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Sample records for soy dietary supplement

  1. Determination of total soy isoflavones in dietary supplements, supplement ingredients, and soy foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Collison, Mark W

    2008-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate a method for determining total soy isoflavones in dietary supplements, dietary supplement ingredients, and soy foods. Isoflavones were extracted using aqueous acetonitrile containing a small amount of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and all 12 of the naturally occuring isoflavones in soy were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection using apigenin as an internal standard. Fifteen samples (6 pairs of blind duplicates plus 3 additional samples) of soy isoflavone ingredients, soy isoflavone dietary supplements, soy flour, and soy protein products were successfully analyzed by 13 collaborating laboratories in 6 countries. For repeatability, the relative standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 1.07 for samples containing over 400 mglg total isoflavones to 3.31 for samples containing 0.87 mg/g total isoflavones, and for reproducibility the RSDR values ranged from 2.29 for samples containing over 400 mg/g total isoflavones to 9.36 for samples containing 0.87 mg/g total isoflavones. HorRat values ranged from 1.00 to 1.62 for all samples containing at least 0.8 mg/g total isoflavones. One sample, containing very low total isoflavones (< 0.05 mg/g), gave RSDR values of 175 and a HorRat value of 17.6. This sample was deemed to be below the usable range of the method. The method provides accurate and precise results for analysis of soy isoflavones in dietary supplements and soy foods.

  2. Determination of Total Soy Isoflavones in Dietary Supplements, Supplement Ingredients, and Soy Foods by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection: Collaborative Study

    PubMed Central

    Collison, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate a method for determining total soy isoflavones in dietary supplements, dietary supplement ingredients, and soy foods. Isoflavones were extracted using aqueous acetonitrile containing a small amount of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and all 12 of the naturally occuring isoflavones in soy were determined by high-performance liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection using apigenin as an internal standard. Fifteen samples (6 pairs of blind duplicates plus 3 additional samples) of soy isoflavone ingredients, soy isoflavone dietary supplements, soy flour, and soy protein products were successfully analyzed by 13 collaborating laboratories in 6 countries. For repeatability, the relative standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 1.07 for samples containing over 400 mg/g total isoflavones to 3.31 for samples containing 0.87 mg/g total isoflavones, and for reproducibility the RSDR values ranged from 2.29 for samples containing over 400 mg/g total isoflavones to 9.36 for samples containing 0.87 mg/g total isoflavones. HorRat values ranged from 1.00 to 1.62 for all samples containing at least 0.8 mg/g total isoflavones. One sample, containing very low total isoflavones (<0.05 mg/g), gave RSDR values of 175 and a HorRat value of 17.6. This sample was deemed to be below the usable range of the method. The method provides accurate and precise results for analysis of soy isoflavones in dietary supplements and soy foods. PMID:18567292

  3. Determination of the isoflavone composition and estrogenic activity of commercial dietary supplements based on soy or red clover.

    PubMed

    Andres, Susanne; Hansen, Ulf; Niemann, Birgit; Palavinskas, Richard; Lampen, Alfonso

    2015-06-01

    Dietary supplements high in isolated isoflavones are commercially available for human consumption primarily to alleviate menopausal symptoms in women. The isoflavone composition, quantity and importantly their estrogenic potency are poorly standardised and can vary considerably between different products. The aim of this study was to analyse the isoflavone composition of 11 dietary supplements based on soy or red clover using the HPLC/MS/MS technique. Furthermore, we investigated the transactivational potential of the supplements on the estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, performing luciferase reporter gene assays. As expected, we found that the isoflavone composition varies between different products. The measured total isoflavone contents in various supplements were mostly comparable to those claimed by the manufacturers in their product information. However expressing the isoflavone content as isoflavone aglycone equivalents, soy-based supplements had a clearly lower quantity compared to the manufacturer information. All supplements transactivated more or less ERα and ERβ with a preference for ERβ. The transactivational efficiency exceeded partly the maximal 17β-estradiol induced ER activation. While the different soy-based supplements revealed similar transactivation potential to both ERs, red clover-based supplements differed considerably. We conclude that different commercial dietary supplements based on soy or red clover vary in their isoflavone composition and quantity. They are estrogenically active, although especially the red clover-based supplements show considerable differences in their estrogenic potential to ERα and ERβ. Thus, different isoflavone-rich products cannot be necessarily compared regarding possible biological effects.

  4. Dietary supplementation with high-selenium soy protein reduces pulmonary metastasis of melanoma cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Donghua; Graef, George L; Yee, John A; Yan, L

    2004-06-01

    The effect of high-selenium (Se) soy protein on pulmonary metastasis of murine B16BL6 melanoma cells was investigated in male C57BL6 mice. Isolated soy proteins (ISP) from soybeans grown with and without Se foliar application during seed development were compared. Five diets were studied, a basal AIN-93G diet or a basal diet containing 10% low-Se ISP, 5% low-Se + 5% high-Se ISP, 10% high-Se ISP, or 10% low-Se ISP supplemented with Se equivalent to that of the 10% high-Se ISP diet. The Se concentrations of the 5 diets were 0.13, 0.13, 1.9, 3.6, and 3.0 microg/g, respectively. Mice were fed the diet for 2 wk before and 2 wk after an i.v. injection of 5 x 10(4) viable cells. At necropsy, the number and size of tumors that had developed in the lungs were determined. In the control group, 13/18 mice exhibited > or = 50 tumors. The numbers of mice with > or = 50 tumors were 8/18, 7/18, 3/18, and 6/17 in the ISP-fed groups, respectively. The differences between the 10% high-Se ISP group, the Se-supplemented 10% low-Se group, and the control were significant (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 10% low-Se ISP significantly decreased the mean number of tumors per group and the tumor size compared with the control. A greater reduction in these variables occurred in mice fed the 10% high-Se ISP diet. The inhibition by the Se-supplemented 10% low-Se ISP diet was similar to that by the 10% high-Se ISP diet. The whole-blood Se concentration was inversely related to the tumor number (R = -0.87, P = 0.052), tumor cross-sectional area (R = -0.91, P < 0.05), and tumor volume (R = -0.93, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that Se is responsible for the greater antimetastatic effect of the high-Se ISP. We conclude that the high-Se soy protein has a greater inhibitory effect than the low-Se soy protein on pulmonary metastasis of melanoma cells in mice.

  5. Dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Massey, Patrick B

    2002-01-01

    The amount of published information on dietary supplements mushroomed in the 1990s. In fewer than 5 years, publications increased at least 100-fold in the medical literature alone. Dietary supplements are an uncharted territory that warrants complete and accurate exploration. One should not be surprised that disease and illness may respond to dietary supplements. Nutrition is the foundation to good health, and dietary supplements may prove to be some of the most powerful medicines ever discovered. An especially exciting discovery is that dietary supplements may enhance the effects of specific drugs. This discovery may lead to more effective and safer protocols for the treatment of cancer, heart and lung disease, and a host of chronic medical conditions. Information about dietary supplements is becoming more common in the popular medical literature and is creating increased curiosity and an increased awareness. The explosion of the dietary supplement market is compelling physicians to become aware of dietary supplements. Whether or not they are used in clinical practice is a decision for the individual physician. Given the increasing number of patients who are using dietary supplements, however, it is imperative that physicians have a good understanding of this topic. Considering the increasing complexity and magnitude of this topic, physician specialization may be essential. There are many good reference books, review articles, and internet sites on specific supplements that probably should be part of every physician's reference library. The accompanying box provides a brief list of such sources.

  6. The effects of increasing dietary levels of amino acid-supplemented soy protein concentrate and constant dietary supplementation of phosphorus on growth, composition and immune responses of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Metochis, C; Crampton, V O; Ruohonen, K; Bell, J G; Adams, A; Thompson, K D

    2016-06-01

    Diets with 50 (SPC50), 65 (SPC65) and 80 % (SPC80) substitution of prime fish meal (FM) with soy protein concentrate (SPC) were evaluated against a commercial type control feed with 35 % FM replacement with SPC. Increases in dietary SPC were combined with appropriate increases in methionine, lysine and threonine supplementation, whereas added phosphorus was constant among treatments. Diets were administered to quadruplicate groups of 29 g juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed to constant light, for 97 days. On Day 63 salmon were subjected to vaccination. Significant weight reductions in SPC65 and SPC80 compared with SPC35 salmon were observed by Day 97. Linear reductions in body cross-sectional ash, Ca/P ratios, and Ca, P, Mn and Zn were observed at Days 63 (prior vaccination) and 97 (34 days post-vaccination), while Mg presented a decrease at Day 63, in salmon fed increasing dietary SPC. Significant reductions in Zn, Ca, P and Ca/P ratios persisted in SPC65 and SPC80 compared with SPC35 salmon at Day 97. Significant haematocrit reductions in SPC50, SPC65 and SPC80 salmon were observed at Days 63, 70 and 97. Enhanced plasma haemolytic activity, increased total IgM, and a rise in thrombocytes were demonstrated in SPC50 and SPC65 salmon on Day 97, while increased lysozyme activity was demonstrated for these groups on Days 63, 70 and 97. Leucocyte and lymphocyte counts revealed enhanced immunostimulation in salmon fed with increasing dietary SPC at Day 97. High SPC inclusion diets did not compromise the immune responses of salmon, while SPC50 diet also supported good growth without compromising elemental concentrations.

  7. Dietary Soy Supplement on Fibromyalgia Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Early Phase Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Luedtke, Connie A.; King, Susan M.; Cha, Stephen S.; Elkin, Peter L.; Bruce, Barbara K.; Townsend, Cynthia O.; Bergeson, Jody R.; Eickhoff, Andrea L.; Loehrer, Laura L.; Sood, Amit; Bauer, Brent A.

    2011-01-01

    Most patients with fibromyalgia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Properly designed controlled trials are necessary to assess the effectiveness of these practices. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, early phase trial. Fifty patients seen at a fibromyalgia outpatient treatment program were randomly assigned to a daily soy or placebo (casein) shake. Outcome measures were scores of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Analysis was with standard statistics based on the null hypothesis, and separation test for early phase CAM comparative trials. Twenty-eight patients completed the study. Use of standard statistics with intent-to-treat analysis showed that total FIQ scores decreased by 14% in the soy group (P = .02) and by 18% in the placebo group (P < .001). The difference in change in scores between the groups was not significant (P = .16). With the same analysis, CES-D scores decreased in the soy group by 16% (P = .004) and in the placebo group by 15% (P = .05). The change in scores was similar in the groups (P = .83). Results of statistical analysis using the separation test and intent-to-treat analysis revealed no benefit of soy compared with placebo. Shakes that contain soy and shakes that contain casein, when combined with a multidisciplinary fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control) shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated. PMID:18990724

  8. Determination of isoflavone content in soy, red clover, and kudzu dietary supplement materials by liquid chromatography-particle beam/electron ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Carolyn Q; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Increased consumption of dietary supplements brings about important requirements of analytical methods to allow accurate and precise measurements of the chemical composition of these botanical materials. Presented here is the isoflavone content in proposed National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference materials (SRMs) determined by LC-particle beam/electron ionization MS. Botanical materials (soy, red clover, and kudzu) are characterized for the content of a suite of five isoflavones (puerarin, daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and biochanin A). These compounds are of interest due to correlations with certain health benefits. An RP chromatographic separation was first optimized using UV-Vis spectrophotometric detection. The LC output was then introduced to an electron ionization source using a particle beam interface on an Extrel Benchmark MS system. The separation was carried out using a commercial C18 column and a linear gradient using water and methanol (both containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid as mobile phases A and B, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min over 40 min. LOD values for the isoflavones were determined to be at the ng level. Quantitation was performed using an internal standard (IS) approach with 7-hydroxy-4-chromone as the IS compound. The levels of isoflavones in the botanical products were determined for the proposed SRMs.

  9. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements can play an important role in health. For example, calcium and vitamin D are important for keeping bones ...

  10. Long-term soy isoflavone supplementation and cognition in women

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, V.W.; St. John, J.A.; Hodis, H.N.; Kono, N.; McCleary, C.A.; Franke, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the cognitive effects of long-term dietary soy isoflavones in a daily dose comparable to that of traditional Asian diets. Methods: In the double-blind Women's Isoflavone Soy Health trial, healthy postmenopausal women were randomly allocated to receive daily 25 g of isoflavone-rich soy protein (91 mg of aglycone weight of isoflavones: 52 mg of genistein, 36 mg of daidzein, and 3 mg glycitein) or milk protein−matched placebo. The primary cognitive endpoint compared between groups at 2.5 years was change from baseline on global cognition, a composite of the weighted sum of 14 neuropsychological test score changes. Secondary outcomes compared changes in cognitive factors and individual tests. Results: A total of 350 healthy postmenopausal women aged 45–92 years enrolled in this trial; 313 women with baseline and endpoint cognitive test data were included in intention-to-treat analyses. Adherence in both groups was nearly 90%. There was no significant between-group difference on change from baseline in global cognition (mean standardized improvement of 0.42 in the isoflavone group and 0.31 in the placebo group; mean standardized difference 0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.13 to 0.35). Secondary analyses indicated greater improvement on a visual memory factor in the isoflavone group (mean standardized difference 0.33, 95% CI 0.06–0.60) but no significant between-group differences on 3 other cognitive factors or individual test scores, and no significant difference within a subgroup of younger postmenopausal women. Conclusion: For healthy postmenopausal women, long-term dietary soy isoflavone supplementation in a dose comparable to that of traditional Asian diets has no effect on global cognition but may improve visual memory. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that long-term dietary supplementation with isoflavone-rich soy protein does not improve global cognition of healthy postmenopausal women. PMID

  11. Effects of graded dietary levels of soy protein concentrate supplemented with methionine and phosphate on the immune and antioxidant responses of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Kokou, Fotini; Sarropoulou, Elena; Cotou, Efthimia; Kentouri, Maroudio; Alexis, Maria; Rigos, George

    2017-05-01

    The effects of a dietary soy protein concentrate (SPC) as a fish meal (FM) substitute, on selected innate immune responses, the oxidative status, hepatic and intestinal morphology of gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata, were evaluated after a three-month feeding trial. Isonitrogenous (45% crude protein) and isoenergetic (23 kJ/g gross energy) diets with 20% (SPC20), 40% (SPC40) and 60% (SPC60) of SPC inclusion, supplemented with methionine and phosphate, were evaluated against a diet containing FM as the sole protein source. Diets were allocated in triplicate groups of 26-g fish (8 kg m(-3)/tank) and administered for three months. Immune responses were evaluated by performing immunological assays in blood (respiratory burst activity) and serum (myeloperoxidase content, bacteriolytic and lysozyme activity), as well as by gene expression analysis of immune-associated genes (MHCIIα, β2m, CSF-1R, NCCRP-1, TGF-β1, HSP70) in the head kidney and distal intestine. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the activity of liver enzymes associated with the antioxidant system. The respiratory burst activity of blood was significantly decreased in the SPC40 group, while serum myeloperoxidase content and bacteriolytic and lysozyme activities were affected. Significantly higher expression levels of NCCRP-1 and HSP70 were found in SPC60 head kidneys, while increased intestinal MHCIIα and NCCRP-1 transcripts were observed in SPC40. Hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase was significantly enhanced in the SPC40 and SPC60 groups, while superoxide dismutase activity was increased only in the SPC40 group. Moreover, increased lipid accumulation in the enterocytes of the distal intestine was observed in the SPC60 group. Overall, a three-month feeding period with diets over 40% of dietary SPC inclusion as a FM substitute, indicated increases on immune and antioxidant enzyme responses, suggesting the dietary SPC levels

  12. Soy Supplementation and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    continue to work on the study since the results of this study has the potential to advance the field of nutritional prevention of cancer. We would...AD Award Number: DAMD17-99-1-9467 TITLE: Soy Supplementation and Prostate Cancer Prevention PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Electra D. Paskett, Ph.D... Prevention DAMDl7-99-1-9467’ 6. AUTHOR(S) Electra D. Paskett, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Ohio

  13. Influence of soy oil source and dietary supplementation of vitamins E and C on the oxidation status of serum and egg yolk, and the lipid profile of egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Irandoust, H; Ahn, D U

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of adding vitamins E and C to diets containing 3.5% refined soy oil (SO), recycled soy oil (RSO), or acidulated soy oil soapstocks (ASS) on 1) fatty acid (FA) profile, and cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and α-tocopherol (α-T) concentrations of yolk, and 2) the oxidation status of serum and yolk. Twelve dietary treatments, using 3 oil sources, 2 levels of vitamin E (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), and 2 levels of vitamin C (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), were prepared. A total of 300 W36 Hy-line laying hens, from 44 to 56 weeks of age, were placed in 60 cages (5 birds/cage) and 5 cages were randomly assigned to one of the 12 diets. Blood samples and eggs were collected after 84 d on trial. No interactions among main effects were found for any of the traits studied. Oil sources had little effects on the FA profile of the yolk, except for C18:3 that was higher (P-value of < 0.01) in the hens fed SO than those fed RSO or ASS. Vitamin E supplementation significantly (P-value of < 0.05) increased the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1 but decreased that of C18:2 and C22:6n3 in the yolk. Vitamin C supplementation significantly (P-value of < 0.05) increased C18:0 and C18:3 concentrations in the yolk but decreased the n6 to n3 FA ratio. The concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride in serum and yolk were not affected by dietary treatment but α-tocopherol concentration increased (P-value of < 0.01) by the dietary vitamin E. Compared with the hens fed the SO diets, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in serum was higher with RSO diet but lower with ASS diet. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation decreased (P-value of < 0.05) serum MDA. Yolk FA profile was affected not only by the FA profile of the oil source used in diet, but also by the supplementation of vitamin E and C. The results showed that triglyceride profile, but not cholesterol content, of egg was affected by fatty acid profile of the supplemental oil and the vitamin C and E

  14. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to take. If you experience any side effects that concern you, stop taking the dietary supplement, and contact your health care provider. You can report serious problems suspected with dietary supplements to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of ...

  15. [Isoflavone-containing dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Leane; Soukup, Sebastian T; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Vollmer, Günter; Kulling, Sabine E

    2017-03-01

    Isoflavones (IFs) from soy and other legumes have weak estrogenic properties. Isolated IFs are available as dietary supplements and advertised to alleviate symptoms of menopause. The present chapter provides an overview of the occurrence, the chemical structure of IFs and their metabolites, the market situation and reviews the current evidence on the efficacy and safety of IF-containing dietary supplements.The biological effectiveness of IFs is attributable to the activation of the estrogen receptor (ER). Studies on the influence of IFs on endogenous estrogen levels in women show inconsistent results. So far, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has rejected all submitted health claims for IFs due to insufficient scientific evidence for any of the postulated health effects. Based on the results of their recent risk assessment, the EFSA concluded that the available human studies did not support the hypothesis of adverse effects of isolated IFs on the human mammary gland, uterus or thyroid in healthy postmenopausal women. However, the assessment does not allow a general statement on the safety of IF-containing dietary supplements. Studies in animal models are often not comparable with the complex interactions in humans due to differences in the metabolism of IFs, in the developmental stage at time of consumption and in the temporarily restricted uptake of IFs during certain stages of life.

  16. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    MedlinePlus

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  17. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... has certain safety monitoring responsibilities. These include monitoring mandatory reporting of serious adverse events by dietary supplement ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...

  18. Effects of dietary soy protein on skeletal muscle volume and strength in humans with various physical activities.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Rie; Sakai, Atsuko; Murayama, Masumi; Ochi, Arisa; Abe, Tomoki; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Ohno, Ayako; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Yanagawa, Hiroaki; Yasui, Natsuo; Inatsugi, Mikiko; Doi, Daisuke; Takeda, Masanori; Mukai, Rie; Terao, Junji; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the number of bedridden people is rapidly increasing due to aging or lack of exercise in Japan. This problem is becoming more serious, since there is no countermeasure against it. In the present study, we designed to investigate whether dietary proteins, especially soy, had beneficial effects on skeletal muscle in 59 volunteers with various physical activities. We subjected 59 volunteers with various physical activities to meal intervention examination. Persons with low and high physical activities were divided into two dietary groups, the casein diet group and the soy diet group. They ate daily meals supplemented with 7.8 g of powdered casein or soy protein isolate every day for 30 days. Bedridden patients in hospitals were further divided into three dietary groups: the no supplementation diet group, the casein diet group and the soy diet group. They were also subjected to a blood test, a urinalysis, magnetic resonance imaging analysis and muscle strength test of the knee before and after the meal intervention study. Thirty-day soy protein supplementation significantly increased skeletal muscle volume in participants with low physical activity, compared with 30-day casein protein supplementation. Both casein and soy protein supplementation increased the volume of quadriceps femoris muscle in bedridden patients. Consistently, soy protein significantly increased their extension power of the knee, compared with casein protein. Although casein protein increased skeletal muscle volume more than soy protein in bedridden patients, their muscle strength changes by soy protein supplementation were bigger than those by casein protein supplementation. The supplementation of soy protein would be one of the effective foods which prevent the skeletal muscle atrophy caused by immobilization or unloading.

  19. Dietary supplements for football.

    PubMed

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  20. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  1. Postintervention growth of Malawian children who received 12-mo dietary complementation with a lipid-based nutrient supplement or maize-soy flour.

    PubMed

    Phuka, John C; Maleta, Kenneth; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Manary, Mark J; Ashorn, Per

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic feeding with micronutrient-fortified lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) has proven useful in the rehabilitation of severely malnourished children. We recently reported that complementary feeding of 6-18-mo-old infants with an LNS known as FS50 was associated with improved linear growth and a reduction in the incidence of severe stunting during the supplementation period. Our objective was to assess whether a reduction in stunting seen with 12-mo LNS supplementation was sustained over a subsequent 2-y nonintervention period. One hundred eighty-two 6-mo-old healthy rural Malawian infants were randomly assigned to receive daily supplementation for 12 mo with 71 g of maize-soy flour [likuni phala (LP); control group, 282 kcal] or either 50 g of FS50 (264 kcal; main intervention group), or 25 g of FS25 (130 kcal). Main outcome measures were incidence of severe stunting and mean z score changes in weight-for-age, length-for-age, and weight-for-length during a 36-mo follow-up period. The cumulative 36-mo incidence of severe stunting was 19.6% in LP, 3.6% in FS50, and 10.3% in FS25 groups (P = 0.03). Mean weight-for-age changes were -1.09, -0.76, and -1.22 (P = 0.04); mean length-for-age changes were -0.47, -0.37, and -0.71 (P = 0.10); and mean weight-for-length changes were -1.52, -1.18, and -1.48 (P = 0.27). All differences were more marked among individuals with baseline length-for-age below the median. Differences in length developed during the intervention at age 10-18 mo, whereas weight differences continued to increase after the intervention. Twelve-month-long complementary feeding with 50 g/d FS50 is likely to have a positive and sustained impact on the incidence of severe stunting in rural Malawi. Half-dose intervention may not have the same effect. This trial was registered at (clinicaltrials.gov) as NCT00131209.

  2. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... and dietary supplements. This issue provides information about scope of use of complementary health practices by children , ... Systematic Reviews/Reviews/Meta-analyses (PubMed®) Randomized Controlled Trials (PubMed®) Research Spotlights National Survey Reports on CAM ...

  3. Hyperkalemia from Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Villgran, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte problem in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is typically caused by medications in patients with poor kidney function. Patients with comorbodities such as heart failure and diabetes are predisposed to electrolyte problems. Salt substitutes and dietary supplements are uncommon causes of hyperkalemia, but we propose that they are under-recognized and underdiagnosed causes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Our case report and literature review illustrates that a careful dietary history is essential in patients presenting with electrolyte disorders, especially hyperkalemia. PMID:27924248

  4. The regulation of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Larissa L; Berry, Judith A

    2003-09-01

    To discuss the regulatory history of dietary supplements, define the term dietary supplement, clarify ingredient and nutrition information labeling, and discuss safety issues and implications for practice. Review of primary and secondary sources, including both Internet sites and journal articles. In the United States, 6 out of every 10 people use dietary supplements. For decades, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) protected the public from mislabeled and unsafe products by regulating as foods those dietary supplements that included only essential nutrients. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 included herbs as dietary supplements. When the Dietary Supplement and Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 was passed, the FDA lost its regulatory power. The DSHEA expanded the definition of dietary supplements beyond essential nutrients. Dietary supplements are no longer considered food additives, which makes them exempt from prescreening or any safety and efficacy studies before they are released to the public. Under the DSHEA, the FDA may take action if a product poses a direct health threat and only after adverse health effects have already occurred. A good understanding of the regulatory procedures for dietary supplements will aid nurse practitioners (NPs) in patient education regarding these products. Patients should be advised to choose supplements that are made by nationally known food and drug manufacturers that belong to trade groups. NPs and patients can contact the manufacturer directly and can access government Internet sites for more product information.

  5. Soy protein supplementation does not cause lymphocytopenia in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Soung, Do Y; Patade, Anagha; Khalil, Dania A; Lucas, Edralin A; Devareddy, Latha; Greaves, Kathryn A; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2006-01-01

    Background The health benefits of soy isoflavones have been widely investigated; however, there are some concerns as to whether soy isoflavones, similar to ipriflavone, a synthetic isoflavone, cause lymphocytopenia in postmenopausal women. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which 12-month supplementation of 25 g soy protein containing 60 mg isoflavones alters lymphocyte counts or other hematological parameters in postmenopausal women who were not on hormone replacement therapy. Methods Eighty-seven postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to receive either soy protein or an equivalent amount of control protein devoid of isoflavones. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline and at the end of twelve month study period for complete blood count analyses. Results Between the two treatment groups, the percent changes in hematological parameters, including lymphocytes, were not different. While women consuming the soy supplement had an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and red cell distribution width index (RDW; a marker of reticulocytes), women consuming the control diet had higher percentage of only MCHC. Conclusion Overall, the results of the present study indicate that consumption of 25 g soy protein containing 60 mg isoflavones daily for one year does not cause lymphocytopenia. PMID:16608514

  6. Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Marketed as Dietary Supplements Hidden Risks of Erectile Dysfunction 'Treatments' Sold Online 'All Natural' Alternatives for Erectile Dysfunction: A Risky Proposition For More Information Questions and ...

  7. Soy

    MedlinePlus

    ... eating soy beans for almost 5000 years. The soybean is high in protein. The quality of protein ... soy food products, including soy sausage patties and soybean burgers) Soy flour Whole soybeans Tempeh Tofu Soy ...

  8. Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Pattanittum, Porjai; Kunyanone, Naowarat; Brown, Julie; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee S; Barnes, Joanne; Seyfoddin, Vahid; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2016-03-22

    Dysmenorrhoea refers to painful menstrual cramps and is a common gynaecological complaint. Conventional treatments include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), which both reduce myometrial activity (contractions of the uterus). A suggested alternative approach is dietary supplements. We used the term 'dietary supplement' to include herbs or other botanical, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and amino acids. We excluded traditional Chinese medicines. To determine the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements for treating dysmenorrhoea. We searched sources including the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO (all from inception to 23 March 2015), trial registries, and the reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary supplements for moderate or severe primary or secondary dysmenorrhoea. We excluded studies of women with an intrauterine device. Eligible comparators were other dietary supplements, placebo, no treatment, or conventional analgesia. Two review authors independently performed study selection, performed data extraction and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and adverse effects. We used a fixed-effect model to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data, and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous data, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We presented data that were unsuitable for analysis either descriptively or in additional tables. We assessed the quality of the evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. We included 27 RCTs (3101 women). Most included studies were conducted amongst cohorts of students with primary dysmenorrhoea in their late teens or early twenties. Twenty-two studies were

  9. Soy isoflavone supplementation and breast density in postmenopausal women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soy isoflavones may protect against breast cancer. Breast density, a marker for breast cancer risk, increases as a result of hormone replacement therapy. We examined the relation between isoflavone supplementation and breast density using the mammograms from 358 women who participated in the multi-s...

  10. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on menopausal quality of life

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent clinical trials have found an increased risk of health problems in women using menopausal hormone therapy. As a result, women are in search of alternative strategies to improve their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on quali...

  11. Postintervention growth of Malawian children who received 12-mo dietary complementation with a lipid-based nutrient supplement or maize-soy flour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Therapeutic feeding with micronutrient-fortified lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) has proven useful in the rehabilitation of severely malnourished children. We recently reported that complementary feeding of 6 to 18-mo-old infants with LNS known as FS50, was associated with improved linear gr...

  12. Dietary soy protein is associated with reduced intestinal mucosal polyamine concentration in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Higuchi, C M

    2000-07-01

    Quantitation of polyamine levels has been correlated with biomarkers of proliferation in the colon mucosa where dysregulated epithelial hyperproliferation is associated with colorectal cancer risk. This study was performed to assess the response of polyamine measurements to dietary factors in an animal model. Male Wistar rats were fed purified diet or diets substituted by 20% lard fat, 20% beet fiber and 20% soy protein. After 2 wk, mucosal polyamines were measured along intestinal tracts by HPLC. In rats fed the control diet (n = 10), mucosal polyamines were found at high levels in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum but at low levels in the cecum, colon and rectum. Compared with rats fed the control diet, those fed the 20% lard diet showed greater polyamine levels in the large intestine (P < 0.05, n = 10), but those fed the 20% fiber diet exhibited lower polyamine levels in the small intestine (P < 0.05, n = 9). However, rats fed the 20% soy protein diet had lower polyamine levels in both small and large intestines (P < 0.05, n = 15). Significant linear correlations were observed between rectal polyamine levels and the dietary energy intakes in these four diet groups (r = 0.972-0.991, P < 0.001). Supplementation of 0.1% soy isoflavones to the basal diet or 0.3% DL-methionine to the 20% soy protein diet for 4 wk did not affect polyamine levels. The results indicate that soy protein reduced mucosal polyamine levels, at least in part, through reduction of energy intakes. Further studies are warranted to verify that polyamine levels in intestinal mucosa are useful as an intermediate endpoint of the dietary risk factors.

  13. Soy product consumption and association with health characteristics and dietary quality indices in Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sadeghian, Mehdi; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Izadi, Vajihe; Vahidianfar, Fereshteh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-02-01

    To determine the average intake of soy products and its association with socio-demographic, general and health characteristics, and dietary quality indices among the population of Isfahan, Iran. In this descriptive cross-sectional study conducted on 491 subjects in 2013-2014, grocery stores, nuts stores, chain stores, and supermarkets from different areas of Isfahan Municipality were visited. Shop owners were asked to report the amounts of soy products sales (soy nut, processed soy protein, soy milk and soy yogurt). Furthermore, a food frequency questionnaire was completed from 496 customers by an experienced nutritionist. Mean sales and intake of soy products and dietary intakes including dietary quality indices and mean adequacy ratio (MAR) as well as anthropometric and socio-demographic variables were assessed. Soy protein and soy yogurt are the highest [673 ± 81 (g/month)] and lowest [420 ± 148 (g/month)] purchased soy products, respectively. While soy nut [63 ± 10 (g/month)] was consumed to the lowest amount, soy protein [236 ± 39 (g/month)] was the most consumed soy product. Subjects with higher consumption of soy products were older and had higher intake of protein, vitamin C, zinc and iron, and lower intake of whole grains, legumes, and vegetables as well as greater values of MAR and dietary diversity score as well as nutrient adequacy ratio for vitamin C. Soy protein is the most purchased and consumed soy product among people living in Isfahan. More intakes of whole grains and vegetables among those with higher consumption of soy foods could define greater quantities of zinc, iron and vitamin C in the diet. Soy consumption had a reverse correlation with body mass index.

  14. Dietary soy isoflavones inhibit estrogen effects in the postmenopausal breast.

    PubMed

    Wood, Charles E; Register, Thomas C; Franke, Adrian A; Anthony, Mary S; Cline, J Mark

    2006-01-15

    Soy isoflavones are promising dietary agents for prevention of breast cancer. Isoflavones bind estrogen receptors (ER) and may variably act as either estrogen agonists or antagonists depending on the estrogen environment. In this study, we used a postmenopausal primate model to evaluate interactive effects of dietary soy isoflavones and estrogen on risk markers for breast cancer. The experiment followed a randomized factorial design in which 31 ovariectomized adult female cynomolgus monkeys were divided into social groups of three to four animals each and rotated through eight different diets containing the human equivalent of 0, 60, 120, or 240 mg/d soy isoflavones with a dose of oral micronized 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) corresponding to either a low (0.09 mg/d) or a high (0.5 mg/d) postmenopausal estrogen environment. Treatment periods lasted 4 months with a 1-month washout period between diets. The highest isoflavone dose resulted in significantly lower breast proliferation and uterine size in the high-estrogen environment. These effects were accompanied by divergent changes in breast markers of ER activation in which pS2 expression was significantly lower and progesterone receptor expression was significantly higher following the 240 mg isoflavone dose. All isoflavone doses resulted in lower serum estrone and E(2) concentrations in the high-estrogen environment. In contrast, isoflavone treatment had no significant estrogen agonist effects and minimal antagonistic effects in the lower-estrogen environment. These findings show that in the presence of estrogen higher doses of dietary soy isoflavones may alter ER signaling and induce selective antagonistic effects in the breast.

  15. Dietary supplements in weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Allison, David B; Coates, Paul M

    2005-05-01

    We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in planning weight-reduction diets is that total intake from food and supplements should meet recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels without greatly exceeding them for all nutrients, except energy. If nutrient amounts from food sources in the reducing diet fall short, dietary supplements containing a single nutrient/element or a multivitamin-mineral combination may be helpful. On hypocaloric diets, the addition of dietary supplements providing nutrients at a level equal to or below recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels or 100% daily value, as stated in a supplement's facts box on the label, may help dieters to achieve nutrient adequacy and maintain electrolyte balance while avoiding the risk of excessive nutrient intakes. Many botanical and other types of dietary supplements are purported to be useful for stimulating or enhancing weight loss. Evidence of their efficacy in stimulating weight loss is inconclusive at present. Although there are few examples of safety concerns related to products that are legal and on the market for this purpose, there is also a paucity of evidence on safety for this intended use. Ephedra and ephedrine-containing supplements, with or without caffeine, have been singled out in recent alerts from the Food and Drug Administration because of safety concerns, and use of products containing these substances cannot be recommended. Dietitians should periodically check the Food and Drug Administration Web site ( www.cfsan.fda.gov ) for updates and warnings and alert patients/clients to safety concerns. Dietetics professionals should also consult authoritative sources for

  16. FT-IR Method for the Quantification of Isoflavonol Glycosides in Nutritional Supplements of Soy (Glycine max (L.) MERR.).

    PubMed

    Mulsow, Katharina; Eidenschink, Juliane; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing health consciousness, a lot of food supplements are sold and used. Dietary supplements of Glycine max (L.) MERR. are used as an alternative treatment for menopausal complaints such as hot flashes. Thereby, the effective soy compounds are the isoflavones daidzin, genistin, and glycitin. However, only the total soy extract content of the nutritional supplements is indicated. The aim of this study is to introduce a fast, efficient, and economic Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy method to quantify the active ingredients in the complex matrix of soy-based supplements. Five different nutritional supplements of Glycine max (L.) MERR. were purchased from a German pharmacy and were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used for the separation. The samples were concentrated and measured with infrared spectroscopy. An FT-IR method was established to quantify the active ingredients in the complex matrix of soy-based nutritional supplements. The partial least-squares algorithm was used to develop the method, which enabled the estimation of the content of particular isoflavones (daidzin R(2) = 0.86, glycitin R(2) = 0.94, genistin R(2) = 0.96) and the quantification of the total isoflavone content (R(2) = 0.92) despite peak overlap in the infrared (IR) spectra. The method for the quantification of the isoflavonol glycosides is precise with the standard error of prediction being 13.54%.

  17. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  18. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  19. Soy isoflavone (IF) supplementation appears safe after a two-year randomized controlled trial (RCT)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although RCTs quantifying a benefit for menopausal soy IF supplementation abound, few studies have considered the safety of long-term soy IF intake, particularly when exposure levels are in the form of a tablet, as opposed to food. To evaluate the effect of soy IF on bone loss, 403 early postmenopau...

  20. Determination of 15 isoflavone isomers in soy foods and supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yanaka, Kaoru; Takebayashi, Jun; Matsumoto, Teruki; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2012-04-25

    Soy isoflavone is the generic name for the isoflavones found in soy. We determined the concentrations of 15 soy isoflavone species, including 3 succinyl glucosides, in 22 soy foods and isoflavone supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total isoflavone contents in 14 soy foods and 8 supplements ranged from 45 to 735 μg/g and from 1,304 to 90,224 μg/g, respectively. Higher amounts of succinyl glucosides were detected in natto, a typical fermented soy product in Japan; these ranged from 30 to 80 μg/g and comprised 4.1-10.9% of the total isoflavone content. In soy powder, 59 μg/g of succinyl glucosides were detected, equivalent to 4.6% of the total isoflavone content. These data suggest that the total isoflavone contents may be underestimated in the previous studies that have not included succinyl glucosides, especially for Bacillus subtilis -fermented soy food products.

  1. Isoflavone Soy Protein Supplementation and Atherosclerosis Progression in Healthy Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hodis, Howard N.; Mack, Wendy J.; Kono, Naoko; Azen, Stanley P.; Shoupe, Donna; Hwang-Levine, Juliana; Petitti, Diana; Whitfield-Maxwell, Lora; Yan, Mingzhu; Franke, Adrian A.; Selzer, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that dietary intake of soy may be cardioprotective, use of isoflavone soy protein (ISP) supplementation as a primary preventive therapy remains unexplored. We determined whether ISP reduces subclinical atherosclerosis assessed as carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) progression. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 350 postmenopausal women 45–92 years of age without diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) were randomized to 2 evenly divided daily doses of 25 g soy protein containing 91 mg aglycon isoflavone equivalents or placebo for 2.7-years. Results Overall, mean (95% confidence interval) CIMT progression rate was 4.77(3.39–6.16) μm/year in the ISP group and 5.68(4.30–7.06) μm/year in the placebo group. Although CIMT progression was reduced on average by 16% in the ISP group relative to the placebo group, this treatment effect was not statistically significant (p=0.36). Among the subgroup of women who were randomized within 5 years of menopause, ISP participants had on average a 68% lower CIMT progression rate than placebo participants 2.16(−1.10–5.43) vs. 6.79(3.56–10.01) μm/year, p=0.05). ISP supplementation had a null effect on women who were >5 years beyond menopause when randomized. There were no major adverse events from ISP supplementation. Conclusion ISP supplementation did not significantly reduce subclinical atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women. Subgroup analysis suggest that ISP supplementation may reduce subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy young (median age, 53 years) women at low-risk for CVD who were <5 years postmenopausal. These first trial results of their kind warrant further investigation. PMID:21903957

  2. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    MedlinePlus

    ... about which supplements are needed and the amounts. Iron Deficiency Iron deficiency does occur among some young children and can ... Drinking large quantities of milk may lead to iron deficiency anemia, as the child will be less interested ...

  3. Online Dietary Supplement Resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Internet is becoming an increasingly popular tool for finding nutrition-related information; therefore, nutrition professionals must know how to use it effectively. This article describes websites that dietitians and other health professionals can use to obtain reliable information on dietary s...

  4. Effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic rabbits: a randomized double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Cavallini, Daniela CU; Abdalla, Dulcinéia SP; Vendramini, Regina C; Bedani, Raquel; Bomdespacho, Laura Q; Pauly-Silveira, Nadiége D; de Valdez, Graciela F; Rossi, Elizeu A

    2009-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in natural treatments to control dyslipidemia and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of soy yogurt fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and of dietary isoflavones on the lipid profile. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt, fermented with E. faecium CRL183, on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia. Methods Forty-eight rabbits were randomly assigned to eight groups fed on the following diets for 60 days: C - control; IY - isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; H - hypercholesterolemic (1.0% cholesterol wt/wt diet); HY - hypercholesterolemic plus soy yogurt; HIY - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; HP - hypercholesterolemic plus placebo; HI - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone and HE - hypercholesterolemic plus pure culture of E. faecium CRL 183. Serum lipids and autoantibodies against oxLDL (oxLDL Ab) were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 60 of the treatment and the atherosclerotic lesions were quantified at the end of the experiment. Results Soy yogurt, soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones and placebo promoted significant reductions in total cholesterol level (38.1%, 27.0% and 26.6%, respectively). Significant increases in serum HDL-C concentration relative to group H were detected in animals that ingested soy yogurt, with or without the isoflavone supplement (55.2%), E. faecium culture (43.3%) or placebo (35.8%). Intake of soy yogurt and soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones prevented the rise of oxLDL Ab during the study period. The extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic and abdominal aortas was reduced in the HIY, HY and HP groups. However, when the whole aorta was analyzed, animals treated with soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones exhibited the greatest reduction (51.4%, P < 0.05) in atherosclerotic

  5. Assessing patients' attitudes towards dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Wierzejska, Regina; Jarosz, Mirosław; Siuba, Magdalena; Rambuszek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is currently many over the counter products on the market that exert nutritional or physiological effects on the human body. The differences between dietary supplements and non-prescription drugs are however poorly understood by the average consumer and may thus affect their expectations as to the desired effect produced on the body. To evaluate patients' knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements as compared to non-prescription drugs. Subjects were 335 patients of the Mazowiecki Voivodeship Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. The data were collected from a face-to-face interview using a single and multiple choice questionnaire with 10 questions on dietary supplements. Statistical analysis used the Chi-square (χ2) test. The majority of respondents were found to be familiar with the term 'dietary supplements', but had difficulties in classifying these products into appropriate categories. Over 55% do not consider dietary supplements to be foodstuffs and more than 40% considered such products to be drugs. Most respondents thought that the main purpose of taking dietary supplements is to improve nutrition, but over one third expected them to also treat disease. Over 70% declared taking notice to which category the non-prescription products they bought belongs to ie. whether non-prescription drugs (medicinal products) or dietary supplements. Many patients mistakenly believe that dietary supplements are drugs and can be used to treat disease and health disorders. dietary supplements, opinion on dietary supplements, nutrition, dietary supplement vs. medicinal product.

  6. High dietary supplement intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Inge; Maes, Lea; Vereecken, Carine; De Keyzer, Willem; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dietary supplement use among Flemish preschoolers and to investigate associations between dietary supplement use and socio-economic variables of the parents. Parentally reported 3-day estimated dietary records (n=696) were used to calculate mean daily nutrient intakes, using Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (Cside). Socio-demographic information and frequency of dietary supplement use were collected via parental questionnaires, including a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (n=1847). The results from the FFQ revealed that more than 30% of the children used dietary supplements in the past month. Children of more highly educated parents and children of non-smokers were significantly more likely to use supplements than their counterparts. The types most frequently used were multi-vitamin/mineral supplements. Except for vitamin D, mean dietary intakes derived from foods alone was higher than the minimum recommendations for both supplement and non-supplement users. The youngest group of supplement users even exceeded the tolerable upper intake level for zinc (7 mg). However, for vitamin D, dietary supplements could help meet dietary recommendations for this micronutrient. In conclusion, the results indicated that dietary supplement use by healthy children who typically achieve their micronutrient requirements by foods alone could cause excessive intakes. Future studies should investigate potential harms and benefits of dietary supplementation use among preschoolers.

  7. [Soy products for dietary treatment of children with erosive-ulcerative lesions of the alimentary tract].

    PubMed

    Kolupaeva, Iu I; Anisimova, Iu N; Borovskiĭ, V R

    2008-01-01

    The usage of soy products for dietary treatment of children with erosive-ulcer lesions of alimentary tract brings positive clinical dynamics, normalization of colon function and protein metabolism, acceleration of erosive defects repair, immune status correction. The obtained results justify inclusion of soy products into duodenal pathology treatment--especially when accompanied by protein deficiency.

  8. Soy foods and supplementation: a review of commonly perceived health benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Christopher R; Sahin, Azize

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the impact of soy foods and supplements upon human health has become increasingly controversial among the general public. No one has conducted a broad evaluation of the scientific evidence supporting or refuting popular perceptions of the health effects of soy consumption. In this article, the authors have conducted a comprehensive assessment of the literature surrounding the health effects of soy consumption that are of greatest interest. This review has focused on 5 health benefits- relief of menopausal symptoms and prevention of heart disease, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and osteoporosis, and 5 health risks-increased risk of breast cancer, male hormonal and fertility problems, hypothyroidism, antinutrient content, and harmful processing by-products. Systematic reviews of human trials, prospective human trials, observational human studies, animal models, in vitro studies, and laboratory analyses of soy components were included for review. This literature review revealed that soy foods and isoflavones may provide relief from menopausal symptoms and protect against breast cancer and heart disease. Soy does not appear to offer protection against osteoporosis. The evidence on male fertility and reproductive hormones was conflicting; some studies demonstrated a deleterious impact caused by soy consumption and others showed no effect. Soy supplementation also appears to affect thyroid function in an inconsistent manner, as studies have shown both increases and decreases in the same parameters of thyroid activity. Soaking, fermentation, and heating may reduce problematic antinutrients contained in soy. The authors found that consuming moderate amounts of traditionally prepared and minimally processed soy foods may offer modest health benefits while minimizing potential for adverse health effects. However, additional studies are necessary to elucidate the variable thyroid response to soy supplementation, and more rigorous studies are required to

  9. Low dietary soy isoflavonoids increase hippocampal spine synapse density in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    MacLusky, Neil J; Thomas, Gladis; Leranth, Csaba

    2017-02-15

    High dietary intake of plant estrogens (phytoestrogens) can affect brain structure and function. The effects of phytoestrogen intake within the range of normal animal and human dietary consumption, however, remain uncertain. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the isoflavonoids present in a standard low phytoestrogen laboratory rat chow on spine synapse density in the stratum radiatum of area CA1 of the hippocampus. Weanling rats (22days old) were fed either standard chow (Teklad 2018), a nutritionally comparable diet without soy (Teklad 2016) or a custom diet containing Teklad 2016 supplemented with the principal soy isoflavonoids, daidzein and genistein, for 40days. Rats were ovariectomized at 54days of age. Eight days later, spine synapse density on the apical dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in the stratum radiatum of area CA1 was measured by electron microscopic stereological analysis. Animals maintained on Teklad 2016 exhibited an approximately 60% lower CA1 spine synapse density than animals consuming Teklad 2018. Replacing genistein and daidzein in Teklad 2016 returned synapse density to levels indistinguishable from those in animals on Teklad 2018. These results indicate that the isoflavonoids in a standard laboratory rat diet exert significant effects on spine synapse density in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Since changes in spine synapse density in this region of the hippocampus have been linked to cognitive performance and mood state, these data suggest that even relatively low daily consumption of soy phytoestrogens may be sufficient to influence hippocampal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical outcomes of a 2-y soy isoflavone supplementation in menopausal women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soy isoflavones are naturally occurring phytochemicals with weak estrogenic cellular effects. Despite numerous clinical trials of short-term isoflavone supplementation, there is a paucity of data regarding longer-term outcomes and safety. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of soy hypocoty...

  11. Knowledge of dietary supplement label information among female supplement users.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carla K; Russell, Teri

    2004-03-01

    The use of dietary supplements is a popular form of health behavior, especially among women. Little research has been conducted to determine consumers' comprehension of supplement label information. Therefore, this research evaluated comprehension of supplement label information among women 25-45 years of age who consumed a dietary supplement > or =4 times per week. Participants (n=51) completed a written questionnaire about supplement practices, a 10-item knowledge test, and an individual interview about terms used on supplement labels. Participants answered 70% of the questions correctly on the knowledge test indicating adequate knowledge of dietary sources of nutrients. Knowledge of recommended dosages, dosing instructions, and instructions about inappropriate use of supplements for certain people also was adequate. However, misconceptions regarding the term "natural" on supplement labels, product claims, and testing for product safety existed among participants. Supplement users need additional education about supplement claims and testing for product safety and efficacy to make informed health care choices.

  12. Role of Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Columba de la Parra Simental CONTRACTING...00935 Role of Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression Columba de la Parra Simental...Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone- Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression. 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  13. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  14. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products.

  15. Dietary supplements for chronic gout.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Falzon, Louise; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Carmona, Loreto

    2014-10-07

    Dietary supplements are frequently used for the treatment of several medical conditions, both prescribed by physicians or self administered. However, evidence of benefit and safety of these supplements is usually limited or absent. To assess the efficacy and safety of dietary supplementation for people with chronic gout. We performed a search in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL on 6 June 2013. We applied no date or language restrictions. In addition, we performed a handsearch of the abstracts from the 2010 to 2013 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) conferences, checked the references of all included studies and trial registries. We considered all published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that compared dietary supplements with no supplements, placebo, another supplement or pharmacological agents for adults with chronic gout for inclusion. Dietary supplements included, but were not limited to, amino acids, antioxidants, essential minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, prebiotic agents, probiotic agents and vitamins. The main outcomes were reduction in frequency of gouty attacks and trial participant withdrawal due to adverse events. We also considered pain reduction, health-related quality of life, serum uric acid (sUA) normalisation, function (i.e. activity limitation), tophus regression and the rate of serious adverse events. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We identified two RCTs (160 participants) that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. As these two trials evaluated different diet supplements (enriched skim milk powder (SMP) and vitamin C) with different outcomes (gout flare prevention for enriched SMP and sUA reduction for vitamin C), we reported the results separately.One trial including 120 participants, at moderate risk of bias, compared SMP enriched with glycomacropeptides (GMP) with

  16. The effect of soy phytoestrogen supplementation on thyroid status and cardiovascular risk markers in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Manuchehri, Alireza M; Thatcher, Natalie J; Rigby, Alan S; Chapman, Tom; Kilpatrick, Eric S; Atkin, Stephen L

    2011-05-01

    There is concern whether soy phytoestrogens may affect thyroid function. If true, soy phytoestrogens may be expected to have a greater impact in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. The primary aim was to determine the effect of soy phytoestrogen supplementation on thyroid function, with a secondary aim of assessing the effects on cardiovascular risk indices in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover study in a tertiary care setting. Sixty patients with subclinical hypothyroidism participated in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to either low-dose phytoestrogen (30 g soy protein with 2 mg phytoestrogens, representative of a Western diet) or high-dose phytoestrogen (30 g soy protein with 16 mg phytoestrogens, representative of a vegetarian diet) supplementation for 8 wk, then crossed over after an 8-wk washout period. The primary outcome was progression to overt hypothyroidism, with secondary outcome measures of blood pressure, insulin resistance, lipids, and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Six female patients in the study progressed into overt hypothyroidism with a standardized rate ratio of 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.9, 6.2) after 16-mg phytoestrogen supplementation. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased with 16 mg phytoestrogens, whereas systolic pressure alone decreased with 2 mg phytoestrogens. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, 3.5 ± 0.09 vs. 2.6 ± 0.08; P < 0.02) and hsCRP (4.9 ± 0.04 vs. 3.9 ± 0.03; P < 0.01) decreased with 16 mg phytoestrogens. Lipid profile remained unchanged. There is a 3-fold increased risk of developing overt hypothyroidism with dietary supplementation of 16 mg soy phytoestrogens with subclinical hypothyroidism. However, 16-mg soy phytoestrogen supplementation significantly reduces the insulin resistance, hsCRP, and blood pressure in these patients.

  17. Computer access to research on dietary supplements: a database of federally funded dietary supplement research.

    PubMed

    Haggans, Carol J; Regan, Karen S; Brown, Lynda M; Wang, Chunling; Krebs-Smith, Jim; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2005-07-01

    Dietary supplement use is prevalent in the United States, but support for supplement research has been relatively modest and only recently emphasized at the NIH. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 led to the creation of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the NIH to promote research on dietary supplements. In order to track federally funded dietary supplement research, the ODS developed a database known as Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). This article provides an overview of the development and potential uses of the CARDS database. In addition, we report that NIH-funded dietary supplement research steadily increased from fiscal year (FY) 1999 through 2002. The majority of NIH institutes or centers (ICs) funded research relevant to dietary supplements during this time, led by the National Cancer Institute and one of the newest NIH ICs, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. CARDS data indicate that NIH-funded dietary supplement research from FY 1999 through 2002 involved primarily vitamins, minerals, botanicals and phytochemicals. Cancer and cardiovascular disease, two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States, collectively accounted for almost 45% of the research related to dietary supplements. A variety of types of research studies were funded, with the majority consisting of human intervention studies. This information is useful to evaluate trends in federally funded dietary supplement research, identify research gaps, and help research scientists identify potential sources of NIH funding.

  18. Dietary supplementation with fermented soybeans suppresses intimal thickening.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kazunao; Ichise, Hideyuki; Tsukamoto, Yoshinori; Urano, Tetsumei; Umemura, Kazuo

    2003-03-01

    Although soy foods have been consumed for more than 1000 y, it is only in the past 20 y that they have made inroads into Western diets. We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with natto extracts produced from fermented soybeans on intimal thickening of arteries after vessel endothelial denudation. Natto extracts include nattokinase, a potent fibrinolytic enzyme having four times greater fibrinolytic activity than plasmin. Intimal thickening was induced in the femoral arteries by intravenous infusion of rose bengal followed by focal irradiation with a transluminal green light. Dietary natto extract supplementation was started 3 wk before endothelial injury and continued for another 3 wk after. In ex vivo studies, euglobulin clot lysis times were measured 3 wk after the initial supplementation. Neointima formation and thickening were also initiated successfully. The intima media ratio 3 wk after endothelial injury was 0.15 +/- 0.03 in the control group. Dietary natto extract supplementation suppressed intimal thickening (0.06 +/- 0.01; P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Natto extracts shortened euglobulin clot lysis time, suggesting that their thrombolytic activities were enhanced. These findings suggest that natto extracts, because of their thrombolytic activity, suppress intimal thickening after vascular injury as a result of the inhibition of mural thrombi formation.

