument goes. The report defines policy options and procedures to implement those options for the acceptable resolution of the nuclear power safety issues facing the former Soviet Union.

  14. National Dissent in the Soviet Union: The Crimean Tatar Case,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    expressed solidarity with the Crimean Tatar cause.A Members of the Soviet Intelligentsia, including such prominent dissidents as Andrei Sakharov , bad...become 9 sym~pathetic with the Movement. Sakharov , in fact, mentioned their situation twice in his famous Memorandum and later wrote a samizdat ("self...new implicatior for the theory of relativity.4 (It it also interesting to speciilate on the fact that Sakharov also was piesent at the Conference,42

  15. The ASPERA experiment on the Soviet Phobos spacecraft.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, R.; Hultqvist, B.; Olsen, S.; Pellinen, R.; Liede, I.; Zakharov, A.; Dubinin, E.; Pissarenko, N.

    ASPERA (Automatic Space Plasma Experiment with a Rotating Analyzer) is a three-dimensional plasma composition experiment for the Soviet mission to Mars and its moon Phobos in 1988 - 1989. Two spacecraft are targeted for a close flyby over the Phobos surface. ASPERA measures the composition of ions with energies 0.5 eV/e - 25 keV/e and electrons with energies 1 eV - 50 keV. The properties of the experiment are described in detail.

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union KOMMUNIST No 9, June 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. SOVIET UNION KOMMUNIST No 9i June 1987 [Translation of the Russian-language theoretical...for seed and marketing and their processing; rape production and processing; and reproduction of high-yielding dairy cow herd through transplantation...good weather conditions of past few years had hypnotized some managers at the oblast agroindustrial committee, the Lipetskagroplodoovoshchprom

  17. Student Reports in Soviet Military Doctrine and Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-30

    Mikhaylov) Fundamentals of the Theory of Troop Douglas E. Walker 114 Control (P.K. Altukhov, et al.) Civil Defense Steven A. White 120 (P.T. Yegorov...broadening "their outlook on military theory and solving problems related to the training and education of their subordinates" (p. xi). At times a very...the CPSU and the Soviet Armed Forces, Marxist-Leninist Military Theory -- to the not so expected -- The Fundamentals of Military Psychology and

  18. SINO-SOVIET RELATIONS AND ARMS CONTROL. JAPANESE ATTITUDES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Harvard University were jointly engaged in a research project on Sino-Soviet Relations and Arms Control under the sponsorship of the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Because of Japan’s growing role in Asia and her special concern with the problems of East Asia, it seemed important to understand Japanese perspectives on the issues upon which we were working. Consequently, a separate but related series of Japanese-American discussions in Japan was arranged on ’Problems

  19. Soviet Exploitation of the ’Nuclear Winter’ Hypothesis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-05

    to Shelyag, In the West, for instance, it is ciaimed that humanity, world civilization, vould perish in the event of such a war, that everything living...launched, 17then mankind would be completely destroyed." At other times Brezhnev suggested that in the event of a nuclear war, the future of mankind...casualties in the event of a nuclear attack. The Soviets, however, were clearly interested both in American studies of the consequences of a nuclear

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 3, February 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-05

    separate series: EKO: ECONOMICS § ORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION (UEO) THE WORKING CLASS f , THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD (UWC) PEOPLES OF ASIA $ AFRICA...of building socialism. Under the party’s leadership the Soviet people built socialism, defeated fascism in the Great Patriotic War, rebuilt and...plenum with total frankness, was that above all by virtue of subjective reasons the CPSU Central Committee and the country’s leadership were unable

  1. Managing U.S.-Soviet Relations in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    coming under as radical a restructuring as the economy and society, one that will sharply reduce force levels and transform their doctrinal orientation ...few indi- vidual and cooperative profit- oriented enterprises have actually been established; we have a reasonably good sense of the degree to which...structure of the Soviet Union. The West should seek to determine what Gorbachev’s millennial visions may mean, into what they may be concretely

  2. The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Allen

    1991-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

  3. The New Soviet Strategy in the Third World.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Rand Note reports other outputs of sponsored research for general distribution. Publications of The Rand Corporation do not neces- sarily reflect the...and economic instrumentalities. The general conclusions of this study are the following: The strategy that the Soviets have embarked on in the Third...on a "peaceful transition" to socialism. In general , this period was characterized by optimism regarding the eventual transition of the Third World to

  4. Bibliographic Index of Soviet Military Books, 1970-1974.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-31

    Dictionaries: Vital Work of Millions C0359 Linguistics in Military Affairs C0133 When Friends are Near C0382 7- Language Mil Dictionary CO011 Slang--What Is...title from the Russian language to English will differ among translators. Since transliterations are standard, the section listing the transliterated...are not written in the Russian language . Some are in the languages of the various minority ,;roups in the Soviet Union, such as Armenian, Estonian

  5. Soviet Counterinsurgency Operations in Afghanistan (1979-1988)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-29

    be maximized and if the enemy refuses to fight, target the economic lifelines of the society. Resistance must be crushed quickly, since long...mujahidin and the Afghan people. However, the Russians failed to recognize that technology is no substitute for strategy and will. In fact, maximizing ...cultural exchanges, summer camps in the U.S.S.R. for Afghan youth, and prizes to Afghans for art, literature, and poetry .41 The Soviets encountered

  6. The Economic Cost of Soviet Military Manpower Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    precision what the costs to the Soviet economy that stem from the curtailment of student deferments might be. One factor may be measured: skilled man...Hillinck performed valuable and skill - ful research assistance. Any remaining errors are the sole responsibil- ity of the author. CONTENTS PREFACE...ISSUES IN MILITARY MANPOWER DEM AND .............................. 38 The Demand for Skilled Manpower ............... .38 Effect of Manpower Drawoffs on

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 14, September 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    bureaucratic work style . Naturally, the situation was also affected by the residual principle in training trade union cadres: frequently people who were not...made members of a party or a soviet body were recom- mended for trade union committee membership. A bureaucratic style means not only a...dynamism of the progress of the Union, which obeys what I consider a universal law of uneven development. Redistribution relations, the paternalism of

  8. The Soviet Withdrawal from Eastern Europe: A Move in Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-15

    was forced to pay an injured private RlO,000 to compensate for such bullying . His story is probably typical: a sergeant beat the young serviceman... suicides ! 3 3 This remarkable number surely indicates Just how difficult conditions of service are for the Soviet citizen performing conscripted duty in the... teenagers of draft and predraft age last year. Some 44,000 of this grouo will join the army in 1990.46 The recruits of 1990 are said to be less

  9. The Trust: The Classic Example of Soviet Manipulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    impression: According to all available evidence, Yakushev produced an impression of great daring, energy and intelligence. Moreover he had considerable...than waste their energies in senseless acts of terror. Above all, they should wait until the Soviet regime was ready to collapse from within, avoiding...could sit up all night drinking brandy and discussing what he would do the next day. 3 And when the morrow came, he left the action to others. řBoris

  10. Soviet Muslim Policy: Domestic and Foreign Policy Linkages.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-30

    of the Muslim population threatens to bring them into direct competition with Slavic settlers in Central Asia for a limited number of desirable jobs...Ukranians and Belorussians. 2’ There are two serious implications of these trends. First, competition for local jobs, especially for the better paid ones... competition between Slavs and Muslims in Central Asia and will face the Soviet Union with a difficult problem of how to shift population resources to areas

  11. The Gauntlet Cast: Poland Challenges the Soviet Union.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    done by Brzezinski during the 1960’s as a 1osg-term plia being used by the US to undermine Soviet strength in the Eastern Bloc. 2 0 9 The US was not the...University Press, 195. Wandycz, Piotr S. aei tt s 1917-1921. Cambridge: Harvard niversity ress, . II. YEARBOOKS "Poland.:" The Euopa 11r2o, 1 !. London

  12. Soviet Naval Presence in the Mediterranean Versus United States Oil Interests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    posture and forces; Middle East international relations , oil exploration and exploitation; United States and Soviet needs, expenditures, consumption data, and foreign involvement in oil. (Modified author abstract)

  13. Rethinking the role of Soviet military power. Report for June 1990-June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, R.F.; Clark, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    This paper examines the changing role of the Soviet military and the military instrument in the Soviet system. It begins by identifying traditional Soviet foreign policy objectives and how they have changed under Gorbachev. In turn, these foreign policy shifts have played a part in redefining the role of the Soviet military. Changes in the General Staff's agenda are then examined, followed by an overview of the implications of the nationalities problem for the Soviet military. As the Soviet system faces a challenging time of change, the military must determine how it will participate in this change. This paper offers several alternative futures for the Soviet Union, with particular attention focused on the resultant alternative roles for Soviet foreign and security policy. This paper also argues that the security debates in the USSR, Eastern Europe, and Western Europe will all affect each other. Within the Soviet Union, the most important debate is the one between the Union and the Republics. The challenges for the West is to develop new approaches to our involvement in these security debates.

  14. Thermonuclear milestones: (2) Beginnings of the Soviet H-bomb program

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, G.A.

    1996-11-01

    Early Soviet theoretical work on thermonuclear ignition was adied by espionage, but many important ideas were conceived and developed independently {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. The Difficult Road to Mars: A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perminov, V. G.

    1999-01-01

    Perminov was the leading designer for Mars and Venus spacecraft at the Soviet Lavochkin design bureau in the early days of Martian exploration. In addition to competing with the U.S. to get to the Moon, the Soviets also struggled to beat the U.S. to Mars during the Cold War. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the Soviets attempted to send a number of robotic probes to Mars, but for a variety of reasons, most of these missions ended in failure. Despite these overall failures, the Soviets garnered a great deal of scientific and technical knowledge through these efforts. This monograph tells some fascinating, but little-known, stories.

