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Sample records for soviet union economic

  1. JPRS Report Soviet Union, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    investment in the branch that is connected with tion output and an improvement of its quality , and an the introduction of scientific and engineering progress...Belorussia, 4.3 pairs; Latvia, 4.1 pairs; the Ukraine, 3.7 pairs; Georgia and Azerbaijan, 3.4 pairs; Improved footwear quality and increased production...corresponding improvement of the per- priate agencies of the state. formance characteristics and quality of the products. Representatives of the trade unions

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-30

    economic base . To break down economic structures like public consumption funds (which are free of charge and abundant mainly for the higher levels of...in Gosstrakh we could free state budget resources, which otherwise would be spent on compensating for such losses , on financing major social tasks...Basis for Profitable Trade [Ya. Orlov; SOVETSKAYA TORGOVLYA No 9, Sep 88] 69 ENERGY FUELS Methodology for Exploitation of East Siberia Discussed [V

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    bankruptcy). Silayev on Economic Treaty Negotiations 924A0266A Moscow RABOCHAYA TRIBUNA in Russian 30 Nov 91 pp 1-2 [Interview with Ivan Silayev by...Aleksandr Krotkov; place and date not given: "Water Is Water, but Want Is Want"] [Text] Moscow— Ivan Silayev on the economic team of the republics: Which...What is the fate of these documents? Why has nothing been heard of them? We put these questions to Ivan Silayev, chairman of the Interstate

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    prescribed the production of high - strength cements, using superplasticizers, and cement made by the dry method. Victors in the widely promoted...500,000 tons, BTTs [ high early strength cement] by 600,000 tons, and sulfate-resistant cement by 1.7 million tons. This indicates that economic...detailed plan entries is very high : Gosplan gives 2,000 consolidated items. Gossnab breaks down these consol- idated entries into 15,000 and

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and truly become competitive on world markets. The paper "Increased Product Quality " was presented by Academician S.A. Khristianovich. The...always attempted in tackling the task of economic stimulation of an improvement in product quality to link the price of products with the efficiency of...quite precise depen- dencies between expenditure on an improvement in the quality (consumer properties) of products and the increase in the effect

  6. Energy, economics, and foreign policy in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book has the merit of looking at the Soviet energy problem (oil, gas, coal, other) as a whole, something that Westen experts (and Soviet officials) have often failed to do. It makes fairly precise projections for the mid-1980s and cloudier ones for 1990. Hewett sees no crisis of the kind predicted by the CIA for the 1980s, but the Moscow will face hard decisions imposed by the rising cost of energy, competing economic demands, and political constraints.

  7. Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    agency of the Soviet Union. Permission for further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. SOVIET UNION MILITARY AFFAIRS CONTENTS...internationalists, it has always embodied the inviolable friendship of the peoples of the USSR. But are some of us not hypnotized by this principle

  8. The Soviet Union in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Niiseki, K.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the recent transition in the Soviet Union's leadership, scholars worldwide have found it necessary to reevaluate Soviet domestic and foreign policy. In this book, prominent Japanese, U.S., and European experts examine changes within the USSR as well as Soviet reactions to changes in the rest of the world. They assess the immediate implications of change for such areas as technology, energy policy, and economic reform and deliver commentaries on current policy directions and historical backgrounds of Soviet policies. The Japan Institute of International Affairs held the symposium on which this volume is based to commemorate its silver jubilee and to add the valuable perspective of Japanese Soviet studies scholars to Western analyses. Contents: Introduction; The Soviet Union in a Changing World; East-West Relations: A European Perspective; ''Gorbachevism''-Simply Old Wine in a New Bottle. Implications of Leadership and Social Change for Soviet Policies; Soviet Economic Trends, with Special Emphasis on Investment and Energy Policies; Economic Reforms in China in Light of Soviet and Eastern European Experiences.

  9. Economic Leverage on the Soviet Union in the 1980s.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    it has been used in the media and else- where hae not contributed to resolving these ambiguities." Wolf draws attention to the extremely broad...definition of the term in the Encyclo- pedia of the Social Sciences, which includes conferral of economic favor (by which "a country may expect in return...loan markt dropped atealy from near $4 billion In IM7$ to little ova $1 billion in 1981. PbusciuI iss, December 28,191. WKVWA, CPX Current Anasik 3.45

  10. Regional Economic Development in the Soviet Union, Two Case Studies: The Baltic and Central Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    1473 EDI TION OF INOV S5 IS~l/)(’ NLS Sf u ITY C AISrCAlO OF THIS PAGE (W.eiDeaE~ya ABSTRACT REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOVIET UNION, TWO CASE...deviations in the average hours worked per employee).’ Second, agricultural products are inputs into both the food and light industries. Generally, in both...light; food ; and a residual category including all other industrial activities, most notably non-ferrous metals. 58 The rationale behind the use of

  11. Thinking about the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkovich, George

    In the United States, educators have had difficulty teaching about the Soviet Union. Students are often ignorant of the historical circumstances that have affected the U.S./Soviet relationship, and they are often miseducated by stereotypes they encounter in popular culture. This curriculum explores the government and economy of the Soviet Union,…

  12. Soviet Union`s Nuclear Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union`s nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry`s strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources.

  13. The Soviet Union: Political and military trends

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Garrity, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    On July 20, 1989, the Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a workshop on The Soviet Union: Political and Military Trends.'' The morning session was devoted to a discussion of the magnitude of the problems confronting the Soviet Union, the political and economic reforms designed to address those problems, and the repercussions of those reforms on Soviet foreign policy and defense spending. In the afternoon session, the Soviet view of the changing character of warfare, the technologies and force structures that the Soviets might develop and deploy to anticipate the battlefield of the future, and the role that conventional arms control might play in Soviet political and military strategy were examined.

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production, No. 10, October 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-29

    106048 JPRS-UEO-88-002 29 FEBRUARY 1988 !■■■■■ !■■■■! FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPHS Report — ~^fS0^1 A Soviet Union EKO...primary reporting , hence the unreliability of statistical data; slowness and backward- ness of assortment; technical conservatism—slow intro...determined for the enterprise for forming the wage fund will be not so much based on reports of normal branch profitability and rent adjustments as (and one

  15. Proliferation and the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The report examines the whole range of consequences for proliferation of weapons of mass destruction of the Soviet Union's breakup and describes how U.S. assistance may reduce specific proliferation risks in the former Soviet Union.

  16. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    time to really take advantage of the provisions of the document cited in practice. [Question] The "track of long - term prospects" which has taken...new, from which life will select the most viable." Not long ago at the Bureau of the Main Political Directorate of the Soviet Army and Navy, they...these people so that each works at full strength, with inspiration, with a perceptive vision of our great and long -range goals." Our Soviet classical

  17. The Soviet Union and China,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    eel)ly d is tulrbed by thle sp ic tarn L I a r , newt 1h o f t ht, Sax’ i vt - Cuban mitlitary role and Soviet political in I nnce in P%’rica m ici...perception is also fed by What the Chinese see as other symptoms of the incremental growth of the Soviet political and miii- tarv presence in the Trhird World...indefinitely poisoned . Soviet Economic Courting of Beijing. The net result of these experiences has been a long series of rebuffs to sporadic Soviet

  18. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-05

    Manyukov, S. And the Cherries Are in Blossom Again 21 Merganov, S. Parpishakh—Fighter of the Red Army 21 Novikov, V. The Spectator Does Not...the 20th Komsomol Congress with important labor successes; to take an active part in the 2nd All-Union Festival of Artistic Folk Activities

  19. Nuclear legacy of Soviet Union poses concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, W.

    1995-07-01

    The Russian Federation possesses all nuclear weapons design and production facilities of the former Soviet Union, reports William Potter, director of the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies. However, other former Soviet states, including Ukraine, boast other nuclear assets, including uranium mining and milling centers; training facilities; and research and commercial-power reactors, some of which are capable of producing weapons-grade plutonium. Potter insists that there is no assurance than these newly independent republics will not attempt to export their respective nuclear assets. {open_quotes}This export danger is heightened by the primitive state of export controls and compelling economic incentives to sell anything to anyone for the right price,{close_quotes} he says. Equally alarming as the absence of export control is the legacy of environmental degradation left by the Soviet nuclear program. {open_quotes}The magnitude of environmental damage caused by nuclear weapons production and testing only recently is coming to light,{close_quotes} Potter insists. Furthermore, writes Potter, {open_quotes}there is real danger that unemployed nuclear scientists in the former Soviet Union will accept offers from well-heeled renegade nations seeking to build nuclear weapons.{close_quotes}

  20. Area Handbook Series: Soviet Union: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Citizen: Character Forma- tion and Civic Training in Soviet Education. London: Croom Helm, 1987. Balzer, Harley D. "Education, Science, and Technology...University Press of America, 1986. McAuley, Alastair. Economic Welfare in the Soviet Union. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979. Matthews...Conference, University of Wisconsin , April 18-19, 1986.) Madison: 1986. D’Agostino, Anthony. Soviet Succession Struggles. Winchester, Mas- sachusetts

  1. The End of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergesheimer, John

    1992-01-01

    Presents, as a supplement to social studies textbooks, a summary of recent Soviet Union developments. Begins with the rise of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and traces events through the dissolution of the USSR. Provides a Soviet history timeline, a vocabulary list, and a reproducible map of eastern Europe and central Asia. (SG)

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 3, March 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Morton H. Halperin, Cambridge (Mass.), Ballinger Publishing Com- pany, 1987, 173 pages: "Criticism of U.S. Nuclear Strat- egy"] [Text] "Nuclear Fallacy...or manage the library . With the double ladder system the organization can give a scientist performing research successfully a promotion and a...Representatives of the Soviet and American UN associations met in Moscow. 22—The centennial of John Reed’s birth was celebrated in Moscow. Deputy

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 11, November 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    to Soviet Russia, and under pressure from them the Scandinavian states reduced their trade with our country dramatically...relations with socialist countries. During the 1976 campaign Ford felt the full force of the "challenge from the Right." To seize the initiative...people’s minds . We would like to believe that the lasting symbol of World War II retained in American minds will not be the cemetery in Bittburg with

  4. Allocation of resources in the Soviet Union and China - 1985. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Economic Resources, Competitiveness, and Security Economics of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 19, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Part II of the hearing record covers a March 19 Executive session, with statements by Douglas MacEachin of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), submissions for the record by MacEachin and Admiral Robert Schmitt, and supporting documentation. The purpose of the hearings was to examine economic indicators of the Soviet Union and China in the context of military and national security interests. The study and report represent a cooperative effort on the part of the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency. The report focuses on Gorbachev's modernization program, its potential for success, and the military implications if it should fail. The witnesses felt that unlike the Soviets, the Chinese probably understate military expenditures; and the military triangle involving the US, Soviet Union, and China has benefited both the US and China. Submissions for the record make up most of the document.

  5. JPRS Report. Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production No. 7, July 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PeskinJ 46 Lessons From Chernobyl Discussed [V. Gubarev] 47 Writer Views Economic Life [G. Kulishkin] 52 CEMA Countries Economize on Fuel...34, "Ekonomika i organizatsiya promyshlennogo proizvodstva", 1987 11772 Lessons From Chernobyl Discussed 18200222k Novosibirsk EKONOMIKA I...ORGANIZATSIYA PROMYSHLENNOGO PROIZVODSTVA (EKO) in Russian No 7, Jul 87 pp 121-131 [Article by V. Gubarev: "Echoes of Chernobyl "] [Text] In the article

  6. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations, No. 7, July 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-UWE-87-011 ft SEPTEMBER 1987 314081 !■■■■■ AH r##i FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS tit Soviet Union WORLD ECONOMY...permission of the copyright agency of the Soviet Union . Permission for further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. SOVIET UNION WORLD...Vital Partnership’ (pp 139-141) (not translated) M. Korneyeva Review of ’Report of the Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development

  7. JPRS Report. Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production No. 4, April 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    300,000 people who died from cancer in 1982. Each year the world produces about 500 new products and preparations whose biological activity is...when entering the vocational and technical schools, the tekhnikums, and the VUZes the students would be less infantile in their economic preparation

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of party political work. Opinions are discussed and correct decisions are worked out together. Col A. PAVLOV , deputy chief of the social sciences...Marshal of the Soviet Union [MSU] Ivan Khristo- forovich Bagramyan.... They call him their son in Russia, in the Caucasus, in the Ukraine and in...Forces A. Babadzhanyan. The military biography of the twice Hero of the Soviet Union Ivan Khristoforovich Bagramyan, who would have been 90 years

  9. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-07-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants {open_quotes}ATETs{close_quotes} optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled.

  10. Socio-economic impact of Trans-Siberian railway after the collapse of Soviet Union by integrated spatial data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Seina; Takeuchi, Wataru; Hatoyama, Kiichiro; Mazurov, Yuri

    2016-06-01

    How Russian cities have stood up again after the collapse of Soviet Union will be discussed in this paper. In order to know how the cities has managed the difficult period after the change of social system, transition of urban area, population, and nighttime light is searched. Although Far East will not stop as one of the most important area with abundant resources, overpopulation in towns and depopulation in countryside is going on. By searching the present situation, this research also aims to predict the future of Far East and Russia. First of all, Landsat data from 1987 to 2015 is collected over Moscow, Vladivostok, Novosibirsk, Tynda, and Blagoveshchensk and urban area is calculated by land cover classification. Secondly, population and retail turnover data are collected from year books in Russia. Thirdly, gross regional product (GRP) is estimated by nighttime light images from DMSP-OLS and VIIRS DNB dataset. In addition, these data are compared and difference of development stage after the collapse of Soviet Union between the unstable era (1990s-2000) and development era (2000-) will be discussed. It is expected that these analysis will give us useful information about Russian strategy for the future.

  11. Nuclear power in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power are as follows: safety requirements and expectations have been increased; and public opinion is negative. A program of nuclear power generation has been developed. New techniques are being implemented to increase safety and enhance operations of different types of nuclear power plants. Its should be obvious in the future that a nuclear power plant has better economic and environmental parameters than existing methods of power generation.

  12. Themes for Teaching the Geography of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausladen, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Provides a framework for introducing students to the geography of the Soviet Union. Identifies basic themes for a geographical approach, including (1) advantages and disadvantages of size and location; (2) spatial impact of political economy; (3) paradox of economic development; (4) challenges of governing a multinational state; (5) integration…

  13. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    Basic material on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is presented in this teachers' guide in such a way that teachers can incorporate it into the daily curriculum or utilize it through special units or projects. The guide is divided into two sections, one covering the Soviet Union, the other Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union section discusses…

  14. Leading Student Groups to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes student tours to the Soviet Union, discussing the benefits to be derived from such experiences by both students and leaders. In particular, discusses the organization of the tours, their types and costs, advertising strategies, suggested itineraries and guidebooks, student orientation and group composition, and problems encountered…

  15. Neural networks in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Wunsch, D.C. II.

    1993-01-01

    A brief overview is given of neural networks activities in the former Soviet Union that have potential aerospace applications. Activities at institutes in Moscow, the former Leningrad, Kiev, Taganrog, Rostov-on-Don, and Krasnoyarsk are addressed, including the most important scientists involved. 21 refs.

  16. Conversion and enrichment in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    1991-04-01

    In the Soviet Union, just as in the West, the civilian nuclear industry emerged from research work undertaken for nuclear weapons development. At first, researchers tried various techniques for physical separation of uranium isotopes: electromagnetic and molecular-kinetic thermo-diffusion methods; gaseous diffusion; and centrifuge methods. All of those methods, which are based primarily on differences in the atomic mass of uranium isotopes, called for extensive research and the development of new, technically unprecedented equipment. Gradually gaseous diffusion and gas centrifuge technology became recognized as most feasible for industrial use, so research on other methods was terminated. Industrial-scale uranium enrichment in the Soviet Union began in 1949 using the gaseous diffusion method; by the early 1960s, centrifuge technology was in use on an industrial scale. All Soviet production of highly-enriched, weapons-grade uranium was halted in 1987. The Soviet Union now has four enrichment plants in operation (at classified locations), solely for civilian nuclear power needs. All four enrichment plants have centrifuge modules, and enrichment provided by gaseous diffusion accounts for less than 5% of their total output. Two of the four enrichment plants also incorporate facilities for conversion to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}).

  17. Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1980-05-01

    The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book.

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    perestroyka. Yu. Yuzelyunas expressed puzzlement at the fact that the Central Committee resolution adopted in 1948 on for- malism in music in connection...know little about the Soviet Union and Lithuania. This is very sad, because there are high achievements both in literature and in music , and they are...supporting all trips abroad and all direct ties. We have specific proposals to this effect. We are ready to organize a Baltic music and Baltic

  19. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  20. Cuba: An Historical Appraisal of Its Foreign Debt and Soviet Economic Assistance and Cuba: An Evaluation of Its Military Relations with the Soviet Union.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    4 3 A number of sources however, indicate that this may not be entirely true. Cuba’s foreign debt on January 1, 1959 was, in fact, small. It stood at...Estatal de Estadisticas , Compendio de Estadisticas de Americana Latina, Febrero de 1982. Comparative Politics, Revolutions and the Restructuring of National...arrive. This was a valid indicator of the Soviets’ real intent and the extent of the growing Cuban accommodation. On 24 October, according to CIA

  1. Current Trends in Technology Education and Vocational Training in the Former Republics of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannatyne, Mark W. McK.

    The schools of the new republics in the former Soviet Union have begun to address the issue of reforms of technical and vocational education in order to train a technologically literate society that can meet the demands of the next century. Previously, Soviet schools failed to offer industrial arts and home economics on a universal scale. This…

  2. The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, A J

    1980-04-01

    Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning.

  3. Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union Versus Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Mart

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the role of non-Russian languages in the Soviet Union (USSR) focuses on the history of ethnic group languages and language policy in Estonia since the collapse of totalitarianism. A historical overview of Soviet Union language policy is offered, with attention given to the ideological goals influencing policy, and their realization…

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    regulated market economy managers will face increased commercial risk. The article by V. Rubanov, ’"The Firm’s Secret’ and the Countrv’s Economic...economy and not hinder this. For this reason, under conditions of mass entry into the world market we must give Soviet enterprises, associa- tions...in the international division of labor, of a fuller participa- tion in the world market , of the creation on this basis of a modern competetive

  5. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

  6. The Soviet Union and ballistic missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, B.

    1987-01-01

    In recent debate over strategic defense, the Soviet dimension has not been adequately examined. Based on an analysis of Soviet statements and Soviet weaponry, the study surveys Soviet perceptions of the shifting relationship between the superpowers and the effect of BMD on that relationship. The author then traces the evolution of Soviet policies toward ballistic missile defense and the introduction of weapons into space. After exploring the internal budgetary debates that will affect future Soviet decisions on BMD and space systems, the book outlines Soviet responses, political as well as military, to the Strategic Defense Initiative and concludes with recommendations for U.S. policy toward BMD and arms negotiations. Contents: The Central Issues; Soviet Views of the Geopolitical Context; Soviet Policy Toward Soviet BMD and the Military Uses of Space; The resource Allocation Debate and Soviet BMD Decisions; Soviet Responses to the Strategic Defense Initiative; U.S. Policy and the Future of the Superpower Arms Competition.

  7. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R. )

    1991-03-01

    The Soviet Union is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas. Soviet oil production averaged 12.1 million bbl per day in 1989 with gas production of 79 bcf per day. Estimates of Soviet proved reserves fall within the range of 50 to 80 billion bbl, which gives the Soviet Union the world's greatest concentration of proved conventional crude oil reserves outside the Persian Gulf. In addition, the Soviet Union contains estimated proved reserves of 1500 tcf of natural gas, constituting over 38% of the worldwide total. The basins of the Soviet Union can be generally separated into five categories based upon geography, geology, and exploration maturity. The southwestern flank of the Soviet Union, from the Carpathians to Central Asia, contains a series of late Mesozoic to Tertiary basins associated with the closing of the Tethys Ocean and the Tertiary Alpine Orogeny. Because these basins contain shallow production and are near population centers and in moderate climates, they were the first explored and provided virtually all Soviet production prior to the Second World War.

  8. Energy conservation: The main factor for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Bashmakov, I.A.; Chupyatov, V.P.

    1991-12-01

    The energy intensity of the former Soviet Union is more than twice that of other market economics in similar stages of economic development. Low energy efficiency in the Soviet Union has contributed significantly to global carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions. The technological potential for energy conservation in the former Soviet Union is the largest in the world. The inefficiencies of the previously command-system economy, however, have provided little incentive for conserving energy. The present transition to a market-based economy should encourage the incorporation of energy-efficiency improvements in order for the former Soviet Union to successfully lower its energy intensity. There are several obstacles that limit implementing energy conservation: for example, energy prices and discount rates influence the volume of investment in energy efficiency. Nevertheless, cost-effective measures for energy conservative do exist even in the most energy-intensive sectors of the Soviet economy and should form the core of any energy conservation program. The overall cost-effective potential for carbon savings in the former Soviet Union is estimated to be 280 to 367 million tons of carbon per year by the year 2005, or 23 to 29 percent of 1988 energy-related emissions.

  9. Astronomic-Geodetic Highlights from the Soviet Union,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report is a translation of an article in the German language periodical Austrian Journal of Geodesy , written by K. Ledersteger, published in Vienna in 1959. It concerns Astronomic-Geodetic highlights in the Soviet Union.

  10. Observations on a Recent Trip to the Former Soviet Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-26

    NPS-NS-92-012 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA AD-A255 891 J6 0- & R A D b OBSERVATIONS ON A RECENT TRIP TO THE FORMER SOVIET UNION BY...Include Security Classification) OBSERVATIONS ON A RECENT TRIP TO THE FORMER SOVIET UNION 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) TRITTEN, JAMES JOHN 13a. TYPEOFREPORT...ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) (8 A -C) ADDITIONAL SPONSOR, INTELLIGENCE PLANS & INTEGRATION DIRECTORATE

  11. Nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    McKenney, B.L.; Krafsig, J. ); Abarbanel, H.D.I. . Dept. of Physics); Abraham, N.B. . Dept. of Physics); Fraser, A.M. ); Moon, F.C. . Sibley Scho

    1992-08-01

    This assessment of nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union was performed by seven US scientists and engineers active in the fields examined. The topics covered include: solid-state systems and circuits, information theory and signal analysis, chaos in mechanical systems, turbulence and vortex dynamics, ocean processes, image processing, and lasers and nonlinear optics. The field of nonlinear dynamics and chaos blossomed in academic settings in both the West and the former Soviet Union during the 1980s. The field went from mathematical abstraction to interesting engineering application areas. Several generalizations can be drawn from the review of Soviet work: Soviet work generally began earlier than Western work, and, in areas that do not require extensive computational resources, that work has kept up with, and often leads, the West. This is especially true in the mathematical analysis of nonlinear phenomena. Soviet researchers have shown an ability to combine numerical or analytic ideas with laboratory experimentation in a smoother, less erratic fashion than Western researchers. Furthermore, contrary to Western practice, the same researchers often do both theoretical and experimental work. In areas that require numerical verification of ideas in the field, the Western work is leading that of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true in the areas of signal processing, simulations of turbulence, and communications. No evidence was found of any significant penetration of ideas of nonlinear dynamics into technological applications of a military or commercial area in the former Soviet Union. Opportunities abound, but specific applications are not apparent.

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-15

    1920 PRAVDA and other newspapers carried an article by I. Stalin, RSFSR People’s Commissar for Nationality Affairs, " Long Live Soviet Armenia...are declared annulled. Nagornyy Karabakh, Zangezur and Nakhichevan are recognized as a part of the Armenian Socialist Republic. " Long live the...and all the benefits of the Soviet system will be extended to all Armenia’s citizens in equal measure. " Long live the brotherhood of the Soviet

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 14, September 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    bureaucratic work style . Naturally, the situation was also affected by the residual principle in training trade union cadres: frequently people who were not...made members of a party or a soviet body were recom- mended for trade union committee membership. A bureaucratic style means not only a...dynamism of the progress of the Union, which obeys what I consider a universal law of uneven development. Redistribution relations, the paternalism of

  14. International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Tompson, A F B

    2003-07-27

    The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10{sup 7} TBq (6.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the historical activities of

  15. Parallel processing research in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.; Snyder, L.; Wolcott, P.

    1992-03-01

    This technical assessment report examines strengths and weaknesses of parallel processing research and development in the Soviet Union from the 1980s to June 1991. The assessment was carried out by panel of US scientists who are experts on parallel processing hardware, software, algorithms, and applications, and on Soviet computing. Soviet computer research and development organizations have pursued many of the major avenues of inquiry related to parallel processing that the West has chosen to explore. But, the limited size and substantial breadth of their effort have limited the collective depth of Soviet activity. Even more serious limitations (and delays) of Soviet achievement in parallel processing research can be traced to shortcomings of the Soviet computer industry, which was unable to supply adequate, reliable computer components. Without the ability to build, demonstrate, and test embodiments of their ideas in actual high-performance parallel hardware, both the scope of activity and the success of Soviet parallel processing researchers were severely limited. The quality of the Soviet parallel processing research assessed varied from very sound and interesting to pedestrian, with most of the groups at the major hardware and software centers to which the work is largely confined doing good (or at least serious) research. In a few instances, interesting and competent parallel language development work was found at institutions not associated with hardware development efforts. Unlike Soviet mainframe and minicomputer developers, Soviet parallel processing researchers have not concentrated their efforts on reverse- engineering specific Western systems. No evidence was found of successful Soviet attempts to use breakthroughs in parallel processing technology to ``leapfrog`` impediments and limitations that Soviet industrial weakness in microelectronics and other computer manufacturing areas impose on the performance of high-end Soviet computers.

  16. Parallel processing research in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.; Snyder, L.; Wolcott, P.

    1992-03-01

    This technical assessment report examines strengths and weaknesses of parallel processing research and development in the Soviet Union from the 1980s to June 1991. The assessment was carried out by panel of US scientists who are experts on parallel processing hardware, software, algorithms, and applications, and on Soviet computing. Soviet computer research and development organizations have pursued many of the major avenues of inquiry related to parallel processing that the West has chosen to explore. But, the limited size and substantial breadth of their effort have limited the collective depth of Soviet activity. Even more serious limitations (and delays) of Soviet achievement in parallel processing research can be traced to shortcomings of the Soviet computer industry, which was unable to supply adequate, reliable computer components. Without the ability to build, demonstrate, and test embodiments of their ideas in actual high-performance parallel hardware, both the scope of activity and the success of Soviet parallel processing researchers were severely limited. The quality of the Soviet parallel processing research assessed varied from very sound and interesting to pedestrian, with most of the groups at the major hardware and software centers to which the work is largely confined doing good (or at least serious) research. In a few instances, interesting and competent parallel language development work was found at institutions not associated with hardware development efforts. Unlike Soviet mainframe and minicomputer developers, Soviet parallel processing researchers have not concentrated their efforts on reverse- engineering specific Western systems. No evidence was found of successful Soviet attempts to use breakthroughs in parallel processing technology to leapfrog'' impediments and limitations that Soviet industrial weakness in microelectronics and other computer manufacturing areas impose on the performance of high-end Soviet computers.

  17. Green Revolutions: Environmental Reconstruction in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Worldwatch Paper 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Hilary F.

    The focus of this paper is environmental issues facing Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union as they struggle with the momentous tasks of economic and political reform. Given the important role that environmental protest played in the upheavals, environmentalists have claimed a mandate for strong environmental controls. The state of the environment…

  18. The Soviet Union in Afghanistan: Benefits and Costs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-12

    COLLEGE Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania THE SOVIET NION IN4FGHANISTAN: S BENFITS AND COSTS, by SS-hirin/Fahir-Kheli ,/;/ 12 June480./ -/ . DISTRIBUTION...1973. The Soviet Union committed itself to 20 major projects in agriculture, irrigation, electric power, oil and gas exploration , mineral and metal...regime spread, Pak-Afghan relations deteriorated. Pakistan counted 56 violations of its air and ground space (penetratioins of up to three miles above

  19. Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties

    SciTech Connect

    Rhinelander, J.B.; Bunn, G.

    1991-12-01

    A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into Under international law, the obligations of a state are not affected by even such dramatic changes in government. No one yet knows, however, what the end result of the ongoing devolution of power in the erstwhile Soviet Union will be. As illustrations of what could happen to Soviet arms control obligations - not predictions of the future - the authors pose two alternative scenarios. In the first, they assume that most of the current 12 republics, including all of the big four where substantial nuclear forces and the largest conventional forces are located (Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Belarus), ultimately form a loose confederation with sufficient central authority to be called a nation-state and to carry out the essence of Soviet obligations under major arms control treaties. In the second, they assume that the union disintegrates further, with these four key republics seceding entirely and recognizing one another as independent states - a step which is apparently one of the US criteria for granting its own recognition. In this scenario, the Russian republic maintains its basic territory and replaces the central government as the power center for military and foreign affairs. In each of these cases, they will describe the general issues affecting the Soviet Union's international obligations, and consider specifically the two most important arms control agreements now in force - the multilateral nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty.

  20. Astronomical observatories of the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Dmitrii Nikolaevich

    Various types of astronomical instruments are described, including optical telescopes, radio telescopes, and radiation detectors. Soviet ground-based astronomical observatories are described as well as those aboard satellites and space stations.

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the Estonian SSR Constitution (Basic Law)" and the Law "On Elections to the Local Soviets of People’s Deputies of the Estonian SSR ," issued 20 June... SSR Constitution (Basic Law)" and the Law "On Elections to the Local Soviets of People’s Deputies" are to be published for popular discussion in the...Legislative Proposals and the Commission for Developing a New Estonian SSR Constitution and Improvement of Constitutional Legislation. 4. Taking the

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    a peaceful sky above his head. Perhaps the highest form of well-being for a Soviet person, for the Soviet people, is, in my opinion, peaceful skies ...I would like to ask you both a question that can be formulated the following way: The question is one of the asymmetry in strategic thinking, if...from the basic direction of the attack. There was a slipup in the actions of the motorized infantrymen. Part of the targets were not hit. This

  3. Agriculture of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebelsky, Ihor

    1985-01-01

    Food production in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is described; the opportunities and limitations of the region's land resources for agriculture are examined; and the evolution of the institutional structures of agriculture are discussed. Recent developments to improve the food supply are outlined. (RM)

  4. Safeguarding nuclear materials in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Erkkila, B.

    1995-12-31

    This article is a discussion of the safeguarding of nuclear materials in the states of the former Soviet Union. Several issues have been identified and improvements are being pursued at many facilities. These issues include: (1) improvements to existing computerized accounting systems, (2) access control, and (3) control of material movement.

  5. How to Arrange Student Tours to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    The details of planning a student tour to the Soviet Union are described by an experienced tour organizer. Student tours of one to three weeks are presented as rewarding alternatives to lengthy overseas study. Recommendations are made regarding choice of tour type, length of tour, travel agencies, time of year to travel, advertising a tour,…

  6. Physical Education and Sport in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maetozo, Matthew G.

    The author presents perceptions of the world of sport and physical education gained during a study-tour of the Soviet Union in 1977. This broad overview of individual and governmental involvement in physical activities includes the following--a survey of physical education and public participation in sport in tsarist Russia, governmental policy…

  7. Education in the Soviet Union: Has "Perestroika" Met Its Match?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Gerald Howard

    1989-01-01

    In late 1988, the Soviet Union's "perestroika" entered a new stage aimed at developing human resources and fostering democratic processes. Educators' and parents' discontent with the centralized bureaucracy and rigid educational administrative structure will press officials to formulate a comprehensive new education theory to achieve 19…

  8. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the Trotskyites and later by the new opposition. But it was F.E. Dzerzhinskiy who came closest to grasping the problem of Thermidor. Just before he...of the departmental pincers and to transfer real power into the hands of the local soviet. It is high time for Snechkus to have its own boss, who

  9. Earthquake research in the Soviet Union

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    Henry Spall talked recently with Robert L. Wesson, the new Chief, Office of Earthquake Studies at the U.S Geological Survey National Center, Reston, Va. Wesson has spent altogether almost 1 year in the U.S.S.R, and 6 months of that time in the Garm area of Soviet Tadzhikistan in 1974. 