  19. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  20. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance. PMID:18500959

  1. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  2. Physician-patient communication about dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Tarn, Derjung M; Paterniti, Debora A; Good, Jeffrey S; Coulter, Ian D; Galliher, James M; Kravitz, Richard L; Karlamangla, Arun S; Wenger, Neil S

    2013-06-01

    Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, CA (2009-2010), geographically diverse practice settings across the United States (2004-2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998-1999). Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: (1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; (2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; (3) potential risks for 17.3%; (4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and (5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 5 Things To Know About Dietary Supplements and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... a complementary health approach, such as dietary or herbal supplements . Some teens use products advertised as dietary supplements ... prescription and over-the-counter drugs. Dietary and herbal supplements may be poor quality and contain contaminants, including ...

  4. Assessment of isoflavone aglycones variability in soy food supplements using a validated HPLC-UV method

    PubMed Central

    UIFĂLEAN, ALINA; FARCAŞ, ANCA; ILIEŞ, MARIA; HEGHEŞ, SIMONA CODRUŢA; IONESCU, CORINA; IUGA, CRISTINA ADELA

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Soy supplements are often recommended in the management of menopause symptoms. The declared content of soy supplements is commonly expressed as total isoflavones per dosage form. Given that soy isoflavones have different estrogenic potencies, pharmacokinetics and metabolism, the aim of this study was to evaluate the total isoflavone content and the aglycone profile of seven soy supplements and one soy seed extract. Label accuracy was assessed, in relation to the precise content and the recommended posology for estimating whether the optimal dose is achieved for alleviating menopause symptoms. Methods A high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for evaluating the aglycone content (genistein, daidzein, glycitein). After extraction and acidic hydrolysis, the aglycones were separated on a C18 column, using 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The flow rate was 1.5mL min−1 and the UV detector wavelength was set at 260nm. A linear relationship was found in the range 5–80μg mL−1. The method was validated using the accuracy profile methodology. Results The total isoflavone content ranged from 6.07 to 41.68mg dosage form−1. Various aglycone profiles were obtained for each supplement which can result in a different estrogenic activity, bioavailability and finally, in a different efficiency in alleviating menopause symptoms. In most clinical trials where soy isoflavones were evaluated, little attention was paid to determining the exact aglycone profile of the employed soy extracts. Conclusions As clinical outcomes continue to be controversial, this study highlights the need of standardization in genistein, rather than total isoflavones and labeling accuracy for soy supplements. PMID:26609272

  5. The Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act and supplements: dietary and nutritional supplements need no more regulations.

    PubMed

    Wollschlaeger, Bernd

    2003-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 was intended to ensure consumer access to safe dietary supplements, e.g., herbs, minerals, and vitamins. It granted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considerable enforcement authority to regulate dietary supplement industry. This article discusses relevant components of the DSHEA, explains the division of regulatory responsibilities between the FDA and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and refutes the often cited allegation that the herb and dietary supplement industry are unregulated.

  6. Dietary soy and soy isoflavones have gender-specific effects on plasma lipids and isoflavones in golden Syrian f(1)b hybrid hamsters.

    PubMed

    Blair, Robert M; Appt, Susan E; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Clarkson, Thomas B; Anthony, Mary S; Lamothe, Valerie; Potter, Susan M

    2002-12-01

    The specific components of soy responsible for its beneficial effects on plasma lipids are unknown. Golden Syrian F(1)B Hybrid hamsters (75 male, 74 female) were evaluated for the effect of dietary soy and soy isoflavones on plasma lipids. They were fed the following diets for 16 wk: casein/lactalbumin (C/L), soy protein with isoflavones [Soy(+)], soy protein with isoflavones removed [Soy(-)], Soy(-) plus isoflavone extract (IF), and C/L + IF. At necropsy, plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol (HDLC), LDL + VLDL cholesterol (LDL + VLDLC), isoflavones, and uterine and accessory gland weights were measured. Male hamsters fed the three soy-containing diets had lower LDL + VLDLC concentrations than those fed the two C/L diets (P < 0.01), and those fed Soy(-) + IF did not differ from those fed Soy(+). In females, diet did not affect plasma LDL + VLDLC concentration. Females fed Soy(+) or Soy(-) had higher HDLC (P < 0.05) than those fed C/L. HDLC was not affected by diet in males. Due to higher equol production (P < 0.01), males had greater plasma isoflavone concentrations (P < 0.01) than females. There was a positive association between plasma total isoflavones and LDL + VLDLC (r = 0.65, P < 0.05) in females. These data suggest gender differences in plasma lipid and isoflavone responses to soy- based diets in Syrian F(1)B Hybrid hamsters, which offer an opportunity to explore effects of sex hormones on isoflavone metabolism and the effects of isoflavones on lipid metabolism.

  7. Why US children use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J; Thomas, Paul R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-12-01

    Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. Dietary supplements were used by 31% of children; many different reasons were given as follows: to "improve overall health" (41%), to "maintain health" (37%), for "supplementing the diet" (23%), to "prevent health problems" (20%), and to "boost immunity" (14%). Most children (~90%) who use dietary supplements use a multivitamin-mineral or multivitamin product. Supplement users tend to be non-Hispanic white, have higher family incomes, report more physical activity, and have health insurance. Only a small group of supplements used by children (15%) were based on the recommendation of a physician or other health care provider. Most supplements used by children are not under the recommendation of a health care provider. The most common reasons for use of supplements in children are for health promotion, yet little scientific data support this notion in nutrient-replete children.

  8. Why US children use dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Thomas, Paul R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. Methods: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Results: Dietary supplements were used by 31% of children; many different reasons were given as follows: to “improve overall health” (41%), to “maintain health” (37%), for “supplementing the diet” (23%), to “prevent health problems” (20%), and to “boost immunity” (14%). Most children (~90%) who use dietary supplements use a multivitamin–mineral or multivitamin product. Supplement users tend to be non-Hispanic white, have higher family incomes, report more physical activity, and have health insurance. Only a small group of supplements used by children (15%) were based on the recommendation of a physician or other health care provider. Conclusion: Most supplements used by children are not under the recommendation of a health care provider. The most common reasons for use of supplements in children are for health promotion, yet little scientific data support this notion in nutrient-replete children. PMID:24002333

  9. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  10. Serum IGF-1 Concentrations Change With Soy and Seaweed Supplements in Healthy Postmenopausal American Women

    PubMed Central

    Teas, Jane; Irhimeh, Mohammad R.; Druker, Susan; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hébert, James R.; Savarese, Todd M.; Kurzer, Mindy S.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone important for growth and development. However, high-circulating serum concentrations in adults are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Nutritional status and specific foods influence serum IGF-1 concentrations. Breast cancer incidence is typically low in Asian countries where soy is commonly consumed. Paradoxically, soy supplement trials in American women have reported significant increases in IGF-1. Seaweed also is consumed regularly in Asian countries where breast cancer risk is low. We investigated the possibility that seaweed could modify soy-associated increases in IGF-1 in American women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 58 yr) participated in this 14-wk double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Participants consumed 5 g/day placebo or seaweed (Alaria esculenta) in capsules for 7 wk. During the 7th wk, a high-soy protein isolate powder was added (2 mg/kg body weight aglycone equivalent isoflavones). Overnight fasting blood samples were collected after each intervention period. Soy significantly increased serum IGF-1 concentrations compared to the placebo (21.2 nmol/L for soy vs. 16.9 nmol/L for placebo; P = 0.0001). The combination of seaweed and soy significantly reduced this increase by about 40% (21.2 nmol/L for soy alone vs. 19.4 nmol/L; P = 0.01). Concurrent seaweed and soy consumption may be important in modifying the effect of soy on IGF-1 serum concentrations. PMID:21711174

  11. Associations of menstrual pain with intakes of soy, fat and dietary fiber in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, C; Hirokawa, K; Shimizu, N; Shimizu, H

    2005-01-01

    Intakes of soy, fat, and dietary fiber may be associated with the symptoms of dysmenorrhea through their biological effects on estrogens or prostaglandin production. The present study was to examine the relationships between intakes of soy, fat, and dietary fiber and the severity of menstrual pain. Cross-sectional study. Three colleges and two nursing schools. A total of 276 Japanese women aged 19-24 y. Intakes of nutrients and foods including soy products, isoflavones, fats and dietary fiber were estimated by a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Severity of menstrual pain was assessed by the multidimensional scoring system reported by Andersch and Milson. Intake of dietary fiber was significantly inversely correlated with the menstrual pain scale (r=-0.12, P=0.04) after controlling for age, smoking status, age at menarche and total energy intake. Neither soy nor fat intake was significantly correlated with menstrual pain after controlling for the covariates. The cross-sectional difference in dietary fiber intake across the level of menstrual pain was small in magnitude but warrants further studies.

  12. Soy-Based Multiple Amino Acid Oral Supplementation Increases the Anti-Sarcoma Effect of Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chien-An; Chen, Chin-Chu; Wang, Nai-Phog; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The use of a mixture of amino acids caused a selective apoptosis induction against a variety of tumor cell lines, reduced the adverse effects of anti-cancer drugs and increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. We evaluated the effects and underlying mechanisms of soy-derived multiple amino acids’ oral supplementation on the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) and on tumor growth, apoptosis, and autophagy in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that were injected with sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells. 3-methyladenine or siRNA knockdown of Atg5 was used to evaluate its effect on sarcoma growth. A comparison of mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and oral saline and mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement indicated that the soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement significantly decreased overall sarcoma growth, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase 3 expression, and apoptosis, and depressed LC3 II-mediated autophagy. Treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA elicited similar responses as CTX plus soy-derived multiple amino acid in downregulating autophagy and upregulating apoptosis. A low dose of CTX combined with an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement had a potent anti-tumor effect mediated through downregulation of autophagy and upregulation of apoptosis. PMID:27043621

  13. Soy-Based Multiple Amino Acid Oral Supplementation Increases the Anti-Sarcoma Effect of Cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chien-An; Chen, Chin-Chu; Wang, Nai-Phog; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-04-01

    The use of a mixture of amino acids caused a selective apoptosis induction against a variety of tumor cell lines, reduced the adverse effects of anti-cancer drugs and increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. We evaluated the effects and underlying mechanisms of soy-derived multiple amino acids' oral supplementation on the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) and on tumor growth, apoptosis, and autophagy in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that were injected with sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells. 3-methyladenine or siRNA knockdown of Atg5 was used to evaluate its effect on sarcoma growth. A comparison of mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and oral saline and mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement indicated that the soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement significantly decreased overall sarcoma growth, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase 3 expression, and apoptosis, and depressed LC3 II-mediated autophagy. Treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA elicited similar responses as CTX plus soy-derived multiple amino acid in downregulating autophagy and upregulating apoptosis. A low dose of CTX combined with an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement had a potent anti-tumor effect mediated through downregulation of autophagy and upregulation of apoptosis.

  14. Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Efficacy of Dietary Supplements ? What is FDA's Responsibility ? What if I Have had a Reaction to ... from consumers using their products What is FDA's Responsibility? FDA has the responsibility to take action against ...

  15. Soy processing affects metabolism and disposition of dietary isoflavones in ovariectomized BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Allred, Clinton D; Twaddle, Nathan C; Allred, Kimberly F; Goeppinger, Tracy S; Churchwell, Mona I; Ju, Young H; Helferich, William G; Doerge, Daniel R

    2005-11-02

    Soy foods and nutritional supplements are widely consumed for potential health benefits. It was previously shown that isoflavone-supplemented diets, which contained equal genistein equivalents, differentially stimulated mammary tumor growth in athymic mice based on the degree of processing. This paper reports plasma pharmacokinetic analysis and metabolite identification using the parental mouse strain fed the same diets, which contained genistin, mixed isoflavones, Novasoy, soy molasses, or soy flour plus mixed isoflavones. Whereas the degree of soy processing did affect several parameters reflecting isoflavone bioavailability and gut microflora metabolism of daidzein to equol, stimulation of tumor growth correlated significantly with only the plasma concentration of aglycon genistein produced by the diets. This conclusion is consistent with the known estrogen agonist activity of genistein aglycon on mammary tumor growth. Conversely, plasma equol concentration was inversely correlated with the degree of soy processing. Although antagonism of genistein-stimulated tumor growth by equol could explain this result, the very low concentration of aglycon equol in plasma (12-fold lower relative to genistein) is inconsistent with any effect. These findings underscore the importance of food processing, which can remove non-nutritive components from soy, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of isoflavones. Such changes in diet composition affect circulating, and presumably target tissue, concentrations of genistein aglycon, which initiates estrogen receptor-mediated processes required for the stimulation of tumor growth in a mouse model for postmenopausal breast cancer.

  16. Effects of isoflavone supplements vs. soy foods on blood concentrations of genistein and daidzein in adults.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Christopher D; Chatterjee, Lorraine M; Franke, Adrian A

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the pharmacokinetics of isoflavone concentrations over a 24-h period among healthy adults consuming either soy foods or soy isoflavone tablets at different doses. This randomized, cross-over trial was conducted with 12 generally healthy adults. The three phases of the intervention included isoflavone tablets at (1) 144 mg/day or (2) 288 mg/day and (3) soy foods designed to provide a calculated 96 mg isoflavones/day (doses in aglycone equivalents). Doses were spread out over three meals per day. After 6 days on each study phase, plasma isoflavone concentrations were determined on the seventh day at 0, 4, 8, 10, 12 and 24 h. Average levels of total isoflavone concentrations at 8, 10 and 12 h were >4 micromol/L for the soy food phase and for the higher dose tablet phase. Genistein concentrations were higher overall in the soy food vs. both the lower and the higher dose supplement phases of the study (P<.05). When comparing plasma concentrations for the two doses of tablets, saturation appeared more evident for genistein than for daidzein at the higher dose level. In conclusion, we observed important differences in the pharmacokinetics of genistein and daidzein contrasting the sources and doses of isoflavones when administered three times daily, including a possible advantage for increasing serum concentrations of isoflavones from consuming soy foods relative to isoflavone supplements.

  17. Effects of isoflavone supplements vs. soy foods on blood concentrations of genistein and daidzein in adults

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Christopher D.; Chatterjee, Lorraine M.; Franke, Adrian A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the pharmacokinetics of isoflavone concentrations over a 24-hour period among healthy adults consuming either soy foods or soy isoflavone tablets at different doses. This randomized, cross-over trial was conducted with twelve generally healthy adults. The three phases of the intervention included: isoflavone tablets at 1) 144 mg/day or 2) 288 mg/day, and 3) soy foods designed to provide a calculated 96 mg isoflavones/day (doses in aglycone equivalents). Doses were spread out over three meals/day. After 6 days on each study phase, plasma isoflavone concentrations were determined on the seventh day at 0, 4, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. Average levels of total isoflavone concentrations at 8, 10 and 12 hours were >4 μmol/L for the soy food phase and for the higher dose tablet phase. Genistein concentrations were higher overall in the soy food vs. both the lower and the higher dose supplement phases of the study (p≤0.05). When comparing plasma concentrations for the two doses of tablets, saturation appeared more evident for genistein than daidzein at the higher dose level. In conclusion, we observed important differences in the pharmacokinetics of genistein and daidzein contrasting the sources and doses of isoflavones when administered three times daily, including a possible advantage for increasing serum concentrations of isoflavones from consuming soy foods relative to isoflavone supplements. PMID:18602820

  18. Risk assessment of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Boobis, Alan R

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment of dietary supplements shares many of the requirements of that for other chemicals, although there are some important differences. Amongst these is the essential nature of some nutrients so that it may be necessary to balance the need to minimize toxicological risk with the need to avoid deficiency. There may also be limitations on experimental design, in that high doses may not be achievable for nutritional reasons and available human data on toxicological hazard is likely to be very limited. Prior to embarking on a risk assessment the problem needs to be formulated. This involves risk assessors, risk managers and relevant stakeholders. A key decision is whether a risk assessment is necessary and, if so, what is required of the assessment. This will shape the nature and output of the assessment. Risk assessment itself is a scientific process comprising four steps, hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Hazard identification involves determining the range of toxicological effects that might be caused by the substance, whilst hazard characterization establishes dose-response relationships, toxicological and species relevance of the findings and establishes health based guidance values. Exposure assessment involves predicting or measuring the level, pattern and duration of intake of the substance by exposed individuals. This may require dietary consumption data. Finally, risk characterization is the process whereby all of the prior information is integrated to reach conclusions in a form appropriate to the question posed. The nature of the output can take several different forms, and may be qualitative or quantitative. There are some cross-cutting issues in risk assessment, primarily on uncertainty and variability. The sources of uncertainty at each step of the risk assessment should be clearly identified and quantified to the extent possible. Variability requires that the risk assessment should

  19. Nutrient-enhanced production of remarkably high concentrations of ethanol by Saccharomyces bayanus through soy flour supplementation

    SciTech Connect

    Viegas, C.A.; Sa-Correia, I.; Novais, J.M.

    1985-11-01

    The supplementation of a simple medium with soy flour led to an increase in the specific growth rate and viable cell concentration of saccharomyces bayanus during fermentation. Increasing the amount of soy flour led to an increase in the maximum number of viable yeast cells and the percentage of glucose fermented. It was possible in 64 h to reach 12.8% (wt/vol) ethanol by adding 4% soy flour (wt/vol) to a simple medium with 300 g of glucose per liter. The aqueous extract from soy flour was nearly as effective as whole-soy flour, whereas the lipidic fraction had no positive effect.

  20. Nutrient-Enhanced Production of Remarkably High Concentrations of Ethanol by Saccharomyces bayanus through Soy Flour Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Viegas, Cristina A.; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Novais, Julio M.

    1985-01-01

    The supplementation of a simple medium with soy flour led to an increase in the specific growth rate and viable cell concentration of Saccharomyces bayanus during fermentation. Increasing the amount of soy flour led to an increase in the maximum number of viable yeast cells and the percentage of glucose fermented. It was possible in 64 h to reach 12.8% (wt/vol) ethanol by adding 4% soy flour (wt/vol) to a simple medium with 300 g of glucose per liter. The aqueous extract from soy flour was nearly as effective as whole-soy flour, whereas the lipidic fraction had no positive effect. PMID:16346937

  1. Feasibility of a low-fat/high-fiber diet intervention with soy supplementation in prostate cancer patients after prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Aronson, W J; Arteaga, J R; Hong, K; Thames, G; Henning, S M; Liu, W; Elashoff, R; Ashley, J M; Heber, D

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and long-term compliance with a low-fat diet supplemented with soy protein in men at increased risk for recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Randomized, control study. Academic center in USA. Forty men who had undergone radical prostatectomy and were at increased risk for recurrence. Low-fat (15% fat), high-fiber (18 g/1000 kcal) diet supplemented with 40 g soy protein isolate (n=26) was compared to USDA recommended diet (n=14). Over 4 years, subjects in the intervention group but not in the control group made and sustained significant changes in their diet as measured by the dietary assessment instruments and urinary isoflavone excretion. In the intervention group, dietary fat intake was reduced from 33.46+/-1.27% energy/day to 21.04+/-1.74% (P<0.05), fiber intake increased from 14.6+/-1.06 to 21.05+/-2.29 g/day. The insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level was decreased from 260.4+/-8.6 ng/ml at baseline to 220.5+/-7.9 ng/ml at 6 months (P<0.05) in the intervention group with no significant change in the control group. An ex vivo assay demonstrated inhibition of LNCaP cell growth (-20.0+/-7.7%, P<0.05) by sera from patients in the intervention group after 6 months of dietary change compared to baseline. These data suggest that long-term low-fat dietary interventions as part of prospective randomized trials in prostate cancer survivors are feasible, and lead to reductions in circulating hormones or other growth factors stimulating prostate cancer growth ex vivo.

  2. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  3. Dietary soy intake is not associated with risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in Singapore Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Talaei, Mohammad; Koh, Woon-Puay; van Dam, Rob M; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pan, An

    2014-06-01

    Although soy food has been recommended because of its presumed cardiovascular benefits, the long-term prospective association between habitual soy food intake and cardiovascular disease mortality remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the relation of soy protein and isoflavone intake with the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged and older Chinese adults residing in Singapore. The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based study that recruited 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45-74 y from 1993 to 1998. Usual diet was measured at recruitment by using a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, and mortality information was identified via registry linkage until 31 December 2011. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate HRs, with adjustment for potential confounders. The median intake was 5.2 g/d for soy protein, 15.8 mg/d for soy isoflavones, and 87.4 g/d for soy expressed as tofu equivalents. We documented 4780 cardiovascular deaths during 890,473 person-years of follow-up. After adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and other dietary factors, soy protein intake was not significantly associated with cardiovascular disease mortality: HRs (95% CIs) were 1.00 (reference), 1.02 (0.94, 1.11), 1.02 (0.93, 1.11), and 1.06 (0.97, 1.17) for increasing quartiles of soy protein (P-trend = 0.24). Similarly, no significant association was observed for soy isoflavones and total tofu equivalents and when deaths from coronary heart disease (n = 2697) and stroke (n = 1298) were considered separately. When stratified by sex, HRs for cardiovascular disease mortality across quartiles of soy protein were 1.00, 1.00, 1.05, and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.31) in men (P-trend = 0.02) and 1.00, 1.01, 0.96, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.10) in women (P-trend = 0.31), although the interaction was not significant (P-interaction = 0.12). In conclusion, soy intake was not significantly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease mortality

  4. Whey protein but not soy protein supplementation alters body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Baer, David J; Stote, Kim S; Paul, David R; Harris, G Keith; Rumpler, William V; Clevidence, Beverly A

    2011-08-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effect of consumption of supplemental whey protein (WP), soy protein (SP), and an isoenergetic amount of carbohydrate (CHO) on body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese but otherwise healthy participants. Ninety overweight and obese participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups for 23 wk: 1) WP; 2) SP (each providing ~56 g/d of protein and 1670 kJ/d); or 3) an isoenergetic amount of CHO. Supplements were consumed as a beverage twice daily. Participants were provided no dietary advice and continued to consume their free-choice diets. Participants' body weight and composition data were obtained monthly. Dietary intake was determined by 24-h dietary recalls collected every 10 d. After 23 wk, body weight and composition did not differ between the groups consuming the SP and WP or between SP and CHO; however, body weight and fat mass of the group consuming the WP were lower by 1.8 kg (P < 0.006) and 2.3 kg (P < 0.005), respectively, than the group consuming CHO. Lean body mass did not differ among any of the groups. Waist circumference was smaller in the participants consuming WP than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Fasting ghrelin was lower in participants consuming WP compared with SP or CHO. Through yet-unknown mechanisms, different sources of dietary protein may differentially facilitate weight loss and affect body composition. Dietary recommendations, especially those that emphasize the role of dietary protein in facilitating weight change, should also address the demonstrated clinical potential of supplemental WP.

  5. The use of dietary supplements in oncology.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Moshe; Sierpina, Victor

    2014-11-01

    The use of dietary supplements among patients affected by cancer is extensive, with an estimated 20-90 % of patients using these products. Their use of these products is often not shared with the treating physician. This is because patients perceive or believe that their physicians are indifferent or negative toward the use of dietary supplements. As a result, patients may obtain information about dietary supplements from unreliable sources, exposing themselves to unnecessary risks. Since there are limited scientific data on the efficacy and safety of many dietary supplements, advising patients about when to use them during the course of illness is a clinical challenge. Improving the communication process between the health care team and their patients in this area is critical. We describe a practical patient-centered approach to managing dietary supplement use in cancer care. This approach makes use of all available scientific data relating to the safety and efficacy of these supplements combined with how to have an open, patient-centered discussion with patients about their needs and expectations.

  6. Common Herbal Dietary Supplement-Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Asher, Gary N; Corbett, Amanda H; Hawke, Roy L

    2017-07-15

    Nearly 25% of U.S. adults report concurrently taking a prescription medication with a dietary supplement. Some supplements, such as St. John's wort and goldenseal, are known to cause clinically important drug interactions and should be avoided by most patients receiving any pharmacologic therapy. However, many other supplements are predicted to cause interactions based only on in vitro studies that have not been confirmed or have been refuted in human clinical trials. Some supplements may cause interactions with a few medications but are likely to be safe with other medications (e.g., curcumin, echinacea, garlic, Asian ginseng, green tea extract, kava kava). Some supplements have a low likelihood of drug interactions and, with certain caveats, can safely be taken with most medications (e.g., black cohosh, cranberry, ginkgo, milk thistle, American ginseng, saw palmetto, valerian). Clinicians should consult reliable dietary supplement resources, or clinical pharmacists or pharmacologists, to help assess the safety of specific herbal supplement-drug combinations. Because most patients do not disclose supplement use to clinicians, the most important strategy for detecting herb-drug interactions is to develop a trusting relationship that encourages patients to discuss their dietary supplement use.

  7. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood press...

  8. Past Oral Contraceptive Use and Current Dietary Soy Isoflavones Influence Estrogen Metabolism in Postmenopausal Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Latanya M.; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Tooze, Janet A.; Wood, Charles E.; Register, Thomas C.; Kock, Nancy D.; Cline, J. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen metabolism may play an important role in mammary carcinogenesis in postmenopausal women. We evaluated the effects of prior oral contraceptive (OC) treatment and current soy isoflavone consumption on endogenous estrogen metabolite concentration and biomarkers of tissue estrogen exposure in a monkey model. One hundred eighty-one female cynomolgus macaques were randomized to receive OC or placebo for 26 months premenopausally, then ovariectomized and randomized to one of three diets for 36 months: an isoflavone-depleted soy protein isolate (Soy−) diet, a diet containing soy protein isolate with a human equivalent of 129 mg isoflavone/d (Soy+), or a Soy− diet supplemented with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE+) at a human equivalent dose of 0.625 mg/d. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography directly coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of estrogen species in urine samples. Generally, prior OC treatment was associated with significantly reduced urinary estrogen metabolites (25–55% reduction; P < 0.05 for each versus OC−). Animals that consumed isoflavones postmenopausally had increased urinary 2-hydroxyestrone and 16α-hydroxyestrone (50% and 56% increases, respectively), but reduced levels of 2-hydroxyestradiol, 2-methoxyestradiol, and 17-epiestriol (92%, 63%, and 66%, respectively), compared with animals fed a Soy− diet. Isoflavones did not have widespread effects on uterine or mammary proliferation biomarkers, whereas prior OC significantly reduced two of three proliferation end points in the endometrium. Premenopausal OCs may have long-term systemic effects on response to estrogen and its metabolism whereas postmenopausal dietary isoflavones may alter endogenous estrogen metabolism in a modest but selective manner. PMID:18843000

  9. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  10. Effect of Dietary Protein Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiang; Wofford, Marion R.; Reynolds, Kristi; Chen, Jing; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Myers, Leann; Minor, Deborah L.; Elmer, Patricia J.; Jones, Daniel W.; Whelton, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Observational studies have reported an inverse association between dietary protein intake and blood pressure (BP). We compared the effect of soy protein, milk protein, and carbohydrate supplementation on BP among healthy adults. Methods and Results We conducted a randomized double-blind crossover trial with 3-intervention phases among 352 adults with prehypertension or stage-1 hypertension in New Orleans, Louisiana and Jackson, Mississippi from September 2003 to April 2008. The trial participants were assigned to take 40 grams/day of soy protein, milk protein, or carbohydrate supplementation each for 8 weeks in a random order. A 3-week washout period was implemented between the interventions. Three BPs were measured at 2 baseline and 2 termination visits during each of 3 intervention phases using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Compared to carbohydrate controls, soy protein and milk protein supplementations were significantly associated with −2.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval −3.2 to −0.7, p=0.002) and −2.3 mmHg (−3.7 to −1.0, p=0.0007) net change in systolic BP, respectively. Diastolic BP was also reduced but this change did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the BP reductions achieved between soy or milk protein supplementation. Conclusions The results from this randomized controlled trial indicate that both soy and milk protein intake reduce systolic BP compared to a high glycemic index refined carbohydrate among patients with prehypertension and stage-1 hypertension. Furthermore, these findings suggest that partially replacing carbohydrate with soy or milk protein might be an important component of nutrition intervention strategies for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. PMID:21768541

  11. Soy Isoflavones Supplementation for Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Mahsa; Vahedi, Homayoon; Janani, Leila; Poustchi, Hossein; Malekzadeh, Reza; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the common gastrointestinal disorders with unknown etiology. In experimental models, it is proposed that soy isoflavones may suppress the clinical and psychological symptoms of IBS by alteration of gut barrier tight junctions. METHODS We conducted this study to evaluate the effects of soy isoflavones on IBS symptoms and patients’ quality of life. In a randomized double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 67 patients with IBS were allocated to consume either soy isoflavones capsules or a placebo for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was a significant reduction in symptoms severity score and the secondary outcome was a significant improvement in quality of life. RESULTS 45 participants completed the study. There was no significant changes in mean differences of symptoms severity score between the two groups; however soy isoflavone supplementation could significantly improve the quality of life scores (p=0.009). CONCLUSION Soy isoflavones supplementation could improve the quality of life in patients with IBS; however it did not suppress the symptoms severity in 6 weeks. Further research with a longer duration is needed to determine the sustained clinical efficacy. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02026518 PMID:26396720

  12. Enhanced mammary progesterone receptor-A isoform activity in the promotion of mammary tumor progression by dietary soy in rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary contribution to breast cancer risk, recurrence, and progression remains incompletely understood. Increased consumption of soy and soy isoflavones is associated with reduced mammary cancer susceptibility in women and in rodent models of carcinogenesis. In rats treated with N-Methyl-N-Nitrosou...

  13. Dietary Soy Protein Inhibits DNA Damage and Cell Survival of Colon Epithelial Cells through Attenuated Expression of Fatty Acid Synthase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary intake of soy protein decreases tumor incidence in rat models of chemically induced colon cancer. We hypothesized that decreased expression of Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) underlies, in part, the tumor preventive effects of soy protein, since FASN over-expression characterizes early tumorigene...

  14. Why US adults use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J; Miller, Paige E; Thomas, Paul R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-03-11

    Dietary supplements are used by more than half of adults, although to our knowledge, the reasons motivating use have not been previously examined in US adults using nationally representative data. The purpose of this analysis was to examine motivations for dietary supplement use, characterize the types of products used for the most commonly reported motivations, and to examine the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about dietary supplements. Data from adults (≥20 years; n = 11 956) were examined in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional, population-based survey. The most commonly reported reasons for using supplements were to "improve" (45%) or "maintain" (33%) overall health. Women used calcium products for "bone health" (36%), whereas men were more likely to report supplement use for "heart health or to lower cholesterol" (18%). Older adults (≥60 years) were more likely than younger individuals to report motivations related to site-specific reasons like heart, bone and joint, and eye health. Only 23% of products were used based on recommendations of a health care provider. Multivitamin-mineral products were the most frequently reported type of supplement taken, followed by calcium and ω-3 or fish oil supplements. Supplement users are more likely to report very good or excellent health, have health insurance, use alcohol moderately, eschew cigarette smoking, and exercise more frequently than nonusers. Supplement users reported motivations related to overall health more commonly than for supplementing nutrients from food intakes. Use of supplements was related to more favorable health and lifestyle choices. Less than a quarter of supplements used by adults were recommended by a physician or health care provider.

  15. Overview of Dietary Supplements in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yacoubian, Aline; Dargham, Rana Abu; Khauli, Raja B; Bachir, Bassel G

    2016-11-01

    Prostate cancer is a key health concern for men with its etiology still under investigation. Recently, the role of dietary supplements has been noted to have a major inhibitory effect on prostate cancer and numerous studies have been conducted in this regard. This review provides a summary on numerous recent studies conducted in this field. Some of the studies reviewed revealed a protective role for supplements, and others showed no correlation while some even had an adverse effect. The mechanism of how these supplements act on the prostate is still not clear. Further studies are warranted especially for supplements that have been shown to have a potential inhibitory role in prostate cancer.

  16. Dietary Supplement Use, Knowledge, and Perceptions Among Student Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Vanova, Janka; Edel, Courtney; Slack, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary supplement use between student pharmacists and the general population, and assess knowledge, attitudes toward use, and dietary supplement effectiveness; and to explore how student pharmacists view their education on dietary supplements. Methods. Paper questionnaires administered to student pharmacists collected data about their use, knowledge, and attitudes of dietary supplements. Use was compared to the 2007 National Health Interview survey findings. Results. Of 179 students who responded, 52% had used at least one dietary supplement in their lifetime versus 25% in the general population. Students perceived supplement label information as unhelpful, research into supplements inadequate, and supplements non-essential to health. Students thought supplement knowledge was important but their education was inadequate. Conclusion. Dietary supplement use was higher in this sample of student pharmacists than the general population. Student pharmacists had limited knowledge and need more education on dietary supplements. PMID:28720920

  17. 76 FR 55927 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The Food and... notice entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications...

  18. Effect of a soy isoflavone supplement on lung function and clinical outcomes in patients with poorly controlled asthma: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lewis J; Kalhan, Ravi; Wise, Robert A; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Lima, John J; Irvin, Charles G; Dozor, Allen J; Holbrook, Janet T

    2015-05-26

    Soy isoflavone supplements are used to treat several chronic diseases, although the data supporting their use are limited. Some data suggest that supplementation with soy isoflavone may be an effective treatment for patients with poor asthma control. To determine whether a soy isoflavone supplement improves asthma control in adolescent and adult patients with poorly controlled disease. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between May 2010 and August 2012 at 19 adult and pediatric pulmonary and allergy centers in the American Lung Association Asthma Clinical Research Centers network. Three hundred eighty-six adults and children aged 12 years or older with symptomatic asthma while taking a controller medicine and low dietary soy intake were randomized, and 345 (89%) completed spirometry at week 24. Participants were randomly assigned to receive soy isoflavone supplement containing 100 mg of total isoflavones (n=193) or matching placebo (n=193) in 2 divided doses administered daily for 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure was change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) at 24 weeks. Secondary outcome measures were symptoms, episodes of poor asthma control, Asthma Control Test score (range, 5-25; higher scores indicate better control), and systemic and airway biomarkers of inflammation. Mean changes in prebronchodilator FEV1 over 24 weeks were 0.03 L (95% CI, -0.01 to 0.08 L) in the placebo group and 0.01 L (95% CI, -0.07 to 0.07 L) in the soy isoflavone group, which were not significantly different (P = .36). Mean changes in symptom scores on the Asthma Control Test (placebo, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.42-2.54] vs soy isoflavones, 2.20 [95% CI, 1.53-2.87]; positive values indicate a reduction in symptoms), number of episodes of poor asthma control (placebo, 3.3 [95% CI, 2.7-4.1] vs soy isoflavones, 3.0 [95% CI, 2.4-3.7]), and changes in exhaled nitric oxide (placebo, -3.48 ppb [95% CI, -5.99 to -0.97 ppb] vs soy

  19. Resistance training with soy vs whey protein supplements in hyperlipidemic males

    PubMed Central

    DeNysschen, Carol A; Burton, Harold W; Horvath, Peter J; Leddy, John J; Browne, Richard W

    2009-01-01

    Background Most individuals at risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) can reduce risk factors through diet and exercise before resorting to drug treatment. The effect of a combination of resistance training with vegetable-based (soy) versus animal-based (whey) protein supplementation on CVD risk reduction has received little study. The study's purpose was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of resistance exercise training with soy versus whey protein supplementation on strength gains, body composition and serum lipid changes in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. Methods Twenty-eight overweight, male subjects (BMI 25–30) with serum cholesterol >200 mg/dl were randomly divided into 3 groups (placebo (n = 9), and soy (n = 9) or whey (n = 10) supplementation) and participated in supervised resistance training for 12 weeks. Supplements were provided in a double blind fashion. Results All 3 groups had significant gains in strength, averaging 47% in all major muscle groups and significant increases in fat free mass (2.6%), with no difference among groups. Percent body fat and waist-to-hip ratio decreased significantly in all 3 groups an average of 8% and 2%, respectively, with no difference among groups. Total serum cholesterol decreased significantly, again with no difference among groups. Conclusion Participation in a 12 week resistance exercise training program significantly increased strength and improved both body composition and serum cholesterol in overweight, hypercholesterolemic men with no added benefit from protein supplementation. PMID:19284589

  20. Common dietary supplements for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Saper, Robert B; Eisenberg, David M; Phillips, Russell S

    2004-11-01

    Over-the-counter dietary supplements to treat obesity appeal to many patients who desire a "magic bullet" for weight loss. Asking overweight patients about their use of weight-loss supplements and understanding the evidence for the efficacy, safety, and quality of these supplements are critical when counseling patients regarding weight loss. A schema for whether physicians should recommend, caution, or discourage use of a particular weight-loss supplement is presented in this article. More than 50 individual dietary supplements and more than 125 commercial combination products are available for weight loss. Currently, no weight-loss supplements meet criteria for recommended use. Although evidence of modest weight loss secondary to ephedra-caffeine ingestion exists, potentially serious adverse effects have led the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to ban the sale of these products. Chromium is a popular weight-loss supplement, but its efficacy and long-term safety are uncertain. Guar gum and chitosan appear to be ineffective; therefore, use of these products should be discouraged. Because of insufficient or conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid, ginseng, glucomannan, green tea, hydroxycitric acid, L-carnitine, psyllium, pyruvate, and St. John's wort in weight loss, physicians should caution patients about the use of these supplements and closely monitor those who choose to use these products.

  1. Can Stevioside in Combination with a Soy-Based Dietary Supplement Be a New Useful Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes? An In Vivo Study in the Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rat

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, Per B.; Rolfsen, Stig E.D.; Agger, Andreas; Gregersen, Soren; Colombo, Michele; Xiao, Jianguo; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    The diterpene glycoside stevioside (SVS) and soy bean protein isolate have both been shown to have beneficial effects in diabetes treatment. As they each show different benefits we investigated whether the combination of both substances shows an improvement in the treatment of diabetes in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Over the course of 4 wk, the rats were fed with the following four test diets (n = 12 per group): 1. Standard carbohydrate-rich laboratory diet (chow), 2. chow + SVS (0.03 g/kg BW/day), 3. 80% SPI + 20% chow and 4. 80% SPI + 20 % chow + SVS (0.03 g/kg BW/day). At the end of the course conscious rats underwent an intra-arterial glucose tolerance test (IAGTT) (2.0 g glucose/kg BW). Compared to normal chow diet, stevioside in combination with SPI shows the following beneficial effects in GK rats with mild type 2 diabetes: 1. a 56% reduction in plasma glucose (p < 0.001), 2. a 118% increase in first-phase insulin (p < 0.005), 3. a 20% reduction in glucagons (p < 0.05), 4. a 28% reduction in total cholesterol (p < 0.001), 5. a 13% reduction in FFA (p < 0.01), 6. a 49% reduction in TG (p < 0.001) and 7. a 11% reduction in the systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of stevioside and SPI has synergistic positive effects on the characteristic features of the metabolic syndrome, i.e. hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia. PMID:17487343

  2. Selenium species in selenium fortified dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Niedzielski, Przemyslaw; Rudnicka, Monika; Wachelka, Marcin; Kozak, Lidia; Rzany, Magda; Wozniak, Magdalena; Kaskow, Zaneta

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of dietary supplements available on the Polish market. The supplements comprised a large group of products with selenium content declared by the producer. The study involved determination of dissolution time under different conditions and solubility as well as content and speciation of selenium. The total content was determined as well as organic selenium and the inorganic forms Se(IV) and Se(VI). The organic selenium content was calculated as the difference between total Se and inorganic Se. The values obtained were compared with producers' declarations. The work is the first such study of selenium supplements available on the market of an EU Member State.

  3. Fermented soy product supplemented with isoflavones affected fat depots in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Marla S J; Rossi, Elizeu A; Carlos, Iracilda Z; Vendramini, Regina C; Duarte, Ana C G O; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of soy product fermented by Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus jugurti supplemented with isoflavones on adipose tissue, blood lipid, and glucose levels on juvenile rats. Rats were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for 3 wk as a preliminary treatment to create hypercholesterolemia. They were then fed a chow diet (HC), a chow diet plus fermented soy product supplemented with isoflavones (HCFI), a chow diet plus placebo (HCP), or a chow diet plus placebo supplemented with isoflavones (HCPI), respectively, for an additional 3 wk. The beneficial effects of fermented soy product supplemented with isoflavones on epididymal (EPI) and retroperitoneal (RET) fat pads was likely due to isoflavones because adipocyte circumference (micrometers) in the HC group was significantly larger (EPI: 105.66 +/- 13.36; RET: 134.95 +/- 25.40) than that in the HCFI group (EPI: 93.17 +/- 12.80; RET: 108.62 +/- 15.50) and HCPI group (EPI: 93.06 +/- 15.10; RET: 112.34 +/- 18.21). The probiotic micro-organism accentuated the antilipogenic effect of isoflavones on RET (HCFI: 108.62 +/- 15.50 micrometers versus HCPI: 112.34 +/- 18.21 micrometers). Moreover, the fermented product increased glucose concentration similar to that in the chow group but did not change blood lipids. This product may offer new approaches to obesity prevention.

  4. Assessing Vitamin D Levels in Dietary Supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin D is a nutrient of public health concern, particularly in the elderly, and is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. It is essential for bone growth and bone remodeling and recent research indicates it has other roles in human health, includi...

  5. A novel gastrointestinal microbiome modulator from soy pods reduces absorption of dietary fat in mice.

    PubMed

    Boué, Stephen; Fortgang, Ilana; Levy, Ronald J; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Burow, Matthew; Fahey, George; Heiman, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Simplification of diets, low in variety but high in energy, contributes to the loss in diversity observed in the obese gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome. A novel GI microbiome modulator (GIMM) as a dietary intervention was developed. Mice were fed either an obesogenic diet (ObD) or an ObD containing 15% activated soy pod fiber (ObD-ASPF) for 30 days. The diets were isocaloric and balanced for macronutrient content. ASPF is a novel fiber preparation from whole soy pods that is activated to produce glyceollins. Mice fed ObD-ASPF did not gain body fat. This was associated with decreased absorption of calories (P < 0.05) and increased fecal excretion of triglycerides, which may be attributed to decreased bile acid secretion (P < 0.05). A shift (P < 0.05) in abundances of microbiota in 10 genera was observed. Mice fed ObD-ASPF had elevated plasma concentrations of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 (P < 0.05) and decreased (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL1. A novel dietary intervention derived from soy pods that acts to hinder absorption of dietary fat and glucose in mice was developed. More studies with this GIMM in animal models of diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases, type 2 diabetes, and autism are needed. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  6. Whey and soy protein supplements changes body composition in patients with Crohn's disease undergoing azathioprine and anti-TNF-alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Machado, Júlia Figueiredo; Oya, Vanessa; Coy, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues; Morcillo, André Moreno; Severino, Silvana Dalge; Wu, Chao; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Vilela, Maria Marluce dos Santos

    2015-04-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic transmural inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown cause. Malnutrition associated with active CD has been reduced although obesity has increased. Dietary strategies such as those with high-protein have been proposed to reduce body fat. This study compares the effects of two supplements on the nutritional status of CD patients. 68 CD patients were randomized in two groups: whey protein group (WP) and soy protein group (SP). Using bioimpedance analysis, anthropometry and albumin and pre-albumin dosages the nutritional status was measured before starting the intervention and after 8 and 16 weeks. The disease activity was determined by Crohn's Disease Activity Index and serum C-reactive protein dosage and dietary intake by 24h dietary recalls. Forty-one patients concluded the study and both supplements changed body composition similarly. Triceps skin fold thickness (p< 0.001) and body fat percentage (p=0.001) decreased, whereas mid-arm muscle circumference (p=0.004), corrected arm muscle area (p=0.005) and body lean percentage (p=0.001) increased. For Crohn's disease patients undergoing anti TNF-alpha and azatioprine therapies, supplementation with whey and soy proteins changes body composition through reduction of body fat and thus contributes to control inflammation. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. 76 FR 39111 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New... Dietary Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-850), Food and Drug Administration... NDI and any other dietary ingredients in the dietary supplement ``have been present in the food supply...

  8. Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the brain, which can cause serious side effects in the brain.Warfarin. May slow blood clotting in addition to the warfarin, which can increase chance of bruising and bleeding.Supplement: ... which can increase the effects and side effects. Talk to your doctor to ...

  9. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that is...

  10. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  11. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  12. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  13. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  14. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  15. Effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Yanjiao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Wenbing

    2012-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feeding intake, growth performance, and digestion of juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Four isonitrogenous (49% crude protein) and isoenergetic (20.1 MJ kg-1) diets were formulated to contain four graded levels of soy isoflavones, namely, 0, 1, 4 and 8 g soy isoflavones in 1 kg of diet. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate tanks of fish (Initial average weight: 2.58 g ± 0.01 g), and each tank was stocked with 35 fish. No significant difference was observed among diets with levels of 0, 1 and 4 g kg-1 soy isoflavones in feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio (FER), proximate composition of fish whole body and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy ( P>0.05). However, high dietary soy isoflavones level (8 g kg-1) significantly depressed weight gain, FER, whole-body crude lipid content of fish and ADC of nutrients ( P<0.05). These results indicate that high level of dietary soy isoflavones (above 4 g kg-1) significantly depresses growth responses and FER of Japanese flounder. However, as the content of soy isoflavones in soybean meal is around 1 to 3 g kg-1, the adverse effects might be neglected when soybean products are used as a fish feed ingredient.

  16. Soy Isoflavone supplementation for breast cancer risk reduction: a randomized phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    Khan, SA; Chatterton, RT; Michel, N; Bryk, M; Lee, O; Ivancic, D; Heinz, R.; Zalles, CM; Helenowski, I; Jovanovic, B; Franke, A; Bosland, M; Wang, J; Hansen, NM; Bethke, KP; Dew, A; Coomes, M.; Bergan, RC.

    2012-01-01

    Background Soy isoflavone consumption may protect against breast cancer development. We conducted a Phase IIB trial of soy isoflavone supplementation, to examine its effect on breast epithelial proliferation and other biomarkers in the healthy high risk breast. Methods 126 consented women underwent a random fine needle aspiration (rFNA); those with ≥ 4000 epithelial cells were randomized to a double-blind six-month intervention of mixed soy isoflavones (PTIG-2535) or placebo, followed by repeat rFNA. Cells were examined for Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI), and atypia. Expression of 28 genes related to proliferation, apoptosis and estrogenic effect was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Hormone and protein levels were measured in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF). All statistical tests were 2-sided. Results 98 women were evaluable for Ki-67 LI. In 49 treated women, the median Ki-67 LI was 1.18 at entry and 1.12 post-intervention, whereas in 49 placebo subjects it was 0.97 and 0.92 (p for between-group change 0.32). Menopausal stratification yielded similar results between groups, but within premenopausal soy-treated women, Ki-67 LI increased from 1.71 to 2.18 (p=0.04). We saw no treatment effect on cytologic atypia or NAF parameters. There were significant increases in the expression of 14/28 genes within the soy, but not the control group, without significant between-group differences. Plasma genistein values demonstrated excellent compliance. Conclusions A six-month intervention of mixed soy isoflavones in healthy, high risk adult western women did not reduce breast epithelial proliferation, suggesting a lack of efficacy for breast cancer prevention, and a possible adverse effect in premenopausal women. PMID:22307566

  17. Defatted Soy Flour Supplementation of Wheat Bread ameliorates Blood Chemistry and Oxidative Stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ebuehi, O A T; Okafor, H K

    2015-01-01

    Bread is a convenience food made from wheat flour, which is derived from wheat and whose technology of which dates back to the ancient Egyptians. It is therefore of economic advantage if wheat importation to Nigeria can be reduced by substitution with other suitable materials. This led to the whole idea of composite flour, which is a mixture of wheat with other materials to form suitable flour for baking'purposes. The study is to ascertain the effect of supplementation of bread with defatted soy flour on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Wheat flour mixed with high quality defatted Soy flour at several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40. The 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40 flour mixtures were used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% Soya bread, respectively. The control bread (100%) was prepared with 100% wheat flour. Bread produced with these blends compared with regular 100% wheat bread and was tested for chemical and. organoleptic characteristics. Sixteen rats were randomly given codes and allocated to 2 different groups via tables with random numbers to feed on the 100% wheat blend and soy supplemented bread (90% wheat flour/10% soy flour) for 28 days. The weights and feedintake of the rats were computed on dailybasis. Blood was taken for biochemical assays and liver was used for antioxidant assay, that is activities of catalase, super oxider dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathine level. The activities of serum SOD and catalase were significantly increase (p<0.05) in rats fed the composite bread as compared to the control, (wheat bread) and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in lipid peroxidation marker (malondialdehyde level) relative to control group. The activities of the liver enzymes (alanine amino transferase, aspartase amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase) and markers (low density lipoprotein, cholesterol and triacyl glycerol levels) showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in rats fed supplemented soy flour bread as compared to the

  18. Associations of menstrual cycle length with intake of soy, fat, and dietary fiber in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chisato; Oba, Shino; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    A decreased risk of breast cancer has been reported among women who have longer menstrual cycles or anovulatory cycles. The present study examined the relationships between intake of fat, soy, and dietary fiber and length of menstrual cycle among 341 Japanese women aged 18 to 29 yr old at two colleges and three nursing schools. Intake of nutrients and foods including fats, dietary fiber, and soy products was estimated through the use of a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The mean cycle length was determined for each women based on a prospective record of menstruation. Polyunsaturated fat intake was significantly inversely associated with cycle length; the means of cycle length were 33.2 and 31.0 days for the lowest and the highest quintiles of intake, respectively, after controlling for covariates (trend = 0.03). The odds ratio of a long cycle (> 35 days) for the highest vs. lowest quintile of dietary fiber intake was 2.12 (95% confidence interval 1.00-4.47), although the trend was not statistically significant. The data suggest that polyunsaturated fat and dietary fiber intake are associated with the parameters of menstrual cycle length, but further studies are required to better characterize these associations.

  19. Effect of Soy Protein Isolate Supplementation on Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer After Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bosland, Maarten C; Kato, Ikuko; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Schmoll, Joanne; Rueter, Erika Enk; Melamed, Jonathan; Xiangtian Kong, Max; Macias, Virgilia; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Lumey, L. H.; Xie, Hui; Gao, Weihua; Walden, Paul; Lepor, Herbert; Taneja, Samir S.; Randolph, Carla; Schlicht, Michael J.; Meserve-Watanabe, Hiroko; Deaton, Ryan J.; Davies, Joanne A.

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Soy consumption has been suggested to reduce risk or recurrence of prostate cancer, but this has not been tested in a randomized trial with prostate cancer as the end point. OBJECTIVE To determine whether daily consumption of a soy protein isolate supplement for 2 years reduces the rate of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy or delays such recurrence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized, double-blind trial conducted from July 1997 to May 2010 at 7 US centers comparing daily consumption of a soy protein supplement vs placebo in 177 men at high risk of recurrence after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Supplement intervention was started within 4 months after surgery and continued for up to 2 years, with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements made at 2-month intervals in the first year and every 3 months thereafter. INTERVENTION Participants were randomized to receive a daily serving of a beverage powder containing 20 g of protein in the form of either soy protein isolate (n=87)or, as placebo, calcium caseinate (n=90). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Biochemical recurrence rate of prostate cancer (defined as development of a PSA level of ≥0.07 ng/mL) over the first 2 years following randomization and time to recurrence. RESULTS The trial was stopped early for lack of treatment effects at a planned interim analysis with 81 evaluable participants in the intervention group and 78 in the placebo group. Overall, 28.3% of participants developed biochemical recurrence within 2 years of entering the trial (close to the a priori predicted recurrence rate of 30%). Among these, 22 (27.2%) occurred in the intervention group and 23 (29.5%) in the placebo group. The resulting hazard ratio for active treatment was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.53–1.72; log-rank P = .89). Adherence was greater than 90% and there were no apparent adverse events related to supplementation. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE Daily consumption of a beverage

  20. Dietary supplements for established atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Bath-Hextall, Fiona J; Jenkinson, Claire; Humphreys, Rosemary; Williams, Hywel C

    2012-02-15

    Many people with atopic eczema are reluctant to use the most commonly recommended treatments because they fear the long-term health effects. As a result, many turn to dietary supplements as a possible treatment approach, often with the belief that some essential ingredient is 'missing' in their diet. Various supplements have been proposed, but it is unclear whether any of these interventions are effective. To evaluate dietary supplements for treating established atopic eczema/dermatitis.Evening primrose oil, borage oil, and probiotics are covered in other Cochrane reviews. We searched the following databases up to July 2010: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 2005), EMBASE (from 2007), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), LILACS (from 1982), ISI Web of Science, GREAT (Global Resource of EczemA Trials) database, and reference lists of articles. We searched ongoing trials registers up to April 2011. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary supplements for the treatment of those with established atopic eczema/dermatitis. Two authors independently screened the titles and abstracts, read the full text of the publications, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. We included 11 studies with a total of 596 participants. Two studies assessed fish oil versus olive oil or corn oil placebo. The following were all looked at in single studies: oral zinc sulphate compared to placebo, selenium versus selenium plus vitamin E versus placebo, vitamin D versus placebo, vitamin D versus vitamin E versus vitamins D plus vitamin E together versus placebo, pyridoxine versus placebo, sea buckthorn seed oil versus sea buckthorn pulp oil versus placebo, hempseed oil versus placebo, sunflower oil (linoleic acid) versus fish oil versus placebo, and DHA versus control (saturated fatty acids of the same energy value). Two small studies on fish oil suggest a possible

  1. Dietary soy isoflavones increased hepatic protein disulfide isomerase content and suppressed its enzymatic activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chao Wu; Donak, Kevin; Ly, Olivia; Wood, Carla; Cooke, Gerard; Curran, Ivan

    2014-06-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a multifunctional protein and plays important roles in protein folding, triglyceride transfer, insulin degradation, and thyroid hormone transportation. This study examined the modulation of PDI expression by soy consumption using rat as a model. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats at 50 days (d) of age were fed diets containing either 20% casein or alcohol-washed soy protein isolate (SPI, containing 50 mg isoflavones (ISFs)/kg diet) or SPI plus ISF (250 mg/kg diet) and mated at age of 120 d. The offspring (F1) were fed the same diets as their parents. Addition of ISF to SPI diet markedly increased PDI protein content in the liver and testis of the adult rats compared with the casein or SPI diet. PDI mRNA abundance in the liver and protein content in the brain, thyroid, heart, and uterus were unchanged by the diets. Two-dimensional Western blot showed that the rats fed diets containing SPI had a diminished hepatic PDI protein with an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.12, a dephosphorylated form, compared with the rats fed diets containing either casein or SPI with supplemental ISF. Soy ISF added into SPI diet remarkably suppressed hepatic PDI activity of the rats compared with the casein diet. Moreover, soy ISF dose-dependently increased PDI and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) β protein content, whereas reduced TR DNA binding ability in human hepatocytes. Overall, this study shows that soy ISF increased hepatic PDI protein content, but addition of ISF into SPI diet inhibited its enzymatic activities and this effect may be mediated through a post-transcriptional mechanism.