  16. The Soviet-West European Energy Relationship: Implications of the Shift from Oil to Gas,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    late 197Us and early 1980s, as the expansion of oil pro- duction in the Soviet Union slowed down (to near zero growth in 1982), supply constraints on...ur -.er the terms of a bilateraL traae and clearig4 agreement). 15. From the outset* the Soviet union nas relied on materials, e uip- ment and...related, Cependence in Soviet-West European relations, We argue that the shift wiilL significantly increase the interdependence of the Soviet Union

  17. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2006-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  18. Globalization, marine regime shifts and the Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Österblom, Henrik; Folke, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Regime shifts have been observed in marine ecosystems around the world, with climate and fishing suggested as major drivers of such shifts. The global and regional dynamics of the climate system have been studied in this context, and efforts to develop an analogous understanding of fishing activities are developing. Here, we investigate the timing of pelagic marine regime shifts in relation to the emergence of regional and global fishing activities of the Soviet Union. Our investigation of official catch statistics reflects that the Soviet Union was a major fishing actor in all large marine ecosystems where regime shifts have been documented, including in ecosystems where overfishing has been established as a key driver of these changes (in the Baltic and Black Seas and the Scotian Shelf). Globalization of Soviet Union fishing activities pushed exploitation to radically new levels and triggered regional and global governance responses for improved management. Since then, exploitation levels have remained and increased with new actors involved. Based on our exploratory work, we propose that a deeper understanding of the role of global fishing actors is central for improved management of marine ecosystems.

  19. Mosaic of Digital Raster Soviet Topographic Maps of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The data contained in this publication include scanned, geographically referenced digital raster graphics (DRGs) of Soviet 1:200,000 - scale topographic map quadrangles. The original Afghanistan topographic map series at 1:200,000 scale, for the entire country, was published by the Soviet military between 1985 and 1991(MTDGS, 85-91). Hard copies of these original paper maps were scanned using a large format scanner, reprojected into Geographic Coordinate System (GCS) coordinates, and then clipped to remove the map collars to create a seamless, topographic map base for the entire country. An index of all available topographic map sheets is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. This publication also includes the originial topographic map quadrangles projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection. The country of Afghanistan spans three UTM Zones: Zone 41, Zone 42, and Zone 43. Maps are stored as GeoTIFFs in their respective UTM zone projection. Indexes of all available topographic map sheets in their respective UTM zone are displayed here: Index_UTM_Z41.pdf, Index_UTM_Z42.pdf, Index_UTM_Z43.pdf. An Adobe Acrobat PDF file of the U.S. Department of the Army's Technical Manual 30-548, is available (U.S. Army, 1958). This document has been translated into English for assistance in reading Soviet topographic map symbols.

  20. American press coverage of US-Soviet relations, the Soviet Union, nuclear weapons, arms control, and national security: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, W.A.; Manoff, R.K.; Weeks, J.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography covers work that addresses coverage of nuclear and arms control issues, defense, the Soviet Union, and Soviet-American relations by the American news media between 1965 and 1988. Material selected for inclusion either discusses press performance or addresses conditions -- such as classification of information -- that directly impact on media coverage of such issues. Bodies of literature on media coverage of conflict elsewhere in the world lie outside the Center's current mandate (which has shaped the parameters of this bibliography) except insofar as such conflicts are presented by the news media specifically in the context of US-Soviet relations. Much the same is true of such issues as the North-South flow of information and the debate over calls for a New World Information Order. However, the authors have decided to include assessments of American media coverage of the Vietnam War as a case study of a watershed conflict that raised many of the issues discussed throughout this literature in a particularly compelling way.

  1. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  2. 8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... § 1245.7 Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign...

  3. 8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... § 1245.7 Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign...

  4. 8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... § 1245.7 Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign...

  5. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2) Was inspected and granted parole into the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for Fiscal...

  6. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for Fiscal...

  7. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2) Was inspected and granted parole into the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for Fiscal...

  8. 8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... § 1245.7 Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign...

  9. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2) Was inspected and granted parole into the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for Fiscal...

  10. Education for Social Transformation: Soviet University Education Aid in the Cold War Capitalist World-System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Tom G.; Charon Cardona, Euridice

    2015-01-01

    International education is seen as an effective form of soft power. This article reviews one of history's largest and most ambitious attempts to achieve global influence through university education, and to reshape the world--the Soviet university aid program, 1956-91. Drawing on existing research and Soviet archival materials, we lay out and…

  11. Current Trends in Technology Education and Vocational Training in the Former Republics of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannatyne, Mark W. McK.

    The schools of the new republics in the former Soviet Union have begun to address the issue of reforms of technical and vocational education in order to train a technologically literate society that can meet the demands of the next century. Previously, Soviet schools failed to offer industrial arts and home economics on a universal scale. This…

  12. The Changing Soviet Priority Economy: Modeling the Conflict between Gold and the Sword,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    both exogenous and endogenous, nnd disequilibrium is implicit in the analysis of Rush Greenslade , who emphasized multiple opportunity c rts P- being a...SOVIET ECONOMY ..... 8 Greenslade Disequilibrium....................................8 Administrative Priorities................................. 10 III...ECONOMY GREENSLADE DISEQUILIBRIUM While aware of the many disequilibrium effects pervading the Soviet economy, few Western economists have addressed the

  13. Rediscovery of Silenced Inner Wisdom of Spirituality: Teachers' Voice in the Contemporary Post-Soviet Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belousa, Inga

    2008-01-01

    The former Soviet Union countries share a unique educational perspective, based on numerous issues to be rediscovered. The current reality in former Soviet countries occurs in the context of increased interest in the role of spirituality in democratic society, and the gradually emerging discussions and methodological solutions of spirituality…

  14. Soviet Education Programs: Foundations; Curriculums, Teacher Preparation. Bulletin, 1960, No. 17. OE-14037. [Chapter V - Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, William K.; Lindquist, Clarence B.; Schmitt, Marshall L.

    1960-01-01

    The continuing interest which American educators and other citizens have attached to Soviet schools and their development has served to encourage the U.S. Office of Education in its efforts to provide the most complete and verified information obtainable on the subject. As expressed in "Soviet Commitment to Education, Report of the First…

  15. The Rimland of Northeast Asia: A Study of Soviet Power Projection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    grasped (8:22). Do the Soviets see any validity in Spykman’s theory of global politics? Do they see NATO as a threat to be liquidated? Do they see China...now encircled by , Soviet Siberia to the north, and a militant Vietnam to the south. These two land bases form a pincer on China and, when combined

  16. Multilingualism in Post-Soviet Countries: Language Revival, Language Removal, and Sociolinguistic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    Since the post-Soviet context is not particularly well known to the majority of readers, the author uses this introduction to provide a general background against which developments in particular post-Soviet countries can be better understood. The author begins by placing these developments in the sociohistoric context of language policies of the…

  17. Learning from Each Other: A Meeting of U.S. and Soviet Children's Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Mary

    1990-01-01

    Describes a visit by American children's librarians to the Soviet Union for a formal colloquium on children's library services. The Soviet attitude toward children as reflected in the quality of facilities, services, and research is discussed, and the benefits of such cultural exchanges are stressed. (CLB)

  18. Astronauts from ASTP office at JSC with Soviet hosts after reception in USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A group of Astronauts from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) office at JSC are photographed with their Soviet hosts after attending a reception at the USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow. They are standing on the front steps of the scientific institution. The Americans were in the Soviet Union to take part in ASTP familiarization training at the Cosmonaut Training Center near Moscow.

  19. Calculations of upper-mantle velocity from published Soviet earthquake data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriquez, Robert G.

    1965-01-01

    The lack of information on mantle velocities and crustal structure of the U.S.S.R. has led to a preliminary examination of published Soviet earthquake bulletins in the hope of deriving useful velocity and structure information from the data they contain. Mantle velocities deduced from earthquake data on several Russian earthquakes are in excellent agreement with results of Soviet deep seismic sounding.

  20. American and Soviet Adolescent Archetypal Heroes of the Cold War. Professional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    This study explores the value-oriented behaviors associated with membership in prominent youth organizations in the Soviet Union and the United States of America during the Cold War. The archetypal heroic ideals and values of the Soviet Octoberists and Pioneers and the U.S. Boy Scout and Girl Scout organizations were examined. Key political,…

  1. The Soviet political campaign against the U. S. Strategic Defense Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis of this dissertation is that the Soviet political campaign against the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is designed to prevent the United States from deploying a ballistic missile defense (BMD) system capable of reducing the imbalance in U.S.-Soviet strategic nuclear force (SNF) vulnerabilities. The thesis is examined in two parts: (1) background on Soviet capabilities for political operations; and (2) the political campaign against SDI. The preferred Soviet objective in opposing SDI has remained for the U.S. to reach a decision on its own to suspend deployment of BMD, and to restrict and reduce the SDI research and development program. Soviet arms control proposals on SDI that asymmetrically affect U.S. and Soviet strategic defense programs are examined. U.S. concessions to extreme Soviet proposals have altered the original rationale for SDI. Rather than being a non-negotiable instrument to bring about a defense-dominant deterrence regime, SDI subsequently became insurance, after an agreement has been reached on reducing or eliminating ballistic missiles, against accidental or unauthorized launches. Finally, two case studies that impact SDI are examined. Soviet efforts to use the ABM Treaty interpretation dispute and violations issues to its advantage against SDI are considered.

  2. The Limits of Soviet Airpower: The Bear Versus the Mujahideen in Afghanistan, 1979-1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    Alexievich , Svetlana . Zinky Boys: Soviet Voices from the Afghanistan War. Translated by Julia and Robin Whitby. New York: WW Norton and Company... Alexievich , Zinky Boys. Soviet Voices from the Afghanistan War, trans. Julia and Robin Whitby (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1990): 18. 171Heinämaa

  3. The New Scientific-Methodological Concept of the Soviet School Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maksakovsky, Vladimir

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the new Soviet geography curriculum comprised of: Introduction to Physical Geography; Geography of the Continents and Oceans; Geography of the USSR; Geography of the USSR II; and Economic and Social Geography of the World. Discusses the program's scientific content and describes the trends of geography instruction in Soviet classrooms.…

  4. Making a New and Pliable Professor: American and Soviet Transformations in German Universities, 1945-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the history of American and Soviet transformations in German universities during the period of the Cold War, 1945-1990. Both American and Soviet policies were resisted by the university community, particularly by the conservative German professoriate, in both parts of the divided Germany. The article shows how and why both…

  5. Appendix: Elementary School Educational Methods of the Hunan-Kiangsi Provincial Soviet Cultural Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The primary source document from the Kiangsi Soviet period of Chinese communist history discusses general principles for the educational method of Soviet education in China during the early 1930's, with special emphasis on the specific teaching methods used for each of the courses at a Lenin primary school. (RM)

  6. Soviet objectives in the INF negotiations and European security. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgardner, H.J.