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-09

    about the Soviet Armed Forces (though, the volume of the publish- ed military statistics has increased during the last 5-7 years). Of...3. See: Statisticheskiy Ezhegodnik Stran-Chlenov Soveta Ekonomicheskoy Vzaimopomoshchi [Annual Statistical Report by Participating Council of...pp 192-193. 6.See: Statisticheskiy Ezhegodnik Stran-Chlenov Soveta Ekonomicheskoy Vzaimopomoshchi [Annual Statistical Report by Participating

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-12

    direction of the European theatre , which means that SB will be maintained. This is a difficult theoretical problem which can only be resolved by...aura of romanticism surrounding service in the fleet. How is today’s generation of Soviet seamen coping with the ocean vigil? [Makarov] I for one

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    crowned by a miracle-working name, although in fact this is far from the way it was. Talk is not documentary evidence, as they say, but although the... Jesuitically embel- lished saying: "You can’t make omelets without breaking eggs." It was good when, through the kindness of fate, people did not...tion and advertising materials to Soviet and foreign tourists and for making popular documentaries , radio and TV programs is inadequate compared

  13. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-10

    party and soviet officials dozens of times. In Baranov- ichskiy Rayon they have accumulated a lot of experience in intensive animal husbandry, in...party committee] be made suitable to the local leader. Such a modus operandi is paralyzing normal party work and creating an unhealthy situation in...years addressed from the most varied rostrums to the party’s rank and file. But here the time of a real test of position has approached, and it

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-08

    war. This is an objective reality . By laying emphasis on land forces only, in particular on tanks and artillery, in solving the issues of removing...for the realities of army life in a friendly country, but nonethe- less on foreign territory. ...A few months ago, during the visit of the Soviet...victori- ous, were available in time. Nevertheless, there were virtually no offensive air units. The majority of pilots had not been trained for the

  15. The Defense Policy of the Soviet Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    indicated his determination to divert substantial resources-financial, material, and human-from defense to other sectors of the Soviet economy . He...intercontinental ballistic missile IMEMO Institute of World Economy and International Relations INF Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force (Treaty) IUSAC Institute...ph, sed-array radar MAD mutual a.ssured destruction MEMO Mirovaia ekunomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia (World Economy and International Relations

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-13

    related to the restoration of the rights of Soviet Germans," but its activity has been as hazy as its name. Meanwhile, the population of the Volga River ...concerned with the clean up of small rivers and the restoring the Dnieper to its original state. The Dnieper lowlands after the artificial release of...the CPSU’s right to property as a social organization is established in Article 10 of the USSR Constitution, in the articles of the RSFSR Civil Code

  17. JPRS Report: Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    they would [ Letter to Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin, chairman of the have to wait at least two months for a meeting with you RSFSR Supreme Soviet, from...are protecting. Neither Gorbachev, nor Yazov, nor the party compelled me or asked me to write this letter . Your deception Officers’ Assemblies...Created at Various Levels compelled me to do this. And in this letter I express the 91 UM0449C Moscow KRASNA YA ZVEZDA opinion of the Russian soldiers of

  18. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the NFA, and other movements are springing up, but as yet there has been no political- ideological demarcation. Let us not forget that we are all...its regular spring and fall sessions by the Chairman of the Azerbaijan Supreme Soviet. Special sessions are called by the Chairman of the Azerbaijan...conducted by means of a personal questionnaire. Opinions in the northeast of the republic did not differ strongly from the general opinion. The

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-27

    Revolutionaries" by B. Pak; the conclud- ing part of I. Belyaev’s article "Egypt. The Revolution and the President" "Mahatmah Gandhi as Described by...O. Martyshin. Mahatmah Gandhi in the Evaluations of Soviet Researchers (p 22) Problems and Opinions VI. Li, G. Mirskiy. Socialist Orientation in...Scientific Life V. Rozhkov. A Forum for Mongolian Scholars (p 44) Culture, Literature, Art V. Ozhogin. Lev Tolstoy and Japanese Culture (p 46

  20. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    instinctively evokes associations with the bad memory of orders by sex, age, sectors, and so forth in the elections to the old Supreme Soviet. There clearly...monument, and there " Memorial " openly screams at a 3-hour rally about Jews and Latvians and everyone who should be hanged right then and there. The...overcoming, the outbursts of nationality conflicts remain in their social memory for a long time to come. More than one generation is doomed to mutual

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    enormous creative poten- great strength. The historical memory of the people is tial of the Soviet people into the good of socialism. But being...Plenum held in This rayon is famous from former times. Its name has October of 1986 removed from their positions and emblazoned itself in my memory from...and class anything who is not ready to be deceived. Hypnosis does fight, not work on a person who does not want to be hypno- fight, tized. Trotskiy was

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of big financially than those whose output financiers and state-monopoly group- finds no market . ings. Speeding up the...have now been joined by the CIA and the Pentagon. These agencies are now openly pointing out the growing depen- dence of the U.S. market on Japanese...lop and broaden cooperation in cuHure, health car*, educa- tion, the mass media , tourism and sports. The Soviet mission of peace evoked broad

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-27

    we had encountered a kind of mythological octopus with its single center, which for a long time had carefully prepared to overthrow the Soviet...34habitual criminals [vory v zakone]." We perceived as juridically incorrect his assertion that "the informals are camouflaged criminals." New...life, there is another statistic we’d like to know: are there now fewer ’habitual criminals’ at large, or ’ camouflaged ’ informals (who in fact are not

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-26

    on 23 May carries an 80-minute recorded telebridge program linking officials of the USSR Supreme Soviet in Moscow with U.S. Congress members in...meaning." Differences in social systems, language , traditions, views, values, and inter- ests are all real and we must not pretend they don’t exist...Ireland and the USSR signalled a successful development of business ties between the two countries in the field of air transport. [Text] [Moscow

  5. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  6. Emerging technology in the Soviet Union: Selected papers with analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on emerging Soviet technology are presented. The topics addressed are: economic considerations of emerging technology; aviation, motor, and space designs; new materials and components for IR lasers; electroslag technology for smelting high quality metals from scrap and for preparing ingots with differential properties; computer design and application in the USSR; advances in tribology: slideway design and unloading systems; analysis of emerging Soviet technology.

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-25

    features in social organization and work methods. It consists of imparting to socialism the most up-to-date forms, and it is a relatively pro- longed ...victory—they overthrew the Dashnak govern- ment and established Soviet power. The people, having found long -sought freedom, entered onto the high...environment in the ArSSR. At the behest of the ArSSR Party Central Committee, the ArSSR Council of Ministers is developing a long -term state program for the

  8. The Station Relay. Facts and Views on Daily Life in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Stephen P., Ed.; Dunn, Ethel, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of five journal issues describing facts and daily life in the Soviet Union, the documents are intended to help people of the United States know about the people of the Soviet Union, their hopes, fears, and facts of their daily lives. Among the topics included in the publications are: Soviet consumers and the law; public health…

  9. Research Survey of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, E. Glyn

    The state of the art of bilingual education in the Soviet Union is surveyed. The social context of Soviet bilingualism is discussed with reference to sources of heterogeneity, modernization as a motivating factor, political dimensions, and Soviet bases of research. The sociolinguistic paradigm of Soviet society is viewed as a function of the need…

  10. Culture and the environment in the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1985-03-01

    The Soviet Union is one of the most physically and culturally diverse nations on earth. Its natural environment embraces a rich variety of resources and ecosystems, many of which, such as Lake Baikal, are of world significance. Culturally, it is comprised of over a hundred ethnic groups, belonging to eight major language groups and six major religions. However, two cultures are dominant: the Slavic group (which takes in 75% of the USSR population and 80% of its land area) and the Turkic-Islamic peoples who account for the large majority of the remainder. Owing to the highly centralized nature of the country's political-administrative system, however, the effect of culture or ethnic traditions in the resolution of national environmental issues is quite small. Major decisions regarding either specific conservation issues or basic environmental policies are made at the centralized level by ministerial, planning, and Communist Party officials, and are based on pragmatically refined ideological considerations, rather than on regional cultural attitudes. This pragmatic refining of ideological considerations will involve the weighing of specific economic and environmental imperatives, and deciding on appropriate trade-offs. To find cultural expression in environmental management, one would need to look closely at local projects and approaches in the various ethnic regions, particularly the non-Slavic ones.

  11. Nuclear energy safety challenges in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Fifteen nuclear reactors of the type that exploded at Chernobyl in April 1986 are still operating in Russia, Ukraine, and Lithuania. The West, concerned about safety of operations, wants these reactors shut down, but the host nations refuse. The electricity these reactors supply is nuch too important for their economies, so the argument goes. The report defines policy options and procedures to implement those options for the acceptable resolution of the nuclear power safety issues facing the former Soviet Union.

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union KOMMUNIST No 9, June 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. SOVIET UNION KOMMUNIST No 9i June 1987 [Translation of the Russian-language theoretical...for seed and marketing and their processing; rape production and processing; and reproduction of high-yielding dairy cow herd through transplantation...good weather conditions of past few years had hypnotized some managers at the oblast agroindustrial committee, the Lipetskagroplodoovoshchprom

  13. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    on cinematography . In film planning and production, the universally-con- demned but still all-powerful "His Highness, Val [gross output...is functioning. Understanding all this, Goskino [State Committee for Cinematography ] and the USSR Union of Cinema Workers have begun to repair the...in Russian23 Oct 87 p 2 [Article by Ye. Sobor, chairman, MSSR State Committee on Cinematography : "It’s Time to Reset our Clocks"] [Text] By virtue

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union:, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    bureaucracy was and remains the most reactionary force in the entire Union, with the exception perhaps of some of the Central Asian clans. Such a status...34 Crab Tavern". In Yalta, the fashionable hotel for foreigners "Rossiya" bears a large sign to the right of the door with the letters USSR and the...southern shore of Crimea, a graduate, to go that far, of the Medical-Surgical Academy of St. Petersburg. No mention is made either of Ambrosiy

  16. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-18

    union statistics , there were about 15 mil- lion persons unemployed. More than 17 million persons have been without work in the countries of Western...misrepresent statistical accounting and sell military equipment, ammunition, and munitions at prices that are patently speculative. So a 12-foot tape...science-intensive than civilian production. According to the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics estimate, 1 billion dollars can provide for 54,000 jobs in

  17. Globalization, marine regime shifts and the Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Österblom, Henrik; Folke, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Regime shifts have been observed in marine ecosystems around the world, with climate and fishing suggested as major drivers of such shifts. The global and regional dynamics of the climate system have been studied in this context, and efforts to develop an analogous understanding of fishing activities are developing. Here, we investigate the timing of pelagic marine regime shifts in relation to the emergence of regional and global fishing activities of the Soviet Union. Our investigation of official catch statistics reflects that the Soviet Union was a major fishing actor in all large marine ecosystems where regime shifts have been documented, including in ecosystems where overfishing has been established as a key driver of these changes (in the Baltic and Black Seas and the Scotian Shelf). Globalization of Soviet Union fishing activities pushed exploitation to radically new levels and triggered regional and global governance responses for improved management. Since then, exploitation levels have remained and increased with new actors involved. Based on our exploratory work, we propose that a deeper understanding of the role of global fishing actors is central for improved management of marine ecosystems.

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-29

    intellectual resources are quickly improved. It seems to me in this connection that the most important prerequisite for restructuring foreign economic ...export and import programs and on the state’s foreign economic policy as a whole. The possibility is not excluded that some problems would be...20 Oct 89] 54 Platform of Georgian Opposition Group Outlined //. Shengelaia; LITERATURULI SAKARTVELO, 20 Oct 89] 56 Ethnic, Economic

  19. Carbon in the Former Soviet Union: The Current Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodwell, G. M.; Stone, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    This work has been carried out in a period of great changes in Russia that have brought extreme hardships to the scientific community. We have been fortunate in establishing excellent relationships with the Russian scientific community and believe we have helped to retain coherence in circumstances where the continuation of research was in doubt. We have learned much and have been effective in advancing, even establishing, scholars and programs in Russia that might not otherwise have survived the transition. The vigor of the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA) is one sign of the value and success of these activities. Largely due to the current political and economic transitions in the former Soviet Union, the forests of much of the FSU are under reduced logging pressure. In addition, there is a decline in air pollution as heavy industry has waned, at least for now. Russian forestry statistics and our personal experience indicate a decline, perhaps as high as 60%, in forest harvesting over the last few years. But, new international market pressures on the forests exist in European Russia and in the Far East. The central government, still the "owner" of Russian forests, is having difficulty maintaining control over forest use and management particularly in the Far East and among the southern territories that have large, nonRussian ethnic populations. Extraordinarily large areas of mixed forest and grasslands, sparse or open forests, and mixed forests and tundra must be considered when calculating forest area It is insufficient to think of Russia as simply forest and nonforest Forest productivity, measured as growth of timber, appears to be in decline in all areas of Russia except in European Russia. Most information and publications on the recent history of these forests is heavily dependent on statistical data from the Soviet era. The interpretation of these data is very much open to debate. Anatoly Shwidenko, a long term collaborator and former

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This report covers 1)Worldwide Topics 2)East-West Relations 3)Socialist Community, CEMA 4)General Economic Affairs 5)West Europe 6)East Europe 7)Latin America 8)China, East Asia and 9)Near East and South Asia.

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Free Market Mechanisms Explained [Ye. Bovkun, V. Tolstov; IZVESTIYA, 5 May 90] 19 UNITED STATES, CANADA Formation of Bush Administration "Team...not, of course, ignore the economic reforms in the countries of Eastern Europe or avoid the discussion of the role of the market . The results of the...discussion were reflected in the monetary section of the final document. It mentions the positive effects of market factors’on economic growth and

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    International Relations Research Program; Rodrigo Joubert, coordi- nator of the CIDE Central American Research Program; Jose Miguel Insulza...of Mexico (UNAM); Alfredo Guerra- Borges , UNAM Economic Research Institute staffer; Romulo Caballeros, head of the Economic Development Divi- sion of...primarily with the aid of Jose Azcoha and Napo- leon Duarte. "I will not be anyone’s pimp...," the latter said. "The hour of reckoning is at hand for

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-28

    under the earth , forests, air, fauna and flora, water and fish. The orientation of their continuing activity should be the complete state program...policy and inter- national relations; customs; control of borders and terri- torial waters ; the adjoining economic zone and the continental shelf...asking: if we, Belorussians, and those recent and long-time residents of our ancient Slavic earth , do not agree and solve our problems, then why did we

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-23

    Relations, USSR Academy of Sci- ences. First two paragraphs are introduction by MOS- COW NEWS.] [Text] One of the tasks of the radical economic reform...place not given. First three paragraphs are introduction by MOS- COW NEWS.] [Text] Early in August the Commission of the European Communities (CEC... Holstein , who aspired to a sharp increase in the land governments’ influence on personnel policy and program content. The communists are demanding social

  5. JPRS Report. Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    affecting the ordinary life of the proletarian masses. The latter understood "their" interest extremely rectilinearly, as defense of the right to...efforts to consolidate the rights of socialism in life in the very center of Europe. If it were decided that history should be repeated, Czechoslovakia...necessary to place on the agenda decisions relating to the main Salvadoran problems—the economic crisis and the violation of human rights . In El

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    STRANNYKH DEL SSSR, No. 17, 1988 published the results of the regular admission of students to the MGIMO of the USSR MFA. In the daytime departments , 96...students of the prepara- tory department were accepted from the results of their gruaduating exams. A competition was announced for the remaining...are women. The department of international economic relations remains the largest daytime department . One third of all first-year students will

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-19

    methods of management" and to extend relations with other countries. The author of the article describes the realistic approach of the PRC leadership to...management and methods of economic operation" and arming them- selves with a policy of expanding ties with other coun- tries. Then the chief...other households. According to the data of the agrarian research centers of the CCP Central Committee Secretariat and the PRC State Council, more

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-15

    JPRS-UMA-88-022 15 SEPTEMBER 1988 /#Jii\\ f«BBBI !■■■■! FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— ^ Approrvd :c« r pubii.- r ...eradicate nonre- gulation relations. However, we believe that suggestions that the army’s ailments are society’s ailments are unconstructive. Ailments...arms race will be maintained at ever-higher levels, this will merely lead to an ongoing rise in both political tension and economic outlays as well as

  9. Business Plans in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union. Digest Number 97-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipilov, Andrew

    The concept of business planning is new to business professionals in the states of the former Soviet Union. Although Russian publications on business and economics have responded to the increased demand for knowledge of business planning, Western ideas of business planning should be integrated into Russian business management concepts in order to…

  10. Eastern Europe: Former Soviet Union, Humpty Dumpty still on its fall. [Petroleum and natural gas exploration and development in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Khartukov, E.M. ); Vinogradova, O.V.

    1993-08-01

    This paper reviews the oil and gas exploration and development activities in the former Soviet Union on a republic by republic basis. It gives figures on new well drilling activities (footage and numbers of new wells), locations of this activity, and production. The paper concentrates on the effects of the Soviet Union break-up on the availability of supplies and markets and the associated logistical headaches which resulted. The paper also briefly discusses activities in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, and Slovenia.

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs Table of Contents JPRS-UEA-87-001, 26 March 1987-Jprs-UEA-87-037, 29 December 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ä 7 AGRICULTURE AGRO-ECONOMICS, POLICY, ORGANIZATION Transition To Cost Accounting in APK Enterprises Viewed (I. Buzdalov; POLITICHESKOYE...Siberia, Far East Conference 57 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT Meeting on Central Asian Republic APK Development Reported CG. Brandt, M. Babintsev; SELSKAYA ZHIZN...PLANOVOYE KHOZYAYSTVO, No 3, Mar 87) 28 AGRICULTURE AGRO-ECONOMICS, POLICY, ORGANIZATION Academician Recommends APK Economic Planning Changes (V

  12. Impact of GRM: New evidence from the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnutt, M.

    1985-01-01

    Gravity information released by the Soviet Union allows the quantitative assessment of how the geopotential research mission (GRM) mission might effect the ability to use global gravity data for continental tectonic interpretation. The information is of an isostatic response spectra for eight individual tectonic units in the USSR. The regions examined include the Caroathians, Caucasus, Urals, Pamirs, Tien-Shan, Altal, Chersky Ridge, and East Siberian Platform. The 1 deg x 1 deg gravity data are used to calculate the admittances are used in two different sorts of tectonic studies of mountain belts in the USSR: (1) interpretation of isostatic responses in terms of plate models of compensation for mountainous terrain. Using geologic information concerning time of the orogeny, lithospheric plates involved, and polarity of subduction in collision zones, they convert the best-fitting flexural rigidity to an elastic plate thickness for the lithospheric plate inferred to underlie the mountains; the isostatic admittance functions is an attempt to directly model gravity and topography data for a few select regions in the Soviet Union. By knowing the value of the expected correlation between topography and gravity from the admittances, the Artemjev's map in mountainous areas can be calibrated, and the maps are converted back to Bouguer gravity. This procedure is applied to the Caucasus and southern Urals.

  13. Trade Unions and the Economics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, Sarah

    1987-01-01

    Contends that a realistic approach to teaching economics requires learning about trade unions. Presents a role play of a trade union meeting that helps students think about how trade unions tackle problems. (BSR)

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 3, February 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-05

    separate series: EKO: ECONOMICS § ORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION (UEO) THE WORKING CLASS f , THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD (UWC) PEOPLES OF ASIA $ AFRICA...of building socialism. Under the party’s leadership the Soviet people built socialism, defeated fascism in the Great Patriotic War, rebuilt and...plenum with total frankness, was that above all by virtue of subjective reasons the CPSU Central Committee and the country’s leadership were unable

  15. Soviet Economic Policy Towards Eastern Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    with Eastern Europe, Institute of International Studies , University of California, Berkeley, 1983. Marresc, Michael, and Jan Vanous, "Soviet Trade...of Trade with Eastern Europe, Institute of International Studies , University of California, Berkeley, 1983, p. 11. 25. Raimund Dietz, "Advantages...and for political support in international forums, yet it simultaneously wishes to maintain tight control.’ It also faces the economic dilemma of

  16. Economics of Defense - The Soviet Military Budget.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    1981. His career began at - Vurtsmith AFB, Michigan in 1972 as a Management Analysis Officer in the Comptroller career field. He was then assigned to HQ...Japan and the U. S. in high technology development and that the Soviet economic output is actually declining (7:36). These issues and more are causing...after WVII began to decline. Due to poor capital investment, a command economy, and poor resource development, the world is now seeing the maturity of

  17. The People of the Soviet Union. Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikofski, Joyce

    This sixth grade teaching unit covers Soviet propaganda, communism, relations with the United States, Soviet geography, Soviet arts, and Soviet life. Unit goals address the above content areas, map skills, and an attitudinal goal of helping students to develop a sense of respect for the life of Soviet citizens. Behavioral objectives are keyed to…

  18. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D. )

    1993-04-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs.

  19. Astronomy and astronomical education in the FSU (Former Soviet Union)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, Nikolai G.

    The current situation in astronomy and astronomical education over the territory of the Former Soviet Union is traced. New facilities for radioastronomy are being put into work - the most important of them being the 2 coupled 32-m dishes, VLBI network "Quasar"; a number of observatories are acquiring an international status (in the frame of CIS); INTERNET is becoming available for an increasing number of astronomical institutions. Azerbaijan astronomers have overcome their isolation from the rest of the world and cooperate actively with the astronomical community. All-Russia and international olympics in astronomy for high school students are held and attract participants from increasing number of regions of Russia and other states. The outcome of the 9th JENAM in Moscow and of the events attached to the Meeting is presented.

  20. Mental health inequalities in 9 former Soviet Union countries: evidence from the previous decade.

    PubMed

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In the previous two decades, countries of the former Soviet Union underwent substantive economic and social changes. While there has been some limited evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic well-being and mental health in the developing and transitional economies, the evidence on economic inequalities in mental health has so far been scarce. In this paper, we analyse two unique datasets collected in 2001 (N = 18,428) and in 2010 (N = 17,998) containing data on 9 countries of the former Soviet Union, exploring how mental health inequalities have changed between 2001 and 2010. Using regression analysis, as well as the indirect standardization approach, we found that mental health appears to have substantially improved in most studied countries during the past decade. Specifically, both the proportion of people with poor mental health, as well as wealth-related inequalities in poor mental health, decreased in almost all countries, except Georgia. Hence, we did not find evidence of a trade-off between changes in average and distributional mental health indicators between 2001 and 2010. Our findings give ground for optimism that at least on these measures, the most difficult times associated with the transition to a market economy in this region may be coming to an end.

  1. The dynamics of professional commitment: immigrant physicians from the former Soviet Union in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shuval, J T; Bernstein, J

    1996-04-01

    The paper examines professional commitment among physicians who immigrated to Israel form the former Soviet Union during the early 1990s. This population faces severe limits regarding occupational continuity because of the highly saturated market in which non-negligible groups will, in the long run, of necessity undergo occupational change. The theoretical background for the analysis is drawn from the literature regarding recent changes in professional roles with particular reference to the shifting meaning of work in post-modern societies and its consequences for occupational commitment. The professional context of medical practice in the former Soviet Union and the social and economic constraints of Israeli society in the 1990s set the scene for the analysis. Several dimensions of professional commitment are examined empirically, on the assumption that there are a variety of ways to consider the notion of commitment and that no one measure tells a complete story. Prolonged processes of deprofessionalization of medicine in the Soviet Union, suggest that medicine for most immigrant physicians is not so much a 'calling' to which they are devoted; rather it is a necessary means to gain a livelihood, the only occupation for which they have been trained for many years after stringent selection to medical school and the only job in which they have worked consistently since completing their formal training. Two and a half years after arrival in Israel the immigrant doctors are characterized by a short-range time perspective which makes them unwilling to accept the constraints of the saturated market; intense efforts are made by most to obtain a license despite the fact that only a fraction of them will be able to work in their profession on a regular basis. Despite this over-riding reality, many hope that they will be among the selected few who will be able to obtain a medical post.

  2. [Analysis of patenting vaccine-serum preparations in the Soviet Union].

    PubMed

    Shepelev, N P; Dzagurov, S G; Korovkin, V I

    1976-11-01

    Patenting practice of vaccine-serum preparations in the Soviet Union is not uniform. A compelx maintenance of the object, i.e. patenting of the preparation proper and the method of its production is of interest.

  3. Space activities in the Soviet Union, Japan, and the People's Republic of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezell, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    The space programs of the Soviet Union, Japan, and China are discussed. The types of launch vehicles they used and the classes of spacecraft they launched are examined. The political motivations of these nations are analyzed.

  4. Nuclear Accidents in the Former Soviet Union: Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk and Chernobyl

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    in the Former Soviet Union: Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk and Chernobyl DNA/AFRRI 4020 *. AUTHORIS) Daniel L. Collins, Ph.D. Lt Col, USAF lE L E T E 1...sJ Three nuclear accidents besides Chernobyl have occurred in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The accidents occurred over the geographic area around...enviromental chemicals. 94,1 126 14. SUBJECT TERMS 16. NUMBER OF PAGES Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk, Chernobyl , REM, human, psychological 0 radiation 90Sr, Curies

  5. The Development of Mobile Melt-Dilute Technology for the Treatment of Former Soviet Union Research Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.

    2003-10-09

    On-site application of the MMD process offers an economical method for converting weapons usable Former Soviet Union (FSU) High Enriched Uranium (HEU) research reactor fuel to a safe and secure Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) ingot. The objective of the MMD Project is to develop the mobile melt and dilute technology in preparation for active equipment deployment in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the FSU.

  6. JPRS Report Soviet Union Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    which does not require special mental effort and high professionalism, to forestalling defects and to analyzing their causes in all their totality...best world class and has always been distinguished by a high level of technology? Of course there is a shortage of advanced workers, and monitoring...yesterday’s products is still high among the articles being produced. Moreover, these products have been included in state orders. Formally, this is the

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    automatic engagement of the front axle drive). The introduction of new components and sets of hearts in order to raise the technical level and increase...route specialists, yard masters, car inspectors, innovators, and inventors ... They speak of difficulties, state problems which in their opinion demand...of the teams, partic- ularly the young locomotive engineers, have been lax. The accidents which have taken place attest to this. A wheel pair on a

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    country. It could also take up this matter . Next to the dairy and the meat packing plant there are often large enterprises from other branches. Why... temperature of the fuel-element cladding t, and minimal reserve before dry -out or burn-out „,„ b. Change of pressure in the first loop P, and in the...ZEMLYA SIBIRSKAYA, DALNEVOSTOCHNAYA No 5, May 88] 7 Importance of Summer-Pasture Period for Dairy Farms [L. Kolbasko; SELSKAYA GAZETA, 12 Jun 88] 10

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    flour products, 150 too few dough -rolling machines, 500 too few freezers, and every third cold storage unit in the stores and depots is being...by them. Why, it is asked, must the people, who are the most important bread -winner of all, and the primary producer of goods and services, be made

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    up to now been typical of many enterprise managers instead of creative exploration. At a number of plants cost accounting within the production ...an evaluation is given and an analysis is made of the actual effectiveness of capital investments utilized in a group of linked production projects ...effectiveness of capital investments in linked production projects according to the plan (0.1259) and the report (-0.0121) indicate that capital

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    shops , workplaces, and teams of enterprises; and rules of khozraschet usage are left to stand without review for long periods of time. The result is...is planned in accordance with seven, and estimates of shop spending are based on 28 indicators. At the Kaliningradbummash association, quotas for...88-043 22 November 1988 NATIONAL ECONOMY Let us examine a specific situation. The association set up three workshop sections in the carding shop

  12. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    promised to impress my guests." He answered: "Now, Caesar." And he brought in a huge dish of boiled crabs . "This is what I want to make my impression...34 All the Romans turned their eyes and saw that actually the boiled crabs were moving. And they were impressed. "Fine," Caesar said, "how did you...exchange is that kind of live crab that is moving and forcing everything else in our economy to move. S. SHATALIN, member of the academy: We are

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    repayment of our debts and to help us with credits... [Comment] Again with the outstretched hand? [V. Postolnyy] ...because their official seals are... welding equipment, is of branch impor- tance. This is the branch order, and it is financed by the branch. All-purpose construction equipment is the...costly than the flux we were using. In this case, the indicators of the welding process—speed and productivity—were practically unchanged. And, what is

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    available produc- tion machinery. The obsolescence and wear of this machinery and the decline in its dependability of oper- ation do not provide an...of its increasing wear , is turning out to be incapable of producing the result which was technically attainable before. A number of the...while wear and write-offs are the form of reducing capacities in ferrous metallurgy and a number of sectors in the chemical, building materials, and

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    National Economy, Investment, Prices, Budget, Finances, The introduction to new technology, Agriculture, Regional development , Post-Procurement processing, Construction, Domestic trade, Energy, and Labor.

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the present and are fresh and alive in the memory of the Chinese people. During the entire time I spent in China not a single person who had not...to call their contracts rental contracts. This is apparently a kind of hypnosis of the moment. If experi- ence has been approved, this means that

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-12

    of ’Full Khozraschet’ [G. V. Grenbek; EKONOMIKA I ORGANIZATSIYA PROMYSHLENNOGO PROIZVODSTVA No 8, Aug 88J ■• \\\\ Advantages of Forming Industrial ...Concerns Described [A. Shamov; IZVESTIYA, 30 Aug 88] 13 Practice of Lease Contracts at Industrial Enterprises Discussed 15 Two Views of Lease...KHOZYAYSTVO KIRGIZII No 5, May 88] 42 POST-PROCUREMENT PROCESSING Problems In Uzbekistan’s Food Processing Industry 45 Food Processing, Storage Problems IM

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    article by V. Pavlov , chairman of the USSR State Committee for Prices, entitled "Why Is Price Reform Necessary?" Raising Prices as the Shortest...disappear; and "social justice will rise over our state!..." V. Pavlov , of course, can be outraged: He has not asserted anything of the kind. Everything...by 50 percent. This list, of course, is familiar to V. Pavlov better than anyone; there is no end and no brink. Thus, if one proceeds from the

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34Znaniye" Society. At meetings in the Society imeni Nikola Tesla and at Lyublyana Uni- versity, when conversation turned to perestroyka in our country...means of cost accounting took shape at the Nikola - yev-Lvov Combine, but this is impossible without com- plete self-management. Everyday practical

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-28

    for thought. The light and textile industries, after obtaining the planned profit, neverthe- less undersupplied commerce by hundreds of millions of...try to find answers to this question in the history of our association. The plant gave its first output in 1945, but presently operating production...significance, functions, and so forth will inevi- tably be limited and incomplete. Without getting bogged down in special questions of the history of this

  1. The Soviet Economic Dilemma of Eastern Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    terms of trade, overinvestment, the hard currency debt crisis , and problems in adopting and diffusing new technologies. At times Soviet policies have...Surpluses with Eastern Europe ........... 31 10. Soviet Trade Surpluses with East European Countries in Crisis ...trade until 1979, and then again in 1981 dur- ing the Polish crisis . Moreover, Soviet terms of trade with Eastern Europe have improved very rapidly

  2. Recent developments with the Soviet Union's VHF satellite navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, P.; Perry, G. E.

    1986-03-01

    A description of the Soviet Union's VHF satellite navigation system is presented. The system utilizes constellations of satellites and position-fixing is achieved by low-orbiting satellites in near-polar orbit. The military satellites have orbital spacing intervals of 3 deg with satellite identification numbers 1-9 and civilian satellites have a 45 deg with identification numbers from 11-14. The satellite position data transmitted by the navigation system are examined. Each satellite transmits two coherent frequencies of 150 and 400 MHz and three tone modulations (3, 5, and 7 kHz). The data consist of time indications and orbital information encoded in final 32 bits in each second; a single frame of data lasts 1 min and two sets of four blocks of seven words provide satellite alerts. The launch schedule for the navigation system and the use of identification numbers are discussed. On-board problems with the Cosmos 1333 are analyzed. The COSPAS/SARSAT system is employed to locate ships and aircraft in distress. The code words utilized in the navigation system are studied.

  3. Soviet Central Decisionmaking and Economic Growth: A Summing Up.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    by three, while the latter decreased by four. 31 2 8Leslie Dienes, "Regional Economic Development," in Abram Bergson and Herbert S. Levine, The Soviet...inside the curve are inferior to those on the curve. Abram Bergson suggested that the systemic inefficiencies of the Soviet economy precluded... Bergson , Soviet National Income and Product n 1937. Columbia University Press, New York, 1953. Whether FF should be parallel to PP is an interesting

  4. Soviet Union and nuclear proliferation: policy at a crossroads. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Rigby, R.L.

    1988-04-02

    The Soviet Union has been a major participant of the regime of nations dedicated to limiting the spread of nuclear weapons. Since the early 1960's the Soviet Union has worked closely with the United States to limit nuclear proliferation. In no other area of international relations have the stated goals of the two superpowers been more closely aligned. Recent events indicate that the Soviet Union has parted from the original intent of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and of the International Atomic Energy Association nuclear safeguards and has begun assisting nations that are not participants of the non-proliferation regime. While not specifically calling for a revision of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, the Soviet Union has unilaterally assisted in the spread of nuclear technology to nations that have refused to become members of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. This assistance is examined in the context of the overall Soviet nuclear nonproliferation policy or simply placing political goals above that of international agreements is examined. The paper concludes that the Soviet Union will use nuclear technology as a tool to further its strategic goals.