  2. Influence of the dietary supplement health and education act on consumer beliefs about the safety and effectiveness of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Tonya; Litt, Dana; Kaufman, Annette

    2011-03-01

    The authors conducted two studies to examine the influence of the U.S. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) on consumer beliefs about the safety and effectiveness of dietary supplements. Study 1 manipulated information about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in the context of a dietary supplement designed to improve immune system functioning. Study 2 tested the effect of an educational intervention designed to improve knowledge about the DSHEA. Results of Study 1 highlighted deficits in consumer knowledge about FDA regulation of dietary supplements. Results also showed that information about FDA approval failed to have a statistically significant effect on beliefs about safety or effectiveness of the dietary supplement. Results of Study 2 showed that participants who were educated about the regulation of dietary supplements under the DSHEA rated dietary supplements as less safe and less effective than did participants in the control condition. The authors discuss the implications for consumers in the United States and for public policy.

  3. Soy Protein Supplementation Reduces Clinical Indices in Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun-Bo; Chi, Mei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Clinical trials have studied the use of soy protein for treating type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MS). The purpose of this study was to outline evidence on the effects of soy protein supplementation on clinical indices in T2D and MS subjects by performing a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Materials and Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases up to March 2015 for RCTs. Pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the fixed-and-random-effects model. A total of eleven studies with eleven clinical variables met the inclusion criteria. Results The meta-analysis showed that fasting plasma glucose (FPG) [weighted mean difference (WMD), -0.207; 95% CI, -0.374 to -0.040; p=0.015], fasting serum insulin (FSI) (WMD, -0.292; 95% CI, -0.496 to -0.088; p=0.005), homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) (WMD, -0.346; 95% CI, -0.570 to -0.123; p=0.002), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (WMD, -0.230; 95% CI, -0.441 to -0.019; p=0.033), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (WMD, -0.304; 95% CI, -0.461 to -0.148; p=0.000), total cholesterol (TC) (WMD, -0.386; 95% CI, -0.548 to -0.225; p=0.000), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (WMD, -0.510; 95% CI, -0.722 to -0.299; p=0.000) are significant reduced with soy protein supplementation, compared with a placebo control group, in T2D and MS patients. Furthermore, soy protein supplementation for longer duration (≥6 mo) significantly reduced FPG, LDL-C, and CRP, while that for a shorter duration (<6 mo) significantly reduced FSI and HOMA-IR. Conclusion Soy protein supplementation could be beneficial for FPG, FSI, HOMA-IR, DBP, LDL-C, TC, and CRP control in plasma. PMID:26996569

  4. Neurotoxicity of Dietary Supplements from Annonaceae Species.

    PubMed

    Höllerhage, Matthias; Rösler, Thomas W; Berjas, Magda; Luo, Rensheng; Tran, Kevin; Richards, Kristy M; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U; Maia, José Guilherme S; Moraes, Maria Rosa de; Godoy, Helena T; Höglinger, Günter U; Smith, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements containing plant materials of Annonaceae species (Annona muricata L., A. squamosa L., A. mucosa JACQ., A. squamosa × cherimola Mabb.) were extracted by hot, pressurized ethyl acetate and analyzed for their effect in vitro on Lund human mesencephalic neurons. Cell viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cell death was determined by lactate dehydrogenase levels. Three supplements strongly decreased the cell viability at extract concentrations of 1 µg/mL, of which 1 decreased cell viability at 0.1 µg/µL. Also, strong neuronal toxicities of these supplements were found. Cell death was observed at concentrations of 10 µg/mL. The degree of toxicity was comparable to the ones found in Annonaceous fruit extracts. Two fruit pulps of Annonaceae (A. muricata and A. squamosa) showed a reduction in cell viability at lower concentrations. The fruit pulp extract of A. muricata revealed the strongest neurotoxic effect, with 67% cell death at a concentration of 1 µg/mL. A high reduction in cell viability coupled with pronounced cell death was found at 0.1 µg/mL for an Annonaceous seed extract. These results demonstrate that the intake of dietary supplements containing plant material from Annonaceae may be hazardous to health in terms of neurotoxicity.

  5. Use of dietary supplements among preschool children in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoko; Yamagishi, Azumi; Hashimoto, Yoko; Virgona, Nantiga; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Umegaki, Keizo

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine the characteristics and use of dietary supplements by preschool children in Japan. A survey was conducted among 2,125 parents of preschool children to discover the status of dietary supplement use and their attitudes towards supplement use by their children. Logistic regression models were used to determine which characteristics predict supplement use in this population. For detailed characterization, child supplement users were also categorized as either the users of vitamins and minerals only or the users of other supplement components. For parents of non-user children, the parent's knowledge and attitudes toward supplements for children were investigated. Fifteen percent of children had used dietary supplements. Two parent-related factors were especially important, the frequency with which they referred to nutritional labels and their own supplement use, which had a significant encouraging effect on their children's supplement use. The parents of child supplement users showed limited awareness of the government system concerning diet and food, placed safety over efficacy, selected products with natural ingredients, and did not seek consultations with professionals. These parents, especially those who were aware of the specially designed supplements for children, exhibited positive responses to supplement use by their children. It is likely that parents' knowledge and attitudes toward dietary supplements and nutrition have a striking effect on their children's use of supplements. Unfortunately, their knowledge at present was less than satisfactory. More accurate information on nutrition, dietary intake and dietary supplements must be disseminated.

  6. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing ...

  7. Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Coates, Paul M.; Milner, John A.; Whitted, Jackie; Burt, Vicki; Radimer, Kathy; Wilger, Jaimie; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Holden, Joanne M.; Andrews, Karen; Roseland, Janet; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes. ODS, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, is developing a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) verified by chemical analysis. The products chosen initially for analytical verification are adult multivitamin-mineral supplements (MVMs). These products are widely used, analytical methods are available for determining key constituents, and a certified reference material is in development. Also MVMs have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions and have widely varying compositions, characteristics, and bioavailability. Furthermore, the extent to which actual amounts of vitamins and minerals in a product deviate from label values is not known. Ultimately, DSID will prove useful to professionals in permitting more accurate estimation of the contribution of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes of nutrients and better evaluation of the role of dietary supplements in promoting health and well-being. ODS is also collaborating with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary supplement label database. The newest ODS effort explores the feasibility and practicality of developing a database of all dietary supplement labels marketed in the US. This article describes these and supporting projects. PMID:25346570

  8. Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M; Fisher, Kenneth D; Saldanha, Leila G; Yetley, Elizabeth A; Coates, Paul M; Milner, John A; Whitted, Jackie; Burt, Vicki; Radimer, Kathy; Wilger, Jaimie; Sharpless, Katherine E; Holden, Joanne M; Andrews, Karen; Roseland, Janet; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R; Perry, Charles R

    2008-02-01

    Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes. ODS, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, is developing a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) verified by chemical analysis. The products chosen initially for analytical verification are adult multivitamin-mineral supplements (MVMs). These products are widely used, analytical methods are available for determining key constituents, and a certified reference material is in development. Also MVMs have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions and have widely varying compositions, characteristics, and bioavailability. Furthermore, the extent to which actual amounts of vitamins and minerals in a product deviate from label values is not known. Ultimately, DSID will prove useful to professionals in permitting more accurate estimation of the contribution of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes of nutrients and better evaluation of the role of dietary supplements in promoting health and well-being. ODS is also collaborating with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary supplement label database. The newest ODS effort explores the feasibility and practicality of developing a database of all dietary supplement labels marketed in the US. This article describes these and supporting projects.

  9. Soy isoflavones: hope or hype?

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 50% of Americans use dietary supplements on a regular basis spending an estimated $20 billion on supplements in the year 2000. Soy contains genistein and daidzein, two phytoestrogens, which work through the estrogen receptor and cause alterations in serum lipids, bone metabolism, and possibly cognition. In this article, we review the issues regarding the interpretation with studies using soy-based isoflavones, discuss their mechanism of action, and review the literature on the effect of these bio-active compounds on lipid metabolism, osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone markers, bone mineral density, and cognition.

  10. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF), anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer’s awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements. PMID:28245621

  11. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Bouchard, Maryse F; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2017-02-25

    Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF), anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer's awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  12. Preventive effects of a soy-based diet supplemented with stevioside on the development of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Dyrskog, Stig Eric Underbjerg; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Colombo, Michele; Abudula, Reziwanggu; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2005-09-01

    The world witnesses an explosive increase in diabetes, demanding intensified prevention and treatment not least for the low-income population. The plant, Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, has been used for the treatment of diabetes in traditional medicine. We have previously demonstrated that stevioside, a diterpene glycoside isolated from the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, possesses insulinotropic, glucagonostatic, antihyperglycemic, and blood pressure-lowering effects in animal studies. We have also found that a dietary supplement, Abalon, of soy protein, isoflavones, and cotyledon fiber has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk markers in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate if the combination of stevioside and a dietary supplement of soy protein possesses beneficial qualities in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. We randomized male Zucker diabetic fatty rats into 4 groups and fed them the different test diets for 10 weeks: (A) standard carbohydrate-rich laboratory diet (chow), (B) chow+stevioside (0.03 g/kg body weight [BW] per day), (C) 50% soy (Abalon)+50% chow (adjusted for vitamins and minerals), and (D) 50% soy (Abalon)+50% chow+stevioside 0.03 g/kg BW per day. We measured plasma glucose, blood pressure, weight, and food intake once weekly. The animals were equipped with an intra-arterial catheter, and at week 10, the conscious rats underwent an intra-arterial glucose tolerance test (2.0 g/kg BW). Stevioside exerts beneficial effects in type 2 diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty rats, that is, lowers blood glucose (area under the glucose curve [AUC(30min)]: group A vs B, a 19% reduction; and group C vs D, a 12% reduction; P<.001). We did not detect any effect on insulin or glucagon responses. After 2 weeks of treatment, a decrease in the systolic blood pressure was observed in the stevioside-treated groups (P<.01). Abalon had beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk markers, that is, (1) lowers total cholesterol (P

  13. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D; Norkus, Edward P; Dalvi, Tapashi B; Wong, Les G; McManus, Jamie F; Hudes, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight) from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278). Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602) and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176) were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood pressure and diabetes

  14. Integrating dietary supplements into cancer care.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Moshe; Abrams, Donald I; Ladas, Elena J; Deng, Gary; Hardy, Mary; Capodice, Jillian L; Winegardner, Mary F; Gubili, J K; Yeung, K Simon; Kussmann, Heidi; Block, Keith I

    2013-09-01

    Many studies confirm that a majority of patients undergoing cancer therapy use self-selected forms of complementary therapies, mainly dietary supplements. Unfortunately, patients often do not report their use of supplements to their providers. The failure of physicians to communicate effectively with patients on this use may result in a loss of trust within the therapeutic relationship and in the selection by patients of harmful, useless, or ineffective and costly nonconventional therapies when effective integrative interventions may exist. Poor communication may also lead to diminishment of patient autonomy and self-efficacy and thereby interfere with the healing response. To be open to the patient's perspective, and sensitive to his or her need for autonomy and empowerment, physicians may need a shift in their own perspectives. Perhaps the optimal approach is to discuss both the facts and the uncertainty with the patient, in order to reach a mutually informed decision. Today's informed patients truly value physicians who appreciate them as equal participants in making their own health care choices. To reach a mutually informed decision about the use of these supplements, the Clinical Practice Committee of The Society of Integrative Oncology undertook the challenge of providing basic information to physicians who wish to discuss these issues with their patients. A list of leading supplements that have the best suggestions of benefit was constructed by leading researchers and clinicians who have experience in using these supplements. This list includes curcumin, glutamine, vitamin D, Maitake mushrooms, fish oil, green tea, milk thistle, Astragalus, melatonin, and probiotics. The list includes basic information on each supplement, such as evidence on effectiveness and clinical trials, adverse effects, and interactions with medications. The information was constructed to provide an up-to-date base of knowledge, so that physicians and other health care providers would

  15. Impact of dietary soy isoflavones in pregnancy on fetal programming of endothelial function in offspring.

    PubMed

    Bonacasa, Barbara; Siow, Richard C M; Mann, Giovanni E

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that soy-based diets containing phytoestrogens (isoflavones) afford protection against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs); however, supplementation trials have largely reported only marginal health benefits. The molecular mechanisms by which the isoflavones genistein, daidzein, and equol afford protection against oxidative stress remain to be investigated in large scale clinical trials. Isoflavones are transferred across the placenta in both rodents and humans, yet there is limited information on their actions in pregnancy and the developmental origins of disease. Our studies established that feeding a soy isoflavone-rich diet during pregnancy, weaning, and postweaning affords cardiovascular protection in aged male rats. Notably, rats exposed to a soy isoflavone-deficient diet throughout pregnancy and adult life exhibited increased oxidative stress, diminished antioxidant enzyme and eNOS levels, endothelial dysfunction, and elevated blood pressure in vivo. The beneficial effects of refeeding isoflavones to isoflavone-deficient rats include an increased production of nitric oxide and EDHF, an upregulation of antioxidant defense enzymes and lowering of blood pressure in vivo. This review focuses on the role that isoflavones in the fetal circulation may play during fetal development in affording protection against CVD in the offspring via their ability to activate eNOS, EDHF, and redox-sensitive gene expression. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A soy-based supplement alters energy metabolism but not the exercise-induced stress response.

    PubMed

    Berg, Aloys; Schaffner, Denise; Pohlmann, Yolanda; Baumstark, Manfred W; Deibert, Peter; König, Daniel; Gollhofer, Albert

    2012-01-01

    To determine the changes in endurance capacity as well as in metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory markers induced by endurance training combined with a soy,protein based supplement. Randomized controlled study consisting of moderate endurance training without (GO) or with (G1) a soy protein based supplement. Two groups of 15 subjects (10 males and 5 females in each group): healthy sports students aged 23.6 +/- 1.9 years. Body composition (body mass (BM), body density (BD) by air displacement) and physical fitness (determined by treadmill ergometry) were measured at baseline and after 6 weeks of the intervention; changes in circulating metabolic and hormonal parameters (glucose, lactate, urea, uric acid, ammonia, cortisol, insulin, IGF-1), and exercise-induced stress and inflammatory markers (CK, LDH, myoglobin, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10, blood cell counts) were determined after the intervention period in afield test (11.5 km running on hilly ground). 30 participants completed the 6-week study; 28 students were able to perform the field test. No significant changes in BM and BD were noted after intervention with only slight increases in running performance and maximum aerobic capacity in the total group (2%, p=0.016). Subjects in the G1 group showed significant improvements in running velocity and lower lactate values following the intervention (-12%, p=0,003). In addition, the G1 group showed significantly lower differences in the exercise-induced increase of metabolic parameters (triglycerides, uric acid) and insulin in the post-exercise recovery period. Our data suggest that moderate endurance training in combination with a soy-based protein supplement improves aerobic energy supply and metabolic function in healthy sports students, even without changes in body composition and without changes in the exercise-induced stress and inflammatory reaction.

  17. Phyto-power dietary supplement potently inhibits dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Fen; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Sun, Pei-Pei; Chien, Ling-Lung; Cheng, An-Chin; Ma, Nianhan Jia-Lin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2013-02-26

    Curcumin has been extensively studied for its therapeutic effects in a variety of disorders. Fermented soy consumption is associated with a low incidence rate of chronic diseases in many Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential underlying mechanisms of the effect of a phyto-power dietary supplement on liver fibrosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with dimethylnitrosamine (DMN; 10 mg kg(-1)) three times a week for four consecutive weeks. A phyto-power dietary supplement (50 or 100 mg kg(-1)) was administered by oral gavage daily for four weeks. Liver morphology, function, and fibrotic status were examined in DMN induced hepatic fibrogenesis. However, a phyto-power dietary supplement alleviated liver damage as indicated by histopathological examination of the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen I, accompanied by the concomitant reduction of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). These data indicate that the phyto-power dietary supplement may inhibit the TGF-β1/Smad signaling and relieve liver damage in experimental fibrosis.

  18. Dietary intake of soy protein and tofu in association with breast cancer risk based on a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Jin Hee; Nam, Seok Jin; Ryu, Seungho; Kong, Gu

    2008-01-01

    Soy food and its constituents may protect against breast cancer, but the association between soy intake and decreased breast cancer risk is inconsistent. We evaluated the relationship between breast cancer risk and the dietary intake of soy protein as measured by total soy food and tofu intake. Histologically confirmed cases (n = 362) were matched to controls by age (within 2 yr) and menopausal status. High soy protein intake was associated with reduced breast cancer risk in analyses adjusted for potential confounders including dietary factors among premenopausal women (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39 in the highest quintile, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.22-0.93, P for trend = 0.03) and postmenopausal women (OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.06-0.88, P for trend = 0.16). We also found an inverse association between total tofu intake and breast cancer risk among premenopausal women (for total tofu intake, OR = 0.23 in the highest quintile, 95% CI = 0.11-0.48, P for trend < 0.01; for at least 1 serving of tofu as the main ingredient per day, OR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.13-0.55, P for trend < 0.01). We concluded that increased regular soy food intake at a level equivalent to traditional Korean consumption levels may be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer, and this effect is more pronounced in premenopausal women.

  19. Determinants of dietary supplements use among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sien, Yeo Pei; Sahril, Norhafizah; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta; Zaki, Nor Azian Mohd; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila

    2014-09-01

    Dietary supplements use is relatively widespread in some countries but knowledge of supplements consumption in Malaysia is limited, more so among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of dietary supplements use among Malaysian adolescents using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Data from the Malaysia School-based Nutrition Survey 2012 based on a 2-stage stratified sampling was used. The prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements intake among adolescents was 54.1% and 40.2%, respectively. Usage was significantly higher among younger adolescents and among boys. Dietary supplements were also taken mostly by those who thought they were underweight. The most common vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements consumed were vitamin C and bee products. The main reason for taking supplements was parents' instruction. These findings can be useful for developing health communications on supplement use targeted to adolescents and their parents. © 2014 APJPH.

  20. Micronutrients: dietary intake v. supplement use.

    PubMed

    Woodside, Jayne V; McCall, Damian; McGartland, Claire; Young, Ian S

    2005-11-01

    Whilst clinical deficiency of micronutrients is uncommon in the developed world, a suboptimal intake of certain micronutrients has been linked with an increased risk of chronic diseases such as CVD and cancer. Attention has therefore focused on increasing micronutrient status in order to theoretically reduce chronic disease risk. Increasing micronutrient status can involve a number of approaches: increasing dietary intake of micronutrient-rich foods; food fortification; use of supplements. Observational cohort studies have demonstrated an association between high intakes of micronutrients such as vitamin E, vitamin C, folic acid and beta-carotene, and lower risk of CHD, stroke and cancer at various sites. However, randomised intervention trials of micronutrient supplements have, to date, largely failed to show an improvement in clinical end points. The discordance between data from cohort studies and the results so far available from clinical trials remains to be explained. One reason may be that the complex mixture of micronutrients found, for example, in a diet high in fruit and vegetables may be more effective than large doses of a small number of micronutrients, and therefore that intervention studies that use single micronutrient supplements are unlikely to produce a lowering of disease risk. Studies concentrating on whole foods (e.g. fruit and vegetables) or diet pattern (e.g. Mediterranean diet pattern) may be more effective in demonstrating an effect on clinical end points. The present review will consider the clinical trial evidence for a beneficial effect of micronutrient supplements on health, and review the alternative approaches to the study of dietary intake of micronutrients.

  1. DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

    2013-12-17

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined.

  2. U.S. Kids Overdosing on Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... annual rate of accidental exposures to dietary supplements rose in the United States by nearly 50 percent, ... calls to U.S. poison control centers involving supplements rose 46 percent each year. From 2002 to 2005, ...

  3. Dietary supplements and disease prevention: a global overview

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition are prevalent conditions that affect global public health. Dietary supplements are widely used in many developed countries. However, it remains unclear whether supplementation with individual or combined vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients are effe...

  4. Soy-based infant formula supplemented with DHA and ARA supports growth and increases circulating levels of these fatty acids in infants.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Dennis; Ziegler, Ekhard; Mitmesser, Susan H; Harris, Cheryl L; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Healthy term infants (n = 244) were randomized to receive: (1) control, soy-based formula without supplementation or (2) docosahexaenoic acid-arachidonic acid (DHA + ARA), soy-based formula supplemented with at least 17 mg DHA/100 kcal (from algal oil) and 34 mg ARA/100 kcal (from fungal oil) in a double-blind, parallel group trial to evaluate safety, benefits, and growth from 14 to 120 days of age. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age and 24-h dietary and tolerance recall were recorded at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Adverse events were recorded throughout the study. Blood samples were drawn from subsets of 25 infants in each group. Capillary column gas chromatography was used to analyze the percentages of fatty acids in red blood cell (RBC) lipids and plasma phospholipids. Compared with the control group, percentages of fatty acids such as DHA and ARA in total RBC and plasma phospholipids were significantly higher in infants in the DHA + ARA group at 120 days of age (P < 0.001). Growth rates did not differ significantly between feeding groups at any assessed time point. Supplementation did not affect the tolerance of formula or the incidence of adverse events. Feeding healthy term infants soy-based formula supplemented with DHA and ARA from single cell oil sources at concentrations similar to human milk significantly increased circulating levels of DHA and ARA when compared with the control group. Both formulas supported normal growth and were well tolerated.

  5. [Potential interactions between drugs and dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Farghali, Hassan; Kameníková, Ludmila; Hodis, Jiří; Kutinová Canová, Nikolina

    2014-01-01

    Purified active plant constituents were isolated and assessed for their pharmacological activities that constitute a basis of modern drug development. The situation with herbal supplements is different because the extract or dried herb or mixture of herbs contains several substances beside the beneficial one(s) that might produce drug interaction with the conventional medicine(s). Most patients are misinformed and believe that anything "natural" must be safe. This article is focusing on plant-based substances referred as dietary supplements (DS). Examples of reported drug interactions and contraindications associated with DS with two case studies are presented. As supplements are typically not prescribed, many doctors seem to have no interest in drug-DS interactions since a typical medical history of the patients does not include any questions about self-prescribed remedies of this nature. Rather, patients are left alone when they are tempted to try this or that DS and tend to rely on advice from friends, or on material they read on internet. A better quality control, compliance, public awareness and healthcare professionals vigilance for potential interactions are needed. It is of utmost importance to appreciate the impact of supplements on different stages of pharmacokinetics, especially on drug absorption and metabolism.

  6. Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2010-02-01

    Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential.

  7. Review article: herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bunchorntavakul, C; Reddy, K R

    2013-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements are commonly used throughout the World. There is a tendency for underreporting their ingestion by patients and the magnitude of their use is underrecognised by Physicians. Herbal hepatotoxicity is not uncommonly encountered, but the precise incidence and manifestations have not been well characterised. To review the epidemiology, presentation and diagnosis of herbal hepatotoxicity. This review will mainly discuss single ingredients and complex mixtures of herbs marketed under a single label. A Medline search was undertaken to identify relevant literature using search terms including 'herbal', 'herbs', 'dietary supplement', 'liver injury', 'hepatitis' and 'hepatotoxicity'. Furthermore, we scanned the reference lists of the primary and review articles to identify publications not retrieved by electronic searches. The incidence rates of herbal hepatotoxicity are largely unknown. The clinical presentation and severity can be highly variable, ranging from mild hepatitis to acute hepatic failure requiring transplantation. Scoring systems for the causality assessment of drug-induced liver injury may be helpful, but have not been validated for herbal hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity features of commonly used herbal products, such as Ayurvedic and Chinese herbs, black cohosh, chaparral, germander, greater celandine, green tea, Herbalife, Hydroxycut, kava, pennyroyal, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, skullcap, and usnic acid, have been individually reviewed. Furthermore, clinically significant herb-drug interactions are also discussed. A number of herbal medicinal products are associated with a spectrum of hepatotoxicity events. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and the risks involved are needed to improve herbal medicine safety. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Dietary Supplement Polypharmacy: An Unrecognized Public Health Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Gryzlak, Brian M.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Wallace, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive and inappropriate use of medications, or ‘polypharmacy’, has been recognized as a public health problem. In addition, there is growing use of dietary supplements in the United States; however, little is known about the patterns of supplement use. Recent reports in the literature of cases of excessive or inappropriate use of herbal dietary supplements leading to the term ‘polyherbacy’. The clinical vignettes described in this article highlight the need for further research on the nature and extent of multiple and inappropriate dietary supplement use or ‘dietary supplement polypharmacy’. Clinical interviewing and population surveys both address this issue in complementary ways, and provide a further understanding of dietary supplement use patterns. PMID:18955288

  9. Dietary supplement use in people being treated for depression.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Karen M; Woolley, Cheryl C; Hedderley, Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements has increased over the past 10 years, with up to 50% of adults being reported to have taken dietary supplements. The types of supplements taken are often related to physical morbidities. However, information about their use in combination with prescription drugs is lacking. In particular, there is little information on the use of supplements by people with depression. Our aim was to examine the use of dietary supplements by people being treated for depression. Seventy-two participants who were being treated for depression in the community were recruited for a clinical trial to determine the effect of fish oil on mood in the treatment of depression. The results of the primary analysis are reported elsewhere. Exclusion criteria included any co-existing psychiatric disorder (except anxiety disorders), blood clotting disorders, unstable medical conditions, and those taking fish oil supplements. Demographic information, details about the participants' depression and current therapies, use of dietary and herbal supplements in the previous 12 months, and physical activity data were collected at baseline. Characteristics of supplement users were compared with those of non-users using either chi-square or Mann-Whitney U tests. Forty-five (63%) of 72 participants who provided dietary supplement information had taken at least one dietary supplement within the previous 12 months. On average, supplement users were found to have taken 2.8 (SD=1.56) dietary supplements during the assessment period. Women were more likely to be taking supplements than men (P<0.001). In conclusion, the use of dietary supplements is common among people being treated for depression. This has important implications for clinical practice as little is known about supplement-drug interactions.

  10. Dietary supplement research portfolio at the NIH, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L; Wambogo, Edwina A; Regan, Karen S; Davis, Cindy D

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. dietary supplement market increased by 7.5% in 2012 compared with 2011, reaching $32.5 billion in sales. Therefore, federally supported research on dietary supplements is important to determine their health effects, safety, and efficacy. A portfolio analysis was performed across the NIH and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) for fiscal years (FYs) 2009-2011 by using the databases Human Nutrition Research Information Management (HNRIM) and Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). The results indicated that total NIH dietary supplement-related funding for FYs 2009-2011 was $855 million ($295 million in 2009, $311 million in 2010, and $249 million in 2011). The institutes and centers with the highest investment in dietary supplement research were as follows: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ($135 million); the National Cancer Institute ($188 million); the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ($99 million); the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ($68 million); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ($58 million); and the ODS ($32 million). The dietary supplement ingredients receiving the most funding were botanicals (22%), vitamins (20%), lipids (14%), and minerals and trace elements (10%). The top 3 outcome research areas were cancer (61% of total dietary supplement investment), cardiovascular disease (47%), and women's reproductive health (38%). In FYs 2009, 2010, and 2011, the ODS provided 3.5%, 3.6%, and 4.1%, respectively, of the NIH investment in dietary supplement research. ODS funding focused on cellular, enzymatic, or molecular mechanisms (64% of total ODS funding). This portfolio analysis demonstrates that the NIH has committed substantial funding to dietary supplement research in an effort to expand the scientific knowledge base on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements.

  11. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are

  12. Protein supplements: do they alter dietary intakes?

    PubMed

    Mallard, Alistair R; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of protein versus mixed macronutrient supplementation on total energy intake (TEI) and protein intake during an ad libitum diet were examined. Trained males undertook two, 2-week dietary interventions which were randomized, double blinded, and separated by 2 weeks. These were high-protein supplementation (HP: 1034.5 kJ energy, 29.6 g protein, 8.7 g fat and 12.3 g CHO) and standard meal supplementation (SM: 1039 kJ energy, 9.9 g protein, 9.5 g fat, and 29.4 g CHO) consumed daily following a week of baseline measures. Eighteen participants finished both interventions and one only completed HP. TEI (mean ± SD) was not different between baseline (11148 ± 3347 kJ) and HP (10705 ± 3143 kJ) nor between baseline and SM (12381 ± 3877 kJ), however, TEI was greater with SM than HP (923 ± 4015 kJ p = .043). Protein intake (%TEI) was greater with HP (22.4 ± 6.2%) than baseline (19.4 ± 5.4%; p = .008) but not SM (20.0 ± 5.0%). No differences in absolute daily protein intake were found. Absolute CHO intake was greater with SM than HP (52.0 ± 89.5 g, p = .006). No differences in fat intake were found. Body mass did not change between baseline (82.7 ± 11.2 kg) and either HP (83.1 ± 11.7 kg) or SM (82.9 ± 11.0 kg). Protein supplementation increases the relative proportion of protein in the diet, but doesn't increase the absolute amount of total protein or energy consumed. Thus some compensation by a reduction in other foods occurs. This is in contrast to a mixed nutrient supplement, which does not alter the proportion of protein consumed but does increase TEI.

  13. Reproductive toxicity assessment of chronic dietary exposure to soy isoflavones in male rats.

    PubMed

    Faqi, Ali S; Johnson, William D; Morrissey, Robert L; McCormick, David L

    2004-06-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental data suggest that consumption of diets that are rich in isoflavones may decrease cancer risk in the breast, prostate, and other tissues. Isoflavones such as genistein and daidzein are structurally similar to endogenous estrogens, and demonstrate both estrogenic and weak anti-estrogenic activities; these activities may underlie the impaired fertility and reproductive tract disorders reported in animals exposed to high doses of isoflavones. To identify possible effects of isoflavones on male fertility, we evaluated reproductive parameters in Wistar-Unilever rats receiving dietary exposure to PTI G-2535, a characterized mixture of soy-derived isoflavones containing 45% genistein, 23% daidzein, and 4% glycitein. Beginning at 10 weeks of age, rats received chronic dietary exposure to the soy isoflavone mixture (200 or 2000 mg/kg diet) for a minimum of 12 months. Controls received unsupplemented chow diet only for the same period. Dietary exposure to isoflavones induced no gross toxicity or alterations in body weight gain. Absolute and relative weights of the testis and epididymis in groups receiving high or low doses of isoflavones were comparable to those of controls, and histopathologic evaluations demonstrated that testicular morphology was similar in all study groups. Isoflavone exposure had no significant effects on spermatid count, sperm production, or sperm morphology in any group. These data suggest that the reproductive system of adult male rats is relatively insensitive to isoflavone toxicity at dose levels that demonstrate significant activity in cancer chemoprevention, and that male reproductive function is unlikely to be affected by long-term administration of isoflavones for cancer prevention or other purposes. The results of this study conducted in adult male rats differ from the significant alterations in reproductive parameters that have been reported in female rats receiving prenatal or juvenile exposure to isoflavones.

  14. Dietary Supplement Use in the United States, 2003–20061

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Lentino, Cindy V.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Engel, Jody S.; Thomas, Paul R.; Betz, Joseph M.; Sempos, Christopher T.; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2011-01-01

    Dietary supplement use has steadily increased over time since the 1970s; however, no current data exist for the U.S. population. Therefore, the purpose of this analysis was to estimate dietary supplement use using the NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. Dietary supplement use was analyzed for the U.S. population (≥1 y of age) by the DRI age groupings. Supplement use was measured through a questionnaire and was reported by 49% of the U.S. population (44% of males, 53% of females). Multivitamin-multimineral use was the most frequently reported dietary supplement (33%). The majority of people reported taking only 1 dietary supplement and did so on a daily basis. Dietary supplement use was lowest in obese adults and highest among non-Hispanic whites, older adults, and those with more than a high-school education. Between 28 and 30% reported using dietary supplements containing vitamins B-6, B-12, C, A, and E; 18–19% reported using iron, selenium, and chromium; and 26–27% reported using zinc- and magnesium-containing supplements. Botanical supplement use was more common in older than in younger age groups and was lowest in those aged 1–13 y but was reported by ~20% of adults. About one-half of the U.S. population and 70% of adults ≥ 71 y use dietary supplements; one-third use multivitamin-multimineral dietary supplements. Given the widespread use of supplements, data should be included with nutrient intakes from foods to correctly determine total nutrient exposure. PMID:21178089

  15. Soy Protein-Based Infant Formulas with Supplemental Fructooligosaccharides: Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Hydration Status in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lasekan, John; Baggs, Geraldine; Acosta, Sonja; Mackey, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use) containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS) and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene) as a control (CF, n = 62 infants) or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64) and EF2 (n = 62) containing scFOS (2.5 g/L) and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05) in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%), growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events). Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03). The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days). In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use. PMID:25912040

  16. Soy protein-based infant formulas with supplemental fructooligosaccharides: gastrointestinal tolerance and hydration status in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, John; Baggs, Geraldine; Acosta, Sonja; Mackey, Amy

    2015-04-22

    Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use) containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS) and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene) as a control (CF, n = 62 infants) or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64) and EF2 (n = 62) containing scFOS (2.5 g/L) and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05) in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%), growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events). Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03). The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days). In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use.

  17. Dietitians use and recommend dietary supplements: report of a survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use is common in the United States, with more than half of the population using such products. Nutrition authorities consistently advocate a "food first" approach to achieving nutritional adequacy but some, including the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association), also recognize that dietary supplements have a role to play in improving nutrient intake to support health and wellness. Surveys show that many health professionals use dietary supplements themselves and also recommend dietary supplements to their patients or clients. Methods As one component of a series of surveys of healthcare professionals (the "Life...supplemented" HCP Impact Studies), 300 registered dietitians were surveyed in 2009 regarding their personal use of dietary supplements and whether they recommend dietary supplements to their clients. Respondents were registered dietitians whose business involved seeing clients in a private practice or at a clinic. Results Seventy-four percent of the dietitians surveyed said they were regular users of dietary supplements, while 22% said they used dietary supplements occasionally or seasonally. The primary reasons for using dietary supplements were for bone health (58%), overall health and wellness (53%), and to fill nutrient gaps (42%). When asked if they "ever recommend dietary supplements to clients," 97% of the respondents said they did. The primary reasons were for bone health (70%), to fill nutrient gaps (67%), and overall health and wellness (49%). Eighty-seven percent of the dietitians agreed with the statement, "There are gaps in clients' diets that could effectively be addressed with dietary supplements." The dietitians surveyed said they followed healthy habits including eating a balanced diet (96%), managing stress (92%), visiting their own healthcare professional regularly (86%), exercising regularly (83%), maintaining a healthy weight (80%), and getting a good night's sleep

  18. Dietitians use and recommend dietary supplements: report of a survey.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Annette; Bonci, Leslie; Boyon, Nicolas; Franco, Julio C

    2012-03-14

    Dietary supplement use is common in the United States, with more than half of the population using such products. Nutrition authorities consistently advocate a "food first" approach to achieving nutritional adequacy but some, including the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association), also recognize that dietary supplements have a role to play in improving nutrient intake to support health and wellness. Surveys show that many health professionals use dietary supplements themselves and also recommend dietary supplements to their patients or clients. As one component of a series of surveys of healthcare professionals (the "Life...supplemented" HCP Impact Studies), 300 registered dietitians were surveyed in 2009 regarding their personal use of dietary supplements and whether they recommend dietary supplements to their clients. Respondents were registered dietitians whose business involved seeing clients in a private practice or at a clinic. Seventy-four percent of the dietitians surveyed said they were regular users of dietary supplements, while 22% said they used dietary supplements occasionally or seasonally. The primary reasons for using dietary supplements were for bone health (58%), overall health and wellness (53%), and to fill nutrient gaps (42%). When asked if they "ever recommend dietary supplements to clients," 97% of the respondents said they did. The primary reasons were for bone health (70%), to fill nutrient gaps (67%), and overall health and wellness (49%). Eighty-seven percent of the dietitians agreed with the statement, "There are gaps in clients' diets that could effectively be addressed with dietary supplements." The dietitians surveyed said they followed healthy habits including eating a balanced diet (96%), managing stress (92%), visiting their own healthcare professional regularly (86%), exercising regularly (83%), maintaining a healthy weight (80%), and getting a good night's sleep (72%). Nearly all respondents

  19. Dietary Soy Intake Is Not Associated with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Singapore Chinese Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Talaei, Mohammad; Koh, Woon-Puay; van Dam, Rob M.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pan, An

    2014-01-01

    Although soy food has been recommended because of its presumed cardiovascular benefits, the long-term prospective association between habitual soy food intake and cardiovascular disease mortality remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the relation of soy protein and isoflavone intake with the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged and older Chinese adults residing in Singapore. The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based study that recruited 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45–74 y from 1993 to 1998. Usual diet was measured at recruitment by using a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, and mortality information was identified via registry linkage until 31 December 2011. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate HRs, with adjustment for potential confounders. The median intake was 5.2 g/d for soy protein, 15.8 mg/d for soy isoflavones, and 87.4 g/d for soy expressed as tofu equivalents. We documented 4780 cardiovascular deaths during 890,473 person-years of follow-up. After adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and other dietary factors, soy protein intake was not significantly associated with cardiovascular disease mortality: HRs (95% CIs) were 1.00 (reference), 1.02 (0.94, 1.11), 1.02 (0.93, 1.11), and 1.06 (0.97, 1.17) for increasing quartiles of soy protein (P-trend = 0.24). Similarly, no significant association was observed for soy isoflavones and total tofu equivalents and when deaths from coronary heart disease (n = 2697) and stroke (n = 1298) were considered separately. When stratified by sex, HRs for cardiovascular disease mortality across quartiles of soy protein were 1.00, 1.00, 1.05, and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.31) in men (P-trend = 0.02) and 1.00, 1.01, 0.96, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.10) in women (P-trend = 0.31), although the interaction was not significant (P-interaction = 0.12). In conclusion, soy intake was not significantly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease

  20. Soy Content of Basal Diets Determines the Effects of Supplemental Selenium in Male Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Quiner, Trevor E.; Nakken, Heather L.; Mason, Brock A.; Lephart, Edwin D.; Hancock, Chad R.; Christensen, Merrill J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of supplemental Se in rodent models may depend upon composition of the basal diet to which it is added. Wild-type male littermates of Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate mice were fed until 18 wk of age 1 of 2 Se-adequate stock diets high in soy (HS) or low in phytoestrogens (LP) or the same diets supplemented with 3.0 mg Se/kg diet as seleno-methylselenocysteine. Body and abdominal fat pad weights were lower (P < 0.01) in mice fed the HS diet. Supplemental Se reduced fat pad weights in mice receiving the LP diet but increased body and fat pad weights in mice consuming the HS formulation (P-interaction < 0.005). Serum free triiodothyronine concentrations were unaffected by supplemental Se in mice fed the LP diet but were decreased by Se supplementation of mice given the HS feed (P-interaction < 0.02). Free thyroxine concentrations were higher in mice consuming the HS diet regardless of Se intake (P < 0.001). Hepatic mRNA for iodothyronine deiodinase I was lower (P < 0.001) in mice fed the HS diet. Supplementation of Se increased this mRNA (P < 0.001) in both diet groups. Results from this study show a significant interaction between the composition of basal diets and the effects of supplemental Se with respect to body composition. These findings have important implications for future studies in rodent models of the effects of supplemental Se on heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and other conditions related to body weight and composition. PMID:22031663

  1. Dietary Supplement Research Portfolio at the NIH, 2009–201112

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L.; Wambogo, Edwina A.; Regan, Karen S.; Davis, Cindy D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. dietary supplement market increased by 7.5% in 2012 compared with 2011, reaching $32.5 billion in sales. Therefore, federally supported research on dietary supplements is important to determine their health effects, safety, and efficacy. A portfolio analysis was performed across the NIH and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) for fiscal years (FYs) 2009–2011 by using the databases Human Nutrition Research Information Management (HNRIM) and Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). The results indicated that total NIH dietary supplement–related funding for FYs 2009–2011 was $855 million ($295 million in 2009, $311 million in 2010, and $249 million in 2011). The institutes and centers with the highest investment in dietary supplement research were as follows: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ($135 million); the National Cancer Institute ($188 million); the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ($99 million); the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ($68 million); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ($58 million); and the ODS ($32 million). The dietary supplement ingredients receiving the most funding were botanicals (22%), vitamins (20%), lipids (14%), and minerals and trace elements (10%). The top 3 outcome research areas were cancer (61% of total dietary supplement investment), cardiovascular disease (47%), and women’s reproductive health (38%). In FYs 2009, 2010, and 2011, the ODS provided 3.5%, 3.6%, and 4.1%, respectively, of the NIH investment in dietary supplement research. ODS funding focused on cellular, enzymatic, or molecular mechanisms (64% of total ODS funding). This portfolio analysis demonstrates that the NIH has committed substantial funding to dietary supplement research in an effort to expand the scientific knowledge base on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements. PMID:24523489

  2. Lessons Learned from the Analysis of Ingredients in Dietary Supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lessons learned and findings from the analysis of caffeine in dietary supplements and the analysis of vitamins and minerals in adult multivitamin products will be included in this discussion. Fifty-four dietary supplement products for weight loss or sports performance listing at least caffeine-cont...

  3. Term Coverage of Dietary Supplements Ingredients in Product Labels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yefeng; Adam, Terrence J; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the clinical application and consumption of dietary supplements has grown, their side effects and possible interactions with prescribed medications has become a serious issue. Information extraction of dietary supplement related information is a critical need to support dietary supplement research. However, there currently is not an existing terminology for dietary supplements, placing a barrier for informatics research in this field. The terms related to dietary supplement ingredients should be collected and normalized before a terminology can be established to facilitate convenient search on safety information and control possible adverse effects of dietary supplements. In this study, the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) was chosen as the data source from which the ingredient information was extracted and normalized. The distribution based on the product type and the ingredient type of the dietary supplements were analyzed. The ingredient terms were then mapped to the existing terminologies, including UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT by using MetaMap and RxMix. The large gap between existing terminologies and ingredients were found: only 14.67%, 19.65%, and 12.88% of ingredient terms were covered by UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT, respectively.

  4. The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) - 3 release.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) provides analytically-derived estimates of ingredient content in dietary supplement (DS) products sold in the United States. DSID was developed by the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) within the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agricu...

  5. Term Coverage of Dietary Supplements Ingredients in Product Labels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yefeng; Adam, Terrence J.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the clinical application and consumption of dietary supplements has grown, their side effects and possible interactions with prescribed medications has become a serious issue. Information extraction of dietary supplement related information is a critical need to support dietary supplement research. However, there currently is not an existing terminology for dietary supplements, placing a barrier for informatics research in this field. The terms related to dietary supplement ingredients should be collected and normalized before a terminology can be established to facilitate convenient search on safety information and control possible adverse effects of dietary supplements. In this study, the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) was chosen as the data source from which the ingredient information was extracted and normalized. The distribution based on the product type and the ingredient type of the dietary supplements were analyzed. The ingredient terms were then mapped to the existing terminologies, including UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT by using MetaMap and RxMix. The large gap between existing terminologies and ingredients were found: only 14.67%, 19.65%, and 12.88% of ingredient terms were covered by UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT, respectively. PMID:28269965

  6. Dietary factors influence production of the soy isoflavone metabolite s-(-)equol in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Kenneth D R; Brown, Nadine M; Summer, Suzanne; King, Eileen C; Heubi, James E; Cole, Sidney; Guy, Trish; Hokin, Bevan

    2013-12-01

    S-(-)equol, an intestinally derived metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein, is proposed to enhance the efficacy of soy diets. Adults differ in their ability to produce equol when consuming soy foods for reasons that remain unclear. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive dietary analysis of 143 macro- and micronutrients in 159 healthy adults in the United States (n = 89) and Australia (n = 70) to determine whether the intake of specific nutrients favors equol production. Three-d diet records were collected and analyzed using Nutrition Data System for Research software and S-(-)equol was measured in urine by mass spectrometry. Additionally, in a subset of equol producers and nonproducers (n = 10/group), we examined the long-term stability of equol producer status by retesting 12, 18, and 24 mo later. Finally, the effect of oral administration of the antibiotic metronidazole (500 mg/d for 7 d) on equol production was examined in 5 adults monitored during a 4-mo follow-up period. Equol producers accounted for 30.3% and 28.6% of the United States and Australian participants, respectively (overall frequency, 29.6%). No significant differences were observed for total protein, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, or fiber intakes between equol producers and nonproducers. However, principal component analysis revealed differences in several nutrients, including higher intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.039), maltose (P = 0.02), and vitamins A (P = 0.01) and E (P = 0.035) and a lower intake of total cholesterol (P = 0.010) in equol producers. During a 2-y period, equol producer status remained unchanged in all nonproducers and in 80% of equol producers, whereas metronidazole abolished equol production in only 20% of participants. In conclusion, these findings suggest that major differences in the macronutrient content of the diet appear not to influence equol production, but subtle differences in some nutrients may influence the ability to produce equol, which

  7. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  8. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  9. Liver injury from herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Khan, Ikhlas; Björnsson, Einar; Seeff, Leonard B; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are used increasingly both in the United States and worldwide, and HDS-induced liver injury in the United States has increased proportionally. Current challenges in the diagnosis and management of HDS-induced liver injury were the focus of a 2-day research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health. HDS-induced liver injury now accounts for 20% of cases of hepatotoxicity in the United States based on research data. The major implicated agents include anabolic steroids, green tea extract, and multi-ingredient nutritional supplements. Anabolic steroids marketed as bodybuilding supplements typically induce a prolonged cholestatic but ultimately self-limiting liver injury that has a distinctive serum biochemical as well as histological phenotype. Green tea extract and many other products, in contrast, tend to cause an acute hepatitis-like injury. Currently, however, the majority of cases of HDS-associated liver injury are due to multi-ingredient nutritional supplements, and the component responsible for the toxicity is usually unknown or can only be suspected. HDS-induced liver injury presents many clinical and research challenges in diagnosis, identification of the responsible constituents, treatment, and prevention. Also important are improvements in regulatory oversight of nonprescription products to guarantee their constituents and ensure purity and safety. The confident identification of injurious ingredients within HDS will require strategic alignments among clinicians, chemists, and toxicologists. The ultimate goal should be to prohibit or more closely regulate potentially injurious ingredients and thus promote public safety. (Hepatology 2017;65:363-373).

  10. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Dyck, D J

    2000-12-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  11. Promotion of bone growth by dietary soy protein isolate: Comparision with dietary casein, whey hydrolysate and rice protein isolate in growing female rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of different dietary protein sources(casein (CAS), soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) and rice protein isolate (RPI)) on bone were studied in intact growing female rats and in ovarectomized (OVX) rats showing sex steroid deficiency-induced bone loss. In addition, S...

  12. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of Pycnogenol dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Song, Fenhong; Lin, Long-Ze

    2009-01-01

    The bark of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) has been widely used as a remedy for various degenerative diseases. A standard high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure for Pycnogenol analysis is a method specified in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) monograph, which requires measurement of peak areas and identification of four components of the extract: caffeic acid, catechin, ferulic acid, and taxifolin. In this study, a fingerprint analysis using an HPLC method based on the USP monograph has been developed to provide additional qualitative information for the analysis of Pycnogenol-containing dietary supplements (PDS). Twelve commercially available PDS samples were purchased and analyzed along with a standard Pycnogenol extract. Their chromatographic fingerprints were analyzed using principal component analysis. The results showed that two of the samples were not consistent with the standard reference Pycnogenol extract. One contained other active ingredients in addition to Pycnogenol, and the other may have resulted from a quality control issue in manufacturing.

  13. [Influence of dietary supplementation on newborn weight].

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Tomasz; Klejewski, Andrzej; Pisarska, Magdalena; Kostecka, Ewelina

    2012-01-01

    The basic source of vitamins and microelements for an expectant mother should be a good arranged diet. The diet should mainly meets the demand for individual nutrient elements, evolves during a pregnancy and supplies with indispensable macro and microelements to mother and a growing up embryo. The usage of multivitamin supplements for expectant mothers ought to always consult with a physician responsible for an expectant mother. Dietary supplements ought to be good chose to individual needs so that it can in an optimal way aid the health of an expectant mother and the progress of baby. The specialist literature and my ones researches show that a supplementary diet with multivitamin supplements and preparations with a folic acid in pregnancy can affect the mass of a neonate and increaser it. One should considers the implementation of multivitamin supplements by women from a risk group of the disorder development of an embryo that means: women from a lower social and economic status, with lower education, young mothers, with an unhealthy diet, exposed to anemia, with too low body mass before conception and with bad habits and a lifestyle. It should be mentioned that not only complications as a result of too low body mass of a neonate but also too high body mass can redound to many irregularities and disorders during a pregnancy. To them we can include a higher rate of caesareans and an increase in a perinatal mortality of neonates. So that is way the decision of including a supplementary diet should be made very carefully and individually for every patient. Special attention should be emphasized on the necessity of a health education to the extent of a healthy diet and a weight gain of mother while a cyophoria. The aim of carried out researches was estimation the influence of supplementary diet on the body mass of a neonate. One hundred respondents were covered by the research - the patients of "Maternity and Gynaecology Ward" with the obstetric, perinatology and

  14. Effects of voluntary running and soy supplementation on diet-induced metabolic disturbances and inflammation in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study investigated the effects of voluntary running and soy supplementation on diet-induced metabolic disturbance and inflammation in male C57BL/6 mice using a 2x2x2 design in which the effects of diet (AIN93G or its modification with 45% calories from fat), activity level (sedentary or ...

  15. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements

  16. Short term effects on bone quality associated with consumption of soy protein isolate and other dietary protein sources in rapidly growing female rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beneficial effects of soy protein consumption on bone quality have been reported. The effects of other dietary protein sources such as whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) and rice protein isolate (RPI) on bone growth has been less well examined. The current study compared effects of feeding soy protein i...