    1987-12-01

    On 12 December 1979, NATO officials announced the decision to deploy 108 Pershing II nuclear missiles and 464 Ground Launched Cruise Missiles, in response to the Soviet deployment of SS-20 nuclear missiles. The NATO decision was met by a determined Soviet effort to prevent the deployment of the new missiles. The Soviet effort consisted of negotiations, diplomatic propaganda, and covert measures. When it was clear that the deployment was not going to be stopped, the Soviets agreed to formal INF arms-reduction talks. It is this author's opinion that the Soviet negotiation tactics, during the INF talks, supported the long-range goal of reducing the military effectiveness of NATO, and also supported the goal of reducing U.S. influence in Europe.

  7. Technology and society: ideological implications of information and computer technologies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Weigle, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the impact of technology on the USSR's social system from the perspective of Soviet ideological development. The analysis of information and computer technologies within this framework de-emphasizes both modernization theories and those that assume unchallenged Communist Party control over technological development. Previous studies have examined the level of Soviet technological achievements and the gap between this level and those in the West, many referring to ideological boundaries of Soviet technological development without, however, systematically analyzing the resulting implications for the Soviet ideology of Marxism-Leninism. This study develops a framework for analyzing the impact of new technologies in the USSR in the fields of technology, ideology, and the scientific and technological revolution. On the basis of this framework, examination turns to the relevant Soviet theoretical and technical literature and debates among Soviety elites, concluding that the introduction of information and computer technologies and the organization of computer networks has exacerbated tensions in Soviety Marxism-Leninism.

  8. SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) and the Soviet defense burden. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, G.G.

    1988-12-01

    The Soviets' response to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) must be understood within the context of their deteriorating economic situation and need to modernize their economy. This Note evaluates the defense burden to the Soviets of both an offsetting and an emulation response to the U.S. SDI effort. The analysis is conducted within the context of General Secretary Gorbachev's modernization program, which is designed to increase the productivity of economic resources. The analysis suggests that the Soviets can partially offset a U.S. SDI effort with a ruble expenditure that is a small percentage of current defense spending. Although the Soviets may regard such a response as unsatisfactory, it is important to consider the striking contrast compared with the burden of an emulation response. The author hypothesizes, therefore, that the Soviets will choose not to directly emulate the U.S. SDI activities, at least until they have modernized their technical-economic base.

  9. Energy in Soviet Policy. A study of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Different estimates of future Soviet oil production are examined. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is generally viewed as having the most-pessimistic assessment, foreseeing a gradual decline. If the CIA is correct, Soviet-bloc countries may become net energy importers later in this decade. The added pressure on world oil prices could then increase our own inflationary problems. Reduced Soviet energy production may lessen its hold on eastern Europe and heighten its interest in Middle Eastern supplies. At the optimistic extreme, the Economic Commission of Europe foresees steady or possibly somewhat increased Soviet oil production throughout the 80s. If the Commission is correct, the US will face another set of challenges and opportunities. The Soviets would not add to existing demand on the world petroleum market, but an exportable surplus of oil and gas could give them a powerful diplomatic tool. 22 references. (DCK)

  10. Eastern Europe: Former Soviet Union, Humpty Dumpty still on its fall. [Petroleum and natural gas exploration and development in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Khartukov, E.M. ); Vinogradova, O.V.

    1993-08-01

    This paper reviews the oil and gas exploration and development activities in the former Soviet Union on a republic by republic basis. It gives figures on new well drilling activities (footage and numbers of new wells), locations of this activity, and production. The paper concentrates on the effects of the Soviet Union break-up on the availability of supplies and markets and the associated logistical headaches which resulted. The paper also briefly discusses activities in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, and Slovenia.

  11. Military Schools for Prospective Officers of the Soviet Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-31

    SCHOOLS4FOR IROSPECTIVE O’FICERS, OF TilE SOVIET MED FORCES DDC(, 1. ie i E II n - CAPTAIN JA MES- - G RU S ID501UDUTION s81.’ . Approved jot l Divtiumion...Ma~or 2 Gonoral WK ’Kre 01amalycsakia komandirikie -navyki, Voonnyl etlk o (1973), Pp. 57-58. 4 14400 orel N. Ar4litov and~ Captain Y., Ptamolo0...cosmopolitan mision (frequent ’foreign contacts), also are doing well In this field. eCf., Naval Captain L. Ufimtsev and Commander A.- I)t~Aktual’nyt zaclach

  12. Military Geography of the Sino-Soviet Border.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-31

    two segments of 4 IjI aproximatelv 1850 and 2300 miles (3080 and 3830 kilometers), separated In the central area by the Moscow-dominated Mongolian...area of extremely difficult tercain, Soviet occupation of Afghanistan adds another segment of the border toward which China must look with some...f undamentIal to aits namItionsil Interests and sec ur ity. REVIEW OF THE BORDER GEOGRAP ~HY It, dis-uxiss ing the horder geography from the mil11tarv

  13. Soviet developments of planet rovers in period of 1964 - 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemurdjian, A. L.; Gromov, V. V.; Kazhukalo, I. F.; Kozlov, G. V.; Komissarov, V. I.; Korepanov, G. N.; Martinov, B. N.; Malenkov, V. I.; Mitskevich, A. V.; Mishkinyuk, V. K.

    1993-01-01

    The history of Soviet planetary rovers, which were intended for work on the surface of planets and other heavenly bodies, is traced starting with Lunokhod 1, which was designed to survey the Moon. The equipment and methodology of ground tests which simulated lunar conditions--lunar vacuum, gravitation, and soil--are reported. Examples of planetary rovers which followed the Lunokhod program are given. These examples include machines of the following types: wheel walkers; machines that used skiing for locomotion; and two articulated modules. Planet rovers for Venus, Mars, and its satellite Phobos are addressed. The f ocus ison the performance of Marsokhod, the Mars rover.

  14. Soviet Material on Internal Wave Effects, No. 3, April 1975,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    KEY WORDS rCon..nu. on „v,,.. .. a . <’ ntc...;y *n* »*"•"» "Y "•«» ’"""’>"’ Internal Waves Capillary Waves Surface Signature Turbulent Flow...author index is apperded. DD I’JANVJ W3 EDITION OF 1 «r,w»«..c ooSOLETE » zmsm™™* SECURITY CL A ’.SIFICATION OF THIS PAGE ( E (»Jirn...Q a ü o INTRODUCTION This is the third collection of abstracts of recent Soviet articles on generation and detection of internal waves

  15. High-Energy Astrophysics. American and Soviet Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, Walter H. G. (Editor); Clark, George W. (Editor); Sunyaev, Rashid A. (Editor); Trivers, Kathleen Kearney (Editor); Abramson, David M. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the American-Soviet high energy astrophysics workshop, which was held at the Institute for Space Research in Moscow and the Abastumani Laboratory and Observatory in the republic of Georgia from June 18 to July 1, 1989, is presented. Topics discussed at the workshop include the inflationary universe; the large scale structure of the universe, the diffuse x-ray background; gravitational lenses, quasars, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs); infrared galaxies (results from IRAS); Supernova 1987A; millisecond radio pulsars; quasi-periodic oscillations in the x-ray flux of low mass X-ray binaries; and gamma ray bursts.

  16. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations.

  17. The Role of Women in the Soviet Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-15

    and guaranteed other women’s rights . All this is true. But things have worked out in such a way that, along with their undisputed gains, women still...Leosk, a Soviet women’s rights advocate, worries about the declining oirth rate. Her desire for women is that they had enough inner beauty for their...equal access to almost all occupations, established identical pay for equal work, and guaranteed other women’s rights ." 63 What is key in this statement

  18. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

  19. Estimates of Peacetime Soviet Naval Intentions: An Assessment of Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Moscow had embarked on a new naval policy "aimed at building up capabilities not only rfor nuclear (world) wars, but also for conventional (local) wars and... up to the present. In addition to this supposition that tv, Soviets have intentionally designed their fcrcen for traditionol diploqiatil power...given 4or SoVitte arshp v111ii .. a& 06tt" call Is ptoably -ie todat . tot Call priedits ago bettet thaae rei ctst In adition tb nob~re eaptft i t

  20. The political economy of oil in post-Soviet Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omarova, Saule Tarikhovna

    This dissertation examines the way in which the Kazakhstani state redefined its role in managing oil and gas resources between 1992 and 1998. The governments of hydrocarbon-rich post-Soviet republics such as Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan faced the common challenge of restructuring their petroleum industries to boost the export of oil and gas. This study argues that by 1998 three patterns have emerged, ranging from a more radical state retrenchment in Russia, to reinforced state monopoly in Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, to a "mixed" pattern of state participation in Kazakhstan, consisting of both large-scale privatization of oil assets and the formation of a fully state-owned national oil company, Kazakhoil. This dissertation analyzes the process of restructuring Kazakhstan's oil sector through comparison with the Russian petroleum industry. In Russia, several private, vertically integrated oil companies (VICs) were formed on the basis of existing oil-producing units and soon emerged as essential players in the Russian oil sector. By contrast, Kazakhstan's marginalized status within the Soviet system of oil production resulted in the absence of organizationally strong sectoral interests capable of claiming control over the industry after the independence. Privatization of Kazakhstan's oil enterprises, conducted by the government in spite of the resistance from local oil managers, transferred controlling stakes to foreign investors and further weakened domestic oil interests. Unencumbered state autonomy allowed the increasingly authoritarian Kazakhstani government to adopt relatively modern and investor-friendly petroleum legislation by decree. In Russia, the government's efforts to reform oil-related legislation were blocked by the leftist-dominated Duma, the democratically elected lower chamber of the Russian parliament. On the basis of these findings, this dissertation concludes that the dynamics of state withdrawal from the oil sector in post-Soviet

  1. History of the terror of the communist regime of the Soviet Union in relation to doctors of Soviet Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Hanitkevych, Yoroslav

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents information about the victimization of doctors, medical scientists and the staff of scientific and medical schools of soviet Ukraine, during the years from 1919 to 1953. It includes details of 622 doctors who were persecuted, of whom 142 were shot and 337 were deported to concentration camps. It describes the repression of Ukrainian medical scientists, of whom nearly 50 were arrested and 7 were shot. It also gives details of the "Doctors' Plot" of 1952-53, which was initiated by Stalin.

