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Sample records for sp pca039 entails

  1. Biological constraints do not entail cognitive closure.

    PubMed

    Vlerick, Michael

    2014-12-01

    From the premise that our biology imposes cognitive constraints on our epistemic activities, a series of prominent authors--most notably Fodor, Chomsky and McGinn--have argued that we are cognitively closed to certain aspects and properties of the world. Cognitive constraints, they argue, entail cognitive closure. I argue that this is not the case. More precisely, I detect two unwarranted conflations at the core of arguments deriving closure from constraints. The first is a conflation of what I will refer to as 'representation' and 'object of representation'. The second confuses the cognitive scope of the assisted mind for that of the unassisted mind. Cognitive closure, I conclude, cannot be established from pointing out the (uncontroversial) existence of cognitive constraints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recognizing Question Entailment for Medical Question Answering

    PubMed Central

    Abacha, Asma Ben; Dina, Demner-Fushman

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing heterogeneity and specialization of medical texts, automated question answering is becoming more and more challenging. In this context, answering a given medical question by retrieving similar questions that are already answered by human experts seems to be a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of similar questions based on Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE). In particular, we consider Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) as a valuable and widespread source of information. Our final goal is to automatically provide an existing answer if FAQ similar to a consumer health question exists. We evaluate our approach using consumer health questions received by the National Library of Medicine and FAQs collected from NIH websites. Our first results are promising and suggest the feasibility of our approach as a valuable complement to classic question answering approaches. PMID:28269825

  3. Recognizing Question Entailment for Medical Question Answering.

    PubMed

    Abacha, Asma Ben; Dina, Demner-Fushman

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing heterogeneity and specialization of medical texts, automated question answering is becoming more and more challenging. In this context, answering a given medical question by retrieving similar questions that are already answered by human experts seems to be a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of similar questions based on Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE). In particular, we consider Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) as a valuable and widespread source of information. Our final goal is to automatically provide an existing answer if FAQ similar to a consumer health question exists. We evaluate our approach using consumer health questions received by the National Library of Medicine and FAQs collected from NIH websites. Our first results are promising and suggest the feasibility of our approach as a valuable complement to classic question answering approaches.

  4. On the dynamics of entailment-meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina Martins, Pedro Roberto

    1999-03-01

    One of the most puzzling problems that general psychology has always faced, has been concerned with the question of human psychodynamics, with its possible `mechanisms', motivations, `inner' and `outer' actions, etc., briefly, what we usually embrace under the general and vague label "mental processes." Together with its `rational' part, a great deal of such processes is pervaded by an `irrationality' whose influences upon each of us not only remain still obscure but also show to be highly dependent on each of our living experiments/experiences as well as on the way we have interpreted them. Thus, difficult to be treated by the methods of the classical physical/quasi-physical paradigm and, consequently, offering additional problems of computing/robotic simulation/emulation. To shadow forth a (possible) blueprint model of (part of) such processes in which a especial emphasis is laid upon the affective and associative ones is just one of the major objectives of this paper. The model relies upon my own neuro-fuzzy approach to Pask's concept of entailment-mesh, albeit radically modified and extended and it works as an introduction to a more extended approach to the aforementioned problem of human psychodynamics.

  5. What does leadership in surgery entail?

    PubMed

    Patel, Vanash M; Warren, Oliver; Humphris, Penny; Ahmed, Kamran; Ashrafian, Hutan; Rao, Christopher; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2010-12-01

    Leadership is not formally taught at any level in surgical training; there are no mandatory leadership courses or qualifications for trainees or specialists, and leadership performance is rarely evaluated within surgical appraisal or assessment programmes. Literature obtained from a MEDLINE search was reviewed to determine the characteristics of surgical leaders; outline an analytical framework through which these characteristics can be developed both in surgeons and surgical departments; and reflect on future challenges and recommendations for the central role of leadership in the field of surgery. Leadership in surgery entails professionalism, technical competence, motivation, innovation, teamwork, communication skills, decision-making, business acumen, emotional competence, resilience and effective teaching. Leadership skills can be developed through experience, observation, and education using a framework including mentoring, coaching, networking, stretch assignments, action learning and feedback. Modern surgery will need leaders with superior leadership skills that are well defined. It is vital that leadership programmes to develop leadership skills are put into practice in medical education curriculum and postgraduate surgical training. This will ensure maintenance and improvement in the quality of patient care. © 2010 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. Learning Hereditary and Reductive Prolog Programs from Entailment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Shahid; Rao, M. R. K. Krishna

    In this paper we study exact learning of Prolog programs from entailment and present an algorithm to learn two rich classes of Prolog programs namely hereditary and reductive Prolog programs. These classes contain standard Prolog programs with and without recursion like append, merge, split, delete, member, prefix, suffix, length, add, etc. Additionally our algorithm learns the hereditary Prolog programs in polynomial time.

  7. Symbiont transmission entails the risk of parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Hassan; Onchuru, Thomas O.; Bauer, Eugen; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Like many animals, firebugs (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae) rely on behavioural adaptations to successfully endow their offspring with microbial mutualists. To transmit the nutritionally beneficial Coriobacteriaceae symbionts, female firebugs smear egg surfaces with symbiont-containing faecal droplets that are subsequently ingested by newly hatched nymphs through active probing to initiate infection. Alternatively, the symbionts can be acquired horizontally through contact with faeces of infected conspecifics. Here, we report that these adaptations ensuring successful transmission of bacterial symbionts among firebugs are exploited by the specialized trypanosomatid parasite Leptomonas pyrrhocoris. Using comparative transcriptomics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and controlled bioassays, we demonstrate that the transmission cycle of L. pyrrhocoris mirrors that of the bacterial mutualists, with high efficiency for both vertical and horizontal transmission. This indicates that the parasite capitalizes on pre-existing behavioural adaptations (egg smearing and probing) to facilitate its own transfer within host populations, adaptations that likely evolved to initiate and maintain an association with beneficial gut symbionts. Thus, the transmission of mutualistic microbes across host generations can entail a significant risk of co-transmitting pathogens or parasites, thereby exerting selective pressures on the host to evolve more specific mechanisms of transfer. PMID:26673937

  8. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification by diverse Diaphorobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2007-11-01

    Eight bacterial isolates closely related to Diaphorobacter sp. were isolated from activated biomass surviving on wastewater laden with dyes and nitro-substituted chemicals and were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The isolates showed sequence similarity of 99-100% to other Diaphorobacter strains such as ZY 2006b, F2, NA5, PCA039, D. nitroreducens KSP4, and KSP3 and 98-99% sequence homology to D. nitroreducens NA10B (type strain JCM 11421). Neighbor-joining tree revealed that all the eight strains formed tight cluster together and also showed close clustering with other Diaphorobacter strains. Isolates demonstrated the ability to perform simultaneous nitrification and denitrification under aerobic conditions. Strains HPC 805, 815, 821, and 856 gave highest chemical oxygen demand removal (85-93%) and ammonia removal (92-96%), which correlated well with higher growth rates of the cultures. Simultaneously, complete removal of nitrate supplied in the medium in presence of ammonium and acetate (electron donor) was observed in addition to aerobic nitrite release from ammonium. Thus, the above strains showed ability to perform partial nitrification followed by further aerobic removal of common intermediate nitrite, which indicated their potential application in treatment systems for treatment of high-nitrogen-containing wastewaters.

  9. On the role of entailment patterns and scalar implicatures in the processing of numerals

    PubMed Central

    Panizza, Daniele; Chierchia, Gennaro; Clifton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    There has been much debate, in both the linguistics and the psycholinguistics literature, concerning numbers and the interpretation of number denoting determiners ('numerals'). Such debate concerns, in particular, the nature and distribution of upper-bounded ('at-least') interpretations vs. lower-bounded ('exact') construals. In the present paper we show that the interpretation and processing of numerals are affected by the entailment properties of the context in which they occur. Experiment 1 established off-line preferences using a questionnaire. Experiment 2 investigated the processing issue through an eye tracking experiment using a silent reading task. Our results show that the upper-bounded interpretation of numerals occurs more often in an upward entailing context than in a downward entailing context. Reading times of the numeral itself were longer when it was embedded in an upward entailing context than when it was not, indicating that processing resources were required when the context triggered an upper-bounded interpretation. However, reading of a following context that required an upper-bounded interpretation triggered more regressions towards the numeral when it had occurred in a downward entailing context than in an upward entailing one. Such findings show that speakers' interpretation and processing of numerals is systematically affected by the polarity of the sentence in which they occur, and support the hypothesis that the upper-bounded interpretation of numerals is due to a scalar implicature. PMID:20161494

  10. Enforcement of entailment constraints in distributed service-based business processes.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Waldemar; Gaubatz, Patrick; Strembeck, Mark; Zdun, Uwe; Dustdar, Schahram

    2013-11-01

    A distributed business process is executed in a distributed computing environment. The service-oriented architecture (SOA) paradigm is a popular option for the integration of software services and execution of distributed business processes. Entailment constraints, such as mutual exclusion and binding constraints, are important means to control process execution. Mutually exclusive tasks result from the division of powerful rights and responsibilities to prevent fraud and abuse. In contrast, binding constraints define that a subject who performed one task must also perform the corresponding bound task(s). We aim to provide a model-driven approach for the specification and enforcement of task-based entailment constraints in distributed service-based business processes. Based on a generic metamodel, we define a domain-specific language (DSL) that maps the different modeling-level artifacts to the implementation-level. The DSL integrates elements from role-based access control (RBAC) with the tasks that are performed in a business process. Process definitions are annotated using the DSL, and our software platform uses automated model transformations to produce executable WS-BPEL specifications which enforce the entailment constraints. We evaluate the impact of constraint enforcement on runtime performance for five selected service-based processes from existing literature. Our evaluation demonstrates that the approach correctly enforces task-based entailment constraints at runtime. The performance experiments illustrate that the runtime enforcement operates with an overhead that scales well up to the order of several ten thousand logged invocations. Using our DSL annotations, the user-defined process definition remains declarative and clean of security enforcement code. Our approach decouples the concerns of (non-technical) domain experts from technical details of entailment constraint enforcement. The developed framework integrates seamlessly with WS-BPEL and the Web