  17. Use of Nonvitamin, Nonmineral Dietary Supplements among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Heather; Beerman, Kathy; Duncan, Sam; McGuire, Michelle; Hillers, Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Assessed college students' use of nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM) dietary supplements. Student surveys indicated that nearly half of the respondents took NVNM supplements, most frequently echinacea, ginseng, and St. John's wort. Over 80 percent had acceptable body mass index values. Users and nonusers of NVNM supplements did not differ significantly…

  18. Use of Nonvitamin, Nonmineral Dietary Supplements among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Heather; Beerman, Kathy; Duncan, Sam; McGuire, Michelle; Hillers, Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Assessed college students' use of nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM) dietary supplements. Student surveys indicated that nearly half of the respondents took NVNM supplements, most frequently echinacea, ginseng, and St. John's wort. Over 80 percent had acceptable body mass index values. Users and nonusers of NVNM supplements did not differ significantly…

  19. Liver Injury from Herbal and Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Victor; Khan, Ikhlas; Björnsson, Einar; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

    2017-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are used increasingly both in the United States and worldwide and HDS induced liver injury in the U.S. has increased proportionally. Current challenges in the diagnosis and management of HDS-induced liver injury were the focus of a 2-day research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health. HDS-induced liver injury now accounts for 20% of cases of hepatotoxicity in the United States based on research data. The major implicated agents include anabolic steroids, green tea extract, and multi-ingredient nutritional supplements (MINS). Anabolic steroids marketed as bodybuilding supplements typically induce a prolonged cholestatic, but ultimately self-limiting liver injury that has a distinctive serum biochemical as well as histological phenotype. Green tea extract and many other products, in contrast, tend to cause an acute-hepatitis like injury. Currently, however, the majority of cases of HDS-associated liver injury are due to MINS, and the component responsible for the toxicity is usually unknown or can only be suspected. HDS-induced liver injury presents many clinical and research challenges, in diagnosis, identification of the responsible constituents, treatment and prevention. Also important are improvements in regulatory oversight of non-prescription products to guarantee their constituents and insure purity and safety. The confident identification of injurious ingredients within HDS will require strategic alignments among clinicians, chemists, and toxicologists. The ultimate goal should be to prohibit or more closely regulate potentially injurious ingredients and thus promote public safety. PMID:27677775

  20. Evaluation of congruence among dietary supplement use and motivation for supplementation in young, Canadian athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is endemic in young athletes; however, it is unclear if their choices are congruent with their motivation for supplementation and the established benefits of the dietary supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dietary supplement use and self-reported rationale in young athletes. Canadian athletes (n = 567; 11-25 years; 76% club or provincial level, 24% national or higher) completed a questionnaire designed to assess supplementation patterns and motivation for supplementation. Chi square tests examined associations between dietary supplements and self-reported rationale for use. Vitamin and mineral supplements, including vitamin-enriched water, were associated with several health- and performance- related reasons (p < 0.001). Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and glutamine were linked to improving diet and immune function (p < 0.01), but were more strongly associated with performance reasons, as were performance foods (protein powder, sport bars, sport gels, etc.). Plant extracts and fatty acids were primarily associated with health reasons, particularly immune support (p < 0.001). Congruencies exist between performance rationales and supplementation for common ergogenic aids, however, less so for vitamin and mineral supplements, vitamin-enriched water, and plant extracts. Incongruences were found between fatty acids, protein supplements, vitamin and mineral supplements, vitamin-enriched water, and plant extracts and health motivators for supplementation. Educational interventions are essential to ensure young athletes are using dietary supplements safely and effectively.

  1. Botanical dietary supplement use in peri- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mahady, Gail B; Parrot, Julie; Lee, Cathy; Yun, Gina S; Dan, Alice

    2003-01-01

    To determine use of botanical dietary supplements (BDS) in women between the ages of 40 and 60 years at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) clinics, including information about commonly used BDS, the reason for use, information resources used, and the overall perception of safety and efficacy of BDS. Five hundred female outpatients at UIC clinics were interviewed by healthcare practitioners using a botanical/drug history questionnaire. Respondents were 46.8% African American, 39.6% Caucasian, 11.7% Hispanic, and 1.5% Asian, with a mean age of 50.34 years. BDS were used by 79% of respondents ( = 395), of which 36.5% used BDS daily. Of the positive respondents, 51.7% used one or two BDS, whereas 48.4% used three or more. Commonly used botanicals included soy (42%), green tea (34.68%), chamomile (20.76%), gingko (20.51%), ginseng (17.97%), Echinacea (15.44%), and St. John's wort (7.34%). Black cohosh, garlic, red clover, kava, valerian, evening primrose, and ephedra were used by less than 15% of respondents. Efficacy ratings were high for BDS, and 68% claimed to have no side effects. Only 3% of respondents obtained BDS information from healthcare professionals, and 70% of respondents were not informing their physician of BDS use. A high percentage of women at UIC clinics were using multiple BDS. The respondents believed that these products were both safe and effective for the treatment of common ailments. Concomitant BDS use with prescription and over-the-counter medications was commonplace, often without a physician's knowledge. Consumer education about the possible benefits and risks associated with BDS use is urgently needed.

  2. Progress in development of an integrated dietary supplement ingredient database at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Coates, Paul M.; Radimer, Kathy; Bindewald, Bernadette; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Holden, Joanne; Andrews, Karen; Zhao, Cuiwei; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Several activities of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health involve enhancement of dietary supplement databases. These include an initiative with US Department of Agriculture to develop an analytically substantiated dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID) and collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the dietary supplement label database in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The many challenges that must be dealt with in developing an analytically supported DSID include categorizing product types in the database, identifying nutrients, and other components of public health interest in these products and prioritizing which will be entered in the database first. Additional tasks include developing methods and reference materials for quantifying the constituents, finding qualified laboratories to measure the constituents, developing appropriate sample handling procedures, and finally developing representative sampling plans. Developing the NHANES dietary supplement label database has other challenges such as collecting information on dietary supplement use from NHANES respondents, constant updating and refining of information obtained, developing default values that can be used if the respondent cannot supply the exact supplement or strength that was consumed, and developing a publicly available label database. Federal partners and the research community are assisting in making an analytically supported dietary supplement database a reality. PMID:25309034

  3. Dietary supplementation with dimethylglycine affects broiler performance and plasma metabolites depending on dose and dietary fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, I D; Cools, A; Verstegen, M W A; Huyghebaert, G; Buyse, J; Roose, P; Janssens, G P J

    2011-04-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with N,N-dimethylglycine sodium salt (Na-DMG) was evaluated in a feeding trial with 1500 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500). DMG was supplemented at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 or 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed to a ration with either animal fat (chicken fat) or vegetal fat (soy oil) as main fat source. In the vegetal fat diets, production value was significantly linearly improved by supplementation with DMG up to 11%. Irrespective of dietary fat source, abdominal fat percentage was significantly linearly reduced up to 24% and meat yield tended to increase linearly with DMG level up to 4%. In the vegetal fat groups, DMG significantly lowered abdominal fat pad by up to 38% and tended to increase meat yield up to 6% at the highest dose. Fasted non-esterified fatty acid level significantly decreased with increasing DMG level up to 36% and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) decreased with a statistical trend up to 46% at the highest dose. In vegetal fat diets, addition of DMG resulted in significant lower TBARS level by 56% at the highest dose. Finally, a significant quadratic effect on ascites heart index was present in the vegetal fat diets, with a minimal value at 0.5 g Na-DMG/kg. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with DMG may improve technical and slaughter performance, and may reduce oxidative stress and pulmonary hypertension, but the degree of effects is modulated by fatty acid profile of the diet. Herewith, effects are more pronounced in a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with a diet rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Long-term dietary habits affect soy isoflavone metabolism and accumulation in prostatic fluid in caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Tammy E; Maroni, Paul D; Ferucci, Paul G; Dayton, Robert; Barnes, Stephen; Jones, Kenneth; Moore, Ray; Ogden, Lorraine G; Wähälä, Kristiina; Sackett, Holly M; Gray, Karen J

    2005-06-01

    The soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein are believed to reduce prostate cancer risk in soy consumers. However, daidzein can be metabolized by the intestinal flora to form a variety of compounds with different bioactivities. In the current study, we investigated the influence of long-term dietary habits on daidzein metabolism in healthy Caucasian men (19-65 y old). A secondary goal was to compare plasma and prostatic fluid concentrations of 5 isoflavonoids: genistein, daidzein, equol, dihydrodaidzein, and O-desmethylangolensin. Baseline plasma levels of isoflavonoids were quantitated in 45 men by HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS. Participants then consumed a soy beverage daily for 1 wk, and post-soy isoflavonoid levels were quantitated in plasma and prostatic fluid. Equol was the only metabolite that appeared to be influenced by routine dietary habits. Stratified analyses revealed that men who had consumed > or =30 mg soy isoflavones/d for at least 2 y had 5.3-times the probability of producing equol than men who had consumed < or =5 mg/d (P = 0.014). Additionally, those men who consumed animal meat regularly had 4.7-times the probability of producing equol than men who did not consume meat (P = 0.023). Equol production was not linked to age, BMI, or the consumption of yogurt, dairy, fruit, or American-style fast food. Daidzein and its metabolites (but not genistein) were typically present at higher levels in prostate fluid than plasma (median = 4-13 times that in plasma). In conclusion, our data suggest that the ability of Caucasian men to produce equol is favorably influenced by the long-term consumption of high amounts of soy and the consumption of meat. Last, the high concentrations of isoflavonoids in prostatic fluid increases the potential for these compounds to have direct effects in the prostate.

  5. Effects of hyperparathyroidism and dietary calcium supplementation on bone healing.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, G B; Schmidt, R E; Gleiser, C A; MacKenzie, W F

    1979-02-01

    Effects of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and dietary calcium supplementation on bone healing were determined. Groups (n = 4) of 5 mature male dogs each were fed the following diets: group 1, control diet (0.48% Ca, 0.43% P); group 2, test diet (0.12% Ca, 1.14% P): group 3, control diet plus calcium; group 4, test diet plus calcium. The dietary calcium supplementation was calcium gluconate. Lesions were induced in the right tibial cortex by trephinization. Within the time limitations of this study, it was determined that nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism does not inhibit bone healing and that dietary calcium supplementation does not aid bone healing.

  6. Complementarity in dietary supplements and foods: are supplement users vegetable eaters?

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyoung-Goo; Joo, Hailey Hayeon; Choi, Kyong Duk; Lee, Dongmin; Moon, Junghoon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The consumption of fruits, vegetables, and dietary supplements correlate. Most previous studies have aimed to identify the determinants of supplement uses or the distinct features of supplement users; this literature lacks a discussion on dietary supplement consumption as a predictor of fruit and vegetable consumption. Objective: This study examines how dietary supplement consumption correlates with fruit and vegetable consumption by combining scanner data and surveys of Korean household grocery shopping. Methods: Propensity score matching (PSM) is used to identify the relationship between dietary supplement consumption and fruit and vegetable consumption in a household. A logit regression using supplement consumption as the dependent variable is used. Then, the supplement takers (the treatment group) are matched with non-takers (the control group) based on the propensity scores estimated in the logit regression. The fruit and vegetable consumption levels of the groups are then compared. Results: We found that dietary supplement use is associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption. This supports the health consciousness hypothesis based on attention bias, availability heuristics, the focusing effect, and the consumption episode effect. It rejects the health substitute hypothesis based on economic substitutes and mental accounting. Conclusions: Future research on the health benefits of dietary supplements should address the complementary consumption of fruits/vegetables and their health benefits to avoid misstating the health effects of supplements.

  7. Early effects of dietary soy and genistein in rodent models of mammary tumorigenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The risk of breast cancer is highly modifiable by diet. Breast cancer may have its origins during early mammary development, thus the increasing popularity of soy food consumption among pregnant and breast-feeding women and early exposure to soy protein and bioactive components through soy infant fo...

  8. ELISA testing for soy antigens in dry dog foods used in dietary elimination trials.

    PubMed

    Willis-Mahn, Christine; Remillard, Rebecca; Tater, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The use of elimination diet trials is necessary in the diagnosis of food allergies and intolerances. The objective of this study was to determine in vitro if four over-the-counter (OTC) dry dog foods carrying a "no soy" claim and seven veterinary therapeutic dry dog foods designed for food elimination trials were suitable for a soybean elimination trial. A 100 g sample of each diet plus one soy positive and one soy negative control diet were submitted for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing to an independent food laboratory. The positive control diet contained >25 ppm soy protein antigens and the negative control contained <2.5 ppm. Three of the four OTC "no soy" claiming diets were positive for soy antigen. Two of the three soy-containing diets had >25 ppm. Three veterinary therapeutic diets had less than the lowest detectable limit of soy protein and four were positive (>2.5 ppm). OTC dog food diets that claim to contain "no soy" may contain high concentrations of soy protein and, therefore, should not be used in soy elimination trials in suspect food allergic dogs. The veterinary therapeutic diet selected for a soy elimination trial needs to be carefully chosen based on diet history.

  9. Nutrition of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus L.: an additional evaluation of the effects of soy-based diets and supplemental prebiotic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We assessed the effects of a fishmeal- (FM) and two soybean- [SOY = soybean meal (SBM) + soy protein concentrate (SPC)] based diets [with or without prebiotic (GroBiotic® -A; GBA) supplementation] on the production performance, non-specific immunity, blood parameters, and gut microbiota diversity of...

  10. Supplementation with flaxseed alters estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women to a greater extent than does supplementation with an equal amount of soy.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jennifer D; Ward, Wendy E; Lewis, Jacqueline E; Hilditch, John; Nickell, Leslie; Wong, Evelyn; Thompson, Lilian U

    2004-02-01

    Phytoestrogens, which are abundant in flaxseed and soy, have chemical structures resembling those of endogenous estrogens and have been shown to exert hormonal effects, thereby affecting chronic diseases. We compared the effects of consuming equal amounts of flaxseed or soy on estrogen metabolism and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. In a parallel design, the diet of postmenopausal women (n = 46) was supplemented with either a placebo, soy (25 g soy flour), or flaxseed (25 g ground flaxseed) muffin for 16 wk. Blood and 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline and at the endpoint. Urine samples were analyzed for phytoestrogens, estrogen metabolites (2-hydroxyestrone, 16alpha-hydroxyestrone), and serum hormones (estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate). Serum and urine samples were also analyzed for biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Urinary concentrations of 2-hydroxyestrone, but not of 16alpha-hydroxyestrone, increased significantly in the flaxseed group (P = 0.05). In the flaxseed group, the ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone to 16alpha-hydroxyestrone was positively correlated with urinary lignan excretion (r = 0.579, P = 0.02). In the soy and placebo groups, no significant correlation was observed. No significant change in serum hormones or biochemical markers of bone metabolism was observed within or between the treatment groups. Supplementation with flaxseed modifies urinary estrogen metabolite excretion to a greater extent than does supplementation with an equal amount of soy. This modification by flaxseed is associated with an increase in urinary lignan excretion. Despite the shift in estrogen metabolism to favor the less biologically active estrogens, a negative effect on bone cell metabolism was not observed.

  11. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): Preliminary USDA studies on composition of adult multivitamin/mineral supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory, USDA, is collaborating with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), the National Center for Health Statistics, and other government agencies to design and populate a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID). This analytically based, publicly available database wi...

  12. Dietary supplement use among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Valerie; Goyal, Abhishek; Hsu, Christine C; Jacobson, Judith S; Rodriguez, Rosa D; Siegel, Abby B

    2015-01-01

    More than 50% of US adults, and an even larger proportion of cancer patients, use dietary supplements. Since many supplements require hepatic metabolism, they may be particularly likely to cause toxicities in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, little is known about supplement use in patients with HCC. From 2008 to 2012, we gave newly diagnosed HCC patients at our institution a standardized questionnaire about dietary supplement use, demographic factors, and clinical characteristics. We then followed patients for four years or until time to death to examine the relationship with supplement use. Of 146 patients, 71% had used vitamins and 45% herbal supplements. Most commonly used supplements were antioxidants (51%), multivitamins (46%), vitamin D (25%), and milk thistle (23%). People in mid-higher income brackets were more likely to use herbal supplements (19% of those earning <$30 000, 50% of those earning $30 000-60 000, and 34% of those earning >$60 000 used supplements). Hepatitis C (HCV) patients were more likely to use milk thistle than those without HCV (30% vs 13%, P = .03), and patients with hepatitis B (HBV) were more likely than non-HBV patients to use vitamin C (32% vs 14%, P = .01). Supplement use was not associated with overall survival. Like cancer patients in other studies, the majority of our HCC patients used dietary supplements. Supplement use was not associated with overall survival but should be studied in larger patient samples. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Dietary supplementation practices in Canadian high-performance athletes.

    PubMed

    Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly A; Fung, Tak S; Reimer, Raylene A

    2012-02-01

    Dietary supplementation is a common practice in athletes with a desire to enhance performance, training, exercise recovery, and health. Supplementation habits of elite athletes in western Canada have been documented, but research is lacking on supplement use by athletes across Canada. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the dietary supplementation practices and perspectives of high-performance Canadian athletes affiliated with each of the country's eight Canadian Sport Centres. Dietitians administered a validated survey to 440 athletes (63% women, 37% men; M=19.99±5.20 yr) representing 34 sports who predominantly trained≥16 hr/wk, most competing in "power" based sports. Within the previous 6 months, 87% declared having taken≥3 dietary supplements, with sports drinks, multivitamin and mineral preparations, carbohydrate sports bars, protein powder, and meal-replacement products the most prevalent supplements reported. Primary sources of information on supplementation, supplementation justification, and preferred means of supplementation education were identified. Fifty-nine percent reported awareness of current World Anti-Doping Agency legislation, and 83% subjectively believed they were in compliance with such anti-doping regulations. It was concluded that supplementation rates are not declining in Canada, current advisors on supplementation for this athletic population are not credible, and sports medicine physicians and dietitians need to consider proactive strategies to improve their influence on supplementation practices in these elite athletes.

  14. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aljaloud, Sulaiman O.; Ibrahim, Salam A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance. PMID:23762541

  15. Dietary soy isoflavones increase insulin secretion and prevent the development of diabetic cataracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei-Ping; Wang, Rui; Song, Xiuyuan; Chibbar, Rajni; Wang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Lingyun; Meng, Qing H

    2008-07-01

    Soy isoflavone-containing diets have been reported to be beneficial in diabetes. This present study investigated the hypoglycemic effects of isoflavones in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg STZ. Diabetic rats were then randomly divided into 3 groups and received a special diet supplemented with casein (control), low-isoflavone soy (LIS) protein, and high-isoflavone soy protein (HIS) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control or LIS groups, those rats on the HIS diet had significantly increased body weight and serum insulin levels and reduced serum glucose and methylglyoxal levels. Serum glutathione levels were also increased in rats given the HIS diet compared with those in the control or LIS (P < .01). Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was significantly higher in HIS-fed rats than that of the control or LIS rats (P < .05). More importantly, the death rate and incidence of cataracts in the diabetic rats were markedly decreased in the HIS group. In conclusion, ingestion of high-isoflavone soy protein not only lowers glucose levels but also reduces the incidence of cataracts in diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of soy isoflavones are attributed to increased insulin secretion, a better glycemic control, and antioxidant protection.

  16. Mitochondrial disease patients' perception of dietary supplements' use.

    PubMed

    Karaa, Amel; Kriger, Joshua; Grier, Johnston; Holbert, Amy; Thompson, John L P; Parikh, Sumit; Hirano, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Surveys of mitochondrial disease physicians conducted through the Mitochondrial Medicine Society have shown that virtually all providers recommend a variety of dietary supplements as treatments to their patients in an effort to enhance energy production and reduce oxidative stress. In this survey, we asked patients and their parents about their experiences taking these dietary supplements for mitochondrial disease. The survey was disseminated through the North American Mitochondrial Disease Consortium (NAMDC) and the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) registries and gathered 162 responses. The study ascertained each patient's mitochondrial disease diagnosis, dietary supplements used, adjunct therapy, and effects of the supplements on symptoms and health. Regardless of the specific underlying mitochondrial disease, the majority of the survey respondents stated they are or have been on dietary supplements. Most patients take more than four supplements primarily coenzyme Q10, l-carnitine, and riboflavin. The majority of patients taking supplements reported health benefits from the supplements. The onset of perceived benefits was between 2weeks to 3months of initiating intake. Supplements seem to be safe, with only 28% of patients experiencing mild side-effects and only 5.6% discontinuing their intake due to intolerance. Only 9% of patients had insurance coverage for their supplements and when paying out of pocket, 95% of them spend up to $500/month. Despite the use of concomitant therapies (prescribed medications, physical therapy, diet changes and other), 45.5% of patients think that dietary supplements are the only intervention improving their symptoms. Some limitations of this study include the retrospective collection of data probably associated with substantial recall bias, lack of longitudinal follow up to document pre- and post-supplement clinical status and second hand reports by parents for children which may reflect parents' subjective

  17. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions. PMID:26262159

  18. Catechins in Dietary Supplements and Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Hwang, Sun-Il; Vega, Maricruz; Barnhart, Huiman; Serrano, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Background Green tea extract (GTE) and its component catechins are found in many herbal dietary supplements (HDS), some of which may not indicate their presence on the product label. Aim Because GTE and catechins have been implicated in human hepatotoxicity through several case reports, we aimed to determine whether catechins were present in HDS that were implicated in hepatotoxicity even if not identified among the labeled ingredients, and whether these compounds could be associated with liver injury. Methods We assayed 97 HDS implicated in human hepatotoxicity for catechins. Results We found that 29 of 73 HDS (39.7%) that did not identify GTE or any of its component catechins on their label contained catechins. Among the patients with confirmed hepatotoxicity, there was no statistically significant association between the presence of catechin or dose consumed and liver injury causality score, severity, or pattern of liver injury. Products used for weight loss tended to have the highest catechin levels, although catechin concentrations were low in most products. Conclusions Catechins are commonly present in many HDS that are implicated in hepatotoxicity, even when not identified on the product label. Although our results did not establish an association between GTE or catechin with hepatotoxicity, they highlight some of the many complexities and uncertainties that surround to the attribution of DILI to HDS. PMID:23625293

  19. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug–botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements. PMID:26125082

  20. Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health Share ... you take prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medications, do you take also a vitamin, mineral, or ...

  1. Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... professionals Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says Share: May 2016 © Thinkstock Clinical Guidelines, Scientific ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  2. An Evidence-based Elective on Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Whitney; Zeolla, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Objective To implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a pharmacy elective on dietary supplements that emphasized evidence-based care. Design A 3-credit elective that employed both traditional lectures and a variety of active-learning exercises was implemented. The course introduction provided a background in dietary supplement use and evidence-based medicine principles before addressing dietary supplements by primary indication. Assessment Student learning was assessed through quizzes, case assignments, discussion board participation, and completion of a longitudinal group project. Precourse and postcourse surveys were conducted to assess students' opinions, knowledge, and skills related to course objectives. Conclusion The course was an effective way to increase students' knowledge of dietary supplements and skills and confidence in providing patient care in this area. PMID:19777095

  3. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    van Breemen, Richard B

    2015-11-12

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug-botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements.

  4. Probiotic Soy Product Supplemented with Isoflavones Improves the Lipid Profile of Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Daniela Cardoso Umbelino; Manzoni, Marla Simone Jovenasso; Bedani, Raquel; Roselino, Mariana Nougalli; Celiberto, Larissa Sbaglia; Vendramini, Regina Célia; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Abdalla, Dulcinéia Saes Parra; Pinto, Roseli Aparecida; Rosetto, Daniella; Valentini, Sandro Roberto; Rossi, Elizeu Antonio

    2016-01-19

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that specific probiotics affect the host's metabolism and may influence the cardiovascular disease risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an isoflavone-supplemented soy product fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 on cardiovascular risk markers in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial Setting: São Paulo State University in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. 49 male healthy men with total cholesterol (TC) >5.17 mmol/L and <6.21 mmol/L Intervention: The volunteers have consumed 200 mL of the probiotic soy product (group SP-10(10) CFU/day), isoflavone-supplemented probiotic soy product (group ISP-probiotic plus 50 mg of total isoflavones/100 g) or unfermented soy product (group USP-placebo) for 42 days in a randomized, double-blind study. Lipid profile and additional cardiovascular biomarkers were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 42. Urine samples (24 h) were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment so as to determine the isoflavones profile. After 42 days, the ISP consumption led to improved total cholesterol, non-HDL-C (LDL + IDL + VLDL cholesterol fractions) and electronegative LDL concentrations (reduction of 13.8%, 14.7% and 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.05). The ISP and SP have prevented the reduction of HDL-C level after 42 days. The C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were not improved. The equol production by the ISP group subjects was inversely correlated with electronegative LDL concentration. The results suggest that a regular consumption of this probiotic soy product, supplemented with isoflavones, could contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, through the an improvement in lipid profile and antioxidant properties.

  5. Probiotic Soy Product Supplemented with Isoflavones Improves the Lipid Profile of Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso Umbelino Cavallini, Daniela; Jovenasso Manzoni, Marla Simone; Bedani, Raquel; Roselino, Mariana Nougalli; Celiberto, Larissa Sbaglia; Vendramini, Regina Célia; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Saes Parra Abdalla, Dulcinéia; Aparecida Pinto, Roseli; Rosetto, Daniella; Roberto Valentini, Sandro; Antonio Rossi, Elizeu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that specific probiotics affect the host’s metabolism and may influence the cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an isoflavone-supplemented soy product fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 on cardiovascular risk markers in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial Setting: São Paulo State University in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Participants: 49 male healthy men with total cholesterol (TC) >5.17 mmol/L and <6.21 mmol/L Intervention: The volunteers have consumed 200 mL of the probiotic soy product (group SP-1010 CFU/day), isoflavone-supplemented probiotic soy product (group ISP–probiotic plus 50 mg of total isoflavones/100 g) or unfermented soy product (group USP-placebo) for 42 days in a randomized, double-blind study. Main outcome measures: Lipid profile and additional cardiovascular biomarkers were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 42. Urine samples (24 h) were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment so as to determine the isoflavones profile. Results: After 42 days, the ISP consumption led to improved total cholesterol, non-HDL-C (LDL + IDL + VLDL cholesterol fractions) and electronegative LDL concentrations (reduction of 13.8%, 14.7% and 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.05). The ISP and SP have prevented the reduction of HDL-C level after 42 days. The C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were not improved. The equol production by the ISP group subjects was inversely correlated with electronegative LDL concentration. Conclusions: The results suggest that a regular consumption of this probiotic soy product, supplemented with isoflavones, could contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, through the an improvement in

  6. Proposed rule: current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packing, or holding dietary ingredients and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Melethil, Srikumaran

    2006-03-27

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) was enacted in October 1994 to promote the health of Americans by ensuring easier access to safe dietary supplements. Many supplements such as vitamins, minerals, herbs and amino acids have been reported to be helpful in chronic conditions (i.e., heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis). Under DSHEA, dietary supplements can be marketed without prior FDA approval; the burden is on this agency to show that a marketed dietary supplement is unsafe. However, DSHEA retained the FDA's authority to issue regulations that require the manufacture of dietary supplements be in compliance with current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) standards, which are needed to ensure their quality. Several quality-related concerns of marketed dietary supplements that came to light since the passage of DSHEA prompted the FDA in 2003 to propose rules for cGMP for the manufacture, packaging and holding (storage) of dietary supplements. This review will present the highlights of these proposed rules, focusing on the legislative history of DSHEA, rationale for proposing cGMPs along with a general discussion of the specific requirements. Given the voluminous nature of the specific details, the reader is directed to the pertinent FDA publications for details. In this analysis, selected scientific and legal issues are also discussed to promote a better understanding and implications of these rules.

  7. Dietary supplement safety information in magazines popular among older readers.

    PubMed

    Kava, Ruth; Meister, Kathleen A; Whelan, Elizabeth M; Lukachko, Alicia M; Mirabile, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Dietary supplements are extensively used in the United States, especially by people age 50 and over. Surveys have shown that magazines and other news media are an important source of information about nutrition and dietary supplements for the American public. It is uncertain, however, whether magazines provide their readers with adequate information about the safety aspects of supplement use. This report presents an analysis of supplement safety information in articles published during 1994-1998 in 10 major magazines popular among older readers. This time period was chosen to allow the impact of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) to be assessed. The evaluation included 254 magazine articles. More than two-thirds of the articles did not include comprehensive information about the safety aspects of the dietary supplements that were discussed. Information about safety issues such as maximum safe doses and drug-supplement interactions was often lacking even in otherwise informative and well-researched articles. A total of 2,983 advertisements for more than 130 different types of supplements were published in the magazines surveyed. The number of advertisements per year increased between 1995 and 1998. Supplements of particular interest to older adults (such as antioxidants, calcium, garlic, ginkgo biloba, joint health products, liquid oral supplements, and multivitamins) were among the most frequently advertised products. Although magazines popular among older readers contain extensive information about dietary supplements, these publications cannot be relied upon to provide readers with all of the information that they need in order to use supplements safely.

  8. Micronutrient dietary supplements--a new fourth approach.

    PubMed

    Latham, M C; Ash, D; Ndossi, G; Mehansho, H; Tatala, S

    2001-03-01

    Currently the three main widely used strategies to control micronutrient deficiencies are food diversification, fortification, and consumption of medicinal supplements. In Tanzania a fourth strategy has been evaluated in school children, and is to be studied in pregnant and lactating women. The dietary supplement comes in the form of a powder used to prepare a fruit flavored drink. Children consumed for six months 25 grams per school day attended, the powder being added to 200 ml of water. The dietary supplement provides between 40 and 100 percent of the RDA of 10 micronutrients, which includes iron, vitamin A and iodine. Unlike medicinal supplements it provides the multiple vitamins and minerals in physiologic, not megadoses. In a well conducted randomized double blind placebo controlled trial, a dietary supplement in the form of a fortified powder fruit drink produced statistically significant differences not only in vitamin A and iron status, but also in the growth of young school age children.

  9. Use of nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplements among college students.

    PubMed

    Newberry, H; Beerman, K; Duncan, S; McGuire, M; Hillers, V

    2001-11-01

    The authors assessed the use of nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM) dietary supplements in a college population. They found that the use of NVNM dietary supplements among college students might be higher than that of other population groups and that the types of NVNM products they use differ from those used by an older population. Of the 272 students who completed the questionnaire, 48.5% reported they took an NVNM supplement during the past 12 months. The most frequently used NVNM products were echinacea, ginseng, and St John's wort. Of the 27 students who took NVNM products to promote weight loss, 81.5% had body mass index (BMI) values in the acceptable range. Eleven of the 19 participants who reported an adverse reaction to an NVNM supplement continued to take the products despite negative effects. Users and nonusers of NVNM supplements did not differ significantly by age, ethnicity, gender, perceived dietary adequacy, or by exercise patterns.

  10. Provider and patient expectations for dietary supplement discussions.

    PubMed

    Tarn, Derjung M; Guzmán, Jennifer R; Good, Jeffrey S; Wenger, Neil S; Coulter, Ian D; Paterniti, Debora A

    2014-09-01

    Dietary supplement use in the United States is common. Patients can procure supplements without a prescription, and often do not disclose supplement use to their healthcare providers. Providers and patients may be uncertain about what would be appropriate or helpful in discussions of supplements during routine office visits. To explore provider and patient expectations for discussions of dietary supplements. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of healthcare providers from three specialties and their patients who reported taking supplements. Thirty-five outpatient providers (14 primary care, six integrative medicine, and 15 complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers) and 107 of their patients. Qualitative analysis of transcripts using grounded theory and iterative review. Both providers and patients raised twelve common topics about dietary supplements that they felt were important to discuss during office visits, such as: supplements taken; supplement risks (interactions, safety/harm, side effects/adverse events); treatment benefits; efficacy; alternative treatments; and patient expectations/preferences for treatment. Some topics were mentioned more frequently by providers than patients, such as how to take, reason for taking, and evidence for use. Providers raised several topics that were mentioned infrequently by patients. Supplement costs and regulations were not brought up by any patients, even though consideration of these topics could influence patient decisions to take supplements. Complementary healthcare providers brought up topics not mentioned by primary care providers, such as the importance of supplement brands and supplement mega-dosing. Patients and providers have concordant views about the need to discuss patient supplement use and ensure patient safety. Patients may undervalue, be unaware of, or discount information about cost or regulations that could affect their decision-making about supplement use

  11. Which sources of flavonoids: complex diets or dietary supplements?

    PubMed

    Egert, Sarah; Rimbach, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the potential health benefits of dietary flavonoids. Fruits and vegetables, tea, and cocoa are rich natural sources of flavonoids. Epidemiological studies have indicated that consumption of these foods is likely to be associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiology of this benefit is not yet clearly defined. Furthermore, in some acute interventions, a positive effect of tea and cocoa on vascular function has been reported. An alternative source of flavonoids is dietary supplements, which have become increasingly popular in the recent past. In this context, it needs to be critically evaluated whether vascular health-promoting and other positive properties of flavonoid-rich diets can be replaced by purified flavonoids as dietary supplements. Plant sources of flavonoids contain a complex mixture of secondary plant metabolites and not only flavonoids per se. This complex mixture of secondary plant metabolites cannot be simply exchanged by single purified compounds as dietary supplements. If flavonoids are given as dietary supplements, toxicity issues as well as nutrient drug interactions need to be taken into account. Purified flavonoids given in high doses as dietary supplements may affect trace element, folate, and vitamin C status. Furthermore, they may exhibit antithyroid and goitrogenic activities. In this review article, the available literature on the safety issues surrounding high dose supplemental flavonoid consumption has been summarized.

  12. Effects of pubertal exposure to dietary soy on estrogen receptor activity in the breast of cynomolgus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Dewi, Fitriya N.; Wood, Charles E.; Willson, Cynthia J.; Register, Thomas C.; Lees, Cynthia J.; Howard, Timothy D.; Huang, Zhiqing; Murphy, Susan K.; Tooze, Janet A.; Chou, Jeff W.; Miller, Lance D.; Cline, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous estrogens influence mammary gland development during puberty and breast cancer risk during adulthood. Early-life exposure to dietary or environmental estrogens may alter estrogen-mediated processes. Soy foods contain phytoestrogenic isoflavones (IFs), which have mixed estrogen agonist/antagonist properties. Here, we evaluated mammary gland responses over time in pubertal female cynomolgus macaques fed diets containing either casein/lactalbumin (n=12) or soy protein containing a human-equivalent dose of 120 mg IF/day (n=17) for ~4.5 years spanning menarche. We assessed estrogen receptor (ER) expression and activity, promoter methylation of ERs and their downstream targets, and markers of estrogen metabolism. Expression of ERα and classical ERα response genes (TFF1, PGR and GREB1) decreased with maturity, independent of diet. A significant inverse correlation was observed between TFF1 mRNA and methylation of CpG sites within the TFF1 promoter. Soy effects included lower ERβ expression before menarche and lower mRNA for ERα and GREB1 after menarche. Expression of GATA-3, an epithelial differentiation marker that regulates ERα-mediated transcription, was elevated before menarche and decreased after menarche in soy-fed animals. Soy did not significantly alter expression of other ER activity markers, estrogen-metabolizing enzymes, or promoter methylation for ERs or ER-regulated genes. Our results demonstrate greater ER expression and activity during the pubertal transition, supporting the idea that this life stage is a critical window for phenotypic modulation by estrogenic compounds. Pubertal soy exposure decreases mammary ERα expression after menarche and exerts subtle effects on receptor activity and mammary gland differentiation. PMID:27006379

  13. Effectiveness of dietary supplements in spinal cord injury subjects.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Opazo, Angela; Cuitiño, Pilar; Salas, Inés

    2017-04-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) consume more dietary supplements than the general population. However, there is limited information regarding the clinical effectiveness of dietary supplements in SCI population. To systematically review the effectiveness of dietary supplements for the prevention or treatment of health-related conditions associated with SCI. Randomized or non-randomized controlled clinical trials were selected, comparing the effect of any dose and form of a dietary supplement (defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act), with either no treatment, placebo, or other medication. Data Sources included the Cochrane Database, DARE, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, OTSeeker, PEDro, PsycINFO, SpeechBITE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov, Google Scholar, and OpenGrey. Two reviewers independently classified articles from January 1970 through October 2015, and 18 articles were selected. Due to the heterogeneity of outcome measures across studies, a meta-analysis was not conducted. However, high-quality evidence showed that cranberry supplementation is not effective for prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in SCI. Moderate-quality evidence supported a beneficial effect of vitamin D, alpha-lipoic acid, and omega-3 supplementation, although replication of results is needed. There were conflicting results for the effect of creatine supplementation on improvement of motor outcomes. Low-quality evidence does not permit assessment of the effectiveness of melatonin, whey protein, vitamin C, and Chinese herb in SCI. There is sufficient data suggesting that cranberry supplementation is ineffective for prevention of UTIs in individuals with SCI. There is insufficient data to support or refute the use of any other dietary supplement in individuals with SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of dietary beef tallow and soy oil on glucose and cholesterol homeostasis in normal and diabetic pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Woollett, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Toe valuate whether dietary fats of different degrees of unsaturation alter glucose and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-CH) homeostasis, normal and alloxan-diabetic pigs were fed diets containing either beef tallow or soy oil as the primary source of fat for 6 weeks. After intra-arterial and oral doses of glucose, pigs fed soy oil had similar glucose and greater insulin concentrations in plasma when compared with pigs fed beef tallow. Beef tallow-fed pigs additionally were 40% more glucose effective than were soy oil-fed pigs. Disappearance of injected autologous /sup 14/C-VLDL-CH was analyzed in pigs using a two-pool model. Diabetes resulted in a twofold increase in half-lives and a 60-fold increase in pool sizes of the primary and secondary components of VLDL-CH disappearance when compared with those of normal pigs. In normal pigs, feeding beef tallow resulted in longer half-lives of both components of VLDL-CH disappearance and no effect in pool size of both components of VLDL-CH disappearance than did feeding soy oil. In comparison, diabetic pigs fed beef tallow had a similar half-life of the primary component, a twofold shorter half-life of the secondary component, and threefold larger pool size of the primary component, and a similar pool size of the secondary component of VLDL-CH disappearance than did diabetic pigs fed soy oil. Thus, dietary fat seems to play an important role in regulation of glucose and VLDL-CH homeostasis in normal and diabetic animals.

  15. Should states and local governments regulate dietary supplements?

    PubMed

    Starr, Ranjani

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulation of dietary supplements in the United States is governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. The law has been criticized as weak and ineffective. Alarming research has emerged demonstrating that supplements may be mislabelled, contaminated, adulterated with dangerous or unknown compounds, or sold at toxic doses. As a result, the health community has raised concerns about the safety and quality of dietary supplements. Increased federal oversight is an important avenue for improving supplement safety; however, states and local governments may also pursue strategies to strengthen the overall regulatory control of dietary supplements. States and local governments have substantial experience in regulating other products that pose a risk to public health, such as tobacco. Additionally, much has been learned about the tactics the tobacco industry has employed to protect its interests. Lessons learned may be applied to new regulatory efforts aimed at improving the safety of dietary supplements at the state and local levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Twenty Years of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act--How Should Dietary Supplements Be Regulated?

    PubMed

    Wallace, Taylor C

    2015-08-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 defines the FDA's statutory authority to regulate dietary supplement products in the United States. The dietary supplement industry has rapidly expanded since 1994, presenting an obvious need for "DSHEA 2.0." Current regulations surrounding dietary supplements have been increasingly and reasonably scrutinized, given their widespread use by over one-half of the US population as well as highly publicized safety concerns over the past 20 y. As the market continues to expand and evolve, so too must the laws that protect consumers from potential harm and misleading communication. This article is meant to begin a scientific dialogue on how regulations may be improved to provide both ease of access and safer products to the consumer by focusing on 4 topics: premarket approval, label claims, current Good Manufacturing Practices, and adverse event reporting. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Mycotoxins in Plant-Based Dietary Supplements: Hidden Health Risk for Consumers.

    PubMed

    Veprikova, Zdenka; Zachariasova, Milena; Dzuman, Zbynek; Zachariasova, Alena; Fenclova, Marie; Slavikova, Petra; Vaclavikova, Marta; Mastovska, Katerina; Hengst, Daniel; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-07-29

    Mycotoxin contamination of dietary supplements represents a possible risk for human health, especially in the case of products intended for people suffering from certain health conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of this problem based on analyses of a wide set of herbal-based dietary supplements intended for various purposes: (i) treatment of liver diseases (milk thistle); (ii) reduction of menopause effects (red clover, flax seed, and soy); and (iii) preparations for general health support (green barley, nettle, goji berries, yucca, etc.) The analytical method including 57 mycotoxins was based on a QuEChERS-like (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) approach and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The main mycotoxins determined were Fusarium trichothecenes, zearalenone and enniatins, and Alternaria mycotoxins. Co-occurrence of enniatins, HT-2/T-2 toxins, and Alternaria toxins was observed in many cases. The highest mycotoxin concentrations were found in milk thistle-based supplements (up to 37 mg/kg in the sum).

  18. Dietary supplements and disease prevention - a global overview.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Manson, JoAnn E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Sesso, Howard D

    2016-07-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used and offer the potential to improve health if appropriately targeted to those in need. Inadequate nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent conditions that adversely affect global health. Although improvements in diet quality are essential to address these issues, dietary supplements and/or food fortification could help meet requirements for individuals at risk of deficiencies. For example, supplementation with vitamin A and iron in developing countries, where women of reproductive age, infants and children often have deficiencies; with folic acid among women of reproductive age and during pregnancy; with vitamin D among infants and children; and with calcium and vitamin D to ensure bone health among adults aged ≥65 years. Intense debate surrounds the benefits of individual high-dose micronutrient supplementation among well-nourished individuals because the alleged beneficial effects on chronic diseases are not consistently supported. Daily low-dose multivitamin supplementation has been linked to reductions in the incidence of cancer and cataracts, especially among men. Baseline nutrition is an important consideration in supplementation that is likely to modify its effects. Here, we provide a detailed summary of dietary supplements and health outcomes in both developing and developed countries to help guide decisions about dietary supplement recommendations.

  19. DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Little, Damon P.; Jeanson, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini–barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66–1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini–barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini–barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

  20. Cardiorespiratory function associated with dietary nitrate supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Vernon; Curry, Bryan H.; Adams, Richard G.; Millis, Richard M.; Haddad, Georges E.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of medical nutrition therapy and nutritional physiology affords the opportunity to link diet to specific cardiovascular mechanisms, suggesting novel treatments for cardiovascular disease. This study tests the hypothesis that beetroot juice increases the plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentration, which is associated with improvements in cardiorespiratory function at rest and during submaximal aerobic exercise. The subjects were 12 healthy, young adult, normotensive African-American females, with a body mass of 61 ± 2 kg, body fat of 28% ± 4%, and peak oxygen consumption of 26 ± 3 mL·kg−1·min−1. The subjects were studied at rest and during cycle ergometer exercise at 40%, 60%, and 80% of peak oxygen consumption. Plasma NO concentration, respiratory quotient (RQ), minute ventilation, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), heart rate, and oxygen consumption were compared between isocaloric, isovolumetric placebo control orange juice and experimental beetroot juice treatments on separate days. The beetroot juice treatment increased plasma NO concentration and decreased oxygen consumption, SBP, and the heart rate-SBP product at rest and at 40%, 60%, and 80% of peak oxygen consumption in the absence of significant effects on RQ, minute ventilation, heart rate, and DBP. These findings suggest that, in healthy subjects, beetroot juice treatments increase plasma NO concentration and decrease cardiac afterload and myocardial oxygen demand at rest and during 3 submaximal levels of aerobic exercise. Future studies should determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the improvement in cardiorespiratory function associated with dietary nitrate supplementation and whether they translate into better cardiovascular function and exercise tolerance in individuals with a compromised cardiovascular system. PMID:24476472

  1. Effect of dietary soy protein on tumor necrosis factor productivity in macrophages from nephritic and hepatoma-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Wataru; Nagata, Junko; Kaneko, Masaharu; Yamada, Tatsuhiko; Moriya, Daisuke; Miura, Yutaka; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2008-12-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary soy protein isolate (SPI) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) productivity in peritoneal macrophages from nephritic and hepatoma-bearing rats. Dietary SPI significantly inhibited the elevated production of TNF by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages in nephritic and hepatoma-bearing rats compared with dietary casein, while it exerted no influence on the TNF productivity in normal rats. Removal of the minor components contained in SPI by ethanol extraction could significantly or partially restore the reduced TNF production caused by SPI in nephritic and hepatoma-bearing rats, respectively. These results suggest that dietary SPI could suppress the enhanced productivity of TNF associated with the progression of nephritis and hepatoma, and some factors existing in the ethanol extract of SPI are suggested to be involved in suppressing TNF productivity by macrophages.

  2. Consumption and reasons for use of dietary supplements in an Australian university population.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Katelyn; Ball, Lauren; Desbrow, Ben; Alsharairi, Naser; Ahmed, Faruk

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary supplement use and sociodemographic factors in an Australian university population. Additionally, reasons for use of specific dietary supplements were explored. A cross-sectional online questionnaire was completed by 1633 students and staff members of Griffith University, Queensland, Australia (76% female). The questionnaire collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, use of dietary supplements, and reasons for use of each dietary supplement reported. Multiple regression analyses were used to describe the relationship between demographic factors and dietary supplement use. Pearson χ(2) was used to identify correlations between frequency of dietary supplement use and selected demographic factors. Frequency distributions were used to explore the reasons for use of each dietary supplement reported. Vitamin or mineral use and use of "other" dietary supplements was reported by 69% and 63% of participants, respectively. Age, sex, ethnicity, and physical activity were independently associated with dietary supplement use. Age, sex, and income were associated with acute use of specific dietary supplements during illness or injury. The reasons for use of specific dietary supplements were closely aligned with marketed claims. Broad reasons of health were commonly reported for use of most dietary supplements. Use of dietary supplements in this population reflects that of other countries. Individuals were unsure of the benefits and risks associated with dietary supplementation. Health professionals should account for dietary supplements when assessing diet. These results also warrant consideration by regulating bodies and public health officers to ensure safe practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Classification of Use Status for Dietary Supplements in Clinical Notes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yadan; He, Lu; Zhang, Rui

    2016-12-01

    Clinical notes contain rich information about dietary supplements, which are critical for detecting signals of dietary supplement side effects and interactions between drugs and supplements. One of the important factors of supplement documentation is usage status, such as started and discontinuation. Such information is usually stored in the unstructured clinical notes. We developed a rule-based classifier to identify supplement usage status in clinical notes. The categories referring to the patient's status of supplement use were classified into four classes: Continuing (C), Discontinued (D), Started (S), and Unclassified (U). Clinical notes containing 10 of the most commonly consumed supplements (i.e., alfalfa, echinacea, fish oil, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, melatonin, St. John's Wort, and Vitamin E) were retrieved from the University of Minnesota Clinical Data Repository. The gold standard was defined by manually annotating 1000 randomly selected sentences or statements mentioning at least one of these 10 supplements. The rules in the classifier was initially developed on two-thirds of the set of 7 supplements (i.e., alfalfa, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, St. John's Wort, and Vitamin E); the performance was evaluated on the remaining one-third of this set. To evaluate the generalizability of rules, we further validated the second testing set on other 3 supplements (i.e., echinacea, fish oil, and melatonin). The performance of the classifier achieved F-measures of 0.95, 0.97, 0.96, and 0.96 for status C, D, S, and U on 7 supplements, respectively. The classifier also showed good generalizability when it was applied to the other 3 supplements with F-measures of 0.96 for C, 0.96 for D, 0.95 for S, and 0.89 for U. This study demonstrated that the classifier can accurately classify supplement usage status, which can be further integrated as a module into the existing natural language processing pipeline for supporting dietary supplement knowledge discovery.

  4. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... product. How can I be a smart supplement shopper? Be a savvy supplement user. Here’s how: When ... Coordinator in your area . File a safety report online through the Safety Reporting Portal . Learn more about ...

  5. Dietary supplement interactions with antiretrovirals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jalloh, Mohamed A; Gregory, Philip J; Hein, Darren; Risoldi Cochrane, Zara; Rodriguez, Aleah

    2017-01-01

    Many patients who take antiretroviral drugs also take alternative therapies including dietary supplements. Some drug-supplement combinations may result in clinically meaningful interactions. We aimed to investigate the evidence for dietary supplement interactions with antiretrovirals. A systematic review was conducted using multiple resources including PubMed, Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, The Review of Natural Products, and Google Scholar. All human studies or case reports evaluating an interaction between a dietary supplement and an antiretroviral were selected for inclusion. Twenty-eight pharmacokinetic studies and case-series/case reports were selected for inclusion. Calcium carbonate, ferrous fumarate, some forms of ginkgo, some forms of garlic, some forms of milk thistle, St. John's wort, vitamin C, zinc sulfate, and multivitamins were all found to significantly decrease the levels of selected antiretrovirals and should be avoided in patients taking these antiretrovirals. Cat's claw and evening primrose oil were found to significantly increase the levels of antiretrovirals and patients should be monitored for adverse effects while taking these dietary supplements with antiretrovirals. This systematic review shows the importance of screening all human immunodeficiency virus patients for dietary supplement use to prevent treatment failure or adverse effects related to an interaction.

  6. Prepubertal subchronic exposure to soy milk and glyphosate leads to endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Jessica; Moras, Patricia Bonamigo; Koeppe, Carina; Dallegrave, Eliane; Leal, Mirna Bainy; Rossato-Grando, Luciana Grazziotin

    2017-02-01

    Lactose intolerance is characterized by low or inexistent levels of lactase, and the main treatment consists of dietary changes, especially replacing dairy milk by soy milk. Soy contains phytoestrogens, substances with known estrogenic activity, besides, glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used in soy crops, being frequently a residue in soy beans, bringing to a concern regarding the consumption of soy-based products, especially for children in breastfeeding period with lactose intolerance. This study evaluated the pubertal toxicity of a soy milk rich feeding (supplemented or not with glyphosate, doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg) during prepubertal period in male rats. Endocrine disruption was observed through decrease in testosterone levels, decrease in Sertoli cell number and increase in the percentage of degenerated Sertoli and Leydig cells in animals receiving soy milk supplemented with glyphosate (both doses) and in animals treated only with soy milk. Animals treated with soy milk with glyphosate (both doses) showed decrease spermatids number and increase of epididymal tail mass compared to control, and decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules compared to soy milk control group. Animals receiving soy milk supplemented with 100 mg/kg glyphosate showed decrease in round spermatids and increase in abnormal sperm morphology, compared to control.

  7. Genistein and Genistein-Containing Dietary Supplements Accelerate the Early Stages of Cataractogenesis in the Male ICR/f Rat

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Kyle A.; Stella, David; Wang, Chao-Cheng; Laurentz, Sara; McCabe, George P.; Srivastava, Om P.; Barnes, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Cataract-related loss of vision affects large numbers of people in today’s aging populations and presents a healthcare burden to many nations. The role of dietary supplements within the lens is largely unknown, although benefits from dietary antioxidants are expected. In this study, the effects of genistein as its aglycone, a genistein-containing dietary supplement (Novasoy®200), and a genistein-containing food (soy protein isolate, PRO-FAM 932) on the development of lens opacity were examined in the hereditary cataractous ICR/f rat. These studies were carried out in a background diet of semi-purified, isoflavone-free AIN-76A with casein as its protein source. The amount of genistein for the experimental diets was standardized to its concentration (as genistein aglycone as well as simple and complex β-glucoside conjugates) in the soy protein isolate supplement. Also tested was a high-dose genistein diet containing an 11-fold higher amount of genistein aglycone. The composition of each diet was verified by reverse-phase HPLC and blood plasma isoflavone concentrations were determined by LC-tandem mass spectrometry. The development of opacity in each lens was monitored and digitally recorded using slit-lamp examination over the course of the study. Each of the genistein-containing diets caused a significantly more rapid development of fibrous opacification in the anterior cortical region and development of apparent water clefts or vacuoles in the posterior subcapsular region than the AIN-76A control diet; however, the establishment of dense lens opacification was not significantly different between each of the diets. There was also no significant difference observed between the low-dose and high-dose genistein aglycone groups. These data suggest that genistein-containing dietary supplements accelerate the early stages of cataractogenesis in the male ICR/f rat, with no dose-dependent effects. PMID:21147102

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Equol, a Soy Isoflavone Metabolite, Changes with the Form of Equol (Dietary versus Intestinal Production) in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that soy isoflavones and their metabolites may play a role in mitigating postmenopausal bone loss. Equol, a metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein produced by intestinal bacteria, has shown some potential, but only 30–50% of the U.S. population is capable of converting dietary daidzein to equol. There are limited data on the pharmacokinetics of dietary racemic equol and its metabolites. This study was conducted to assess the levels of equol and its conjugates in plasma for a 24 h period resulting from oral administration of dietary daidzein and racemic equol in ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats. Plasma samples were analyzed for conjugated and free forms of equol using LC-MS/MS. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and time to reach it (tmax) for total equol (conjugated and unconjugated) were 8815 ± 2988 nmol/L and 2.17 ± 2.91 h and 3682 ± 2675 nmol/L and 20.67 ± 4.67 h, for dietary equol and daidzein, respectively. Although the majority of equol metabolites present were glucuronide conjugates (≥99%), there were low levels of equol monosulfate present. The changes in equol metabolism, specifically equol conjugates, due to the form of equol may play a role in the potential health benefits of equol. PMID:24446705

  9. Pharmacokinetics of equol, a soy isoflavone metabolite, changes with the form of equol (dietary versus intestinal production) in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Legette, LeeCole L; Prasain, Jeevan; King, Jennifer; Arabshahi, Ali; Barnes, Stephen; Weaver, Connie M

    2014-02-12

    Recent findings indicate that soy isoflavones and their metabolites may play a role in mitigating postmenopausal bone loss. Equol, a metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein produced by intestinal bacteria, has shown some potential, but only 30-50% of the U.S. population is capable of converting dietary daidzein to equol. There are limited data on the pharmacokinetics of dietary racemic equol and its metabolites. This study was conducted to assess the levels of equol and its conjugates in plasma for a 24 h period resulting from oral administration of dietary daidzein and racemic equol in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma samples were analyzed for conjugated and free forms of equol using LC-MS/MS. The maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and time to reach it (t(max)) for total equol (conjugated and unconjugated) were 8815 ± 2988 nmol/L and 2.17 ± 2.91 h and 3682 ± 2675 nmol/L and 20.67 ± 4.67 h, for dietary equol and daidzein, respectively. Although the majority of equol metabolites present were glucuronide conjugates (≥99%), there were low levels of equol monosulfate present. The changes in equol metabolism, specifically equol conjugates, due to the form of equol may play a role in the potential health benefits of equol.

  10. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Calcium, green tea, lycopene, pomegranate, selenium, soy and vitamin E have been studied for prostate cancer prevention or treatment. Read about laboratory and human studies on various prostate supplements in this expert-reviewed summary.