  5. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  6. Environmental assistance as national security policy: Helping the former Soviet Union find solutions to its environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Dunaway, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    Since the fall of Communism in the former Soviet Union, US Presidents and policy makers have stressed the importance of helping Russia and the Newly Independent States develop democratic forms of government and forge strong economic and environmental ties with other nations throughout the world. The US can and should play a role in helping the Commonwealth of Independent States repair decades of damage caused by Cold War-driven industrial and nuclear development. This report describes some of the region`s most serious environmental problems and their potential to spread throughout the affected areas to neighboring countries. It provides an overview of the emerging environmental component of the US. National Security Strategy first proposed by President Bush. Finally, it describes an ambitious proposal to implement geographic information system (GIS) technology as a means of helping the former Soviet Union identify and monitor existing and potential environmental hazards. The ability to locate, analyze, and track existing damage reliably, as a prelude to predicting potential threats, is a necessary first step in developing a viable strategy to protect environmental, economic, and social resources, both in the former Soviet Union and world-wide.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of terrestrial rabies in the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Botvinkin, Alexandr D; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Smith, Jean S; Orciari, Lillian A; Hughes, Gareth J; Fooks, Anthony R; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2004-10-01

    Fifty-five rabies virus isolates originating from different regions of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were compared with isolates originating from Eurasia, Africa, and North America according to complete or partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences. The FSU isolates formed five distinct groups. Group A represented viruses originating from the Arctic, which were similar to viruses from Alaska and Canada. Group B consisted of "Arctic-like" viruses, originating from the south of East Siberia and the Far East. Group C consisted of viruses circulating in the steppe and forest-steppe territories from the European part of Russia to Tuva and in Kazakhstan. These three phylogenetic groups were clearly different from the European cluster. Viruses of group D circulate near the western border of Russia. Their phylogenetic position is intermediate between group C and the European cluster. Group E consisted of viruses originating from the northwestern part of Russia and comprised a "northeastern Europe" group described earlier from the Baltic region. According to surveillance data, a specific host can be defined clearly only for group A (arctic fox; Alopex lagopus) and for the Far Eastern part of the group B distribution area (raccoon dog; Nyctereutes procyonoides). For other territories and rabies virus variants, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the main virus reservoir. However, the steppe fox (Vulpes corsac), wolf (Canis lupus), and raccoon dog are also involved in virus circulation, depending on host population density. These molecular data, joined with surveillance information, demonstrate that the current fox rabies epizootic in the territory of the FSU developed independently of central and western Europe. No evidence of positive selection was found in the N genes of the isolates. In the glycoprotein gene, evidence of positive selection was strongly suggested in codons 156, 160, and 183. At these sites, no link between amino acid substitutions and phylogenetic placement or

  8. Extraordinary Longevity in the Soviet Union: Fact or Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Neil G.; Garson, Lea Keil

    1986-01-01

    Describes an analysis of Soviet mortality and census data from 1959 and 1970, which provides significant evidence effectively negating previous claims of extraordinary Soviet longevity. Strongly suggests that the true number of centenarians is but a small fraction of that reported. (Author/ABB)

  9. Security Assistance Rationales: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    function to defray the cost of Soviet arms development. 96 The linkage of arms sales and comercial sales is not a factor in Soviet arms transfer to Eastern...of plant, R&D institution representatives, and politica .’wer over the GOSPLAN mechanism, does have a feedback loop. _.Ae defense ministries must be

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 1, January 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    million. An even greater effect is expected from the Mir station’s on-board gear. Using satellites of the Kosmos and Meteor-Priroda series along with...Soviet spacecraft and orbital stations, and using Soviet booster rockets to launch foreign satel- lites. It is common knowledge that the Kosmos

  11. Multilingualism in the Successor States of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreindler, Isabelle

    1997-01-01

    Major common language problems arising in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet bloc are outlined, as identified in recent literature, and pressing language-related issues in specific former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,…

  12. Evidence and ideology as a rationale for light-therapy in Russia: from the Soviet Union to the present day.

    PubMed

    Kühlbrandt, Charlotte; McKee, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Light therapy is still used to treat a number of common diseases in Russia. The practice is firmly anchored in history: Soviet clinical practice was divorced from the emerging field of evidence-based medicine. Medical researchers were cut off from international medical research and scientific literature, with much Soviet scientific activity based on a particular socialist ideology. In this study, the use of light therapy serves as a case study to explore tensions between international evidence-based medicine and practices developed in isolation under the Soviet Union, the legacy of which is to the detriment of many patients today. We used four different search methods to uncover scientific and grey literature, both historical and contemporary. We assessed the changing frequency of publications over time and contrasted the volume of literature on light therapy with more orthodox treatments such as statins and painkillers. Our search found an increasing number and comparatively large body of scientific publications on light therapy in the Russian language, and many publications emanating from prestigious Russian institutions. Combined with our analysis of the historical literature and our appraisal of 22 full text articles, this leads us to suggest that light therapy entered mainstream Soviet medical practice before the Stalinist period and still occupies an important position in contemporary Russian clinical practice. We propose that this outdated treatment survives in Russia in part due to the political, economic and social forces that helped to popularize it during Soviet times, and by the seeming justification offered by poorly executed studies.

  13. Evidence and ideology as a rationale for light-therapy in Russia: from the Soviet Union to the present day

    PubMed Central

    Kühlbrandt, Charlotte; McKee, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Light therapy is still used to treat a number of common diseases in Russia. The practice is firmly anchored in history: Soviet clinical practice was divorced from the emerging field of evidence-based medicine. Medical researchers were cut off from international medical research and scientific literature, with much Soviet scientific activity based on a particular socialist ideology. In this study, the use of light therapy serves as a case study to explore tensions between international evidence-based medicine and practices developed in isolation under the Soviet Union, the legacy of which is to the detriment of many patients today. We used four different search methods to uncover scientific and grey literature, both historical and contemporary. We assessed the changing frequency of publications over time and contrasted the volume of literature on light therapy with more orthodox treatments such as statins and painkillers. Our search found an increasing number and comparatively large body of scientific publications on light therapy in the Russian language, and many publications emanating from prestigious Russian institutions. Combined with our analysis of the historical literature and our appraisal of 22 full text articles, this leads us to suggest that light therapy entered mainstream Soviet medical practice before the Stalinist period and still occupies an important position in contemporary Russian clinical practice. We propose that this outdated treatment survives in Russia in part due to the political, economic and social forces that helped to popularize it during Soviet times, and by the seeming justification offered by poorly executed studies. PMID:24040492

  14. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  15. Late life alcohol use and gender differences among Former Soviet Union immigrants.

    PubMed

    Isralowitz, Richard; Spiegel, Svetlana; Reznik, Alex; Borkin, Sofia; Snir, Yoram

    2009-01-01

    Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union tend to drink more frequently than other Israelis. However, little is known about alcohol consumption among older Former Soviet Union immigrants in Israel. In the current study, male and female Former Soviet Union immigrants residing in independent living facilities were studied to determine their patterns of alcohol use and attitudes toward drinking. Interviews were conducted using a modified version of the CAGE instrument. Findings show that men use alcohol more than women, believe they need to reduce consumption, and are more likely to be criticized and feel guilty about their drinking behavior. Additional research is needed to further understand the extent of improper alcohol use among late life immigrants and older people in the country. Such information should be applied to the development of policy and services that will address their quality of life needs.

  16. Soviet Union and the Strategic Defense Initiative: preliminary findings and impressions. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.

    1986-06-01

    This note provides a background against which to evaluate possible Soviet alternatives for dealing with the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) in the decade ahead. Without speculating about what the Soviets will ultimately do in response to SDI, the note (1) examines Moscow's statements on SDI to date, (2) reviews the highlights of Soviet doctrine and programs related to strategic defense, (3) considers the real concerns that may underline the Kremlin's public posturing on SDI, and (4) outlines the key political and strategic factors that will constrain the Soviets' eventual response. The author suggests that, assuming SDI does lead to a deployable U.S. ballistic missile defense, the Soviets will be driven to counter that threat within the limits of their economic and technical resources. Forecasting the technical details of their response at this time, however, is complicated by uncertainty not only about Soviet concerns, motivations, and intentions, but also about what the United States will eventually do with SDI.

  17. Determinants and consequences of child culture brokering in families from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Jones, Curtis J; Trickett, Edison J; Birman, Dina

    2012-09-01

    Child culture brokering occurs when immigrant children help their families navigate the new culture and language. The present study develops a model of the child culture broker role that situates it within the family and community economic and acculturative contexts of 328 families from the former Soviet Union. Path analysis was utilized to explore the relationships of community and family economic and cultural contexts with child culture brokering, child emotional distress, and family disagreements. All children reported some culture brokering for their parents. Less English proficient parents with lower status jobs, and living in areas with more Russian speaking families tended to utilize their children as brokers more often. Further, community economic conditions also predicted brokering indirectly, mediated by parent job social status. Brokering was related to child emotional distress and family disagreements. Further, culture brokering was a mediator of the impact of parent job social status on both child emotional distress and family disagreements. These results add to our understanding of the culture broker role and emphasize the utility of approaching research on it from an ecological perspective.

  18. Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

  19. Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Petrov, Georgy

    2004-01-01

    Many observers have noted that corruption in higher education is widespread in the states of the former Soviet Union. Little empirical evidence is available, however. This article examines some theoretical approaches to the study of corruption, and presents empirical data on corruption in higher education from Russia and Azerbaijan, collected by…

  20. Microfossils in Conophyton from the Soviet Union and their bearing on Precambrian biostratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. W.; Sovetov, Iu. K.

    1976-01-01

    Silicified specimens of the Vendian (late Precambrian) 'index fossil' Conophyton gaubitza from South Kazakstan contain a diverse assemblage of well-preserved cyanophytic and apparently eukaryotic algae, the first stromatolitic microbiota to be reported from the Soviet Union. Unlike the stromatolites in which they occur, the microorganisms that apparently built this form of Conophyton did not become extinct at the end of the Precambrian.

  1. Some Historical Aspects of Educational Change in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anweiler, Oskar

    1992-01-01

    Reviews developments in the educational systems of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe since the end of the Cold War. Contends that nationalism and religion have had an important impact on education. Asserts that former beliefs and structures of the old system will continue to influence education for many years. (CFR)

  2. Changes in Estonian General Education from the Collapse of the Soviet Union to EU Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Edgar; Trasberg, Karmen

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces and discusses the nature and development of Estonian system of general education in the period of last thirty years. The main focus is paid on the changes resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the period of integration leading up to EU entry. Also changes in other spheres of education and social life are…

  3. Ethnicity at School: "Non-Russian" Education in the Soviet Union during the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, the decade of the 1930s saw a remarkable rate of educational expansion, as state schools enrolled millions of pupils in higher proportions and for longer periods of time than ever before. Much of this expansion occurred in the "non-Russian" regions, where the native language of children and thus the primary language…

  4. Flight controllers from Soviet Union in joint simulation activity at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A group of flight controllers from the Soviet Union take part in Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint simulation activity at JSC. They are in one of the support rooms in the Mission Control Center. The simulations are part of the preparations for the U.S.-U.S.S.R. ASTP docking in Earth orbit mission.

  5. A Comment on the Changes in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    At the time of their independence, the structure of higher education, curriculum content, governance, and admissions procedures were more or less identical across the fifteen republics of the former Soviet Union. Since independence there have been multiple changes, but often these have been quite similar in nature. There has been a move toward…

  6. Ukrainian science before, during and after the fall of the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Sibirny, Andriy A

    2016-11-01

    My activities in science have stretched over 45 years, quite a long time. They started in the 1970s, during Brezhnev's rule and continued during the collapse of the Soviet Union and first few decades of an independent Ukrainian state. Unfortunately, most of the time doing science in the Ukraine has been hard.

  7. Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

  8. Russia/Soviet Union: A Guide to Print Materials for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Elizabeth, Ed.; Vaillant, Janet G., Ed.

    Intended to provide middle school and high school teachers and others interested in Russia and the Soviet Union with a guide to printed materials, this booklet is divided into several sections. The first section, comprising the bulk of the publication, is devoted to reviews of 69 books that were written for classroom use or appear as if they might…

  9. The Revival of Agrarian Youth Organizations in the Former Soviet Union: Lithuania--One Country's Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, M. Craig; Thuemmel, William L.; Kisieliene, Sonata

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of the origin of young farmers' organizations in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s and their second beginning since the fall of communism, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the regaining of Lithuania's independence in the 1990s. (Author/JOW)

  10. Sandia National Laboratories interactions with organizations in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, G.H.; Nokes, K.D.

    1994-03-01

    This document describes Sandia National Laboratories involvement with scientists and engineers at various organizations within the states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The purpose of these interactions is twofold: first, to acquire technical information to enhance United States technology and second, to assist FSU states in converting their defense-oriented industry to civilian, market- oriented business.

  11. The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kourotchkina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review…

  12. Microfossils in conophyton from the soviet union and their bearing on precambrian biostratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Schopf, J W; Sovietov, Y K

    1976-07-09

    Silicified specimens of the Vendian (late Precambrian) "index fossil" Conophyton gaubitza from South Kazakstan contain a diverse assemblage of well-preserved cyanophytic and apparently eukaryotic algae, the first stromatolitic microbiota to be reported from the Soviet Union. Unlike the stromatolites in which they occur, the microorganisms that apparently built this form of Conophyton did not become extinct at the end of the Precambrian.

  13. When Things Fall Apart: Qualitative Studies of Poverty in the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudwick, Nora, Ed.; Gomart, Elizabeth, Ed.; Marc, Alexandre, Ed.; Kuehnast, Kathleen, Ed.

    Using qualitative methods, the studies in this volume highlight certain aspects of the dynamics of poverty in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and the interactions of poverty with gender, age, and ethnicity. They deepen understanding of how poor people in these countries experience and cope with the shock of sudden poverty, worsening…

  14. Adjustment Issues Affecting Employment for Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Anastasia Dimun; Lucas, Margaretha S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes major issues, including culture shock and loss of status, that affect general adjustment of immigrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union who are resettling in the United States. Issues that affect career and employment adjustment are described and the interrelatedness of general and career issues is explored. (Contains 39…

  15. Food Label Use and Food Label Skills among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubman, Nadia; Doak, Colleen; Jasti, Sunitha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and skills; acculturation; and socioeconomic and…

  16. Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York…

  17. Soviet Union, Military Affairs. Data, Diagrams of Ground Forces Weaponry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-16

    in the Great Patriotic War. Soviet snipers destroyed tens of thousands of Hitlerites. Lyudmila Pavlichenko , for example, rapidly mastered the art of...soldiers and officers—that is, she succeeded in putting almost a battalion of enemy in- fantry out of action. Lyudmila Pavlichenko was awarded the great

  18. Physicists for Human Rights in the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, Yuri

    2005-03-01

    In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent Human Rights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki Human Rights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for human rights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The human rights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 12, December 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    tissue. The results of experiments on animals carried out during flights of Kosmos series biosatellites made it possible to efficiently schedule...ration are a good means of protecting against accelera- tions after weightlessness. Soviet biosatellites of the Kosmos series are making a noticeable...tal research aboard Kosmos biosatellites, Interkosmos satellites and manned orbiting stations. Working together with specialists of the GDR

  20. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 11, November 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Yeliseyev’s Ram" first two paragraphs are AVIATSIYA I KOSMO - NAVTIKA introduction] [Text] "Dear editor," write officers G. Ivovlev and V. Degtyarev...edition of the wall newspaper APOGEY devoted to the joint Soviet-Syrian space flight was posted in Kosmo - navt Hotel. An artist painted the "Heroes

  1. Lenin's Grandchildren: Preschool Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kitty D.

    The Soviets have long been devoting educational and institutional energies to the field of early childhood education. This book stresses what Russian preschool education does rather than what its theorists claim it does for children aged 2 months to 6 years who are in group care. Children, teachers and parents tell their own stories. Obviously…

  2. Regional analysis of Former Soviet Union peaceful nuclear explosions recorded in the Former Soviet Union. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adushkin, V.C.

    1995-11-11

    Until the late 80`s information on Soviet underground nuclear explosions, let alone seismic recording on Soviet soil, were not generally available to the seismological community. The dramatic changes since then have resulted in access to a wide variety of seismic data from Soviet explosions. In this report the author presents a data set, unique to the field of seismic verification. The data includes a large number of waveforms from in-country seismological station Borovoye for the Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions with announced yields and origin times, some with physical and mechanical conditions at the test site. The waveforms were recorded by digital station of different types. In this report the author has summarized and reviewed information on 122 explosions, and 55 waveforms in this data set, which contains recordings obtained in the course of more than 15 years. As the characteristics of recording instruments were changing during this period of time available information on instrument calibrations is also described and reviewed. The author also has attempted to describe the observed peculiarities of P-wave by using a simple source function and magnitude correction which take in attention such parameters as the velocity of longitudinal wave, density, moisture, gas content and depth of explosion. More detail analysis was conducted for the explosions conducted in salt as there is representative sample and they were observed on local distances.

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, Republic Language Legislation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    phonetics and grammar, takes into consideration the suggestions of the citizens of the republic and is called upon to promote the elimination of...state committees, departments, and ispolkoms of rayon and city Soviets of People’s Deputies To the extent necessary introduce suggestions to the...Ukrainian, it will be translated into Russian. Article 19. The Language of Procuratorial Oversight Acts of Ukrainian SSR procuratorial oversight will

  4. National Dissent in the Soviet Union: The Crimean Tatar Case,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    expressed solidarity with the Crimean Tatar cause.A Members of the Soviet Intelligentsia, including such prominent dissidents as Andrei Sakharov , bad...become 9 sym~pathetic with the Movement. Sakharov , in fact, mentioned their situation twice in his famous Memorandum and later wrote a samizdat ("self...new implicatior for the theory of relativity.4 (It it also interesting to speciilate on the fact that Sakharov also was piesent at the Conference,42

  5. The Gauntlet Cast: Poland Challenges the Soviet Union.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    done by Brzezinski during the 1960’s as a 1osg-term plia being used by the US to undermine Soviet strength in the Eastern Bloc. 2 0 9 The US was not the...University Press, 195. Wandycz, Piotr S. aei tt s 1917-1921. Cambridge: Harvard niversity ress, . II. YEARBOOKS "Poland.:" The Euopa 11r2o, 1 !. London

  6. Infant mortality in Kyrgyzstan before and after the break-up of the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Michel; Lim, So-Jung; Torgasheva, Liudmila; Denisenko, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    There is a great deal of uncertainty over the levels of, and trends in, infant mortality in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. As a result, the impact of the break-up of the Soviet Union on infant mortality in the region is not known, and proper monitoring of mortality levels is impaired. In this paper, a variety of data sources and methods are used to assess levels of infant mortality and their trend over time in one Central Asian republic, Kyrgyzstan, between 1980 and 2010. An abrupt halt to an already established decline in infant mortality was observed to occur during the decade following the break-up of the Soviet Union, contradicting the official statistics based on vital registration. Infants of Central Asian ethnicity and those born in rural areas were also considerably more at risk of mortality than suggested by the official sources. We discuss the implications of these findings, both for health policy in this seldom studied part of the former Soviet Union and for our understanding of the health crisis which it currently faces.

  7. American press coverage of US-Soviet relations, the Soviet Union, nuclear weapons, arms control, and national security: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, W.A.; Manoff, R.K.; Weeks, J.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography covers work that addresses coverage of nuclear and arms control issues, defense, the Soviet Union, and Soviet-American relations by the American news media between 1965 and 1988. Material selected for inclusion either discusses press performance or addresses conditions -- such as classification of information -- that directly impact on media coverage of such issues. Bodies of literature on media coverage of conflict elsewhere in the world lie outside the Center's current mandate (which has shaped the parameters of this bibliography) except insofar as such conflicts are presented by the news media specifically in the context of US-Soviet relations. Much the same is true of such issues as the North-South flow of information and the debate over calls for a New World Information Order. However, the authors have decided to include assessments of American media coverage of the Vietnam War as a case study of a watershed conflict that raised many of the issues discussed throughout this literature in a particularly compelling way.

  8. "Least Known to Americans": Content Materials about the Soviet Union in the 1940s and 1950s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Anatoli

    2006-01-01

    In December 1984 when the Soviet Union still was an "evil empire" and the United States "encroached on the achievements of Socialism," Ira Jay Winn wrote, "students who scream "Kill the Russkies" or who believe that the Soviets fought against us in World War II... are not simply ignorant of historical facts or…

  9. Initial stages of the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet union (60 years from the Invention of the Transistor)

    SciTech Connect

    Stafeev, V. I.

    2010-05-15

    The most important results of the early work of Soviet scientists in the research and development in the fields of semiconductors and semiconductor devices are reported, including results that are almost unknown now but played an important role in the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet Union.

  10. Food consumption and nutritional labeling among immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit; Zemach, Mina; Tirosh-Kamienchick, Yaara

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional labeling helps consumers make healthier choices regarding food product purchases. In this study, we examined the difference between immigrants from the former Soviet Union who emigrated to Israel beginning in 1990 (IIFSU) and the general population of Israel regarding food consumption broadly and the use of nutritional labeling specifically. A representative sample of each population (n = 592) was composed and interviewed. According to the findings, compared to the general population, the IIFSU attribute less importance to health factors in purchasing food products and information about the ingredients contained in food products; they tend not to follow nutritional labels; and report less on the need for nutritional integrative labeling. Following from this, in the second part of the study, we investigated which of the socio-economic variables is most dominant in shaping attitudes towards food consumption and nutritional labeling. Only immigration and age were found in correlation with attitudes related to healthy food consumption. In contrast, gender, education and religious observance did not affect food selection. Immigration was recognized as the main factor with more clout than the other variables. In conclusion, it is crucial to clarify immigrants' perceptions of the concept of "health" and "proper nutrition" in formulating health promotion programs.

  11. Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Leo S.

    1999-06-04

    During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic.

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 7, May 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    always been, there were commen- tators who tended to look everywhere for sensations and who, yielding to the hypnosis of their own fabrications, not...Let us consider " Memorial ." This is an ail-Union orga- nization. By law it has the right to nominate its candi- dates for deputies. Should this

  13. Tobacco and transition: an overview of industry investments, impact and influence in the former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify the contribution the tobacco industry has made to foreign direct investment (FDI) in the former Soviet Union (FSU) as an indicator of its political and economic leverage; to explore the impact this has had on production capacity and tobacco control in the region. Design: Data on industry investment and its impact on cigarette production capacity were collated from industry journals, reports, and websites. Data on total FDI were obtained from the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development. Results: By the end of 2000, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) had invested over US$2.7 billion in 10 countries of the FSU. Tobacco money as a proportion of FDI varies from 1% to over 30% in Uzbekistan. Cigarette production capacity in the factories receiving investments tripled from 146 to 416 billion cigarettes per annum and the TTCs' market share has increased from nothing to between 50–100% in the markets in which they invested. Findings suggest that the effectiveness of national tobacco control measures corresponds broadly to the nature of the political and economic transition in each country and the size of industry investment, which is determined in part by the political context. Thus more effective measures tend to be seen in democratic states with smaller or no industry investments while the least effective measures are seen in highly centralised, one party states with high levels of industry investment or those with limited governmental capacity. Conclusions: The entry of the TTCs at a time of major political and economic change left the FSU particularly vulnerable to industry influence. This influence was enhanced by the industry's significant contribution to FDI, their ability to take over existing state monopolies in all but the largest countries, and the lack of democratic opposition. PMID:15175530

  14. Older immigrants from the former Soviet Union and their use of complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Van Son, Catherine R; Stasyuk, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    The population of older immigrants in the United States is growing and they bring their health beliefs and practices with them. Older immigrants from the former Soviet Union use a variety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) remedies which includes in part: 1) foods to which medicinal properties are attributed, 2) herbs, 3) external treatments, and 4) pharmaceuticals manufactured in the former Soviet Union and available over-the-counter. These remedies vary in their efficacy and are often used in combination with or in lieu of prescribed allopathic (Western) medications. Health beliefs regarding medicine in the United States has led older Slavic immigrant to distrust their US health care providers and system. Nurses are in a key position to inquire and work with older Slavic immigrants to safely use their CAM and provide more information about prescribed allopathic medications and the harmful effects of combining remedies without consultation.

  15. Vietnam and the Soviet Union: Implications for Europe and American Foreign Policy Options.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia . Zl Pakistani report that 30,000 Soviet families have settled in Afghanistan’s northern provinces...34 Far Eastern Economic Review, 4 April 1980, pp. 22-24. Chanda, Nayan. "Vietnam uber alles." Far Eastern Economic Review, 20 June 1980, pp. 28-29...34Vietnam uber alles." Far Eastern Economic Review, 20 June 1980, pp. 28-29. Chanda, Nayan. "The Bigger Borther." Far Eastern Economic Review, 5 June

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military History Journal, No. 11, November 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    DEPARTMENTOF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATIONSERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 / a Äf>3 Soviet Union MILITARY HISTORY JOURNAL No 11, November...March 1988 Military History Journal No 11, November 1987 [The following is a translation of the Russian-language monthly journal VOYENNO...ISTORICHESKIY ZHURNAL published in Moscow. Refer to the table of contents for a listing of any articles not translated.] By the Course Indicated by Lenin

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military History Journal, No. 12, December 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-14

    reports, meetings , talks and cultural-educational measures. The men of non-Russian nationality were taught Russian and explained the party’s policy and...COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATIONSERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 JO M>1 Soviet Union MILITARY HISTORY JOURNAL No 12, December 1987 JPRS...hill and dale," as the expression has it well-known throughout the nation and particularly popular with us in the Far East. In observing its close

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Foreign Military Review, No. 7, July 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    under conditions corre- sponding to altitudes of up to 73 km. On another range some 18.3 m long, they assess the capabilities of the wind shields in...been the questions of monitoring the observance of the pro- visions of the future convention by its participants. The Soviet Union has proposed...corporations, would be supported by strict monitoring , including international on-the-spot inspec- tions. At the same time, attention has been drawn

  19. Teaching evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Telen, Marilyn J

    2014-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named "eminence-based medicine." After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union?

  20. [History and current status of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia and former Soviet Union].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Yang; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Lei, Yan

    2012-10-01

    A brief history and new developments of acupuncture moxibustion in the former Soviet Union is provided in this paper, as well as in Russia. Science of acupuncture-moxibustion was introduced into Russia after the 10th Century. After the foundation of People's Republic of China, acupuncture-moxibustion therapy has drawn widespread attention in the former Soviet Union and Russia since the 1950s. Notably, acupuncture moxibustion therapy was legalized and popularized in mid 1950s in the Soviet Union, which was gradually accepted as a part of the country's medical system. In the latest 20 years, Federal health departments have paid attention to acupuncture-moxibustion therapy and issued laws and regulations on acupuncture reflexotherapy. The number of books and journals about acupuncture-moxibustion has been increasing; clinical application of acupuncture-moxibustion has been spreading and is welcomed by people. Academic exchanges between China and Russia are more frequent, which promoted the development of science of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia.

  1. HIV/AIDS in the countries of the former Soviet Union: societal and attitudinal challenges.

    PubMed

    Rechel, Bernd

    2010-06-01

    For several years, some of the countries of the former Soviet Union have experienced the fastest growing HIV epidemic in the world, with the vast majority of reported infections contracted through injecting drug use. However, most governments of the region have been slow to recognize the severity of the problem. The scope and coverage of governmental HIV/AIDS programmes have remained very limited. Harm reduction programmes are mainly financed by external donors, while substitution treatment remains illegal in Russia and unavailable in some other countries of the region. Being based on a review of published and grey literature, this paper explores attitudinal and societal barriers to scaling up HIV programmes in the countries of the former Soviet Union. A major challenge in many countries is negative public attitudes towards people living with HIV, as well as towards those most at risk of contracting the disease: injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. This extends to the actions of state authorities which often pursue a punitive approach to drug users, with high rates of incarceration for minor drug offences. While many of the findings reported here relate to the Russian Federation, there is reason to believe that similar challenges exist in many other countries of the former Soviet Union. More needs to be done to document challenges to HIV prevention and treatment programmes across the region, so that policy interventions can be more effective.

  2. The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

    was exhibited not only in crises situations, but became a regular mode of bureaucratic behavior in the Soviet Union darting from the late 1970s, eventually evolving into pathological behavior. Third, this pathological bureaucratic behavior and accompanying counterproductive performance caused extremely negative disturbances of the external environment and destabilized it, becoming a significant contributing factor to the collapse of the Soviet regime. The conclusion of this study is that the pathological behavior of bureaucrats who continue to inhabit governmental and private structures and who often act in conjunction with criminal elements have become a stumbling block to the successful economic, social, and political changes in the Russian Federation and in all Newly Independent States.

  3. Development of heavy oils and natural bitumens in the former Soviet Union and eastern and central Europe: State-of-the-art and outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Mamedov, Y.G.; Bokserman, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    The paper summarizes the results of field application of thermal oil recovery techniques (TEOR) in the former Soviet Union, and Eastern and Central Europe. All world known TEOR technologies have been tested and applied in different geological conditions in the FSU and many other East European countries. Energy saving TEOR technologies that improve the efficiency of heavy oil production have expanded the application of improved oil recovery techniques to a wider area and in different environments. TEOR technologies are very complicated, expensive, environmentally sensitive, risky, and usually uncertain. The return of capital invested is slow, and their application strongly depends on oil price and economic climate in each country, The main goal of the paper is to summarize the up-to-date R&D experience of both traditional and advanced TEOR in the Former Soviet Union, and Central and Eastern Europe.

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 13, September 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    paternalism and its opposite—dependency-distribution motivations in society—to the creation of the organiza- tional, economic, social and legal...Metaphorically speaking, in the administrative-command system own- ership did not have a concerned " parent ." Economically, it was an "orphan." This...in the center of Moscow, at 6:00 p.m. yesterday, adolescents coming from Kazan beat up a journalist. Under Comrade Stalin such adolescents

  5. Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: animal health systems in transition.

    PubMed

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    2004-04-01

    The economic transition in Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the last decade has profoundly changed the agricultural sector and the well-being of people in rural areas. Farm ownership changed; selected farm assets, including livestock, were transferred to farm workers or others, and the social and service structures of rural society are in a state of uncertainty. The transition has, in general, led to the deterioration of rural services. Animal health services have also deteriorated. This decline is associated with the contraction of the livestock inventory, the fragmentation of farms, higher transaction costs for service providers, and the overall decline of the rural economy which has, so far, lowered the demand for animal health services. There are considerable differences in the way that these countries are coping with the economic transition and its aftermath. Among the determining factors in the former USSR are, as follows: the speed of recovery from the legacies of large State-controlled farming and a centrally planned animal health system, the efforts made to address poverty reduction, the choice on whether to become a Member of the World Trade Organization and the requirements of such membership, the ability to provide low-cost services to a fragmented and unskilled livestock production sector. In Eastern Europe, the requirements for joining the European Union (EU) are an additional and important determining factor. In the short term, the choice of a veterinary system to serve the livestock sector may differ from country to country, depending on the legacies of the past, the status of reforms and the proximity of Western markets. Lower-income countries with an oversupply of veterinarians may support labour-intensive, low-cost systems which focus on food security and public health. The better-endowed EU accession countries may focus rather on improved disease surveillance, production enhancement, quality

  6. Building Infectious Disease Research Programs to Promote Security and Enhance Collaborations with Countries of the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomew, James C.; Pearson, Andrew D.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; LeDuc, James W.; Hirschberg, David L.; Colwell, Rita R.