  11. Replication of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA entails transient ribonucleotide incorporation throughout the lagging strand

    PubMed Central

    Yasukawa, Takehiro; Reyes, Aurelio; Cluett, Tricia J; Yang, Ming-Yao; Bowmaker, Mark; Jacobs, Howard T; Holt, Ian J

    2006-01-01

    Using two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, we show that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication of birds and mammals frequently entails ribonucleotide incorporation throughout the lagging strand (RITOLS). Based on a combination of two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoretic analysis and mapping of 5′ ends of DNA, initiation of RITOLS replication occurs in the major non-coding region of vertebrate mtDNA and is effectively unidirectional. In some cases, conversion of nascent RNA strands to DNA starts at defined loci, the most prominent of which maps, in mammalian mtDNA, in the vicinity of the site known as the light-strand origin. PMID:17066082

  12. A right to suicide does not entail a right to assisted death.

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, M

    1997-01-01

    Many people believe that it is permissible for people who are suffering from terminal illnesses to commit suicide or even that such people have a right to commit suicide. Some have also argued that it follows that it is permissible for them, or that they have a right, to use the assistance of another person. First, I assume that it is permissible for a person to commit suicide and ask whether it follows that it is also permissible for the person to employ an agent to assist in the death. Second, I assume that people have a right to commit suicide and ask whether it follows that the right holders have a right to employ an agent to assist with the death. I argue that the permissibility of suicide does not by itself entail the permissibility of employing someone to assist in the suicide. I also argue that the right to commit suicide does not by itself entail the right to assisted death. Instead, what follows is that there is a right not to have unreasonable restrictions placed on the means by which one can exercise one's right to commit suicide. Whether a restriction is reasonable depends on the conclusion reached when one has weighed a number of policy considerations. PMID:9055164

  13. [Industrial sound spectrum entailing noise-induced occupational hearing loss in Iasi industry].

    PubMed

    Carp, Cristina Maria; Costinescu, V N

    2011-01-01

    In European Union every day millions of employees are exposed to noise at work and the risk this can entail. this study presents the sound spectrum in Iasi heavy industry: metal foundries industry, punching and embossing of metal sheets, cold and hot metal processing. it was used a type 2 Sound Level Meter (SLM) and the considered value was the average value over 10 test values in 10 consecutive days for each octave band in common audible frequency range. It is obviously that the large values of sound intensities in the most of frequency octave band exceed maximum admissible and legal values. The study reveals the necessity of hardware, medical and managerial measures in order to reduce the occupational noise and to prevent the hearing acuity damage of the workers.

  14. Evolution of Drosophila resistance against different pathogens and infection routes entails no detectable maintenance costs.

    PubMed

    Faria, Vítor G; Martins, Nelson E; Paulo, Tânia; Teixeira, Luís; Sucena, Élio; Magalhães, Sara

    2015-11-01

    Pathogens exert a strong selective pressure on hosts, entailing host adaptation to infection. This adaptation often affects negatively other fitness-related traits. Such trade-offs may underlie the maintenance of genetic diversity for pathogen resistance. Trade-offs can be tested with experimental evolution of host populations adapting to parasites, using two approaches: (1) measuring changes in immunocompetence in relaxed-selection lines and (2) comparing life-history traits of evolved and control lines in pathogen-free environments. Here, we used both approaches to examine trade-offs in Drosophila melanogaster populations evolving for over 30 generations under infection with Drosophila C Virus or the bacterium Pseudomonas entomophila, the latter through different routes. We find that resistance is maintained after up to 30 generations of relaxed selection. Moreover, no differences in several classical life-history traits between control and evolved populations were found in pathogen-free environments, even under stresses such as desiccation, nutrient limitation, and high densities. Hence, we did not detect any maintenance costs associated with resistance to pathogens. We hypothesize that extremely high selection pressures commonly used lead to the disproportionate expression of costs relative to their actual occurrence in natural systems. Still, the maintenance of genetic variation for pathogen resistance calls for an explanation.

  15. Patient-centeredness in physiotherapy: What does it entail? A systematic review of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Wijma, Amarins J; Bletterman, Anouck N; Clark, Jacqui R; Vervoort, Sigrid C J M; Beetsma, Anneke; Keizer, Doeke; Nijs, Jo; Van Wilgen, C Paul

    2017-08-18

    The literature review is aimed at examining and summarizing themes related to patient-centeredness identified in qualitative research from the perspectives of patients and physiotherapists. Following the review, a secondary aim was to synthesize the themes to construct a proposed conceptual framework for utilization within physiotherapy. A systematic search of qualitative studies was conducted including all articles up to 2015 September. Methodological quality was examined with a checklist. The studies were examined for themes suggestive of the practice of patient centeredness from perspective of the therapists and/or the patients. Data were extracted using a data extraction form and analyzed following "thematic synthesis." Fourteen articles were included. Methodological quality was high in five studies. Eight major descriptive themes and four subthemes (ST) were identified. The descriptive themes were: individuality (ST "Getting to know the patient" and ST "Individualized treatment"), education, communication (ST "Non-verbal communication"), goal setting, support (ST "Empowerment"), social characteristics of a patient-centered physiotherapist, a confident physiotherapist, and knowledge and skills of a patient-centered physiotherapist. Patient-centeredness in physiotherapy entails the characteristics of offering an individualized treatment, continuous communication (verbal and non-verbal), education during all aspects of treatment, working with patient-defined goals in a treatment in which the patient is supported and empowered with a physiotherapist having social skills, being confident and showing specific knowledge.

  16. Dynamic Querying of Mass-Storage RDF Data with Rule-Based Entailment Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianni, Giovambattista; Krennwallner, Thomas; Martello, Alessandra; Polleres, Axel

    RDF Schema (RDFS) as a lightweight ontology language is gaining popularity and, consequently, tools for scalable RDFS inference and querying are needed. SPARQL has become recently a W3C standard for querying RDF data, but it mostly provides means for querying simple RDF graphs only, whereas querying with respect to RDFS or other entailment regimes is left outside the current specification. In this paper, we show that SPARQL faces certain unwanted ramifications when querying ontologies in conjunction with RDF datasets that comprise multiple named graphs, and we provide an extension for SPARQL that remedies these effects. Moreover, since RDFS inference has a close relationship with logic rules, we generalize our approach to select a custom ruleset for specifying inferences to be taken into account in a SPARQL query. We show that our extensions are technically feasible by providing benchmark results for RDFS querying in our prototype system GiaBATA, which uses Datalog coupled with a persistent Relational Database as a back-end for implementing SPARQL with dynamic rule-based inference. By employing different optimization techniques like magic set rewriting our system remains competitive with state-of-the-art RDFS querying systems.

  17. Using the concept of hubots to understand the work entailed in using digital technologies in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Pope, Catherine; Turnbull, Joanne

    2017-08-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the human work entailed in the deployment of digital health care technology. It draws on imagined configurations of computers and machines in fiction and social science to think about the relationship between technology and people, and why this makes implementation of digital technology so difficult. The term hubots is employed as a metaphorical device to examine how machines and humans come together to do the work of healthcare. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses the fictional depiction of hubots to reconceptualise the deployment of a particular technology - a computer decision support system (CDSS) used in emergency and urgent care services. Data from two ethnographic studies are reanalysed to explore the deployment of digital technologies in health services. These studies used comparative mixed-methods case study approaches to examine the use of the CDSS in eight different English NHS settings. The data include approximately 900 hours of observation, with 64 semi-structured interviews, 47 focus groups, and surveys of some 700 staff in call centres and urgent care centres. The paper reanalyses these data, deductively, using the metaphor of the hubot as an analytical device. Findings This paper focuses on the interconnected but paradoxical features of both the fictional hubots and the CDSS. Health care call handling using a CDSS has created a new occupation, and enabled the substitution of some clinical labour. However, at the same time, the introduction of the technology has created additional work. There are more tasks, both physical and emotional, and more training activity is required. Thus, the labour has been intensified. Practical implications This paper implies that if we want to realise the promise of digital health care technologies, we need to understand that these technologies substitute for and intensify labour. Originality/value This is a novel analysis using a metaphor drawn from fiction. This

  18. Methylglyoxal in cells elicits a negative feedback loop entailing transglutaminase 2 and glyoxalase 1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Der-Yen; Chang, Geen-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Glyoxalase 1 (GlxI) is the key enzyme that converts the highly reactive α-oxo-aldehydes into the corresponding α-hydroxy acids using l-glutathione as a cofactor. In our preliminary data, GlxI was identified as a substrate of transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a ubiquitous enzyme with multiple functions. According to the catalytic properties of TG2, protein cross-linking, polyamine conjugation, and/or deamidation are potential post-translational modifications. In this article, we have demonstrated that TG2 catalyzes either polyamine conjugation or deamidation to GlxI depending on the presence of polyamines or not. Deamidation leads to activation of GlxI while polyamine conjugation results in activation of GlxI as well as stabilization of GlxI against denaturation treatment. In cultured HeLa cells, methylglyoxal challenge causes increase in intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium leading to TG2 activation and subsequent transamidation and activation of GlxI. The inhibition of TG2 significantly weakens the cell resistance to the methylglyoxal challenge. Thus, GlxI is a novel substrate of TG2 and is activated by TG2 in vitro and in cellulo. Exposure to methylglyoxal elicits a negative feedback loop entailing ROS, calcium, TG2 and GlxI, thus leading to attenuation of the increase in the methylglyoxal level. The results imply that cancer cells highly express TG2 or GlxI can endure the oxidative stress derived from higher glycolytic flux and may gain extra growth advantage from the aerobic glycolysis.