  2. Impact of GRM: New evidence from the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnutt, M.

    1985-01-01

    Gravity information released by the Soviet Union allows the quantitative assessment of how the geopotential research mission (GRM) mission might effect the ability to use global gravity data for continental tectonic interpretation. The information is of an isostatic response spectra for eight individual tectonic units in the USSR. The regions examined include the Caroathians, Caucasus, Urals, Pamirs, Tien-Shan, Altal, Chersky Ridge, and East Siberian Platform. The 1 deg x 1 deg gravity data are used to calculate the admittances are used in two different sorts of tectonic studies of mountain belts in the USSR: (1) interpretation of isostatic responses in terms of plate models of compensation for mountainous terrain. Using geologic information concerning time of the orogeny, lithospheric plates involved, and polarity of subduction in collision zones, they convert the best-fitting flexural rigidity to an elastic plate thickness for the lithospheric plate inferred to underlie the mountains; the isostatic admittance functions is an attempt to directly model gravity and topography data for a few select regions in the Soviet Union. By knowing the value of the expected correlation between topography and gravity from the admittances, the Artemjev's map in mountainous areas can be calibrated, and the maps are converted back to Bouguer gravity. This procedure is applied to the Caucasus and southern Urals.

  3. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  4. Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and The Space Race, 1945-1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, Asif A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is, in essence, sixteen years in the making. First attempted to compile a history of the Soviet space program in 1982 author put together a rough chronology of the main events. A decade later, while living on a couch in a college friend's apartment, he began writing what would be a short history of the Soviet lunar landing program. The first draft was sixty-nine pages long. Late the following year, he decided to expand the topic to handle all early Soviet piloted exploration programs. That work eventually grew into what you are holding in your hand now.

  5. Soviet measurements of strategic balance and arms control. Sanitized. Technical report, 1 April 1984-30 September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, J.K.; Battilega, J.; Bennett, S.; Summers, M.

    1986-04-21

    This sanitized report concludes that, although the requirements and concerns of the Soviet military are not the only factors that influence the positions that the Soviet arms control negotiators offer, it is unlikely that the Soviet Union will agree to arms control provisions that measurably reduce the ability of the military forces of the Soviet Union to fulfill the requirements for military capability that are formally levied through military doctrine. Topics include: Elements of the Soviet view of the strategic balance -- The Soviet framework for assessing military adequacy, Strategic missions of the Soviet armed forces, Measurements of the correlation of forces, and Assessment of mission adequacy; Some implications of the Soviet assessment methods for arms control -- Limiting the rate of change of the threat, Prevent introduction of new kinds of systems, Maintain freedom to determine mix of delivery systems, Strive to define the framework for the negotiations consistent with the Soviet planning framework, Try to get and increase in the warning of enemy actions, and Minimize the intrusiveness of verification methods; Some major changes in the threat that impact Soviet assessments -- The principal changes since 1982, Pershing II and GLCM deployments, Long-range ALCM, ICBM modernization, and The Militarization of Space.

  6. Carbon in the Former Soviet Union: The Current Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodwell, G. M.; Stone, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    This work has been carried out in a period of great changes in Russia that have brought extreme hardships to the scientific community. We have been fortunate in establishing excellent relationships with the Russian scientific community and believe we have helped to retain coherence in circumstances where the continuation of research was in doubt. We have learned much and have been effective in advancing, even establishing, scholars and programs in Russia that might not otherwise have survived the transition. The vigor of the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA) is one sign of the value and success of these activities. Largely due to the current political and economic transitions in the former Soviet Union, the forests of much of the FSU are under reduced logging pressure. In addition, there is a decline in air pollution as heavy industry has waned, at least for now. Russian forestry statistics and our personal experience indicate a decline, perhaps as high as 60%, in forest harvesting over the last few years. But, new international market pressures on the forests exist in European Russia and in the Far East. The central government, still the "owner" of Russian forests, is having difficulty maintaining control over forest use and management particularly in the Far East and among the southern territories that have large, nonRussian ethnic populations. Extraordinarily large areas of mixed forest and grasslands, sparse or open forests, and mixed forests and tundra must be considered when calculating forest area It is insufficient to think of Russia as simply forest and nonforest Forest productivity, measured as growth of timber, appears to be in decline in all areas of Russia except in European Russia. Most information and publications on the recent history of these forests is heavily dependent on statistical data from the Soviet era. The interpretation of these data is very much open to debate. Anatoly Shwidenko, a long term collaborator and former

  7. Bosnian and Soviet refugees' experiences with health care.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Juliene G; Weinstein, Harvey M; Gladstone, Eleanor A; Sarnoff, Rhonda H

    2003-11-01

    Studies of refugees in the United States rarely address health the first few years following resettlement in part because the refugees become subsumed under the foreign-born or immigrant category. A national study reaffirmed the so-called healthy immigrant effect, but fewer sick days and less physician use may actually reflect access problems, economic concerns, and health beliefs or practices that clash with American health care. Because statistics may mask differences in health and why people seek professional care, it is important to combine qualitative and quantitative approaches. This study examined health, illness, and health care use patterns of refugees in Northern California using a database analysis, a medical record review, and an ethnographic study of the Bosnian and former Soviet Union refugee communities. This article describes some ethnographic findings from participant observation, semistructured interviews, and focus groups, with an emphasis on people's experiences with health care, health risk behaviors, and self-care.

  8. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D. )

    1993-04-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs.

  9. The 1988 earthquake in soviet armenia: implications for earthquake preparedness.

    PubMed

    Noji, E K

    1989-09-01

    An earthquake registering 6.9 on the Richter scale hit the northern part of the Armenian Republic of the Soviet Union on 7 December 1988, resulting in thousands of deaths and injuries. The majority of these resulted from the collapse of inadequately designed and constructed buildings. Analysis of the effects of the Armenian earthquake on the population, as well as of the rescue and medical response, has strong implications for earthquake preparedness and response in other seismically vulnerable parts of the world. Specifically, this paper will recommend a number of important endeavours deemed necessary to improve medical planning, preparedness and response to earthquakes. Strengthening the self-reliance of the community in disaster preparedness is suggested as the best way to improve the effectiveness of relief operations. In earthquake-prone areas, training and education in basic first aid and methods of rescue should be an integral part of any community preparedness programme.

  10. Space radiation dosimetry on US and Soviet manned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Benton, E. V.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation measurements obtained on board U.S. and Soviet spacecraft are presented and discussed. A considerable amount of data has now been collected and analyzed from measurements with a variety of detector types in low-Earth orbit. The objectives of these measurements have been to investigate the dose and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra within the complex shielding of large spacecraft. The shielding modifies the external radiation (trapped protons, electrons, cosmic ray nuclei) which, in turn, is quite dependent on orbital parameters (altitude, inclination). For manned flights, these measurements provide a crew exposure record and a data base for future spacecraft design and flight planning. For the scientific community they provide useful information for planning and analyzing data from experiments with high sensitivity to radiation. In this paper, results of measurements by both passive and active detectors are described. High-LET spectra measurements were obtained by means of plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's) while thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) measured the dose.

  11. The Soviet-American gallium experiment at Baksan

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, A. I.; Abdurashitov, D. N.; Anosov, O. L.; Danshin, S. N.; Eroshkina, L. A.; Faizov, E. L.; Gavrin, V. N.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Knodel, T. V.; Knyshenko, I. I.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Mezentseva, S. A.; Mirmov, I. N.; Ostrinsky, A. I.; Petukhov, V. V; Pshukov, A. M.; Revzin, N. Ye; Shikhin, A. A.; Slyusareva, Ye. D.; Timofeyev, P. V.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Vermul, V. M.; Yantz, V. E.; Zakharov, Yu.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Zhandarov, V. I.

    1990-01-01

    A gallium solar neutrino detector is sensitive to the full range of the solar neutrino spectrum, including the low-energy neutrinos from the fundamental proton-proton fusion reaction. If neutrino oscillations in the solar interior are responsible for the suppressed {sup 8}B flux measured by the Homestake {sup 37}Cl experiment and the Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector, then a comparison of the gallium, chlorine, and water results may make possible a determination of the neutrino mass difference and mixing angle. A 30-ton gallium detector is currently operating in the Baksan laboratory in the Soviet Union, with a ratio of expected solar signal to measured background (during the first one to two {sup 71}Ge half lives) of approximately one. 28 refs.

  12. The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

  13. Astronomy and astronomical education in the FSU (Former Soviet Union)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, Nikolai G.

    The current situation in astronomy and astronomical education over the territory of the Former Soviet Union is traced. New facilities for radioastronomy are being put into work - the most important of them being the 2 coupled 32-m dishes, VLBI network "Quasar"; a number of observatories are acquiring an international status (in the frame of CIS); INTERNET is becoming available for an increasing number of astronomical institutions. Azerbaijan astronomers have overcome their isolation from the rest of the world and cooperate actively with the astronomical community. All-Russia and international olympics in astronomy for high school students are held and attract participants from increasing number of regions of Russia and other states. The outcome of the 9th JENAM in Moscow and of the events attached to the Meeting is presented.

  14. Climate and the Soviet Grain Crisis of 1928

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, Jean Edward

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation tests the premise that peasant hoarding of surplus grain supplies and the refusal of the rural Soviet peasants to sell grain to state procurement apparatus during the late New Economic Policy period, caused the Grain Crisis of 1928. The peasants' reluctance to sell grain and claims of peasant hoarding could only occur if sufficient grain surpluses existed during this period. The existence of these assumed grain surpluses is shown to be highly improbable. First, the large but inconsistent body of 1920s grain statistics was evaluated per se and related to two periods of pre-WWI data, the Witte and Stolypin years, on a practical comparison whenever possible. For both these pre-World War I periods, intensive links between rapid industrialization and agriculture had been established similar to the conditions of the 1920s. The climatic conditions of the two imperial and one Soviet period in the 1920s, especially drought in 1927, was analyzed, and its impact on grain production estimated and interpreted. The conclusion was reached that the cause of drop in grain production in 1927 was due to a long-term and persistent trend of regional drought affecting spring wheat yields, especially in the areas of the Middle Volga and Kazakhstan. Second, the resultant conclusion was reached that there was insufficient bread grain on a national basis in 1927 to meet the essential needs of the rural peasants, much less the increasing demands of the government procurements. Third, the government's 1927 policy of monopolizing all available "surpluses" on the grain market under the false assumption that these surpluses were abundant, demonstrated either naivete and incompetence, or political expediency. This monopolization contributed to a breakdown in the marketing distribution of available grain, and generally exacerbated the poor procurement situation which was publically and incorrectly blamed on the peasants' hoarding.