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the threat of infectious diseases, whether natural, the results of a laboratory accident, or a deliberate act of bioterrorism, requires no corner of the world be ignored. The mobility of infectious agents and their rapid adaptability, whether to climate change or socioeconomic drivers or both, demand the science employed to understand these processes be advanced and tailored to a country or a region, but with a global vision. In many parts of the world, largely because of economic struggles, scientific capacity has not kept pace with the need to accomplish this goal and has left these regions and hence the world vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. To build scientific capability in a developing region requires cooperation and participation of experienced international scientists who understand the issues and are committed to educate the next generations of young investigators in the region. These efforts need to be coupled with the understanding and resolve of local governments and international agencies to promote an aggressive science agenda. International collaborative scientific investigation of infectious diseases not only adds significantly to scientific knowledge, but it promotes health security, international trust, and long-term economic benefit to the region involved. This premise is based on the observation that the most powerful human inspiration is that which brings peoples together to work on and solve important global challenges. The republics of the former Soviet Union provide a valuable case study for the need to rebuild scientific capacity as they are located at the crossroads where many of the world’s great epidemics began. The scientific infrastructure and disease surveillance capabilities of the region suffered significant decline after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, a part of the U.S. Department of Defense, together with partner countries, have worked diligently to

  7. Building Infectious Disease Research Programs to Promote Security and Enhance Collaborations with Countries of the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, James C; Pearson, Andrew D; Stenseth, Nils Chr; LeDuc, James W; Hirschberg, David L; Colwell, Rita R

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the threat of infectious diseases, whether natural, the results of a laboratory accident, or a deliberate act of bioterrorism, requires no corner of the world be ignored. The mobility of infectious agents and their rapid adaptability, whether to climate change or socioeconomic drivers or both, demand the science employed to understand these processes be advanced and tailored to a country or a region, but with a global vision. In many parts of the world, largely because of economic struggles, scientific capacity has not kept pace with the need to accomplish this goal and has left these regions and hence the world vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. To build scientific capability in a developing region requires cooperation and participation of experienced international scientists who understand the issues and are committed to educate the next generations of young investigators in the region. These efforts need to be coupled with the understanding and resolve of local governments and international agencies to promote an aggressive science agenda. International collaborative scientific investigation of infectious diseases not only adds significantly to scientific knowledge, but it promotes health security, international trust, and long-term economic benefit to the region involved. This premise is based on the observation that the most powerful human inspiration is that which brings peoples together to work on and solve important global challenges. The republics of the former Soviet Union provide a valuable case study for the need to rebuild scientific capacity as they are located at the crossroads where many of the world's great epidemics began. The scientific infrastructure and disease surveillance capabilities of the region suffered significant decline after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, a part of the U.S. Department of Defense, together with partner countries, have worked diligently to

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 9, June 1990.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    marquis could turn to Saltykov - Shchedrin and historians such as Solovyev, Kostomarov or Klyuchevskiy. So, if a conversion from markets to plan and to...madness in our system was that, while intending to introduce the market it began to operate with antimarket methods . Having decided to rely on economic...manage- ment methods , our bureaucracy implemented its deci- sions through antieconomic actions. How could one quote a selective-mass wage increase

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union KOMMUNIST No 11, July 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Under the New Economic Management Conditions [B.G. Saltykov ; pp 97-106] 62 Song of Labor and Struggle [I. Krivoguz; pp 107-108] 69 Universal...leasing, the brigade contracting method in all of its aspects. I single out three basic features in increasing output: more advanced equipment and...educational significance, other than neg- ative, could this have? In general, such a method for perpetuating the memory of even the most outstanding

  10. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    an instrument of interference with internal affairs of the above mentioned countries and regions. The author emphasizes that France provides the so...appeals for the ruinous "security through armament" hypnosis to be shaken off. "The growing economic outlays on the pro- duction of modern arms systems...least a useful working instrument . The "underdevelop- ment barrier" which you mentioned, a concept circulat- ed, it would seem to me, by the radical

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 5, March 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-13

    socialist society , formulated and tested in the first years of perestroyka— is being embodied in specific resolutions and is gaining substance through...importance to society of the growth rates of output and new machines and technolo- gies and various forms of economic management, all of this could be...done to harmonize the interests of society with those of the collective and the individual and to surmount deformations in all areas of life. The

  12. Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes has been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. However, an equilibrium analysis does not allow the assessment of the role of forest biomes in carbon sequestration because it is based on the assumption that the annual carbon increment in forest biomes equals the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere through respiration. A non-equilibrium analysis accounts for carbon sequestration during specific stages of forest ecosystem development. Sources and sinks of carbon and the sequestration potential of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union are assessed in the present study under non-equilibrium conditions by considering (1) net ecosystem productivity of different age forest stands and their actual coverage, (2) carbon flux related to forest fires, (3) the rate of peat accumulation, and (4) anthropogenic influences.

  13. Nuclear proliferation: Will the Soviet Union's collapse spawn a new arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, R.D.

    1992-06-05

    Almost 30 years ago, in the midst of the US-Soviet arms race, President John F. Kennedy warned of the danger of nuclear proliferation. Ironically, now that the Cold War is over, the prospect has become a reality. The collapse of the Soviet Union may have calmed fears of a nuclear Armageddon, but it has aroused new concerns about the spread of nuclear weapons. More than a dozen nations either have or are feverishly trying to develop nuclear arsenals, including Third World nations riven by religious and territorial disputes. If the world fails to contain the spread of nuclear-weapons technology, the balance of power that kept relative peace during the four decades of the Cold War may be displaced by a balance of terror.

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory scientific interactions with the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    White, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has a wide-ranging set of scientific interactions with technical institutes in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Many of these collaborations, especially those in pure science, began long before the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union. This overview will, however, focus for the most part on those activities that were initiated in the last few years. This review may also serve both to indicate the broad spectrum of US government interests that are served, at least in part, through these laboratory initiatives, and to suggest ways in which additional collaborations with the FSU may be developed to serve similar mutual interests of the countries involved. While most of the examples represent programs carried out by Los Alamos, they are also indicative of similar efforts by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. There are indeed other Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and many of them have active collaborative programs with FSU institutes. However, the laboratories specifically identified above are those with special nuclear weapons responsibilities, and thus have unique technical capabilities to address certain issues of some importance to the continuing interests of the United States and the states of the Former Soviet Union. Building on pre-collapse scientific collaborations and contacts, Los Alamos has used the shared language of science to build institutional and personal relationships and to pursue common interests. It is important to understand that Los Alamos, and the other DOE weapons laboratories are federal institutions, working with federal funds, and thus every undertaking has a definite relationship to some national objective. The fertile areas for collaboration are obviously those where US and Russian interests coincide.

  15. Comparative reserves definitions: U. S. A. , Europe, and the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.D.; Heather, D.I. ); Caldwell, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    Reserves definitions in use in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) are described and discussed. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and SPE deterministic definitions and the 1983 World Petroleum Congress (WPC) probabilistic (1P, 2P, and 3P) definitions commonly used in Europe are compared with the A,B,C, and D system used in the FSU. The authors discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each system, the implication for quantification of reserves and resources in each area, and the translation difficulties between systems.

  16. Training of aerospace medicine physicians in the Soviet Union and the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Tokarev, V F; Razsolov, N A; Mohler, S R; Nicogossian, A E

    1986-04-01

    The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America operate major aerospace medicine programs; each country has taken specific measures to assure the development of an adequate number of trained aerospace medicine physicians. This jointly prepared paper emphasizes the training of aerospace medicine physicians related to civil aerospace activities. Those working in the field of aerospace medicine will find of interest the aerospace medical approaches taken by the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. in achieving their respective aerospace objectives.

  17. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Logan, John R; Rivera Drew, Julia A

    2011-02-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants.

  18. All Features Grate and Stall. Soviet Strategic Vulnerabilities and the Future of Deterrence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-15

    territory. This latter thrust will impose a real cost upon the East European Pact allies and reduce their solidarity with the Soviet Union . To the extent that...Soviet weaknesses and vulnerabilities. It is the author’s opinion that there can be no doubt that the Soviet Union is and will continue to be the...this paper examines economic, political, demographic and military vulnerabilities and weaknesses of the Soviet Union which affect its domestic and

  19. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Bibliographic Guide to Recommended Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and School Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Stephan M.

    Intended to aid librarians in small- and medium-sized libraries and media centers, this annotated bibliography lists 1,555 books focusing on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The book is divided into four parts: (1) "General and Interrelated Themes--Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Eastern European Countries"; (2)…

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs, 70th Anniversary of the Soviet Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-27

    views on medical support for the troops and naval forces. This presupposes not only a thorough analysis of the research carried out but also the...ships in Chelyabinsk and Magnitogorsk, and specific work is being carried out with schoolchildren and students in the PTU [ vocational -technical... Research Service (JPRS) publications contain political, economic, military, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as

  1. Cuban missile crisis of October 1962: Comparative perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miro, R.

    1993-04-02

    This study provides comparative perspectives of the October 1962 Cuban missile crisis. The purpose is to present briefly the alternative perceptions of the United States and the Soviet Union during the crisis, comparing these perceptions with each other and with current appraisals of the actual course of events. The major events of the crisis are summarized in chronological order, with the perspectives of the United States and the Soviet Union summarized separately. A current appraisal of the actual course of events, based on the most recent available declassified primary and secondary literature, is also provided.

  2. Spent fuel management in the former Soviet Union and the eastern European countries

    SciTech Connect

    Takats, F.

    1995-04-01

    There is a total of 66 nuclear power plant units in the former Soviet Union and eastern European countries, with a generating capacity of more than 44,000 MWe. Changes in politics and trading relationships are affecting spent fuel management policies. This paper describes the various approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle adopting in these countries and reports data on the amount of spent fuel discharged from the nuclear power reactors with a summary table. Various types of interim storage capacities for the countries of the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. The Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Technology Section in the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is responsible for organizing work concerning the management of spent fuel from power plants and research reactors, providing a forum to exchange and disseminate information on the storage of spent fuel from research and test reactors. An account is given of IAEA programs and recent publications.

  3. The bear awakens: Resurgence of oil and gas in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, N.E.

    1996-12-31

    Since dissolution of the Soviet Union (USSR) in late 1991, the oil and gas industries in the 15 component nations have been in a state of turmoil stemming mainly from past communist management practices and the transition to Western-style market economies and multiparty governments. As a result, oil and gas output have fallen dramatically. This study incorporates separate oil and gas production forecasts, predicted independently by onshore and offshore sectors, for each of the producing republics of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) over the period 1996-2005. Supply--assessed by full-cycle resource analysis--and demand, estimated from available historic and projected consumption figures, are balanced to yield a coherent picture. Production of both oil and gas for the FSU is forecast to recover strongly. Oil and condensate output--led by Russia, Kazakhstan, and Azerbaijan--are forecast to rebound to 9,545 MBOPD by 2005, which will reinstate the FSU as one of the world`s premier crude exporting blocs. Natural gas output--propelled by gains in Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan--will likewise resurge, reaching a world-leading 96,051 MMCFD level, of which a large amount will be exported.

  4. Quality of life among former Soviet Union and Israeli origin methadone users.

    PubMed

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander; Pruginin, Itay

    2016-01-01

    A common treatment intervention for heroin addiction is methadone maintenance. In recent years a wider perspective has been adapted to understand and evaluate addiction through quality of life. This article examines quality of life conditions of 170 male former Soviet Union and Israeli origin drug users in methadone maintenance and provides an understanding of conditions linked to the World Health Organization Quality of Life project's best available techniques reference document. Having a partner or spouse and less chronic illness are positive factors affecting quality of life regardless of country of origin. Israeli born drug users reported better quality of life based on their psychological health and environment domain responses; no difference was found for the physical health and social relationship domains of the Israeli and former Soviet Union origin males. Because heroin addiction is a chronic and relapsing illness, one of the goals of methadone maintenance is to address patients' health status from a broad perspective. Based on clinical observations, the treatment of special populations may be enhanced if their particular needs are considered and met. Quality of life factors are relevant for assessing high risk groups, including those from different ethnic origins, in poor physical and psychological health, their treatment and personal adjustment, and their service personnel training needs.

  5. Economic Bases for Lessening U.S.-Soviet Tensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how the increasing Soviet dependence on American grain can be used to reduce international tensions. Soviet agricultural policies could affect worker morale and the entire Soviet political system. President Reagan is well-positioned to engage the Soviets in serious discussions of reductions in both nuclear and conventional weapons. (AM)

  6. Waste stabilisation ponds in extreme continental climates: a comparison of design methods from the USA, Canada, northern Europe and the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Heaven, S; Lock, A C; Pak, L N; Rspaev, M K

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a brief review of the application of WSPs in extreme climates where ice formation occurs during winter. Design standards and methods are compared and different systems are described. Design equations developed by the US EPA and normative standards from the former Soviet Union are compared in a simple example using typical wastewater and performance characteristics. The results are similar except at low temperatures, where the Soviet method can give pond depths outside the prescribed limits. The paper examines construction and operational aspects of extreme climate WSPs, comparing North American, Northern European and Russian standards. It considers why WSP systems have not been widely adopted in Russia and the NIS, and looks at the advantages these systems may have in countries in economic transition.

  7. Multiple Identities of Jewish Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union: An Exploration of Salience and Impact of Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Dina; Persky, Irena; Chan, Wing Yi

    2010-01-01

    The current paper explores the salience and impact of ethnic and national identities for immigrants that are negotiating more than two cultures. Specifically, we were interested in the ways in which Jewish immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union integrate their Russian, Jewish, and American identities, and to what extent identification…

  8. Educational Experiences of Immigrant Students from the Former Soviet Union: A Case Study of an Ethnic School in Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanova, Jazira

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the academic and psychosocial outcomes of immigrant students from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in an ethnic school in Toronto. Based on interviews with the principal, teachers, students and parents, together with questionnaire responses, the paper describes school programmes and practices that contribute to FSU immigrant…

  9. Communication and Academic Challenges in Early Adolescence for Children Who Have Been Adopted from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Brenda L.; McGuinness, Teena M.; Blanton, Debra J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This was a Time II survey of outcomes for children, now ages 9 to 13 years, who were almost 4 years old on average when they were adopted from the former Soviet Union. Method: As part of a larger study (see T. McGuinness, R. Ryan, & C. Broadus Robinson, 2005), parents of 55 children (M age = 11 years) were surveyed regarding their…

  10. Discretion vs. Valor: The Development and Evaluation of a Simulation Game about Being a Believer in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstone, Barbara

    A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of "Discretion vs. Valor," a simulation game designed to give North American players a chance to: (1) identify with "believers" (Christians) in the Soviet Union in order to form new images of these persons; (2) gain empathy for Christians by understanding the dilemmas they…

  11. Rehabilitation of the Visually Impaired in the Soviet Union. Report from a Study Tour to Moscow in 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kullberg, Kjell; Lindstrom, Jan-Ingvar

    The document reports on a 10-day tour to study rehabilitation facilities for the visually handicapped in the Soviet Union. Briefly described are the programs of the following institutions that were visited: Helmholtz Institute of Opthalmology, Specialized School Number 5 for Partially Sighted Children, Scientific Research Institute of Defectology,…

  12. Ethnic Clusters in Public Housing and Independent Living of Elderly Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, Andrey; Trickett, Edison J

    2015-12-01

    The study examines the effects of ethnic clusters and independent living arrangements on adaptation of elderly immigrants from the Former Soviet Union. The multigenerational living arrangements were compared with independent living in a dispersed ethnic community and in an ethnic cluster of public housing. The residents of the ethnic clusters of public housing reported poorer health, were more reliant on government resources, and experienced greater acculturative hassles. However, public housing residents reported significantly larger Russian-speaking and American social networks, greater American acculturation, higher social support from neighbors, as well as lower cultural alienation. In contrast, the multigenerational living arrangements were related to greater social support from extended family and higher extended family satisfaction. While, the independent living in the dispersed ethnic community was associated with smaller American social networks and higher levels of cultural alienation. The results highlight how the ecologies of different living arrangements are reflected in the nature of acculturative, social, and psychological experiences of elderly immigrants.

  13. Migrant Selection and the Health of U.S. Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.

    2012-01-01

    Few prior studies have investigated the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Utilizing data from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2000–2007 National Health Interview Survey (NIHS), we compare levels of disability of FSU immigrants with U.S.-born whites (ages 50–84). Our findings suggest an “epidemiologic paradox” in that FSU immigrants possess higher levels of education compared with U.S.-born whites, but report considerably higher disability with and without adjustment for education. Nonetheless, FSU immigrants report lower levels of smoking and heavy alcohol use compared with U.S.-born whites. We further investigate disability by period of arrival among FSU immigrants. Changes in Soviet emigration policies conceivably altered the level of health selectivity among émigrés. We find evidence that FSU immigrants who emigrated during a period when a permission to emigrate was hard to obtain (1970–1986) displayed less disability compared with those who emigrated when these restrictions were less stringent (1987–2000). Finally, we compare disability among Russian-born U.S. immigrants with that of those residing in Russia as a direct test of health selectivity. We find that Russian immigrants report lower levels of disability compared with Russians in Russia, suggesting that they are positively selected for health despite their poor health relative to U.S.-born whites. PMID:22421810

  14. Migrant selection and the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil K; Elo, Irma T

    2012-05-01

    Few prior studies have investigated the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Utilizing data from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2000-2007 National Health Interview Survey (NIHS), we compare levels of disability of FSU immigrants with U.S.-born whites (ages 50-84). Our findings suggest an "epidemiologic paradox" in that FSU immigrants possess higher levels of education compared with U.S.-born whites, but report considerably higher disability with and without adjustment for education. Nonetheless, FSU immigrants report lower levels of smoking and heavy alcohol use compared with U.S.-born whites. We further investigate disability by period of arrival among FSU immigrants. Changes in Soviet emigration policies conceivably altered the level of health selectivity among émigrés. We find evidence that FSU immigrants who emigrated during a period when a permission to emigrate was hard to obtain (1970-1986) displayed less disability compared with those who emigrated when these restrictions were less stringent (1987-2000). Finally, we compare disability among Russian-born U.S. immigrants with that of those residing in Russia as a direct test of health selectivity. We find that Russian immigrants report lower levels of disability compared with Russians in Russia, suggesting that they are positively selected for health despite their poor health relative to U.S.-born whites.

  15. Exploring the impact of foreign direct investment on tobacco consumption in the former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is the single largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world; in the former socialist bloc tobacco kills twice as many men as in the west. Although evidence shows that liberalisation of the cigarette trade through the elimination of import barriers leads to significant increases in consumption, far less is known about the impact of foreign direct investment on cigarette consumption. This paper seeks to explore the impact that the substantial transnational tobacco company investments have had on patterns of tobacco trade and consumption in the former Soviet Union. Design: Routine data were used to explore trends in cigarette trade and consumption in the 15 countries of the former Soviet Union from the 1960s to the present day. Comparisons were made between trends in countries that have received substantial investment from the tobacco transnationals and countries that have not. Results: Between 1991 and 2000 cigarette production increased by 96% in countries receiving industry investment and by 11% in countries that did not. Over the same period cigarette consumption increased by 40%; the increase was concentrated in countries receiving investments. Despite these investments, cigarette imports still outweigh exports and no trade surplus has yet to result. Conclusions: The findings suggest that liberalisation of inward investment has a significant and positive impact on cigarette consumption and that without appropriate safeguards, market liberalisation may have long term negative impacts on health. Specific trade rules are needed to govern trade and investment in this uniquely harmful product. Implementation of effective tobacco control policies should precede tobacco industry privatisation. International financial organisations pressing for privatisation should ensure this occurs. PMID:15735295

  16. Drug and alcohol use in the former Soviet Union: selected factors and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Davis, R B

    1994-02-01

    As new nations form out of the wreckage of the Soviet Empire, they will be encumbered by the persistent political, economic, and social problems that have plagued this region for centuries. Today, the leaders of the emerging central Eurasian area are focused solely on political and economic concerns. They are paying little attention to the drug use that, like the more traditional heavy alcohol use, is a means by which many people of this region escape the reality and manifold uncertainties of today's world. If and when the political and economic climate of the central Eurasian area stabilizes, regional leaders will face an addiction problem that will have, by then, become the region's greatest obstacle to social progress and sound public health.

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    that has been vacated. If they go to court, it will restore justice. But tomorrow the workers of the department will refuse someone else. The situation...raised repeatedly in various stages of our history. But as long as administrative-bureaucratic methods of management have prevailed in our economy...not only traditional methods of ensuring legality, but also new ones, associated with further development of socialist democracy, for it is precisely

  18. Public satisfaction as a measure of health system performance: a study of nine countries in the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Mills, Anne; Richardson, Erica; McKee, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Measurement of health system performance increasingly includes the views of healthcare users, yet little research has focussed on general population satisfaction with health systems. This study is the first to examine public satisfaction with health systems in the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data were derived from two related studies conducted in 2001 and 2010 in nine fSU countries, using nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of health system satisfaction in each country was compared for 2001 and 2010. Patterns of satisfaction were further examined by comparing satisfaction with the health system and other parts of the public sector, and the views of health care users and non-users. Potential determinants of population satisfaction were explored using logistic regression. For all countries combined, the level of satisfaction with health systems increased from 19.4% in 2001 to 40.6% in 2010, but varied considerably by country. Changes in satisfaction with the health system were similar to changes with the public sector, and non-users of healthcare were slightly more likely to report satisfaction than users. Characteristics associated with higher satisfaction include younger age, lower education, higher economic status, rural residency, better health status, and higher levels of political trust. Our results suggest that satisfaction can provide useful insight into public opinion on health system performance, particularly when used in conjunction with other subjective measures of satisfaction with government performance.

  19. The living arrangements of older immigrants from the former Soviet Union: a comparison of Israel and the United States.

    PubMed

    Burr, Jeffrey A; Lowenstein, Ariela; Tavares, Jane L; Coyle, Caitlin; Mutchler, Jan E; Katz, Ruth; Khatutsky, Galina

    2012-12-01

    With the unprecedented emigration from the former Soviet Union (FSU) during the 1990s as context, this study described the living arrangements of older FSU immigrants living in Israel and the US. Living arrangement choices represented an important strategy for coping with the migration process. Census data from Israel and the US were employed to examine the relationships among living arrangements (independent households, multigenerational households, and extended households) and personal characteristics, including duration of residence, Jewish identity, education, and home ownership. Results showed that the less time older immigrants lived in the host country, the more likely they lived in a multigenerational or extended household. The residency length and household relationship was stronger in Israel than in the US. Also, older FSU immigrants who owned their own home and who lived in a metropolitan area were more likely to live in a complex household than in an independent household. We discussed how the economic and social environments in each country contributed to the variability in living arrangement options among these older immigrants.

  20. Ice-core based assessment of historical anthropogenic heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Sb, Zn) emissions in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Anja; Tobler, Leonhard; Eyrikh, Stella; Malygina, Natalia; Papina, Tatyana; Schwikowski, Margit

    2014-01-01

    The development of strategies and policies aiming at the reduction of environmental exposure to air pollution requires the assessment of historical emissions. Although anthropogenic emissions from the extended territory of the Soviet Union (SU) considerably influenced concentrations of heavy metals in the Northern Hemisphere, Pb is the only metal with long-term historical emission estimates for this region available, whereas for selected other metals only single values exist. Here we present the first study assessing long-term Cd, Cu, Sb, and Zn emissions in the SU during the period 1935-1991 based on ice-core concentration records from Belukha glacier in the Siberian Altai and emission data from 12 regions in the SU for the year 1980. We show that Zn primarily emitted from the Zn production in Ust-Kamenogorsk (East Kazakhstan) dominated the SU heavy metal emission. Cd, Sb, Zn (Cu) emissions increased between 1935 and the 1970s (1980s) due to expanded non-ferrous metal production. Emissions of the four metals in the beginning of the 1990s were as low as in the 1950s, which we attribute to the economic downturn in industry, changes in technology for an increasing metal recovery from ores, the replacement of coal and oil by gas, and air pollution control.

  1. Epizootic of vesicular disease in pigs caused by coxsackievirus B4 in the Soviet Union in 1975.

    PubMed

    Lomakina, Natalia F; Yu Shustova, Elena; Strizhakova, Olga M; Felix Drexler, Jan; Lukashev, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) emerged around 1960 from a human enterovirus ancestor, coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), and caused a series of epizootics in Europe and Asia. We characterized a coxsackievirus B4 strain that caused an epizootic involving 24 488 pigs in the Soviet Union in 1975. Phylogenetic evidence suggested that the swine virus emerged from a human ancestor between 1945 and 1975, almost simultaneously with the transfer of CVB5.

  2. A surge of MDR and XDR tuberculosis in France among patients born in the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Bernard, C; Brossier, F; Sougakoff, W; Veziris, N; Frechet-Jachym, M; Metivier, N; Renvoisé, A; Robert, J; Jarlier, V

    2013-08-15

    A marked increase in the number of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) cases entirely related to patients born in the Former Soviet Union was observed in France in the last two years. Very few cases were clustered, suggesting it is a consequence of recent immigration of patients already infected in their country of origin. This major increase challenges the existing structures for management of MDR and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB).

  3. Educational Reforms in the Soviet Union. Special Studies in Comparative Education, Number Fourteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Delbert

    The Soviet school system is, and has been since its inception, a vital instrument of state policy. The Soviet political leaders of the 1980s, in an effort to improve their educational system, are implementing into the academic program the basic Soviet educational principles of: (1) promoting Communist Party policies; (2) coordinating school work…

  4. Friends to the End: "The New York Times" and the Soviet Union, 1943-1945.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Donald O.

    From 1939 to 1943 the United States went from a period of total opposition to the Soviets to a gradual acceptance of its new ally. The "New York Times" editorial page shared in this trend: moving cautiously from complete rejection of the Soviets to acceptance of the Russian people, next the Red Army, and finally the Soviet government.…

  5. T/sup 2/ high-technology transfer to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states; a public policy issues: an analysis of the loss of American high technology to the Soviet bloc, and methods to be employed by the United States government in overcoming this problem

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, W.H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Loss of American high technology to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states has become a significant problem in the US. The Soviet Union enjoys quantitative military superiority over the US. The US on the other hand, has opted to maintain the balance of power through advanced high-technology military systems. This qualitative lead has been eroded, however, by Soviet successes in their high-technology transfer (T/sup 2/) program. This study examines the question of high-technology transfer to the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc states in terms of the following: (1) significance of this problem to the US; (2) how the Soviets acquire American high technology; (3) how acquisition of American high technology assists the Soviet Union; (4) what the US government is doing to reduce Soviet T/sup 2/ efforts; and (5) the author's recommendations to enhance the US program to control high-technology transfer. The author offers several suggests to deal with this problem, including: establishment of ad hoc matrix organization, with representatives from both the public and private sectors; privatization of government tasks connected with the T/sup 2/ issue, e.g., the conduct by the private sector of background investigations on individuals working on classified military contracts; evaluation of the current Coordinating Committee (COCOM) agreement to treaty status; reduction of the number of items on American export control lists; and the reduction of Soviet diplomatic representation in the United States.

  6. Revisiting Soviet oil subsidies to East Europe: System maintenance in the Soviet hegemony, 1970--1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Mark Andrew

    Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union sold oil shipments to the member-states of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) at a fraction of the world market price (wmp). Contrary to arguments made by previous scholars that it paid a subsidy, namely the difference between the wmp and the CMEA price, either as a reward for material contributions to Soviet foreign policy objectives or as a consequence of membership in a customs union, the Soviet Union provided subsidized oil shipments as a form of economic assistance in maintaining its hegemony. Using non-parametric statistical analysis of previous scholars' data and comparative case studies based on interviews of Soviet decision-makers and on archival research, this study shows that the Soviet Union acted as a hegemon, which created a protectionist trade regime, used oil policy as means of hegemonic maintenance. The CMEA, the embodiment of values espoused in the Soviet trade regime identified as "embedded supranationalism", stood as the institutional antithesis of a customs unions, which embodied the values of the Western liberal trade regime. Soviet leaders did not use oil subsidies or trade relations in general as means of calibrating CMEA member-states' domestic or foreign policy behavior. Soviet leaders used subsidized oil as a means of supporting East European national economic development with the ultimate goal of creating politically legitimate governments thereby ensuring political stability in its cordon sanitaire with the West.

  7. United States-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Bouville, A.

    1995-12-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic: studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance.

  8. Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F.; Ebel, P.E.

    1996-08-01

    Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy`s program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC&A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC&A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC&A Programs.

  9. Exclusion of older immigrants from the former Soviet Union to Finland: the meaning of intergenerational relationships.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Sari J

    2011-12-01

    This article discusses factors that affect the exclusion of older immigrants in Finland. The meaning of intergenerational relationships to older immigrants in an everyday life context is versatile and comprises support, commitment and expectations between generations. The second and third generations are doing their best to cope with their own everyday life and integration process while being under the pressure to meet the varied expectations of the first generation. The topic is explored using qualitative data drawn from interviews with three-generation families from the former Soviet Union. The study found that satisfying factors of everyday life, such as housing or activities offered by society and the possibility to live close to the children and grandchildren reflect the feeling of inclusion to the host society. Dissatisfying feelings such as hostile attitudes, deficient language acquisition and a longing for the former home country, people and places there, affect the feelings of social and emotional exclusion. The exclusion faced by older immigrants in the Finnish society seems to be more complicated and sensitive than is generally recognized; it is illustrated through the emotions of immigrant elders rather than through their active actions or participation.

  10. Renal biopsy research in the former soviet union: prevention of a negligent custom.

    PubMed

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient international coordination of medical research and partial isolation from the international scientific community can result in repetition of research already performed in other countries. Renal biopsy was broadly used for research in the former Soviet Union. It was performed, sometimes without sufficient clinical indications, in patients with amyloidosis, renovascular hypertension (from both kidneys: on the side of the renal artery stenosis and the contralateral one), chronic alcoholism, and acute and chronic pyelonephritis (intraoperative wedge and core biopsies). In chronic alcoholism, biopsies were taken from kidneys, pancreas, salivary glands, stomach, lung, skin, and liver, sometimes repeatedly. The classification of glomerulonephritis was different from those used internationally, for example, it did not include IgA nephropathy as a separate entity. Several examples of studies based on renal biopsies are discussed in this paper. A conclusion is however optimistic: the upturn in economy enables today to modernize equipment and introduce new methods, while broadening international cooperation facilitates the flow of foreign experience into the country. The purpose of this paper was to prevent inadequate use of renal biopsy in future.

  11. The effect of health on labour supply in nine former Soviet Union countries.

    PubMed

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Rocco, Lorenzo; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines for the first time the consequences of ill health on labour supply for a sample of nine countries from the former Soviet Union (FSU), using a unique multicountry household survey specifically designed for this region. We control for a wide range of individual, household, and community factors, using both standard regression techniques and instrumental variable estimation to address potential endogeneity. Specifically, we find in our baseline ordinary least squares specification that poor health is associated with a decrease in the probability of working of about 13 %. Controlling for community-level unobserved variables slightly increases the magnitude of this effect, to about 14 %. Controlling for endogeneity with the instrumental variable approach further supports this finding, with the magnitude of the effect ranging from 12 to 35 %. Taken together, our findings confirm the cost that the still considerable adult health burden in the FSU is imposing on its population, not only in terms of the disease burden itself, but also in terms of individuals' labour market participation, as well as potentially in terms of increased poverty risk. Other things being equal, this would increase the expected "return on investment" to be had from interventions aimed at improving health in this region.

  12. Rapid declines of large mammal populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Bragina, Eugenia V; Ives, A R; Pidgeon, A M; Kuemmerle, T; Baskin, L M; Gubar, Y P; Piquer-Rodríguez, M; Keuler, N S; Petrosyan, V G; Radeloff, V C

    2015-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that socioeconomic shocks strongly affect wildlife populations, but quantitative evidence is sparse. The collapse of socialism in Russia in 1991 caused a major socioeconomic shock, including a sharp increase in poverty. We analyzed population trends of 8 large mammals in Russia from 1981 to 2010 (i.e., before and after the collapse). We hypothesized that the collapse would first cause population declines, primarily due to overexploitation, and then population increases due to adaptation of wildlife to new environments following the collapse. The long-term Database of the Russian Federal Agency of Game Mammal Monitoring, consisting of up to 50,000 transects that are monitored annually, provided an exceptional data set for investigating these population trends. Three species showed strong declines in population growth rates in the decade following the collapse, while grey wolf (Canis lupus) increased by more than 150%. After 2000 some trends reversed. For example, roe deer (Capreolus spp.) abundance in 2010 was the highest of any period in our study. Likely reasons for the population declines in the 1990s include poaching and the erosion of wildlife protection enforcement. The rapid increase of the grey wolf populations is likely due to the cessation of governmental population control. In general, the widespread declines in wildlife populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union highlight the magnitude of the effects that socioeconomic shocks can have on wildlife populations and the possible need for special conservation efforts during such times.

  13. Postnatal and prenatal diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases in the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Krasnopolskaya, X D; Mirenburg, T V; Akhunov, V S; Voskoboeva, E Y

    1997-02-14

    Diagnosis and prevention of lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) in the former Soviet Union (FSU) is based on the interaction of various local counselling units with the Department of Inherited Metabolic Diseases (DIMD) at the Research Center of Medical Genetics (RAMS). Work began in 1982 using standard, as well as newly developed biochemical techniques. 25 different LSD were diagnosed in 445 patients from 404 families. 106 pregnancies in families at risk were monitored prenatally, and 25 affected fetuses were diagnosed and aborted. The clinical spectrum of diagnosed lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) was surprisingly heterogeneous. Besides classical forms of LSD numerous atypical forms were discovered. They included juvenile and adult forms of some sphingolipidoses manifesting as progressive dystonia, spinocerebellar degeneration and hebephrenic schizophrenia, as well as an atypical form of mucolipidosis III in which the clinical phenotype bore an obvious resemblance to that of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI. The incidence of MPS was much higher than that of other LSD. It was evaluated as 1:15000 for two regions of the FSU. This investigation revealed some peculiarities of the ethnic distribution of MPS in populations of the FSU and supported the high prevalence of the gene for Tay-Sachs disease gene in Ashkenazi Jews.