  19. Wearable electroencephalography. What is it, why is it needed, and what does it entail?

    PubMed

    Casson, Alexander; Yates, David; Smith, Shelagh; Duncan, John; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2010-01-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a classic noninvasive method for measuring a person's brain waves and is used in a large number of fields: from epilepsy and sleep disorder diagnosis to brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Electrodes are placed on the scalp to detect the microvolt-sized signals that result from synchronized neuronal activity within the brain. Current long-term EEG monitoring is generally either carried out as an inpatient in combination with video recording and long cables to an amplifier and recording unit or is ambulatory. In the latter, the EEG recorder is portable but bulky, and in principle, the subject can go about their normal daily life during the recording. In practice, however, this is rarely the case. It is quite common for people undergoing ambulatory EEG monitoring to take time off work and stay at home rather than be seen in public with such a device. Wearable EEG is envisioned as the evolution of ambulatory EEG units from the bulky, limited lifetime devices available today to small devices present only on the head that can record EEG for days, weeks, or months at a time. Such miniaturized units could enable prolonged monitoring of chronic conditions such as epilepsy and greatly improve the end-user acceptance of BCI systems. In this article, we aim to provide a review and overview of wearable EEG technology, answering the questions: What is it, why is it needed, and what does it entail? We first investigate the requirements of portable EEG systems and then link these to the core applications of wearable EEG technology: epilepsy diagnosis, sleep disorder diagnosis, and BCIs. As a part of our review, we asked 21 neurologists (as a key user group) for their views on wearable EEG. This group highlighted that wearable EEG will be an essential future tool. Our descriptions here will focus mainly on epilepsy and the medical applications of wearable EEG, as this is the historical background of the EEG, our area of expertise, and a core

  20. Transfer Entails Communication: The Public Understanding of (Social) Science as a Stage and a Play for Implementing Evidence-Based Prevention Knowledge and Programs.

    PubMed

    Bromme, Rainer; Beelmann, Andreas

    2016-07-30

    Many social science-based interventions entail the transfer of evidence-based knowledge to the "target population," because the acquisition and the acceptance of that knowledge are necessary for the intended improvement of behavior or development. Furthermore, the application of a certain prevention program is often legitimated by a reference to science-based reasons such as an evaluation according to scientific standards. Hence, any implementation of evidence-based knowledge and programs is embedded in the public understanding of (social) science. Based on recent research on such public understanding of science, we shall discuss transfer as a process of science communication.

  1. Short-interval leg movements during sleep entail greater cardiac activation than periodic leg movements during sleep in restless legs syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Silvani, Alessandro; Zucconi, Marco; Aricò, Debora; Bruni, Oliviero; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Manconi, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) are sequences of ≥4 motor events with intermovement intervals (IMI) of 10-90 s. PLMS are a supportive diagnostic criterion for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and entail cardiac activation, particularly when associated with arousal. RLS patients also over-express short-interval leg movements during sleep (SILMS), which have IMI <10 s and are organized mainly in sequences of two movements (doublets). We tested whether the cardiac activation associated with SILMS doublets differs from that associated with PLMS in a sample of 25 RLS patients. We analysed time-series of R-R intervals synchronized to the onset of SILMS doublets or PLMS that entailed an arousal during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. We assessed cardiac activation based on the R-R interval decrease with respect to baseline during NREM sleep without leg movements. We found that the duration of the R-R interval decrease with SILMS doublets was significantly longer than that with PLMS, whereas the maximal decrease in R-R interval was similar. Scoring SILMS in RLS patients may therefore be relevant from a cardiac autonomic perspective. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Actinobacteria associated with the marine sponges Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp. and their culturability.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Actinobacteria associated with 3 marine sponges, Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp., were investigated. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that actinobacterial diversity varied greatly and that Ulosa sp. was most diverse, while Cinachyra sp. was least diverse. Culture-based approaches failed to isolate actinobacteria from Petrosia sp. or Ulosa sp., but strains belonging to 10 different genera and 3 novel species were isolated from Cinachyra sp.

  3. Actinobacteria Associated with the Marine Sponges Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp. and Their Culturability

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Actinobacteria associated with 3 marine sponges, Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp., were investigated. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that actinobacterial diversity varied greatly and that Ulosa sp. was most diverse, while Cinachyra sp. was least diverse. Culture-based approaches failed to isolate actinobacteria from Petrosia sp. or Ulosa sp., but strains belonging to 10 different genera and 3 novel species were isolated from Cinachyra sp. PMID:22214828

  4. Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov., Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Sneath, P H; Stevens, M

    1990-04-01

    Evidence from numerical taxonomic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization supports the proposal of new species in the genera Actinobacillus and Pasteurella. The following new species are proposed: Actinobacillus rossii sp. nov., from the vaginas of postparturient sows; Actinobacillus seminis sp. nov., nom. rev., associated with epididymitis of sheep; Pasteurella bettii sp. nov., associated with human Bartholin gland abscess and finger infections; Pasteurella lymphangitidis sp. nov. (the BLG group), which causes bovine lymphangitis; Pasteurella mairi sp. nov., which causes abortion in sows; and Pasteurella trehalosi sp. nov., formerly biovar T of Pasteurella haemolytica, which causes septicemia in older lambs.

  5. Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

  6. Tsukamurella inchonensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A F; Rainey, F A; Brzezinka, H; Burghardt, J; Lee, H J; Schaal, K P

    1995-07-01

    Chemotaxonomic and genomic 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analyses of two isolates obtained from two different clinical materials clearly delineated a new species of the genus Tsukamurella. This new species can be identified by its 16S ribosomal DNA similarity values, as well as its physiological characteristics. The name Tsukamurella inchonensis sp. nov. is proposed for these isolates, which are represented by strain IMMIB D-771T (= DSM 44067T) (T = type strain). This strain exhibits only 45% DNA relatedness to Tsukamurella paurometabola.

  7. [Aspergillus insulicola Sp. Nov].

    PubMed

    de Montemayor, L; Santiago, A R

    1975-04-30

    A strain of Aspergillus sp. is described and proposed as a new species under the name "Aspergillus insulicola sp. nov." Montemayor & Santiago, 1973. This strain was isolated from soil samples taken in "Aves Island" during a scientific expedition.--Aves Island, situated at 15 degrees, 40 feet, 42 inches N and 63 degrees, 36 feet, 47 inches W, about 665 Km of the coast of Venezuela, has very special ecological conditions. Due to its smallness: 550 m long and 40 to 120 m across and to its low profile only 3 m over sea level, it is swept by the sea during the periodical storms and hurricanes in the area. It has thus a very interesting fauna and flora. We took a series of soil samples to study its mycological flora. Forty samples were inoculated by dilution method. In this first paper a species is described and proposed as a new species because of its macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, as well as by its biological properties, under the name "Aspergillus insulicola sp. nov.". In its study we have tried to follow as closely as possible the methods recommended by Kennet B. Raper & Dorothy Fenell, world authorities on the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. The strain is being kept in USB under the number T1, and has been sent to ATCC & CBSC to be incorporated in their collections.

  8. Tsukamurella pulmonis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A F; Rainey, F A; Brzezinka, H; Burghardt, J; Rifai, M; Seifert, P; Feldmann, K; Schaal, K P

    1996-04-01

    Chemotaxonomic and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analyses of an isolate from the sputum of a patient with a mycobacterial lung infection clearly delineated a new species of the genus Tsukamurella. This new species can be defined on the basis of genotypic and phenotypic data. The name Tsukamurella pulmonis sp. nov. is proposed for this organism; the type strain is IMMIB D-1321T (= DSM 44142T). This isolate shows 44.2 and 36.2% DNA relatedness to Tsukamurella paurometabola DSM 20162T (T = type strain) and Tsukamurella inchonensis DSM 44067T, respectively.

  9. SP-100 program developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnyer, A. D.; Sholtis, J. A., Jr.; Wahlquist, E. J.; Verga, R. L.; Wiley, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    An update is provided on the status of the Sp-100 Space Reactor Power Program. The historical background that led to the program is reviewed and the overall program objectives and development approach are discussed. The results of the mission studies identify applications for which space nuclear power is desirable and even essential. Results of a series of technology feasibility experiments are expected to significantly improve the earlier technology data base for engineering development. The conclusion is reached that a nuclear reactor space power system can be developed by the early 1990s to meet emerging mission performance requirements.

  10. Coffee (Coffea sp.).

    PubMed

    Leroy, Thierry; Alpizar, Edgardo; Dufour, Magali; Etienne, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    Coffee (Coffea sp.) is a perennial plant widely cultivated in many tropical countries. It is a cash crop for millions of small farmers in these areas. As compared with other tree species, coffee has long breeding cycles that make conventional breeding programs time consuming. For that matter, genetic transformation can be an effective technique to introduce a desired trait in an already "elite" variety, or to study a gene function and expression. In this chapter, we describe two Agrobacterium-mediated transformation techniques; the first with A. tumefaciens to introduce an insect resistance gene and the second with A. rhizogenes to study candidate gene expression for nematode resistance in transformed roots.