  15. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-07-24

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  16. [Analysis of patenting vaccine-serum preparations in the Soviet Union].

    PubMed

    Shepelev, N P; Dzagurov, S G; Korovkin, V I

    1976-11-01

    Patenting practice of vaccine-serum preparations in the Soviet Union is not uniform. A compelx maintenance of the object, i.e. patenting of the preparation proper and the method of its production is of interest.

  17. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis in prisons located in former Soviet countries: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background A systematic literature review was performed to investigate the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in prisons located in countries formerly part of the Soviet Union. Methods A systematic search of published studies reporting MDR TB occurrence in prisons located in former Soviet countries was conducted by probing PubMed and Cumulative Index Nursing and Allied Health Literature for articles that met predetermined inclusion criteria. Results Seventeen studies were identified for systematic review. Studies were conducted in six different countries. Overall, prevalence of MDR TB among prisoners varied greatly between studies. Our findings suggest a high prevalence of MDR TB in prisons of Post-Soviet states with percentages as high as 16 times more than the worldwide prevalence estimated by the WHO in 2014. Conclusion All studies suggested a high prevalence of MDR TB in prison populations in Post-Soviet states. PMID:28334036

  18. Space activities in the Soviet Union, Japan, and the People's Republic of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezell, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    The space programs of the Soviet Union, Japan, and China are discussed. The types of launch vehicles they used and the classes of spacecraft they launched are examined. The political motivations of these nations are analyzed.

  19. Banning the Soviet Lobotomy: Psychiatry, Ethics, and Professional Politics during Late Stalinism.

    PubMed

    Zajicek, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how lobotomy came to be banned in the Soviet Union in 1950. The author finds that Soviet psychiatrists viewed lobotomy as a treatment of "last resort," and justified its use on the grounds that it helped make patients more manageable in hospitals and allowed some to return to work. Lobotomy was challenged by psychiatrists who saw mental illness as a "whole body" process and believed that injuries caused by lobotomy were therefore more significant than changes to behavior. Between 1947 and 1949, these theoretical and ethical debates within Soviet psychiatry became politicized. Psychiatrists competing for institutional control attacked their rivals' ideas using slogans drawn from Communist Party ideological campaigns. Party authorities intervened in psychiatry in 1949 and 1950, persecuting Jewish psychiatrists and demanding adherence to Ivan Pavlov's theories. Psychiatrists' existing conflict over lobotomy was adopted as part of the party's own campaign against harmful Western influence in Soviet society.

  20. Mutations in Soviet public health science: post-Lysenko medical genetics, 1969-1991.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    This paper traces the integration of human genetics with Soviet public health science after the Lysenko era. For nearly three decades, USSR biology pursued its own version of anti-bourgeois, Soviet 'creative Darwinism', departing from western, post-WWII scientific developments. After Lysenko was suspended, research niches of immunology, biophysics and mutation research formed the basis of new departments at the Institute of Medical Genetics, which was founded in 1969 as part of the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences. Focussing on early research activities and collaborations at the institute, I show how the concept of mutagenesis, a pivotal issue during the Cold War, became mobilized from Drosophila genetics to human heredity and to society as a whole. This mode of scaling up and down through population studies shaped not only Soviet human biology and genetics; it also brought about changes in clinical practice and public health as well as in the monitoring and regulation of mutagenic agents in the environment.

  1. Observations of the snow cover in the southern part of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefedeva, Y. A.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the snow cover, as a function of various natural factors, in sectors of the southern part of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic were examined. The thawing process is also discussed.

  2. Threat and opportunity: the Soviet view of the Strategic Defense Initiative. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Uchrinscko, K.W.

    1986-12-01

    The Soviet response to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) during the period March 1983 through November 1985 provided indications of their view of the program both as a threat and as an opportunity to weaken NATO. The SDI is seen not only as a threat to the physical security of the Soviet Union but as part of an effort by the United States to seize the strategic initiative by neutralizing the military component of Soviet strategy. A major objective of that strategy is the political separation of Western Europe from the United States, which the Soviets sought to facilitate by aggravating allied concern over the SDI's potential implications for European security and economic interests.

  3. Soviet Pedagogical Research: Classroom Studies: 1. Cognitive Theories of Development and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Janice T.

    1980-01-01

    Soviet teaching experiments, based on the research of P. Ia. Galperin and of V. V. Davydov, are described, in which children are taught abstract concepts before they are provided with concrete examples. (GDC)

  4. T/sup 2/ high-technology transfer to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states; a public policy issues: an analysis of the loss of American high technology to the Soviet bloc, and methods to be employed by the United States government in overcoming this problem

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, W.H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Loss of American high technology to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states has become a significant problem in the US. The Soviet Union enjoys quantitative military superiority over the US. The US on the other hand, has opted to maintain the balance of power through advanced high-technology military systems. This qualitative lead has been eroded, however, by Soviet successes in their high-technology transfer (T/sup 2/) program. This study examines the question of high-technology transfer to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states in terms of the following: (1) significance of this problem to the US; (2) how the Soviets acquire American high technology; (3) how acquisition of American high technology assists the Soviet Union; (4) what the US government is doing to reduce Soviet T/sup 2/ efforts; and (5) the author's recommendations to enhance the US program to control high-technology transfer. The author offers several suggests to deal with this problem, including: establishment of ad hoc matrix organization, with representatives from both the public and private sectors; privatization of government tasks connected with the T/sup 2/ issue, e.g., the conduct by the private sector of background investigations on individuals working on classified military contracts; evaluation of the current Coordinating Committee (COCOM) agreement to treaty status; reduction of the number of items on American export control lists; and the reduction of Soviet diplomatic representation in the United States.

  5. Nuclear Accidents in the Former Soviet Union: Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk and Chernobyl

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    in the Former Soviet Union: Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk and Chernobyl DNA/AFRRI 4020 *. AUTHORIS) Daniel L. Collins, Ph.D. Lt Col, USAF lE L E T E 1...sJ Three nuclear accidents besides Chernobyl have occurred in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The accidents occurred over the geographic area around...enviromental chemicals. 94,1 126 14. SUBJECT TERMS 16. NUMBER OF PAGES Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk, Chernobyl , REM, human, psychological 0 radiation 90Sr, Curies

  6. Defeated by a MAZE: The Soviet Economy and Its Defense-Industrial Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Note, principles drawn from the history of economic thought are related to some of the key features of Russian and Soviet history to define and...adequately reflected. In this Note, principles drawn from the history of economic thought are related to some of the key features of Russian and...Alec, " History , Political Culture , and Economics in the Soviet Union," Economics and Politics in the USSR: Problems of Interdependence, Hans-Hermann

  7. Research and Analytical Evaluation of the Soviet Union and Modernization of Nuclear Weapons Forces in Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Soviet Freedom of Action .. .......... 66 D. Seeking to Nip in the Bud ... .......... 68 E. Direct Focus on the Flexible Options Issue . . 71 F. Flexible...the use of military force. D. SEEKING TO NIP IN TIE BUD Far more revealinki than direct commentaries of the nature, depth, and ramifications of Soviet...particular, it has emphasized that it will nc , be possible to limit any nuclear conflict to Europe or to avoid escala - tion to the point of a strategic

  8. Attitudes of Major Soviet Nationalities. Volume IV. Central Asia. Kazakhstan, Kirgizistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-06-01

    the seizure of power by the Russian-dominated Tashkent Soviet. The excursions into the kishlaks by armed Soviet forces in search of food and booty...the raising of technical crops, like cotton, sugar beets, fiber plantsand opium, and of food crops, such as grain, has also become significant. 5...central newspapers in Kirgizia in January 1973. This figure is one and a half times the press runs of all re- public papers in Kirgizia. Kiosk sales are

  9. The Impact of the Soviet Military Presence in the Arctic Region on Norwegian Security Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    option of Soviet strategy in an international crisis as much as in war."ll Edward Warner III, writing in a paper for the U.S. Airforce and the Rand...Lund, Don’t Rock the Boat: Reinforcing Norway in Crisis and War, (1989): 24. 3 Edward L. Warner III, The Defense Policy of the Soviet Union, (1989...Defense expert Edward Hooton listed the Norwegian military objectives in 1984 as: - Contribute to the prevention of war - Secure peace in the

  10. Conflict or Consensus: East Germany, the Soviet Union and Deutschlandpolitik 1958-1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    the current situation as it has developed in the German Question is staggering". rRef. 62: P. 1143 Furthermore, as ... Wilhelm Bruns has claimed in his...stable leadership condition to develop. This, according to Carl A. Linden, accounts in part "for the stormy and dynamic quality of Soviet politics in the...negotiations. Domestic political differences put off the final negotiations between West German Foreign Minister Scheel and Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko

  11. Soviet Readiness for War: Assessing one of the Major Sources of East-West Instability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Douglas MacEachin, Director of Soviet Analysis , Central Intelli- gence Agency; Mr. John J. Bird, Chief of Regional Issues Group, Central...wartime readiness. They also lead directly to development of strategies such as Follow-On Forces Attack ( FOFA ), which is directed at disrupting...activities that are essential before they can consider conducting their "counter offensive." Mr. MacEachin, Di- rector of Soviet Analysis , Central

  12. Logistics: The Soviets’ Nemesis to Conventional War in Central Europe?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    OTIC FILE COPY" AIR WAR COLLEGE InN4 RESEARCH REPORT LOGISTICS: THE SOVIETS’ NEMESIS TO ICONVENTIONAL WAR IN CENTRAL EUROPE? LT COL GILBERT H...explosive, conventional weapons. (8:74) Publications addressing a conventional war in a European scenario have also increased notably. Research ...weaknesses of Soviet logistical capabilities to sustain maneuver war- fare. Accepting the fact that time is a restricting fac- tor to the research