  14. Health information networking via the Internet with the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed Central

    Teplitskaia, H

    1997-01-01

    Because of the severe financial hardships associated with the transition to a market economy in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union, the Internet has become a major link to health care resources for many health care workers. In 1992, the University of Illinois at Chicago Library of the Health Sciences (UIC LHS) initiated a special support project with goals of enhancing access to international biomedical information and facilitating international professional networking for interested NIS organizations and individuals. Project objectives included an information needs assessment, development of culturally sensitive Internet training applications, information and referral services, and follow-up e-mail consultations for NIS participants. This paper reviews the historical context of the health care partnerships between the United States and the NIS, and of the UIC LHS International Health Information Networking Project. In the context of UIC, international networking cross-cultural observations, teaching techniques, a Russian training experience, and the development of a Web-based course are reported. Images PMID:9431431

  15. Energy in Soviet Policy. A study of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Different estimates of future Soviet oil production are examined. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is generally viewed as having the most-pessimistic assessment, foreseeing a gradual decline. If the CIA is correct, Soviet-bloc countries may become net energy importers later in this decade. The added pressure on world oil prices could then increase our own inflationary problems. Reduced Soviet energy production may lessen its hold on eastern Europe and heighten its interest in Middle Eastern supplies. At the optimistic extreme, the Economic Commission of Europe foresees steady or possibly somewhat increased Soviet oil production throughout the 80s. If the Commission is correct, the US will face another set of challenges and opportunities. The Soviets would not add to existing demand on the world petroleum market, but an exportable surplus of oil and gas could give them a powerful diplomatic tool. 22 references. (DCK)

  16. Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans.

  17. Economic Resources of the Union of Burma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    mineral resources and another the industries, transportation, trade and commerce. A final chapter analyzes and evaluates economic development in Burma, and especially the economic programs and policies which were formulated in the early years of independence from colonial

  18. Suicide rates and socioeconomic factors in Eastern European countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union: trends between 1990 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Kõlves, Kairi; Milner, Allison; Värnik, Peeter

    2013-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the various Eastern European (EE) countries adapted in different ways to the social, political and economic changes. The present study aims to analyse whether the factors related to social integration and regulation are able to explain the changes in the suicide rate in EE. A separate analysis of suicide rates, together with the undetermined intent mortality (UD), was performed. A cross-sectional time-series design and applied a panel data fixed-effects regression technique was used in analyses. The sample included 13 countries from the former Soviet bloc between 1990 and 2008. Dependent variables were gender-specific age-adjusted suicide rates and suicide plus UD rates. Independent variables included unemployment, GDP, divorce rate, birth rate, the Gini index, female labour force participation, alcohol consumption and general practitioners per 100,000 people. Male suicide and suicide or UD rates had similar predictors, which suggest that changes in suicide were related to socioeconomic disruptions experienced during the transition period. However, male suicide rates in EE were not associated with alcohol consumption during the study period. Even so, there might be underestimation of alcohol consumption due to illegal alcohol and differences between methodologies of calculating alcohol consumption. However, predictors of female suicide were related to economic integration and suicide or UD rates with domestic integration.

  19. A Summary Report on the Educational Systems of the United States and the Soviet Union: Comparative Analysis. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailes, Catherine P.; Rushing, Francis W.

    Education in the U.S.S.R. is much more strongly oriented toward the scientific and technical fields than is that of the United States. This may be an asset in the development of specialists with the ability to attain the short-term technological targets of the Soviet economic plan. However, the more flexible, theoretical, broader-based higher…

  20. The Difficult Road to Mars: A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perminov, V. G.

    1999-01-01

    Perminov was the leading designer for Mars and Venus spacecraft at the Soviet Lavochkin design bureau in the early days of Martian exploration. In addition to competing with the U.S. to get to the Moon, the Soviets also struggled to beat the U.S. to Mars during the Cold War. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the Soviets attempted to send a number of robotic probes to Mars, but for a variety of reasons, most of these missions ended in failure. Despite these overall failures, the Soviets garnered a great deal of scientific and technical knowledge through these efforts. This monograph tells some fascinating, but little-known, stories.

  1. Waste management and recycling in the former Soviet Union: the City of Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan).

    PubMed

    Sim, Natasha M; Wilson, David C; Velis, Costas A; Smith, Stephen R

    2013-10-01

    The UN-Habitat Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) benchmarking methodology was applied to profile the physical and governance features of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the former Soviet Union city of Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Most of the ISWM indicators were in the expected range for a low-income city when compared with 20 reference cities. Approximately 240,000 t yr(-1) of MSW is generated in Bishkek (equivalent to 200 kg capita(-1) yr(-1)); collection coverage is over 80% and 90% of waste disposed goes to semi-controlled sites operating with minimal environmental standards. The waste composition was a distinctive feature, with relatively high paper content (20-27% wt.) and intermediate organic content (30-40% wt.). The study provides the first quantitative estimates of informal sector recycling, which is currently unrecognised by the city authorities. Approximately 18% wt. of generated MSW is recycled, representing an estimated annual saving to the city authorities of US$0.7-1.1 million in avoided collection/disposal costs. The waste management system is controlled by a centralised municipal waste enterprise (Tazalyk); therefore, institutional coherence is high relative to lower-middle and low-income cities. However, performance on other governance factors, such as inclusivity and financial sustainability, is variable. Future priorities in Bishkek include extending collection to unserved communities; improving landfill standards; increasing recycling rates through informal sector cooperation; improving data availability; and engaging all stakeholders in waste management strategy decisions. Extending the scope and flexibility of the ISWM protocol is recommended to better represent the variation in conditions that occur in waste management systems in practice.

  2. Carbon pools and accumulation in peatlands of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Botch, M.S.; Kobak, K.I.; Vinson, T.S.

    1995-03-01

    To date, the areal extent, carbon pools, rate of carbon accumulation, and role of peatlands of the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the terrestrial carbon cycle has not been fully recognized. This is a consequence of the fact that may peatlands in the FSU, especially noncommercial peatlands, were never studied and properly mapped. An estimate of the areal extent, carbon pools, and rate of carbon accumulation in peatlands of the FSU obtained by interrelating a number of regional databases and maps, including formerly classified maps, is presented herein. Commercial peatlands were categorized by regional type which facilitated an evaluation of their age and quality. Noncommercial peatlands were evaluated from classified regional topographic maps. Air photographs were used to identify peatlands of northern landscapes. the total peatland area of the FSU was estimated at 165 Mha (10{sup 6} hectares) which was two times greater than the most recent estimates based on thematic maps. The peat carbon pool was estimated at 215 Pg C. Half of this amount was in raised bogs. The rate of peat accumulation varied from 12 g C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (polygonal mires) to 72-80 g C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (fens and marshes). The total rate of carbon accumulation in FSU peatlands was 52 Tg C yr{sup -1}. Carbon emissions from peat utilization in the FSU were estimated at 122 Tg C yr{sup -1}. Thus, at present, peat accumulation/utilization in the FSU is a net source of approximately 70 Tg C yr{sup -1} to the atmosphere. 45 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Pestoides F, an atypical Yersinia pestis strain from the former Soviet Union.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Emilio; Worsham, Patricia; Bearden, S.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Lang, D.; Larimer, Frank W; Lindler, L.; Chain, Patrick S. G.

    2007-01-01

    Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lack of the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla(-) strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains reveals differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single approximately 7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet sequenced.

  4. SCORE performance in Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union: MONICA and HAPIEE results

    PubMed Central

    Vikhireva, Olga; Pająk, Andrzej; Broda, Grazyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Skodova, Zdena; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2014-01-01

    Aims The Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) scale assesses 10 year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk SCORE version is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU), but its performance has never been systematically assessed in the region. We evaluated SCORE performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. Methods and results The cohorts based on the World Health Organization MONitoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease (MONICA) surveys in the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg), Lithuania (Kaunas), and Russia (Novosibirsk) were followed from the mid-1980s. The Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow), and Russian (Novosibirsk) cohorts from 2002–05. In Cox regression analyses, the high-risk SCORE ≥5% at baseline significantly predicted CVD mortality in both MONICA [n = 15 027; hazard ratios (HR), 1.7–6.3] and HAPIEE (n = 20 517; HR, 2.6–10.5) samples. While SCORE calibration was good in most MONICA samples (predicted and observed mortality were close), the risk was underestimated in Russia. In HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE overpredicted the estimated 10 year mortality for Czech and Polish samples and adequately predicted it for Russia. SCORE discrimination was satisfactory in both MONICA and HAPIEE. Conclusion The high-risk SCORE underestimated the fatal CVD risk in Russian MONICA but performed well in most MONICA samples and Russian HAPIEE. This SCORE version might overestimate the risk in contemporary Czech and Polish populations. PMID:23786858

  5. Criminal victimisation and health: examining the relation in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Previous research suggests that criminal victimisation can impact negatively on both physical and psychological health. However, as yet, little is known about crime and its effects on population health in the former Soviet Union (fSU) - despite a sharp growth in crime rates in the countries in this region after the collapse of the communist system. Given this gap in current knowledge, this study examined two forms of crime, theft and violent victimisation, in nine fSU countries - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Using nationally representative data from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study collected from 18,000 respondents in 2010/11, the study had two main objectives: (1) to identify which demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with being a victim of crime; (2) to examine the relation between criminal victimisation and two health outcomes - self-rated health and psychological distress. We found that similar factors were associated with experiencing both forms of crime among respondents. Those who were younger, not married and who consumed alcohol more frequently were at increased risk of victimisation, while greater social capital was associated with lower odds for victimisation. Low education increased the risk of experiencing violence by 1.5 times. Victimisation was strongly associated with poorer health: victims of violence were 2.5 and 2.9 times more likely to report poor self-rated health and psychological distress, respectively, while the corresponding figures for theft victimisation were 1.9 and 1.8. The strong association we observed between criminal victimisation and poorer individual health suggests that, in addition to policies that reduce rates of crime, more research is now urgently needed on victimisation. Specifically, researchers should ascertain whether the association with poor health is causal, determine its potential mechanisms, and evaluate interventions that

  6. Pestoides F, and Atypical Yersinia pestis Strain from the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E; Worsham, P; Bearden, S; Malfatti, S; Lang, D; Larimer, F; Lindler, L; Chain, P

    2007-01-05

    Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lacking the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla{sup -} strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains, reveals a series of differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single {approx}7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet

  7. Estimated inventory of radionuclides in former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped in the Kara Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, M.E.; Sheaffer, M.K.; Abbott, D.T.

    1993-07-01

    Radionuclide inventories have been estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 69 to 111 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 3,053 to 7,472 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1,127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 23 to 38 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 674 to 708 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. Twenty years from now, the inventories are projected to be 11 to 18 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 415 to 437 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 63.5 to 64 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.014 to 0.015 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two.

  8. Prevalence of Smoking in 8 Countries of the Former Soviet Union: Results From the Living Conditions, Lifestyles and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna; Pomerleau, Joceline; McKee, Martin; Rose, Richard; Haerpfer, Christian W.; Rotman, David; Tumanov, Sergej

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to provide comparative data on smoking habits in countries of the former Soviet Union. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in 8 former Soviet countries with representative national samples of the population 18 years or older. Results. Smoking rates varied among men, from 43.3% to 65.3% among the countries examined. Results showed that smoking among women remains uncommon in Armenia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, and Moldova (rates of 2.4%–6.3%). In Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Russia, rates were higher (9.3%–15.5%). Men start smoking at significantly younger ages than women, smoke more cigarettes per day, and are more likely to be nicotine dependent. Conclusions. Smoking rates among men in these countries have been high for some time and remain among the highest in the world. Smoking rates among women have increased from previous years and appear to reflect transnational tobacco company activity. PMID:15569971

  9. U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Programs, activities to support the safe, secure dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.

    1993-12-31

    In September 1991 President Bush announced sweeping cuts in the US nuclear weapon stockpile as well as changes in deployment to remove significant numbers of weapons from alert status and to return to the US for storage many weapons formerly based abroad in US sites. In October 1991 President Gorbachev announced similar moves for the Soviet Union. Even though the Gorbachev announcement represented a substantial step forward in reducing tension between the US and the Soviet Union, the US continued to be concerned about the deteriorating situation in the Soviet Union and the prospects for internal stability. As a result, in November 1991 the Administration began talks with the Soviets in a number of areas including field disablement of nuclear weapons to prevent unauthorized use, emergency response in the event of a weapons accident, and command and control of nuclear weapons. The Nunn-Lugar legislation assured assistance to the Soviet Union in the safe, secure dismantlement (SSD) of weapons to implement the Gorbachev commitment and in the development of measures to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting and collaborating with the Department of Defense (DOD) in several areas due to the DOE responsibilities for developing, assembling, and dismantling US warheads and as the custodian of the nuclear materials stockpile. Russia, as the successor state to the Soviet Union, controls the nuclear weapons of the Former Soviet Union. Thus, DOE`s nuclear weapon and nuclear materials expertise are being applied particularly to Russia. However, the DOE is also providing assistance to Belarus and is prepared to assist Ukraine and Kazakhstan as well if agreements can be reached. In this paper, the DOE SSD activities in support of DOD as the US Executive Agent will be discussed. Two areas will not be covered, namely, DOD activities and the purchase of highly enriched uranium.

  10. History of the terror of the communist regime of the Soviet Union in relation to doctors of Soviet Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Hanitkevych, Yoroslav

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents information about the victimization of doctors, medical scientists and the staff of scientific and medical schools of soviet Ukraine, during the years from 1919 to 1953. It includes details of 622 doctors who were persecuted, of whom 142 were shot and 337 were deported to concentration camps. It describes the repression of Ukrainian medical scientists, of whom nearly 50 were arrested and 7 were shot. It also gives details of the "Doctors' Plot" of 1952-53, which was initiated by Stalin.

  11. Technology and society: ideological implications of information and computer technologies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Weigle, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the impact of technology on the USSR's social system from the perspective of Soviet ideological development. The analysis of information and computer technologies within this framework de-emphasizes both modernization theories and those that assume unchallenged Communist Party control over technological development. Previous studies have examined the level of Soviet technological achievements and the gap between this level and those in the West, many referring to ideological boundaries of Soviet technological development without, however, systematically analyzing the resulting implications for the Soviet ideology of Marxism-Leninism. This study develops a framework for analyzing the impact of new technologies in the USSR in the fields of technology, ideology, and the scientific and technological revolution. On the basis of this framework, examination turns to the relevant Soviet theoretical and technical literature and debates among Soviety elites, concluding that the introduction of information and computer technologies and the organization of computer networks has exacerbated tensions in Soviety Marxism-Leninism.

  12. Human Capital--Economic Growth Nexus in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the role and impact of higher education on per capita economic growth in the Former Soviet Bloc. It attempts to estimate the significance of educational levels for initiating substantial economic growth that now takes place in these two countries. This study estimates a system of linear and log-linear equations that account for…

  13. Foregoing medicines in the former Soviet Union: changes between 2001 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Footman, Katharine; Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Alimbekova, Gulzhan; Pachulia, Merab; Rotman, David; Gasparishvili, Alexander; McKee, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Pharmaceutical costs dominate out-of-pocket payments in former Soviet countries, posing a severe threat to financial equity and access to health services. Nationally representative household survey data collected in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine were analysed to compare the level of population having to forego medicines in 2001 and 2010. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess differences between populations of different economic status, and rural and urban populations. A substantial proportion of the population did forego medicines in 2010, from 29.2% in Belarus to 72.9% in Georgia. There was a decline in people foregoing medicines between 2001 and 2010; the greatest decline was seen in Moldova [rate ratio (RR)=0.67 (0.63; 0.71)] and Kyrgyzstan [RR=0.63 (0.60; 0.67)], while very little improvement took place in countries with a higher Gross National Income (GNI) per capita and greater GNI growth over the decade such as Armenia [RR=0.92 (0.87; 0.96)] and Georgia [RR=0.95 (0.92; 0.98)]. Wealthier, urban populations have benefited more than poorer, rural households in some countries. Countries experiencing the greatest improvement over the study period were those that have implemented policies such as price controls, expanded benefits packages, and encouragement of rational prescribing. Greater commitment to pharmaceutical reform is needed to ensure that people are not forced to forego medicines.

  14. Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and The Space Race, 1945-1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, Asif A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is, in essence, sixteen years in the making. First attempted to compile a history of the Soviet space program in 1982 author put together a rough chronology of the main events. A decade later, while living on a couch in a college friend's apartment, he began writing what would be a short history of the Soviet lunar landing program. The first draft was sixty-nine pages long. Late the following year, he decided to expand the topic to handle all early Soviet piloted exploration programs. That work eventually grew into what you are holding in your hand now.

  15. Research and Analytical Evaluation of the Soviet Union and Modernization of Nuclear Weapons Forces in Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Soviet Freedom of Action .. .......... 66 D. Seeking to Nip in the Bud ... .......... 68 E. Direct Focus on the Flexible Options Issue . . 71 F. Flexible...the use of military force. D. SEEKING TO NIP IN TIE BUD Far more revealinki than direct commentaries of the nature, depth, and ramifications of Soviet...particular, it has emphasized that it will nc , be possible to limit any nuclear conflict to Europe or to avoid escala - tion to the point of a strategic

  16. Conflict or Consensus: East Germany, the Soviet Union and Deutschlandpolitik 1958-1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    the current situation as it has developed in the German Question is staggering". rRef. 62: P. 1143 Furthermore, as ... Wilhelm Bruns has claimed in his...stable leadership condition to develop. This, according to Carl A. Linden, accounts in part "for the stormy and dynamic quality of Soviet politics in the...negotiations. Domestic political differences put off the final negotiations between West German Foreign Minister Scheel and Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko

  17. Analysis of Energy Resources and Programs of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Appendix B. Coal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-12-01

    coal basin, Tunguska , is farther to the west from the Lena Basin. A total of about 1.700 billion tons of coal resources are estimated to occur in...Yukutsk Karaganda Ekibastuz Maikyuben Hbanansk Conkra] Asia Tunguska Lena Taimyr Total ] Soviet Estimated SRI Estimated Balance Reserves...tiiose from Soviet sources. In this category arc the large remote basins of Tunguska , Lena, and Taimyr. These basins are least well-known, and the

  18. Intimate Partner Physical and Sexual Violence and Outcomes of Unintended Pregnancy Among National Samples of Women From Three Former Soviet Union Countries.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-06-01

    The article examines the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy among nationally representative samples of women in three former Soviet Union countries. Women who experienced physical and/or sexual IPV from their current or most recent husband or living together partner demonstrated higher risks of unintended last pregnancy, either terminated through abortion (in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine) or resulting in unintended live birth (in Ukraine). IPV prevention components should be integrated into reproductive health programs to reduce the risk of unintended births and abortions among women living with abusive partners in these former Soviet Union countries.

  19. The New Economic Togetherness: American and Soviet Reactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-12-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Charles Wolf, Jr., and Robert E. Klitgaard of the Rand staff have greatly con- tributed to this report by numerous and important...what the Soviets would have had to pay to other suppliers. "To permit wheat and forbid machine tools," C. P. Kindleberger observes, "makes no sense...service organizations abroad.ඁ For Ambassador Charles Bohlen "the domestic situation in a [communist] country tends to respond to trade by producing

  20. The Economic Cost of Soviet Military Manpower Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    precision what the costs to the Soviet economy that stem from the curtailment of student deferments might be. One factor may be measured: skilled man...Hillinck performed valuable and skill - ful research assistance. Any remaining errors are the sole responsibil- ity of the author. CONTENTS PREFACE...ISSUES IN MILITARY MANPOWER DEM AND .............................. 38 The Demand for Skilled Manpower ............... .38 Effect of Manpower Drawoffs on

  1. [Psychological consequences of deportation into the Soviet Union on the base of self-reports by Sybiracs].

    PubMed

    Jackowska, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to find answers to the following questions: 1. What were the sources of the personal distress that the deportees to the Soviet Union experienced during the 5 years living in exile? 2. What psychological consequences of deportation did Sybiracs report? 3. Was a gender variable associated with intensity of post-traumatic symptoms? A total of 100 people born in 1928-34, who had been deported into the Soviet Union during the World War II were assessed with a semi-structured interview, PTSD Inventory and GDS (by Yesavage). The study pointed out that 65% participants felt symptoms following the exposure to traumatic stressors. They were: anxiety, increased arousal, low self-esteem, depression and others. The Siberian experience limited a possibility to get a higher level of education and more attractive job. It also modified the manner in which the marital and parental roles were fulfilled. The rate of anxiety and depressive symptoms was significantly higher in women in comparison with men.

  2. Feasibility and options for purchasing nuclear weapons, highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium from the former Soviet Union (FSU)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    In response to a recent tasking from the National Security Council, this report seeks to analyze the possible options open to the US for purchasing, from the former Soviet Union (FSU) substantial quantities of plutonium and highly enriched uranium recovered from the accelerated weapons retirements and dismantlements that will soon be taking place. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the implications of some of the options that now appear to be open to the United States, it being recognized that several issues might have to be addressed in further detail if the US Government, on its own, or acting with others seeks to negotiate any such purchases on an early basis. As an outgrowth of the dissolution of the Soviet Union three of the C.I.S. republics now possessing nuclear weapons, namely the Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, have stated that it is their goal, without undue delay, to become non-nuclear weapon states as defined in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Of overriding US concern is the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the Third World, and the significant opportunity that the availability of such a large quantity of surplus weapons grade material might present in this regard, especially to a cash-starved FSU Republic. Additionally, the US, in its endeavor to drawdown its own arsenal, needs to assure itself that these materials are not being reconfigured into more modern weapons within the CIS in a manner which would be inconsistent with the stated intentions and publicized activities. The direct purchase of these valuable materials by the US government or by interested US private enterprises could alleviate these security concerns in a straightforward and very expeditious manner, while at the same time pumping vitally needed hard currency into the struggling CIS economy. Such a purchase would seem to be entirely consistent with the Congressional mandate indicated by the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991.

  3. Maintaining Heavy Force Training Focus in the Age of ’New Soviet Thinking’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-30

    Go Home". 4 !David Ignatius , "Yes, It’s Real: How Gorby Is Cutting the Soviet Threat," Washinaton Post, 5 November 1989, p. C1. 2Don Oberdorfer...well. Comparing the abysmal economic condition of the Soviet Union and its client states with the -Ibid, pp. 37-50. 3Christopher Donnelly , Red Banner...Covington, Stephen R. "The Soviet Military Prospects for Change." Soviet Studies Research Centre, RMA Sandurst, November 1988. 13. Donnelly , Christopher

  4. Analysis of the Soviet response to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Student report

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.E.

    1987-04-01

    Since President Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) in March 1983, the Soviet Union has consistently condemned it. This study examines the Soviet response to SDI and provides an explanation for their response. The study identifies military, political, and economic factors that influence the Soviet response to SDI. The author concludes that the Soviets have a genuine concern about SDI, and they will continue their attempts to stop the SDI program at the arms-control negotiations.

  5. The Content and Functions of Labor Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, George V.

    Labor unions in the U.S.S.R.--having emerged in Russia about 100 years after U.S. labor unions and been called by Lenin the "shock troops of the revolution"--do not much resemble their U.S. counterparts. Union members, including factory managers, constitute 99.3 percent of the work force, and place of employment or profession determines…

  6. Political Socialization of Youth in the Soviet Union: Its Theory, Use, and Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    life.24 The correspondinig third grade reader opens to the Soviet national anthem, portrayed with bright pictures of Soviet accomplishments and the...students m M•sc• w in 1’-• .... "Ihis lack undoubtedly a/fected the training of the student•, .•,Jn.t.: lhr•ugh Ih•, [,r(,gram. B. ClVIL DEFENSE As...specifically geared to W •Sl’,itanie in their curriculum Fht’se wert’ ll’l•st, dev¢•ted to civil defense and militnrv training. These mainl\\’ ,,er\\’ed

  7. Military Doctrine and Strategy in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for the Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    Krasnaya Zvezda in Russian, May 31, 1991, 1st ed., p. 3 (FBIS-SOV-91-109, June 6, 1991, p. 32); Reply by the USSR General Staff to a letter by I. Shimalo...national armed forces, Yravchuk’s position was that any former Soviet armed forces physically located on the territory of the Ukraine were now part of...republic armed forces, however, is that some of the best forces and equipment from the former Soviet armed forces ended up physically in tbp Ukraine

  8. Homonationalism before Homonationalism: Representations of Russia, Eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union in the U.S. Homophile Press, 1953-1964.

    PubMed

    Serykh, Dasha

    2017-01-17

    This essay focuses on representations of Russia, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe in U.S. homophile periodicals from 1953 to 1964. Extending the application of Jasbir Puar's concept of homonationalism to the Cold War period, the essay examines 126 articles and other items that were published in ONE, Mattachine Review, and The Ladder and demonstrates that these periodicals often engaged in homonationalist discourses when constructing the Russian, Soviet, and Eastern European "other." Negative constructions of these regions were sometimes used to affirm the political alignment of the homophile authors with the American nation. At other times, negative constructions were used in comparative assessments that critiqued both the United States and the Soviet and Eastern European regions. In contrast, positive constructions of Russian, Soviet, and Eastern European peoples and cultures were used as evidence that non-heteronormative desires and bodies had legitimate places in many "primitive" cultures and existed across all nations and periods.

  9. Bringing Health Care to the Under-Served: The Mid-Level Health Practitioner in Three Countries--China, the Soviet Union, and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupferberg, Natalie

    A comparison was made of the role of midlevel health practitioners and how they came into being and flourished in three countries: the "feldsher" of the Soviet Union, the barefoot doctor of China, and the physician assistant of the United States. Information was gathered from books, journals, periodicals, governments, and newspapers as…

  10. Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

  11. Computer Based Learning in the Soviet Union--II. A Report on a Study Visit to Moscow, November-December 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushby, N. J.

    This report examines the state of computer based learning (CBL) in the Soviet Union based upon information gained during a visit to the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, Moscow State University, and the Institute for Problems of Higher Schools. The visit had two aims: to study the political, educational, and technological pressures on CBL in…

  12. REPORT ON THE INTER-REGIONAL STUDY TOUR ON MANPOWER ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING IN THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS, 8 SEPTEMBER - 5 OCTOBER 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland).

    A MONTH-LONG STUDY TOUR PROVIDED 23 OFFICIALS OF 17 DEVELOPING COUNTRIES WITH AN OPPORTUNITY TO STUDY THE COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM OF MANPOWER PLANNING AND UTILIZATION EMPLOYED IN THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR) AND TO EXAMINE BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES WHICH, WITH SUITABLE ADAPTATION, MIGHT HAVE APPLICABILITY TO SIMILAR PROBLEMS…

  13. Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific-technical cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific technical cooperation is disclosed. The parties to the treaty agree to promote scientific and technical cooperation on a basis of equality, reciprocity and mutual advantage.

  14. The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

  15. Science Policy: USA/USSR. Volume II: Science Policy in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocka, Paul M.

    The second volume of a 700-page, two-volume study presents comparable studies on Soviet research and development and science policy, delineating the different structures, ideologies, and systems. A final chapter compares major areas of science policies in the USSR and USA. This publication arose from efforts of two U.S. members of a cooperative…

  16. Earthquake prediction in the Soviet Union; an interview with I. L. Nersesov

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1980-01-01

    Dr. I. L. Nersesov is a seismologist with the Institute of Physics of the Earth, Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R., Moscow. He is one of the leaders in the Soviet national program of earthquake prediction. 

  17. ESTIMATING THE TERRESTIAL CARBON POOLS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CONTERMINOUS U.S., AND BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrestrial-carbon (C) pool sizes are of interest in relation to quantifying current sources and sinks of C, and evaluating the possibilities for future C sequestration or release by the biosphere. In this study, the C pools in the terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Unio...

  18. On the history of the development of solid-propellant rockets in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pobedonostsev, Y. A.

    1977-01-01

    Pre-World War II Soviet solid-propellant rocket technology is reviewed. Research and development regarding solid composite preparations of pyroxyline TNT powder is described, as well as early work on rocket loading calculations, problems of flight stability, and aircraft rocket launching and ground rocket launching capabilities.

  19. SPETSNAZ (Spetsial’noye Naznacheniye): The Soviet Union’s Special Operations Forces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    Americans would even imagine. "Spetsial’noye" or the "special" in troops of special purpose would normally be associated with the english world elite ...DOCTRINE ......................................................... 6 II. ELITE FORMATIONS ................................................ 14 Airborne...support organizations are also designated troops of special purpose. The range of threats posed by SPETSNAZ and various other elite Soviet units to the

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military History Journal, No. 3, March 1988.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    important significant for the development of Soviet military art. The overall plan of Hq SHC in conducting the operation proceded from the...Air Army under operational sub- ordination to the 65th Army (commander, Col Gen P.I. Batov). In takinng the crossing such a decision, he proceded

  1. The United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1965. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Ira

    Intended for college-preparatory students at the high school level, this unit investigates the changing tides in U.S.-Soviet diplomatic relations and the reasons for the change. The focus of the unit is on a series of particular episodes such as the questions of famine relief in the 1920's, diplomatic recognition in the 1930's, World War II, the…

  2. Secondary Mathematics Education in the Soviet Union, an Individual Study Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-14

    potentially serious threat to the national security of the United States. Covered are educational philosophy and pedagogy, teacher education , and testing...specific Soviet practices in the areas of curriculum development and teacher education that warrant close study and consideration by U.S. educators

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 11, November 1988.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-10

    business . Thus in Singapore the government is oriented in the sphere of modernization of industry primarily toward overseas firms inasmuch as the... language monthly journal MIROVAYA EKONOMIKA I MEZHDU- NARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA published in Moscow by the Institute of World Economy and International...place in the Soviet scholarly literature on capitalism need reassessment. Modern capitalist enterprise large in size and its monopolistic character

  4. Perestroika, Soviet oil, and joint ventures

    SciTech Connect

    Churkin, M. Jr.

    1991-08-01

    Glaznost, the freedom of expression in both the public and private sectors of the Soviet Union, has rapidly transformed the country form a largely isolated and closed society to one that is rapidly becoming more cosmopolitan and open to the West. Now that the Soviet Union is moving toward a free-market economy, a number of new laws are being generated to create a favorable environment for Western investment, especially joint ventures. First, crude oil sales have provided over 75% of much-needed hard currency, and oil has been the principal barter for manufactured goods produced in eastern Europe. Second, joint oil ventures with Western companies can reverse declining production levels and provide sufficient stimulus to turn around the economic recession. The Soviet Union has a very large inventory of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields. Most of these fields are difficult for the Soviets to produce technically, financially, and environmentally safely, and they are actively seeking appropriate Western partners. From an exploration point of view, the Soviet Union has probably the largest number of undrilled and highly prospective oil basins, which may replenish declining reserves in the West. Finally, the Soviet Union represents in the long term a large unsaturated market eager to absorb the surplus of goods and services in the Western world. Again, joint oil ventures could provide the convertible currency to increase East-West trade.

  5. Comparison of two methods to assess the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    The sink of CO2 and the carbon budget of forest biomes of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were assessed with two distinct approaches: (1) ecosystem/ecoregional, and (2) forest statistical data. The ecosystem/ecoregional approach was based on the integration of ecoregions (defined with a GIS analysis of several maps) with soil/vegetation carbon data bases. The forest statistical data approach was based on growing stock, annual increment of timber, and FSU yield tables. Applying the ecosystem/ecoregional approach, the area of forest biomes in the FSU was estimated at 1426.1 Mha (1,000,000 hectares); forest ecosystems comprised 799.9 Mha, non-forest ecosystems and arable land comprised 506.1 and 119.9 Mha, respectively. The FSU forested area was 28 percent of the global area of closed forests. (Copyright (c) 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.)

  6. The burden of culture? Health outcomes among immigrants from the former Soviet Union in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Erin Trouth

    2012-04-01

    Immigrants in the U.S. often experience better health than the native-born, and many explanations for this phenomenon center around the positive health behaviors that immigrants bring from their home cultures. Immigrants from the former Soviet Union may be an exception; because they come from societies where unhealthy lifestyles and high mortality are common, they are often expected to experience worse health than the native population. Using data from the Integrated Health Interview Series, I compare FSU immigrants with U.S.-born, non-Hispanic whites on several health measures. FSU immigrants are twice as likely as native whites to report fair or poor health, but they are less likely to smoke or drink, and are less likely to report a functional limitation. FSU immigrants' advantage in functional limitation is largely explained by their very high levels of education and marriage, indicating that selectivity is important to understanding the health of this population.

  7. Alcohol use and treatment among Former Soviet Union immigrants in Israel: review of publications July 2009-December 2011.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Shoshana

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the current state of alcohol use among immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel, as an update to the 2 previous publications that reviewed studies published in the professional literature (mainly in Hebrew) and referred to earlier periods (from the early 1990s until 2006 and from 2007 through June 2009). This article reviews studies published primarily in Hebrew from mid-2009 throughout December 2011 and describes alcohol use patterns and treatment among FSU immigrants. As the third in the sequence of reviews aimed at English readers, it confirms the findings of the previous 2 reviews. Alcohol use among FSU immigrants continues to be more prevalent than among Israeli-born residents, and FSU immigrants continue to be overrepresented in treatment programs. Moreover, the review describes a severe worsening in alcohol use among FSU detached youth and no differences in alcohol use among early and recent immigrants between the ages of 18 and 40 years.