  11. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  12. Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A F; Rainey, F A; Burghardt, J; Brzezinka, H; Schmitt, S; Seifert, P; Zimmermann, O; Mauch, H; Gierth, D; Lux, I; Schaal, K P

    1997-07-01

    Chemotaxonomic and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analyses of four bacterial isolates from blood cultures from patients with cardiac pacemaker implants and sputa of patients with chronic lung infections clearly demonstrated that these bacteria belong to the genus Tsukamurella. DNA-DNA hybridization data, as well as the physiological characteristics of the isolates, indicate that they are closely related and belong to a single species that differs from previously described members of the genus Tsukamurella. The name Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens sp. nov. is proposed for these isolates, and the new species is represented by strain IMMIB D-1397T (= DSM 44234T). Strain IMMIB D-1397T exhibits 53.4, 53.5, and 54.7% DNA-DNA relatedness to Tsukamurella paurometabola DSM 20162T, Tsukamurella inchonensis DSM 44067T, and Tsukamurella pulmonis DSM 44142T, respectively.

  13. Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

    1998-03-01

    Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain.

  14. DADiSP processing guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1993-01-01

    A guide for DADiSP software, intended for use by the Lambda Point Experiment (LPE) Team during and after the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP)-1 mission, is presented. DADiSP is a Data Analysis and Display Software developed and marketed by DSP Development Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts. This guide is intended to be used in addition to the DADiSP Worksheet User Manual and Reference Manual which are supplied by the company with the software. Technical support for DADiSP is available from DSP at (617) 577-1133. Access to DADiSP on Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) EGSE is being provided to the LPE team during USMP-1 for off-line processing of SAMS data.

  15. SP-100 space reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The SP-100 space reactor power system is being developed to meet the large electrical power requirements of civilian and military missions planned for the 1990's and beyond. It will remove the restrictions on electrical power generation that have tended to limit missions and will enable the fuller exploration and utilization of space. This booklet describes the SP-100 space reactor power system and its development. Particular emphasis is given to safety. The design aand operational features as well as the design and safety review process that will assure that the SP-100 can be launched nd operated safely are described.

  16. Yersinia nurmii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Murros-Kontiainen, Anna; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Korkeala, Hannu; Johansson, Per; Rahkila, Riitta; Björkroth, Johanna

    2011-10-01

    This study was set up to identify three Gram-negative, rod-shaped strains originating from broiler meat packaged under a modified atmosphere. A polyphasic taxonomic approach, including multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five genes (16S rRNA, glnA, gyrB, recA and HSP60), DNA-DNA reassociation between the closest phylogenetic neighbours and determination of relevant phenotypic properties, was applied. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences grouped these strains together and within the genus Yersinia. MLSA of the 16S rRNA gene and four housekeeping genes showed that the strains formed a monophyletic group separate from other Yersinia species in all phylogenetic trees constructed. The strains had a phenotypic profile different from those of other representatives of the genus Yersinia, but most similar to that of Yersinia ruckeri. Typical virulence markers for pathogenic Yersinia were not detected. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA reassociation data, a novel species, Yersinia nurmii sp. nov., is proposed for the isolated strains. The type strain is APN3a-c(T) ( = DSM 22296(T)  = LMG 25213(T)).

  17. What Does Competence Entail in Interventional Radiology?

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Kamran; Keeling, Aoife N.; Khan, Reenam S.; Ashrafian, Hutan; Arora, Sonal; Nagpal, Kamal; Burrill, Joshua; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos; Hamady, Mohamad

    2010-02-15

    Interventional radiology is a relatively new speciality and may be referred to as 'image-guided surgery without a scalpel.' Training and accreditation bodies regard interventional radiology training as being 'different' from general radiology because of the additional need for dexterity and clinical acumen. Due to the multidimensional role of an interventional radiologist, a practitioner in this discipline must have a number of the competencies of anesthetists, surgeons, and radiologists. The attributes required of an interventional radiologist are akin to those required of a surgeon. This paper gives an overview of the skills required to be a competent interventional radiologist along with a succinct introduction to methods of assessment of technical and non-technical skills.

  18. Education for Peace: What It Entails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Charles

    How peace can be "enforced" on an entire generation through education is discussed. The goals of education for peace are several. For example, it would enable people to cope with issues of modern society, help them develop an understanding of different cultures, and prepare them to actively participate in the governmental policy-making process. To…

  19. Extending quantum mechanics entails extending special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.

    2016-05-01

    The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure.

  20. Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Huber, Birgit; Thummes, Kathrin; Grün-Wollny, Iris; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    A Gram-positive bacterium, strain GW8-1761(T), was isolated from soil close to the Marmore waterfalls, Terni, Italy. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain GW8-1761(T) belonged to the genus Actinoplanes, being most closely related to Actinoplanes italicus JCM 3165(T) (98.9 %), A. rectilineatus IFO 13941(T) (98.5 %), A. palleronii JCM 7626(T) (97.8 %), A. utahensis IFO 13244(T) (97.6 %) and A. cyaneus DSM 46137(T) (97.6 %). Strain GW8-1761(T) could be distinguished from any other Actinoplanes species with validly published names by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of less than 97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)); major polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, with phosphatidylcholine and aminoglycolipids absent; major fatty acids C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) iso, C(17 : 1)omega8c and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH)] supported the affiliation of strain GW8-1761(T) to the genus Actinoplanes. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain GW8-1761(T) from the most closely related species. Strain GW8-1761(T) therefore merits species status, and we propose the name Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov., with the type strain GW8-1761(T) (=DSM 45050(T)=CIP 109316(T)).

  1. Surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-D as antimicrobial and immunotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Shanjana

    2010-06-01

    Surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-D belong to the "Soluble C-type Lectin" family of proteins and are collectively known as "Collectins". Based on their ability to recognize pathogens and to regulate the host defense, SP-A and SP-D have been recently categorized as "Secretory Pathogen Recognition Receptors". SP-A and SP-D were first identified in the lung; the expression of SP-A and SP-D has also been observed at other mucosal surfaces, such as lacrimal glands, gastrointestinal mucosa, genitourinary epithelium and periodontal surfaces. Since the role of these proteins is not fully elucidated at other mucosal surfaces, the focus of this article is on lung-SP-A and SP-D. It has become clear from research studies performed over a number of years that SP-A and SP-D are critical for the maintenance of lung homeostasis and the regulation of host defense and inflammation. However, none of the surfactant preparations available for clinical use have SP-A or SP-D. A review is presented here on SP-A- and SP-D-deficiencies in lung diseases, the importance of the administration of SP-A and SP-D, and recent patents and research directions that may lead to the design of novel SP-A- or SP-D-based therapeutics and surfactants.

  2. Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Èile; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT ( = DSM 26257T = CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT ( = DSM 26254T = CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT ( = DSM 26255T = CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT ( = DSM 26256T = CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT ( = DSM 26263T = CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT ( = DSM 26265T = CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT ( = DSM 26262T = CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

  3. The role of Sp1 and Sp3 in the constitutive DPYD gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Lin; Fourie, Jeanne; Davie, James R; Guarcello, Vincenzo; Diasio, Robert B

    2006-05-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) catabolic pathway, has been implicated as one of the factors determining the efficacy and toxicity of the anticancer agent 5-FU. Studies have attributed variation in DPD activity partially to alterations at the transcriptional level of DPYD gene. We investigated the transcription factors implicated in the constitutive expression of DPYD by utilizing a 174-bp fragment of the DPYD promoter region in which three consensus Sp protein binding sites (SpA, SpB and SpC) were predicted. The binding of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors to this region was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. By ectopically expressing human Sp1 and Sp3 in Sp-deficient Drosophila S2 cells, we demonstrated that Sp1 is a strong activator, while Sp3 by its own is a weak activator of the DPYD promoter. Moreover, Sp3 may serve as a competitor of Sp1, thus decreasing the Sp1 induced promoter activity. SpA, SpB and SpC sites are all Sp1 inducible. In the full activation of the DPYD promoter in human cell lines, the SpB site is essential; the SpC site works cooperatively with SpB, while SpA has minor promoter activity. These studies provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of DPD activity, and may facilitate the efficacy and safety of 5-FU-based chemotherapy.

  4. Pantoea vagans sp. nov., Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov., Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carrie L; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2009-09-01

    Bacteria isolated from eucalyptus leaves and shoots showing symptoms of blight and die-back collected in Uganda, Uruguay and Argentina and from maize displaying brown stalk rot symptoms in South Africa were tentatively placed in the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. These isolates, together with two strains (LMG 2558 and LMG 2560) previously assigned to Pantoea agglomerans based on protein electrophoregrams but later excluded from this species, were further investigated using molecular techniques. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) revealed that the strains were phylogenetically closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea stewartii and Pantoea ananatis. MLSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis placed the strains into four separate clusters, not containing any of the type strains of species of the genus Pantoea. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed the classification of the isolates into four novel species, for which the names Pantoea vagans sp. nov. (type strain R-21566T=LMG 24199T=BCC 105T=BD 765T), Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov. (type strain R-25678T=LMG 24197T=BCC 076T=BD 769T), Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. (type strain R-31523T=LMG 24200T=BCC 109T=BD 767T) and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov. (type strain LMG 2558T=BD 871T=NCPPB 1682T) are proposed.

  5. Argonne's SpEC Module

    ScienceCinema

    Harper, Jason

    2016-07-12

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  6. SP-100 control system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, R. A.; Halfen, F. J.; Alley, A. D.

    1987-01-01

    SP-100 Control Systems modeling was done using a thermal hydraulic transient analysis model called ARIES-S. The ARIES-S Computer Simulation provides a basis for design, integration and analysis of the reactor including the control and protection systems. It is a modular digital computer simulation written in FORTRAN that operates interactively in real time on a VAX minicomputer.

  7. Argonne's SpEC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jason

    2014-05-05

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  8. Antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content and iron bioavailability from algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in human subjects.