  13. Soviet Negotiating Techniques in Arms Control Negotiations with the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    LIST OF CHARTS viii.......... Chapter I. INTRODUCTION .. ........ II. REVIEW OF LITERSTURE. . ...... 7 Overview........... 7 Authors’ Attitude Toward...Soviet negotiating techniques. The term "techniques" is used here in the broadest sense. It includes the specific negotiations and the attitudes held...traditional analytical approach is used. The negotiations will be divided into chronologi- cal periods based on the Soviet attitude toward reaching an

  14. Analysis of Energy Resources and Programs of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Appendix B. Coal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-12-01

    coal basin, Tunguska , is farther to the west from the Lena Basin. A total of about 1.700 billion tons of coal resources are estimated to occur in...Yukutsk Karaganda Ekibastuz Maikyuben Hbanansk Conkra] Asia Tunguska Lena Taimyr Total ] Soviet Estimated SRI Estimated Balance Reserves...tiiose from Soviet sources. In this category arc the large remote basins of Tunguska , Lena, and Taimyr. These basins are least well-known, and the

  15. The Effects of Soviet Army Communications Jamming on the AIM Division Signal Battalion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-06

    computer based technical analyses of the effectiveness of the Soviet radioelectronic combat threat on division level communica- tions is presented...A technical analysis of the communications 4 t~-I Jamming 4 jamming threat versus the AIM division signal battalion is discussed to analyze the... technical analysis of Soviet communications jamming capabilities to interfere with and impede the AIM division signal battalion communications systems

  16. U.S. Russian Cooperation Can Reduce Nuclear Risks of Soviet Breakup,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Welcome Mat forThem," TheWall Street Journal, February 3,1992, p. A14. 6 Kurt Campbell, Ashton B. Carter, et al., Soviet Nuclear Fission: Control of...15,1992. 4 Van Evera, op. cit. p. 2. 5 See Geralt F. Seib and John J. Fialka, "Scientists of Former Soviet Union Find the U.S. Slow in Putting Out the

  17. SOVIET ECONOMY: Assessment of How Well the CIA Has Estimated the Size of the Economy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of the final goods and services that it produces annually. Western efforts to estimate Soviet GNP have been hampered by flaws in Soviet economic ...are separated by a large gap—further illustrating the difficulty in com- paring nations with very different economic structures. Even prior to the...more accurate, and perhaps ultimately less nec- essary. The current dramatic move toward political and economic reform could further affect the

  18. Exploiting ’Fault Lines’ in the Soviet Empire: An Overview,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    against the Soviet Premier. Similarly, in the early 1970s, Ukrainian leader Piotr Shelest is reported to have made common cause with East European leaders...well. Zbigniew Brzezinski concluded that a Soviet intervention would have produce[d] a rupture in the political detente in Europe, disrupt[ed] East...have led] to overt American-Chinese military cooperation. .2 12 Zbigniew Brzezinski , Power and Principle, Farrar, Straus, Giroux, • I "..r

  19. Soviet Union and nuclear proliferation: policy at a crossroads. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Rigby, R.L.

    1988-04-02

    The Soviet Union has been a major participant of the regime of nations dedicated to limiting the spread of nuclear weapons. Since the early 1960's the Soviet Union has worked closely with the United States to limit nuclear proliferation. In no other area of international relations have the stated goals of the two superpowers been more closely aligned. Recent events indicate that the Soviet Union has parted from the original intent of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and of the International Atomic Energy Association nuclear safeguards and has begun assisting nations that are not participants of the non-proliferation regime. While not specifically calling for a revision of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, the Soviet Union has unilaterally assisted in the spread of nuclear technology to nations that have refused to become members of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. This assistance is examined in the context of the overall Soviet nuclear nonproliferation policy or simply placing political goals above that of international agreements is examined. The paper concludes that the Soviet Union will use nuclear technology as a tool to further its strategic goals.

  20. Energy conservation: The main factor for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Bashmakov, I.A.; Chupyatov, V.P.

    1991-12-01

    The energy intensity of the former Soviet Union is more than twice that of other market economics in similar stages of economic development. Low energy efficiency in the Soviet Union has contributed significantly to global carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions. The technological potential for energy conservation in the former Soviet Union is the largest in the world. The inefficiencies of the previously command-system economy, however, have provided little incentive for conserving energy. The present transition to a market-based economy should encourage the incorporation of energy-efficiency improvements in order for the former Soviet Union to successfully lower its energy intensity. There are several obstacles that limit implementing energy conservation: for example, energy prices and discount rates influence the volume of investment in energy efficiency. Nevertheless, cost-effective measures for energy conservative do exist even in the most energy-intensive sectors of the Soviet economy and should form the core of any energy conservation program. The overall cost-effective potential for carbon savings in the former Soviet Union is estimated to be 280 to 367 million tons of carbon per year by the year 2005, or 23 to 29 percent of 1988 energy-related emissions.

  1. The Influence of Soviet and American Political Culture on Negotiating Positions: The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force Case.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    AD-Ri42 990 THE INFLUENCE OF SOVIET AND AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTURE 1/2 ON~ NEGOTIATING POS..(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA W R BLACKBURN...SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC 0f JUL1 3ŕ H THESIS THE INFLUENCE OF SOVIET AND AMERICAN POLITICA CULTURE ON NEGOTIATING POSITIONS: THE INTERMEDIATE...4. TITL.E (and Sublto) S. TYPE[ OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The Influence of Soviet and American Master’s Thesis Political Culture on Negotiating

  2. International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Tompson, A F B

    2003-07-27

    The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10{sup 7} TBq (6.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the historical activities of

  3. Culture and the environment in the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1985-03-01

    The Soviet Union is one of the most physically and culturally diverse nations on earth. Its natural environment embraces a rich variety of resources and ecosystems, many of which, such as Lake Baikal, are of world significance. Culturally, it is comprised of over a hundred ethnic groups, belonging to eight major language groups and six major religions. However, two cultures are dominant: the Slavic group (which takes in 75% of the USSR population and 80% of its land area) and the Turkic-Islamic peoples who account for the large majority of the remainder. Owing to the highly centralized nature of the country's political-administrative system, however, the effect of culture or ethnic traditions in the resolution of national environmental issues is quite small. Major decisions regarding either specific conservation issues or basic environmental policies are made at the centralized level by ministerial, planning, and Communist Party officials, and are based on pragmatically refined ideological considerations, rather than on regional cultural attitudes. This pragmatic refining of ideological considerations will involve the weighing of specific economic and environmental imperatives, and deciding on appropriate trade-offs. To find cultural expression in environmental management, one would need to look closely at local projects and approaches in the various ethnic regions, particularly the non-Slavic ones.

  4. US experiment flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1667

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Two male young-adult rhesus monkeys were flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1667 for seven days from July 10-17, 1985. Both animals were instrumented to record neurophysiological parameters. One animal, Gordyy, was additionally instrumented to record cardiovascular changes. Space capsule and environmental parameters were very similar to those of previous missions. On Cosmos 1514, which flew for five days in 1983, one animal was fitted with a left carotid artery cuff to measure blood pressure and flow velocity. An additional feature of Cosmos 1667 was a postflight control study using the flight animal. Intermittent postural tilt tests were also conducted before and after spaceflight and synchronous control studies, to simulate the fluid shifts associated with spaceflight. The experiment results support the conclusion derived from Cosmos 1514 that significant cardiovascular changes occur with spaceflight. The changes most clearly seen were rapid initial decreases in heart rate and further decreases with continued exposure to microgravity. The triggering mechanism appeared to be a headward shift in blood and tissue fluid volume which, in turn, triggered adaptive cardiovascular changes. Adaptive changes took place rapidly and began to stabilize after the first two days of flight. However, these changes did not plateau in the animal by the last day of the mission.

  5. Mass estimation in the breakups of Soviet satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.; Anz-Meador, Phillip D.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the mass of the parent satellite from the mass of the debris remaining from its breakup using a technique based on the decay rate and radar cross-section time history. The decay of perigee and apogee with time of an object in orbit provides the area-to-mass ratio and the radar cross-section provides a measure of the effective area of the object, while combining the two gives the mass of the object. The technique has been successfully applied to 12 U.S. breakups and one Arianespace breakup. Calculations exhibiting good agreement with reference mass are also discussed for Soviet intact C-class boosters, intact ASAT target satellites, and intact navigational satellites. It is found that the calculated mass of the ASAT interceptor spacecraft is about one-half of the expected mass, but it is pointed out that this may be due to fuel carried on board. For ASAT target breakups the calculated mass is 20-30 times too low; no clear explanation can yet be found for this phenomenon.

  6. [Treatment of the sputum with Soviet-produced chlorhexidine bigluconicum].

    PubMed

    Golyshevskaia, V I; Makarevich, N M

    1990-01-01

    Soviet chlorhexedin bigluconicum (CHBG) was used for sputum treatment. 129 sputum specimens were investigated. Among them 45 specimens were bacterioscopically negative. The rest contained low, moderate and high numbers of tubercle bacilli. The sputum was incubated on the Löwenstein-Jensen and Finn-II media. Comparison of two treatment methods (with Na3PO4 and CHBG) showed that CHBG had a more sparing effect on tubercle bacilli. The most marked effect was observed with incubation of oligobacillar materials and materials containing low numbers of tubercle bacilli. The highest differences were revealed when the materials were incubated on the Löwenstein-Jensen medium. It was shown that isolation of the cultures from oligobacillar materials increased by 4-14.3 per cent. The growth intensity and rate were higher. The majority of the cultures grew in 3-4 weeks whereas with using Na3PO4 part of the cultures grew during the period between the 6th and the 8th weeks. When the number of tubercle bacilli was high irrespective of the treatment procedure the number of the grown cultures was the same. The germination level was low and amounted to 3.9 per cent after treatment with Na3PO4 and to 2.3 per cent after treatment with CHBG. The method using CHBG is simple, economic and valuable in laboratory practice.