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Problems of the Far East, No. 1, January-February 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    this will accelerate the already critically high nace of he accumulation and perfection of nuclear arms g5nP?hese condiS, Mikhail Gorbachev...assessment in general taking into account that it was a record- high period in terms of the number of functioning research estab- lishments...Soviet economists, sociologists and historians as well as by many foreign scholars unambiguously shows that high production growth rates observed in

  9. The Scent of the Future: Manned Space Travel and the Soviet Union.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    unmanned program neglected: planetary probes, comunications satellites, military satellites, meteorological and earth resources flights, and scientific...expected to be put into use in future years. A long-term Soviet Soal in anned lunar and planetary flight. A NOTE ON UNITS With the exception of atmospheric...remains a blind, short-range, primitive weapon. Who, do you think, can we frighten with it? Poland ? Turkey? But we are not going to frighten Poland . Our

  10. Logistics Support for U.S. Perimeter and Portal Monitoring Sites in the Soviet Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    fertilizer. Manufactured goods are buried in a residual "other freight" category, which as a whole accounted in 1983 for only 18 percent of rail tons...equipment includes such items as personal computer systems, copiers, and shredders . Jim Saunders, HISC program manager for the Votkinsk Portal Monitoring...School of Systems and Logistics, May 1988. 90. Wilson, David. "The Consumption of Automotive Oil Products in Soviet Road Transport," Transport and

  11. The Soviet Union and the Third World. Part 2: Agenda for the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    first of Algeria in the case of Ben Bella , then later of Ghana and Egypt, were but samples of the difficulties for three aspects of these plans -- the...Scene 2): [The three witches put on] a show of eight Kings, the last with a glass in his hand; Banquo’s Ghost following Thou art too like the spirit... academia and voices understandable resentment. 5. Unfortunately, the UN-produced information is blatantly anti-Western and anti-American. * 177 Soviet

  12. Skobeltsyn and the early years of cosmic particle physics in the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilevskaya, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    D.V. Skobeltsyn was the first physicist to put a Wilson cloud chamber in a magnetic field and to show that cosmic rays are high energy particles. Also he observed the multiple particle generation by a cosmic particle for the first time. He initiated the cosmic ray research in Leningrad and Moscow and he has brought up a pleiad of distinguished cosmic ray physicists. He is the acknowledged founder of the Soviet, and Russian cosmic ray investigations.

  13. The Unlikely Success of the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front During World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-03

    Uranus that destroyed the German Sixth Army, the counter attack at Kursk, and OPERATION Bagration all owe their success in part due to the effective...battle positions and conducted the movement.39 Preparations for OPERATION Uranus effectively masked the movement of the million troops...OPERATION Uranus in 1942. The Soviets displayed a vast capability to recuperate from the severe manpower losses, especially in 1941 and 1942

  14. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations, No. 6, June 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    side by side in personnel policy: on the one hand artificial stability among the secretaries of a number of party committees and officials of soviet...Disarmament, peaceful cooperation, detente—this is the sole intelligent response to the danger threatening mankind" (4). Paying tribute to the "balanced...Vegetables and fruit Sugar and sugar products Highly specialized industries Dairy products and eggs Artificial fertilizer Machinery, equipment and

  15. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations, No. 2, February 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-13

    broad sense) interests. But the leadership of the fascist party in Rome and the militarist clique in Tokyo evidently believed that in the interests...aspirations of manifestly antipopular and antinational cliques which have come to be in power? Where to draw the line and what to take as the criterion...strata of the bourgeoisie are necessarily the most reactionary, belli - cose, anti-Soviet and so forth. Candidate of Historical Sciences Yu. Oleshchuk

  16. Is "abortion culture" fading in the former Soviet Union? Views about abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Agadjanian, Victor

    2002-09-01

    The Soviet legacy of widespread reliance on induced abortion is of critical importance to reproductive trends and policies in post-Soviet nations, especially as they strive to substitute contraception for abortion. Using data from two Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1995 and 1999, this study analyzes and compares trends in abortion and contraception, women's attitudes toward abortion, and their perceptions of problems associated with abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan. Despite an overall decline in abortion and an increase in contraceptive use since Kazakhstan's independence in 1991, abortion has remained a prominent part of the country's reproductive culture and practices. This study shows how abortion-related views reflect the long-standing ethnocultural differences between the indigenous Kazakhs and Kazakhstan's residents of European roots, as the latter continue to have significantly higher levels of abortion. The study, however, also reveals the internal diversity among Kazakhs with respect to abortion experiences and views, stemming from decades of the Soviet sociocultural influence in Kazakhstan. In addition, the analysis points to some generational differences in views concerning abortion and contraception. Finally, the study demonstrates parallels in attitudes toward abortion and toward contraception, thereby questioning straightforward assumptions about the replacement of abortion with contraception.

  17. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. Methods The cross-sectional national sample included 25–84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459) and immigrants from Poland (n = 161), other East European countries (n = 164), and the former Soviet Union (n = 60) who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994–2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. Results The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden) changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Conclusion Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007. PMID:17328817

  18. Dynamics of soil carbon stocks due to large-scale land use changes across the former Soviet Union during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurganova, Irina; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schierhorn, Florian; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Müller, Daniel; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Land use change is a major driver of land-atmosphere carbon (C) fluxes. The largest net C fluxes caused by LUC are attributed to the conversion of native unmanaged ecosystems to croplands and vice versa. Here, we present the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in response to large-scale land use changes in the former Soviet Union from 1953-2012. Widespread and rapid conversion of native ecosystems to croplands occurred in the course of the Virgin Lands Campaign (VLC) between 1954 to 1963 in the Soviet Union, when more than 45 million hectares (Mha) were ploughed in south-eastern Russia and northern Kazakhstan in order to expand domestic food production. After 1991, the collapse of the Soviet Union triggered the abandonment of around 75 Mha across the post-Soviet states. To assess SOC dynamics, we generated a static cropland mask for 2009 based on three global cropland maps. We used the cropland mask to spatially disaggregate annual sown area statistics at province level based on the suitability of each plot for crop production, which yielded land use maps for each year from 1954 to 2012 for all post-Soviet states. To estimate the SOC-dynamics due to the VLC and post-Soviet croplands abandonment, we used available experimental data, own field measurements, and soil maps. A bookkeeping approach was applied to assess the total changes in SOC-stocks in response to large-scale land use changes in the former Soviet Union. The massive croplands expansion during VLC resulted in a substantial loss of SOC - 611±47 Mt C and 241±11 Mt C for the upper 0-50 cm soil layer during the first 20 years of cultivation for Russia and Kazakhstan, respectively. These magnitudes are similar to C losses due to the plowing up of the prairies in USA in the mid-1930s. The total SOC sequestration due to post-Soviet croplands abandonment was estimated at 72.2±6.0 Mt C per year from 1991 to 2010. This amount of carbon equals about 40% of the current fossil fuel emission for this

  19. Opioid Use Trajectories, Injection Drug Use, and Hepatitis C Virus Risk Among Young Adult Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union Living in New York City.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Honoria; Marsch, Lisa A; Deren, Sherry; Straussner, Shulamith L A; Teper, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that young former Soviet Union immigrants in New York City have high rates of non-medical prescription opioid and heroin use, drug injection and injection-related risk behavior, making them vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, overdose and associated harms. This group has been the focus of little research, however. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data from 80 former Soviet immigrants (ages 18-29) to characterize their opioid use trajectories, injection risk behavior, HCV/HIV testing histories and self-reported HCV/HIV serostatus, and provides clinically meaningful data to inform tailored education, prevention and harm reduction interventions.

  20. Soviet health care and perestroika.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, D S; Rafferty, M P

    1990-01-01

    Health and health care in the Soviet Union are drawing special attention during these first years of perestroika, Mikhail Gorbachev's reform of Soviet political and economic life. This report briefly describes the current state of Soviet health and medical care, Gorbachev's plans for reform, and the prospects for success. In recent years the Soviet Union has experienced a rising infant mortality rate and declining life expectancy. The health care system has been increasingly criticized for its uncaring providers, low quality of care, and unequal access. The proposed measures will increase by 50 percent the state's contribution to health care financing, encourage private medicine on a small scale, and begin experimentation with capitation financing. It seems unlikely that the government will be able to finance its share of planned health improvements, or that private medicine, constrained by the government's tight control, will contribute much in the near term. Recovery of the Soviet economy in general as well as the ability of health care institutions to gain access to Western materials will largely determine the success of reform of the Soviet health care system. PMID:2297064

  1. The Soviet Union and Iran Strategic Implications for the United States Navy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    NMBeRl 7. AuTmORfe) 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT MNGMERfe) LeRoy Windsor Chapple S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND A0DRESS I*. PROGRAM ELEMEN"T. PRJT TASK...nature of Iran and the problems that beset the states of Southwest Asia. V DD FornD 1473 NTSTTf S/1 0102-414-6601 2 EC*g ,,,Ve € m.msa, sp,., ,,ep ’,., 0...BALANCE SHEET ....... .............. .73 E. SOVIET STRATEGY AND THE WAR .... ......... .74 V . IMPLICATIONS FOR NATIONAL SECURITY AND THE NAVY . . 81 A

  2. JPRS Report. Soviet Union Foreign Military Review, No. 2, February 1989.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-11

    Navies of Selected Capitalist States (Less NATO Countries) ^ [Yu. Kravchenko; pp 72-74] • :•"•••"""" ;•••••■•••••■• Restoring Traffic over Military...development brought about by needs to restore Leninist theory. Deviations from this theory left a heavy imprint on ideology: its theoretical level fell... technology , science and personnel; and to become aware of the essence of new political thinking and its interrelationship with and embodiment in Soviet

  3. The Soviet Union’s Hard-Currency Balance of Payments and Creditworthiness in 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    GRANT NUNSE1141I) Gregory Grossman, Ronald L. Solberg lHflA903-82-C-Ol72 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAaMA* D I.OlMAjEE9MPO 6 j5 .TS The Rand...plausible assumptions. The model highlights the vulnerability of the Soviet hard-currency balance-of-payments to a liquidity squeeze by examininq its...theoretical model of international financial creditworthiness developed by one of the authors in his .doctoral dis- sertation (Solberg) with expertise on

  4. Compilation of seismic-refraction crustal data in the Soviet Union

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Robert; Durbin, William P.; Healy, J.H.; Warren, David H.

    1964-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is preparing a series of terrain atlases of the Sino-Soviet bloc of nations for use in a possible nuclear-test detection program. Part of this project is concerned with the compilation and evaluation of crustal-structure data. To date, a compilation has been made of data from Russian publications that discuss seismic refraction and gravity studies of crustal structure. Although this compilation deals mainly with explosion seismic-refraction measurements, some results from earthquake studies are also included. None of the data have been evaluated.

  5. History of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union, 1941-1945, Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-20

    USSR, col. 233, inv. 2374, div. 39, P. 335. -335-K, Goduny the soldiers saw a child with a label on his neck: "Goduny 121.14 When they attempted to...corps commanded by Lt. Gen, L.A. Porn advanced particularly rapidly. The corps, formed in 1942, was the first to enter the battle with the German fascist...Party for , families with many children and for the protection of motherhood and child - * hood& The Soviet government increased allowances to mothers

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 10, October 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of Soviet-FRG Relations Urged [M. Maksimova; pp 61-66] 33 Friedrich Ebert Foundation Opens Moscow Office [G. Stuempfig; pp 67-69] 39 FRG Payments...their own way but very insistently, F. Engels ’ well-known idea of the immense role played by social theory in the political, class, and "historical...KOMMUNIST No 11, 1987, pp 51-52. 8. O. Lange, "Ekonomia Politiczna," Warsaw, 1959, p 274. 9. K. Marx and F. Engels , "Works," vol 23, p 18. 10. Ibid., pp

  7. Estimating the causal effect of alcohol consumption on well-being for a cross-section of 9 former Soviet Union countries.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; McKee, Martin

    2013-07-01

    While the adverse health and economic consequences attributable to alcohol consumption are widely acknowledged, its impact on psychological wellbeing is less well understood. This is to a large extent due to the challenge of establishing causal effects of alcohol consumption when using standard single-equation econometric analyses. Using a unique dataset collected in 2010/11 of 18,000 individuals and also community characteristics from nine countries of the former Soviet Union, a region with a major burden of alcohol related ill health, we address this problem by employing an instrumental variable approach to identify any causal effects of alcohol consumption on mental well-being. The availability of 24-h alcohol sales outlets in the neighbourhood of the individuals is used as an instrument, based on theoretical reasoning and statistical testing of its validity. We find that increased alcohol consumption decreases well-being and that ignoring endogeneity leads to underestimation of this effect. This finding adds a further and previously under-appreciated dimension to the expected benefits that could be achieved with more effective alcohol policy in this region.

  8. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.

  9. JPRS report, arms control, protocol to the treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests

    SciTech Connect

    1990-08-01

    The United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, hereinafter referred to as the Parties, confirming the provisions of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests of July 3, 1974, hereinafter referred to as the Treaty, convinced of the necessity to ensure effective verification of compliance with the Treaty. Contents of the Treaty are enclosed.

  10. Prosthetic Manhood in the Soviet Union at the End of World War II.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Millions of Soviet soldiers were disabled as a direct consequence of their service in the Second World War. Yet despite its expressions of gratitude for their sacrifices, the state evinced a great deal of discomfort regarding their damaged bodies. The countless armless and legless veterans were a constant reminder of the destruction suffered by the country as a whole, an association increasingly incompatible with the postwar agenda of wholesale reconstruction. This article focuses on a key strategy for erasing the scars of war, one with ostensibly unambiguous benefit for the disabled themselves: the development of prostheses. In addition to fostering independence from others and ultimately from the state, artificial limbs would facilitate the veterans' return to the kinds of socially useful labor by which the country defined itself. In so doing, this strategy engendered the establishment of a new model of masculinity: a prosthetic manhood.

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: The Working Class & The Contemporary World, No. 5, September-October 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-24

    several varieties differing mainly in the methods of computing the workers’ contribution to the increase in the firm’s profits and, correspondingly...number of particular features. It is distinguished by particular intensity and scale. Together with the extensive use of the entire arsenal of methods ...of suppressing the unions tested in the past the monopolies are resorting to new tactical methods . With the aid of the latter and given the active

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No 8, August 1990.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    include or, more precisely, insert the full diversity of manifestations of social protest in the formula of the struggle between labor and capital, the...elections were won by bananas ." This was a reference to the fact that the West German Christian Democratic Union had thrown scarce fruit on the...for those selfsame bananas (naturally if they are "thrown" on the market). Their desire to live better is understandable. It was a tribula- tion to

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, Preparations for the 19th Party Conference, Part 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    important element that would be political, that is, would fully meet the require- ments of party allegiance and party policy, which is a science and...historical sciences , former secretary of the party’s Saratov Obkom, under rubric "Towards the 19th Ail-Union Party Conference": "Teaching That Which...only two do not exist, but even one does not exist? According to the data of medical science , the risk factor for getting a heart attack has

  14. Reconstructing the Soviet National Economic Balance, 1965 - 1984: An Alternative Approach to Estimating Soviet Military Expenditures. Volume 1. Technical Discussion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-11

    based method of estimating military expenditures differs3 considerably from the method by proposed Western researchers who, like Soviet 1-9 I I academic... researchers , the problem of inflation would still be open to competing interpretations since one can design different, equally valid methods , for...I-1 1.2 Comparison of Soviet Accounting Methods ......................................... 1-4 1.3 The NEB Coverage of Military Expenditures

  15. U.S./European Economic Cooperation in Military and Civil Technology. An Issues-Oriented Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-01

    throughout P«ct countries. In the decade ending in 19//» — the 25th anniversary of AA.TO — the Soviet Union achieved nuclear parit> with the United...wesc of the Urals. Taken together, this is an outstanding economic,technological and industrial achievement by the Soviet Union , and its Warsaw...diversity * Unable logistically to support one another Many Americans see the United States locked in a "technological race" with the Soviet Union

  16. Defeated by a MAZE: The Soviet Economy and Its Defense-Industrial Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Note, principles drawn from the history of economic thought are related to some of the key features of Russian and Soviet history to define and...adequately reflected. In this Note, principles drawn from the history of economic thought are related to some of the key features of Russian and...Alec, " History , Political Culture , and Economics in the Soviet Union," Economics and Politics in the USSR: Problems of Interdependence, Hans-Hermann

  17. When role reversal and brokering meet: filial responsibility among young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Ponizovsky, Yael; Kurman, Jenny; Roer-Strier, Dorit

    2012-12-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of role reversal and brokering (language and cultural in immigration), in which children assume culturally atypical adult responsibilities, have developed as different scholarly domains, despite their theoretical similarity. The purpose of the present article is to increase the integration between the two bodies of literature to achieve a better understanding of filial responsibilities children assume upon immigration and their differential correlates with adjustment. The structure of filial responsibility in immigration, interrelations between its distinct components, and the ability of the brokering roles to add significantly to the predicting of adjustment are studied. Young adult immigrants from the former Soviet Union to Israel (n = 220) completed the Comprehensive Filial Responsibilities Inventory (CFRI), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the self-efficacy inventory. Factor analysis identified six CFRI domains with satisfying psychometric properties. The factors are dominance in family, cultural brokering, language brokering, emotional support to parents, self-reliance, and money issues. Hierarchical regression analyses showed a contribution of the brokering roles to prediction of psychological distress above and beyond traditional roles. The results support the validity of the CFRI and contribute to the understanding of interrelations among the various filial responsibilities, including brokering roles.

  18. A life domains perspective on acculturation and psychological adjustment: a study of refugees from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Birman, Dina; Simon, Corrina D; Chan, Wing Yi; Tran, Nellie

    2014-03-01

    The study articulates a contextual approach to research on acculturation of immigrants, suggesting that the relationship between acculturation and adjustment is dependent on the cultural demands of the life domains considered. Specifically, the study investigated the mediating effects of adjustment in occupational and social life domains on the relationship between acculturation and psychological adjustment for 391 refugees from the former Soviet Union. The study used bilinear measures of acculturation to the host (American) and heritage (Russian) cultures. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the study confirmed the hypothesized relationships, such that the positive effects of American acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by occupational adjustment, and the effects of Russian acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by satisfaction with co-ethnic social support. Psychological adjustment was measured in two ways, as psychological well-being, using a measure of life satisfaction, and as symptoms of depression and anxiety, using the Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL). Life satisfaction served as a mediator between adjustment in occupational and social domains and HSCL, suggesting that it may be an intervening variable through which environmental stress associated with immigration contributes to the development of symptoms of mental disorder.

  19. Marshall Plan productivity assistance: A unique program of mass technology transfer and a precedent for the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Silberman, J.M.; Weiss, C. Jr.; Dutz, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Productivity Program of the Marshall Plan made a major contribution to the increase in Western European productivity in the 1950s, well before there was significant policy liberalization, competition, or foreign investment in these countries. Prior to the program, European manufacturing and management practice was a generation behind the US, and productivity was one-third of US levels. The cost of this program over ten years was $300 million, or only 1.5% of Marshall Plan capital assistance. Its 1500 study tours brought tens of thousands of people from European and Asian countries to the United States to observe management and production. On returning home, tour members vigorously spread new ideas throughout their countries, which also received a wide variety of follow-up technical services. Europe`s leaders supported national productivity drives out of fear of communism and social unrest, not in response to competitive market forces. The drives helped firms achieve almost immediate productivity gains with little new investment. This relatively inexpensive idea could increase incomes and improve the supply and variety of consumer goods in present-day Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Potential effect of No-till management on carbon in the agricultural soils of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Gaston, G.G.; Kolchugina, T.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Agricultural soils act as both a source and a sink for atmospheric carbon. Since the onset of cultivation, the 211.5 million ha of agricultural soils in the former Soviet Union (FSU) have lost 10.2 Gt of carbon. No-till management represents a promising option to increase the amount of carbon sequestered in the agricultural soil of the FSU. No-till management reduces erosion and sequesters additional carbon in the soil by lowering the soil temperature and raising soil moisture. To determine the carbon sequestered under no-till management, a data base containing precultivation estimates of soil carbon for the seven major classes of soil found in the agricultural areas of the FSU was used to establish an equilibrium carbon content for each soil. Other published data provided a method to quantify the change in soil carbon brought about by converting to no-till management. Soils suitable for no-till management were analyzed and estimates of changes in carbon storage were made. No-till management is not suitable in areas where crop production is limited by cold, wet soils. (Copyright (c) 1993 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.)

  1. Estimated inventory of radionuclides in Former Soviet Union Naval Reactors dumped in the Kara Sea and their associated health risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, M.E.; Layton, D.W.; Schwertz, N.L.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Robison, W.L.

    1993-05-01

    Radionuclide inventories have bin estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 17 to 66 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 1695 to 4782 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 6 to 24 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 492 to 540 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two.

  2. Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem.

  3. Low-cost space fission power systems utilizing US and former Soviet Union experience and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetch, Joseph R.; Britt, Edward J.; Koester, J. Kent; Gunther, N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Nikolaev, Yuri V.; Nikitin, Vladimir

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the author's approach to space power total economics. In the past 40 years of U.S. government sponsored space nuclear power developments, total economics has received only token consideration. In the real world, nuclear power has had limited acceptance where it provided the enabling capability i.e. isotopes for low power, long life, deep space missions, or reactor power for underwater nuclear submarines. It was also accepted where it was perceived to be more economic. Examples are nuclear reactor powered aircraft carriers, escort vessels and central station power stations. In any case, real and perceived public and environmental safety must always be included into the economic equation.

  4. Social capital and self-reported general and mental health in nine Former Soviet Union countries.

    PubMed

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Rocco, Lorenzo; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been proposed as a potentially important contributor to health, yet most of the existing research tends to ignore the challenge of assessing causality in this relationship. We deal with this issue by employing various instrumental variable estimation techniques. We apply the analysis to a set of nine former Soviet countries, using a unique multi-country household survey specifically designed for this region. Our results confirm that there appears to be a causal association running from several dimensions of individual social capital to general and mental health. Individual trust appears to be more strongly related to general health, while social isolation- to mental health. In addition, social support and trust seem to be more important determinants of health than the social capital dimensions that facilitate solidarity and collective action. Our findings are remarkably robust to a range of different specifications, including the use of instrumental variables. Certain interaction effects are also found: for instance, untrusting people who live in communities with higher aggregate level of trust are even less likely to experience good health than untrusting people living in the reference communities.

  5. Assessment of the infectious diseases surveillance system of the Republic of Armenia: an example of surveillance in the Republics of the former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Wuhib, Tadesse; Chorba, Terence L; Davidiants, Vladimir; Mac Kenzie, William R; McNabb, Scott JN

    2002-01-01

    Background Before 1991, the infectious diseases surveillance systems (IDSS) of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were centrally planned in Moscow. The dissolution of the FSU resulted in economic stresses on public health infrastructure. At the request of seven FSU Ministries of Health, we performed assessments of the IDSS designed to guide reform. The assessment of the Armenian infectious diseases surveillance system (AIDSS) is presented here as a prototype. Discussion We performed qualitative assessments using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Until 1996, the AIDSS collected aggregate and case-based data on 64 infectious diseases. It collected information on diseases of low pathogenicity (e.g., pediculosis) and those with no public health intervention (e.g., infectious mononucleosis). The specificity was poor because of the lack of case definitions. Most cases were investigated using a lengthy, non-disease-specific case-report form Armenian public health officials analyzed data descriptively and reported data upward from the local to national level, with little feedback. Information was not shared across vertical programs. Reform should focus on enhancing usefulness, efficiency, and effectiveness by reducing the quantity of data collected and revising reporting procedures and information types; improving the quality, analyses, and use of data at different levels; reducing system operations costs; and improving communications to reporting sources. These recommendations are generalizable to other FSU republics. Summary The AIDSS was complex and sensitive, yet costly and inefficient. The flexibility, representativeness, and timeliness were good because of a comprehensive health-care system and compulsory reporting. Some data were questionable and some had no utility. PMID:11914147

  6. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

    2010-12-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and

  7. Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I.

    1995-06-01

    In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Peoples of Asia and Africa, No. 1, January-February 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-13

    countries, causing them huge financial financial resources. No less obvious also is the fact that losses. The profit and dividends which the TNC are the role...interest and dividends of $30 billion (21). national economic complex in the true meaning of this Thus in the 1970s the main states of this group had word...See REVUE ALGERIENNE DES SCIENCES JURI- owned corporations which figure in the lists of the DIQUES, ECONOMIQUES ET POLITIQUES No 4, biggest companies

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Foreign Military Review, No. 3, March 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-02

    sioning of the Seikan tunnel has important economic and military significance to Japan, since it creates conditions for development of one of its...sance resources are believed to be the most widespread and effective today. Their relative importance in the armed forces of the principal...noted in the foreign press that clandestine intelli- gence, carried on by specially trained persons sent into the enemy rear, occupies an important

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 8, August 1989.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-21

    B. Orlov; pp 62-63] 22 Workers’ Role in Management fS. Peregudov; pp 63-66] 23 DIALOGUE BETWEEN A JOURNALIST AND A SCIENTIST Problems of...developed countries, the author stresses that interaction and close cooperation between them is necessary for effective economic management . I...GATT will require that information be regularly provided on the structure of managing the national economy, for foreign trade dealings in particular

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 4, April 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Simultaneously large-scale measures pertaining to an improvement in management and the entire economic mechanism are being implemented. The system of foreign... management . These tasks, the program of practical action adopted by the party at the Central Committee April Plenum, the 27th congress and the January...to a qualitatively higher level. Increasingly new sectors of material production and circulation, spheres of management and service and everyday

  12. Spatial Analysis of Market Economy Innovations in the Former Soviet Union: The Case of Commodity Exchanges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-06

    iron and steel. The later economic shift from coal and steel to oil and natural gas has left the region’s steel mills totally environmentally ...thuc have performed best in adopting market economy initiativps- Moscow, the Baltics, oil-producing western Siberian cities, and oil and natural gas...these provinces are rich in natural resources that remain to be developed. The third quartile (Figure 3) provides two patterns of note. First, all of the

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Foreign Military Review, No. 4, April 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-17

    million goats, 910,000 camels , 450,000 horses and about 114 million poultry. About one million tons of meat and 10-11 million tons of milk are...Stasov) gg Contact Minesweepers (pp 56-58) (S. Usov, A. Kolpakov) 74 MILITARY ECONOMICS AND INFRASTRUCTURE Brazil’s Military Industry ...and the other NATO countries are continuing the arms race to please the military- industrial complex. They are striving to destroy the existing

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 10, October 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-17

    methods predetermined the changes in the nature of the ties between the state and economy. That is how the monopolist bourgeoisie reacted to the...important role in the research of limits to economic growth owing to scarcity of resources. Historically this theory was not ideologically neutral. But...reader with the results of their research work in Japan which represents theoretical and practical interest. The dialogue involves problems of

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union. World Economy & International Relations, No. 12, December 1988.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-18

    the Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Refer to the table of contents for a...Institute for World Economy and International Rela- tions). The article gives a clear-cut review of the role played by the European Community in the ...present-day world , and specific emphasis is laid on the analysis of economic, political and other factors which

  16. Opioid Use Trajectories, Injection Drug Use and HCV Risk among Young Adult Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union Living in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Honoria; Marsch, Lisa A.; Deren, Sherry; Straussner, Shulamith L.A.; Teper, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that young former Soviet Union immigrants in New York City have high rates of non-medical prescription opioid and heroin use, drug injection and injection-related risk behavior, making them vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, overdose and associated harms. This group has been the focus of little research, however. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data from 80 former Soviet immigrants (ages 18–29) to characterize their opioid use trajectories, injection risk behavior, HCV/HIV testing histories and self-reported HCV/HIV serostatus, and provides clinically meaningful data to inform tailored education, prevention and harm reduction interventions. PMID:26132715

  17. Biosputniks: The use by the Soviet Union and Russia of dogs, monkeys and other animals in the exploration of space, 1949-93

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, B.

    1993-10-01

    The Soviet Union used animals in the exploration of space from 1949 onwards. Russia has continued the use of animals in the exploration of space with the launch on 30 December 1992 of Bion-10 (Cosmos 2229). Animals in the space program is an important theme in the Soviet exploration of space. The use of animals in the exploration of space has four main phases: (1) Suborbital missions 1949-1959; (2) Preparation for man's first flight into space 1960-1; (3) Preparation for man's flight to the Moon 1968-1970; (4) The international biomedical program 1962- . Each is dealt with in turn. The use of animals or biological specimens on board manned orbital space stations is not discussed.

  18. Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

    2013-03-12

    The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17-36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; P<0.05) was observed in Jewish migrants to Germany as compared with non-Jewish German residents. Furthermore, anti-Semitic experiences in Germany correlated positively with depression (r=0.293; P<0.01) and fear (r=0.254; P<0.05). The anti-Semitic experiences in the post-Soviet-Union areas also correlated positively with limb pain (r=0.41, P<0.01), fatigue symptoms (r=0.296, P<0.01) and psychocardial symptoms (r=0.219, P<0.05). It was also confirmed that the male respondents recalled a controlling and overprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; P<0.01). The latter also correlated significantly positive with epigastric pain (r=0.349; P<0.01). The present results show that depression, fear and psychosomatic problems are common in Jewish residents with a

  19. Effect of acculturation and health beliefs on utilization of health care services by elderly women who immigrated to the USA from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Yarova, Lyubov A; Krassen Covan, Eleanor; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, researchers explored what conditions influence women's use of professional health care services, and how sociocultural environments and acculturation affect utilization of health care services. We recruited 15 women in the Ukraine, 15 women who immigrated from the former Soviet Union, and 10 female U.S. citizens. Data include open-ended interviews, a "general information" questionnaire, and the Language, Identity and Behavioral Acculturation scale. Acculturation levels and length of residency in the United States were not consistent predictors of health-seeking behaviors for immigrants. The stronger predictor of health beliefs and health related behaviors among all participants was their mothers' health beliefs and health related behaviors.

  20. Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa

    PubMed Central

    Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

    2013-01-01

    The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17–36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; P<0.05) was observed in Jewish migrants to Germany as compared with non-Jewish German residents. Furthermore, anti-Semitic experiences in Germany correlated positively with depression (r=0.293; P<0.01) and fear (r=0.254; P<0.05). The anti-Semitic experiences in the post-Soviet-Union areas also correlated positively with limb pain (r=0.41, P<0.01), fatigue symptoms (r=0.296, P<0.01) and psychocardial symptoms (r=0.219, P<0.05). It was also confirmed that the male respondents recalled a controlling and overprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; P<0.01). The latter also correlated significantly positive with epigastric pain (r=0.349; P<0.01). The present results show that depression, fear and psychosomatic problems are common in Jewish residents with a

  1. Biomedical journals and databases in Russia and Russian language in the former Soviet Union and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Danishevskiy, Kirill D

    2008-01-01

    In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requirements of a totalitarian state and biased directives of communist leaders. Later, depressing economic conditions and isolation from the international research community further impeded its development. Contemporary Russia has inherited a system of medical education quite different from the west as well as counterproductive regulations for the allocation of research funding. The methodology of medical and epidemiological research in Russia is largely outdated. Epidemiology continues to focus on infectious disease and results of the best studies tend to be published in international periodicals. MEDLINE continues to be the best database to search for Russian biomedical publications, despite only a small proportion being indexed. The database of the Moscow Central Medical Library is the largest national database of medical periodicals, but does not provide abstracts and full subject heading codes, and it does not cover even the entire collection of the Library. New databases and catalogs (e.g. Panteleimon) that have appeared recently are incomplete and do not enable effective searching. PMID:18826569

  2. Socio-economic resources and first-union formation in Finland, cohorts born 1969-81.

    PubMed

    Jalovaara, Marika

    2012-03-01

    Social scientists generally agree that better individual economic prospects enhance the probability of marriage for men, whereas there are conflicting views with regard to women. Moreover, it is argued that cohabitation does not require as strong an economic foundation as marriage. The aim of this study, which was based on Finnish register data, was to find out how the socio-economic resources of young adults affect first-union formation, and whether the effects vary by sex or union type. The results show that high education, labour-force participation, and high income seem to promote union formation. The findings are similar for women and men, which is plausible given the comparatively gender-egalitarian societal context. Similar factors encourage entry into both union types, although the union-promoting effects of university-level education and stable employment are stronger in the marriage models, suggesting that long-term prospects are more important when marriage is contemplated.