    PubMed

    García-Casal, Maria N; Ramírez, José; Leets, Irene; Pereira, Ana C; Quiroga, Maria F

    2009-01-01

    Marine algae are easily produced and are good sources of Fe. If this Fe is bioavailable, algae consumption could help to combat Fe deficiency and anaemia worldwide. The objective of the present study was to evaluate Fe bioavailability, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity from three species of marine algae distributed worldwide. A total of eighty-three subjects received maize- or wheat-based meals containing marine algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in different proportions (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g) added to the water to prepare the dough. All meals administered contained radioactive Fe. Absorption was evaluated calculating radioactive Fe incorporation in subjects' blood. The three species of marine algae were analysed for polyphenol content and reducing power. Algae significantly increased Fe absorption in maize- or wheat-based meals, especially Sargassum sp., due to its high Fe content. Increases in absorption were dose-dependent and higher in wheat- than in maize-based meals. Total polyphenol content was 10.84, 18.43 and 80.39 gallic acid equivalents/g for Ulva sp., Porphyra sp. and Sargassum sp., respectively. The antioxidant capacity was also significantly higher in Sargassum sp. compared with the other two species analysed. Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp. are good sources of bioavailable Fe. Sargassum sp. resulted in the highest Fe intake due to its high Fe content, and a bread containing 7.5 g Sargassum sp. covers daily Fe needs. The high polyphenol content found in Sargassum sp. could be partly responsible for the antioxidant power reported here, and apparently did not affect Fe absorption.

  9. Five novel Kitasatospora species from soil: Kitasatospora arboriphila sp. nov., K. gansuensis sp. nov., K. nipponensis sp. nov., K. paranensis sp. nov. and K. terrestris sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Groth, Ingrid; Rodríguez, Carlos; Schütze, Barbara; Schmitz, Petra; Leistner, Eckhard; Goodfellow, Michael

    2004-11-01

    A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic positions of six strains isolated from diverse soil samples and provisionally assigned to the genus Kitasatospora. The isolates were found to have chemical and morphological properties consistent with their classification as Kitasatospora strains. Direct 16S rRNA gene sequence data confirmed the taxonomic position of the strains following the generation of phylogenetic trees by using three tree-making algorithms. Five of the isolates were considered to merit species status using complementary genotypic and phenotypic data. These organisms were designated Kitasatospora arboriphila sp. nov. (HKI 0189(T)=2291-120(T)=DSM 44785(T)=NCIMB 13973(T)), Kitasatospora gansuensis sp. nov. (HKI 0314(T)=2050-015(T)=DSM 44786(T)=NCIMB 13974(T)), Kitasatospora nipponensis sp. nov. (HKI 0315(T)=2148-013(T)=DSM 44787(T)=NCIMB 13975(T)), Kitasatospora paranensis sp. nov. (HKI 0190(T)=2292-041(T)=DSM 44788(T)=NCIMB 13976(T)) and Kitasatospora terrestris sp. nov. (HKI 0186(T)=2293-012(T)=DSM 44789(T)=NCIMB 13977(T)). The remaining organism, isolate HKI 0316 (=2122-022=DSM 44790=NCIMB 13978), was considered to be a strain of Kitasatospora kifunensis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic data.

  10. Bacillus novalis sp. nov., Bacillus vireti sp. nov., Bacillus soli sp. nov., Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov., from the Drentse A grasslands.

    PubMed

    Heyrman, Jeroen; Vanparys, Bram; Logan, Niall A; Balcaen, An; Rodríguez-Díaz, Marina; Felske, Andreas; De Vos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    A group of 42 isolates were isolated from the soil of several disused hay fields, in the Drentse A agricultural research area (The Netherlands), that were taken out of production at different times. The group represents hitherto-uncultured Bacillus lineages that have previously been found, by a non-cultural method, to be predominant in soil. The strains were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study, including (GTG)5-PCR, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base-ratio determination, fatty acid analysis and morphological and biochemical characterization. By comparing the groupings obtained by (GTG)5-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, six clusters of similar strains could be recognized. A DNA-DNA relatedness study showed that these clusters represented five novel genospecies. Further analysis supported the proposal of five novel species in the genus Bacillus, namely Bacillus novalis sp. nov. (type strain IDA3307T=R-15439T=LMG 21837T=DSM 15603T), Bacillus vireti sp. nov. (type strain IDA3632T=R-15447T=LMG 21834T=DSM 15602T), Bacillus soli sp. nov. (type strain IDA0086T=R-16300T=LMG 21838T=DSM 15604T), Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. (type strain IDA1115T=R-16315T=LMG 21833T=DSM 15601T) and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov. (type strain IDA1967T=R-16337T=LMG 21831T=DSM 15600T).

  11. Accessible chromatin structure permits factors Sp1 and Sp3 to regulate human TGFBI gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Joo; Park, Keunhee; Shin, Myeong Heon; Yang, Wook-Jin; Song, Min-Ji; Park, Joo-Hong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kim, Hyoung-Pyo

    2011-06-03

    Transforming growth factor beta 1-induced (TGFBI) protein is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that is associated with other ECM proteins and functions as a ligand for various types of integrins. In this study, we investigated how human TGFBI expression is regulated in lung and breast cancer cells. We observed that the TGFBI promoter in A549 and MBA-MD-231 cells, which constitutively express TGFBI, existed in an open chromatin conformation associated with transcriptionally permissive histone modifications. Moreover, we found that TGFBI expression required Sp1 transcription elements that can bind transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 in vitro. Occupancy of the TGFBI promoter by Sp1 and Sp3 in vivo was only observed in TGFBI-expressing cells, indicating that open chromatin conformation might facilitate the binding of Sp1 and Sp3 to the TGFBI promoter region. TGFBI promoter activity was impaired when Sp1 elements were mutated, but was increased when Sp1 or Sp3 factors was overexpressed. Furthermore, Sp1 inhibition in vivo by mithramycin A, as well as knockdown of Sp1 and/or Sp3 expression by short interfering RNA, significantly reduced TGFBI mRNA and protein levels. Thus, our data demonstrated that the expression of TGFBI is well correlated with chromatin conformation at the TGFBI promoter, and that factors Sp1 and Sp3 are the primary determinants for the control of constitutive expression of TGFBI gene. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sp1 and the 'hallmarks of cancer'.

    PubMed

    Beishline, Kate; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2015-01-01

    For many years, transcription factor Sp1 was viewed as a basal transcription factor and relegated to a role in the regulation of so-called housekeeping genes. Identification of Sp1's role in recruiting the general transcription machinery in the absence of a TATA box increased its importance in gene regulation, particularly in light of recent estimates that the majority of mammalian genes lack a TATA box. In this review, we briefly consider the history of Sp1, the founding member of the Sp family of transcription factors. We review the evidence suggesting that Sp1 is highly regulated by post-translational modifications that positively and negatively affect the activity of Sp1 on a wide array of genes. Sp1 is over-expressed in many cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. Targeting Sp1 in cancer treatment has been suggested; however, our review of the literature on the role of Sp1 in the regulation of genes that contribute to the 'hallmarks of cancer' illustrates the extreme complexity of Sp1 functions. Sp1 both activates and suppresses the expression of a number of essential oncogenes and tumor suppressors, as well as genes involved in essential cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, the DNA damage response, apoptosis, senescence and angiogenesis. Sp1 is also implicated in inflammation and genomic instability, as well as epigenetic silencing. Given the apparently opposing effects of Sp1, a more complete understanding of the function of Sp1 in cancer is required to validate its potential as a therapeutic target.

  13. Pantoea rodasii sp. nov., Pantoea rwandensis sp. nov. and Pantoea wallisii sp. nov., isolated from Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carrie L; Cleenwerck, Ilse; van der Westhuizen, Lorinda; Venter, Stephanus N; Coutinho, Teresa A; De Vos, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Several Gram-negative-staining, facultatively anaerobic bacterial isolates were obtained from Eucalyptus seedlings showing symptoms of bacterial blight and dieback in Colombia, Rwanda and South Africa. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, together with partial gyrB sequencing, placed the isolates in the genus Pantoea and indicated that they constituted three novel species. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on partial sequences of gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD revealed Pantoea dispersa, Pantoea eucrina and Pantoea cypripedii as their closest phylogenetic relatives. DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed the classification of the new isolates as three novel species and phenotypic tests allowed them to be differentiated from their closest phylogenetic neighbours. The names Pantoea rodasii sp. nov. [type strain LMG 26273(T)=BD 943(T) (deposited with the Plant Pathogenic and Plant Protecting Bacteria Collection, South Africa)=BCC 581(T) (deposited with the Bacterial Culture Collection, Forestry and Agricultural Institute, South Africa)], Pantoea rwandensis sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26275(T)=BD 944(T)=BCC 571(T)) and Pantoea wallisii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26277(T)=BD 946(T)=BCC 682(T)) are proposed.

  14. Cultivation of Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae in Batch culture using Nile tilapia effluent.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Cabrera, Luis; Rueda, José A; García-Lozano, Hiram; Navarro, A Karin

    2014-06-01

    Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae were cultured in three volumes of Tilapia Effluent Medium (TEM) in comparison with the Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (Nichols and Bold, 1965). Specific growth rate (μ'), biomass dry productivity (Q), volumetric productivity (Qv) as well as lipid and protein content were measured. Then, volumetric productivities for both lipids and proteins were calculated (QVL and QVP). In Scenedesmus sp., BBM produced higher μ' and Qv than TEM in 1.5L volume. Chlorella sp. showed a higher QVL for BBM than TEM. Any observed difference in protein or lipid productivities among volumes was in favor of a greater productivity for 1.5L volume. Even when TEM had a larger protein content in Chlorella sp. than BBM, QVP was not different. Current results imply that TEM can be used as an alternative growth medium for algae when using Batch cultures, yet productivity is reduced.

  15. An ultrastructural study of the spermatozoa of Eulalia sp. (Phyllodocidae), Lepidonotus sp. (Polynoidae), Lumbrineris sp. (Lumbrineridae) and Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, G. W.