  7. Nuclear winter: implications for US and Soviet nuclear strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, P.J.

    1984-12-01

    In November 1983 Dr. Carl Sagan and his colleagues reported to press on the results of their study of the atmospheric consequences of nuclear war. The TTAPS study found that for a wide range of possible U.S. -Soviet nuclear exchanges, including relatively small ones, the fires from nuclear detonations would inject into the stratosphere quantities of dust and soot that would obscure sunlight for months. Under the cloud, which would spread over most of the Northern Hemisphere, temperatures might drop scores of degrees, well below the freezing point of water; thus, nuclear winter. The TTAPS team's findings suggested that the consequences of a nuclear war might be even more gruesome than previously supposed, and the long-term climatic and biological results might be nearly as severe for a war of 100 megatons as for 5,000. From the point of view of informing policymakers and the public concerning the consequences of wars involving nuclear weapons, the politicization of the nuclear winter issue is unfortunate. We can hope that in the next few years the criticism and defense of the initial TTAPS work will give rise to significant additional analyses, to illuminate the question. Realistically, further study will probably include both confirmations and contradictions of the original findings, without necessarily resolving the issue. Sadly, the surrounding political atmosphere may obstruct sober consideration of the policy implications of the possibility of nuclear winter.

  8. Recent developments with the Soviet Union's VHF satellite navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, P.; Perry, G. E.

    1986-03-01

    A description of the Soviet Union's VHF satellite navigation system is presented. The system utilizes constellations of satellites and position-fixing is achieved by low-orbiting satellites in near-polar orbit. The military satellites have orbital spacing intervals of 3 deg with satellite identification numbers 1-9 and civilian satellites have a 45 deg with identification numbers from 11-14. The satellite position data transmitted by the navigation system are examined. Each satellite transmits two coherent frequencies of 150 and 400 MHz and three tone modulations (3, 5, and 7 kHz). The data consist of time indications and orbital information encoded in final 32 bits in each second; a single frame of data lasts 1 min and two sets of four blocks of seven words provide satellite alerts. The launch schedule for the navigation system and the use of identification numbers are discussed. On-board problems with the Cosmos 1333 are analyzed. The COSPAS/SARSAT system is employed to locate ships and aircraft in distress. The code words utilized in the navigation system are studied.

  9. Space radiation dosimetry on US and Soviet manned missions

    SciTech Connect

    Parnell, T.A.; Benton, E.V.

    1995-03-01

    Radiation measurements obtained on board U.S. and Soviet spacecraft are presented and discussed. A considerable amount of data has now been collected and analyzed from measurements with a variety of detector types in low-Earth orbit. The objectives of these measurements have been to investigate the dose and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra within the complex shielding of large spacecraft. The shielding modifies the external radiation (trapped protons, electrons, cosmic ray nuclei) which, in turn, is quite dependent on orbital parameters (altitude, inclination). For manned flights, these measurements provide a crew exposure record and a data base for future spacecraft design and flight planning. For the scientific community they provide useful information for planning and analyzing data from experiments with high sensitivity to radiation. In this paper, results of measurements by both passive and active detectors are described. High-LET spectra measurements were obtained by means of plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD`s) while thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD`s) measured the dose.

  10. Lessons learned from the former Soviet biological warfare program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Debra A.

    The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.

  11. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Westwick, Peter J.

    2014-05-09

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of 'space-strike weapons' - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: 'I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery.' 'I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics,' said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  12. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwick, Peter J.

    2014-05-01

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of "space-strike weapons" - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: "I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery." "I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics," said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  13. Seeing the Forest and the Trees: Western Forestry Systems and Soviet Engineers, 1955-1964.

    PubMed

    Kochetkova, Elena

    This article examines the transfer of technology from Finnish enterprises to Soviet industry during the USSR's period of technological modernization between 1955 and 1964. It centers on the forestry sector, which was a particular focus of modernization programs and a key area for the transfer of foreign techniques and expertise. The aim of the article is to investigate the role of trips made by Soviet specialists to foreign (primarily Finnish) enterprises in order to illustrate the nontechnological influences that occurred during the transfer of technologies across the cold war border. To do so, the article is divided into two parts: the first presents a general analysis of technology transfer from a micro-level perspective, while the second investigates the cultural influences behind technological transfer in the Soviet-Finnish case. This study contends that although the Soviet government expected its specialists to import advanced foreign technical experience, they brought not only the technologies and expertise needed for modernizing the industry, but also a changed view on Soviet workplace management and everyday practices.

  14. Family planning, obstetrical and gynecological health care provision in the Soviet Far East.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, R J

    1992-01-01

    The Soviet model for both obstetrical and gynecological care and family planning provision seems entrenched in the Soviet Far East as found during a July 1991 visit to the Magadan and Chukotka Regions. Modern birth control is minimally practiced, but does include use of the older Soviet Loop intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD), recent introduction of the new Soviet Copper-T IUD and sporadic availability of condoms and foreign made birth control pills. Without male or female surgical sterilizations being performed, the consequence is that the major form of family planning is first trimester abortion. During this visit, I introduced the use of the NORPLANT Subdermal Contraceptive System and the Copper-T380A IUD to physicians at Anadry and Pevek regional hospitals. Gynecological surgery was also performed and fairly typical ob-gyn care units were toured. Ob-Gyn physicians in the Soviet Far East were found to be highly motivated. They look to the West for help in upgrading family planning and ob-gyn health care in the face of severe shortages after a half decade of perestroika.

  15. Historical aspects of the early Soviet/Russian manned space program.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2001-10-01

    Human spaceflight was one of the great physiological and engineering triumphs of the 20th century. Although the history of the United States manned space program is well known, the Soviet program was shrouded in secrecy until recently. Konstantin Edvardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) was an extraordinary Russian visionary who made remarkable predictions about space travel in the late 19th century. Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (1907-1966) was the brilliant "Chief Designer" who was responsible for many of the Soviet firsts, including the first artificial satellite and the first human being in space. The dramatic flight of Sputnik 1 was followed within a month by the launch of the dog Laika, the first living creature in space. Remarkably, the engineering work for this payload was all done in less than 4 wk. Korolev's greatest triumph was the flight of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934-1968) on April 12, 1961. Another extraordinary feat was the first extravehicular activity by Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov (1934-) using a flexible airlock that emphasized the entrepreneurial attitude of the Soviet engineers. By the mid-1960s, the Soviet program was overtaken by the United States program and attempts to launch a manned mission to the Moon failed. However, the early Soviet manned space program has a preeminent place in the history of space physiology.

  16. The specter of post-communism: women and alcohol in eight post-Soviet states.

    PubMed

    Hinote, Brian Philip; Cockerham, William C; Abbott, Pamela

    2009-04-01

    Because men have borne the heaviest burden of premature mortality in the former Soviet Union, women have for the most part been overlooked in studies of the health crisis in this part of the world. A considerable body of research points to alcohol consumption among males as a primary lifestyle cause of premature mortality. However, the extent to which alcohol use has penetrated the female population following the collapse of communism and how this consumption is associated with other social factors is less well-understood. Accordingly, this paper investigates alcohol consumption in eight republics of the former USSR - Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine using data collected in 2001. More specifically, discussion of gender role transformations and the historical experiences of women during the Soviet era emphasize two potentially important social influences examined in this analysis: psychological distress and Soviet political ideology. Findings suggest that distress is only weakly statistically associated with frequent drinking behavior among women, but results for political ideology show that this factor is statistically and significantly associated with drinking behaviors. Alcohol consumption was not particularly common among women under communism, but trends have been changing. Our discussion suggests that, after the collapse of the Soviet state, women are more able to embrace behavioral practices related to alcohol, and many may do so as an overt rejection of traditional Soviet norms and values. Findings are also discussed within the context of current epidemiological trends and future research directions in these eight republics.

  17. Determination of the Venus flyby orbits of the Soviet Vega probes using VLBI techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J.; Mcelrath, Timothy P.

    1988-01-01

    In December 1984, the Soviet Union launched two identical Vega spacecraft with the dual objective of exploring Venus and continuing to rendezvous with the comet Halley. The two Vega spacecraft encountered Venus in mid-June 1985 and successfully deployed entry probes and wind-measuring balloons into the Venus atmosphere. An objective of the Venus Balloon experiment was to measure the Venus winds using differential VLBI from the balloon and the flyby bus. NASA's Deep Space 64 meter subnet was part of a world wide network organized to collect data from the Vega probes and balloons. A critical element of this experiment was an accurate determination of the Venus relative flyby orbits of the Vega spacecraft during the 46 hour balloon lifetime. Venus flyby solutions were independently determined by the Soviets using two-way range and Doppler from Soviet stations and by JPL using one-way Doppler and VLBI data collected from the DSN. The Vega flyby solutions determined by the Soviets using a sparse two-way tracking strategy with JPL solutions using the DSN VLBI data to complement the Soviet data and with solutions using only one-way data collected by the DSN were compared.

  18. A comparative study of soviet versus western helicopters. Part 2: Evaluation of weight, maintainability and design aspects of major components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.; Shinn, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed comparative insight into design and operational philosophies of Soviet vs. Western helicopters is provided. This is accomplished by examining conceptual approaches, productibility and maintainability, and weight trends/prediction methodology. Extensive use of Soviet methodology (Tishchenko) to various weight classes of helicopters is compared to the results of using Western based methodology.

  19. "Least Known to Americans": Content Materials about the Soviet Union in the 1940s and 1950s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Anatoli

    2006-01-01

    In December 1984 when the Soviet Union still was an "evil empire" and the United States "encroached on the achievements of Socialism," Ira Jay Winn wrote, "students who scream "Kill the Russkies" or who believe that the Soviets fought against us in World War II... are not simply ignorant of historical facts or…

  20. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (water-cooled water-moderated atomic energy reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document contains apprendices A through P of this report. Topics discussed are: a cronyms and technical terms, accident analyses reactivity control; Soviet safety regulations; radionuclide inventory; decay heat; operations and maintenance; steam supply system; concrete and concrete structures; seismicity; site information; neutronic parameters; loss of electric power; diesel generator reliability; Soviet codes and standards; and comparisons of PWR and VVER features. (FI)

  1. 76 FR 32388 - Determination and Waiver Relating to Assistance for the Independent States of the Former Soviet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination and Waiver Relating to Assistance for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union... of the Former Soviet Union. Pursuant to the authority vested in me as Deputy Secretary of...

  2. Initial stages of the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet union (60 years from the Invention of the Transistor)

    SciTech Connect

    Stafeev, V. I.