  11. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

  12. Ironic effects of dietary supplementation: illusory invulnerability created by taking dietary supplements licenses health-risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Yang, Chao-Chin; Wan, Chin-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    The use of dietary supplements and the health status of individuals have an asymmetrical relationship: the growing market for dietary supplements appears not to be associated with an improvement in public health. Building on the notion of licensing, or the tendency for positive choices to license subsequent self-indulgent choices, we argue that because dietary supplements are perceived as conferring health advantages, use of such supplements may create an illusory sense of invulnerability that disinhibits unhealthy behaviors. In two experiments, participants who took placebo pills that they believed were dietary supplements exhibited the licensing effect across multiple forms of health-related behavior: They expressed less desire to engage in exercise and more desire to engage in hedonic activities (Experiment 1), expressed greater preference for a buffet over an organic meal (Experiment 1), and walked less to benefit their health (Experiment 2) compared with participants who were told the pills were a placebo. A mediational analysis indicated that perceived invulnerability was an underlying mechanism for these effects. Thus, a license associated with the use of dietary supplements may operate within cycles of behaviors that alternately protect and endanger health.

  13. Evaluation of selenium in dietary supplements using elemental speciation.

    PubMed

    Kubachka, Kevin M; Hanley, Traci; Mantha, Madhavi; Wilson, Robert A; Falconer, Travis M; Kassa, Zena; Oliveira, Aline; Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Selenium-enriched dietary supplements containing various selenium compounds are readily available to consumers. To ensure proper selenium intake and consumer confidence, these dietary supplements must be safe and have accurate label claims. Varying properties among selenium species requires information beyond total selenium concentration to fully evaluate health risk/benefits A LC-ICP-MS method was developed and multiple extraction methods were implemented for targeted analysis of common "seleno-amino acids" and related oxidation products, selenate, selenite, and other species relatable to the quality and/or accuracy of the labeled selenium ingredients. Ultimately, a heated water extraction was applied to recover selenium species from non-selenized yeast supplements in capsule, tablet, and liquid forms. For selenized yeast supplements, inorganic selenium was monitored as a means of assessing selenium yeast quality. A variety of commercially available selenium supplements were evaluated and discrepancies between labeled ingredients and detected species were noted.

  14. Authentication of Ginkgo biloba herbal dietary supplements using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Little, Damon P

    2014-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (known as ginkgo or maidenhair tree) is a phylogenetically isolated, charismatic, gymnosperm tree. Herbal dietary supplements, prepared from G. biloba leaves, are consumed to boost cognitive capacity via improved blood perfusion and mitochondrial function. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay was designed and validated for the authentication of G. biloba in herbal dietary supplements (n = 22; sensitivity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.59-1.00; specificity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.64-1.00). This assay was further used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled ginkgo herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America: DNA amenable to PCR could not be extracted from three (7.5%) of the 40 supplements sampled, 31 of 37 (83.8%) assayable supplements contained identifiable G. biloba DNA, and six supplements (16.2%) contained fillers without any detectable G. biloba DNA. It is hoped that this assay will be used by supplement manufacturers to ensure that their supplements contain G. biloba.

  15. A Hypothesis Regarding the Molecular Mechanism Underlying Dietary Soy-Induced Effects on Seizure Propensity

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara Jean

    2014-01-01

    Numerous neurological disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, autism, and Alzheimer’s disease are co-morbid with epilepsy. We have observed elevated seizure propensity in mouse models of these disorders dependent on diet. Specifically, soy-based diets exacerbate audiogenic-induced seizures in juvenile mice. We have also found potential associations between the consumption of soy-based infant formula and seizure incidence, epilepsy comorbidity, and autism diagnostic scores in autistic children by retrospective analyses of medical record data. In total, these data suggest that consumption of high levels of soy protein during postnatal development may affect neuronal excitability. Herein, we present our theory regarding the molecular mechanism underlying soy-induced effects on seizure propensity. We hypothesize that soy phytoestrogens interfere with metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling through an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism, which results in elevated production of key synaptic proteins and decreased seizure threshold. PMID:25232349

  16. Botanical and Dietary Supplements for Menopausal Symptoms: What Works, What Doesn’t

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Stacie E.; Studee, Laura

    2006-01-01

    All women reach menopause and approximately two-thirds of women develop menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes. Hormone therapy long was considered the first line of treatment for vasomotor symptoms. However, given the results of the Women’s Health Initiative, many women are reluctant use exogenous hormones for symptomatic treatment and are turning to botanicals and dietary supplement (BDS) products for relief. Despite the fact that there is limited scientific evidence describing efficacy and long term safety of such products, many women find these “natural treatments” appealing. Peri- and postmenopausal women are amongst the highest users of these products, but 70% of women do not tell their health care providers about their use. Compounding this issue is the fact that few clinicians ask their patients about use of BDS, largely because they have not been exposed to alternative medical practices in their training and are unfamiliar with these products. This paper reviews the botanicals and dietary supplements commonly used in menopause, (such as black cohosh, red clover, soy products, among others) as well as the available data on efficacy and safety. We searched the MEDLINE database from 1966 to December 2004 using terms related to botanical and dietary supplements and menopausal symptoms for peri- or postmenopausal women. Abstracts from relevant meetings as well as reference books and websites on herbal supplements were also searched. Randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were used if available; open trials and comparison group studies were used when RCTs were not available. The evidence to date suggests that black cohosh is safe and effective for reducing menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes and possibly mood disorders. Phytoestrogen extracts, including soy foods and red clover appear to have at best only minimal effect on menopausal symptoms but have positive health effects on plasma lipid concentrations and may reduce heart disease. St. John

  17. Evaluation of heavy metals content in dietary supplements in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The consumption of dietary supplements is widely spread and on the rise. These dietary supplements are generally used without prescriptions, proper counseling or any awareness of their health risk. The current study aimed at analyzing the metals in 33 samples of imported dietary supplements highly consumed by the Lebanese population, using 3 different techniques, to ensure the safety and increase the awareness of the citizen to benefit from these dietary supplements. Results Some samples had levels of metals above their maximum allowable levels (Fe: 24%, Zn: 33%, Mn: 27%, Se: 15%, Mo: 12% of samples), but did not pose any health risk because they were below permitted daily exposure limit and recommended daily allowance except for Fe in 6% of the samples. On the other hand, 34% of the samples had Cu levels above allowable limit where 18% of them were above their permitted daily exposure and recommended daily allowance. In contrast, all samples had concentration of Cr, Hg, and Pb below allowable limits and daily exposure. Whereas, 30% of analyzed samples had levels of Cd above allowable levels, and were statistically correlated with Ca, and Zn essential minerals. Similarly 62% of the samples had levels of As above allowable limits and As levels were associated with Fe and Mn essential minerals. Conclusion Dietary supplements consumed as essential nutrients for their Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn content should be monitored for toxic metal levels due to their natural geochemical association with these essential metals to provide citizens the safe allowable amounts. PMID:23331553

  18. Dietary supplements usage among elderly Taiwanese during 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Ying; Lin, Jia-Rong; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu; Guo, Shiou-Guei; Kao, Mei-Ding; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2011-01-01

    This study describes dietary supplement consumption practices among the Taiwanese population over the age of 65. Data for the analyses were derived from the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. Data from a total of 914 participants (456 men and 458 women) was collected in the study to delineate patterns of supplement usage. The results indicated that the percentage of individuals taking supplements was 45.7% for men and 52.2% for women. There were no significant differences in supplement use by gender, age group, geographic stratum, current employment status, household monthly income, self-reported health status or marital status, except for higher education and adequate perceived financial resources. Half of both men and women chose to take only one supplement. In addition, as the number of supplements taken increased, the number of people decreased. The elderly with higher education levels were more likely to take two kinds of supplements. The top five supplements consumed from highest to lowest were: glucosamine, multivitamins and minerals, calcium, fish oil and vitamin B complex. The major reason for supplements use for men was to supplement an unbalanced diet, and that for women was to prevent joint degeneration. The main factor influencing choice of supplements in the elderly was receiving the supplement as a gift from another person. Note that mean intakes of vitamins A, C, E, B-1, B-2, B-6, B-12, biotin, niacin, and pantothenic acid from supplements over-exceeded DRIs in Taiwan.

  19. Dietary soy and natto intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese adults: the Takayama study.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chisato; Wada, Keiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Koda, Sachi; Kawachi, Toshiyuki; Tsuji, Michiko; Nakamura, Kozue

    2017-02-01

    Whether soy intake is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. A traditional Japanese soy food, natto, contains a potent fibrinolytic enzyme. However, its relation to CVD has not been studied. We aimed to examine the association of CVD mortality with the intake of natto, soy protein, and soy isoflavones in a population-based cohort study in Japan. The study included 13,355 male and 15,724 female Takayama Study participants aged ≥35 y. At recruitment in 1992, each subject was administered a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Deaths from CVD were ascertained over 16 y. A total of 1678 deaths from CVD including 677 stroke and 308 ischemic heart disease occurred during follow-up. The highest quartile of natto intake compared with the lowest intake was significantly associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total CVD after control for covariates: the HR was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.88, P-trend = 0.0004). There were no significant associations between the risk of mortality from total CVD and intakes of total soy protein, total soy isoflavone, and soy protein or soy isoflavone from soy foods other than natto. The highest quartiles of total soy protein and natto intakes were significantly associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.99, P-trend = 0.03 and HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.88, P-trend = 0.0004, respectively). The highest quartile of natto intake was also significantly associated with a decreased risk of mortality from ischemic stroke (HR = 0.67, 95% CI:0.47, 0.95, P-trend = 0.03). Data suggest that natto intake may contribute to the reduction of CVD mortality. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Dietary Seaweed and Early Breast Cancer: A Randomized Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    work demonstrated that dietary seaweed protected rats from developing dimethyl benzanthracene (DMBA) - induced mammary tumors (Teas, 1984). Similar...supplementation. We hope to prove/disprove that consuming 5 grams of seaweed with and without high isoflavone soy supplement will modify surrogate...and seaweed plus soy will enhance isoflavone and lignan derived phytoestrogen excretion. The combination of soy and seaweed may act either additively or

  1. Soy, soy phytoestrogens and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Thomas B

    2002-03-01

    Dietary soy protein has been shown to have several beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. The best-documented effect is on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, with reductions of approximately 10% in LDL cholesterol concentrations (somewhat greater for individuals with high pretreatment LDL cholesterol concentrations) and small increases in HDL cholesterol concentrations. Dietary soy protein improves flow-mediated arterial dilation of postmenopausal women but worsens that of men. Soy isoflavone extracts improve systemic arterial compliance, an indicator of atherosclerosis extent. Complete soy protein but not alcohol-washed soy protein reduces atherosclerosis of postmenopausal monkeys. No definite experimental evidence exists currently to establish that the cardiovascular benefits of soy protein are accounted for by its isoflavones.

  2. A preliminary study of the safety, feasibility and cognitive efficacy of soy isoflavone supplements in older men and women

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Carey E.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Barnet, Jodi H.; Meade, Sarah A.; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Atwood, Craig S.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Ries, Michele L.; Asthana, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Background: a small number of reports exist on the cognitive effects of soy isoflavones, the findings from which are mixed. Isoflavone efficacy is dependent upon conversion of glycosides contained in soy foods and supplements to the biologically active aglycons. Of particular interest is the production of the metabolite, equol, which is dependent upon intestinal microflora and an integrous digestive system, both being altered by age and age-associated conditions. Unfortunately, few studies enrolled adults over the age of 70, and none included older men. Objective: we examined safety, feasibility and cognitive efficacy of soy isoflavone administration in older nondemented men and women (age 62–89 years). Design and Methods: in this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study, subjects ingested either 100 mg/day soy isoflavones (glycoside weight) or matching placebo tablets for 6 months. Results: active and placebo-treated subjects exhibited a comparable side-effect profile. Plasma levels of genistein and daidzein (P < 0.001), but not equol, increased with isoflavone administration. While similar at baseline, the two groups differed across 6 months of treatment on 8 of 11 cognitive tests administered. Isoflavone-treated subjects improved on tests of visual-spatial memory (P < 0.01) and construction (P = 0.01), verbal fluency (P < 0.01) and speeded dexterity (P = 0.04). Placebo-treated participants were faster than isoflavone-treated subjects on two tests of executive function (P < 0.05). Conclusions: these data suggest that administration of 100 mg/day of isoflavones was well tolerated. Plasma genistein and daidzein levels, but not equol, increased with isoflavone administration. Finally, data support the potential cognitive effects of soy isoflavones in older adults. PMID:19054783

  3. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... product. How can I be a smart supplement shopper? Be a savvy supplement user. Here’s how: • When ... gov/Safety/ReportaProblem/ConsumerComplaintCoordinators • File a safety report online through the Safety Reporting Portal at: http://www. ...

  4. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Lentino, Cindy V; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-11-01

    To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Data were analyzed for children (2-18 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n = 7250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (<2 years) and 42% (2-8 years). Supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes than nonusers. Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2-8 year olds. However, among 9-18 year olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the upper tolerable intake level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2-8 years old had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 years, dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A, C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  5. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Lentino, Cindy V.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Study design Data were analyzed for children (2–18 y) from the NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n=7,250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Results Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (< 2 y) and 42% (2–8 y). Supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes than nonusers. Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2–8 y olds. However, among 9–18 y olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Upper Tolerable Intake Level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Conclusions Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2–8 y had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 y dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A,C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. PMID:22717218

  6. Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program: The First Five Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Melissa M.; Rimmer, Catherine A.; Wood, Laura J.; Lippa, Katrice A.; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Duewer, David L.; Sander, Lane C.; Betz, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has established a Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program (DSQAP) in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Program participants measure concentrations of active and/or marker compounds as well as nutritional and toxic elements in food and dietary supplements distributed by NIST. Data are compiled at NIST, where they are analyzed for accuracy relative to reference values and concordance among the participants. Performance reports and certificates of completion are provided to participants, which can be used to demonstrate compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices as promulgated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The DSQAP has conducted five exercises to date, with total participation including more than 75 different laboratories and many more individual analysts. PMID:21797008

  7. Survey on the Effectiveness of Dietary Supplements to Treat Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Claudia; Tyler, Richard; Ji, Haihong; Rojas-Roncancio, Eveling; Witt, Shelley; Tao, Pan; Jun, Hyung-Jin; Wang, Tang Chuan; Hansen, Marlan R; Gantz, Bruce J

    2016-09-01

    We surveyed the benefit of dietary supplements to treat tinnitus and reported adverse effects. A website was created for people with tinnitus to complete a variety of questions. The 1,788 subjects who responded to questionnaires came from 53 different countries; 413 (23.1%) reported taking supplements. No effect on tinnitus was reported in 70.7%, improvement in 19.0%, and worsening in 10.3%. Adverse effects were reported in 6% (n = 36), including bleeding, diarrhea, headache, and others. Supplements were reported to be helpful for sleep: melatonin (effect size, d = 1.228) and lipoflavonoid (d = 0.5244); emotional reactions: melatonin (d = 0.6138) and lipoflavonoid (d = 0.457); hearing: Ginkgo biloba (d = 0.3758); and concentration Ginkgo biloba (d = 0.3611). The positive, subjective reports should be interpreted cautiously; many might have reported a positive effect because they were committed to treatment and expected a benefit. Users of supplements were more likely to have loudness hyperacusis and to have a louder tinnitus. The use of dietary supplements to treat tinnitus is common, particularly with Ginkgo biloba, lipoflavonoids, magnesium, melatonin, vitamin B12, and zinc. It is likely that some supplements will help with sleep for some patients. However, they are generally not effective, and many produced adverse effects. We concluded that dietary supplements should not be recommended to treat tinnitus but could have a positive outcome on tinnitus reactions in some people.

  8. Dietary soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression changes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, Guido J.; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xinglian; Muller, Michael; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a comprehensive comparison of the effects of soy and meat proteins given at the recommended level on physiological markers of metabolic syndrome and the hepatic transcriptome. Male rats were fed semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only regarding protein source, with casein serving as reference. Body weight gain and adipose tissue mass were significantly reduced by soy but not meat proteins. The insulin resistance index was improved by soy, and to a lesser extent by meat proteins. Liver triacylglycerol contents were reduced by both protein sources, which coincided with increased plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Both soy and meat proteins changed plasma amino acid patterns. The expression of 1571 and 1369 genes were altered by soy and meat proteins respectively. Functional classification revealed that lipid, energy and amino acid metabolic pathways, as well as insulin signaling pathways were regulated differently by soy and meat proteins. Several transcriptional regulators, including NFE2L2, ATF4, Srebf1 and Rictor were identified as potential key upstream regulators. These results suggest that soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression responses in rats and provide novel evidence and suggestions for the health effects of different protein sources in human diets. PMID:26857845

  9. Dietary soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression changes in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, Guido J; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xinglian; Muller, Michael; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-02-09

    This study reports on a comprehensive comparison of the effects of soy and meat proteins given at the recommended level on physiological markers of metabolic syndrome and the hepatic transcriptome. Male rats were fed semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only regarding protein source, with casein serving as reference. Body weight gain and adipose tissue mass were significantly reduced by soy but not meat proteins. The insulin resistance index was improved by soy, and to a lesser extent by meat proteins. Liver triacylglycerol contents were reduced by both protein sources, which coincided with increased plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Both soy and meat proteins changed plasma amino acid patterns. The expression of 1571 and 1369 genes were altered by soy and meat proteins respectively. Functional classification revealed that lipid, energy and amino acid metabolic pathways, as well as insulin signaling pathways were regulated differently by soy and meat proteins. Several transcriptional regulators, including NFE2L2, ATF4, Srebf1 and Rictor were identified as potential key upstream regulators. These results suggest that soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression responses in rats and provide novel evidence and suggestions for the health effects of different protein sources in human diets.

  10. Variation in concentration and labeling of ginger root dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Schwertner, Harvey A; Rios, Deborah C; Pascoe, Joshua E

    2006-06-01

    Ginger root dietary supplements are often used to alleviate symptoms of nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy. In this study, we determined the variation in 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol concentrations and labeling of different brands of ginger root dietary supplements. Ten different ginger root dietary supplements were purchased randomly at local pharmacies and health food stores. The 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol concentrations of the dietary supplements were determined by high-performance liquid-chromatography. In addition, we examined the container labeling for the amount of ginger root powder or extract in each capsule, the serving size, ingredients, expiration date, lot number, standardization procedure, and suggested use. The 6-gingerol concentration of the ginger powder dietary supplements ranged from 0.0 to 9.43 mg/g, (mean +/- standard deviation, 2.56 +/- 2.95 mg/g), 6-shogaol ranged from 0.16 to 2.18 mg/g (1.27 +/- 0.58), 8-gingerol ranged from 0.00 to 1.1 mg/g (0.47 +/- 0.34), and 10-gingerol ranged from 0.00 to 1.40 mg/g (0.36 +/- 0.51). The amounts of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol in the ginger root dietary supplements varied widely on both a milligram per gram basis and on a milligram per capsule basis. Likewise, the suggested ginger serving sizes varied from 250 mg to 4.77 g per day. The results of this study indicate that there is a wide variation in the gingerol composition and in the suggested serving sizes of ginger root powder from different manufacturers. II-3.

  11. PATTERNS OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENT USAGE IN DEMOGRAPHICALLY DIVERSE OLDER PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Kishiyama, Shirley S.; Leahy, Marjorie J.; Zitzelberger, Tracy A.; Guariglia, Robin; Zajdel, Daniel P.; Calvert, James F.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Oken, Barry S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To analyze dietary supplement usage data from 494 older adults, aged 65 to 101 years. Setting Community dwellers living independently of institutionalized care. Design All dietary supplements, including botanicals, were recorded to aid in assessing the health status of older adults. Participants 1) 224 individuals enrolled in a study that follows the health of persons 85 years and older (oldest-old) in Klamath County, a non-metropolitan area in southern Oregon: 2) 134 participants of oldest-old age living in the metropolitan Portland area, enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of GBE biloba extract (GBE) for dementia prevention: and 3) 136 participants, ages 65–85 years (young-old), also of the Portland area, enrolled in a study of the effects of yoga and exercise on cognition. Measurements Data verified from labels, not from self-report. Results Of the participants, 70.6% used dietary supplements. Women took supplements more often than men, and usage decreased with age. A greater percentage, 67.4%, of the non-metropolitan oldest-old took supplements, compared to 56.7% of the metropolitan oldest-old. The greatest usage, 89.7%, was in the metropolitan young-olds. All of these percentages exceed those for comparable age groups in national representative surveys. Conclusions Dietary supplement usage by older adults in these studies in Oregon exceeded that in other reports and may reflect high interest in complementary and alternative medicine. This report confirms the results of other studies showing that elderly adults, particularly women, use dietary supplements more than other segments of the US population. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of this pattern and potential conflicts with research design or treatment regimen intended for older people. PMID:15945136

  12. Dietary soy isoflavones differentially regulate expression of the lipid-metabolic genes in different white adipose tissues of the female Bama mini-pigs.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoli; Li, Lili; Fan, Juexin; Zhang, Bin; Oso, A O; Xiao, Chaowu; Yin, Yulong

    2015-05-22

    Soy isoflavones have been shown to affect lipid metabolism, however the underlying molecular mechanism(s) have not yet been fully understood. The present study, using female Bama mini-pig as a model, examined the effects of soy isoflavones on lipid metabolism and involved gene expression in different white adipose tissues. Female Bama Xiang mini-pigs of 35 days old were fed a basal diet (control, Con), or basal diet supplemented with increasing amounts of soy isoflavones (250, 500, or 1250 mg/kg diet) for 120 days. The results showed that soy isoflavones did not affect the body weight, but decreased the dorsal subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSA) mass and increased the mass of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASA) and perirenal adipose tissue (PRA). Besides, soy isoflavones decreased the expression of lipogenic genes and increased the expression of lipolytic genes in DSA, while the opposite effects were observed in ASA and PRA. In addition, the expression of lipoprotein lipase was down regulated in DSA while up regulated in ASA and PRA by soy isoflavones. Moreover, the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) was up regulated in DSA, and down regulated in ASA and PRA by soy isoflavones. Our results suggest that soy isoflavones affected the lipid metabolism in white adipose tissues of Bama mini-pigs in a site-specific manner, which might be mediated through PPARs and ERs regulated gene expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary soy, meat, and fish proteins modulate the effects of prebiotic raffinose on composition and fermentation of gut microbiota in rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Gaowa; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Nishino, Naoki

    2017-09-28

    Soy, meat (mixture of pork and beef), and fish proteins were fed to rats with and without prebiotic raffinose (RAF), and the composition and fermentation of gut microbiota were examined. Bifidobacterium spp. populations were higher, and propionic acid concentration was lower in soy protein-fed than meat protein-fed rats. Likewise, Enterobacteriaceae populations were higher in fish protein-fed rats than other rats. RAF feeding increased Bifidobacterium spp. and decreased Faecalibacterium prausnitzii populations regardless of the dietary protein source. Interactions between dietary proteins and RAF were shown for Lactobacillus spp. and Clostridium perfringens group; the increase of Lactobacillus spp. populations by RAF was seen only for soy protein-fed rats, whereas the reduction of C. perfringens group by RAF was evident in fish and meat protein-fed rats. It is concluded that dietary proteins may differentially modulate the effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides on gut fermentation and microbiota, with differences observed between plant and animal proteins.

  14. Characteristics of Drug and Dietary Supplement Inquiries by College Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Peter J.; Tsourounis, Candy; Olander, Rachel; Uryasz, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the United States, the National Center for Drug Free Sport manages the drug-testing programs for athletes of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Through its Resource Exchange Center (REC), Drug Free Sport supports athletic staff and athletes with information regarding drugs and dietary supplements. Purpose: To characterize the types of drug-related and dietary supplement–related inquiries submitted to Drug Free Sport through the REC. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: All inquiries submitted to the REC for the period of September 1, 2005, through June 30, 2006, were reviewed. The data were categorized by the method of inquiry submission; the name of the substance in question; the sex, sport, and NCAA division of the athlete involved; the nature of the inquiry; and the response provided by the REC regarding the NCAA’s status of the substance in question. Results: Pseudoephedrine, acetaminophen/hydrocodone, and albuterol were the most commonly self-searched medications; stimulants accounted for the majority of banned medications. Dietary supplements accounted for 80% of all inquiries submitted to the REC via the Banned Drug Inquiry Form. Among all dietary supplements, creatine was the most commonly inquired. Banned substances accounted for 29% of all inquiries. Conclusions: There were more than 10 000 inquiries regarding the status of medications, dietary supplements, and other substances for NCAA athletes during the 2005-2006 academic year. It is helpful for athletes to have resources that help them navigate banned-substance lists and so avoid the inadvertent use of banned substances. Clinical Relevance: Educating athletes regarding the stimulant content of various dietary supplements and addressing the lack of clinical trials to support stated claims and safety appear critical. PMID:23015919

  15. Quality assurance issues in the use of dietary supplements, with special reference to protein supplements.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J

    2013-11-01

    The use of dietary supplements is widespread in the general population, in athletes and recreational exercisers, and in military personnel. A wide array of supplements is available, but protein-containing products are consistently among the most popular, especially among those who engage in resistance training. There are significant risks associated with the use of unregulated dietary supplements. Risks include the absence of active ingredients, the presence of harmful substances (including microbiological agents and foreign objects), the presence of toxic agents, and the presence of potentially dangerous prescription-only pharmaceuticals. There is ample evidence of athletes who have failed doping tests because of the use of dietary supplements. There is also growing evidence of risks to health and of serious adverse events, including a small number of fatalities, as a result of supplement use. The risk associated with the use of protein powders produced by major manufacturers is probably low, and the risk can be further reduced by using only products that have been tested under one of the recognized supplement quality assurance programs that operate in various countries. Nevertheless, a small risk remains, and athletes, soldiers, and other consumers should conduct a cost-benefit analysis before using any dietary supplements.

  16. Dietary Supplement Use by Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    release of the report on June 10th. A sponsor briefing was held on June 3rd at the Samueli Institute headquarters in Alexandria, V A. The...of Health) and Dr. Joan Walter (The Samueli Institute) presented a description of their respective institutions, their work related to dietary

  17. Dietary interventions (plant sterols, stanols, omega-3 fatty acids, soy protein and dietary fibers) for familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Anita; Shafiq, Nusrat; Arora, Anjuman; Singh, Meenu; Kumar, Rajendra; Malhotra, Samir

    2014-06-10

    A cholesterol-lowering diet and several other dietary interventions have been suggested as a management approach either independently or as an adjuvant to drug therapy in children and adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). However, a consensus has yet to be reached on the most appropriate dietary treatment. Plant sterols are commonly used in FH although patients may know them by other names like phytosterols or stanols. To examine whether a cholesterol-lowering diet is more effective in reducing ischaemic heart disease and lowering cholesterol than no dietary intervention in children and adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Further, to compare the efficacy of supplementing a cholesterol-lowering diet with either omega-3 fatty acids, soya proteins, plant sterols or plant stanols. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register, which is compiled from electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (updated with each new issue of The Cochrane Library), quarterly searches of MEDLINE and the prospective handsearching of one journal - Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. Most recent search of the Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register: 22 August 2013. We also searched PubMed to 05 February 2012. Randomised controlled trials, both published and unpublished, where a cholesterol-lowering diet in children and adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia has been compared to other forms of dietary treatment or to no dietary intervention were included. Two authors independently assessed the trial eligibility and risk of bias and one extracted the data, with independent verification of data extraction by a colleague. In the 2014 update of the review, 15 trials have been included, with a total of 453 participants across seven comparison groups. The included trials had either a low or unclear risk of bias for most of the parameters used for risk

  18. Dietary supplements and disease prevention — a global overview

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary supplements are widely used and offer the potential to improve health if appropriately targeted to those in need. Inadequate nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent conditions that adversely affect global health. Although improvements in diet quality are essential to address t...

  19. Effects of dietary blueberry supplementation on older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aging involves decremental changes in cognition, even in the absense of neurodegenerative pathology. A growing body of pre-clinical research shows that dietary supplementation with berry fruit can improve cognition and mobility in aged rodents, in part due to reduction in inflammation. This study s...

  20. Iodine in food and dietary supplement composition databases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For a number of years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their e...

  1. Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Wong, Aloysius; Ngu, Davey Yueh Saint; Dan, Lydia Annabel; Ooi, Amanda; Lim, Renee Lay Hong

    2015-09-14

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  2. Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

  3. A free new dietary supplement label database for dietitians

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over half of US adults consume dietary supplements (DS). Some of the approximately 50,000 products on the market provide significant sources of nutrients or other bioactive constituents. It is important for dietitians to have information about them. In keeping with their missions, the Office of Di...

  4. Biological Reactive Intermediates (BRIs) Formed from Botanical Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs. While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to reactive biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to a reactive carbocation forming genotoxic DNA adducts. Alternatively, some botanical dietary supplements contain stable BRIs such as simple Michael acceptors that react with chemosensor proteins such as Keap1 resulting in induction of protective detoxification enzymes. Examples include curcumin from turmeric, xanthohumol from hops, and Z-ligustilide from dang gui. Quinones (sassafras, kava, black cohosh), quinone methides (sassafras), and epoxides (pennyroyal oil) represent BRIs of intermediate reactivity, which could generate both genotoxic and/or chemopreventive effects. The biological targets of BRIs formed from botanical dietary supplements and their resulting toxic and/or chemopreventive effects are closely linked to the reactivity of BRIs as well as dose and time of exposure. PMID:20970412

  5. Biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) formed from botanical dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Birgit M; Bolton, Judy L

    2011-06-30

    The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs. While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to a reactive carbocation forming genotoxic DNA adducts. Alternatively, some botanical dietary supplements contain stable BRIs such as simple Michael acceptors that react with chemosensor proteins such as Keap1 resulting in induction of protective detoxification enzymes. Examples include curcumin from turmeric, xanthohumol from hops, and Z-ligustilide from dang gui. Quinones (sassafras, kava, black cohosh), quinone methides (sassafras), and epoxides (pennyroyal oil) represent BRIs of intermediate reactivity, which could generate both genotoxic and/or chemopreventive effects. The biological targets of BRIs formed from botanical dietary supplements and their resulting toxic and/or chemopreventive effects are closely linked to the reactivity of BRIs as well as dose and time of exposure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) release 4.0

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nearly half of U.S. adults report taking dietary supplements (DS). A single serving of a DS may contain amounts of nutrients or other bioactive compounds that exceed their concentration in foods. During the manufacturing of DS, ingredients may be added in amounts exceeding the label claims in orde...

  7. Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

  8. Symptomatic hyperthyroidism in a patient taking the dietary supplement tiratricol.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Brent A; Elkin, Peter L; Erickson, Dana; Klee, George G; Brennan, Michael D

    2002-06-01

    An 87-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of nervousness, tremor, insomnia, and fatigue of 2 months' duration. Initial laboratory evaluation revealed a suppressed thyrotropin level and an elevated triiodothyronine level. A review of her medications revealed that she had started taking several dietary supplements at the recommendation of her chiropractor before the onset of symptoms. One of these was tiratricol (3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid or Triac), a substance sold as a dietary supplement despite classification as a drug by the Food and Drug Administration. Tiratricol has weak thyromimetic effects, can inhibit pituitary thyrotropin secretion, and in higher doses can significantly stimulate metabolism. Such was the case with this patient who presented with signs, symptoms, and biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism that promptly resolved after discontinuation of tiratricol therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of documented thyrotoxicosis secondary to tiratricol use. Because tiratricol is still available for sale on several Internet sites, this case emphasizes the importance of inquiring about the use of dietary supplements in all patients. The availability of such products on the Internet increases the already complex task of monitoring patients' use of dietary supplements.

  9. Assessment of Vitamin D in multivitamin/mineral dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin D is a nutrient of public health concern and is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available in dietary supplements. It is essential for bone growth and may have other roles in human health. To estimate current levels of intake, analytical data for vitamin D in foods and...

  10. Exploring "Responsibility" in Advertising: Health Claims about Dietary Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreth, Melinda L.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on a collaborative research assignment on the health claims made for dietary supplements to help students understand responsibility in advertising. Helps students explore the social, economic, and political contexts in which regulatory standards emerge and evolve as well as how they are disseminated, implemented, and enforced. (SC)

  11. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    PubMed

    Marcus, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Dietary soy protein benefit in experimental kidney disease is preserved after isoflavone depletion of diet.

    PubMed

    Ogborn, Malcolm R; Nitschmann, Evan; Bankovic-Calic, Neda; Weiler, Hope A; Aukema, Harold M

    2010-11-01

    Soy diet ameliorates renal injury in the Han:SPRD-cy rat. The relative roles of protein, isoflavones and changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status are not determined. We fed male Han:SPRD-cy heterozygotes casein (C), high isoflavone soy protein (HIS), alcohol-extracted low isoflavone soy protein (LIS) or mixed soy protein diet (MIS). LIS and MIS were associated with a small decrease in animal weight compared with HIS or C. Soy diets preserved normal renal function and reduced relative renal weight (10.9-14.6 g/kg, cf. 23.6, P < 0.001), scores for cystic change (0.168-0.239, cf. 0.386, P < 0.05), fibrosis (0.013-0.015, cf. 0.032, P < 0.05), tissue oxidized LDL content (0.012-0.021, cf. 0.048, P < 0.05), inflammation (8.5-12.9, cf. 31.2, P < 0.05) and epithelial cell proliferation (6.5-13.8, cf. 26.3, P < 0.05). In post hoc testing, LIS produced a greater reduction in relative renal weight, cystic change and epithelial proliferation, whereas HIS produced a significantly greater reduction in oxidized-LDL. Soy diets were associated with increased hepatic content of 18C PUFA (P < 0.001). LIS and HIS diets were associated with a small increase in body fat content (P < 0.001). Alcohol-extracted soy protein retains its major protective effects in this model with subtle differences attributable to isoflavones.

  13. Current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packaging, labeling, or holding operations for dietary supplements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-06-25

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule regarding current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) for dietary supplements. The final rule establishes the minimum CGMPs necessary for activities related to manufacturing, packaging, labeling, or holding dietary supplements to ensure the quality of the dietary supplement. The final rule is one of many actions related to dietary supplements that we are taking to promote and protect the public health.

  14. [Acceptability of dietary supplements of the national Mexican program "Oportunidades"].

    PubMed

    Zarco, Angel; Mora, Gerardo; Pelcastre, Blanca; Flores, Mario; Bronfman, Mario

    2006-01-01

    To identify cultural beliefs and practices to evaluate the acceptability of dietary supplements of Oportunidades Program. Ethnographic study with in-depth interviews (n=43)--mothers of children less than five years of age and pregnant and breasfeeding women (PBW)--, key informants (n=9); focus groups (n=8) and direct observation, in four communities from North, Central, South and Southwest of Mexico. The supplement was prepared in several different ways. The liquid preparation was best accepted; generally the supplement was mixed with milk. Initially, the supplement caused nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, but these symptoms disappeared with continued consumption. Acceptance was highest among PBW. The supplement tends to replace milk as a food product in the daily diet. There is a necessity to develop culturally specific evaluations in regions with different food intake practices. The study results should be interpreted in the context of other program components, such as health care and education.

  15. Gluten screening of several dietary supplements by immunochromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Oancea, Simona; Wagner, Adriana; Cîrstea, Elena; Sima, Mirela

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic intestinal disorder of public health concern caused by gluten ingestion in sensitive individuals. Gluten is a protein found not only in gluten-containing food but also as normal component of drugs and dietary supplements. Detection of gluten in dietary supplements is a very important task required for establishing their gluten status, which is highly important for the safety of products consumed by CD and gluten-sensitive patients. In this paper, we investigated the presence of gluten in twenty one common dietary supplements from the national market using the immunochromatographic assay. This visual assay proved to be an efficient rapid tool for gluten screening as an alternative to the ELISA techniques. The results have shown the presence of gluten in 23.8% of the investigated samples (vitamins, minerals, plant extracts, probiotics supplements, lactoferrin, propolis supplements). The results provide information which may contribute to the completion of the existing lists of gluten-free pharmaceuticals. It is known that for CD patients obtaining accurate information about the gluten content of a particular item is a difficult and time-consuming process.

  16. Lack of Benefit of Early Intervention with Dietary Flax and Fish Oil and Soy Protein in Orthologous Rodent Models of Human Hereditary Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tamio; Devassy, Jessay G; Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa; Aukema, Harold M

    2016-01-01

    Rationale for dietary advice in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is based in part on animal studies that have examined non-orthologous models with progressive development of cystic disease. Since no model completely mimics human PKD, the purpose of the current studies was to examine the effects of dietary soy protein (compared to casein) or oils enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (fish or flax oil compared to soy oil) on early disease progression in two orthologous models of PKD. The models studied were Pkd2WS25/- mice as a model of autosomal dominant PKD, and PCK rats as a model of autosomal recessive PKD. After 13 weeks of feeding, dietary fish (but not flax) oil resulted in larger kidneys and greater kidney water content in female Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. After 12 weeks of feeding male PCK compared to control rats, both fish and flax compared to soy oil resulted in enlarged kidneys and livers, greater kidney water content and higher kidney cyst area in diseased rats. Dietary soy protein compared to casein had no effects in Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. In PCK rats, kidney and liver histology were not improved, but lower proteinuria and higher urine pH suggest that soy protein could be beneficial in the long term. Therefore, in contrast to studies in non-orthologous models during the progressive development phase, these studies in orthologous PKD models do not support dietary advice to increase soy protein or oils enriched in omega-3 oils in early PKD.

  17. Dietary fiber supplementation for fecal incontinence: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appears related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16 g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dietary Fiber Supplementation for Fecal Incontinence: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xioayan

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appear related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI. PMID:25155992

  19. Methylsulfonylmethane: Applications and Safety of a Novel Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Butawan, Matthew; Benjamin, Rodney L.; Bloomer, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has become a popular dietary supplement used for a variety of purposes, including its most common use as an anti-inflammatory agent. It has been well-investigated in animal models, as well as in human clinical trials and experiments. A variety of health-specific outcome measures are improved with MSM supplementation, including inflammation, joint/muscle pain, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity. Initial evidence is available regarding the dose of MSM needed to provide benefit, although additional work is underway to determine the precise dose and time course of treatment needed to provide optimal benefits. As a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) approved substance, MSM is well-tolerated by most individuals at dosages of up to four grams daily, with few known and mild side effects. This review provides an overview of MSM, with details regarding its common uses and applications as a dietary supplement, as well as its safety for consumption. PMID:28300758

  20. Concomitant Use of Dietary Supplements and Medicines in Patients due to Miscommunication with Physicians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that some patients used dietary supplements with their medication without consulting with physicians. Dietary supplements and medicines may interact with each other when used concomitantly, resulting in health problems. An Internet survey was conducted on 2109 people who concomitantly took dietary supplements and medicines in order to address dietary supplement usage in people who regularly take medicines in Japan. A total of 1508 patients (two admitted patients and 1506 ambulatory patients) and 601 non-patients, who were not consulting with physicians, participated in this study. Purpose for dietary supplement use was different among ages. Dietary supplements were used to treat diseases in 4.0% of non-patients and 11.9% of patients, while 10.8% of patients used dietary supplements to treat the same diseases as their medication. However, 70.3% of patients did not declare dietary supplement use to their physicians or pharmacists because they considered the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines to be safe. A total of 8.4% of all subjects realized the potential for adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. The incidence of adverse events was higher in patients who used dietary supplements to treat their disease. Communication between patients and physicians is important for avoiding the adverse effects associated with the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines. PMID:25894658

  1. Concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines in patients due to miscommunication with physicians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2015-04-16

    We previously reported that some patients used dietary supplements with their medication without consulting with physicians. Dietary supplements and medicines may interact with each other when used concomitantly, resulting in health problems. An Internet survey was conducted on 2109 people who concomitantly took dietary supplements and medicines in order to address dietary supplement usage in people who regularly take medicines in Japan. A total of 1508 patients (two admitted patients and 1506 ambulatory patients) and 601 non-patients, who were not consulting with physicians, participated in this study. Purpose for dietary supplement use was different among ages. Dietary supplements were used to treat diseases in 4.0% of non-patients and 11.9% of patients, while 10.8% of patients used dietary supplements to treat the same diseases as their medication. However, 70.3% of patients did not declare dietary supplement use to their physicians or pharmacists because they considered the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines to be safe. A total of 8.4% of all subjects realized the potential for adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. The incidence of adverse events was higher in patients who used dietary supplements to treat their disease. Communication between patients and physicians is important for avoiding the adverse effects associated with the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines.

  2. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... supplements? 111.470 Section 111.470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary...

  3. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... supplements? 111.470 Section 111.470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary...

  4. 21 CFR 111.520 - When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged? 111.520 Section 111.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.520...

  5. 21 CFR 111.520 - When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged? 111.520 Section 111.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.520...

  6. 21 CFR 111.520 - When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged? 111.520 Section 111.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.520...

  7. NTP-CERHR monograph on Soy Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    2010-09-01

    Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones ("phytoestrogens") that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are non-steroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of the: (1)availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as a number of studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2)the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3)public concern for effects on infant or child development. The NTP evaluation was conducted through its Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) and completed in September 2010. The results of this soy infant formula evaluation are published in an NTP Monograph. This document contains the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula, which presents NTP's opinion on the potential for exposure to soy infant formula to cause adverse developmental effects in humans. The NTP Monograph also contains an expert panel report prepared to assist the NTP in reaching conclusions on soy infant formula. The NTP concluded there is minimal concern for adverse effects on development in infants who consume soy infant formula. This level of concern represents a "2" on the five-level scale of concern used by the NTP that ranges from negligible concern ("1") to serious concern ("5"). This

  8. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    PubMed Central

    Berardi, John M; Logan, Alan C; Rao, A Venket

    2008-01-01

    Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg) was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03) with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body. PMID:18990209

  9. Effect of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on the incidence of stunting and linear growth among 6- to 18-month-old infants and children in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mangani, Charles; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Cheung, Yin Bun; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Dewey, Kathryn; Manary, Mark; Puumalainen, Taneli; Ashorn, Per

    2015-12-01

    Low nutritional value of complementary foods is associated with high incidence of childhood growth stunting in low-income countries. This study was done to test a hypothesis that dietary complementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) promotes linear growth and reduces the incidence of severe stunting among at-risk infants. A total of 840 6-month-old healthy infants in rural Malawi were enrolled to a randomised assessor-blinded trial. The participants received 12-month supplementation with nothing, milk-LNS, soy-LNS, or corn-soy blend (CSB). Supplements provided micronutrients and approximately 280 kcal energy per day. Outcomes were incidence of severe and very severe stunting [length-for-age z-score, (LAZ) < -3.00 and <-3.50, respectively], and change in LAZ. The incidence of severe stunting was 11.8%, 8.2%, 9.1% and 15.5% (P = 0.098) and that of very severe stunting 7.4%, 2.9%, 8.0% and 6.4% (P = 0.138) in control, milk-LNS, soy-LNS and CSB groups, respectively. Between 9 and 12 months of age, the mean change in LAZ was -0.15, -0.02, -0.12 and -0.18 (P = 0.045) for control, milk-LNS, soy-LNS and CSB groups, respectively. There was no significant between-group difference in linear growth during other age-intervals. Although participants who received milk-LNS had the lowest incidence of severe and very severe stunting, the differences between the groups were smaller than expected. Thus, the results do not provide conclusive evidence on a causal association between the LNS supplementation and the lower incidence of stunting. Exploratory analyses suggest that provision of milk-LNS, but not soy-LNS promotes linear growth among at-risk infants mainly between 9 and 12 months of age.

  10. Emergency Department Visits for Adverse Events Related to Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Geller, Andrew I; Shehab, Nadine; Weidle, Nina J; Lovegrove, Maribeth C; Wolpert, Beverly J; Timbo, Babgaleh B; Mozersky, Robert P; Budnitz, Daniel S

    2015-10-15

    Dietary supplements, such as herbal or complementary nutritional products and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), are commonly used in the United States, yet national data on adverse effects are limited. We used nationally representative surveillance data from 63 emergency departments obtained from 2004 through 2013 to describe visits to U.S. emergency departments because of adverse events related to dietary supplements. On the basis of 3667 cases, we estimated that 23,005 (95% confidence interval [CI], 18,611 to 27,398) emergency department visits per year were attributed to adverse events related to dietary supplements. These visits resulted in an estimated 2154 hospitalizations (95% CI, 1342 to 2967) annually. Such visits frequently involved young adults between the ages of 20 and 34 years (28.0% of visits; 95% CI, 25.1 to 30.8) and unsupervised children (21.2% of visits; 95% CI, 18.4 to 24.0). After the exclusion of unsupervised ingestion of dietary supplements by children, 65.9% (95% CI, 63.2 to 68.5) of emergency department visits for single-supplement-related adverse events involved herbal or complementary nutritional products; 31.8% (95% CI, 29.2 to 34.3) involved micronutrients. Herbal or complementary nutritional products for weight loss (25.5%; 95% CI, 23.1 to 27.9) and increased energy (10.0%; 95% CI, 8.0 to 11.9) were commonly implicated. Weight-loss or energy products caused 71.8% (95% CI, 67.6 to 76.1) of supplement-related adverse events involving palpitations, chest pain, or tachycardia, and 58.0% (95% CI, 52.2 to 63.7) involved persons 20 to 34 years of age. Among adults 65 years of age or older, choking or pill-induced dysphagia or globus caused 37.6% (95% CI, 29.1 to 46.2) of all emergency department visits for supplement-related adverse events; micronutrients were implicated in 83.1% (95% CI, 73.3 to 92.9) of these visits. An estimated 23,000 emergency department visits in the United States every year are attributed to adverse events

  11. AOAC SMPR 2014.007: Authentication of selected Vaccinium species (Anthocyanins) in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR) is for authentication of selected Vaccinium species in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements containing a single Vaccinium species using anthocyanin profiles. SMPRs describe the minimum recommended performance characteristics to be used...

  12. The use of, and perceptions about, dietary supplements among patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiuzhen; Lee, Kyoung Suk; Frazier, Susan K; Lennie, Terry A; Moser, Debra K

    2014-08-01

    Dietary supplement use is widespread; patterns of use and perceptions about supplements in individuals with heart failure (HF) are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence, patterns and reasons for use of dietary supplements, and to compare characteristics of, and perceptions about, safety and efficacy between dietary supplement user and non-user participants with HF. Patients with HF (n=99) completed a Dietary Supplement Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Independent sample t-tests, Fisher's exact test, and Chi square analyses compared dietary supplement users to non-users. More than half of the participants used at least one dietary supplement and almost all patients using dietary supplements reported they had informed their healthcare provider. Dietary supplements were taken to improve intake of dietary components and better individual health state. Participants thought that dietary supplements in general were safer and more effective than current evidence suggests. Users and non-users expressed similar perceptions. Patients who used dietary supplements were older (64±10 years vs 53±12 years) and had a lower body mass index (30.0±6.5 kg/m(2) vs 34.1±8.3 kg/m(2)) compared with patients who did not. Dietary supplement use was common in these participants with HF; global perceptions about safety and efficacy of dietary supplements were similar between users and non-users of dietary supplements. Systematic evaluation of dietary supplement use, with discussion about safety and efficacy may be constructive for patients with HF. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013.

  13. Dietary supplements quality analysis tools from the United States Pharmacopeia

    PubMed Central

    Giancaspro, Gabriel; Venema, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued the dietary supplement (DS) current good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations in compliance with the mandate from the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act (DSHEA), with the intention of protecting public health by ensuring the quality of DS. The GMP regulations require manufacturers to establish their own quality specifications for identity, purity, strength, composition, and absence of contaminants. Numerous FDA‐conducted GMP inspections found that the private specifications set by these manufacturers are often insufficient to ensure adequate quality of dietary ingredients and DS. Wider use of the public standards developed by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP), in conjunction with GMP compliance, can help ensure quality and consistency of DS as they do for medicines. Public health protection could be enhanced by strengthening the GMP provisions to require conformance with relevant United States Pharmacopeia–National Formulary (USP–NF) standards, or in the absence of USP standards, other public compendial standards. Another serious concern is the presence of synthetic drugs and drug analogues in products marketed as DS. Use of the new USP General Chapter Adulteration of Dietary Supplements with Drugs and Drug Analogs <2251> may reduce the exposure of consumers to dangerous drugs disguised as DS. © 2016 The Authors. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26857794

  14. Dietary supplements quality analysis tools from the United States Pharmacopeia.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Nandakumara; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Venema, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued the dietary supplement (DS) current good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations in compliance with the mandate from the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act (DSHEA), with the intention of protecting public health by ensuring the quality of DS. The GMP regulations require manufacturers to establish their own quality specifications for identity, purity, strength, composition, and absence of contaminants. Numerous FDA-conducted GMP inspections found that the private specifications set by these manufacturers are often insufficient to ensure adequate quality of dietary ingredients and DS. Wider use of the public standards developed by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP), in conjunction with GMP compliance, can help ensure quality and consistency of DS as they do for medicines. Public health protection could be enhanced by strengthening the GMP provisions to require conformance with relevant United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary (USP-NF) standards, or in the absence of USP standards, other public compendial standards. Another serious concern is the presence of synthetic drugs and drug analogues in products marketed as DS. Use of the new USP General Chapter Adulteration of Dietary Supplements with Drugs and Drug Analogs <2251> may reduce the exposure of consumers to dangerous drugs disguised as DS. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Nitrate and Nitrite Content of Human, Formula, Bovine, and Soy Milks: Implications for Dietary Nitrite and Nitrate Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hord, Norman G.; Ghannam, Janine S.; Garg, Harsha K.; Berens, Pamela D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Estimation of nitrate and nitrite concentrations of milk sources may provide insight into potential health risks and benefits of these food sources for infants, children, and adults. The World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive consumption of human milk for the first 6 months of life. Human milk is known to confer significant nutritional and immunological benefits for the infant. Consumption of formula, cow's, and soy milk may be used as alternatives to human milk for infants. Methods We sought to estimate potential exposure to nitrate and nitrite in human, formula, bovine, and soy milk to inform total dietary exposure estimates and recommendations. Using sensitive quantitative methodologies, nitrite and nitrate were analyzed in different samples of milk. Results Human milk concentrations of colostrum (expressed days 1–3 postpartum; n = 12), transition milk (expressed days 3–7 postpartum; n = 17), and mature milk (expressed >7 days postpartum; n = 50) were 0.08 mg/100 mL nitrite and 0.19 mg/100 mL nitrate, 0.001 mg/100 mL nitrite and 0.52 mg/100 mL nitrate, and 0.001 mg/100 mL nitrite and 0.3 mg/100 mL nitrate, respectively, revealing that the absolute amounts of these anions change as the composition of milk changes. When expressed as a percentage of the World Health Organization's Acceptable Daily Intake limits, Silk® Soy Vanilla (WhiteWave Foods, Broomfield, CO) intake could result in high nitrate intakes (104% of this standard), while intake of Bright Beginnings Soy Pediatric® formula (PBM Nutritionals, Georgia, VT) could result in the highest nitrite intakes (383% of this standard). Conclusions The temporal relationship between the provision of nitrite in human milk and the development of commensal microbiota capable of reducing dietary nitrate to nitrite supports a hypothesis that humans are adapted to provide nitrite to the gastrointestinal tract from birth

  16. Distinct effects of dietary flax compared to fish oil, soy protein compared to casein, and sex on the renal oxylipin profile in models of polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Devassy, Jessay G; Yamaguchi, Tamio; Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa; Ravandi, Amir; Zhou, Jing; Aukema, Harold M

    2017-08-01

    Oxylipins are bioactive lipids derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are important regulators of kidney function and health. Targeted lipidomic analyses of renal oxylipins from four studies of rodent models of renal disease were performed to investigate the differential effects of dietary flax compared to fish oil, soy protein compared to casein, and sex. Across all studies, dietary fish oil was more effective than flax oil in reducing n-6 PUFA derived oxylipins and elevating eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derived oxylipins, whereas dietary flax oil resulted in higher α-linolenic acid (ALA) oxylipins. Dietary soy protein compared to casein resulted in higher linoleic acid (LA) derived oxylipins. Kidneys from females had higher levels of arachidonic acid (AA) oxylipins, but similar or lower levels of oxylipins from other PUFA. Modulation of the oxylipin profile by diet and sex may help elucidate their effects on renal physiology and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Minerals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melvin H

    2005-01-01

    Minerals are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. Some of the physiologic roles of minerals important to athletes are their involvement in: muscle contraction, normal hearth rhythm, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, enzyme activation, immune functions, antioxidant activity, bone health, and acid-base balance of the blood. The two major classes of minerals are the macrominerals and the trace elements. The scope of this article will focus on the ergogenic theory and the efficacy of such mineral supplementation. PMID:18500950

  18. Dietary supplements and sports performance: minerals.

    PubMed

    Williams, Melvin H

    2005-06-11

    Minerals are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. Some of the physiologic roles of minerals important to athletes are their involvement in: muscle contraction, normal hearth rhythm, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, enzyme activation, immune functions, antioxidant activity, bone health, and acid-base balance of the blood. The two major classes of minerals are the macrominerals and the trace elements. The scope of this article will focus on the ergogenic theory and the efficacy of such mineral supplementation.