  3. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-08

    hydraulic brake linkage is connected separately to the actuating brakes of the front and rear axles . In case of hermetic-seal failure in one of the...safety. Designers had this in mind when they used polypropylene to fabricate the steering wheel and used a joint to connect the steering wheel shaft...good lubrication of the bearing needles. The casing lever of the front- axle rotary cam has been reinforced. The well-known, multi-purpose GAZ-66

  4. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-15

    German obstacle detachments consisted largely of our traitors. This is the way the German command drew its regiments into pincers : in front—the...modern army which would grip the minds and hearts of the rank-and-file troops and noncommissioned officers, the officers and generals? Yes, Dostoevsky

  5. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    instead of alcohol, at which there was enthusiastic discussion of music and history, there was dancing and poetry was read. A concert was given by...Eksprompt, an officers’ performing ensemble headed by Captain Ye. Ovcharenko, a great lover of music . Word of how jolly and interesting it had been at the...process not designed to be accomplished in a single leap. It is premature , of course, to say that we have "restructured" or are completing the job. When

  6. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    republics and oblasts. Constantly at the forward edge, their joint efforts successfully completed the extremely dif- ficult job of sealing off the...34 work. Let us say that a gas welding apparatus was required for the repair of water and heat lines. It could not be obtained legally, and if we put it...chairman of a neighboring kol- khoz, he sent a group of soldiers to harvest melons for several days. For their labor he received a gas welding

  7. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-17

    anxieties of unit command elements and staff officers. The discussion was carried on at a party meeting, and it was distinguished by adherence to... unfaithful .* And do not go easy on those who want to lay down their arms. . ." "What will happen in the future, Shirgol?" "I have fought for 8 years

  8. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    I. A. LEBED Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA in Russian 16 Apr 87 P 4 [Text] Lieutenant General (Retired) Ivan Alekseyevich Lebed, former deputy chief of...six orders, many medals, and awards from the socialist countries. May the memory of Ivan Alekseyevich Lebed, faithful son of the Communist Party...Nadezhdin, V. Birds and the Accident Rate in the U.S. Air Force... 7 Pavlov , A. Surprise in the Aggressive Plans of the United States.. 4 Pavlov , A

  9. Soviet Arts Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    This extensive curriculum guide was written in conjunction with the San Diego Arts Festival of Soviet Arts in 1989. It aimed to provide teachers with insights and ideas about arts in the Soviet Union before, during, and after the Arts Festival. A curriculum model is presented at the beginning of the guide to illustrate how the lessons were…

  10. Recent Soviet Vocationalisation Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Felicity

    The Soviet Union is attempting to deal with the sometimes conflicting problems of efficient vocationalization and provision of equal opportunity. From the first class of general school, Soviet children have several "labor" lessons a week. Main components of these lessons are practical skills, socialization for work, and vocational…

  11. Soviet ventures require careful structuring

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, J.A. )

    1991-06-03

    When the Soviet Union first opened its doors to foreign investment in 1987, the only legal entity for housing foreign investment was the joint venture or joint enterprise. Almost all foreign investments to date utilize this organizational form. Initially, non-Soviet investors were limited to a 49% equity participation. Currently, there are in excess of 2,000 such joint ventures officially registered in the Soviet Union. It is important to note, however, that notwithstanding that substantial number, the average non-Soviet investment is relatively small; indeed, recent calculations indicate that the average non-Soviet investment remains under $2 million. It was hoped that someday Soviet entities as well as foreign firms might be empowered to form thier own legal vehicles for investing in the Soviet Union. In part, that dream has come true.

  12. Soviet Techniques and Devices for Automating Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zender, Bryce Franklin, Jr.

    Various Soviet conceptions of technology and their influence on the automation of instruction in the Soviet Union are examined, and the history of the development of Soviet programed instruction is sketched. Key principles and techniques from Soviet psychology, pedagogy, computer technology, and cybernetics are explained in terms of their…

  13. LLNL's Regional Model Calibration and Body-Wave Discrimination Research in the Former Soviet Union using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, J.; Rodgers, A.; Swenson, J.; Schultz, C.; Walter, W.; Mooney, W.; Clitheroe, G.

    2000-07-14

    Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing ({approx}15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to {approx} 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at local, near- and far-regional and teleseismic distances. These data are used to: (1) study the evolution of regional phases and phase amplitude ratios along the profile; (2) infer one-dimensional velocity structure along the profile; and (3) evaluate the spatial correlation of regional and teleseismic travel times and regional phase amplitude ratios. We analyzed waveform data from four PNE's (m{sub b} = 5.1-5.6) recorded along profile KRATON, which is an east-west trending profile located in northern Sibertil. Short-period regional discriminants, such as P/S amplitude ratios, will be essential for seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) at small magnitudes (m{sub b} < 4.0). However, P/S amplitude ratios in the short-period band, 0.5-5.0 Hz, show some scatter. This scatter is primarily due to propagation and site effects, which arise from variability in the elastic and anelastic structure of the crustal waveguide. Preliminary results show that Pg and Lg propagate efficiently in north Siberia at regional distances. The amplitude ratios show some variability between adjacent stations that are modeled by simple distance trends. The effect of topography, sediment and crustal thickness, and upper mantle discontinuities on these ratios, after removal of the distance trends, will be investigated. The travel times of the body wave phases recorded on KEATON have been used to compute the one-dimensional structure of the crust and upper mantle in this region. The path-averaged one-dimensional velocity model was computed by minimizing the

  14. Major Concepts/Events in United States-Soviet Union Relations: From the Origins to Recognition. Topic #4 in a Series of International Security and Conflict Curricula for Grades 9-12 and Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Robin; And Others

    This 4-day supplementary curriculum unit is designed for use in social studies classes at the upper secondary (9-12) and community college levels. The curriculum unit seeks to explore the roots of contemporary relations between the United State and Soviet Union through an examination of how that relationship evolved from the 18th century to the…

  15. Russia, Religion, and the Rosary: Can Religion be a U.S. Weapon against the Soviet Union?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-05

    1945. Huxley , Aldous# The Perennial Philosophy. New York#’ Harper and Brothers, 1945o International Conciliation* The Soviet and Religion# Worcester...Jerusalem Bible# 81 Jordan , W. K. The DevelopMent of Religio,.,s Toleration in SErgland from the Convention of the Lorg.. ParliaMent to -t.eRestoration

  16. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  17. Unionization Activity as a Function of Employee Job Attitudes, Management Practices and Social-Economic Factors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    security predict individual voting behavior in union representational elections (cf. Brett, 1980a; 1980b). But, in his review of this macro and micro...the factors behind employees seeking collective bargaining. Although we should not abandon psychological models or labor economic models, this study...Sage, 1976. Ginsburg, W.L. Review of literature on union growth, government and structure: 1955-1969. Review of Industrial Relations Research, 1970

  18. Interplay of identities: a narrative study of self-perceptions among immigrants with severe mental illness from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Knaifel, Evgeny; Mirsky, Julia

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the self-perceptions of individuals with mental illness who immigrated from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to Israel. In particular, we examined the double stigma borne by these individuals as new immigrants and psychiatric patients, which may threaten their identity and render them at risk for social marginalization. We interviewed 12 FSU immigrants diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI), who had been hospitalized in psychiatric facilities in the past and, at the time of the interview, were residing in community rehabilitation centers. Their narratives revealed that they constructed multiple identities for themselves: as bearers of Russian culture, as Soviet Jews, as normative immigrants, and only lastly as consumers of mental health services. In the case of FSU newcomers with mental illness immigration may serve as a normalizing and positive experience. Study findings suggest that stressing patients' identity as mentally ill may be counterproductive in their rehabilitation; instead, clinicians may consider working to mobilize patients' personal and cultural assets and helping them reinstate a more complex self-perception. Further research is needed to explore how immigration may affect self-perceptions of individuals with SMI from other cultural groups.

  19. Risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union: results of a nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diseases of the circulatory system (CVD) are the most common causes of death in developed countries. However, the prevalence of CVD varies between countries; for example, the mortality rate in Russia is about four times higher than in Western Europe. In a recent retrospective cohort study it was unexpectedly found that CVD mortality is lower among "Aussiedler" (ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union) compared to the German population. Methods This is a case-control study, nested into a recent cohort study of migrants from the former Soviet Union. Relatives of cases and controls themselves were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire. To estimate relative risks via the odds ratio (OR), a conditional logistic regression procedure was performed. Results Commonly known risk factors for CVD were identified as relevant to Aussiedler. The best multivariate model for CVD includes five risk factors: consumption of alcohol, smoking, diabetes, cholesterol and consumption of sweets. For alcohol consumption and smoking, OR = 3.68 (95% CI, 1.58-8.58) and OR = 3.07 (95% CI, 1.42-6.62), respectively. For diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol values, OR = 3.29 (95% CI, 1.50-7.39) and OR = 2.32 (95% CI, 1.11-4.88), respectively. The almost complete abdication of sweets is associated with a protective effect, OR = 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64). The prevalence of risk factors is somewhat different to that of the autochthon German population and partly explains the differences in CVD mortality between both groups. Conclusions The reported lower prevalences of known risk factors of CVD such as alcohol consumption, high cholesterol, diabetes and smoking (in women) could contribute to a lower risk of CVD. PMID:22413759

  20. Consensus among Economics Teachers from Transition Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leet, Don R.; Lang, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the economic opinions of teachers and economists from the former Soviet Union who participated in economic education programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education under the auspices of the National Council on Economic Education from 1995-2001. They sought to determine the level of consensus on economic topics among the…

  1. The Economic Consequences of the Dissolution of Cohabiting Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avellar, Sarah; Smock, Pamela J.

    2005-01-01

    Although the economic effects of divorce have been well studied, a similar exploration of cohabitation has not been conducted. For this analysis, we use a sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N=2,372) documenting changes in economic well-being at the end of a cohabiting relationship and comparing these results to a sample of…

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production, No. 9, September 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    manifesting initiatives and mastery is more attractive than high earnings. Publications about the cooperatives that have been cre- ated suggest to...impoverished segments of the population, not hav- ing a high level of political culture, are more quickly subject to propaganda of the next historical...caused by "leftist haste" in questions of cooperation. In European socialist countries with a traditionally high cultural life (for example, the GDR

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production, No. 11, November 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-22

    pride. And then—this success in the past, what kind was it? Did it turn the wheel of industry like the elimination of unemployment, the defeat of...for example, it could consist of a direct current microengine and an axle meter of rotations which is applied in any threshing machine or...efficiency experts and the inventors , and so forth. As concerns the complexity of the account- ing, it is not great and it can even be simplified by the

  4. JPRS Report Soviet Union USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology No 12, December 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    no question, however, that one day there will be no more oil. The main renewable sources of energy ( solar and thermonuclear) are still dreams for...A.F.), No 11 Herken, Gregg, "Counsels of War" (Kobrinskaya, I.Ya.), No 3 "Shirokomasshtabnaya protivoraketnaya sistema i mezhdunarodnaya

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 12, December 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    main renewable sources of energy ( solar and thermonuclear) are still dreams for some indefinite time in the distant future. We will be very lucky...I.Ya.), No 3 "Shirokomasshtabnaya protivoraketnaya sistema i mezhdunarodnaya bezopasnost" [The Broad-Scale Anti- missile System and International

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 9, September 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-10

    the cotton, 24.9 percent of the corn, 25.5 percent of the soybeans, 27.8 percent of the raw hides, 46.8 percent of the citrus fruit, 52.9 percent of...billion dollars). According to preliminary data, the figure was 24.4 billion dollars in 1986. In terms of this indica - tor, Japanese companies are far

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 12, December 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    warheads. The Treaty on the Elimination of Intermediate- and Shorter- Range Missiles by itself raises this meeting to the level of the most important...opinion polls show the high level of support—70 to 80 percent and more—for the Treaty on the Elimination of Inter- mediate- and Shorter-Range Missiles...Warsaw Pact member states have proposed a developed system of measures, including the reduction of armed forces and weapons, a decrease in the level of

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 7, Jul 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-02

    but also ecological and even spiritual). The most important socioeconomic and polit- ical trends in the development of individual countries are...series of plans for nuclear warfare against the USSR without having any kind of reliable data on the possible climatic, ecological , geophysical, and...limited interest (as a result of so-called interest "deregulation"), stopped the outflow of deposits from banks, but did not restore the appeal of

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 2, February 1988.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    was held in Barrow, Alaska. The Eskimo and Saami groups living in the Arctic zone discussed the issues of cultural heritage, education, public...staple of the Eskimo and Saami diet. "The result of this short food chain is that many natives of the American and Eurasian Far North have been

  10. The Economic Consequences of an Invasion of Poland by the Soviet Union.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    increases on sheep and goats . 1 04 The critical element of the livestock program was the need I to expand feed production. The plan called for a 40...poultry, 60 percent for cheese , 100 percent for sugar and 30 percent for selected vegetables, led to the violent riots of that year. Demonstra- tions

  11. JPRS Report Soviet Union EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production No 6, June 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    achieve these goals it is necessary for Gos- standart agencies, ministries, and industrial associations and enterprises to work together. In the...sequently, in order to avoid terminological confusion we shall call the technological brigades teams). They include: two teams working on two

  12. Soviet Union. EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production. No 8, August 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    memory on magnetic disks, another includes a special computation device that accelerates multiplica- tion, in a third the external memory is less, but...vague memories of them. It would be better to have families and immediately give them apartments in everything they need, but here we hire them and fire...become familiar with the long list of procedures offered to the visitors: magnetic therapy, oxygen therapy, elec- tric sleep, psychotherapy, hypnosis

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union. USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 8, August 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of the "black hole," or what the author terms the " Bermuda triangle ," in which most of the information coming down from above (orders and directives...enough in many cases to solve the problem of the ’ Bermuda triangle ’" (p 54). D. Quinn Mills suggests that more workplaces be equipped with personal

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs, Reference Aid, Directory of the USSR Ministry of Railways.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1933) (appointed deputy minister) Abdullayev, Mukhamedzhan Besedin, Ivan Sergeyevich Isayeva, Galina Anatolyevna Razuvayev, Dmitriy Ivanovich...Nikolayevich Malkhazov, Georgiy Rubenovich Mostovich, Yuriy Iosifovich Belyakov, N.A. Grigoryuk, V.F. Kozlov, Ivan Fedorovich Malakhov, Viktor...Sergeyevich Glukhov, Ivan Andreyevich Pogorelyy, Boleslav Grigoryevich (transfer to other work) Fayershteyn, Valentin Oskarovich Kucherenko

  15. JPRS Report. Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production, No 3, March 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    second- hand store, but the money was not even enough to pay my debts. I somehow felt weightless . I remembered the traveling work crews. But my previous...accounting and in keeping with the tasks of increasing the real incomes of the population; and to give prices greater flexibility and coordinate them...is possible because planning the wage fund and planning production indicators are coordinated not directly, but indirectly—through the numbers of

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 4, April 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-28

    manufacture of goods but also inventory, furniture for the place of business, uniforms for employees, etc. In the contract the head company stipulates...company (ice cream and yogurt sales) had 10 of its own enterprises and 120 contracted operators.9 In the 1980s the number of small business owners...enterprises located at great distances from head- quarters to their own operators. Many hope to find success by being the first to manufacture new items

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 5, May 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-15

    der crop in the EEC countries— barley .9 It was precisely the intensification of production that turned the EEC countries into the United States’ chief...percent, from 3.2 to 2.7 percent, and from 10.2 to 8.4 percent. This was accompanied by increased exports of non-grain fodder, primarily corn gluten

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 10, October 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-17

    Tooling Systems Versatile Vickers Source: THE PLOUGHSHARES MONITOR, December 1986, pp 22-23. Components produced Navigation systems Precision cast...No matter what happens in the future, they confirmed that the adminis- tration’s political base in Congress had been shrinking like pebbled ...official visit. 12 — In response to the joint statement of the leaders of Argentina, Greece, India, Mexico, Tanzania , and Swe- den, General

  19. JPRS Report Soviet Union EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production No. 5, May 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    American specialists, in the next 8-10 years expenditures on research within the framework of the SDI alone (before the beginning of the development ... development of the technical and assortment policy of the association; in the third place, the distance between management and production was reduced since...element normatives for time expenditures were introduced quite a while before the established deadlines. The laboratory is developing progressive

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs, Iran: From Shah’s Fall to Khomeyni’s Islamic Republic.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ties to Moscow) who were acting against the regime. After a great deal of meditation , the Shah decided not to publish the text of the Soviet...one of the classrooms —at the entrance we took off our shoes, as is the custom; he said that Khomeyni would come there. We began to protest warmly...wait, the master will himself come to you. The desks had been taken from the classroom ; a school blackboard hung by itself. On the floor were simple

  1. Union formation in later life: economic determinants of cohabitation and remarriage among older adults.

    PubMed

    Vespa, Jonathan

    2012-08-01

    This study builds on Becker's and Oppenheimer's theories of union formation to examine the economic determinants of marriage and cohabitation during older adulthood. Based on the 1998-2006 Health and Retirement Study and a sample of previously married Americans who are at least 50 years old, results show that wealthier older adults, regardless of gender, are more likely to repartner than stay single. Wealth has no discernable effect on the likelihood of remarrying versus cohabiting. Among the oldest men, the positive associations between wealth and repartnering are entirely due to housing assets. Results suggest that Oppenheimer's theory of marriage timing may be more applicable to later-life union formation than Becker's independence hypothesis. Further, economic disadvantage does not appear to characterize later-life cohabitation, unlike cohabitation during young adulthood. These findings help illuminate the union formation process during older adulthood and are timely considering demographic changes reshaping the American population.

  2. Assigned Leaders in Unionized Environments: Coping with the Economic Recession and Its Aftermath in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Adriene

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that the rate of unionism has grown in institutions of higher education over the past several decades, and the recent economic recession occurred at the same time that academic libraries faced accelerating changes in scholarly communication and technology, increased demands for accountability, and heightened external competition,…

  3. The Economic Significance of Ethnicity: Unionized Workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutt, Russell K.; Sisaye, Seleshi

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether, as both class and assimilationist theories predict, changes in economic structure of a modernizing society and associated phenomena, such as unionization, would modify the social significance of ethnicity. Key elements of both theories received some support in the analysis of industrial and organizational development in Addis…

  4. The current state of health care in the former Soviet Union: implications for health care policy and reform.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A; Field, M G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Given the many profound health care problems facing Russia and the other former Soviet republics, there are a number of fundamental policy questions that deserve close attention as part of the reform process. METHODS. Summary data regarding Soviet health care issues were drawn from government agency reports, scholarly books and journals, recent press reports, and the authors' personal research. RESULTS. Smoking, alcohol, accidents, poor sanitation, inadequate nutrition, and extensive environmental pollution contribute to illness and premature mortality in Russia and the other newly independent states. Hospitals and clinics are poorly maintained and equipped; most physicians are poorly trained and inadequately paid; and there is essentially no system of quality management. While efforts at reform, which emphasize shifting to a system of "insurance medicine," have been largely unsuccessful, they have raised several important policy issues that warrant extensive research and discussion. CONCLUSIONS. Without considering the implications and consequences of alternative policy directions, Russia and the other states face the very real possibility of developing health care systems that improve the overall level of care but also incorporate limited access and escalating costs. Russian health care reform leaders can learn from the health care successes in the West and avoid repeating our mistakes. PMID:8604753

  5. Soviet uranium supply capability

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-01

    For many years, only limited information concerning uranium deposits in the USSR has been available from Soviet sources. The Soviet Union has, however, cooperated in some past efforts to promote interaction with the international scientific community. For example, in 1984 the Soviet Union hosted the 27th International Geological Congress (IGC). The uranium portion included 50 papers, primarily on uranium deposits in sandstone and metamorphic rocks, presented to about 300 members. The IGC sponsored almost 400 geology field trips, the most noteworthy of which was a five-day trip to the Krivoi Rog iron and uranium district in the south-central Ukraine, including visits to two open-pit iron mines and the underground Novaya uranium mine in Zholtye Vody. That conference was reported in detail on the October 1984 NUEXCO Monthly Report. Some other information that has been made available over the years is contained in the April 1985 Report discussion of uranium deposit classifications. Advanced processing technology, low-cost labor, by-product and co-product recovery, and the large existing production capacity enable MAEI to produce nuclear fuel at low cost. The Soviet Union`s reserve base, technological development, and production experience make it one of the world`s leading producers of nuclear fuel. As additional information is made available for publication, NUEXCO will present updated reports on the nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Soviet Union.

  6. Sitting on Bayonets? The Soviet Defense Burden and Moscow’s Economic Dilemma,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    Overestimated Soviet Military Outlay," Los Angeles Times,, March 4, 1983. [151 "Statement by Major General Schuyler Bissell, Deputy Director, Defense...per capita consumption at only 2.2 percent per year in 1976-80 (Gertrude E. Schroeder and M. Elizabeth Denton, "An Index of Consumption in the USSR

  7. Soviet ionospheric modification research

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, L.M.; Carlson, H.C.; Djuth, F.T.; Fejer, J.A.; Gerson, N.C.; Hagfors, T.; Newman, D.B. Jr.; Showen, R.L.

    1988-07-01

    Soviet published literature in ionospheric modification research by high-power radio waves is assessed, including an evaluation of its impact on and applications to future remote-sensing and telecommunications systems. This assessment is organized to place equal emphasis on basic research activities, designed to investigate both the natural geophysical environment and fundamental plasma physics; advanced research programs, such as those studying artificial ionization processes and oblique high-power radio propagation and practical system applications and operational limitations addressed by this research. The assessment indicates that the Soviet Union sustains high-quality theoretical and experimental research programs in ionospheric modification, with a breadth and level of effort greatly exceeding comparable Western programs. Soviet theoretical research tends to be analytical and intuitive, as compared to the Western emphasis on numerical simulation techniques. The Soviet experimental approach is less exploratory, designed principally to confirm theoretical predictions. Although limited by inferior diagnostic capabilities, Soviet experimental facilities are more numerous, operate on a more regular basis, and transmit radio wave powers exceeding those os Western facilities. Because of its broad scope of activity, the Soviet Union is better poised to quickly exploit new technologies and system applications as they are developed. This panel has identified several key areas of Soviet research activity and emerging technology that may offer long-term opportunities for remote-sensing and telecommunications advantages. However, we have found no results that suggest imminent breakthrough discoveries in these fields.

  8. Soviet strategic defense technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, E.

    1987-04-01

    The present status of the Soviet program suggests several observations that have a bearing on predicting the future of the Soviet strategic defense program and its implications for the US: 1. The Soviet Union appears to have a continuing interest in ABM defenses, although ASATs seem to be a much lower priority. 2. The Soviet technology fielded to date was well within the American grasp 10 years ago. Where advanced and as yet undeployed technologies are concerned, the difference seems to be smaller; perhaps as little as five or seven years, with approximate parity in particle-beam research. 3. The Soviet Union, possibly more sensitive to prestige considerations, appears to be much more inclined than the US to demonstrate and deploy a technology before it is actually fully operational, and to undertake field modifications later. They also are much more reluctant to retire aging and obsolete technologies. As a result, they presently possess the world's only deployed ASAT and ABM systems, however, doubtful their actual operational effectiveness might be. 4. Soviet strategic defenses tend to be more fragmentary in design, reflecting their difficulties with the supporting and integrative technologies such as sensing, signal processing, heavy-lift boosters, and computing hardware and software. 5. The Soviets should also be expected to explore alternative avenues of near-term response to SDI, for example by expanding their strategic nuclear arsenal. 28 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  9. Internet as a Source of Long-Term and Real-Time Professional, Psychological, and Nutritional Treatment: A Qualitative Case Study Among Former Israeli Soviet Union Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background The Internet is considered to be an effective source of health information and consultation for immigrants. Nutritional interventions for immigrants have become increasingly common over the past few decades. However, each population of immigrants has specific needs. Understanding the factors influencing the success of nutrition programs among immigrants requires an examination of their attitudes and perceptions, as well as their cultural values. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of the Internet as a tool for long-term and “real-time” professional, psychological, and nutritional treatment for immigrants from the former Soviet Union who immigrated to Israel (IIFSU) from 1990 to 2012. Methods A sample of nutrition forum users (n=18) was interviewed and comments of 80 users were analyzed qualitatively in accordance with the grounded theory principles. Results The results show that IIFSU perceive the Internet as a platform for long-term and “real-time” dietary treatment and not just as an informative tool. IIFSU report benefits of online psychological support with professional dietary treatment. They attribute importance to cultural customization, which helps reduce barriers to intervention. Conclusions In light of the results, when formulating nutritional programs, it is essential to have a specific understanding of immigrants’ cultural characteristics and their patterns of Internet use concerning dietary care. PMID:28159729

  10. Knowledge, attitude and behavioral intention to act regarding HIV infection and prevention in immigrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany: a comparative study with the native population.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Laura; Matterne, Uwe; Crispin, Alexander; Ruzicka, Thomas; Zippel, Stefan A; Kuznetsov, Alexander V

    2013-02-01

    In Germany, immigrants from Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries represent one of the largest immigrant groups. Some FSU countries face the highest HIV prevalence in the region of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. However, the HIV knowledge, attitude and behavioral intent have not been investigated in FSU immigrants compared to the native population yet. A cross-sectional anonymous survey among 1,205 FSU immigrants and 435 native Germans (aged 18-65 years) in Bavaria. Data analysis from the participating 435 (36 %) immigrants and 334 (76.8 %) natives showed that the immigrants were less knowledgeable (p < .001) about HIV transmission (median score 8 vs. 9, ranged from 0 to 10) and HIV prevention (4 vs. 5, ranged from 0 to 6) than the native Germans, especially with regard to HIV transmission during anal (67 vs. 79.1 %; OR = 1.86 [1.32-2.62]) and oral (49.7 vs. 61.8 %; OR = 1.63 [1.21-2.20]) intercourse and showed a high misconception rate. Age and education were associated with knowledge about sexual HIV transmission; male gender, age and education with HIV prevention by single-use of needles/syringes. In case of a suspected HIV contraction, fewer immigrants would request a test; in case of a confirmed HIV diagnosis fewer would use a condom or inform their sexual partner(s). This first comparative study indicates an urgent need for HIV/AIDS education among FSU immigrants.

  11. Comparing Pregnancy Outcomes of Immigrants from Ethiopia and the Former Soviet Union to Israel, to those of Native-Born Israelis.

    PubMed

    Lubotzky-Gete, Shakked; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-08-24

    To compare pregnancy outcomes of immigrants from Former-Soviet-Union (FSUI) and Ethiopia (EI) to those of Jewish-native-born Israelis (JNB), in context of universal health insurance. Birth outcomes of all singletons born in Soroka-University Medical-Center (1998-2011) of EI (n = 1,667) and FSUI (n = 12,920) were compared with those of JNB (n = 63,405). Low birthweight rate was significantly higher among EI (11.0 %) and slightly lower (7.0 %) among FSUI, compared to JNB (7.5 %). Preterm-delivery rates were similar to those of JNB. Both immigrant groups had significantly (p < 0.001) higher rates of perinatal mortality (PM) than JNB (21/1000 in EI, and 11/1000 in FSUI, compared to 9/1000). Using multivariable GEE models both immigrant groups had significantly increased risk for PM; however, EI had twice as much FSUI origin (OR 2.3, 95 % CI 1.6-3.4, and OR 1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.6, respectively). Universal health care insurance does not eliminate excess PM in immigrants, nor the gaps between immigrant groups.

  12. Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF{sub 6}) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ``transparency),`` and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed.

  13. Has global fund support for civil society advocacy in the former Soviet Union established meaningful engagement or 'a lot of jabber about nothing'?

    PubMed

    Harmer, Andrew; Spicer, Neil; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2013-05-01

    Although civil society advocacy for health issues such as HIV transmission through injecting drug use is higher on the global health agenda than previously, its impact on national policy reform has been limited. In this paper we seek to understand why this is the case through an examination of civil society advocacy efforts to reform HIV/AIDS and drugs-related policies and their implementation in three former Soviet Union countries. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine by national researchers with representatives from a sample of 49 civil society organizations (CSOs) and 22 national key informants. We found that Global Fund support resulted in the professionalization of CSOs, which increased confidence from government and increased CSO influence on policies relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs. Interviewees also reported that the amount of funding for advocacy from the Global Fund was insufficient, indirect and often interrupted. CSOs were often in competition for Global Fund support, which caused resentment and limited collective action, further weakening capacity for effective advocacy.

  14. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  15. De-Sovietizing Educational Systems: Learning from Past Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Cathy C.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the ending of reform efforts in the former Soviet Union immediately prior to the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Indicates that inadequate facilities and resources, lack of trained personnel, promotion on noneducational grounds, economic hardship, and bureaucratic resistance hindered these reforms. (15 references)…

  16. Soviet business chaos seen lasting 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-16

    This paper reports that companies seeking work in the collapsing Soviet Union can expect political uncertainty for another 5 years. PW discussed changes in the Soviet Union and offered advice on dealing with officials of the central government and Soviet republics at a recent meeting in Houston with executives of oil field service companies. That meeting preceded reports of the Russian federation, Ukraine, and Byelorussia agreeing to form a Slavic commonwealth.

  17. A review of Soviet plasma engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The Soviet Union has maintained a substantial and successful electric propulsion research and development effort since the 1950s; however, American researchers are generally unfamiliar with the Soviet accomplishments. Sources of information about Soviet electric propulsion research are noted. The development of plasma engines, a subset of the electric propulsion effort, is reviewed using numerous Soviet sources. The operational principles and status of several engines of the closed electron drift and high-current types are discussed. With recognition of the limited knowledge of the current Soviet program, the Soviet and American programs are compared, revealing some differences in program formulation and emphasis.

  18. Soviet Perceptions of War and Peace,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Soviet military will project by its policies and its hardware a massive and threatening image. Politics and War It is not necessary to present here a...the Soviet Union depends on massive Soviet military power. The Soviet view of war is thus a very "political" one, but it emanates from a simple and...intend to attack the territory of the adversary. Surprise, initiative, shock, and the momentum of a massive , well- coordinated offensive clearly

  19. Soviet Policy Toward Western Europe Objectives, Instruments, Results.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    34declaratory measures." Kissinger recalls that at the May 1972 Mos- cow summit, Brezhnev told him that he regarded the joint declaration 65For background...the West German province of Schleswig- Holstein , thereby excluding the possibility that actions by Denmark and the other Nordic countries alone could...occurred with the onset of d6tente. In economic terms, the change in Western policy is probably seen in Mos- cow less as a "gain" for the Soviet Union than

  20. Estimates of phytomass and net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Union identified by classified Global Vegetation Index

    SciTech Connect

    Gaston, G.G.; Kolchugina, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    Forty-two regions with similar vegetation and landcover were identified in the former Soviet Union (FSU) by classifying Global Vegetation Index (GVI) images. Image classes were described in terms of vegetation and landcover. Image classes appear to provide more accurate and precise descriptions for most ecosystems when compared to general thematic maps. The area of forest lands were estimated at 1,330 Mha and the actual area of forest ecosystems at 875 Mha. Arable lands were estimated to be 211 Mha. The area of the tundra biome was estimated at 261 Mha. The areas of the forest-tundra/dwarf forest, taiga, mixed-deciduous forest and forest-steppe biomes were estimated t 153, 882, 196, and 144 Mha, respectively. The areas of desert-semidesert biome and arable land with irrigated land and meadows, were estimated at 126 and 237 Mha, respectively. Vegetation and landcover types were associated with the Bazilevich database of phytomass and NPP for vegetation in the FSU. The phytomass in the FSU was estimated at 97.1 Gt C, with 86.8 in forest vegetation, 9.7 in natural non-forest and 0.6 Gt C in arable lands. The NPP was estimated at 8.6 Gt C/yr, with 3.2, 4.8, and 0.6 Gt C/yr of forest, natural non-forest, and arable ecosystems, respectively. The phytomass estimates for forests were greater than previous assessments which considered the age-class distribution of forest stands in the FSU. The NPP of natural ecosystems estimated in this study was 23% greater than previous estimates which used thematic maps to identify ecosystems. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. 'Imported risk' or 'health transition'? Smoking prevalence among ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union by duration of stay in Germany - analysis of microcensus data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It can be assumed that resettlers (ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union) show similar smoking patterns as persons in their countries of origin at the time of migration. We analysed how the smoking prevalence among resettlers differs from that among the general population of Germany and whether the prevalence differs between groups with increasing duration of stay. Methods To estimate the smoking prevalence we used the scientific-use-file (n = 477,239) of the German 2005 microcensus, an annual census representing 1% of all German households. Participation in the microcensus is obligatory (unit-nonresponse <7%). We stratified the prevalence of smoking among resettlers and the comparison group (population of Germany without resettlers) by age, sex, educational level and duration of stay. In total, 14,373 (3% of the total) persons were identified as resettlers. Results Female resettlers with short duration of stay had a significantly lower smoking prevalence than women in the comparison group. With increasing duration of stay their smoking prevalence appears to converge to that of the comparison group (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 15%, long duration of stay 24%, comparison group 28%). In contrast, the smoking prevalence among male resettlers with short duration of stay was significantly higher than that among men in the comparison group, but also with a trend towards converging (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 44%, long duration of stay 35%, comparison group 36%). Except for female resettlers with short duration of stay, the participants with low educational level had on average a higher smoking prevalence than those with a high educational level. Conclusions This is the first study estimating the smoking prevalence among resettlers by duration of stay. The results support the hypothesis that resettlers brought different smoking habits from their

  2. Threat and opportunity: the Soviet view of the Strategic Defense Initiative. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Uchrinscko, K.W.

    1986-12-01

    The Soviet response to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) during the period March 1983 through November 1985 provided indications of their view of the program both as a threat and as an opportunity to weaken NATO. The SDI is seen not only as a threat to the physical security of the Soviet Union but as part of an effort by the United States to seize the strategic initiative by neutralizing the military component of Soviet strategy. A major objective of that strategy is the political separation of Western Europe from the United States, which the Soviets sought to facilitate by aggravating allied concern over the SDI's potential implications for European security and economic interests.