    2010-05-15

    The most important results of the early work of Soviet scientists in the research and development in the fields of semiconductors and semiconductor devices are reported, including results that are almost unknown now but played an important role in the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet Union.

  3. The Russian Identity and Values in the Post-Soviet Era: Learning from the Past to Reinvent the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.; Herman, Bryan K.; Sanatullova-Allison, Elvira

    2007-01-01

    This paper employed a psychological-historical framework for an analytical examination of the Russian identity during the Soviet period through the fall of the Soviet Union and the transitional period that led to an establishment of the Russian Federation. A theoretical model is provided for the analysis of Russian identity that can be generalized…

  4. Dosimetric investigations of cosmic radiation aboard the Kosmos-936 AES (joint Soviet-American experiment K-206)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Kovalyev, Y. Y.; Dudkin, V. Y.

    1980-01-01

    The Soviet and American parts of the experiment are described separately. Particular attention was given to the following problems: placement of the detectors; study of neutron radiation within the biosatellite; and studies of fragmentation of heavy nuclei on accelerators. Unified methods were developed for the calibration of Soviet and American detectors.

  5. Teaching a Course on the Soviet Press: Some Pedagogical Applications and Recommendations for Increasing our Russian Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kevin J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes benefits of teaching a course on the Soviet press to Russian language students, including the opportunity to integrate practical considerations of reading and conversation skills with theoretical considerations of philosophy and principles of mass communication in the Soviet Union. (Author/BK)

  6. Soviet Revolutionary Films in America (1926-1935). Part One: The Theoretical Impact. Part Two: The Practical Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petric, Vladimir K.

    In order to test the hypothesis that Soviet revolutionary films influenced American film makers' attitudes concerning the importance of form and structure through editing, this dissertation explores the areas of affinity and contrast between the two national cinemas during the period when Soviet silent films were originally released in the United…

  7. Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Leo S.

    1999-06-04

    During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic.

  8. Late life alcohol use and gender differences among Former Soviet Union immigrants.

    PubMed

    Isralowitz, Richard; Spiegel, Svetlana; Reznik, Alex; Borkin, Sofia; Snir, Yoram

    2009-01-01

    Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union tend to drink more frequently than other Israelis. However, little is known about alcohol consumption among older Former Soviet Union immigrants in Israel. In the current study, male and female Former Soviet Union immigrants residing in independent living facilities were studied to determine their patterns of alcohol use and attitudes toward drinking. Interviews were conducted using a modified version of the CAGE instrument. Findings show that men use alcohol more than women, believe they need to reduce consumption, and are more likely to be criticized and feel guilty about their drinking behavior. Additional research is needed to further understand the extent of improper alcohol use among late life immigrants and older people in the country. Such information should be applied to the development of policy and services that will address their quality of life needs.

  9. Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

  10. Explosion Source Phenomena Using Soviet, Test-Era, Waveform Data

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Paul G.; Rautian, Tatyana G.; Khalturin, Vitaly I.; Phillips, W. Scott

    2006-04-12

    During the nuclear testing era, the former Soviet Union carried out extensive observations of underground nuclear explosions, recording both their own shots and those of foreign nuclear states. Between 1961 and 1989, the Soviet Complex Seismological Expedition deployed seismometers at time-varying subsets of over 150 sites to record explosions at regional distances from the Semipalatinsk and Lop Nor test sites and from the shot points of peaceful nuclear explosions. This data set included recordings from broadband, multi-channel ChISS seismometers that produced a series of narrow band outputs, which could then be measured to perform spectral studies. [ChISS is the Russian abbreviation for multichannel spectral seismometer. In this instrument the signal from the seismometer is passed through a system of narrow bandpass filters and recorded on photo paper. ChISS instruments have from 8 to 16 channels in the frequency range from 100 sec to 40 Hz. We used data mostly from 7 channels, ranging from 0.08 to 5 Hz.] Quantitative, pre-digital era investigations of high-frequency source scaling relied on this type of data. To augment data sets of central Central Asia explosions, we have measured and compiled 537 ChISS coda envelopes for 124 events recorded at Talgar, Kazakhstan, at a distance of about 750 km from Semipalatinsk. Envelopes and calibration levels were measured manually from photo paper records for seven bands between 0.08 and 5 Hz. We obtained from 2 to 10 coda envelope measurements per event, depending on the event size and instrument magnification. Coda lengths varied from 250 to 1400 s. For small events, only bands between 0.6 and 2.5 Hz could be measured. Envelope levels were interpolated or extrapolated to 500 s and we have obtained the dependence of this quantity on magnitude. Coda Q was estimated and found to increase from 232 at 0.08 Hz to 1270 at 5 Hz. These relationships were used to construct an average scaling law of coda spectra for Semipalatinsk

  11. The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task"

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not) to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1]. PMID:22208726

  12. The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task".

    PubMed

    Latypov, Alisher B

    2011-12-30

    This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not) to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1].

  13. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling.

    PubMed

    Healey, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of terrestrial rabies in the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Botvinkin, Alexandr D; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Smith, Jean S; Orciari, Lillian A; Hughes, Gareth J; Fooks, Anthony R; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2004-10-01

    Fifty-five rabies virus isolates originating from different regions of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were compared with isolates originating from Eurasia, Africa, and North America according to complete or partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences. The FSU isolates formed five distinct groups. Group A represented viruses originating from the Arctic, which were similar to viruses from Alaska and Canada. Group B consisted of "Arctic-like" viruses, originating from the south of East Siberia and the Far East. Group C consisted of viruses circulating in the steppe and forest-steppe territories from the European part of Russia to Tuva and in Kazakhstan. These three phylogenetic groups were clearly different from the European cluster. Viruses of group D circulate near the western border of Russia. Their phylogenetic position is intermediate between group C and the European cluster. Group E consisted of viruses originating from the northwestern part of Russia and comprised a "northeastern Europe" group described earlier from the Baltic region. According to surveillance data, a specific host can be defined clearly only for group A (arctic fox; Alopex lagopus) and for the Far Eastern part of the group B distribution area (raccoon dog; Nyctereutes procyonoides). For other territories and rabies virus variants, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the main virus reservoir. However, the steppe fox (Vulpes corsac), wolf (Canis lupus), and raccoon dog are also involved in virus circulation, depending on host population density. These molecular data, joined with surveillance information, demonstrate that the current fox rabies epizootic in the territory of the FSU developed independently of central and western Europe. No evidence of positive selection was found in the N genes of the isolates. In the glycoprotein gene, evidence of positive selection was strongly suggested in codons 156, 160, and 183. At these sites, no link between amino acid substitutions and phylogenetic placement or

  15. A Focused Comparison of Soviet and American National Interests in Southwest Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    zonies The eritish were ac-kncwledi’ltd to hwve a virtual p rctecto rate over the 5outhernriost of these.-Eech power aqreed rot to oseek economic...rise of Musaddeq to powyer in 135 1 the Shahi single-mindedlg used every possible method to deepen the UL5 stalkes in Ir.ann,2 4 ,/Vi-Ile this • maU...Soviet goals on to other fronts. The Soviets were deepl1 involved in China and Eastern Europe. Second, the beginning of the M-larshall plan and Truman

  16. Effects of the Cosmos 1129 Soviet paste diet on body composition in the growing rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.; Pitts, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    Six Simonsen albino rats (45 days of age) were placed on a regimen of 40 g/day the semipurified Soviet paste diet used in the 18.5 day Cosmos 1129 spacecraft was to support the rats for various experiments on the physiological effects of weightlessness. The animals were maintained on the Soviet paste diet for 35 days, metabolic rate was measured and body composition was determined by direct analysis. The results were compared with a control group of rates of the same age, which had been kept on a standard commercial grain diet during the same period of time.

  17. Charting the Course of the Voyenno-Morskoy Flot: Soviet Naval Strategy towards the Year 2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-13

    AD-A245 642 A TRIDENT SCHOLAR PROJECT REPORT NO. 185 CHARTING THE COURSE OF THE VOYENNO-MORSKOYFLOT: SOVIET NAVAL STRATEGY TOWARDS THE YEAR 2000...Voyenno-Morskoy Flot: Soviet Naval Strategy Towards the Year 2000 A Trident Scholar Project Report by Midshipman Stephen F. Murphy, Class of 1991 U.S...Naval Academy Annapolis, Maryland Acces ion ForYb.-,N S LFRA𔃾t U -o cedi Advi er: Professor Arthur R. Rachwald -’P o l it i c a l S c ie n c e D e

  18. Military Doctrine and Strategy in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for the Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    Krasnaya Zvezda in Russian, May 31, 1991, 1st ed., p. 3 (FBIS-SOV-91-109, June 6, 1991, p. 32); Reply by the USSR General Staff to a letter by I. Shimalo...national armed forces, Yravchuk’s position was that any former Soviet armed forces physically located on the territory of the Ukraine were now part of...republic armed forces, however, is that some of the best forces and equipment from the former Soviet armed forces ended up physically in tbp Ukraine

  19. [The most frequent causes of prisoner's disease and death in Soviet labour camps].

    PubMed

    Supady, J

    2001-01-01

    First concentration camps came into being as Soviet labour camps in captured by Bolsheviks Russia. The labour camps performed repressive and exterminatory functions besides they were the reservoir of oppression and relentless exploitation of man power. They were characterized by extreme death-rate of prisoners and lasting for hours exhausting work. Ones died mainly due to psychophysical weakness, contagious diseases, hypertension, heart and kidney diseases and accidents at work. A number of Soviet labour camps victims is estimated at several millions of human beings.

  20. Background factors affecting dental caries in permanent teeth of Finnish and Soviet children.

    PubMed

    Honkala, E; Kolmakow, S; Nyyssönen, V; Kuzmina, E; Vasina, S

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between some general background factors and caries experience in two groups of Finnish children (from Helsinki and Kuopio) and Soviet children (Moscow and Leningrad). A total of 1187 schoolchildren, ages seven, nine and twelve years, were examined and information about their health habits was gathered by questionnaire. Questions included use of sweets, cakes, soft drinks, sugar-sweetened coffee and tea, toothbrushing frequency and mother's education. Except for age, the factors that explain caries experience clearly differ in Finnish and Soviet children.