    1988-03-01

    The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoa of four polychaetes is described: Eulalia sp. (Phyllodocidae), Lepidonotus sp. (Polynoidae), Lumbrineris sp. (Lumbrineridae) and Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae). All the sperm show features typical of externally fertilizing sperm in having a rounded nucleus, a short unmodified midpiece, and a simple flagellum with a 9+2 axoneme. Owenia fusiformis and Lepidonotus sp. have a nuclear cone extending into the subacrosomal space that may act to present the inner acrosomal membrane to the egg during fertilization. The acrosome of Lumbrineris sp. is flattened and crenulated. The sperm of Eulalia sp. is unusual in having the four mitochondria of the midpiece ensheathed by a membrane. Comparisons are made with other polychaete sperm, and the use of sperm ultrastructure as a taxonomic tool within the Polychaeta is discussed.

  16. Reduced leaching of the herbicide MCPA after bioaugmentation with a formulated and stored Sphingobium sp.

    PubMed

    Önneby, Karin; Håkansson, Sebastian; Pizzul, Leticia; Stenström, John

    2014-04-01

    The use of pesticides on sandy soils and on many non-agricultural areas entails a potentially high risk of water contamination. This study examined leaching of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) after bioaugmentation in sand with differently formulated and stored Sphingobium sp. T51 and at different soil moisture contents. Dry formulations of Sphingobium sp. T51 were achieved by either freeze drying or fluidised bed drying, with high initial cell viability of 67-85 %. Storage stability of T51 cells was related to formulation excipient/carrier and storage conditions. Bacterial viability in the fluidised bed-dried formulations stored at 25 °C under non-vacuum conditions was poor, with losses of at least 97 % within a month. The freeze-dried formulations could be stored substantially longer, with cell survival rates of 50 %, after 6 months of storage at the same temperature under partial vacuum. Formulated and long-term stored Sphingobium cells maintained their MCPA degradation efficacy and reduced MCPA leaching as efficiently as freshly cultivated cells, by at least 73 % when equal amounts of viable cells were used. The importance of soil moisture for practical field bioaugmentation techniques is discussed.

  17. Agromyces salentinus sp. nov. and Agromyces neolithicus sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Valme; Groth, Ingrid; Gonzalez, Juan M; Laiz, Leonila; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2005-01-01

    A polyphasic study was carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of two Gram-positive bacteria isolated from soil samples of the Grotta dei Cervi (Italy), a relatively unexplored hypogean environment. The strains, 20-5T and 23-23T, showed phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics that were consistent with their classification in the genus Agromyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that the two strains formed distinct phyletic lines within the genus Agromyces. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, chemotaxonomic data and the results of DNA-DNA relatedness studies, it is proposed that the two isolates represent two novel species of the genus Agromyces. Pronounced differences in a broad range of phenotypic characteristics and DNA G+C content distinguished the two strains from each other and from previously described species of the genus Agromyces. Two novel species are proposed: Agromyces salentinus sp. nov. (type strain, 20-5T=HKI 0320T=DSM 16198T=NCIMB 13990T) and Agromyces neolithicus sp. nov. (type strain, 23-23T=HKI 0321T=DSM 16197T=NCIMB 13989T).

  18. Lactobacillus pasteurii sp. nov. and Lactobacillus hominis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Sylvie; Motreff, Laurence; Gulat-Okalla, Marie-Laure; Gouyette, Catherine; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Begaud, Evelyne; Bouchier, Christiane; Clermont, Dominique; Bizet, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Strains 1517(T) and 61D(T) were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. These Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria were homo-fermentative, facultatively anaerobic short rods. They were phylogenetically related to the genus Lactobacillus according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, with 99 % similarity between strain 1517(T) and the type strain of Lactobacillus gigeriorum, and 98.6, 98.5 and 98.4 % between strain 61D(T) and Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus taiwanensis and Lactobacillus johnsonii, respectively. Multilocus sequence analysis and metabolic analysis of both strains showed variation between the two strains and their close relatives, with variation in the position of the pheS and rpoA genes. The DNA-DNA relatedness of 43.5 % between strain 1517(T) and L. gigeriorum, and 38.6, 29.9 and 39.7 % between strain 61D(T) and L. johnsonii, L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri, respectively, confirmed their status as novel species. Based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, two novel species of Lactobacillus are proposed: Lactobacillus pasteurii sp. nov., with 1517(T) ( = CRBIP 24.76(T) = DSM 23907(T)) as the type strain, and Lactobacillus hominis sp. nov., with 61D(T) (=CRBIP 24.179(T) = DSM 23910(T)) as the type strain.

  19. Manufacturing SP-100 rhenium tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Edwin D.; Ruffo, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing high quality, thin walled, wrought, rhenium tubing was successfully developed and qualified in the SP-100 fuel fabrication program. Rhenium was selected for the fuel-cladding barrier versus tungsten because of the cold workability and nuclear characteristics of rhenium. Several tube fabricating processes including swaging, drawing, and extruding sintered tube shells and chemical vapor deposition were evaluated before a drawn tube made by forming and electron beam welding rhenium strip was selected as the most cost effective. The process for making the rhenium tubes is discussed in general and the tube, room temperature, tensile properties are compared favorably with the properties reported in the literature.

  20. Blastocystis sp.: waterborne zoonotic organism, a possibility?

    PubMed

    Lee, Li Ii; Chye, Tan Tian; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Govind, Suresh Kumar

    2012-06-28

    Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite found in faecal sample surveys. Several studies have implicated human-to-human, zoonotic and waterborne transmissions by Blastocystis sp. However, there has been no study providing evidence interlinking these three transmissions in a community. We have previously shown a high prevalence of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 amongst village dwellers in Bahunipati, Nepal, and the present study extends the observation to assess if the same subtype of Blastocystis sp. occurs in animals they rear and rivers they frequent. Faecal samples were collected from 65 animals. Four river water samples were collected from two rivers. Faecal samples were examined using in vitro cultivation. Blastocystis sp. from animal faecal and river samples were genotyped using seven subtype-specific sequence tagged site (STS) primer-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Blastocystis sp. infected 15.4% animals with subtype 4 being the predominant genotype (40.0%). Both rivers were contaminated with Blastocystis sp. subtype 1 and subtype 4, which were also detected in humans living in the same village in our previous study. Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 that was detected in buffalo and pigs was also found in the respective family members that reared these animals. This unusually high prevalence of Blastocystis subtype 4 found in village dwellers was also found to be pervasive in the animals they reared and the rivers they frequented implying a strong possibility of waterborne zoonosis for Blastocystis sp.

  1. Blastocystis sp.: waterborne zoonotic organism, a possibility?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite found in faecal sample surveys. Several studies have implicated human-to-human, zoonotic and waterborne transmissions by Blastocystis sp. However, there has been no study providing evidence interlinking these three transmissions in a community. We have previously shown a high prevalence of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 amongst village dwellers in Bahunipati, Nepal, and the present study extends the observation to assess if the same subtype of Blastocystis sp. occurs in animals they rear and rivers they frequent. Methods Faecal samples were collected from 65 animals. Four river water samples were collected from two rivers. Faecal samples were examined using in vitro cultivation. Blastocystis sp. from animal faecal and river samples were genotyped using seven subtype-specific sequence tagged site (STS) primer-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Blastocystis sp. infected 15.4% animals with subtype 4 being the predominant genotype (40.0%). Both rivers were contaminated with Blastocystis sp. subtype 1 and subtype 4, which were also detected in humans living in the same village in our previous study. Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 that was detected in buffalo and pigs was also found in the respective family members that reared these animals. Conclusions This unusually high prevalence of Blastocystis subtype 4 found in village dwellers was also found to be pervasive in the animals they reared and the rivers they frequented implying a strong possibility of waterborne zoonosis for Blastocystis sp. PMID:22741573

  2. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of nano-carbon particles with different sp(2)/sp(3) ratios.

    PubMed

    Li, S S; Wu, B J; Deng, Q Y; Guo, Y B; Leng, Y X; Huang, N

    2017-06-01

    Graphitization occurs during the long-term service of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) modified artificial joint. Then, DLC wear debris, which are carbon particles with different sp(2)/sp(3) ratios and sizes ranging from the nano- to micro-meter scale produced. In this paper, to promote the application of DLC coating for artificial joint modification, the cytotoxicity of DLC debris (nano-carbon particles, NCs) with different sp(2)/sp(3) ratios was studied. The microstructure and physical characteristics of NCs with different sp(2)/sp(3) ratios were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Meanwhile, osteoblasts and macrophages were applied to characterize the cytotoxicity of the NCs. In vitro cytotoxicity assay results indicated that cells incubated with NCs of different sp(2)/sp(3) ratios had greater osteogenic capacity, and these particles caused a weaker immune response in comparison with CoCrMo particles. Taken together, the results indicated that NCs with different sp(2)/sp(3) ratios presented a good cytocompatibility than CoCrMo particles. But no significant differences were observed among NCs with different sp(2)/sp(3) ratios. The better cytocompatibility of NCs is mainly attributable to their surface charge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aspects of the physiological ecology of dinitrogen fixation in terrestrial Nostoc sp

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Biological dinitrogen fixation was measured in the Elizabeth's Prairie section of the Lynx Prairie Preserve, Adams County, Ohio using the acetylene-reduction technique. Cyanobacteria (principally Nostoc sp.) contributed almost all of the biologically fixed N at the site until late June, at which time heterotrophic diazotrophs became the dominant dinitrogen fixers. These changes in activity were attributable to fluctuations in Nostoc sp. colony cover, temperature, and soil water potential. Extrapolation of the data, showed Nostoc sp. and heterotrophic diazotrophs contributing 4.60 +/- 1.17 Kg N/ha/yr and 3.19 +/- 1.18 Kg N/ha/yr, respectively. The rate of total dinitrogen fixation for the site, 8.20 +/- 2.55 Kg N/ha/yr, is among the highest reported for temperate grassland ecosystems. Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterize 1) the in vivo freeze recovery physiology of nitrogenase activity and 2) polyphosphate bodies and acid phosphatase activity during dark (energy stress) periods. Photosynthetic conditions were necessary for maximum recovery of nitrogenase activity. Though damage may occur to nitrogenase, some of the enzyme is capable of surviving a freeze-thaw period in vivo. However, complete recovery of nitrogenase activity may entail de novo synthesis of nitrogenase. The rate of acid phosphatase activity was measured using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as an exogenous substrate. Cells incubated in the light for 72 h showed acid phosphatase activity localized around the perimeter of the polyphosphate bodies. When cells were incubated in the dark, acid phosphatase activity occurred throughout the polyphosphate body matrix.