  19. Estimation of dietary supplements intake in a selected group of women over 50 and the risk assessment of interactions between the ingredients of dietary supplements and drugs

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Joanna; Bruszkowska, Magda

    Concurrent use of dietary supplements and drugs may result in complications of pharmacotherapy due to possible interactions between their ingredients. The aim of the survey was to estimate the intake of dietary supplements in a group of women over 50 and to analyse the risk of interactions between the ingredients of dietary supplements and drugs taken by the women. The study was carried out among 146 women over 50 years of age. Questionnaire included detailed questions on the type of prescription drugs, OTC (over-the-counter) drugs, and dietary supplements taken. The risk of interactions was determined on the basis of chemical composition of the drugs and supplements specified by the manufacturer, by comparing the obtained data with literature reports on known interactions. The analysis has shown that 88.4% of respondents constantly took prescription drugs, 44.5% of them took OTC drugs, and 66.4% of respondents took dietary supplements throughout the survey period. It has been found that 71.3% of surveyed women taking prescription drugs, took dietary supplements as well. Among women taking supplements and drugs, 36.9% of respondents were taking them concurrently, 60.9% kept such an interval, but only 21.8% of them waited for at least two hours. It has been found that the drug-supplement interactions might occur in 35.8% women under the survey. The analysis of the obtained results has revealed that taking dietary supplements by the group under survey was frequent, and the risk of interactions between dietary supplements and drugs was significant. It is recommended that doctors ask their patients about taken supplements during regular check-ups, and inform them about possible interactions between dietary supplements and drugs. Moreover, appropriate would be to change the labelling of dietary supplements, so that the packaging provides information on possible interactions between their ingredients and drugs.

  20. Effect of fishmeal replacement by soy protein concentrate with taurine supplementation on growth performance, hematological and biochemical status, and liver histology of totoaba juveniles (Totoaba macdonaldi).

    PubMed

    López, Lus M; Flores-Ibarra, Maricela; Bañuelos-Vargas, Isaura; Galaviz, Mario A; True, Conal D

    2015-08-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and simultaneous supplementation with taurine on the growth, hematology, blood biochemistry, and liver histology of totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) juveniles was assessed. Four isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated containing either 30 or 60% of SPC (diets S30 and S60), supplemented or not with 1% of taurine (diets S30T and S60T). A fishmeal-based diet formulated for totoaba nutritional requirements, without SPC and taurine supplementation, was used as a reference diet. Triplicate groups of 32 totoaba juveniles (average body weight 7.5 ± 0.6 g) were fed these diets for 45 days. Results showed that growth performance in fish fed S30, S30T, and S60T was similar to fish fed the reference diet. Red blood cells and hematocrit in fish fed with supplemented taurine in both levels of SPC (S30T and S60T) were similar to the fish fed the RD; the addition of taurine improved the state of hydration of totoaba. Plasmatic hemoglobin in fish fed the lower SPC level was similar to fish fed the RD. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in fish fed S30T was similar to fish fed the RD, taurine supplementation prevented the development of hypochromic anemia in this group of fish. Plasmatic albumin in fish fed S30 was similar to fish fed the RD. Plasmatic total protein and globulin concentration increased and AL:GLB (albumin:globulin ratio) decreased in fish fed the SPC-based diets despite taurine supplementation. The protein profile showed that taurine supplementation did not prevent a possible inflammatory process (increased globulins, decreased AL:GLB) in juvenile totoaba fed both levels of SPC. Glucose concentration was similar in fish fed S30, S30T, and S60T. The histological hepatic index was highest in fish fed S60. These results suggest that with an appropriate nutritional level, taurine may play an important modulatory role in the hematology and blood biochemistry status in totoaba fed SPC

  1. Regulation of mammary stem cell population with dietary intake of soy protein isolate reveals novel mechanisms for diet-mediated control of mammary tumorigenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breast cancer risk is highly modified by environmental factors including diet. Previously, we showed that dietary intake of soy protein isolate (SPI) decreased mammary tumor incidence and increased mammary tumor latency in rats relative to those fed a control casein (CAS) diet, when exposed to the c...

  2. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Faurot, Keturah R.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O.; Young, Laura A.; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A.; González, Hector M.; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E.; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen’s kappa: 0.31–0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use. PMID:26917949

  3. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    PubMed

    Faurot, Keturah R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O; Young, Laura A; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A; González, Hector M; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A; Talavera, Gregory A; Castañeda, Sheila F; Daviglus, Martha L; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen's kappa: 0.31-0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use.

  4. NIH and USDA Funding of Dietary Supplement Research, 1999–20071

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Karen S.; Wambogo, Edwina A.; Haggans, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Over one-half of U.S. adults use dietary supplements, so federally supported research into the safety and effectiveness of these compounds is important for the health of many Americans. Data collected in the Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements database, which compiles federally sponsored dietary supplement-related research, are useful to scientists in determining the type of dietary supplement research that federal agencies are currently funding and where research gaps exist. This article describes the dietary supplement-related research funded by the NIH and the USDA. Between fiscal years 1999 and 2007, the number of research projects and funding for dietary supplement research more than doubled. During that period, NIH funded 6748 dietary supplement-related projects at a cost of $1.9 billion and the USDA funded 2258 projects at a cost of $347 million. The top funded dietary supplement ingredient categories were vitamins and minerals, botanicals, phytochemicals, and fatty acids. Cancer was by far the most frequent health outcome in dietary supplement research funding, nearly double the next closest health outcome category. Other health outcomes with the greatest funding were cellular and molecular mechanisms, cardiovascular health, women’s reproductive health, and immune function. The greatest number of dietary supplement research projects are funded by the NIH National Cancer Institute, the NIH National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, and the USDA Agricultural Research Service. PMID:21106929

  5. Dietary Casein and Soy Protein Isolate Modulate the Effects of Raffinose and Fructooligosaccharides on the Composition and Fermentation of Gut Microbiota in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Gaowa; Ni, Kuikui; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Nishino, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Although diet has an important influence on the composition of gut microbiota, the impact of dietary protein sources has only been studied to a minor extent. In this study, we examined the influence of different dietary protein sources regarding the effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides on the composition and metabolic activity of gut microbiota. Thirty female rats were fed casein and soy protein isolate with cellulose, raffinose (RAF), and fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Microbiota composition was examined by real-time qPCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Dietary protein source affected cecum microbiota; acetic acid concentration and Lactobacillus spp. populations were greater with soy protein than with casein. Prebiotic oligosaccharides had distinctive effects on gut microbiota; RAF increased the acetic acid concentration and Bifidobacterium spp. populations, and FOS increased the butyric acid concentration regardless of the dietary protein. Likewise, Bifidobacterium sp., Collinsella sp., and Lactobacillus sp. were detected in microbiota of the rats fed RAF, and Bacteroides sp., Roseburia sp., and Blautia sp. were seen in microbiota of the rats fed FOS. Interactions between dietary proteins and prebiotic oligosaccharides were observed with Clostridium perfringens group populations and cecum IgA concentration. RAF and FOS decreased C. perfringens group populations in casein-fed rats, and the combination of soy protein and RAF substantially increased cecum IgA concentration. These results indicate that dietary proteins can differentially modulate the effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides on gut fermentation and microbiota, depending on the type of carbohydrate polymers involved. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of Australia dietitians regarding dietary supplements: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Marx, Wolfgang; Kiss, Nicole; McKavanagh, Daniel; Isenring, Elisabeth

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of Australian dietitians regarding dietary supplements. An online survey was disseminated through the mailing lists of multiple healthcare organizations. There were 231 Australian dietitians that replied to the online survey. The results indicate that Australian dietitians are interested in dietary supplements (65%); however, the results also indicate that Australian dietitians are tentative about integrating dietary supplements into their dietetic practice. Concerns regarding potential drug-nutrient/herbal interactions were reported as the primary barrier (67%) to utilizing dietary supplements as part of clinical practice. In addition, there was a strong interest in additional training in dietary supplements (79%). In summary, Australian dietitians are interested in the use of dietary supplements; however, due to current barriers, few dietitians utilize dietary supplements as part of dietetic practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inappropriate Usage of Dietary Supplements in Patients by Miscommunication with Physicians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Yokotani, Kaori; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, people have used dietary supplements not only for nutritional supplementation, but also for treatment of their diseases. However, use of dietary supplements to treat diseases, especially with medications, may cause health problems in patients. In this study, we investigated use of dietary supplements in patients in Japan. This survey was conducted from January to December 2012, and was completed by 2732 people, including 599 admitted patients, 1154 ambulatory patients, and 979 healthy subjects who attended a seminar about dietary supplements. At the time of the questionnaire, 20.4% of admitted patients, 39.1% of ambulatory patients, and 30.7% of healthy subjects were using dietary supplements, which including vitamin/mineral supplements, herbal extracts, its ingredients, or food for specified health uses. The primary purpose for use in all groups was health maintenance, whereas 3.7% of healthy subjects, 10.0% of ambulatory patients, and 13.2% of admitted patients used dietary supplements to treat diseases. In addition, 17.7% of admitted patients and 36.8% of ambulatory patients were using dietary supplements concomitantly with their medications. However, among both admitted patients and ambulatory patients, almost 70% did not mention dietary supplement use to their physicians. Overall, 3.3% of all subjects realized adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. Communication between patients and physicians is important to avoid health problems associated with the use of dietary supplements. PMID:25431879

  8. Inappropriate usage of dietary supplements in patients by miscommunication with physicians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Yokotani, Kaori; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-11-26

    Recently, people have used dietary supplements not only for nutritional supplementation, but also for treatment of their diseases. However, use of dietary supplements to treat diseases, especially with medications, may cause health problems in patients. In this study, we investigated use of dietary supplements in patients in Japan. This survey was conducted from January to December 2012, and was completed by 2732 people, including 599 admitted patients, 1154 ambulatory patients, and 979 healthy subjects who attended a seminar about dietary supplements. At the time of the questionnaire, 20.4% of admitted patients, 39.1% of ambulatory patients, and 30.7% of healthy subjects were using dietary supplements, which including vitamin/mineral supplements, herbal extracts, its ingredients, or food for specified health uses. The primary purpose for use in all groups was health maintenance, whereas 3.7% of healthy subjects, 10.0% of ambulatory patients, and 13.2% of admitted patients used dietary supplements to treat diseases. In addition, 17.7% of admitted patients and 36.8% of ambulatory patients were using dietary supplements concomitantly with their medications. However, among both admitted patients and ambulatory patients, almost 70% did not mention dietary supplement use to their physicians. Overall, 3.3% of all subjects realized adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. Communication between patients and physicians is important to avoid health problems associated with the use of dietary supplements.

  9. Androgenic Alopecia Is Associated with Less Dietary Soy, Higher Blood Vanadium and rs1160312 1 Polymorphism in Taiwanese Communities

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Chu, Nain-Feng; Chang, Chi-Wen; Wang, Shu-Li; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chu, Chi-Ming; Chang, Chu-Ting; Lin, Ming-Huang; Chien, Wu-Chien; Su, Sui-Lung; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chen, Kang-Hua; Wang, Wei-Ming; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the genetic basis of androgenic alopecia has been clearly established, little is known about its non-genetic causes, such as environmental and lifestyle factors. Objective This study investigated blood and urine heavy metals concentrations, environmental exposure factors, personal behaviors, dietary intakes and the genotypes of related susceptibility genes in patients with androgenic alopecia (AGA). Design Age, AGA level, residence area, work hours, sleep patterns, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption, betel nut usage, hair treatments, eating habits, body heavy metals concentrations and rs1998076, rs913063, rs1160312 and rs201571 SNP genotype data were collected from 354 men. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine whether any of the factors displayed odds ratios (ORs) indicating association with moderate to severe AGA (≧IV). Subsequently, Hosmer-Lemeshow, Nagelkerke R2 and accuracy tests were conducted to help establish an optimal model. Results Moderate to severe AGA was associated with the AA genotype of rs1160312 (22.50, 95% CI 3.99–126.83), blood vanadium concentration (0.02, 95% CI 0.01–0.04), and regular consumption of soy bean drinks (0.23, 95% CI 0.06–0.85), after adjustment for age. The results were corroborated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (P = 0.73), Nagelkerke R2 (0.59), accuracy test (0.816) and area under the curve (AUC; 0.90, 0.847–0.951) analysis. Conclusions Blood vanadium and frequent soy bean drink consumption may provide protect effects against AGA. Accordingly, blood vanadium concentrations, the AA genotype of rs1160312 and frequent consumption of soy bean drinks are associated with AGA. PMID:24386074

  10. Dietary soy protein improves adipose tissue dysfunction by modulating parameters related with oxidative stress in dyslipidemic insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Illesca, Paola G; Álvarez, Silvina M; Selenscig, Dante A; Ferreira, María Del R; Giménez, María S; Lombardo, Yolanda B; D'Alessandro, María E

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigates the benefits of the dietary intake of soy protein on adipose tissue dysfunction in a rat model that mimics several aspects of the human metabolic syndrome. Wistar rats were fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) for 4 months. After that, half of the animals continued with SRD until month 8 while in the other half, casein protein was replaced by isolated soy protein for 4 months (SRD-S). A reference group consumed a control diet all the time. In adipose tissue we determined: i) the activities of antioxidant enzymes, gene expression of Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione redox state ii) the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), ROS levels and the gene expression of NAD(P)H oxidase iii) the expression of the nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor-2 (Nrf2). Besides, adiposity visceral index, insulin sensitivity, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in plasma were determined. Compared with the SRD-fed rats, the animals fed a SRD-S showed: activity normalization of SOD and glutathione reductase, improvement of mRNA SOD and normalization of mRNA GPx without changes in the expression of the Nrf2, and improvement of glutathione redox state. These results were accompanied by a normalization of XO activity and improvement of both the ROS production as well as TNF-α levels in plasma. Besides, adipocyte size distribution, adiposity visceral index and insulin sensitivity improved. The results suggest that soy protein can be a complementary nutrient for treating some signs of the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary Supplementation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Deline, Marshall L.; Vrablik, Tracy L.; Watts, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways that mediate the physiological effects of dietary fatty acids, we have developed a method to supplement the C. elegans diet with unsaturated fatty acids. Supplementation is an effective means to alter the fatty acid composition of worms and can also be used to rescue defects in fatty acid-deficient mutants. Our method uses nematode growth medium agar (NGM) supplemented with fatty acidsodium salts. The fatty acids in the supplemented plates become incorporated into the membranes of the bacterial food source, which is then taken up by the C. elegans that feed on the supplemented bacteria. We also describe a gas chromatography protocol to monitor the changes in fatty acid composition that occur in supplemented worms. This is an efficient way to supplement the diets of both large and small populations of C. elegans, allowing for a range of applications for this method. PMID:24326396

  12. New Dietary Supplements for Obesity: What We Currently Know.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Hoyo, Alejandro; Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and its associated cardiometabolic alterations currently are considered an epidemic; thus, their treatment is of major importance. The cornerstone for such treatment involves therapeutic lifestyle changes; however, the vast majority of cases fail and/or significant weight loss is maintained only in the short term because of lack of compliance. The popularity of dietary supplements for weight management has increased, and a wide variety of these products are available over the counter. However, the existing scientific evidence is insufficient to recommend their safe use. Hence, the purpose of this article is to review the clinical effects, proposed mechanism of action, and safety profile of some of the new dietary supplements, including white bean extract, Garcinia cambogia, bitter orange, Hoodia gordonii, forskolin, green coffee, glucomannan, β-glucans, chitosan, guar gum, and raspberry ketones.

  13. Determination of ephedrine alkaloids in dietary supplement standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Satterfield, Mary B; Ihara, Toshihide; Phinney, Karen W; Yen, James H; Wise, Stephen A; Gay, Martha L; Lam, Joseph W; McCooeye, Margaret; Gardner, Graeme; Fraser, Catharine; Sturgeon, Ralph; Roman, Mark

    2005-05-15

    A suite of five ephedra-containing dietary supplement Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with certified values for ephedrine alkaloids, synephrine, caffeine, and selected toxic trace elements. The materials represent a variety of natural, extracted, and processed sample matrixes that provide different analytical challenges. The constituents have been determined by multiple independent methods with measurements performed by NIST and by three collaborating laboratories. The methods utilized different sample extraction and cleanup steps in addition to different instrumental analytical techniques and approaches to quantification. In addition, food-matrix proximates were determined by National Food Processor Association laboratories for one of the ephedra-containing SRMs. The SRMs are primarily intended for method validation and for use as control materials to support the analysis of dietary supplements and related botanical materials.

  14. DNA barcode identification of black cohosh herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Baker, David A; Stevenson, Dennis W; Little, Damon P

    2012-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) herbal dietary supplements are commonly consumed to treat menopausal symptoms, but there are reports of adverse events and toxicities associated with their use. Accidental misidentification and/or deliberate adulteration results in harvesting other related species that are then marketed as black cohosh. Some of these species are known to be toxic to humans. We have identified two matK nucleotides that consistently distinguish black cohosh from related species. Using these nucleotides, an assay was able to correctly identify all of the black cohosh samples in the validation set. None of the other Actaea species in the validation set were falsely identified as black cohosh. Of 36 dietary supplements sequenced, 27 (75%) had a sequence that exactly matched black cohosh. The remaining nine samples (25%) had a sequence identical to that of three Asian Actaea species (A. cimicifuga, A. dahurica, and A. simplex). Manufacturers should routinely test plant material using a reliable assay to ensure accurate labeling.

  15. Thrombocytopenic Purpura Associated with Dietary Supplements Containing Citrus Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Alaa; Bourneau-Martin, Delphine; Dopter, Aymeric; Lainé-Cessac, Pascale; Belizna, Cristina; Urbanski, Geoffrey; Lavigne, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of thrombocytopenic purpura associated with the intake of two dietary supplements containing mainly citrus flavonoids. This is the first case to be notified to the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES). It addresses the importance of an accurate medication history interview for each patient. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  16. The effect of prolonged dietary nitrate supplementation on atherosclerosis development.

    PubMed

    Marsch, Elke; Theelen, Thomas L; Janssen, Ben J A; Briede, Jacco J; Haenen, Guido R; Senden, Joan M G; van Loon, Lucas J C; Poeze, Martijn; Bierau, Jörgen; Gijbels, Marion J; Daemen, Mat J A P; Sluimer, Judith C

    2016-02-01

    Short term dietary nitrate or nitrite supplementation has nitric oxide (NO)-mediated beneficial effects on blood pressure and inflammation and reduces mitochondrial oxygen consumption, possibly preventing hypoxia. As these processes are implicated in atherogenesis, dietary nitrate was hypothesized to prevent plaque initiation, hypoxia and inflammation. Study prolonged nitrate supplementation on atherogenesis, hypoxia and inflammation in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice (LDLr(-/-)). LDLr(-/-) mice were administered sodium-nitrate or equimolar sodium-chloride in drinking water alongside a western-type diet for 14 weeks to induce atherosclerosis. Plasma nitrate, nitrite and hemoglobin-bound nitric oxide were measured by chemiluminescence and electron parametric resonance, respectively. Plasma nitrate levels were elevated after 14 weeks of nitrate supplementation (NaCl: 40.29 ± 2.985, NaNO3: 78.19 ± 6.837, p < 0.0001). However, prolonged dietary nitrate did not affect systemic inflammation, hematopoiesis, erythropoiesis and plasma cholesterol levels, suggesting no severe side effects. Surprisingly, neither blood pressure, nor atherogenesis were altered. Mechanistically, plasma nitrate and nitrite were elevated after two weeks (NaCl: 1.0 ± 0.2114, NaNO3: 3.977 ± 0.7371, p < 0.0001), but decreased over time (6, 10 and 14 weeks). Plasma nitrite levels even reached baseline levels at 14 weeks (NaCl: 0.7188 ± 0.1072, NaNO3: 0.9723 ± 0.1279 p = 0.12). Also hemoglobin-bound NO levels were unaltered after 14 weeks. This compensation was not due to altered eNOS activity or conversion into peroxynitrite and other RNI, suggesting reduced nitrite formation or enhanced nitrate/nitrite clearance. Prolonged dietary nitrate supplementation resulted in compensation of nitrite and NO levels and did not affect atherogenesis or exert systemic side effects. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. [Regulatory sciences in herbal medicines and dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Tsutani, Kiichiro; Takuma, Hiroki

    2008-06-01

    Regulatory science began in the late 1980's in the pharmaceutical area in Japan. It aimed not only at vertical, top-down regulation but also horizontal regulation to suit the social value system. Herbal medicines and dietary supplements are two areas where regulatory science is still not well developed and used. Risk perception, risk assessment and risk management in these areas are often neglected by regulators, academicians and the public. Since the risk of using herbal medicines and dietary supplements is a global concern, development of a global regulatory system is needed. In this paper, we introduce the current situation of several projects which deal with regulatory science in herbal medicines and dietary supplements, namely: (1) Herbal ATC (HATC) classification project initiated by Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) which led to the development of the provisional HATC code of 228 Kampo formulae and Standard Kampo Formula Nomenclature (SKFN) in Japan, (2) WHO/WPRO International Standardization of Terminology (IST) which resulted in the publication of "WHO Internal Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region Forum for Herbal Harmonization", (3) Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines (FHH), (4) CONSORT extension for herbal medicines, (5) ICH M5 (Data elements and standards for drug dictionaries), and (6) activities on nomenclature at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). However, there is a lack of coordination among these projects. Therefore, harmonization of all projects aimed at harmonizing and standardizing all aspects of regulatory science for herbal medicines and dietary supplements is recommended. However, careful consideration should be given to each unique local situation.

  18. Environmental influences: factors influencing a woman's decision to use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Conner, Mark; Kirk, Sara F L; Cade, Janet E; Barrett, Jennifer H

    2003-06-01

    Use of dietary supplements by women, particularly those over 40 years of age may be widespread in the United Kingdom. However, from surveillance data, there appears to be a disparity between nutrition and health needs and the rationale for and actual use of dietary supplements by women. This apparent paradox forms the basis for an inverse supplement hypothesis (i.e., supplement use in women appears to be most prevalent among those with least need). Little research has been done to examine the factors underlying the decision to use dietary supplements. Reasons for consuming dietary supplements are often complex, combining social, psychological, knowledge and economic factors. The theory of planned behavior is a widely used model for assessing factors influencing behavioral motivation and action that may be useful for assessing specific diet- and nutrition-related practices. It provided the basis for the development of a questionnaire to explore overall dietary supplement use in a cohort of women in the United Kingdom. The analysis of factors related to beliefs underlying dietary supplement use revealed differences between supplement users and nonusers. Differences included a stronger belief by users than nonusers that taking dietary supplements ensures against possible ill health. Both users and nonusers of supplements also perceived the media (books and magazines) to be a powerful influence on a person's decision to use supplements. These findings highlight the potential of the theory of planned behavior in exploring supplement-taking behavior while throwing light on the factors influencing an individual's motivations to use dietary supplements.

  19. Patterns of dietary supplement use among college students.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Harris R; Marriott, Bernadette P; Williams, Christianna; Judelson, Daniel A; Glickman, Ellen L; Geiselman, Paula J; Dotson, Laura; Mahoney, Caroline R

    2015-10-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are popular in many countries but little data are available on their use by sub-populations such as college students. Since students share a variety of characteristics and similar lifestyles, their DS use may differ from the general population. This study assessed DS use, factors associated with DS use, and reasons for use among U.S. college students. College students (N = 1248) at 5 U.S. universities were surveyed. Survey questions included descriptive demographics, types and frequency of DS used, reasons for use and money spent on supplements. Supplements were classified using standard criteria. Logistic regression analyses examined relationships between demographic and lifestyle factors and DS use. Sixty-six percent of college students surveyed used DS at least once a week, while 12% consumed 5 or more supplements a week. Forty-two percent used multivitamins/multiminerals, 18% vitamin C, 17% protein/amino acids and 13% calcium at least once a week. Factors associated with supplement use included dietary patterns, exercise, and tobacco use. Students used supplements to promote general health (73%), provide more energy (29%), increase muscle strength (20%), and enhance performance (19%). College students appear more likely to use DS than the general population and many use multiple types of supplements weekly. Habits established at a young age persist throughout life. Therefore, longitudinal research should be conducted to determine whether patterns of DS use established early in adulthood are maintained throughout life. Adequate scientific justification for widespread use of DS in healthy, young populations is lacking. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Amphetamine Containing Dietary Supplements and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hritani, Abdulwahab; Antoun, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss is one of the most researched and marketed topics in American society. Dietary regimens, medications that claim to boost the metabolism, and the constant pressure to fit into society all play a role in our patient's choices regarding new dietary products. One of the products that are well known to suppress appetite and cause weight loss is amphetamines. While these medications suppress appetite, most people are not aware of the detrimental side effects of amphetamines, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and in certain instances acute myocardial infarction. Here we present the uncommon entity of an acute myocardial infarction due to chronic use of an amphetamine containing dietary supplement in conjunction with an exercise regimen. Our case brings to light further awareness regarding use of amphetamines. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of use of these substances when young patients with no risk factors for coronary artery disease present with acute arrhythmias, heart failure, and myocardial infarctions. PMID:27516911

  1. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sprouse, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug–botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug–botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug–botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. PMID:26438626

  2. Ocular side effects associated with dietary supplements and herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2005-08-01

    Dietary supplements are prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in the treatment of human disease. In the United States, allopathic physicians are at the early stage of learning how to treat patients with natural remedies and other forms of alternative medicine. Elsewhere, however, alternative remedies have been embraced more fully. In Germany, for example, the German Federal Health Agency created Commission E, which has allowed for a more sophisticated approach to assessing the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and herbal medicines. Health insurance in Germany frequently covers costs for doctor-prescribed herbal remedies. While there is strong evidence that many herbal products have therapeutic effects, there are also a large number of cases of severe adverse reactions due to some of the many thousands of herbal products. One of the first signs of potential toxicity is in the visual system, as in many cases patients notice loss of vision more than systemic side effects. In addition, ophthalmologists are able to detect objective findings through external eye exams and dilated fundus exams. Presented here are some of the more common ocular side effects from frequently prescribed dietary supplements. In most instances, stopping the treatment or decreasing the dose allows for full resolution of symptoms. In addition, comment is made on the regulatory confusion that exists for this industry, especially in the United States.

  3. Degradation of vitamin B12 in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Keiko; Shimodaira, Michiko; Chida, Seiko; Yamada, Noriko; Matsushima, Norio; Fukuda, Morimichi; Yamada, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Beverages and solid dietary supplements rich in various added vitamins and minerals have recently become available. It seems reasonable to consider that the intake of these foods is convenient for easy ingestion of nutrients, but problems caused by blending different nutrients in high concentrations have arisen. We focused on vitamin B12 (B12) among vitamins and determined the B12 contents of beverages and solid dietary supplements purchased from a retail shop. The B12 contents of three of five beverages were less than stated on the labels. On the other hand, certain beverages unexpectedly contained much more B12 than stated on the labels. In these beverages the amount of B12 decreased rapidly with time, whereas B12 content was lower than stated on the label in only one of four solid dietary supplements. The content of B12 was affected by storage time, light exposure, temperature and vitamin C. From experimental analysis with a competitive binding assay method employing a ACS Chemiluminescent B12 kit, examining differential binding by intrinsic factors and spectral analysis of B12, it was determined that some of the B12 might have been converted into B12 analogues or small degradation products by multinutrient interaction during storage.

  4. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Sprouse, Alyssa A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug-botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug-botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug-botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism.

  5. Developmental outcomes among 18-month-old Malawians after a year of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements or corn-soy flour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The major aim of this trial was to compare the development of 18-month-old infants who received complementary feeding for 1 year with either lipid-based nutrient supplements or micronutrient-fortified corn-soy porridge. Our secondary aim was to determine the socio-economic factors associated with de...

  6. Interactions between preparations containing female sex hormones and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Jawna, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of premenopausal women use contraception whereas postmenopausal women use hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This long-term hormone therapy poses a high risk of interactions with dietary supplements. Taking estrogens at the same time as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), biologically-active compounds of glycine soja, Ginkgo biloba or Pimpinella anisum, may distort the final effect of the hormone agent. On the other hand, estrogen therapy coupled with melatonin or retinol supplementation may lead to an increased level of dietary supplements in the serum as studies have proved a concomitant beneficial effect of HRT and vitamin E supplementation on lipid profiles. In turn, taking preparations containing St John's wort during hormone therapy may lead to a reduction in hormone concentrations in serum and debilitation of the pharmacological effect. It results from the inductive effect of the biologically-active compounds of St John's wort on the metabolism of hormones as a result of the enhanced activity of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4.

  7. Dietary supplements and human health: for better or for worse?

    PubMed

    Jerome-Morais, Anita; Diamond, Alan M; Wright, Margaret E

    2011-01-01

    Encouraged by the potential health benefits of higher dietary intake of substances with beneficial properties, the use of supplements containing these compounds has increased steadily over recent years. The effects of several of these, many of which are antioxidants, have been supported by data obtained in vitro, in animal models, and often by human studies as well. However, as carefully controlled human supplementation trials have been conducted, questions about the efficacy and safety of these supplements have emerged. In this Educational Paper, three different supplements were selected for consideration of the benefits and risks currently associated with their intake. The selected supplements include β-carotene, selenium, and genistein. The use of each is discussed in the context of preclinical and clinical data that provide evidence for both their use in reducing disease incidence and the possible liabilities that accompany their enhanced consumption. Variables that may influence their impact, such as lifestyle habits, baseline nutritional levels, and genetic makeup are considered and the application of these issues to broader classes of supplements is discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Effects of voluntary running and soy supplementation on diet-induced metabolic disturbance and inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Graef, George L; Claycombe, Kate J; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2013-10-02

    We investigated the effects of diet (AIN93G or high-fat), physical activity (sedentary or voluntary running), and protein source (casein or soy protein isolate (SPI)) and their interactions on metabolic disturbance and inflammation in mice. After 14 weeks of feeding, the high-fat diet increased body weight gain by 34.5% (p < 0.01), whereas running reduced weight gain by 30.5% (p < 0.01) compared to their respective AIN93G and sedentary controls; SPI did not affect weight gain. The high-fat diet significantly increased plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, triglycerides, leptin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1); running and SPI significantly reduced these parameters compared to their respective controls. The high-fat diet significantly increased and running significantly reduced plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. A unique finding was that SPI supplementation to the high-fat diet reduced plasma insulin by 11% (p < 0.05), MCP-1 by 21% (p = 0.03), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by 50% (p = 0.05) compared to casein. As adipose tissues produce many adipocytokines, including MCP-1 and TNF-α, that contribute to a state of chronic low grade systemic inflammation and facilitate metabolic disturbance in obesity, further investigations are warranted into the roles of soy protein in reducing the risk of obesity.

  9. Ovariectomy alters energy metabolism in rat striatum: effect of supplementation with soy diet rich in isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Mackedanz, Vanize; Mattos, Cristiane B; Feksa, Luciane R; Wannmacher, Clovis M D; Wyse, Angela T S

    2011-06-01

    In the present study we investigated the effect of ovariectomy on some parameters of energy metabolism, namely Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes activities succinate dehydrogenase, complex II and cytochrome c oxidase in rat striatum. The influence of soy diet rich in isoflavones on the effects elicited by ovariectomy on enzyme activities was also evaluated. Female adult Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: sham (submitted to surgery without removal of the ovaries) and ovariectomized. Seven days after surgery animals were fed for 30 days on a special diet with soy protein or a standard diet with casein (control). Rats were sacrificed after treatment and the striatum was dissected. Results showed that rats subjected to ovariectomy presented a significant increase in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase and complex II activities. Treatment with isoflavones-rich soy diet was able to reverse the increase of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, but was not effective in reversing the changes caused by ovariectomy on succinate dehydrogenase and complex II activities. Since ovariectomy mimics postmenopausal changes, our findings suggest that dysfunction of brain energy metabolism may be related to neurological symptoms observed in some postmenopausal women.

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and high levels of dietary protein on performance of sows.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), with or without high levels of dietary protein supplementation, on the performance of sows and their litters during first and subsequent parities. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with body weight (BW...

  11. Beyond the Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Soy Protein: A Review of the Effects of Dietary Soy and Its Constituents on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramdath, D. Dan; Padhi, Emily M. T.; Sarfaraz, Sidra; Renwick, Simone; Duncan, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effect of soy is well-documented and this has led to the regulatory approval of a health claim relating soy protein to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, soybeans contain additional components, such as isoflavones, lecithins, saponins and fiber that may improve cardiovascular health through independent mechanisms. This review summarizes the evidence on the cardiovascular benefits of non-protein soy components in relation to known CVD risk factors such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, inflammation, and obesity beyond cholesterol lowering. Overall, the available evidence suggests non-protein soy constituents improve markers of cardiovascular health; however, additional carefully designed studies are required to independently elucidate these effects. Further, work is also needed to clarify the role of isoflavone-metabolizing phenotype and gut microbiota composition on biological effect. PMID:28338639

  12. Beyond the Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Soy Protein: A Review of the Effects of Dietary Soy and Its Constituents on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Ramdath, D Dan; Padhi, Emily M T; Sarfaraz, Sidra; Renwick, Simone; Duncan, Alison M

    2017-03-24

    The hypocholesterolemic effect of soy is well-documented and this has led to the regulatory approval of a health claim relating soy protein to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, soybeans contain additional components, such as isoflavones, lecithins, saponins and fiber that may improve cardiovascular health through independent mechanisms. This review summarizes the evidence on the cardiovascular benefits of non-protein soy components in relation to known CVD risk factors such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, inflammation, and obesity beyond cholesterol lowering. Overall, the available evidence suggests non-protein soy constituents improve markers of cardiovascular health; however, additional carefully designed studies are required to independently elucidate these effects. Further, work is also needed to clarify the role of isoflavone-metabolizing phenotype and gut microbiota composition on biological effect.

  13. Dietary nicotinic acid supplementation ameliorates chronic alcohol-induced fatty liver in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiong; Xie, Guoxiang; Zhang, Wenliang; Zhong, Wei; Sun, Xiuhua; Tan, Xiaobing; Sun, Xinguo; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol abuse frequently causes niacin deficiency in association with the development of alcoholic liver disease. The objective of the present study was to determine whether dietary nicotinic acid (NA) deficiency exaggerates and whether dietary NA supplementation alleviates alcohol-induced fatty liver. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed with 4 isocaloric liquid diets: control, ethanol (EtOH), EtOH with dietary NA deficiency, and EtOH with dietary NA supplementation, respectively, for 8 weeks. The control and EtOH diets contained normal levels of NA (7.5 mg/l). Dietary NA deficiency (0 mg NA/l) was achieved by removing NA from the vitamin mix, while NA was added to the liquid diet at 750 mg/l for dietary NA supplementation. Chronic EtOH feeding induced significant lipid accumulation in the liver, which was not worsened by dietary NA deficiency, but was ameliorated by dietary NA supplementation. Liver total NAD, NAD(+) , and NADH levels were remarkably higher in the NA supplemented group than the NA deficient or EtOH alone groups. Dietary NA supplementation to EtOH-fed rats increased the protein levels of hepatic cytochrome P450 4A1 (CYP4A1) and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 without affecting their mRNA levels. Interestingly, we found dietary NA supplementation reduced the ubiquitination level of CYP4A1. In addition, hepatic fatty acid synthase expression was reduced, while the serum β-hydroxybutyrate and adiponectin concentrations were significantly elevated by dietary NA supplementation. Moreover, dietary NA supplementation modulated EtOH-perturbed liver and serum metabolite profiles. These results demonstrate that alcoholic fatty liver was not exaggerated by dietary NA deficiency, but was ameliorated by dietary NA supplementation. Increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation and decreased hepatic de novo lipogenesis contribute to the effects of dietary NA supplementation. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Herbal and Dietary Supplement Disclosure to Health Care Providers by Individuals with Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula M.; Phillips, Russell S.; McCarthy, Ellen P.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Very little is known about herbal and dietary supplement disclosure in adults with chronic medical conditions, especially on a national level. Objective To examine herbal and dietary supplement disclosure to conventional health care providers by adults with chronic medical conditions. Design Data on herbal and dietary supplement use (N = 5456 users) in the previous year were used from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. Bi-variable analyses compared characteristics between herbal and dietary supplement disclosers and nondisclosers. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent correlates of herbal and dietary supplement disclosure. Results Overall, only 33% of herbal and dietary supplement users reported disclosing use of herbal and dietary supplements to their conventional health care provider. Among herbal and dietary supplement users with chronic conditions, less than 51% disclosed use to their conventional health care provider. Hispanic (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.70 [0.52, 0.94]) and Asian American (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.54 [0.33, 0.89]) adults were much less likely than non-Hispanic white Americans to disclose herbal and dietary supplement use. Having less than a high school education (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.61 [0.45, 0.82]) and not having insurance (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.77 [0.59, 1.00]) were associated with being less likely to disclose herbal and dietary supplement use. Conclusion Herbal and dietary supplement disclosure rates are low, even among adults with chronic conditions. These findings raise concerns about the safety of herbal and dietary supplements in combination with allopathic care. Future studies should focus on educating physicians about crosscultural care as well as eliciting information about herbal and dietary supplement use. PMID:19032071

  15. Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Heussner, A.H.; Mazija, L.; Fastner, J.; Dietrich, D.R.

    2012-12-01

    Blue-green algae (Spirulina sp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) and Chlorella sp. are commercially distributed as organic algae dietary supplements. Cyanobacterial dietary products in particular have raised serious concerns, as they appeared to be contaminated with toxins e.g. microcystins (MCs) and consumers repeatedly reported adverse health effects following consumption of these products. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin contamination and the in vitro cytotoxicity of algae dietary supplement products marketed in Germany. In thirteen products consisting of Aph. flos-aquae, Spirulina and Chlorella or mixtures thereof, MCs, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin were analyzed. Five products tested in an earlier market study were re-analyzed for comparison. Product samples were extracted and analyzed for cytotoxicity in A549 cells as well as for toxin levels by (1) phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), (2) Adda-ELISA and (3) LC–MS/MS. In addition, all samples were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the mcyE gene, a part of the microcystin and nodularin synthetase gene cluster. Only Aph. flos-aquae products were tested positive for MCs as well as the presence of mcyE. The contamination levels of the MC-positive samples were ≤ 1 μg MC-LR equivalents g{sup −1} dw. None of the other toxins were found in any of the products. However, extracts from all products were cytotoxic. In light of the findings, the distribution and commercial sale of Aph. flos-aquae products, whether pure or mixed formulations, for human consumption appear highly questionable. -- Highlights: ► Marketed algae dietary supplements were analyzed for toxins. ► Methods: Phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), Adda-ELISA, LC-MS/MS. ► Aph. flos-aquae products all tested positive for microcystins. ► Products tested negative for nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin. ► Extracts from all products were cytotoxic.

  16. Acute Selenium Toxicity Associated With a Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    MacFarquhar, Jennifer K.; Broussard, Danielle L.; Melstrom, Paul; Hutchinson, Richard; Wolkin, Amy; Martin, Colleen; Burk, Raymond F.; Dunn, John R.; Green, Alice L.; Hammond, Roberta; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Selenium is an element necessary for normal cellular function, but it can have toxic effects at high doses. We investigated an outbreak of acute selenium poisoning. Methods A case was defined as the onset of symptoms of selenium toxicity in a person within 2 weeks after ingesting a dietary supplement manufactured by “Company A,” purchased after January 1, 2008. We conducted case finding, administered initial and 90-day follow-up questionnaires to affected persons, and obtained laboratory data where available. Results The source of the outbreak was identified as a liquid dietary supplement that contained 200 times the labeled concentration of selenium. Of 201 cases identified in 10 states, 1 person was hospitalized. The median estimated dose of selenium consumed was 41 749 μg/d (recommended dietary allowance is 55 μg/d). Frequently reported symptoms included diarrhea (78%), fatigue (75%), hair loss (72%), joint pain (70%), nail discoloration or brittleness (61%), and nausea (58%). Symptoms persisting 90 days or longer included fingernail discoloration and loss (52%), fatigue (35%), and hair loss (29%). The mean initial serum selenium concentration of 8 patients was 751 μg/L (reference range, ≤125 μg/L). The mean initial urine selenium concentration of 7 patients was 166 μg/24 h (reference range, ≤55 μg/24 h). Conclusions Toxic concentrations of selenium in a liquid dietary supplement resulted in a widespread outbreak. Had the manufacturers been held to standards used in the pharmaceutical industry, it may have been prevented. PMID:20142570

  17. Dietary supplement consumption among cardiac patients admitted to internal medicine and cardiac wards.

    PubMed

    Karny-Rahkovich, Orith; Blatt, Alex; Elbaz-Greener, Gabby Atalya; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Golik, Ahuva; Berkovitch, Matityahu

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements may have adverse effects and potentially interact with conventional medications. They are perceived as "natural" products, free of side effects with no need for medical consultation. Little is known about consumption of dietary supplements by patients with cardiac diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate dietary supplement consumption among cardiac patients admitted to internal and cardiology wards. Potential drug-dietary supplement interactions were also assessed. During a period of 6 months, patients with cardiac disease hospitalized in the Internal Medicine and Cardiology Wards at Assaf Harofeh Medical Center were evaluated regarding their dietary supplement consumption. A literature survey examining possible drug-supplement interaction was performed. Out of 149 cardiac patients, 45% were dietary supplement consumers. Patients ad-mitted to the Internal Medicine Wards consumed more dietary supplements than those admit-ted to the Cardiology Division. Dietary supplement consumption was associated with older age (OR = 1.05, p = 0.022), female gender (OR = 2.94, p = 0.014) and routine physical activity (OR = 3.15, p = 0.007). Diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.68, p = 0.020), hematological diseases (OR = 13.29, p = 0.022), and the use of anti-diabetic medications (OR = 4.28, p = 0.001) were independently associated with dietary supplement intake. Sixteen potential moderate interactions between prescribed medications and dietary supplements were found. Consumption of dietary supplements is common among cardiac patients. It is more common in those admitted to Internal Medicine Departments than in those admitted to the Cardiology Wards. Due to the risk of various drug-supplement interactions consumed by patients with cardiac diseases, there is a need to increase awareness and knowledge among medical staff regarding the intake of dietary supplements.

  18. Effects of long-term dietary nitrate supplementation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hezel, Michael P.; Liu, Ming; Schiffer, Tomas A.; Larsen, Filip J.; Checa, Antonio; Wheelock, Craig E.; Carlström, Mattias; Lundberg, Jon O.; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    Background Inorganic nitrate (NO3-) is a precursor of nitric oxide (NO) in the body and a large number of short-term studies with dietary nitrate supplementation in animals and humans show beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, exercise efficiency, host defense and ischemia reperfusion injury. In contrast, there is a long withstanding concern regarding the putative adverse effects of chronic nitrate exposure related to cancer and adverse hormonal effects. To address these concerns we performed in mice, a physiological and biochemical multi-analysis on the effects of long-term dietary nitrate supplementation. Design 7 week-old C57BL/6 mice were put on a low-nitrate chow and at 20 weeks-old were treated with NaNO3 (1 mmol/L) or NaCl (1 mmol/L, control) in the drinking water. The groups were monitored for weight gain, food and water consumption, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, body composition and oxygen consumption until one group was reduced to eight animals due to death or illness. At that point remaining animals were sacrificed and blood and tissues were analyzed with respect to metabolism, cardiovascular function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Results Animals were supplemented for 17 months before final sacrifice. Body composition, oxygen consumption, blood pressure, glucose tolerance were measured during the experiment, and vascular reactivity and muscle mitochondrial efficiency measured at the end of the experiment with no differences identified between groups. Nitrate supplementation was associated with improved insulin response, decreased plasma IL-10 and a trend towards improved survival. Conclusions Long term dietary nitrate in mice, at levels similar to the upper intake range in the western society, is not detrimental. PMID:26068891

  19. Effects of long-term dietary nitrate supplementation in mice.

    PubMed

    Hezel, Michael P; Liu, Ming; Schiffer, Tomas A; Larsen, Filip J; Checa, Antonio; Wheelock, Craig E; Carlström, Mattias; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2015-08-01

    Inorganic nitrate (NO3(-)) is a precursor of nitric oxide (NO) in the body and a large number of short-term studies with dietary nitrate supplementation in animals and humans show beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, exercise efficiency, host defense and ischemia reperfusion injury. In contrast, there is a long withstanding concern regarding the putative adverse effects of chronic nitrate exposure related to cancer and adverse hormonal effects. To address these concerns we performed in mice, a physiological and biochemical multi-analysis on the effects of long-term dietary nitrate supplementation. 7 week-old C57BL/6 mice were put on a low-nitrate chow and at 20 weeks-old were treated with NaNO3 (1 mmol/L) or NaCl (1 mmol/L, control) in the drinking water. The groups were monitored for weight gain, food and water consumption, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, body composition and oxygen consumption until one group was reduced to eight animals due to death or illness. At that point remaining animals were sacrificed and blood and tissues were analyzed with respect to metabolism, cardiovascular function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Animals were supplemented for 17 months before final sacrifice. Body composition, oxygen consumption, blood pressure, glucose tolerance were measured during the experiment, and vascular reactivity and muscle mitochondrial efficiency measured at the end of the experiment with no differences identified between groups. Nitrate supplementation was associated with improved insulin response, decreased plasma IL-10 and a trend towards improved survival. Long term dietary nitrate in mice, at levels similar to the upper intake range in the western society, is not detrimental. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of botanical dietary supplements on cardiovascular, cognitive and metabolic function in males and females

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Scott; Peng, Ning; Prasain, Jeevan K.; Wyss, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The onset of menopause marks a pivotal time in which the incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease begins to increase dramatically in women. Prior to menopause, the incidence of these diseases is significantly lower than in similarly aged men, but following menopause the rates rise rapidly until paralleling that in men. The loss of endogenous estrogen at menopause has traditionally been thought to be the primary factor involved in these changes and resulted in the widespread use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to reduce cardiovascular risk factors and decrease the affective symptoms of menopause. However, the adverse effects of HRT reported in recent large-scale trials (e.g., the Women’s Health Initiative) have greatly decreased the use of HRT by postmenopausal women. Many women are seeking alternatives to HRT, including the use of dietary supplements that have a long history of use in traditional medicine, particularly in Asia. Examples of frequently used botanicals are soy, black cohosh, red clover, grape derivatives, St. John’s wort, Ginko biloba and Echinacea. While many of these botanicals appear to ameliorate some postmenopausal symptoms (i.e., bone loss, hot flushes/flashes and night sweats), none of the tested botanicals has proven as effective as HRT in decreasing the affective disorders of menopause. Further, despite the increasing usage of botanical supplements, their efficacy and safety have not been well documented by critical research studies. This review summarizes recent findings related to the utility of botanicals for menopause-related cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, specifically hypertension, diabetes, progressive cognitive decline and hyperlipidemia. While great caution should be exercised in the translation of animal findings to the human, these studies, along with those of others, suggest that some commonly used botanical supplements may be useful adjuvants for providing protection to women (and men) against

  1. Preferred delivery method and acceptability of Wheat-Soy Blend (WSB++) as a daily complementary food supplement in northwest Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Hanif, Abu A M; Merrill, Rebecca D; Campbell, Rebecca K; Kumkum, Mehnaz Alam; Shaikh, Saijuddin; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Parveen, Monira; Mehra, Sucheta; Klemm, Rolf D W; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are widely used to prevent undernutrition in early childhood in food-insecure settings. We field tested enhanced Wheat Soy Blend (WSB++)-a FBF fortified with micronutrients, milk powder, sugar, and oil-in preparation for a complementary food supplement (CFS) trial in rural northwestern Bangladesh. Formative work was conducted to determine the optimal delivery method (cooked vs. not) for this CFS, to examine mothers' child feeding practices with and acceptance of the WSB++, and to identify potential barriers to adherence. Our results suggest WSB++ is an acceptable CFS in rural Bangladesh and the requirement for mothers to cook WSB++ at home is unlikely to be a barrier to its daily use as a CFS in this population.

  2. [Dietary supplements--evaluation of patient inquiries at a drug information service].

    PubMed

    Goltz, L; Schröder, J; Kirch, W

    2012-04-01

    Dietary supplements are a product group of foods, which are meant to supplement the general nutrition with micronutrients and other substances. They are widely used in Germany. We evaluated the frequency of their use and of information requirements concerning dietary supplements in patients who contacted the independent drug information service at TU Dresden. All inquiries from 2008 to 2010 were evaluated regarding information requirement about dietary supplements, the kind of products used and characteristics of patients using supplements. Sociodemographic characteristics, kind and number of drugs and dietary supplements as well as underlying diseases were recorded from the inquiring patients. 23.3 % of persons looking for advice used dietary supplements. The most frequently used product groups included vitamins and minerals (52.5 %) as well as plant extracts (14.0 %). Information requirements were especially high for plant extracts and for products containing glucosamine/chondroitin and lutein/zeaxanthin. Users of dietary supplements were exposed to a higher number of different products than non-users. Information requirements were primarily detected for products without clearly proven benefits or for supplements which are advertised to relieve certain diseases or symptoms although the product characteristics do not support such utilization. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among patients which already receive multiple medications substantiates the necessity to include dietary supplements in assessments of drug interactions and to scrutinize indications for supplement use. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Feasibility of including green tea products for an analytically verified dietary supplement database

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) is a federally-funded, publically-accessible dietary supplement database that currently contains analytically derived information on micronutrients in selected adult and children’s multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements. Other constituents in di...

  4. 21 CFR 111.510 - What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... supplement is received? 111.510 Section 111.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements...

  5. 21 CFR 111.510 - What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... supplement is received? 111.510 Section 111.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements...

  6. 21 CFR 111.510 - What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... supplement is received? 111.510 Section 111.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements...

  7. Prevalence, Adverse Events, and Factors Associated with Dietary Supplement and Nutritional Supplement Use by US Navy and Marine Corps Personnel.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Trone, Daniel W; Austin, Krista G; Steelman, Ryan A; Farina, Emily K; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-09-01

    About 50% of Americans and 60% to 70% of US military personnel use dietary supplements, some of which have been associated with adverse events (AEs). Nutritional supplements like sport drinks and sport bars/gels are also commonly used by athletes and service members. Previous dietary supplement and nutritional supplement surveys were conducted on Army, Air Force, and Coast Guard personnel. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate dietary and nutritional supplement use in Navy and Marine Corps personnel, including the prevalence, types, factors associated with use, and AEs. A random sample of 10,000 Navy and Marine Corps personnel were contacted. Service members were asked to complete a detailed questionnaire describing their personal characteristics, supplement use, and AEs experienced. In total, 1,708 service members completed the questionnaire during August through December 2014, with 1,683 used for analysis. Overall, 73% reported using dietary supplements one or more times per week. The most commonly used dietary supplements (used one or more times per week) were multivitamins/multiminerals (48%), protein/amino acids (34%), combination products (33%), and individual vitamins and minerals (29%). About 31% of service members reported using five or more dietary supplements. Sport drinks and sport bars/gels were used by 45% and 23% of service members, respectively. Monthly expenditures on dietary supplements averaged $39; 31% of service members spent ≥$50/mo. Multivariate logistic regression modeling indicated that female sex (women/men; odds ratio [OR]=1.76, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.36), higher educational level (college degree/no college degree; OR=2.23, 95% CI 1.62 to 3.30), higher body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) (≥30/<25; OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.63), and a greater amount of resistance training (≥271/0 to 45 min/week; OR=2.85, 95% CI 1.94 to 4.17) were associated with dietary supplement use. Twenty-two percent of dietary supplement users

  8. Herbal medications and other dietary supplements. A clinical review for physicians caring for older people.

    PubMed

    Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Suominen, Merja H; Bell, J Simon; Strandberg, Timo E

    2016-12-01

    Evidence for the safety and effectiveness of dietary supplements is mixed. The extent to which older people use dietary supplements concomitantly with conventional medications is often under-appreciated by physicians. We conducted a literature review on clinical considerations associated with dietary supplement use, focusing on benefits and harms, motivations for use and contribution to polypharmacy among older people. Vitamin D ≥ 800 IU has demonstrated benefits in fracture prevention. Vitamins A, E, and β-carotene have been associated with an increase in total mortality in several meta-analyses. A range of non-vitamin dietary supplements have been studied in randomized controlled trials but their efficacy remains largely unclear. Supplement use has been associated with a range of adverse events and drug interactions yet physicians rarely initiate discussions about their use with older patients. Older people may take dietary supplements to exercise control over their health. Given the contribution of supplements to polypharmacy, supplements may be targeted for "deprescribing" if the risk of harm is judged to outweigh benefits. This is best done as part of a comprehensive, patient-centered approach. A respectful and non-judgmental discussion may result in a shared decision to reduce polypharmacy through cessation of dietary supplements. KEY MESSAGES Herbal medications and other dietary supplements are highly prevalent among older people. Physicians are often unaware that their patients use herbal medications and other dietary supplements concomitantly with conventional medications. Herbal medications and other dietary supplements contribute to high rates of polypharmacy, particularly among older people with multimorbidity. Herbal medications and other dietary supplements can interact with conventional medications and be associated with a range of adverse events. Physicians need to be patient-centered and non-judgmental when initiating discussions about

  9. Suggested guidelines for articles about botanical dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Christine A

    2002-01-01

    Recently, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (AJCN) began reviewing articles about dietary supplements. The purpose of this commentary is to provide guidelines to authors and reviewers for articles on one category of supplement ingredients, botanicals. The botanicals in the studies published by the AJCN tend to fall into 1 of 2 groups: 1) plants as foods containing nonessential bioactive constituents that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition, and 2) plants as herbs, specifically those used as phytomedicines. Research in these areas is relevant to clinical nutrition, but both topics represent relatively new territory to many AJCN reviewers, readers, and contributors. Although studies of botanicals are unique in many respects, the research should be evaluated with the same basic criteria applied to other types of investigations. For example, a study cannot be evaluated or replicated unless the test materials are properly identified and characterized. Investigators must provide an accurate and complete description of the botanical test material regardless of whether it is a finished product, commercial ingredient, extract, or single chemical constituent. For herbal preparations, investigators are advised to follow the criteria used by researchers in the field of pharmacognosy. Finally, the quality of research related to botanical dietary supplements would be improved and cross-study comparisons facilitated if standard reference materials and certified methods of analysis were more broadly available.