  3. USSR Local War Doctrine as Rationale for the Development of the Soviet CTOL Aircraft Carrier.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    V.O C, -7 X-* -k- Y ;: New Economic Plan (NEP). This temporary retreat from communism was necessary for economic rehabilitation. Securing the...large ship surface navy based on cruisers. 30 % % Y -ZKT W --.- "C--"" 4 - - M Not only was the Soviet Union materially devastated by war but a large...World crises 51 I,-,. .: y ,h, . -z-.. - ¢, ,i-, ;. ,, ., ......-.........-..-.......-..-...-..........-........, .. .. . - * believing there to be a

  4. Soviet Development Policy in Siberia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabad, Theodore

    1978-01-01

    Examines how Soviet economic planners and policymakers cope with the geographic dichotomy of a concentration of population and economic activity in European Russia and the concentration of natural resources in sparsely populated Siberia. (Author/DB)

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Tokhtabiyev, G. Dyshekov] 31 On Cadre Departments [B. Mirzoyev] 32 A New Life for Outmoded Equipment [B. Shapurov] 32 Quality of the Plan and...substantially extend the service life of many types of equipment. COPYRIGHT: Izdatelstvo TsK KPSS "Pravda", "Kommunist", 1987. 05003 Quality of the Plan and...steps to improve the " quality of life ," for Japan’s population is far below the level reached by other West- ern countries in a number of quality

  6. The Soviet Union and Angola.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-10

    Algerians against the Moroccans in 1963 and with the PAIGC (Partido Africano da Independencia da Guine e Cabo Verde) against the Portuguese during the...war, and it assisted the FNLA (Frente Nacional de Libertacao de Angola) and UNITA (Uniao Nacional para a Independencia Total de Angola) against the...See Africa Contemporary Record, 1975-76, New York: Africana , 1976, p. B362. 18. Luanda radio, September 30, 1975, in BBC, Summary of World Broadcasts

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    calmed down. "I dream," Zabayev answered. "I see our village at the end of the 5-year plan in such a way that young and old walk on asphalted streets...with visits to labor collectives where in the course of frank discussions with the people he systematically and persistently stud - ied the real...existing approach to the solution of the problem. What objectively leads the local authorities to violating the law? The natural wear of historical

  8. Soviet debate on missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  9. Understanding Economic Justice Attitudes in Two Countries: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junisbai, Azamat K.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing data from the 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Inequality Survey, I identify and compare the determinants of economic justice attitudes in two formerly similar majority-Muslim nations that are now distinguished almost exclusively by their dissimilar economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan, where the…

  10. Soviet chemical propellant research and development

    SciTech Connect

    deButts, E.H.; Baum, K.; Beckstead, M.W.; Christe, K.O.; Hartman, K.O.; Jeffrey, W.A.

    1991-12-01

    In the second half of the 1980s, the Soviet Union had a strong and continuing research effort devoted to understanding the behavior of chemical propellants suitable to support development of advanced propellants for practical applications. Recent Soviet work concentrated on solid propellants, though liquid propellants powered the largest and most advanced deployed Soviet rockets. This assessment summarizes the Soviet state of the art in chemical propellants in the late 1980s and projects the trends of that period into the next decade. It is based on a broad and deep review of Soviet literature published in 1985--1991 and is presented in an unclassified report. Speculation about or prediction of the effects of recent political and social events on chemical propellant research and development in the old Soviet Union is outside the scope of this assessment, though the effects are likely to be profound.

  11. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because

  12. Soviet delays raise prices

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1992-01-15

    The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

  13. Soviet Strategic Airlift.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    geography (15:81). Excluding Antartica , 62 percent of the world’s land is closer to the Soviet Union than to the U.S. (13:7). Also, most destinations of...world Land (less Antartica ) 62 69 Population 81 832 GNP 65 67 Proven oil1 resources 86 90 Natural gas 831 85 57 LhJ c LIP) 4 U LLi. -j0 LU 3 -. U, CfL

  14. Database of small research watersheds for the territory of former Soviet Union as a source of data for improving hydrological models and their parameterizations in different geographical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, Liudmila; Semenova, Olga

    2013-04-01

    One of widely claimed problems in modern modelling hydrology is lack of available information to investigate hydrological processes and improve their representation in the models. In spite of this, one hardly might confidently say that existing "traditional" data sources have been already fully analyzed and made use of. There existed the network of research watersheds in USSR called water-balance stations where comprehensive and extensive hydrometeorological measurements were conducted according to more or less single program during the last 40-60 years. The program (where not ceased) includes observations of discharges in several, often nested and homogeneous, small watersheds, meteorological elements, evaporation, soil temperature and moisture, snow depths, etc. The network covered different climatic and landscape zones and was established in the middle of the last century with the aim of investigation of the runoff formation in different conditions. Until recently the long-term observational data accompanied by descriptions and maps had existed only in hard copies. It partly explains why these datasets are not enough exploited yet and very rarely or even never were used for the purposes of hydrological modelling although they seem to be much more promising than implementation of the completely new measuring techniques not detracting from its importance. The goal of the presented work is development of a database of observational data and supportive materials from small research watersheds across the territory of the former Soviet Union. The first version of the database will include the following information for 12 water-balance stations across Russia, Ukraine, Kazahstan and Turkmenistan: daily values of discharges (one or several watersheds), air temperature, humidity, precipitation (one or several gauges), soil and snow state variables, soil and snow evaporation. The stations will cover desert and semi desert, steppe and forest steppe, forest, permafrost and

  15. Soviet Women in the Life of Society: Achievements and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motroshilova, Nelya V.

    1983-01-01

    Women in the Soviet Union are guaranteed equal rights and opportunities and participate fully in the Soviet economy. Despite their achievements, Soviet women still have difficulties in entering and achieving high-level positions in traditionally male fields and in getting men to do their share of household work. (IS)

  16. The Soviet Chemical Industry and the Gorbachev Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the reform of the industrial structure of the Soviet Union. Emphasizes the influence of the communist party on chemical production, research and education. Surveys the problems facing the Soviet chemical industry. Lists important officials in the Soviet chemical industry. Discusses joint ventures between the United States and the Soviet…

  17. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  18. LLNL’s Regional Model Calibration and Body-Wave Discrimination Research in the Former Soviet Union Using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    1999). At LLNL, we have archived a subset of these PNEs.; namely, data from the profiles QUARTZ, KRATON, KIMBERLITE , METEORITE, and RIFT, which traverse...MAKZ NVS NRIL TLY ULN HIA TIXI YAK Kraton Kimberlite R ift M eteorite Q uartz Figure 1. Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE

  19. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  20. The social production of substance abuse and HIV/HCV risk: an exploratory study of opioid-using immigrants from the former Soviet Union living in New York City

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several former Soviet countries have witnessed the rapid emergence of major epidemics of injection drug use (IDU) and associated HIV/HCV, suggesting that immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) may be at heightened risk for similar problems. This exploratory study examines substance use patterns among the understudied population of opioid-using FSU immigrants in the U.S., as well as social contextual factors that may increase these immigrants' susceptibility to opioid abuse and HIV/HCV infection. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 FSU immigrants living in New York City who initiated opioid use in adolescence or young adulthood, and with 6 drug treatment providers working with this population. Informed by a grounded theory approach, interview transcripts were inductively coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Results The "trauma" of the immigration/acculturation experience was emphasized by participants as playing a critical role in motivating opioid use. Interview data suggest that substance use patterns formed in the high-risk environment of the FSU may persist as behavioral norms within New York City FSU immigrant communities - including a predilection for heroin use among youth, a high prevalence of injection, and a tolerance for syringe sharing within substance-using peer networks. Multiple levels of social context may reproduce FSU immigrants' vulnerability to substance abuse and disease such as: peer-based interactional contexts in which participants typically used opioids; community workplace settings in which some participants were introduced to and obtained opioids; and cultural norms, with roots in Soviet-era social policies, stigmatizing substance abuse which may contribute to immigrants' reluctance to seek disease prevention and drug treatment services. Conclusion Several behavioral and contextual factors appear to increase FSU immigrants' risk for opioid abuse, IDU and infectious disease. Further research on opioid

  1. The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1988-01-01

    Reproduces chapter 1 ("The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy") from Ele Isaench Monoszon's 1987 book, "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Traces early history of Soviet Union. Reviews foundations of Soviet educational system, highlighting…

  2. The applicability and availability of Former Soviet Union (FSU) space-related capabilities and facilities to energy-related space activities of Department of Energy, Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellechi, M.

    1993-01-01

    A senior-level Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team visited the former Soviet Union (FSU) from 16-28 Oct. 1992. The purpose of the visit was to investigate the applicability and availability of FSU space-related capabilities and facilities to the energy-related space activities of the three agencies. This included renewable energy, nuclear power and propulsion, radiation effects, remote sensing, optics, and lasers. The U.S. delegation was successful in identifying some capabilities that would be useful to the three organizations. Efforts to utilize some of the FSU capabilities viewed are being initiated. Concurrently, there will be a technical assessment performed on the information gained from this and other recent visits to the FSU relative to space research.

  3. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    PubMed

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared.

  4. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report ‘Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA’ commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Methods: We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. Results: In 2010, of the 73 996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants’ vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. PMID:25500265

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Economic Affairs ("Chernobyl Notebook" By G. Medvedev, Published in Novy Mir, June 1989)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    G.U. Medvedev’s Chernobyl Notebook" is a competent and dispassionately truthful account of the tragedy that occurred more than 3 years ago and which...and there is no departmental "diplomacy." The author is a nuclear power specialist who worked for a time at the Chernobyl AES and knows it well, just...crucial conferences concerning nuclear power plant construction. Immediately after the accident, Medvedev was sent to Chernobyl and had an opportunity to

  6. Pushkin to Shukshin: Complementary Strands in the Texture of Soviet Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevin, Patricia Ernenwein

    1980-01-01

    Discusses English reading texts used in the Soviet Union, which are English translations of Russian literature. Notes that such literature divides attention between the traditional and the progressive elements of Soviet culture. (DF)

  7. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Dom, Geert; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Van Hal, Guido; McDaid, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC) has characterized the European Union (E.U.). However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; Methods: In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; Results: The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population’s overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; Conclusions: the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population’s overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended. PMID:26771628

  8. Soviet-West European Relations: Recent Trends and Near-Term Prospects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    chilly reception from the Soviet leadership. Indeed, his Soviet hosts reminded him that the volcanic destruction of Pompeii paled in comparison with a...single nuclear warhead, and are reported to have threatened that "we will turn Italy into a Pompeii " if Italy contin- ued with INF deployments on...threatens to turn Italy "into a Pompeii " May 7, 1984 Soviet Union announces decision to boycott Olympics May 14, 1984 Soviet Union announces movement of

  9. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  10. Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.C. )

    1991-04-01

    For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield An unanswerable first strike When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means.

  11. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    PubMed

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective.

  12. Ozone mapper survives Soviet coup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-06

    NASA's latest satellite-borne monitor of the Earth's protective ozone layer went operational a little earlier than planned last month. The unprecedented launch - on a Soviet weather satellite - of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) took place on 15 August. Three days later so did the coup that has shaken the Soviet Union to its foundations. So, instead of waiting weeks to let the instrument adjust to space conditions, NASA engineers, who were in Moscow to monitor the launch, turned TOMS on before going home - just 5 days post-launch. No problems resulted, and the orbiting instrument, which for the first 2 months of its 2-year mission will track the formation of this year's Antarctic ozone hole, is now returning data to both US and Soviet ground stations. The launch of a new TOMS was an urgent imperative for US atmospheric researchers. The old one, now approaching its 13th year in orbit on the NASA satellite Nimbus-7, was showing its age and threatened to quit working. Because of the tight launch schedules following the Challenger disaster, NASA sought outside help to get TOMS off the ground. The Soviet Union turned out to be the best partner: it is developing a new network of Meteor meteorology satellites, and the 1987 US/USSR space cooperation agreement allowed the Soviet Cyclone booster to become the Americans' savior.

  13. Calling the Sino-Soviet Split

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    also had then looted Manchuria and heightened the USSR�s covert influence in China�s northwestern province of Sinkiang .44 Chinese anger on these scores...p., 155. Beijing later pub licly accused the Soviet Union of fomenting large-scale subversion and sabotage in Sinkiang , and warned the Soviets not to...to May 1969, along the Manchuria-Siberia and Sinkiang -Kazakhstan borders. 62. Whiting, to author, 19 October 1996. 63. Hilsmari, To Move a Nation: The

  14. Soviet oil trade from 1950 to 1976 in the context of the regime perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    Application of insights from international political economy (IPE) to the study of the Soviet Union and other communist countries should be useful both to students of IPE and to students of those countries. This study applies an IPE perspective, regime theory, to the Soviet oil trade. The subject area was chosen both because it is an area important to the Soviet Union and because a strong regime has been identified in this area by theorists. The focus is the interaction of the Soviet Union with a regime which had been established, and was controlled by, Western actors. The study asks how the Soviet Union related to the regime and how, if at all, it attempted to pursue its alternative vision of trade, as well as at how the regime, in turn, affected the Soviet Union in its day-to-day trading relations and in its trade policy. The study concludes that application of regime theory to the examination of the Soviet oil trade is valuable both to IPE and to Soviet studies. Viewing Soviet activities in the regime context helped explain both overall Soviet trade policy and day-to-day Soviet trade decisions such as pricing and choice of trade partners.

  15. Changing Conceptions of Development Assistance to Education in the International Discourse on Post-Soviet Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Tuomas; Piattoeva, Nelli

    2012-01-01

    The fall of the socialist system, and of the Soviet Union as a political entity, created a situation where external assistance to the transformation of the ex-Soviet countries into market economies and multi-party democracies became a domain of "development assistance". While the attractiveness of the ex-Soviet countries to the providers…

  16. The Soviets: What is the Conflict about? 1985 National Issues Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Keith; Landau, David

    Appropriate for secondary school social studies or community programs, this publication considers United States-Soviet conflict. The first of four sections, "US-Soviet Relations at the Crossroads," looks at different American perceptions of the Soviet Union. "Regional Conflicts, Global Ambitions" focuses on Nicaragua as a case…

  17. U.S.-Soviet Relations: Testing Gorbachev's "New Thinking." Current Policy No. 985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armacost, Michael H.

    Forty years ago, George F. Kennan advanced the doctrine of containment against Soviet encroachment throughout the world. The Soviet Union has evolved from a Eurasian land power into a global superpower. In an effort to create an international environment congenial to domestic reforms, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev has sought greater tranquility…

  18. Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

  19. International Influences on Post-Soviet Armenian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the most recent international influences on Armenian education, illustrating how international standards are driving post-Soviet reform in the Armenian Secondary Schools. Since 1991, when Armenia became independent from the Soviet Union, organisations such as the World Bank and the Open Society Institute Assistance…

  20. The Politics of Clay: The American-Soviet Mural Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Lynn

    1990-01-01

    Describes a U.S.-Soviet mural project where citizens from Milwaukee, Wisconsin and citizens from Leningrad created two peace murals--one in the United States and the other in the Soviet Union. The murals were exchanged. Participants made their own clay using dry clay and water before creating their impressions of peace and friendship. (KM)

  1. Understanding the Special Needs of Former Soviet Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoot, James L.; Bonkareva, Ella

    1992-01-01

    Describes characteristics of immigrant children from the former Soviet Union and implications of these characteristics for U.S. teachers. Considers differences between U.S. and Soviet schools in scheduling practices, bathroom routines, racial composition, meals, languages, clothing, naps, and parent/school relationships. (LB)

  2. From Plan to Market: Teaching Ideas for Social Studies, Economics, and Business Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Lopus, Jane S.; Morton, John S.

    This packet of lessons focuses on the transition from a legacy of central planning to a market orientation in the economic systems of Central and Eastern Europe, the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, and China. These lessons seek to provide high school teachers with a well-informed approach to teaching about this transition. The…

  3. Soviet Defense Spending: The Spartan Analogy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Sovietologists like Rush Greenslade , Henry Rowen. and Robert Gates. Amid growing dissatisfaction with recent efforts to model the Soviet economy and...spending. Rush Greenslade wrote in 1971, "The Soviet economic administration reimhle, the Spartvn one in interesting ways. Large parts of military

  4. South Korea and Its Security Environment (Korea’s Position in the Power Relationship between the United States, the Soviet Union, Japan & China)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    countries, has been difficult and demaiding. According to :uri-ent Policy No. 198 (13 June 1980), "U.S. Commit- ment to Human Rights," ’P Patricia M. Derian...is a politics based on economic-interest groups. " Joong -jin" ( "top-heavy") parties of !nri:lativ , notables always incline toward factionalism

  5. Science and Technology in the Soviet Union: Proceedings of a Conference Held at Stanford, California on 26-27 July 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-31

    muzzle velocity of the round by allowing more complete combustion of the propellant within the barrel. 3. Liddell Hart, Basil H., The Red Army, Harcourt...Technology," Fo:eign Economic Report, No. 16, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1976, p. 2. 7. Morris Bernstein , et al., "The Planning and Management of

  6. The Soviet-West European Energy Relationship: Implications of the Shift from Oil to Gas,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    late 197Us and early 1980s, as the expansion of oil pro- duction in the Soviet Union slowed down (to near zero growth in 1982), supply constraints on...ur -.er the terms of a bilateraL traae and clearig4 agreement). 15. From the outset* the Soviet union nas relied on materials, e uip- ment and...related, Cependence in Soviet-West European relations, We argue that the shift wiilL significantly increase the interdependence of the Soviet Union

  7. New Perspectives of "old" Data Sources: the Dataset of Long-Term Research Watersheds in the Former Soviet Union for the Task of Hydrological Models Development, Verification and Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, L.; Semenova, O.

    2013-12-01

    Lack of detailed process-oriented observational data is often claimed as one of the major obstacle for further advance of hydrological process understanding and development of deterministic models that do not rely on calibration. New sources of hydrological information (satellites, radars etc.) have the perspectives for the future but can not completely replace conventional and experimental observations at the moment. Long-term data-rich research catchments remain valuable if not the only source of information for development, verification, regionalization and comparison of different hydrological and environmental models. There existed the set of more than 20 such basins that were operated according to single observational program from the 1930-1950th to 1990th in the former Soviet Union. Research basins, so called water-balance stations, covered all main climatic and landscape zones such as taiga, forest-steppe, steppe, desert, mountains and permafrost regions. Each station conducted broad range of standard, special and experimental hydrometeorological field studies including spatially distributed meteorological observations, soil and snow variable states, measurements of the groundwater levels, hydrochemistry, evapotranspiration, discharges in several, often nested, slope- and small-scale watersheds, etc. The data were accompanied by the descriptions of observational techniques and landscapes allowing linking natural conditions with dominant hydrological processes. Each station is representative for larger area and the results of local studies could be transferred to other basins in similar conditions. Till recently the data existed only in hard copies in Russian language therefore they are not enough explored yet. We are currently digitizing main part of the observational and supportive materials and make it available for any scientific purpose via website http://hydrograph-model.ru/. We propose to hydrological community to use the data for comprehensive

  8. Cuba’s Involvement in Angola and Ethiopia: A Question of Autonomy in Cuba’s Relationship with the Soviet Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    the Semiperiphery: A Comparison of Brazil and Mexico ," Latin America’s Economic Development Institutionalist and Structuralist Perspectives, eds...Venezuela, Mexico , and Colombia; it was also global. Besides the United States, countries such as Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and Italy also...revolutionary group while Castro was exiled in Mexico and he trained Castro’s forces in guerilla warfare. Che later wrote about his first meeting with

  9. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    PubMed

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  10. Transformation of the Soviet space program after the cold war

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, M.V.

    1994-08-01

    Changes in the management of the space program and the operational status of various systems in the former Soviet Union are examined with particular emphasis on defense-related space systems. After the break-up of the Soviet Union, Russia assumed general responsibility for the entire scope of Soviet space activity. Space program management was re-organized to separate military and civilian activities. Russia is committed to maintaining military space capabilities, however, its top priority is now the conversion of military space technology for civilian uses, including global environmental problems.

  11. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  12. A look at the Soviet space nuclear power program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    For the most part Soviet nuclear power sources have been low-power nuclear reactors using a thermoelectric conversion principle. Recently the Soviet Union has flown two satellites using a higher power reactor that employs a thermionic conversion system. Despite reentry of two of the earlier reactors on board Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402 and the recent potential accident involving Cosmos 1900, the evidence points toward a continued Soviet use of nuclear power sources in space. Information in the open literature on the Soviet space nuclear power program, including the Romashka Topaz, the new reactor based on the Topaz program, and the RORSAT reactor experience, is summarized.

  13. The impact and determinants of the energy paradigm on economic growth in European Union.

    PubMed

    Andrei, Jean Vasile; Mieila, Mihai; Panait, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary economies are strongly reliant on energy and analyzing the determining factors that trigger the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth is a topical research subject. Our contention is that energy paradigm plays a major role in achieving the sustainable development of contemporary economies. In order to prove this the panel data methodology of research was employed, namely four panel unit root tests (LLC, IPS, F-ADF and F-PP) aiming to reveal the connections and relevance among 17 variables denoting energy influence on economic development. Moreover, it was introduced a specific indicator to express energy consumption per capita. Our findings extend the classical approach of the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth and offer a comprehensive analysis which surpasses the practices and policy decisions in the field.

  14. The impact and determinants of the energy paradigm on economic growth in European Union

    PubMed Central

    Mieila, Mihai; Panait, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary economies are strongly reliant on energy and analyzing the determining factors that trigger the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth is a topical research subject. Our contention is that energy paradigm plays a major role in achieving the sustainable development of contemporary economies. In order to prove this the panel data methodology of research was employed, namely four panel unit root tests (LLC, IPS, F-ADF and F-PP) aiming to reveal the connections and relevance among 17 variables denoting energy influence on economic development. Moreover, it was introduced a specific indicator to express energy consumption per capita. Our findings extend the classical approach of the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth and offer a comprehensive analysis which surpasses the practices and policy decisions in the field. PMID:28301505

  15. Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries:Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AgroAtlas is a comprehensive on-line bilingual reference on the geographic distribution of economic plants, their diseases, pests and weeds, and environmental factors that influence agricultural production through out the Former Soviet Union. Online users can read about and examine maps and ima...

  16. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    SciTech Connect

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. AGB Helps Develop Soviet Higher Ed Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkisov, Pavel D.

    1991-01-01

    A cooperative experiment between the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges and the Soviet Union's Mendeleev Institute of Chemical Technology involves establishment of an international board of trustees. The board will seek funding from multiple sources, involve the surrounding community in its planning, and strengthen the…

  18. Syllabus for Use in Soviet Russian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husum, Carol

    This syllabus outlines a one semester course intended to provide a comprehensive study of the Soviet Union today, and the relationship that Russian has with the United States and the rest of the world. Content covers Russia's history beginning with the fall of the Romanovs with emphasis on the revolutionary movement in Russia. The guide presents a…

  19. Soviet Concepts of Ballistic Missile Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Gary Powers [Ref. 2:p. 191]. Sary Shagan is also located about a thousand miles downrange from the ballistic missile test center at Kapustin Yar. In...late 1961 the Soviet Union conducted a series of atmospheric nuclear tests, during which missiles were launched from Kapustin Yar towards an impact area

  20. American Reporters/Soviet Reporters: A Convergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rilla Dean

    While the concept of "objective" reporting in the United States has been under attack from critics who demanded more interpretation from the press, a move in the opposite direction seems to be taking place in the Soviet Union, as the concept of journalist as strictly an advocate for the Communist party seems to be giving way to the…

  1. Toward a More Perfect Union: Basic Skills, Poor Families, and Our Economic Future. Occasional Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Gordon; Sum, Andrew

    In the 1980s and 1990s important demographic, economic, and social changes will affect the nation's schools, families, and workplaces. In anticipation of these developments, there is renewed interest in formal educational attainment and basic academic skills. A concerted national effort to address the current crisis in basic skills development…

  2. Mobile surveillance units (MSU) for border protection of the enlarged economic union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandon, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    During the last 12 years the European Union (EU) has financed the new member applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe in their preparation for joining the EU. Based on this enlargement of the EU, funding for Cross Border Protection has been made available from the overall infrastructure improvement budget. Border protection was required in areas where border conflicts had taken place and to limit Illegal Immigration (II) and smuggling. After 9/11/2001, defence against terrorist activities will no doubt be added to the requirement. This paper describes the approach taken in the design of the latest "containerised" police and para military Mobile Surveillance Units (MSUs). This approach may also be considered for Homeland Security initiatives. These MSU's utilise standard road vehicles, and off-road variants, converted to use high performance military thermal imagers, such as SiGMA. In future the current, in service, MSUs will require increased sensor integration and networking to cover land and coastal borders. The underlying key is affordability for the police and para-military markets whilst retaining the highest performance derived from the latest SFPA military standard thermal imagers.

  3. Economic Planning as it Affects Military Strategy: The Rathenau and Speer Systems of Modern Industrial Warfare (1914-1945)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-06

    propagation of the Middle Europe (Mitteleuropa) concept. The Mitteleuropa concept envis- ioned an economic union of Central European nations. It was originally...the Soviet Union , and the United States. Although R-athenru and Speer bece the organizers of Germnt war-production during the First and Second World...nergy during the period of European industrialization was coal, M Ideaily, these coal beds should be located within the nation’s territorial borders to

  4. Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Sloss, L. Associates, Washington, DC )

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

  5. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. [On the need to improve the system for the prevention of falsification of food products in the Eurasian Economic Union].

    PubMed

    Arnautov, O V; Bagryantseva, O V; Bessonov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Adulteration of food is misleading consumers about the composition of foods in order to obtain economic benefits. Olive oil, wine and other alcoholic beverages, spices, tea, fish, honey, milk and dairy products, meat products, cereal products, beverages based on fruit juices, spices, coffee are falsified with the highest frequency. In addition, sufficient data on the frequency of adulterated food products are missing not only in Russia but also in the developed countries. This is because the purpose of the manufacturer and distributors of such products is primarily an economic advantage. Therefore, the majority of incidents of falsification of food products remained undetected since their production, generally had not led to the risk of food safety, and consumers often did not notice the reduction in quality of foodstuffs. The analysis of international data and data of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) has shown that, in order to improve the quality of food products and to reduce sales of adulterated food the following steps should be done: introduce the definition of falsificated food products into legislation of the EAEU; expand the list of methods for confirming the authenticity of the food and detecting the presence of substances which are not permitted for usage in the food industry; consolidate the principle of the responsibility of all participants in the treatment of food that does not comply with the mandatory requirements at the legislative level; introduce the indicators of the quality of foodstuffs in the technical regulations of the EAEU; return to the mandatory requirements for the quality of foods given in the interstate and state standards.

  7. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  8. 8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... § 1245.7 Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign...

  9. 8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... § 1245.7 Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign...

  10. 8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... § 1245.7 Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign...

  11. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2) Was inspected and granted parole into the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for Fiscal...

  12. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for Fiscal...

  13. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2) Was inspected and granted parole into the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for Fiscal...

  14. 8 CFR 1245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... § 1245.7 Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign...

  15. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2) Was inspected and granted parole into the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and... certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act for Fiscal...

  16. [On improvement of the mechanism for establishing and changing indicators of quality and food safety in the regulatory and legal acts of the Eurasian Economical Union].

    PubMed

    Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) to ensure the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population within the Union, a coordinated policy in agreed policy in the sphere of application of sanitary measures is carried out. Sanitary measures are the obligatory requirements and procedures, including requirements for the final product, processing methods, production, transportation, storage and disposal, sampling procedures, methods of research (tests), risk assessment, the state registration, requirements for packaging directly aimed at ensuring the safety of products (goods) in order to protect human welfare, and they should be applied on the basis having a scientific explanation, and only to the extent that is necessary to protect human welfare. Sanitary measures applied within the Union should be based on international and regional standards, guidelines and (or) the recommendations, except when they based on appropriate scientific studies and explanations. In this case sanitary measures which could provide a higher level of sanitary protection are introduced. At present, the mechanism of the development, justification and approval of common sanitary and epidemiological requirements (ESR) and procedures of the Eurasian Economic Commission (the Commission) is not installed. The absence of a clear mechanism for the development, approval and implementation of the ESR to the products (goods) on the basis having a scientific explanation on the one hand could lead to the creation of unjustified barriers to foreign and mutual trade, on the other--to weaken the level of safety for human life and health of products (goods) placed on markets of the Union. In order to bring the regulatory legal acts of the Customs Union in accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union the Commission in cooperation with the competent authorities of the Member States in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare developed the project of

  17. Measles among migrants in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gemma A.; Bacci, Sabrina; Shadwick, Rebecca; Tillmann, Taavi; Rechel, Bernd; Noori, Teymur; Suk, Jonathan E.; Odone, Anna; Ingleby, Jonathan D.; Mladovsky, Philipa; Mckee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Progress towards meeting the goal of measles elimination in the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA) by 2015 is being obstructed, as some children are either not immunized on time or never immunized. One group thought to be at increased risk of measles is migrants; however, the extent to which this is the case is poorly understood, due to a lack of data. This paper addresses this evidence gap by providing an overview of the burden of measles in migrant populations in the EU/EEA. Methods: Data were collected through a comprehensive literature review, a country survey of EU/EEA member states and information from measles experts gathered at an infectious disease workshop. Results: Our results showed incomplete data on measles in migrant populations, as national surveillance systems do not systematically record migration-specific information; however, evidence from the literature review and country survey suggested that some measles outbreaks in the EU/EEA were due to sub-optimal vaccination coverage in migrant populations. Conclusions: We conclude that it is essential that routine surveillance of measles cases and measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination coverage become strengthened, to capture migrant-specific data. These data can help to inform the provision of preventive services, which may need to reach out to vulnerable migrant populations that currently face barriers in accessing routine immunization and health services. PMID:26563254

  18. The effect of migration within the European Union/European Economic Area on the distribution of tuberculosis, 2007 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Hollo, Vahur; Kotila, Saara Magdalena; Ködmön, Csaba; Zucs, Phillip; van der Werf, Marieke Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Immigration from tuberculosis (TB) high-incidence countries is known to contribute notably to the TB burden in low-incidence countries. However, the effect of migration enabled by the free movement of persons within the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) on TB notification has not been analysed. We analysed TB surveillance data from 29 EU/EEA countries submitted for the years 2007-2013 to The European Surveillance System. We used place of birth and nationality as proxy indicators for native, other EU/EEA and non-EU/EEA origin of the TB cases and analysed the characteristics of the subgroups by origin. From 2007-2013, a total of 527,467 TB cases were reported, of which 129,781 (24.6%) were of foreign origin including 12,566 (2.4%) originating from EU/EEA countries other than the reporting country. The countries reporting most TB cases originating from other EU/EEA countries were Germany and Italy, and the largest proportion of TB cases in individuals came from Poland (n=1,562) and Romania (n=6,285). At EU/EEA level only a small proportion of foreign TB cases originated from other EU/EEA countries, however, the uneven distribution of this presumed importation may pose a challenge to TB programmes in some countries.

  19. TB and MDR/XDR-TB in European Union and European Economic Area countries: managed or mismanaged?

    PubMed

    Migliori, G B; Sotgiu, G; D'Ambrosio, L; Centis, R; Lange, C; Bothamley, G; Cirillo, D M; De Lorenzo, S; Guenther, G; Kliiman, K; Muetterlein, R; Spinu, V; Villar, M; Zellweger, J P; Sandgren, A; Huitric, E; Manissero, D

    2012-03-01

    In spite of the growing awareness of emerging drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the extent of inappropriate tuberculosis (TB) case management may be underestimated, even in Europe. We evaluated TB case management in the European Union/European Economic Area countries, with special focus on multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB, using a purposely developed, standardised survey tool. National reference centres in five countries representing different geographical, socioeconomic and epidemiological patterns of TB in Europe were surveyed. 40 consecutive, original clinical TB case records (30 MDR/XDR-TB cases) were reviewed in each of the five countries. The findings were recorded and, through the survey tool, compared with previously agreed and identified international standards. Deviations from international standards of TB care were observed in the following areas: surveillance (no information available on patient outcomes); infection control (lack of respiratory isolation rooms/procedures and negative-pressure ventilation rooms); clinical management of TB, MDR-TB and HIV co-infection (inadequate bacteriological diagnosis, regimen selection and treatment duration); laboratory support; and diagnostic/treatment algorithms. Gaps between present international standards of care and the management of MDR/XDR-TB patients were identified. Training, increased awareness, promotion of standards and allocation of appropriate resources are necessary to ensure appropriate care and management as well as to prevent further emergence of drug resistance.

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    involved with another association and our concerns and plans do not interest it. Understand me correctly. With all my soul, I am in favor of restructuring...prepared plans on any- one. We are for dialogue, for the idea that the ultimate formula for security and a solid peace be the fruit of the...Asia-wide forum, trying to transplant the plan of the Helsinki accords onto Asian soil. This is an absurd accusation. As everyone well knows, M.S