  4. Precursor forms of substance P (SP) in nervous tissue: detection with antisera to SP, SP-Gly, and SP-Gly-Lys

    SciTech Connect

    Kream, R.M.; Schoenfeld, T.A.; Mancuso, R.; Clancy, A.N.; El-Bermani, W.; Macrides, F.

    1985-07-01

    Antisera generated to substance P-Gly (SP-G) and substance P-Gly-Lys (SP-G-K), the likely unamidated COOH-terminally extended forms of substance P, were used to quantify and localize substance P precursor forms in hamster brain stem and spinal cord. The precursor determinant SP-G-K was liberated from larger heterogeneous forms by mild trypsinization of tissue extracts and was converted into the second precursor determinant, SP-G, by subsequent treatment with carboxypeptidase B. The basal levels of SP-G-K in brain stem and spinal cord were approx. = 0.5 pg/mg of tissue and rose 43- to 64-fold after trypsinization. Basal levels of Sp-G were comparable to those of SP-G-K and rose 10- to 29-fold after combined enzyme treatments. Immunohistochemical labeling of axons and somata with anti-SP-G-K increased dramatically after trypsinization. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that substance P is synthesized from larger precursors and demonstrate that extended precursor forms are normally present in the axons and somata of neural systems that synthesize substance P.

  5. SP-100 GES test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Carl M.; Mahaffey, Michael K.; Miller, William C.

    A performance test of a full-scale, prototypic nuclear subsystem of a 100 kWe space nuclear power supply is planned for 1992. This Nuclear Assembly Test will be conducted at the SP-100 Test Site, located at the Department of Energy's Hanford facilities near Richland, Washington. In addition to the reactor, supplied by General Electric, the Test Site will consist of 35 major systems which will simulate a space environment, protect the reactor and the surrounding environment during normal and off-normal operation, and provide control and data gathering functions. These systems include a large vacuum chamber to house the reactor, a containment isolation system, a control system, a secondary heat transport system, and other support systems.

  6. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  7. Listeria floridensis sp. nov., Listeria aquatica sp. nov., Listeria cornellensis sp. nov., Listeria riparia sp. nov. and Listeria grandensis sp. nov., from agricultural and natural environments.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Henk C; Warchocki, Steven; Wright, Emily M; Allred, Adam F; Ahlstrom, Christina; Manuel, Clyde S; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Burrell, Angela; Roof, Sherry; Strawn, Laura K; Fortes, Esther; Nightingale, Kendra K; Kephart, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Sampling of agricultural and natural environments in two US states (Colorado and Florida) yielded 18 Listeria-like isolates that could not be assigned to previously described species using traditional methods. Using whole-genome sequencing and traditional phenotypic methods, we identified five novel species, each with a genome-wide average BLAST nucleotide identity (ANIb) of less than 85% to currently described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and amino acid sequences of 31 conserved loci showed the existence of four well-supported clades within the genus Listeria; (i) a clade representing Listeria monocytogenes, L. marthii, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii, which we refer to as Listeria sensu stricto, (ii) a clade consisting of Listeria fleischmannii and two newly described species, Listeria aquatica sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1188(T) = DSM 26686(T) = LMG 28120(T) = BEI NR-42633(T)) and Listeria floridensis sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1187(T) = DSM 26687(T) = LMG 28121(T) = BEI NR-42632(T)), (iii) a clade consisting of Listeria rocourtiae, L. weihenstephanensis and three novel species, Listeria cornellensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0210(T) = FSL F6-0969(T) = DSM 26689(T) = LMG 28123(T) = BEI NR-42630(T)), Listeria grandensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0212(T) = FSL F6-0971(T) = DSM 26688(T) = LMG 28122(T) = BEI NR-42631(T)) and Listeria riparia sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1204(T) = DSM 26685(T) = LMG 28119(T) = BEI NR- 42634(T)) and (iv) a clade containing Listeria grayi. Genomic and phenotypic data suggest that the novel species are non-pathogenic. © 2014 IUMS.

  8. Predictive value of Sp1/Sp3/FLIP signature for prostate cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Bedolla, Roble G; Gong, Jingjing; Prihoda, Thomas J; Yeh, I-Tien; Thompson, Ian M; Ghosh, Rita; Kumar, Addanki P

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of prostate cancer prognosis is challenging and predictive biomarkers of recurrence remain elusive. Although prostate specific antigen (PSA) has high sensitivity (90%) at a PSA level of 4.0 ng/mL, its low specificity leads to many false positive results and considerable overtreatment of patients and its performance at lower ranges is poor. Given the histopathological and molecular heterogeneity of prostate cancer, we propose that a panel of markers will be a better tool than a single marker. We tested a panel of markers composed of the anti-apoptotic protein FLIP and its transcriptional regulators Sp1 and Sp3 using prostate tissues from 64 patients with recurrent and non-recurrent cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy as primary treatment for prostate cancer and were followed with PSA measurements for at least 5 years. Immunohistochemical staining for Sp1, Sp3, and FLIP was performed on these tissues and scored based on the proportion and intensity of staining. The predictive value of the FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 signature for clinical outcome (recurrence vs. non-recurrence) was explored with logistic regression, and combinations of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 and Gleason score were analyzed with a stepwise (backward and forward) logistic model. The discrimination of the markers was identified by sensitivity-specificity analysis and the diagnostic value of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 was determined using area under the curve (AUC) for receiver operator characteristic curves. The AUCs for FLIP, Sp1, Sp3, and Gleason score for predicting PSA failure and non-failure were 0.71, 0.66, 0.68, and 0.76, respectively. However, this increased to 0.93 when combined. Thus, the "biomarker signature" of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 combined with Gleason score predicted disease recurrence and stratified patients who are likely to benefit from more aggressive treatment.

  9. Predictive Value of Sp1/Sp3/FLIP Signature for Prostate Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Bedolla, Roble G.; Gong, Jingjing; Prihoda, Thomas J.; Yeh, I-Tien; Thompson, Ian M.; Ghosh, Rita; Kumar, Addanki P.

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of prostate cancer prognosis is challenging and predictive biomarkers of recurrence remain elusive. Although prostate specific antigen (PSA) has high sensitivity (90%) at a PSA level of 4.0 ng/mL, its low specificity leads to many false positive results and considerable overtreatment of patients and its performance at lower ranges is poor. Given the histopathological and molecular heterogeneity of prostate cancer, we propose that a panel of markers will be a better tool than a single marker. We tested a panel of markers composed of the anti-apoptotic protein FLIP and its transcriptional regulators Sp1 and Sp3 using prostate tissues from 64 patients with recurrent and non-recurrent cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy as primary treatment for prostate cancer and were followed with PSA measurements for at least 5 years. Immunohistochemical staining for Sp1, Sp3, and FLIP was performed on these tissues and scored based on the proportion and intensity of staining. The predictive value of the FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 signature for clinical outcome (recurrence vs. non-recurrence) was explored with logistic regression, and combinations of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 and Gleason score were analyzed with a stepwise (backward and forward) logistic model. The discrimination of the markers was identified by sensitivity-specificity analysis and the diagnostic value of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 was determined using area under the curve (AUC) for receiver operator characteristic curves. The AUCs for FLIP, Sp1, Sp3, and Gleason score for predicting PSA failure and non-failure were 0.71, 0.66, 0.68, and 0.76, respectively. However, this increased to 0.93 when combined. Thus, the “biomarker signature” of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 combined with Gleason score predicted disease recurrence and stratified patients who are likely to benefit from more aggressive treatment. PMID:23028678

  10. SP140L, an Evolutionarily Recent Member of the SP100 Family, Is an Autoantigen in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Saare, Mario; Hämarik, Uku; Venta, Rainis; Panarina, Marina; Zucchelli, Chiara; Pihlap, Maire; Remm, Anu; Kisand, Kai; Toots, Urve; Möll, Kaidi; Salupere, Riina; Musco, Giovanna; Uibo, Raivo; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-01-01

    The SP100 family members comprise a set of closely related genes on chromosome 2q37.1. The widely expressed SP100 and the leukocyte-specific proteins SP110 and SP140 have been associated with transcriptional regulation and various human diseases. Here, we have characterized the SP100 family member SP140L. The genome sequence analysis showed the formation of SP140L gene through rearrangements of the two neighboring genes, SP100 and SP140, during the evolution of higher primates. The SP140L expression is interferon-inducible with high transcript levels in B cells and other peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Subcellularly, SP140L colocalizes with SP100 and SP140 in nuclear structures that are devoid of SP110, PML, or p300 proteins. Similarly to SP100 and SP140 protein, we detected serum autoantibodies to SP140L in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis using luciferase immunoprecipitation system and immunoblotting assays. In conclusion, our results show that SP140L is phylogenetically recent member of SP100 proteins and acts as an autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis patients.