  10. Renoprotective and blood pressure-lowering effect of dietary soy protein via protein kinase C beta II inhibition in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Nallasamy; Viswanathan, Periyasamy; Ravichandran, Mambakkam Katchapeswaran; Anuradha, Carani Venkataraman

    2010-01-01

    We studied whether substitution of soy protein for casein can improve insulin sensitivity, lower blood pressure (BP), and inhibit protein kinase C betaII (PKCbetaII) activation in kidney in an acquired model of metabolic syndrome. Adult male rats were fed 4 different diets: (i) starch (60%) and casein (20%) (CCD), (ii) fructose (60%) and casein (20%) (FCD), (iii) fructose (60%) and soy protein (20%) (FSD), and (iv) starch (60%) and soy protein (20%) (CSD). Renal function parameters, BP, pressor mechanisms, PKCbetaII expression, oxidative stress, and renal histology were evaluated after 60 days. FCD rats displayed insulin resistance and significant changes in body weight, kidney weight, urine volume, plasma and urine electrolytes accompanied by significant changes in renal function parameters compared with CCD rats. Elevated BP, plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, renal oxidative stress, and reduced nitrite (NO) and kallikrein activity were observed. Western blot analysis revealed enhanced renal expression of membrane-associated PKCbetaII in the FCD group. Histology showed fatty infiltration and thickening of glomeruli while urinary protein profile revealed a 5-fold increase in albumin. Substitution of soy protein for casein improved insulin sensitivity, lowered BP and PKCbetaII activation and restored renal function. Antioxidant action, inhibitory effect on ACE and PKCbetaII activation, and increased availability of kinins and NO could be contributing mechanisms for the benefits of dietary soy protein.

  11. An instrument to evaluate pharmacists' patient counseling on herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Pickard, A Simon; Mahady, Gail B; Karabatsos, George; Crawford, Stephanie Y; Popovich, Nicholas G

    2010-12-15

    To develop a measure of pharmacists' patient counseling on herbal and dietary supplements. A systematic process was used for item generation, testing, and validation of a measure of pharmacists counseling on herbal and dietary supplements. Because a pharmacist-patient encounter may or may not identify an indication for taking an herb or dietary supplement, the instrument was bifurcated into 2 distinct components: (1) patient counseling in general; and (2) patient counseling related to herbal and dietary supplements. The instrument demonstrated high reliability and desirable construct validity. After adjusting for item difficulty, we found that pharmacists tended to provide more general patient counseling than counseling related to herbal and dietary supplements. This instrument can be applied to assess the quality of counseling provided by pharmacists and pharmacy students, and the outcomes of pharmacist and pharmacy student education on herbal and dietary supplements.

  12. An Instrument to Evaluate Pharmacists’ Patient Counseling on Herbal and Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, A. Simon; Mahady, Gail B.; Karabatsos, George; Crawford, Stephanie Y.; Popovich, Nicholas G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a measure of pharmacists’ patient counseling on herbal and dietary supplements. Methods A systematic process was used for item generation, testing, and validation of a measure of pharmacists counseling on herbal and dietary supplements. Because a pharmacist-patient encounter may or may not identify an indication for taking an herb or dietary supplement, the instrument was bifurcated into 2 distinct components: (1) patient counseling in general; and (2) patient counseling related to herbal and dietary supplements. Results The instrument demonstrated high reliability and desirable construct validity. After adjusting for item difficulty, we found that pharmacists tended to provide more general patient counseling than counseling related to herbal and dietary supplements. Conclusion This instrument can be applied to assess the quality of counseling provided by pharmacists and pharmacy students, and the outcomes of pharmacist and pharmacy student education on herbal and dietary supplements. PMID:21436933

  13. Dental patients' self-reported use of dietary supplements on medical history questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Bakuri, Sarmad; Lanning, Sharon K; Best, Al M; Sabatini, Robert; Gunsolley, John; Waldrop, Thomas C

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplement effects and drug interactions can lead to significant adverse health events, thus potentially impacting the safe delivery of oral healthcare. This study sought to determine the frequency of, and factors impacting, dietary supplement use among 209 dental patients and whether the design of a medical history questionnaire influences reporting of supplement use. Patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups in which they completed either a standard medical history questionnaire (n = 107) or the same questionnaire with an additional item about dietary supplement use (n = 102). All patients were then administered a survey with questions about their demographics, their use and knowledge of dietary supplements, and the person or persons who recommended dietary supplement use to the patient. While 62% of the total population (130/209) reported supplement use, specific prompting nearly doubled the number of supplements reported (mean with prompting: 1.53; mean without prompting: 0.76; P < 0.0001). Patients younger than 30 years of age reported significantly less dietary supplement use than all other age groups except the 30-40 age group (P = 0.0003). An estimated 70% of all respondents were not aware of potentially detrimental side effects of dietary supplement use or possible interactions with conventional drug therapies. Since patients tended to report a greater use of dietary supplements when specifically asked about their use on a medical history questionnaire, a checklist or set of designated questions may be a suitable first step toward gathering this essential information.

  14. Effect of glycine supplementation in low protein diets with amino acids from soy protein isolate or free amino acids on broiler growth and nitrogen utilisation.

    PubMed

    Siegert, W; Wild, K J; Schollenberger, M; Helmbrecht, A; Rodehutscord, M

    2016-06-01

    Here, it was investigated whether substitution of amino acids (AA) from soy protein isolate with free AA in low crude protein diets influences the growth performance and N utilisation in broilers, and whether interactions with dietary glycine equivalent (Glyequi) concentration exist. Birds were distributed in two 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of 48 floor pens containing 10 birds each, plus 48 metabolism cages containing two birds each. Experimental feed was provided for ad libitum consumption from d 7 to 22. Diets contained either a soy protein isolate at 79 g/kg or a mix of free AA, which supplied the same amount of 18 proteinogenic AA. A mix of free glycine and l-serine was used to obtain low and high (12.0 and 20.5 g/kg dry matter) levels of dietary Glyequi. Substitution of soy protein isolate with free AA reduced the average daily gain and feed efficiency, mainly due to reduced feed intake. Efficiency of N accretion was not influenced by the AA source or Glyequi concentration on d 21, possibly due to the lower AA digestibility of soy protein isolate and higher urinary excretion of nitrogenous substances in the treatments with the AA mix. The average daily weight gain of the treatments with high Glyequi concentration was higher for both AA sources. This increase was due to higher average daily feed intake by broilers in the treatments with soy protein isolate and due to the increased feed efficiency in the treatments with the AA mix. Broilers exhibited different growth responses to dietary Glyequi between the AA sources; however, these responses could not be attributed to the different utilisation of Glyequi for uric acid synthesis.

  15. FDA regulation of dietary supplements and requirements regarding adverse event reporting.

    PubMed

    Frankos, V H; Street, D A; O'Neill, R K

    2010-02-01

    In 1994, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDC Act) to set up a distinct regulatory framework for what we now call dietary supplements. The DSHEA was passed with the intent of striking a balance between providing consumers access to safe dietary supplements to help maintain or improve their health and giving the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authority to regulate and take action against manufacturers of supplements or supplement ingredients that present safety problems, are presented with false or misleading claims, or are adulterated or misbranded. This article will present FDA's recent experience in collecting and evaluating dietary supplement adverse event data for the purpose of assuring the public that the dietary supplements they purchase are safe.

  16. A Cross-Sectional Survey on Dietary Supplements Consumption among Italian Teen-Agers

    PubMed Central

    del Balzo, Valeria; Vitiello, Valeria; Germani, Alessia; Donini, Lorenzo M.; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Pinto, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the last decades, dietary supplements consumption has increased in the Western world for all age groups. The long-term potentially dangerous effects related to an indiscriminate consumption of dietary supplements are still unknown and are becoming a matter of public health concern. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore the contribution of dietary supplements to micronutrient daily intake, and to evaluate awareness and knowledge about dietary supplements. Methods Participants (age ranging from 14 to 18 years) were recruited among students attending 8 high schools in the province of Frosinone (Italy). An anonymous questionnaire, composed of 12 multiple-choice items, was administered to all the participants. T-test and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed to describe differences between means of the groups, while the chi-square test was used to compare observed and expected frequencies. The logistic regression model, aimed at identifying the characteristics of potential consumers of dietary supplements, Results A total of 686 teenagers (288 males and 398 females, average age: 17,89±0,91 years) participated in the study. The 83,6% of participants affirmed to be aware of dietary supplements. 239 participants consumed dietary supplements: 118 males and 121 females. 49,1% of females consumed dietary supplements less than twice a week, whereas 43,6% of males consumed dietary supplements from 2 to 5 times per week. Statistically significant differences emerged between the genders with respect to the source of information regarding dietary supplements, the perceived indications for their use, and the choice of the store/place to purchase them. Discussion Findings in the present study provide insight into the consumption of dietary supplements among young Italians, highlighting the need to foster further awareness among adolescents about the correct use of dietary supplements, especially in terms of indications and

  17. A cross-sectional survey on dietary supplements consumption among Italian teen-agers.

    PubMed

    del Balzo, Valeria; Vitiello, Valeria; Germani, Alessia; Donini, Lorenzo M; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Pinto, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, dietary supplements consumption has increased in the Western world for all age groups. The long-term potentially dangerous effects related to an indiscriminate consumption of dietary supplements are still unknown and are becoming a matter of public health concern. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore the contribution of dietary supplements to micronutrient daily intake, and to evaluate awareness and knowledge about dietary supplements. Participants (age ranging from 14 to 18 years) were recruited among students attending 8 high schools in the province of Frosinone (Italy). An anonymous questionnaire, composed of 12 multiple-choice items, was administered to all the participants. T-test and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed to describe differences between means of the groups, while the chi-square test was used to compare observed and expected frequencies. The logistic regression model, aimed at identifying the characteristics of potential consumers of dietary supplements. A total of 686 teenagers (288 males and 398 females, average age: 17,89±0,91 years) participated in the study. The 83,6% of participants affirmed to be aware of dietary supplements. 239 participants consumed dietary supplements: 118 males and 121 females. 49,1% of females consumed dietary supplements less than twice a week, whereas 43,6% of males consumed dietary supplements from 2 to 5 times per week. Statistically significant differences emerged between the genders with respect to the source of information regarding dietary supplements, the perceived indications for their use, and the choice of the store/place to purchase them. Findings in the present study provide insight into the consumption of dietary supplements among young Italians, highlighting the need to foster further awareness among adolescents about the correct use of dietary supplements, especially in terms of indications and contraindications.

  18. Pathogenic Potential of Saccharomyces Strains Isolated from Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Monteoliva, Lucía; Querol, Amparo; Molina, María; Fernández-Espinar, María T.

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a beneficial role in health because of its intrinsic nutritional value and bio-functional properties, which is why it is also used as a dietary supplement. However, the perception that S. cerevisiae is harmless has changed due to an increasing number of infections caused by this yeast. Given this scenario, we have tested whether viable strains contained in dietary supplements displayed virulence-associated phenotypic traits that could contribute to virulence in humans. We have also performed an in vivo study of the pathogenic potential of these strains using a murine model of systemic infection by intravenous inoculation. A total of 5 strains were isolated from 22 commercial products and tested. Results highlight one strain (D14) in terms of burden levels in brains and kidneys and ability to cause death, whereas the other two strains (D2 and D4) were considered of low virulence. Our results suggest a strong relationship between some of the virulence-associated phenotypic traits (ability to grow at 39°C and pseudohyphal growth) and the in vivo virulence in a mouse model of intravenous inoculation for isolates under study. The isolate displaying greatest virulence (D14) was evaluated in an experimental murine model of gastrointestinal infection with immunosuppression and disruption of mucosal integrity, which are common risk factors for developing infection in humans, and results were compared with an avirulent strain (D23). We showed that D14 was able to spread to mesenteric nodes and distant organs under these conditions. Given the widespread consumption of dietary supplements, we recommend only safe strains be used. PMID:24879417

  19. Use of dietary supplements among gym trainees in Tanta city, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abo Ali, Ehab A; Elgamal, Hanan H

    2016-12-01

    The use of dietary supplements has greatly increased in the past few years. Few studies described the prevalence of supplement use among gym trainees. The practices of most of the athletes and gym trainees in Egypt remain undocumented. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dietary supplement use among gyms trainees in Tanta city, Egypt. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out on 450 gym trainees aged more than or equal to 20 years in Tanta city, Egypt. Nine representative gyms (50 participants from each) were recruited in the study. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, health and lifestyle characteristics, type, underlying motive(s), and source(s) of information about dietary supplements were collected from each participant. Of the 450 participants, 38.2% reported using dietary supplements. Male participants and those with higher family incomes used dietary supplements more than female participants and those with lower family incomes (P<0.05). Female participants used vitamins/minerals, weight loss, and natural groups of dietary supplements more than male participants (P<0.05), whereas male participants used body-building group of supplements more than female participants (P<0.05). Participants of older ages (≥30) tended to use the natural group of dietary supplements more than younger ones (P<0.05). Female participants were more motivated to use dietary supplements for the prevention of nutritional and/or medical problems and for weight loss, whereas male participants used dietary supplements for muscle building/repair (P<0.05). Female participants mostly got their information about dietary supplements from health professionals and from the media more than male participants, whereas male participants got this information mainly from gym personnel. A considerable proportion of gym trainees use dietary supplements, mostly without professional consultation and frequently without any indication. It is very important to disseminate accurate

  20. Dietary Supplements are Not all Safe and Not all Food: How the Low Cost of Dietary Supplements Preys on the Consumer.

    PubMed

    Sax, Joanna K

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements are regulated as food, even though the safety and efficacy of some supplements are unknown. These products are often promoted as 'natural.' This leads many consumers to fail to question the supplements' safety, and some consumers even equate 'natural' with safe. But, 'natural' does not mean safe. For example, many wild berries and mushrooms are dangerous although they are natural. Another example is tobacco--a key ingredient in cigarettes: it is natural, but overwhelming studies have established the harm of cigarette smoke. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires safety and efficacy testing prior to market entry for drugs. In contrast, the FDA only has limited ability to regulate the entry of new dietary supplements into the marketplace because supplements are treated as food. Two main arguments support the current regulatory structure of dietary supplements: (1) cost and (2) access. But lower cost and increased access to dietary supplements do not necessary have any relationship to safety and efficacy. Manufacturers' marketing techniques tout the health benefits of their supplements. Meanwhile, consumers are ingesting supplements without scientific studies indicating whether or not they are harmful. The FDA Food Safety and Modernization Act, signed into law on January 4, 2011, did not address the safety concerns regarding dietary supplements. This article discusses the regulatory deficiencies concerning dietary supplements and proposes novel solutions to address this specific sector of the food supply. This article advocates for the use of scientific data to support a multi-tiered classification system to ensure that dietary supplements on the market are safe.

  1. Herbal and Dietary Supplement-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Ynto S; Sherker, Averell H

    2017-02-01

    The increase in the use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) over the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the reports of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity. The spectrum of HDS-induced liver injury is diverse and the outcome may vary from transient liver test increases to fulminant hepatic failure resulting in death or requiring liver transplant. There are no validated standardized tools to establish the diagnosis, but some HDS products have a typical clinical signature that may help to identify HDS-induced liver injury.

  2. Understanding the properties of common dietary supplements: clinical implications for healthcare practitioners.

    PubMed

    Zelig, Rena; Rigassio Radler, Diane

    2012-12-01

    Dietary supplement usage in the United States continues to increase. This article explores the background of dietary supplements and their regulations, discusses trends in usage patterns highlighting the properties of 10 popular dietary supplements, addresses safety concerns and drug-nutrient interactions, and discusses the role of the healthcare professional in assessing and recommending usage of dietary supplements. The authors reviewed the literature on dietary supplementation. Government websites were used to obtain background and regulatory information. Evidence-based databases were used to summarize popular dietary supplements in terms of their common uses, mechanisms of action, and clinical implications. The related literature was reviewed to discuss important factors for the healthcare professional to consider as well as the role of the healthcare professional in integrating dietary supplement use within patient care. Healthcare professionals need to be prepared to evaluate dietary supplement usage and make appropriate recommendations for an individualized plan of care. As the popularity of dietary supplements continues to grow, healthcare professionals will need to communicate with patients about their usage; educate themselves on their potential benefits, interactions, and contraindications; evaluate the literature; make recommendations; and document appropriately in a comprehensive and integrated plan of care.

  3. Prevalence of dietary supplement use in healthy pre-school Chinese children in Australia and China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Binns, Colin W; Maycock, Bruce; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yuexiao

    2014-02-21

    There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and China, respectively. In China, the most commonly used dietary supplements were calcium (58.5%) and zinc (40.4%), while in Australia, the most frequently used types were multi-vitamins/minerals (46.2%) and fish oil (42.3%). In Australia, "not working", "never breastfeed", "higher education level of the mother" and "older age of the child" were associated with dietary supplement use in children. In China, being unwell and "having higher household income" were significantly related to dietary supplement usage. Because of the unknown effects of many supplements on growth and development and the potential for adverse drug interactions, parents should exercise caution when giving their infants or young children dietary supplements. Wherever possible it is preferable to achieve nutrient intakes from a varied diet rather than from supplements.

  4. Supplementation of soy protein with branched-chain amino acids alters protein metabolism in healthy elderly and even more in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Rutten, Erica P A; De Castro, Carmen L N; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2007-02-01

    It is often suggested that chronic wasting diseases [eg, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)] may benefit from branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) administration via improved protein metabolism. The aim was to examine whether adding BCAAs to a soy protein meal would enhance protein anabolism in COPD patients and in healthy elderly persons. Eight normal-weight COPD patients and 8 healthy control subjects were examined on 2 test days. Simultaneous continuous intravenous infusion of l-[ring-(2)H(5)]phenylalanine (Phe) and l-[ring-(2)H(2)]tyrosine tracers was done postabsorptively and at 2 h of ingestion of a maltodextrin soy or maltodextrin soy + BCAA protein meal (rate of ingestion: 0.02 g protein.kg body weight(-1).20 min(-1)) in a crossover design. Together with the meal, oral ingestion of 1-[(13)C]Phe was performed to measure first-pass Phe splanchnic extraction (SPE(Phe)). The endogenous rate of Phe appearance [reflecting whole-body protein breakdown (WbPB)], whole-body protein synthesis (WbPS), and net WbPS (WbPS - WbPB) were calculated. Arterialized venous blood was sampled for amino acid enrichment and concentration analyses. Soy feeding induced a reduction in WbPB and an increase in WbPS. BCAA supplementation of soy protein resulted in a significantly higher (P < 0.05) increase in WbPS than did soy protein alone in COPD patients but not in the healthy elderly. BCAA supplementation did not significantly alter the change in WbPB or net WbPS. Furthermore, BCAA supplementation decreased (absolute) SPE(Phe) (P < 0.05) but did not change the percentage Phe hydroxylation in the splanchnic area, which indicates a BCAA-related reduction in splanchnic protein synthesis. BCAA supplementation to soy protein enhances WbPS in patients with COPD and alters interorgan protein metabolism in favor of the peripheral (muscle) compartment in healthy elderly and even more in COPD patients.

  5. Impact of lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on energy and nutrient intake among moderately underweight 8-18-month-old children participating in a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M; Ashorn, Per; Phuka, John C; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Maleta, Kenneth M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrition interventions have an effect on growth, energy and nutrient intake, and development, but there are mixed reports on the effect of supplementation of energy-dense foods on dietary intake. This substudy aimed at assessing the effect of supplementation with corn-soy blend (CSB) or lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) on energy and nutrient intake in moderately underweight children participating in a clinical trial. A total of 188 children aged 8-18 months participated and received daily either 284 kcal from CSB or 220 kcal from LNS and no supplements (control). An interactive 24-h recall method was used to estimate energy and nutrient intakes in the groups. Total mean energy intake was 548 kcal, 551 kcal and 692 kcal in the control, CSB and LNS groups, respectively (P = 0.011). The mean (95% confidence interval) intake of energy and protein were 144 (37-250; P < 0.001) and 46 (1.5-7.6; P < 0.001) larger, respectively, in the LNS group than among the controls. No significant differences were observed between the control and CSB groups. Energy intake from non-supplement foods was significantly lower in the CSB group compared with the control group, but not in the LNS group, suggesting a lower displacement of non-supplement foods with LNS. Both CSB and LNS supplementation resulted in higher intakes of calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin C compared with controls (all P ≤ 0.001). This study indicates that LNS might be superior to CSB to supplement underweight children as it results in higher energy intake, but this requires confirmation in other settings.

  6. Common use of dietary supplements for bipolar disorder: a naturalistic, self-reported study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michael; Glenn, Tasha; Conell, Jörn; Rasgon, Natalie; Marsh, Wendy; Sagduyu, Kemal; Munoz, Rodrigo; Lewitzka, Ute; Bauer, Rita; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Monteith, Scott; Whybrow, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    Dietary supplements are taken by about half of Americans. Knowledge of dietary supplement use is important because they may interact with prescription drugs or other supplements, cause adverse reactions including psychiatric symptoms, or contain inherently toxic ingredients or contaminants. This study explores the use of dietary supplements by patients with bipolar disorder in the US. Data were obtained from an ongoing, naturalistic study of patients with bipolar disorder who received pharmacological treatment as usual. The patients self-reported their daily mood, sleep, and medications taken, including all drugs prescribed for bipolar disorder or that the patient felt impacted their mood. These included other prescribed drugs, over-the-counter drugs and dietary supplements. Drugs that received premarketing approval from the FDA were not included as dietary supplements. Patient demographics and daily medication use were characterized. Data were available from 348 patients in the US who returned a mean 249.5 days of data. In addition to prescribed psychiatric drugs, 101 of the 348 patients (29 %) used a dietary supplement for at least 7 days and 69 (20 %) used a supplement long term (for at least 50 % of days). Of the 101 supplement users, 72 (71.3 %) took one supplement daily. The 101 patients tried over 40 different supplements, and the long-term users took 19 different supplements. The most commonly taken supplements for both groups were fish oil, B vitamins, melatonin, and multivitamins. Patients using supplements were more likely to be white (p < 0.001), older (p = 0.009), and ill for more years (p = 0.025). Many patients with bipolar disorder use dietary supplements in addition to prescribed drugs. Physicians should obtain detailed information about all dietary supplements taken by patients with bipolar disorder.

  7. Too little, too late: ineffective regulation of dietary supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Starr, Ranjani R

    2015-03-01

    Millions of people in the United States consume dietary supplements hoping to maintain or improve their health; however, extensive research has failed to demonstrate the efficacy of numerous supplements in disease prevention. In addition, concerns about the safety of routine and high-dose supplementation have been raised. The Food and Drug Administration regulates dietary supplement quality, safety, and labeling, and the Federal Trade Commission monitors advertisements and marketing; still, vast enforcement challenges remain, and optimal governmental oversight has not been achieved. If the composition and quality of ingredients cannot be reliably ensured, the validity of research on dietary supplements is questionable. Moreover, the health of the US public is put at risk.

  8. Inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced mouse forestomach neoplasia by dietary soy sauce

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, H.; Storkson, J.M.; Nagahara, A.; Pariza, M.W. )

    1991-03-15

    Japanese-style fermented soy sauce (shoyu) contains anticarcinogenic activity. ICR mice were fed a semi-purified diet containing shoyu. 2 wks later a regimen consisting of 2 doses (p.o.) of benzo(a)pyrene per wk for 4 wks was begun, to initiate forestomach neoplasia. 23 wks later the animals were sacrificed, forestomach neoplasms counted and histologically confirmed. Shoyu produced a significant dose-dependent reduction in neoplasms, which appeared maximal when shoyu was present at 20% of the diet. Exposure to nitrite neither enhanced nor diminished the anticarcinogenic effect. Shoyu was found to contain antioxidant activity which may be related to the observed anticarcinogenic effect. Surprisingly mouse forestomach ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity was induced by shoyu, due in part to high sodium chloride content. Since ODC induction appears to be an early and possibly obligatory event in tumor promotion, the inhibition of neoplasia by shoyu probably occurs at a later step.

  9. Determination of caffeine and identification of undeclared substances in dietary supplements and caffeine dietary exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulants in the world, and is a frequent ingredient of dietary supplements. The aims of this work were to validate a GC-MS method for the quantitation of caffeine and identification of other substances in supplements, mainly weight loss products, and to estimate the caffeine intake by consumers. Sample preparation included extraction with chloroform:water in ultrasonic bath, centrifugation and analysis of the organic layer for caffeine quantitation, and extraction with methanol for identification of other substances. A total of 213 samples of 52 supplement products not registered in Brazil and seized by the Brazilian Federal Police were analyzed. From the 109 samples that declared the amount of caffeine present, 26.6% contained more than 120% of the specified content. Considering the maximum recommended dose stated on the product labels, the consumption of 47.9% of the samples would lead to a daily intake of caffeine above the safe limit of 400 mg. Undeclared drugs, including sibutramine, phenolphthalein, amphepramone and femproporex were found in 28 samples. These results show that consumers of dietary supplements should be aware that these products might contain caffeine at levels that could represent potential health risks, in addition to undeclared pharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Four Weeks of Supplementation With Isolated Soy Protein Attenuates Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Enhances Muscle Recovery in Well Trained Athletes: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Shweta; Dhawan, Mrinal; Singh Sandhu, Jaspal

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of consumption of isolated soy protein (ISP) for a chronic period (4 weeks) on exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) in athletic population have never been explored. Objectives To examine the effects of ISP on muscle damage indices elicited via a bout of damaging exercise. Patients and Methods Forty males (20 boxers, 20 cyclists) aged 18 - 28 years were randomly assigned to two groups (ISP and Placebo) (n = 20). All participants who engaged themselves in specific, regular training of 30 hours a week during the competitive season were included in the study. Participants consumed the supplement and the placebo for 4 weeks. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Pre and post supplementation readings of the criterion variables, highly sensitive C reactive protein (hs-cRP), creatine Kinase (CK), myeloperoxidase (MPO), isometric muscle strength, maximum aerobic capacity (VO2 max), heart rate (HR) and muscle soreness were obtained at baseline (Day 1), at 24 hours (Day 2) and at 48 hours (Day 3) following EIMD. Results Differences were observed in pre and post supplementation values (P < 0.05) indicating the effectiveness of soy protein in attenuating muscle damage and enhancing muscle recovery. Conclusions Our findings suggest that soy protein; a vegetable based supplement is effective, in ameliorating the negative effects of EIMD in trained athletic population. PMID:27826398

  11. Herbal and dietary supplement use in Bangkok: a survey.

    PubMed

    Tangkiatkumjai, Mayuree; Boardman, Helen; Walker, Dawn-Marie

    2014-09-01

    People living in Asian countries including Thailand are likely to use herbal and dietary supplements (HDS). However, there is limited evidence of their usage in Thailand. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the prevalence of HDS usage amongst a general population in Bangkok; (2) patterns of HDS use; (3) reasons why Bangkok residents use HDS. This cross-sectional survey recruited 400 Thai people aged 15 years or over at busy bus stops in Bangkok, Thailand, using convenience sampling. Data were collected via an interview regarding demographics, HDS usage and reasons of using HDS. Descriptive statistics, such as frequencies and percentages, were used to analyse the prevalence and the patterns of HDS use. The prevalence of HDS usage in the previous 6 months was 52%. The majority of people who took herbs used them to treat illnesses (58%), whereas the majority of people who took dietary supplements used them to promote well-being (65%). Respondents reported using HDS due to their efficacy (28%), wanting to try them (26%) and safety concerns with conventional medicines (15%). Health care providers should be aware of HDS use amongst Thai residents in Bangkok. Policy makers should educate people about appropriate HDS use.

  12. Metabolic and immune effects of dietary arginine supplementation after burn.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Trocki, O; Wang, S L; Gonce, S J; Joffe, S N; Alexander, J W

    1987-07-01

    The effect of supplemental dietary arginine on metabolism and immunity was studied in 36 burned guinea pigs (30% of total body surface area) with previously placed catheter gastrostomies. The animals were randomized into four groups. After an initial three-day adaptation period, all groups received continuous isonitrogenous, isocaloric (175 kcal [735 kJ]/kg/d), and isovolemic intragastric tube feedings until postburn day (PBD) 14. Groups A, B, C, and D received 0%, 1%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, of total energy intake as arginine given in the form of crystalline arginine hydrochloride with 22%, 21%, 20%, and 18%, respectively, of total energy as whey protein. The average body weight after burn decreased equally in all groups. Resting metabolic expenditure on PBD 6 was higher in groups B (151% +/- 6% of preburn) and C (156% +/- 7%) than in groups A (131% +/- 4%) and D (136% +/- 3%). Ear-thickness response to dinitrofluorobenzene challenge on PBD 12 showed the best response in group C. The mortality rates of groups A, B, C, and D were 56%, 29%, 22%, and 56%, respectively. This study suggests that oral dietary arginine supplementation up to 2% of energy intake may be beneficial after burn injury.

  13. Expertise about herbs and dietary supplements among diverse health professionals

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J; Gardiner, Paula; Gobble, Jessica; Woods, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Background Herbs and other dietary supplements are among the most commonly used complementary medical therapies. However, clinicians generally have limited knowledge, confidence and communication about herbs and dietary supplements (HDS). We compared diverse clinicians' expertise about HDS to better target future curricula. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians, pharmacists, nurses, dietitians and trainees in these professions prior to e-curriculum about HDS in 2004–2005. The survey had 28 questions about knowledge, 19 questions about their confidence and 11 questions about their communication practices about HDS. Results Of the 1,268 participants, 25% were male; the average age was 40 years. Mean scores were 66% correct for knowledge; 53/95 on the confidence scale and 2.2 out of possible 10 on the communication practices scale. On average, scores were lowest for those who used fewer HDS; and trainees and nurses compared with physicians, pharmacists and dietitians (P<0.01 for all comparisons). Conclusion Clinicians have moderate levels of knowledge and confidence, but poor communication skills about HDS. Future curricula about HDS should target nurses, students, practitioners and those not currently using HDS. Research is needed to determine the most cost-effective educational strategies for diverse health professionals. PMID:16646964

  14. Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Stickel, Felix; Kessebohm, Kerstin; Weimann, Rosemarie; Seitz, Helmut K

    2011-05-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are easily available and increasingly used, and adverse hepatic reactions have been reported following their intake. To critically review the literature on liver injury because of DSs, delineating patterns and mechanisms of injury and to increase the awareness towards this cause of acute and chronic liver damage. Studies and case reports on liver injury specifically because of DSs published between 1990 and 2010 were searched in the PubMed and EMBASE data bases using the terms 'dietary/nutritional supplements', 'adverse hepatic reactions', 'liver injury'; 'hepatitis', 'liver failure', 'vitamin A' and 'retinoids', and reviewed for yet unidentified publications. Significant liver injury was reported after intake of Herbalife and Hydroxycut products, tea extracts from Camellia sinensis, products containing usnic acid and high contents of vitamin A, anabolic steroids and others. No uniform pattern of hepatotoxicity has been identified and severity may range from asymptomatic elevations of serum liver enzymes to hepatic failure and death. Exact estimates on how frequent adverse hepatic reactions occur as a result of DSs cannot be provided. Liver injury from DSs mimicking other liver diseases is increasingly recognized. Measures to reduce risk include tighter regulation of their production and distribution and increased awareness of users and professionals of the potential risks.

  15. Dietary Supplement Use Immediately Before and During Pregnancy in Norwegian Women with Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dellava, Jocilyn E.; Von Holle, Ann; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Many pregnant women use dietary supplements. Little is known about dietary supplement use during pregnancy in women with eating disorders. Method We examined dietary supplement use in 37,307 pregnant women, from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Results Dietary supplement use during pregnancy was as follows: 91.2% of women with anorexia nervosa, 92.2% of women with bulimia nervosa, 93.2% of women with eating disorder not otherwise specified-purging (EDNOS-P), 90.6% of women with binge eating disorder, and 93.5% of the women without eating disorder. Among group differences were not statistically significant. After adjusting for covariates, women with EDNOS-P were more likely to take iron containing supplements (p≤0.04). Conclusion Overall dietary supplement use, in this sample is similar in women with and without eating disorders. PMID:21472751

  16. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves revascularization in chronic ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B; Luedike, Peter; Totzeck, Matthias; Kropp, Martina; Schicho, Andreas; Stock, Pia; Rammos, Christos; Niessen, Michael; Heiss, Christian; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush

    2012-10-16

    Revascularization is an adaptive repair mechanism that restores blood flow to undersupplied ischemic tissue. Nitric oxide plays an important role in this process. Whether dietary nitrate, serially reduced to nitrite by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity and subsequently to nitric oxide and other nitrogen oxides, enhances ischemia-induced remodeling of the vascular network is not known. Mice were treated with either nitrate (1 g/L sodium nitrate in drinking water) or sodium chloride (control) for 14 days. At day 7, unilateral hind-limb surgery with excision of the left femoral artery was conducted. Blood flow was determined by laser Doppler. Capillary density, myoblast apoptosis, mobilization of CD34(+)/Flk-1(+), migration of bone marrow-derived CD31(+)/CD45(-), plasma S-nitrosothiols, nitrite, and skeletal tissue cGMP levels were assessed. Enhanced green fluorescence protein transgenic mice were used for bone marrow transplantation. Dietary nitrate increased plasma S-nitrosothiols and nitrite, enhanced revascularization, increased mobilization of CD34(+)/Flk-1(+) and migration of bone marrow-derived CD31(+)/CD45(-) cells to the site of ischemia, and attenuated apoptosis of potentially regenerative myoblasts in chronically ischemic tissue. The regenerative effects of nitrate treatment were abolished by eradication of the nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity through the use of an antiseptic mouthwash. Long-term dietary nitrate supplementation may represent a novel nutrition-based strategy to enhance ischemia-induced revascularization.

  17. Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Heussner, A H; Mazija, L; Fastner, J; Dietrich, D R

    2012-12-01

    Blue-green algae (Spirulina sp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) and Chlorella sp. are commercially distributed as organic algae dietary supplements. Cyanobacterial dietary products in particular have raised serious concerns, as they appeared to be contaminated with toxins e.g. microcystins (MCs) and consumers repeatedly reported adverse health effects following consumption of these products. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin contamination and the in vitro cytotoxicity of algae dietary supplement products marketed in Germany. In thirteen products consisting of Aph. flos-aquae, Spirulina and Chlorella or mixtures thereof, MCs, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin were analyzed. Five products tested in an earlier market study were re-analyzed for comparison. Product samples were extracted and analyzed for cytotoxicity in A549 cells as well as for toxin levels by (1) phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), (2) Adda-ELISA and (3) LC-MS/MS. In addition, all samples were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the mcyE gene, a part of the microcystin and nodularin synthetase gene cluster. Only Aph. flos-aquae products were tested positive for MCs as well as the presence of mcyE. The contamination levels of the MC-positive samples were ≤ 1 μg MC-LR equivalents g(-1) dw. None of the other toxins were found in any of the products. However, extracts from all products were cytotoxic. In light of the findings, the distribution and commercial sale of Aph. flos-aquae products, whether pure or mixed formulations, for human consumption appear highly questionable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary quercetin supplementation is not ergogenic in untrained men.

    PubMed

    Cureton, Kirk J; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Singhal, Arpit; Pasley, Jeffrey D; Bigelman, Kevin A; Lambourne, Kathleen; Trilk, Jennifer L; McCully, Kevin K; Arnaud, Maurice J; Zhao, Qun

    2009-10-01

    Quercetin supplementation increases muscle oxidative capacity and endurance in mice, but its ergogenic effect in humans has not been established. Our study investigates the effects of short-duration chronic quercetin supplementation on muscle oxidative capacity; metabolic, perceptual, and neuromuscular determinants of performance in prolonged exercise; and cycling performance in untrained men. Using a double-blind, pretest-posttest control group design, 30 recreationally active, but not endurance-trained, young men were randomly assigned to quercetin and placebo groups. A noninvasive measure of muscle oxidative capacity (phosphocreatine recovery rate using magnetic resonance spectroscopy), peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2peak)), metabolic and perceptual responses to submaximal exercise, work performed on a 10-min maximal-effort cycling test following the submaximal cycling, and voluntary and electrically evoked strength loss following cycling were measured before and after 7-16 days of supplementation with 1 g/day of quercetin in a sports hydration beverage or a placebo beverage. Pretreatment-to-posttreatment changes in phosphocreatine recovery time constant, Vo(2peak,) substrate utilization, and perception of effort during submaximal exercise, total work done during the 10-min maximal effort cycling trial, and voluntary and electrically evoked strength loss were not significantly different (P > 0.05) in the quercetin and placebo groups. Short duration, chronic dietary quercetin supplementation in untrained men does not improve muscle oxidative capacity; metabolic, neuromuscular and perceptual determinants of performance in prolonged exercise; or cycling performance. The null findings indicate that metabolic and physical performance consequences of quercetin supplementation observed in mice should not be generalized to humans.

  19. Use of dietary supplements by cardiologists, dermatologists and orthopedists: report of a survey.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Annette; Shao, Andrew; Boyon, Nicolas; Franco, Julio C

    2011-03-03

    Dietary supplements are regularly used by a majority of the American population, and usage by health professionals is also common. There is considerable interest in usage patterns within the population and in the reasons for using dietary supplements. The "Life...supplemented" Healthcare Professionals 2008 Impact Study (HCP Impact Study) surveyed usage of dietary supplements by physicians in three specialties: cardiology, dermatology, and orthopedics. The HCP Impact Study was conducted online by Ipsos Public Affairs for the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), a trade association of the dietary supplement industry. Respondents were 900 physicians, including 300 each from three specialties--cardiology, dermatology, and orthopedics. Fifty-seven percent of cardiologists said they use dietary supplements at least occasionally, as did 75% of dermatologists and 73% of orthopedists. The product most commonly reported to be used was a multivitamin, but over 25% in each specialty said they used omega-3 fatty acids and over 20% said they used some botanical supplements. Regular dietary supplement use was reported by 37% of cardiologists, 59% of dermatologists, and 50% of orthopedists. Seventy-two percent of cardiologists, 66% of dermatologists, and 91% of orthopedists reported recommending dietary supplements to their patients. The primary reason given for recommending dietary supplements to patients was for heart health or lowering cholesterol for the cardiologists; benefits for skin, hair and nails for the dermatologists; and bone and joint health for the orthopedists. Reported dietary supplement use was relatively common in this sample of physicians, and when they recommended dietary supplements to patients, they tended to do so for reasons related to their specialty.

  20. Dangerous dietary supplements: Garcinia cambogia-associated hepatic failure requiring transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2016-01-01

    Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients. PMID:28018115

  1. Dangerous dietary supplements: Garcinia cambogia-associated hepatic failure requiring transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2016-12-07

    Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients.

  2. Antioxidants and antiinflammatory dietary supplements for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Cathy Creger; O'Mathúna, Dónal P; Chavez, Mary; Shields, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    To review efficacy studies of antioxidant and antiinflammatory dietary supplements used to manage osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and make conclusions about their place in therapy. Glucosamine, chondroitin, and methyl sulfonyl methane were excluded. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1996 through January 2009), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, and Natural Standard, with bibliographic review of relevant articles. Cited studies from before our search range were included if they represented the only published human data available. Search words included "antioxidant," "antiinflammatory," "cat's claw," "ginger," "fish oil," "omega-3," "turmeric," "vitamin E," "vitamin C," "Baikal skullcap," "barberry," "Chinese goldthread," "green tea," "Indian holy basil," "hu zhang,"oregano," and"rosemary." Efficacy studies published in English were included provided they evaluated the dietary supplements in patients with OA or RA. Our search strategy yielded 16 clinical studies (11 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials, three crossover trials, one case-controlled study, and one open-label study) in addition to one meta-analysis and one review article. Three studies support cat's claw alone or in combination for OA, and two studies support omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of RA. We cannot recommend use of vitamin E alone; vitamins A, C, and E in combination; ginger; turmeric; or Zyflamend (New Chapter, Brattleboro, Vermont) for the treatment of OA or RA or omega-3 fatty acids for OA. Whether any of these supplements can be effectively and safely recommended to reduce nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug or steroid usage is unclear and requires more high-quality research.

  3. Of the major phenolic acids formed during human microbial fermentation of tea, citrus, and soy flavonoid supplements, only 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid has antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kun; Xu, Anlong; Krul, Cyrille; Venema, Koen; Liu, Yong; Niu, Yantao; Lu, Jinxiu; Bensoussan, Liath; Seeram, Navindra P; Heber, David; Henning, Susanne M

    2006-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Colonic bacteria convert flavonoids into smaller phenolic acids (PA), which can be absorbed into the circulation and may contribute to the chemopreventive activity of the parent compounds. The purpose of our study was to determine whether flavonoids from green and black tea (GT, BT), citrus fruit with rutin (CF+R) and soy (S) supplements exposed to the same conditions in a dynamic in vitro model of the colon (TIM-2) will form the same phenolic acid products of microbial metabolism. About 600 mg of flavonoids from GT, BT, CF+R and S extracts were infused at t = 0 and 12 h into the TIM-2. Samples from the lumen and dialysate were collected at t = 0,4,8,12,16,24 and 28h. The flavonoid and PA concentrations were measured by HPLC and GC-MS. GT, BT, and CF+R formed 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3M4HPAA), 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid (4HPAA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4DHPAA), and 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (3,3HPPA). BT flavonoids were also metabolized to 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4,6THBA) and CF+R flavonoids to 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) propionic acid (3,4H3MPPA), 3-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid (3HPAA) and a small amount of hippuric acid. After S infusion, we found 3M4HPAA and 4HPAA only. Among these phenolic acids, only 3,4DHPAA exhibited antiproliferative activity in prostate and colon cancer cells. 3,4DHPAA was significantly (P < 0.005) more inhibitory in colon cancer cells (HCT116) compared with an immortalized normal intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC6). In summary, fermentation by intestinal microbes of GT, BT, C+R, and S flavonoids resulted in the conversion to the same major phenolic acids.

  4. Dietary Supplement Intake and Associated Factors Among Gym Users in a University Community.

    PubMed

    Attlee, Amita; Haider, Amina; Hassan, Asma; Alzamil, Noura; Hashim, Mona; Obaid, Reyad Shaker

    2017-05-30

    Dietary supplement intake and associated factors among gym users in a university community in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were assessed using a structured, self-administered questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. Adults (N = 320) from five gyms in the University City of Sharjah participated in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of dietary supplement intake was 43.8%. Statistically significant associations were found between the use of dietary supplements and sex (47.7% males, 28.1% females; p = .006), as well as weight lifting (88.6% taking supplements vs. 11.4% not taking supplements; p < .001), favoring male gym users. The reasons attributed to the use of dietary supplements varied between the sexes. Male exercisers used supplements to increase or maintain muscles mass, strength, and power and to boost exercise recovery. Females mainly used dietary supplements to increase energy, maintain their health, and prevent nutrition deficiency. Overall, protein supplements (whey proteins [48.6%] and protein powder [45.7%]) were among the most-consumed dietary supplements, followed by multivitamins (38.6%), branched-chain amino acids (36.4%), caffeine (35.0%), and creatine (29.3%). A widespread use of Internet-driven, self-prescribed dietary supplement intake was reported among gym users (60.7%). Only 12.8% of dietary supplement users sought information from dietitians. Practical implications suggest that gym instructors and coaches should be sufficiently trained to be able to provide accurate and scientifically sound information on dietary supplements to the exercisers in gyms in the university environment.

  5. Kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I are altered by dietary variables and suggest a metabolic need for supplemental carnitine in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Heo, K; Lin, X; Odle, J; Han, I K

    2000-10-01

    To examine the kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) and the influence of dietary variables, young pigs (18 kg, n = 20) were fed corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 40 g soy oil/kg and containing either 136 or 180 g crude protein/kg and either 0 or 500 mg/kg L-carnitine (2 x 2 factorial design). Diets were offered for 10 d (85% of ad libitum); CPT-I activities in liver and skeletal muscle mitochondria were determined, and enzyme kinetic constants (V:(max) and K:(m) for carnitine) were estimated. Kinetics of CPT-I in muscle were not affected by diet (P: > 0.1; carnitine K:(m) = 480 +/- 44 micromol/L). In contrast, the K:(m) for carnitine in liver was increased from 164 to 216 +/- 20 micromol/L by dietary L-carnitine supplementation (P: < 0.01) and from 169 to 211 +/- 20 micromol/L by high protein feeding (P: < 0.05). Dietary L-carnitine increased muscle and liver free carnitine concentrations by 72 and 158% over control concentrations (770 and 80 micro;mol/kg wet muscle and liver, respectively). Because tissue carnitine concentrations were within the range of the respective K:(m) for both liver and muscle tissue, it is inferred that alteration of tissue carnitine concentrations via dietary supplementation could modulate CPT-I activity in young pigs.

  6. Are those in need taking dietary supplements? A survey of 21 923 adults.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R A; Holt, D; Pattison, D J; Elton, P J

    2004-04-01

    Many people take dietary supplements, but information on characteristics associated with their use is lacking. The relationship between lifestyle behaviours, morbidity and use of dietary supplements has not been examined and earlier studies have limited applicability to a general population. These issues were addressed in the current study. Information was obtained by postal questionnaire sent to a sample of the general population. The questionnaire was completed by 70.5 % of the sample (15 465 from a total sample of 21 923), with at least one-third (35.5 %) taking dietary supplements. In adjusted analyses, supplement users were more likely to be women, white, home-owners, non-smokers and physically active. Use of vitamin, mineral and/or antioxidant supplements was associated with eating more fruits and vegetables, and taking fish-oil supplements was associated with eating oil-rich fish. A history of CVD or risk factors for CVD reduced the risk of taking vitamins, minerals and/or antioxidants or fish-oil supplements. Those reporting musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis were more likely to take fish-oil supplements For the first time, we have shown that dietary supplement use is related to different types of morbidity. In particular, people at risk of primary or secondary CVD seem less likely to use dietary supplements, despite possible benefits shown in clinical trials. Public health organisations need to develop guidelines for the public and health professionals regarding the uncontrolled use of dietary supplements in the community.

  7. A model to estimate the oestrogen receptor mediated effects from exposure to soy isoflavones in food.

    PubMed

    Safford, Bob; Dickens, Andrea; Halleron, Nadine; Briggs, David; Carthew, Philip; Baker, Valerie

    2003-10-01

    The advantages that regular consumption of a diet containing soy may have on human health have been enshrined in a major health claim that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the USA, regarding potential protection from heart disease by soy. This could have a major influence on the dietary consumption patterns of soy for consumers and lead to the development of soy enriched foods to enable consumers to achieve the benefits thought to be associated with increased soy consumption in a Western diet. If an increase in soy consumption is beneficial to particular disease conditions, there is always the possibility that there will be effects other than those that are desirable. For soy-containing foods there has been concern that the phytoestrogen content of soy, which is composed of several isoflavones, could be a separate health issue, due to the oestrogen-like activity of isoflavones. To address this, a method has been developed to estimate, relative to 17-beta oestradiol, the activity of the common isoflavones present in soy phytoestrogens, based on their binding to and transcriptional activation of the major oestrogen receptor sub-types alpha and beta. Using this approach, the additional oestrogen-like activity that would be expected from inclusion of soy supplemented foodstuffs in a Western diet, can be determined for different sub-populations, who may have different susceptibilities to the potential for the unwanted biological effects occurring with consumption of soy enriched foods. Because of the theoretical nature of this model, and the controversy over the nature of whether some of the oestrogen-like effects of phytoestrogens are adverse, the biological effects of soy isoflavones and their potential for adverse effects in man, is also reviewed. The question that is critical to the long term safe use of foods enriched in soy is, which observed biological effects in animal studies are likely to also occur in man and whether these would have

  8. Herbals and natural dietary supplements in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Chiappedi, Matteo; Bejor, Maurizio

    2010-06-01

    There is some evidence that links the increase of mental disorders' prevalence with a deterioration of Western countries' nutritional habits and it is found that the use of herbal and "natural" food supplements to treat different disorders is increasing. With factors such as chronic illness, poor health, emotional distress, and quality of life influencing the desire for complementary medicine, patients with comorbid medical and psychiatric problems seem likely to turn to this approach. We reviewed the most commonly used herbal and dietary supplements for which a certain efficacy on psychiatric symptoms or disorders has been claimed, checking current Pubmed-indexed literature (the most important being St. John's wort, Omega-3 fatty acids, valerian, Kava, Ginkgo, folate, B vitamins, SAMe, Inositol). There is an evidence of efficacy for some of these herbs an supplements, but current studies are often insufficient to reach a final conclusion; still patents are being requested and registered. Many different areas (including efficacy, tolerability, optimal dosing, adequate shelf life, drug and non-pharmacological interactions) need to be thoroughly studied; moreover political decisions need to be scientifically guided in order to best serve psychiatric patients' interests and to prevent the usage of expensive and sometimes un-useful therapies. This implies that a scientific strategy has to be used to rule out any third-part economical interest which could in any way influence therapeutic choices.

  9. Research of stimulants and anabolic steroids in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Baume, N; Mahler, N; Kamber, M; Mangin, P; Saugy, M

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of 103 dietary supplements bought on the internet. The supplements were dispatched in four different categories according to their announced contents [creatine, prohormones, "mental enhancers" and branched chain amino acids (BCAA)]. All the supplements were screened for the presence of stimulants and main anabolic steroids parent compounds. At the same time, the research was focused on the precursors and metabolites of testosterone and nandrolone. The study pointed out three products containing an anabolic steroid, metandienone, in a very high amount. The ingestion of such products induced a high quantity of metandienone metabolites in urines that would be considered as a positive antidoping test. The results have also shown that one creatine product and three "mental enhancers" contained traces of hormones or prohormones not claimed on the labels and 14 prohormone products contained substances other than those indicated by the manufacturer. The oral intake of the creatine product revealed the presence of the two main nandrolone metabolites (19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone) in urine.

  10. Flavonoids, the emerging dietary supplement against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Athira, K V; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-03-25

    The letter illustrates the emerging potential of flavonoids as dietary supplement to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and refers to the recent article on ''Anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of naringin on cisplatin-induced renal injury in the rat'' by Chtourou et al. They demonstrated that supplementation of naringin, a flavanone glycoside, found in grape and citrus fruit species, can attenuate cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction via restoration of redox balance and suppression of inflammation, NF-κB activation and apoptosis. The chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin has always compelled the researchers to find solution to ameliorate its side effects. In recent years, numerous candidates have been evaluated for their protective potential against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and flavonoids have come up with promising results. The future prospects might be promising with a proper refinement and collective integration of the preclinical and clinical research in the field of flavonoid supplementation to cisplatin therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Soy Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinic Staff Allergy to soy, a product of soybeans, is a common food allergy. Often, soy allergy ... broth and vegetable starch Besides "soy," "soya" and "soybeans," other words on food labels may indicate that ...

  12. Marketplace analysis demonstrates quality control standards needed for black raspberry dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is currently no standard for the minimum anthocyanin concentration a black raspberry dietary supplement must contain for legal sale in the US. All consumer available black raspberry products (n=19), packaged as dietary supplements or otherwise prepared (freeze-dried whole and pre-ground powder...

  13. 75 FR 9232 - Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) 2010-2014 Strategic Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... was developed after more than a year's worth of reflection on its programs, activities, and..., the dietary supplement industry, consumer advocacy and education groups, and interested consumers. FOR... provision of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). Dated: February 22, 2010....

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENT GINSENG AND POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and Asia, but the use of these products is becoming increasingly popular in the United States. Because these products are classified as dietary supplements, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not routinely...

  16. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  17. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENT GINSENG AND POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and Asia, but the use of these products is becoming increasingly popular in the United States. Because these products are classified as dietary supplements, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not routinely...

  19. Prevalence and predictors of children's dietary supplement use: the 2007 National Health Interview Survey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little is known about the characteristics of US children who are dietary supplement users. We described the prevalence and predictors of and reasons for giving children dietary supplements. The study included children <18 y of age who participated in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine supple...

  20. Extensive gut metabolism limits the intestinal absorption of excessive supplemental dietary glutamate loads in infant pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glutamate (Glu) is a major intestinal oxidative fuel, key neurotransmitter, and may be a useful dietary supplement to augment health of the infant gut. We quantified the metabolic fate of various supplemental dietary Glu intakes in young pigs surgically implanted with vascular, intraduodenal (ID), o...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

  2. 21 CFR 111.130 - What quality control operations are required for returned dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... returned dietary supplements? 111.130 Section 111.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production...

  3. Rosaceae products: Anthocyanin quality and comparisons between dietary supplements and foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rosaceae (strawberry, cherry, blackberry, red raspberry, and black raspberry) dietary supplements and food products (total n=74) were purchased and analyzed to determine their anthocyanin concentrations and profiles. Eight of the 33 dietary supplements had no detectable anthocyanins (five samples) o...

  4. A novel gastrointestinal microbiome modulator from soy pods reduces absorption of dietary fat in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diet impacts the composition of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome and it has shifted toward unprecedented fat and sugar. Because dietary habits are difficult to change, we developed a novel GI microbiome modulator (GIMM) as an intervention. Male mice were fed 1 of 3 isocaloric diets for 30 d; o...

  5. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Spagner, Camilla; Christensen, Tue; Gille, Maj-Britt; Bügel, Susanne; Banke Rasmussen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design A cross-sectional representative national study of the intake of vitamins and minerals from the diet and from dietary supplements. Method The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity, 2000–2004. Participants (n=4,479; 53% females) aged 18–75 years gave information about the use of dietary supplements in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age and gender groups. Among females in the age group 18–49 years, the micronutrient intake from the diet was significantly higher compared with the non-users of dietary supplements. The use of dietary supplements increased with age and with ‘intention to eat healthy.’ Conclusion Intake of micronutrients from the diet alone was considered adequate for both users and non-users of dietary supplements. Younger females who were supplement users had a more micronutrient-dense diet compared to non-users. PMID:21909288

  6. UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

  7. Factors Associated with Dietary Supplement Use among Preschool Children: Results from a Nationwide Survey in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoko; Suzuki, Sachina; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Umegaki, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to reveal factors associated with dietary supplement use among Japanese preschool children in a nationwide survey. A cross-sectional, Internet survey was conducted among 2,058 mothers aged 20-40 y old who had preschool children and were registrants of a Japanese social research company in February 2013. The questionnaires assessed dietary supplement use, lifestyle and eating habits in both children and their mothers, eating awareness among mothers and the mothers' sources of health information. The study employed logistic regression analysis to evaluate the association between dietary supplement use and other variables. Dietary supplements were used by 8.0% of the children. Children who used supplements tended to be older in age, less likely to "get up cheerfully every morning," more likely to skip breakfast, eat out more frequently, and have mothers who used supplements, than children who did not use supplements. Mothers' level of education and household income were not associated with supplement use among their children. It is likely that mothers' anxiety about their children's health or unhealthy eating habits has a striking effect on supplement use among children. However, the actual dietary balance and daily rhythms of child supplement users were not irregular or unhealthy. It is necessary to give more accurate information on children's dietary habits and health to address mothers' anxiety.

  8. Consumers' perceptions of the dietary supplement health and education act: implications and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    In 1994, the United States Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). The regulatory framework for dietary supplements created by DSHEA has led to significant misperceptions regarding consumers' understanding of the safety and efficacy of supplements. Research shows that consumers erroneously believe that: (1) supplements are approved by the government, (2) supplements have been tested for safety and effectiveness, (3) the content of supplements is analyzed, and (4) manufacturers are required to disclose known adverse effects to consumers. Furthermore, labelling requirements that are intended to provide transparency to consumers are relatively ineffective. The following four recommendations are offered for reforming DSHEA: (1) only allow structure-function claims that are supported by research evidence, (2) require manufacturers to list known adverse effects on the labels of dietary supplements, (3) require that the Food and Drug Administration analyzes the content of dietary supplements and (4) restrict the definition of dietary ingredients. These recommendations would bring DSHEA to more closely align with consumer expectations regarding the regulation of dietary supplements and would likely provide a safer landscape for the use of supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis due to dietary weight-loss supplement.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Emmanuel; Bercovici, Silvia; Niranjan, Selvanayagam; Paul, Nisha; Hemavathy, Bhakthavatsalam

    2011-05-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements for weight loss and in treatment of obesity are growing in popularity and acceptance in the United States. Most of these supplements can be obtained over the counter and can have serious adverse effects associated with their consumption. We describe 2 patients who developed thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis 2-3 weeks after consuming thyroxine-containing weight-loss supplements. This is the first known case of thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis secondary to dietary supplements. It is important that patients and physicians are aware of the severe adverse reactions associated with dietary supplements. Physicians should as a routine inquire about herbal and dietary supplement consumption during all patient encounters.

  10. Broadband quantitative NQR for authentication of vitamins and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2017-05-01

    We describe hardware, pulse sequences, and algorithms for nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy of medicines and dietary supplements. Medicine and food safety is a pressing problem that has drawn more and more attention. NQR is an ideal technique for authenticating these substances because it is a non-invasive method for chemical identification. We have recently developed a broadband NQR front-end that can excite and detect (14)N NQR signals over a wide frequency range; its operating frequency can be rapidly set by software, while sensitivity is comparable to conventional narrowband front-ends over the entire range. This front-end improves the accuracy of authentication by enabling multiple-frequency experiments. We have also developed calibration and signal processing techniques to convert measured NQR signal amplitudes into nuclear spin densities, thus enabling its use as a quantitative technique. Experimental results from several samples are used to illustrate the proposed methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary supplements and hypertension: potential benefits and precautions.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Carly B; Glisson, James K; Minor, Deborah S

    2012-07-01

    Dietary supplements (DSs) are used extensively in the general population and many are promoted for the natural treatment and management of hypertension. Patients with hypertension often choose to use these products either in addition to or instead of pharmacologic antihypertensive agents. Because of the frequent use of DS, both consumers and health care providers should be aware of the considerable issues surrounding these products and factors influencing both efficacy and safety. In this review of the many DSs promoted for the management of hypertension, 4 products with evidence of possible benefits (coenzyme Q10, fish oil, garlic, vitamin C) and 4 that were consistently associated with increasing blood pressure were found (ephedra, Siberian ginseng, bitter orange, licorice). The goals and objectives of this review are to discuss the regulation of DS, evaluate the efficacy of particular DS in the treatment of hypertension, and highlight DS that may potentially increase blood pressure.

  12. Broadband quantitative NQR for authentication of vitamins and dietary supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2017-05-01

    We describe hardware, pulse sequences, and algorithms for nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy of medicines and dietary supplements. Medicine and food safety is a pressing problem that has drawn more and more attention. NQR is an ideal technique for authenticating these substances because it is a non-invasive method for chemical identification. We have recently developed a broadband NQR front-end that can excite and detect 14N NQR signals over a wide frequency range; its operating frequency can be rapidly set by software, while sensitivity is comparable to conventional narrowband front-ends over the entire range. This front-end improves the accuracy of authentication by enabling multiple-frequency experiments. We have also developed calibration and signal processing techniques to convert measured NQR signal amplitudes into nuclear spin densities, thus enabling its use as a quantitative technique. Experimental results from several samples are used to illustrate the proposed methods.

  13. Program for Research on Dietary Supplements in Military Operations and Healthcare Metabolically Optimized Brain - JWF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    minerals (17.9%), combination products (9.1%), and herbal supplements (8.3%).7 Reasons for DS use among military members were to improve health (64...Alcohol; Vitamins / Minerals / Antioxidants / Dietary supplements (not specified); Herbal Medicine (Subsets: Ginseng and Gingko Biloba); Diet...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0068 TITLE: Program for Research on Dietary Supplements In Military Operations and Healthcare Metabolically

  14. Dietary Supplement Use in Older People Attending Memory Clinics in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cross, A J; George, J; Woodward, M C; Ames, D; Brodaty, H; Elliott, R A

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is common in older adults. There has been limited research in people attending memory clinics. To explore the use of dietary supplements in older people attending Australian memory clinics. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Prospective Research In MEmory clinics (PRIME) study. Community-dwelling older people who attended nine memory clinics and had a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. Dietary supplement was defined as a product that contains one or more: vitamin, mineral, herb or other botanical, amino acid or other dietary substance. Non-prescribed supplement was defined as a supplement that is not usually prescribed by a medical practitioner. Polypharmacy was defined as use of five or more medications. 964 patients, mean age 77.6 years, were included. Dietary supplements were used by 550 (57.1%) patients; 353 (36.6%) used two or more. Non-prescribed supplements were used by 364 (36.8%) patients. Supplement use was associated with older age (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.21), lower education level (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.32) and a diagnosis of MCI rather than dementia (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.05-2.21). Potential drug-supplement interactions were identified in 107 (11.1%) patients. Supplement users had increased prevalence of polypharmacy compared to non-users (80.5% vs. 48.1%, p<0.001). Dietary supplements, including non-prescribed supplements, were commonly used by people attending memory clinics. Supplement use increased the prevalence of polypharmacy and resulted in potential supplement-drug interactions. Further research is required to assess the clinical outcomes of supplement use.

  15. Bioavailability of different dietary supplemental methionine sources in animals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Wong, Eric A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2015-06-01

    Dietary methionine is indispensable for animal maintenance, growth and development. L-methionine (L-Met), and its synthetic forms DL-methionine (DL-Met) and 2-hydroxy-4 (methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) are common supplemental methionine sources in animal diets. There are different characteristics for cellular absorption, transport, metabolism and bio-efficiency between these three dietary methionine sources. Moreover, there are differences in their utilization among various species such as chickens, pigs and ruminants. As a methionine precursor, HMTBA is efficacious in the promotion of growth in animals. It is absorbed mainly by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), coupled with the activity of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3), while DL-Met uptake occurs via multiple carrier-mediated systems. Liver, kidney and small intestine can metabolize D-Met and HMTBA to L-Met through oxidation and transamination. In ruminants, the non-hepatic tissues act as major sites of HMTBA conversion, which are different from that in chickens and pigs. HMTBA also has additional benefits in anti-oxidation. Understanding the characteristics of uptake and metabolism of different methionine sources will greatly benefit the industry and bioscience research.

  16. Impact of equol-producing capacity and soy-isoflavone profiles of supplements on bone calcium retention in postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial12

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, Jessica W; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda; Jackson, George S; Peacock, Munro; Barnes, Stephen; Weaver, Connie M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal estrogen depletion is a major contributing factor to bone loss. Soy isoflavones have variable effects on the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss, which is possibly related to the specific isoflavone content or the variable equol-producing capacity of individuals. Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of the content of isoflavones in a soy supplement and the equol-producing ability of the individual on postmenopausal bone calcium retention. Design: The study was a blinded, randomized, crossover intervention trial in 24 postmenopausal women who were prescreened for their ability to convert daidzein to equol. Women were equilibrated with 41Ca before the intervention. Interventions were 5 soy isoflavone oral supplements (2 doses of a genistein-rich soy supplement and 3 doses of mixed isoflavones in various proportions) and a bisphosphonate (risedronate). Each intervention was given sequentially for 50 d followed by a 50-d washout period. The percentage of bone calcium retention was determined from the change in urinary 41Ca:calcium. Results: Interventions that ranged from 52 to 220 mg total isoflavones/d increased bone calcium retention between 3.4% and 7.6% (P < 0.05), which was a moderate effect compared with that of risedronate at 15.3% (95% CI: 7.1%, 22.7%; P = 0.0014). The most-effective soy intervention delivered 105.23 mg total isoflavones/d as genistein, daidzein, and glycitein in their natural ratios and increased bone calcium retention by 7.6% (95% CI: 4.9%, 10.2%; P < 0.0001). Genistein, at 52.85 mg/d, increased bone calcium retention by 3.4% (95% CI: 0.5%, 6.2%; P = 0.029); but there was no benefit at higher amounts (113.52 mg/d). There was no difference (P = 0.5) in bone calcium retention between equol producers and nonproducers. Conclusion: Soy isoflavones, although not as potent as risedronate, are effective bone-preserving agents in postmenopausal women regardless of their equol-producing status, and mixed

  17. First-pass uptake and oxidation of glucose by the splanchnic tissue in young goats fed soy protein-based milk diets with or without amino acid supplementation: glucose metabolism in goat kids after soy feeding.

    PubMed

    Schönhusen, U; Junghans, P; Flöter, A; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Görs, S; Schneider, F; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2013-04-01

    The study was designed to examine whether feeding soy protein isolate as partial replacement of casein (CN) affects glucose metabolism in young goats and whether effects may be ameliorated by supplementation of those AA known to be lower concentrated in soy than in CN. Goat kids (d 20 of age) were fed comparable milk protein diets, in which 50% of the crude protein was either CN (control, CON), soy protein isolate (SPI), or soy protein isolate supplemented with AA (SPIA) for 43 d (n=8 per group). On d 62 of age, a single bolus dose of d-[(13)C6]glucose (10mg/kg of BW) was given with the morning diet, and simultaneously, a single bolus dose of d-[6,6-(2)H2]glucose (5mg/kg of BW) was injected into a jugular vein. Blood samples were collected between -30 and +420 min relative to the tracer administration to measure the (13)C and (2)H enrichments of plasma glucose and the (13)C enrichment of blood CO2. Glucose first-pass uptake by the splanchnic tissues was calculated from the rate of appearance of differentially labeled glucose tracer in plasma. Glucose oxidation was calculated from (13)C enrichment in blood CO2. In addition, plasma concentrations of triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured. On d 63 of age, kids were killed and jejunal mucosa and liver samples were collected to measure lactase mRNA levels and lactase and maltase activities in the jejunum and activities of pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver. Basal plasma glucose concentration tended to be higher in the CON than the SPIA group, whereas basal insulin was higher in the CON group than the SPI and SPIA groups, and glucagon was higher in the CON than the SPIA group. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations increased during the first hour after feeding, whereas plasma glucagon increased immediately after feeding and after 1h of feeding. First-pass uptake and glucose oxidation were not affected by diet. Maltase

  18. Dietary supplement with vitamin C prevents nitrate tolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Bassenge, E; Fink, N; Skatchkov, M; Fink, B

    1998-01-01

    Enhanced formation of superoxide radicals has been proposed to play a major role in the development of nitrate tolerance in humans. We tested the effects of vitamin C (Vit-C) supplementation on glyceroltrinitrate (GTN)-induced hemodynamic effects during 3-d nonintermittent transdermal administration of GTN (0.4 mg/h) in nine healthy subjects. Tolerance development was monitored by changes in arterial pressure, dicrotic digital pulse pressure, and heart rate. Studies with GTN, Vit-C, or GTN/Vit-C were successively carried out at random in three different series in the same subjects. GTN treatment caused an immediate rise in arterial conductivity (a/b ratio of dicrotic pulse), but within 2 d of initiating GTN, the a/b ratio progressively decreased and reached basal levels. In addition, there was a progressive loss of the orthostatic decrease in blood pressure. However, coadministration of Vit-C and GTN fully maintained the GTN-induced changes in the orthostatic blood pressure, and the rise of a/b ratio was augmented by 310% for the duration of the test period. Changes in vascular tolerance in GTN-treated subjects were paralleled by upregulation of the activity of isolated platelets, which was also reversed by Vit-C administration. These findings demonstrate that dietary supplementation with Vit-C eliminates vascular tolerance and concomitant upregulation of ex vivo-washed platelet activity during long-term nonintermittent administration of GTN in humans. PMID:9649558

  19. Dietary intake and dietary quality of low-income adults in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cindy W; Ding, Eric L; Catalano, Paul J; Villamor, Eduardo; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C

    2012-11-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) aims to alleviate hunger among its beneficiaries by providing benefits to purchase nutritious foods. We conducted a comprehensive dietary analysis of low-income adults and examined differences in dietary intake between SNAP participants and nonparticipants. The study population comprised 3835 nonelderly adults with a household income ≤130% of the federal poverty level from the 1999-2008 NHANES. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the distributions of usual intake for dietary outcomes. Relative differences in dietary intake by SNAP participation were estimated with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and household food security. Few low-income adults consumed recommended amounts of whole grains, fruit, vegetables, fish, and nuts/seeds/legumes. Conversely, many low-income adults exceeded recommended limits for processed meats, sweets, and bakery desserts and sugar-sweetened beverages. Approximately 13-22% of low-income adults did not meet any food and nutrient guidelines; virtually no adults met all of the guidelines. Compared with nonparticipants, SNAP participants consumed 39% fewer whole grains (95% CI: -57%, -15%), 44% more 100% fruit juice (95% CI: 0%, 107%), 56% more potatoes (95% CI: 18%, 106%), 46% more red meat (95% CI: 4%, 106%), and, in women, 61% more sugar-sweetened beverages (95% CI: 3%, 152%). SNAP participants also had lower dietary quality scores than did nonparticipants, as measured by a modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index. Although the diets of all low-income adults need major improvement, SNAP participants in particular had lower-quality diets than did income-eligible nonparticipants.

  20. Dietary supplements and cancer prevention: balancing potential benefits against proven harms.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Elena; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Baron, John A; Marshall, James R; Byers, Tim

    2012-05-16

    Nutritional supplementation is now a multibillion-dollar industry, and about half of all US adults take supplements. Supplement use is fueled in part by the belief that nutritional supplements can ward off chronic disease, including cancer, although several expert committees and organizations have concluded that there is little to no scientific evidence that supplements reduce cancer risk. To the contrary, there is now evidence that high doses of some supplements increase cancer risk. Despite this evidence, marketing claims by the supplement industry continue to imply anticancer benefits. Insufficient government regulation of the marketing of dietary supplement products may continue to result in unsound advice to consumers. Both the scientific community and government regulators need to provide clear guidance to the public about the use of dietary supplements to lower cancer risk.

  1. Dietary supplementation with a natural carotenoid mixture decreases oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kiokias, S; Gordon, M H

    2003-09-01

    To determine whether dietary supplementation with a natural carotenoid mixture counteracts the enhancement of oxidative stress induced by consumption of fish oil. A randomised double-blind crossover dietary intervention. Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, School of Food Biosciences, The University of Reading, Whiteknights PO Box 226, Reading RG6 6AP, UK. A total of 32 free-living healthy nonsmoking volunteers were recruited by posters and e-mails in The University of Reading. One volunteer withdrew during the study. The volunteers consumed a daily supplement comprising capsules containing fish oil (4 x 1 g) or fish oil (4 x 1 g) containing a natural carotenoid mixture (4 x 7.6 mg) for 3 weeks in a randomised crossover design separated by a 12 week washout phase. The carotenoid mixture provided a daily intake of beta-carotene (6.0 mg), alpha-carotene (1.4 mg), lycopene (4.5 mg), bixin (11.7 mg), lutein (4.4 mg) and paprika carotenoids (2.2 mg). Blood and urine samples were collected on days 0 and 21 of each dietary period. The carotenoid mixture reduced the fall in ex vivo oxidative stability of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induced by the fish oil (P=0.045) and it reduced the extent of DNA damage assessed by the concentration of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in urine (P=0.005). There was no effect on the oxidative stability of plasma ex vivo assessed by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity test. beta-Carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene and lutein were increased in the plasma of subjects consuming the carotenoid mixture. Plasma triglyceride levels were reduced significantly more than the reduction for the fish oil control (P=0.035), but total cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels were not significantly changed by the consumption of the carotenoid mixture. Consumption of the natural carotenoid mixture lowered the increase in oxidative stress induced by the fish oil as assessed by ex vivo oxidative stability of LDL and DNA degradation product in urine. The carotenoid

  2. Determinants of the use of dietary supplements among secondary and high school students

    PubMed

    Gajda, Karolina; Zielińska, Monika; Ciecierska, Anna; Hamułka, Jadwiga

    All over the world, including Poland, the sale of dietary supplements is increasing. More and more often, people including children and youths, use dietary supplements on their own initiative and without any medical indications or knowledge in this field. Analysis of the conditions of using the dietary supplements with vitamins and minerals among secondary school and high school students in Poland. The study included 396 students aged 13-18 years (249 girls and 147 boys). Authors’ questionnaire was used to evaluate the intake of dietary supplements. The use of cluster analysis allowed to distinguish groups of students with similar socio-demographic characteristics and the frequency of use of dietary supplements. In the studied population of students three clusters were created that significantly differed in socio-demographic characteristics. In cluster 1 and 2, were mostly students who used dietary supplements (respectively, 56% of respondents and 100%). In cluster 1 there were mostly students coming from rural areas and small city, with a worse financial situation, mainly boys (56%), while cluster 2 was dominated by girls (81%) living in a big city, coming from families with a good financial situation and who were more likely to be underweight (28.8%). In cluster 3 there were mostly older students (62%), not taking dietary supplements. In comparison to cluster 2, they had lower frequency of breakfast consumption (55% vs. 69%), but higher frequency of the consumption of soft drinks, fast-food, coffee as well as salt use at the table. The results show that the use of dietary supplements in adolescence is a common phenomenon and slightly conditioned by eating behaviors. This unfavorable habit of common dietary supplements intake observed among students indicates the need for education on the benefits and risks of the supplements usage.

  3. 21 CFR 111.370 - What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... supplements? 111.370 Section 111.370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... supplements? You must clearly identify, hold, and control under a quarantine system for appropriate...

  4. Current dietary supplement use of Australian military veterans of Middle East operations.

    PubMed

    van der Pols, Jolieke C; Kanesarajah, Jeeva; Bell, Alison; Lui, Chi-Wai

    2017-08-15

    To assess patterns and levels of dietary supplement use among Australian Defence Forces, previously deployed to the Middle East Area of Operations. A cross-sectional study. Participants of a large survey self-completed questions about dietary supplement use, health status, personal and job-related characteristics, and lifestyle factors. Frequency of current use of supplements was assessed in three categories (bodybuilding, energy and weight loss). Middle East Area of Operations post-deployment health survey. Current and ex-serving Australian Defence Force personnel (n 14 032) who deployed to the Middle East between 2001 and 2009. Bodybuilding supplements were used by 17·5 % of participants, energy supplements by 24·5 % and weight-loss supplements by 7·6 %. Overall, 32·3 % of participants used any of these supplements. Bodybuilding and energy supplements were more often used by men, younger persons and those in the Army, while weight-loss supplements were more commonly used by women and Navy personnel. Supplements in all three categories were more commonly used by persons in lower ranks, active service and combat roles. Users of bodybuilding supplements had healthier lifestyles and better health status, while users of energy and weight-loss supplements had less healthy lifestyles and poorer mental and physical health status. Overall, 11·7 % of participants used supplements containing caffeine and 3·6 % used a creatine-containing product. Use of dietary supplements among Australian Defence Force personnel is common, and patterned by lifestyle factors and health status.

  5. Benefits of Selenium Supplementation on Leukocyte DNA Integrity Interact with Dietary Micronutrients: A Short Communication

    PubMed Central

    Karunasinghe, Nishi; Zhu, Shuotun; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    A male cohort from New Zealand has previously shown variability in Selenium (Se) supplementation effects on measured biomarkers. The current analysis is to understand the reasons for variability of the H2O2-induced DNA damage recorded after Se supplementation. We have looked at the variation of demographic, lifestyle, medication, genetic and dietary factors and biomarkers measured at baseline and post-supplementation in these two extreme subgroups A and B. Group A showed increased H2O2-induced DNA damage and group B showed decreased damage after Se supplementation. We have also considered correlations of biomarkers and dietary factors in the complete dataset. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and DNA damage were significantly lower at post-supplementation in Group B compared to Group A. Post-supplementation, Group B showed a significant reduction in the GPx activity, while Group A showed a significant increase in DNA damage compared to baseline levels. Dietary methionine intake was significantly higher and folate intake was significantly lower in Group B compared to Group A. Se supplementation significantly increased the caspase-cleaved keratin 18 levels in both groups, indicating increased apoptotic potential of this supplement. Parameter correlation with the complete dataset showed dietary methionine to have a significant negative correlation with H2O2-induced DNA damage post-supplementation. The data suggest that Se supplementation is beneficial for the leukocyte DNA integrity only in interaction with the dietary methionine and folate intake. PMID:27128937

  6. Growth of Campylobacter incubated aerobically in fumarate-pyruvate media or media supplemented with dairy, meat, or soy extracts and peptones.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Arthur

    2016-09-01

    The ability of Campylobacter to grow aerobically in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with dairy, meat, or soy extracts or peptones was examined. Optical densities (OD) of Campylobacter cultured in basal media, media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 7.5% beef extract was measured. Growth was also compared in media supplemented with other extracts or peptones. Finally, cfu/mL of Campylobacter recovered from basal media or media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate, casamino acids, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract and soytone was determined. Results indicated that OD of cultures grown in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 5.0 or 7.5% beef extract were higher than OD of isolates grown in basal media or media supplemented with lower concentrations of beef extract. Highest OD were produced by isolates grown in media supplemented with beef extract, peptone from meat, polypeptone, proteose peptone, or soytone. Also, more cfu/mL were recovered from media with fumarate-pyruvate, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract-soytone than from basal media or media with casamino acids. Findings indicate that media supplemented with organic acids, vitamins, and minerals and media supplemented with extracts or peptones containing these metabolites can support aerobic growth of Campylobacter.

  7. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Holden, Joanne M; Ireland, Jayne D.; Andrews, Karen W; Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J.; Hardy, Constance J; Møller, Anders; Pilch, Susan M.; Roseland, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing their ingredients in such databases. Differing approaches to classifying these products make it difficult to retrieve or link information effectively. A consistent approach to classifying information within food composition databases led to the development of LanguaL™, a structured vocabulary. LanguaL™ is being adapted as an interface tool for classifying and retrieving product information in dietary supplement databases. This paper outlines proposed changes to the LanguaL™ thesaurus for indexing dietary supplement products and ingredients in databases. The choice of 12 of the original 14 LanguaL™ facets pertinent to dietary supplements, modifications to their scopes, and applications are described. The 12 chosen facets are: Product Type; Source; Part of Source; Physical State, Shape or Form; Ingredients; Preservation Method, Packing Medium, Container or Wrapping; Contact Surface; Consumer Group/Dietary Use/Label Claim; Geographic Places and Regions; and Adjunct Characteristics of food. PMID:22611303

  8. Updates on chemical and biological research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rahul S; Tamta, Hemlata; Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Wamer, Wayne G; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-01

    Increased use of dietary supplements is a phenomenon observed worldwide. In the USA, more than 40% of the population recently reported using complementary and alternative medicines, including botanical dietary supplements. Perceptions that such dietary supplements are natural and safe, may prevent disease, may replace prescription medicines, or may make up for a poor diet, play important roles in their increased use. Toxicity of botanical dietary supplements may result from the presence of naturally occurring toxic constituents or from contamination or adulteration with pharmaceutical agents, heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, or bacteria, misidentification of a plant species in a product, formation of electrophilic metabolites, organ-specific reactions, or botanical-drug interactions. The topics discussed in this review illustrate several issues in recent research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. These include (1) whether 1,3-dimethylamylamine is a natural constituent of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), (2) how analysis of the components of dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is essential to understanding their potential biological effects, and (3) how evolving methods for in vitro studies on botanical ingredients can contribute to safety evaluations. The virtual explosion in the use of botanical ingredients in hundreds of products presents a considerable challenge to the analytical community, and the need for appropriate methods cannot be overstated. We review recent developments and use of newer and increasingly sensitive methods that can contribute to increasing the safety and quality of botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

  9. The ethics of dietary supplements and natural health products in pharmacy practice: a systematic documentary analysis.

    PubMed

    Boon, Heather; Hirschkorn, Kristine; Griener, Glenn; Cali, Michelle

    2009-02-01

    Many natural health products and dietary supplements are purchased in pharmacies and it has been argued that pharmacists are in the best position to provide patients with evidence-based information about them. This study was designed to identify how the pharmacist's role with respect to natural health products and dietary supplements is portrayed in the literature. A systematic search was conducted in a variety of health databases to identify all literature that pertained to both pharmacy and natural health products and dietary supplements. Of the 786 articles identified, 665 were broad-coded and 259 were subjected to in-depth qualitative content analysis for emergent themes. Overwhelmingly, support for the sale of natural health products and dietary supplements in pharmacies is strong. Additionally, a role for pharmacist counselling is underscored. But another recurrent theme is that pharmacists are ill-equipped to counsel patients about these products that are available on their shelves. This situation has led some to question the ethics of pharmacists selling natural health products and dietary supplements and to highlight the existence of an ethical conflict stemming from the profit-motive associated with sales of natural health products and dietary supplements. This analysis raises concerns about the ethics of natural health products and dietary supplements being sold in pharmacies, and about pharmacists being expected to provide counselling about products of which they have little knowledge.

  10. Dietary interventions for fetal growth restriction - therapeutic potential of dietary nitrate supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Elizabeth; Tropea, Teresa; Ormesher, Laura; Greenwood, Susan; Wareing, Mark; Johnstone, Edward; Myers, Jenny; Sibley, Colin

    2017-08-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects around 5% of pregnancies and is associated with significant short- and long-term adverse outcomes. A number of factors can increase the risk of FGR, one of which is poor maternal diet. In terms of pathology, both clinically and in many experimental models of FGR, impaired uteroplacental vascular function is implicated, leading to a reduction in the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus. Whilst mechanisms underpinning impaired uteroplacental vascular function are not fully understood, interventions aimed at enhancing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability remain a key area of interest in obstetric research. In addition to endogenous NO production from the amino acid l-arginine, via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes, research in recent years has established that significant NO can be derived from dietary nitrate, via the 'alternative NO pathway'. Dietary nitrate, abundant in green leafy vegetables and beetroot, can increase NO bioactivity, conferring beneficial effects on cardiovascular function and blood flow. Given the beneficial effects of dietary nitrate supplementation to date in non-pregnant humans and animals, current investigations aim to assess the therapeutic potential of this approach in pregnancy to enhance NO bioactivity, improve uteroplacental vascular function and increase fetal growth. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  11. Masters Swimmers Use More Dietary Supplements Than a Large National Comparison Population in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Sally K; Erickson, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    The use of dietary supplements was compared between a cohort of committed exercisers, U.S. Masters Swimming (USMS) members (n = 1,042), and the general U.S. population, exemplified by respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2009 to 2010 (n = 6,209). USMS swimmers were significantly more likely to take dietary supplements (62%) than the general U.S. adult population, as represented by the NHANES population (37%). Those taking dietary supplements were older, more likely to be female and Caucasian, and more highly educated and affluent than those not taking supplements (p < .001 for all). When adjusted for age, race, gender, annual income, and education, masters swimmers were still more likely (p < .001) to use dietary supplements than the NHANES cohort. In addition, masters swimmers were significantly more likely (p < .001) to use either creatine or dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone than those in the NHANES cohort.

  12. Concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements in menopausal women; an approach to provider preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Stargrove, Mitchell Bebel; Dog, Tieraona Low

    2010-01-01

    Dietary supplements are becoming increasingly popular as therapies for symptom relief among menopause-age women in the United States. However, a large gap exists between research in the concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements and provider preparedness to guide patient decision making. Many menopausal women take prescription medications, over the counter medications, and herbs and dietary supplements for climactic symptoms or other health conditions. With any drug, there is the potential for interactions. Women taking medications with a narrow therapeutic index, such as anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, and drugs for the treatment of chronic diseases, are at particular risk. Patients should be queried regarding their use of dietary supplements when starting or stopping a prescription drug, or if unexpected reactions occur. When counseling patients, one must carefully consider the risks and benefits of each supplement and medication being taken by each individual. PMID:21168291

  13. Dietary Supplementation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Common, Insufficient, and Excessive.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Patricia A; Hyman, Susan L; Schmidt, Brianne L; Macklin, Eric A; Reynolds, Ann; Johnson, Cynthia R; James, S Jill; Manning-Courtney, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the effect on dietary adequacy of supplements given to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This cross-sectional study examines dietary supplement use and micronutrient intake in children with ASD. Three-day diet/supplement records and use of a gluten/casein-free diet (GFCF) were documented. Estimates of usual intake of micronutrients from food and supplements were compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Children aged 2 to 11 years (N=288) with ASD from five Autism Treatment Network sites from 2009-2011. Percentage of children meeting or exceeding upper limits of micronutrient intake with or without supplements and relative to GFCF diet status. Micronutrient intake from food and supplements was compared by Spearman rank correlation. Usual intake was estimated by the National Cancer Institute method adjusted for age, sex, supplement use, and GFCF diet. Adequacy of intake was compared between supplement use status and between food and total intake in supplement users relative to Dietary Reference Intakes limits. Dietary supplements, especially multivitamin/minerals, were used by 56% of children with ASD. The most common micronutrient deficits were not corrected (vitamin D, calcium, potassium, pantothenic acid, and choline) by supplements. Almost one-third of children remained deficient for vitamin D and up to 54% for calcium. Children receiving GFCF diets had similar micronutrient intake but were more likely to use supplements (78% vs 56%; P=0.01). Supplementation led to excess vitamin A, folate, and zinc intake across the sample, vitamin C, and copper among children aged 2 to 3 years, and manganese and copper for children aged 4 to 8 years. Few children with ASD need most of the micronutrients they are commonly given as supplements, which often leads to excess intake. Even when supplements are used, careful attention should be given to adequacy of vitamin D and calcium intake. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

  14. Nutrient intake and use of dietary supplements among US adults with disabilities.

    PubMed

    An, Ruopeng; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Andrade, Flavia

    2015-04-01

    Physical, mental, social, and financial hurdles in adults with disabilities may limit their access to adequate nutrition. To examine the impact of dietary supplement use on daily total nutrient intake levels among US adults 20 years and older with disabilities. Study sample came from 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative repeated cross-sectional survey. Disability was classified into 5 categories using standardized indices. Nutrient intakes from foods and dietary supplements were calculated from 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Two-sample proportion tests and multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the adherence rates to the recommended daily nutrient intake levels between dietary supplement users and nonusers in each disability category. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and dietary supplement use was assessed using multiple logistic regressions, accounting for complex survey design. A substantial proportion of the US adult population with disabilities failed to meet dietary guidelines, with insufficient intakes of multiple nutrients. Over half of the US adults with disabilities used dietary supplements. Dietary supplement use was associated with higher adherence rates for vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, and zinc intake among adults with disabilities. Women, non-Hispanic Whites, older age, higher education, and higher household income were found to predict dietary supplement use. Proper use of dietary supplements under the guidance of health care providers may improve the nutritional status among adults with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification, quantitation and biological activity of phytoestrogens in a dietary supplement for breast enhancement.

    PubMed

    Coldham, N G; Sauer, M J

    2001-12-01

    A hop-based dietary supplement, marketed for natural breast enhancement, was analysed to determine the identity and biological activity of active constituents and potential biological effects in man. Extracts of the dietary supplement were analysed by LC-MS(n) and phytoestrogens identified and quantitated by reference to appropriate standards. Only hop-associated phytoestrogens were found in the dietary supplement at significant concentrations as follows (mean+/-1 S.D.); 8-prenylnaringenin 10.9+/-0.3, 6-prenylnaringenin 27.4+/-1.2, 6,8-diprenylnaringenin 0.9+/-0.1, xanthohumol 321+/-17 and isoxanthohumol 81.1+/-1.6 microg/g of dietary supplement. The oestrogenic activity of extracts in an ERalpha reporter gene assay was equivalent to 48+/-6.3 ng 17beta-oestradiol/g supplement and consistent with the 8-prenylnaringenin content. The dietary supplement extract also inhibited reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activity, but to a greater extent than a concentration matched reference mixture of hop phytoestrogens. However, the supplement was only weakly active in mouse uterotrophic assays following administration in feed or after subcutaneous injection of extract at doses of 8-PN up to 250 times higher than that recommended for women. These preliminary findings suggest that the dietary supplement is unlikely to produce oestrogenic effects in vivo at the level of the uterus; supporting evidence is still required to demonstrate efficacy.

  16. Caffeine and Creatine Content of Dietary Supplements Consumed by Brazilian Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Suelen Galante; de Oliveira, Gustavo Vieira; Alvares, Thiago Silveira

    2016-08-01

    Caffeine and creatine are ingredients in the most popular dietary supplements consumed by soccer players. However, some products may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the safe usage and the effectiveness of these supplements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the content of caffeine and creatine in dietary supplements consumed by Brazilian soccer players. The results obtained were compared with the caffeine content listed on the product label. Two batches of the supplement brands consumed by ≥ 50% of the players were considered for analysis. The quantification of caffeine and creatine in the supplements was determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography system with UV detector. Nine supplements of caffeine and 7 supplements of creatine met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Eight brands of caffeine and five brands of creatine showed significantly different values (p < .05) as compared with the values stated on the label. There were no significant differences between the two batches of supplements analyzed, except for one caffeine supplement. It can be concluded that caffeine and creatine dietary supplements consumed by Brazilian soccer players present inaccurate values listed on the label, although most presented no difference among batches. To ensure consumer safety and product efficacy, accurate information on caffeine and creatine content should be provided on all dietary supplement labels.

  17. Supplementation with vitamins E plus C or soy isoflavones in ovariectomized rats: effect on the activities of Na(+), K (+)-ATPase and cholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Siomara C; Mattos, Cristiane B; Scherer, Emilene B S; Wyse, Angela T S

    2007-06-01

    Since a previous study demonstrated that ovariectomized rats present an activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, in the present study we investigated the influence of vitamins E plus C or soy isoflavones on the effects elicited by ovariectomy on the activities of these enzyme in hippocampus of ovariectomized rats. We also determined the effect of the same compounds on the reduction of serum butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity caused by ovariectomy. Female adult Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: sham (submitted to surgery without removal of the ovaries) and ovariectomized. Seven days after surgery, animals were treated for 30 days with a single daily intraperitoneous injection of vitamins E (40 mg/kg) plus C (100 mg/kg) or saline (control). In another set of experiments, the rats were fed for 30 days on a special diet with soy protein or a standard diet with casein (control). Rats were sacrificed after treatments and the hippocampus was dissected and serum was separated. Data demonstrate that vitamins E plus C reversed the activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE in hippocampus of ovariectomized rats. Conversely, soy protein supplementation reversed the increase of AChE activity, but not of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, caused by ovariectomized group. Neither treatment was able to reverse the reduction of serum BuChE activity. Furthermore, treatments with vitamins E plus C or soy were unable to reverse the decrease in estradiol levels caused by ovariectomy. Our findings show that the treatment with vitamins E plus C significantly reversed the effect of ovariectomy on hippocampal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities. However, a soy diet that was rich in isoflavones was able to reverse just the increase of AChE. Neither treatment altered the reduction in serum BuChE activity. Taken together, these vitamins and soy may have a protective role against the possible brain dysfunction observed in some

  18. Dietary supplement use by South Korean adults: Data from the national complementary and alternative medicine use survey (NCAMUS) in 2006

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung-Sik; Lee, Jeong-Seop; Song, Chan-Hee; Ock, Chan-Myung

    2010-01-01

    There has been little data on the prevalence of supplement use and the characteristics of the dietary supplement users in the Republic of Korea. This study presents the prevalence and the details of any dietary supplement use and the characteristics of the adults who use dietary supplements in the Republic of Korea. Between May 18 and June 16, 2006, nationwide and population-weighted personal interviews with 6,201 adult aged from 30 to 69 years were conducted and the final sample consisted of 3,000 people with a 49.8% response rate. We examined the prevalence and details of the use of dietary supplements and the characteristics of those who use the dietary supplement among adults. About sixty two percent of adults had taken any dietary supplement during the previous 12-month period in 2006. The most commonly reported dietary supplement was ginseng, followed by multivitamins, glucosamine, probiotics, and vitamin C. Female (versus male), an older age group, a higher family income, those living in metropolitan cities, those with marital experience, those with a higher level of education, and those having medical problems had a greater likelihood of reporting the use of any dietary supplements. The particular relationships differed depending on the type of supplement. The most Korean adults took one more dietary supplement and the dietary supplement users had different demographic and health characteristics compared to those of the nonusers. Research on diet supplements by the medical community is needed in the future. PMID:20198211

  19. Vitamin and mineral supplement use by healthy teenagers in Korea: motivating factors and dietary consequences.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Han, J H; Keen, C L

    2001-05-01

    The use of vitamin and mineral supplements is increasing among young individuals. We surveyed 972 Korean teenagers (age 13-18 y ) for their use of vitamin/mineral supplements, their motivational factors, and the dietary consequences of supplement use. Prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplement use was 31%. Supplement use was highest in high-school students, females, individuals living in rural communities, and individuals from families in high socioeconomic strata. The supplements used most frequently were vitamin C, multivitamins, and vitamin A. Supplement users had a more positive view of the potential health benefits of supplements than did non-users. Most supplements were taken daily. Vitamins B2, B6, and C were the most frequently ingested nutrients from vitamin/mineral supplements. Vitamin/mineral intakes from supplements had a wide range, with mean intakes typically exceeding Korean or the U.S./Canadian recommended dietary allowances. Vitamins B12, B1, and C and iron comprised 2770%, 1930%, 1120%, and 1026%, respectively, of the Korean recommended dietary allowances. When nutrient intakes from the diet and supplements were combined, intakes of niacin, vitamin C, and iron exceeded the recommended upper-intake levels for these nutrients. The health benefits and risks of supplement use by teenagers merits further study.

  20. Use of dietary supplements for weight loss in the United States: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Pillitteri, Janine L; Shiffman, Saul; Rohay, Jeffrey M; Harkins, Andrea M; Burton, Steven L; Wadden, Thomas A

    2008-04-01

    We examined dietary supplement use for weight loss and perceptions about safety, efficacy, and regulatory oversight of these products. A random digit-dialed telephone survey was conducted in 2005-2006, with a representative sample of 3,500 US adults. The survey assessed the beliefs and practices related to weight control. Outcome measures included the prevalence of dietary supplement use for weight reduction, demographic profile of supplement users, and knowledge about safety, efficacy, and regulation of dietary supplements. Of the adults who made a serious weight-loss attempt (n = 1,444), 33.9% reported ever using a dietary supplement for weight loss. Supplement use was more common among women (44.9%) vs. men (19.8%); those aged 25-34; African Americans (48.7%) or Hispanics (41.6%) vs. whites (31.2%); less educated (38.4% high school degree or less vs. 31.1% some college or more); lower income households (41.8% made <$40K vs. 30.3% made > or =$40K); obese (40.7%) vs. overweight (29.1%); those who made more lifetime weight-loss attempts (42.0% made > or =3 vs. 22.1% made <3); and those who used more weight-loss methods (48.2% used > or =4 vs. 25.2% used <4). Many users and non-users of dietary supplements had misperceptions about these products-many believed they are evaluated for safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before marketing, and that dietary supplements are safer than over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription medications. Use of dietary supplements for weight loss is common. More information about dietary supplements is necessary to correct misperceptions and encourage the use of safe and effective weight-loss methods.

  1. Dietary supplementation with apple juice decreases endogenous amyloid-beta levels in murine brain.

    PubMed

    Chan, Amy; Shea, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    Folate deficiency has been associated with age-related neurodegeneration. We demonstrate herein that dietary deficiency in folate and vitamin E, coupled pro-oxidant stress induced by dietary iron, increased amyloid-beta (Abeta) levels in normal adult mice. This increase was potentiated by apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deficiency as shown by treatment of transgenic mice homozygously lacking murine ApoE. Dietary supplementation with apple juice concentrate in drinking water alleviated the increase in Abeta for both mouse genotypes. These findings provide further evidence linking nutritional and genetic risk factors for age-related neurodegeneration, and underscore that dietary supplementation may be useful to augment therapeutic approaches.

  2. Dietary supplementation with mulberry leaf flavonoids inhibits methanogenesis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Dan-Dan; Tu, Yan; Zhang, Nai-Feng; Si, Bing-Wen; Diao, Qi-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of flavonoids on methanogenesis and microbial flora in Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ewes were evaluated in two experiments. To investigate the effects of flavonoids on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance, 18 ewes (60.0 ± 1.73 kg body weight (BW)) were allotted to two dietary treatments in experiment one, a control diet and the control diet supplemented with flavonoids (2 g/head/day). In experiment two, the effects of supplementary flavonoids on ruminal fermentation and microbial flora were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction with six ewes (67.2 ± 0.79 kg BW) with ruminal cannula assigned to the identical dietary treatments used in experiment one. Supplementary flavonoids improved the apparent digestibility of nitrogen (N, P < 0.001) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF, P = 0.024) and decreased daily CH4 output (P < 0.001). The ruminal pH (P = 0.638) and ammonia (P = 0.690) were not affected by supplementary flavonoids, whereas the total volatile fatty acid (VFA) content increased (P = 0.037). Supplementary flavonoids decreased ruminal populations of protozoans (P = 0.002) and methanogens (P < 0.001) and increased the populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes (P = 0.016). In conclusion, flavonoids improved the digestibility of organic matter and reduced CH4 output by inhibiting the populations of microbes involved in methanogenesis.

  3. Consumer attitudes about the role of multivitamins and other dietary supplements: report of a survey.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Annette; MacKay, Douglas; Wong, Andrea

    2015-07-02

    U.S. nutrition surveys find that intakes of many nutrients fall short of recommendations. The majority of U.S. adults use multivitamins and other dietary supplements as one means of improving nutrient intakes. Some policy makers and health professionals appear reluctant to recommend routine use of dietary supplements to fill nutrient gaps in the diet, in part because they are concerned that people will view the supplements as a substitute for dietary improvement and that the use of supplements may lead to overconsumption of micronutrients. Surveys find that in fact users of dietary supplements tend to have better diets and adopt other healthy habits, suggesting that the supplements are viewed as one aspect of an overall effort to improve wellness. Furthermore, evidence demonstrates that the incidence of excess micronutrient intake is low. We report the results of a survey probing consumer attitudes about the role of dietary supplements. The Council for Responsible Nutrition funded a survey to measure consumer attitudes about the role of multivitamins, calcium and/or vitamin D supplements, and other supplements in improving dietary intakes. The research was designed and analyzed by FoodMinds and was fielded using Toluna's On-line Omnibus. The weighted sample of 2159 respondents is representative of U.S. adults. Nearly 90% of the survey respondents agreed that multivitamins and supplements of calcium and/or vitamin D can help meet nutrient needs when desirable intakes are not achieved through food alone. At the same time, 80% agreed that dietary supplements should not be used to replace healthy dietary or lifestyle habits, and 82% agreed that people considering taking a high dose, single nutrient supplement should talk with their physician. These results provide additional support for the conclusion that the vast majority of consumers recognize that multivitamins and other supplements can help fill nutrient gaps but should not be viewed as replacements for a healthy

  4. The Regulation of Dietary Supplements in Canada: Many Promises but Little Progress.

    PubMed

    Temple, Norman J

    2016-07-05

    This article examines key issues concerning the regulation of dietary supplements in Canada. The article looks at problems related to both the composition of supplements and of marketing practices. It looks back to the situation around 1999, the year of the introduction of the new system for the regulation of supplements, and then assesses the situation now. The new system has failed to bring about the intended improvement in either the formulation of supplements or the level of honesty in their marketing.

  5. Regulation of Dietary Supplements in the Military. Report of an Expert Panel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    For a high proportion of supplements , particularly herbals , effec- tiveness is an area of considerable research and controversy. Concerns about the...during the yearly physical, comprise sports drinks without creatine, ephedra, or other herbal supplements ; supplements providing solely protein; vitamins...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Regulation of Dietary Supplements in the Military: Report of an

  6. Dietary and cancer-related behaviors of vitamin/mineral dietary supplement users in a large cohort of French women

    PubMed Central

    Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse, Emanuelle; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    Summary Background Several epidemiological studies suggested an association between vitamin/mineral dietary supplement use and cancer risk. However, characteristics of supplement users may themselves be related to cancer risk, and therefore could confound such etiological studies. Very little is known about the characteristics of French supplement users. Aim of the study To identify cancer-related behaviors and dietary characteristics of vitamin/mineral supplement users in the E3N cohort of French women. Methods Data on supplement use and cancer-related and socio-demographic characteristics were collected by self-administered questionnaires completed by 83,058 women, 67,229 of whom also completed a food frequency questionnaire. Supplement users were compared to non-users by unconditional logistic regression. Results Vitamin/mineral supplement users were significantly older and leaner (odds ratio [OR] for BMI ≥ 30 vs. <18.5 kg/m2=0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31–0.39), were less often current smokers, had a higher level of education and had more leisure physical activity. They used more phytooestrogen supplements (OR=3.95, 95 % CI 3.69–4.23), had more often a family history of breast cancer and had more often undergone cancer-screening. Users tended to have a healthier diet: less alcohol, more vegetables, fruit, dairy products, fish and soups. They had higher dietary intakes for most micronutrients, fiber and ω3 fatty acids, lower fat intake and either similar or lower prevalence of inadequate dietary intake for all relevant nutrients except magnesium. Conclusions To avoid major confounding, the lifestyle characteristics of supplement users should be considered in studies investigating the association between supplement use and cancer risk. PMID:16382374

  7. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher intakes of minerals from food sources.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2011-11-01

    Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by supplement-use categories and how these supplements contributed to meeting or exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes for selected minerals. Data from adults (≥19 y of age; n = 8860) who participated in NHANES 2003-2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, were examined. Supplement use was defined as the participant's self-reported use of a supplement that contained one or more selected minerals. Dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for magnesium, copper, potassium, and selenium in male supplement users than in nonusers. For women, dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for users than for nonusers for each mineral examined except for selenium. In women, users of calcium-containing dietary supplements were much more likely to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) than were nonusers. Even after consideration of supplement use, >14% of adults had inadequate intakes for calcium and magnesium on the basis of the percentage of adults with usual intakes less than the EAR. The prevalence of adults who exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium was higher in users than in nonusers. Individuals who used mineral-containing dietary supplements had higher mineral intakes from food sources in the diet than did nonusers. For all minerals examined, and particularly for calcium and magnesium in men and women and iron in women, supplement use decreased the prevalence of intake inadequacy for each respective mineral; however, supplements contributed to risk of potentially excessive intakes for calcium, iron, zinc, and magnesium.

  8. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher intakes of minerals from food sources1234

    PubMed Central

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. Objective: In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by supplement-use categories and how these supplements contributed to meeting or exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes for selected minerals. Design: Data from adults (≥19 y of age; n = 8860) who participated in NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, were examined. Supplement use was defined as the participant's self-reported use of a supplement that contained one or more selected minerals. Results: Dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for magnesium, copper, potassium, and selenium in male supplement users than in nonusers. For women, dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for users than for nonusers for each mineral examined except for selenium. In women, users of calcium-containing dietary supplements were much more likely to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) than were nonusers. Even after consideration of supplement use, >14% of adults had inadequate intakes for calcium and magnesium on the basis of the percentage of adults with usual intakes less than the EAR. The prevalence of adults who exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium was higher in users than in nonusers. Conclusions: Individuals who used mineral-containing dietary supplements had higher mineral intakes from food sources in the diet than did nonusers. For all minerals examined, and particularly for calcium and magnesium in men and women and iron in women, supplement use decreased the prevalence of intake inadequacy for each respective mineral; however, supplements contributed to risk of potentially excessive intakes for calcium, iron, zinc

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotics and probiotics on intestinal microarchitecture in broilers reared under cyclic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, S; Zaneb, H; Yousaf, M S; Ijaz, A; Sohail, M U; Muti, S; Usman, M M; Ijaz, S; Rehman, H

    2013-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotics, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and/or probiotics (LBP) on intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) count, goblet cells (GC) count and differentiation and intestinal micro-architecture in broilers reared under cyclic heat stress. Day-old broilers (n = 250) were randomly divided into five groups. Fifty birds were reared within the thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Remaining birds were subjected to cyclic heat stress from day 21 to 42 (35° C, 75% RH, 8 h/d). The birds were fed corn-soy-based basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS), or 0.1% LBP (HS-LBP), or their combination (HS-SYN). The birds were slaughtered on day 42. Tissue samples were collected from mid-duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin or combined Alcian blue and PAS technique. All differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. The IEL count increased in all intestinal segments of the HS group compared with the TNZ group and decreased in all supplemented groups compared with the HS group. Compared with the TNZ, heat stress reduced villus height, crypt depth and surface area in duodenum and ileum, and increased crypt depth in ileum. Villus width decreased in duodenum and jejunum compared with the TNZ group. Supplementation of LBP, MOS and SYN reversed all these changes in duodenum, while only increased villus height and surface area in ileum. In jejunum, the villus height and surface area increased with HS-LBP, and crypt depth increased with HS-MOS. The number of GC containing acid mucins (duodenum and ileum) and mixed mucins (ileum) were increased in the HS compared with the TNZ. Supplementation of MOS, LBP and SYN maintained the enhanced activity of goblet cells. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of MOS and/or LBP may be helpful in alleviating some of the detrimental effects of heat stress on microstructure of the broiler gut.

  10. Overview of regulation of dietary supplements in the USA and issues of adulteration with phenethylamines (PEAs).

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rahul S; Grundel, Erich

    2016-06-03

    The multi-billion dollar dietary supplement industry is global in reach. The industry has been criticized for problems related to poor quality control, safety, misbranding, and adulteration. In this review, we describe how the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates dietary supplements within the framework of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which amended the FD&C Act, gave the FDA the authority to promulgate Good Manufacturing Practices for dietary supplements and required that manufacturers provide the FDA information supporting a conclusion that the ingredients are reasonably expected to be safe if the dietary ingredients were not marketed in the USA before 15 October 1994. Recent amendments to the FD&C Act require that serious dietary-supplement-related adverse events be reported to the FDA and provide the agency with mandatory recall authority. We discuss the presence of naturally occurring (e.g. Ephedra, Citrus aurantium, Acacia) and synthetic (e.g. β-methylphenethylamines, methylsynephrine, α-ethyl-