  11. SP140L, an Evolutionarily Recent Member of the SP100 Family, Is an Autoantigen in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Saare, Mario; Hämarik, Uku; Venta, Rainis; Panarina, Marina; Zucchelli, Chiara; Pihlap, Maire; Remm, Anu; Kisand, Kai; Toots, Urve; Möll, Kaidi; Salupere, Riina; Musco, Giovanna; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-01-01

    The SP100 family members comprise a set of closely related genes on chromosome 2q37.1. The widely expressed SP100 and the leukocyte-specific proteins SP110 and SP140 have been associated with transcriptional regulation and various human diseases. Here, we have characterized the SP100 family member SP140L. The genome sequence analysis showed the formation of SP140L gene through rearrangements of the two neighboring genes, SP100 and SP140, during the evolution of higher primates. The SP140L expression is interferon-inducible with high transcript levels in B cells and other peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Subcellularly, SP140L colocalizes with SP100 and SP140 in nuclear structures that are devoid of SP110, PML, or p300 proteins. Similarly to SP100 and SP140 protein, we detected serum autoantibodies to SP140L in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis using luciferase immunoprecipitation system and immunoblotting assays. In conclusion, our results show that SP140L is phylogenetically recent member of SP100 proteins and acts as an autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis patients. PMID:26347895

  12. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    2011-08-01

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM 17242(T)), Candida danieliae sp. nov. (CBS 8533(T)  = JCM 17247(T)), Candida robnettiae sp. nov. (CBS 8580(T)  = JCM 17243(T)) and Candida eppingiae sp. nov. (CBS 8586(T)  = JCM 17241(T)), isolated from plants in Thailand and Guyana, are proposed in this study.

  13. Differences in nutrient uptake capacity of the benthic filamentous algae Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. under varying N/P conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junzhuo; Vyverman, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The N/P ratio of wastewater can vary greatly and directly affect algal growth and nutrient removal process. Three benthic filamentous algae species Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. were isolated from a periphyton bioreactor and cultured under laboratory conditions on varying N/P ratios to determine their ability to remove nitrate and phosphorus. The N/P ratio significantly influenced the algal growth and phosphorus uptake process. Appropriate N/P ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus removal were 5-15, 7-10 and 7-20 for Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp., respectively. Within these respective ranges, Cladophora sp. had the highest biomass production, while Pseudanabaena sp. had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus contents. This study indicated that Cladophora sp. had a high capacity of removing phosphorus from wastewaters of low N/P ratio, and Pseudanabaena sp. was highly suitable for removing nitrogen from wastewaters with high N/P ratio.

  14. IIem-spFRET: improved Iem-spFRET method for robust FRET measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiang; Lin, Fangrui; Chai, Liuying; Wei, Lichun; Chen, Tongsheng

    2016-10-01

    We recently developed a quantitative Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurement method based on emission-spectral unmixing (Iem-spFRET). We here developed an improved Iem-spFRET method (termed as IIem-spFRET) for more robust FRET measurement in living cells. First, two background (BG) spectral fingerprints measured from blank living cells are introduced to remove BG and autofluorescence. Second, we introduce a ρ factor denoting the ratio of two molar extinction coefficient ratios (γ) of acceptor to donor at two excitations into IIem-spFRET for direct measurement of the γ values using a tandem construct with unknown FRET efficiency (E). We performed IIem-spFRET on our microscope-spectrometer platform to measure the γ values of Venus (V) to Cerulean (C) and the E values of C32V, CVC, VCV, and VCVV constructs, respectively, in living Huh7 cells. For the C32V or CVC cells, the Iem-spFRET and IIem-spFRET methods measured consistent E values. However, for the cells especially with low expressing levels of VCV or VCVV, the E values measured by Iem-spFRET showed large deviations and fluctuations, whereas the IIem-spFRET method greatly improved the measured E values. Collectively, IIem-spFRET is a powerful and robust tool for quantitatively measuring FRET signal in living cells.

  15. Early experiences with the IBM SP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.

    1993-06-01

    The IBM SP-1 is IBM`s newest parallel distributed-memory computer. As part of a joint project with IBM, Argonne took delivery of an early system in order to evaluate the software environment and to begin porting programming packages and applications to this machine. This report discusses the results of those early efforts. Despite the newness of the machine and the lack of a fast interprocessor switch (part of the SP-1 but not yet available for the machine), every code that they attempted to port ran on the SP-1 with little or no modification. The report concludes with a discussion of expectations for the fast interconnect.

  16. Amphibian (Xenopus sp.) iodothyronine deiodinase ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA-MED amphibian thyroid group is currently screening chemicals for inhibition of human iodothyronine deiodinase activity as components of the thyroid system important in human development. Amphibians are a bellwether taxonomic group to gauge toxicity of chemicals in the environment. Amphibian thyroid function is not only important in development but also metamorphosis. Xenopus sp. have been used extensively as model organisms and are well characterized genetically. We propose to screen a list of chemicals (selected from the human DIO screening results) to test for inhibition of Xenopus deiodinases. Large quantities of the enzymes will be produced using an adenovirus system. Our preliminary results show that there may be catalytic differences between human and Xenopus deiodinases. The Twin Ports Early Career Scientists is a new group formed within the Duluth-Superior scientific community. This presentation will provide a basic introduction to my research and our mission at EPA, and help to establish networking and collaboration relationships across disciplines and institutions.

  17. Amphibian (Xenopus sp.) iodothyronine deiodinase ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA-MED amphibian thyroid group is currently screening chemicals for inhibition of human iodothyronine deiodinase activity as components of the thyroid system important in human development. Amphibians are a bellwether taxonomic group to gauge toxicity of chemicals in the environment. Amphibian thyroid function is not only important in development but also metamorphosis. Xenopus sp. have been used extensively as model organisms and are well characterized genetically. We propose to screen a list of chemicals (selected from the human DIO screening results) to test for inhibition of Xenopus deiodinases. Large quantities of the enzymes will be produced using an adenovirus system. Our preliminary results show that there may be catalytic differences between human and Xenopus deiodinases. The Twin Ports Early Career Scientists is a new group formed within the Duluth-Superior scientific community. This presentation will provide a basic introduction to my research and our mission at EPA, and help to establish networking and collaboration relationships across disciplines and institutions.

  18. Genetic Polymorphisms of SP-A, SP-B, and SP-D and Risk of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong-Yu; Li, Fang; Li, Feng-Sheng; Zheng, Cheng-Zhong; Lei, Yan-Zhe; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined selected polymorphisms in 3 pulmonary surfactant-associated proteins (SP) for their influence on serum SP levels and risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm neonates. Material/Methods Premature infants from a Han population were enrolled, including 100 premature infants with RDS (case group) and 120 premature infants without RDS (control group). SNP genotyping for SP-A (+186A/G and +655C/T), SP-B (−18A/C and 1580C/T), and SP-D (Met11ThrT/C and Ala160ThrG/A) used polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Haplotypes were calculated with Shesis software and serum SP-A/B/D levels were quantified by ELISA. Results Case and control groups exhibited significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies of SP-A (+186A/G, +655C/T) and SP-B (1580C/T). However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the allele and genotype frequencies of SP-B −18A/C, SP-D Met11ThrT/C, and SP-D Ala160ThrG/A. Importantly, serum SP-A and SP-B levels were reduced in RDS patients carrying SP-A (+186A/G, +655C/T) and SP-B (1580C/T) polymorphisms. AA genotype of +186A/G, SP-A level, and CC genotype of 1580C/T were independently correlated with increased RDS risk. Conclusions SP-A (+186A/G) and SP-B (1580C/T) polymorphisms are strongly associated with the risk of RDS in preterm infants. Notably, reduced serum SP-A levels were correlated with a high risk of RDS and may serve as novel biomarkers for RDS detection and monitoring. PMID:28011976

  19. Tubulinosema sp. Microsporidian Myositis in Immunosuppressed Patient

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Maureen G.; Arrambide, Kathryn; Bern, Caryn; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Pieniazek, Norman J.; Bandea, Rebecca D.; DeLeon-Carnes, Marlene; Adem, Patricia; Choudhary, Moaz M.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Saeed, Musab U.

    2011-01-01

    The Phylum Microsporidia comprises >1,200 species, only 15 of which are known to infect humans, including the genera Trachipleistophora, Pleistophora, and Brachiola. We report an infection by Tubulinosema sp. in an immunosuppressed patient. PMID:21888805

  20. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, L. T., Jr.; Womack, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 gives rise to a set of issues that require special attention to assure that payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compatibility between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  1. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.T. Jr.; Womack, J.R.

    1984-01-31

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 gives rise to a set of issues that require special attention to assure that payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compability between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  2. SP-100 power system development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondt, Jack F.

    1990-01-01

    The SP-100 ground engineering system development project objectives, approach and status are described. The SP-100 GES development project is phase II of a three-phase program funded and directed by three United States Federal Agencies (NASA, DOD and DOE) to develop space reactor power systems for space applications in the 10 to 1000 KWe power range. The first phase of the program lasted three years, and this was completed at the end of FY 1985. SP-100 Phase I analytically and experimentally reviewed all near-term space reactor power system candidates and selected one system that best met the project mission requirements for future civilian and military space applications. The SP-100 Phase II started in fiscal year 1986 to develop the Phase I selected space reactor power system to be technically ready for space applications in the mid- to late 1990s.

  3. Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. and Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov., two tremellaceous yeast species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado Pagani, Danielle; Brandão, Luciana R; Santos, Ana Raquel O; Felix, Ciro R; Pais Ramos, Jesus; Broetto, Leonardo; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W; Augusto Rosa, Carlos; Valente, Patricia; Fontes Landell, Melissa

    2016-04-01

    Two yeast species, Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. and Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov., in the family Rhynchogastremataceae of the Tremellales are proposed. The two species are related to six species of the genus Papiliotrema: Papiliotrema aureus, P. flavescens, P. terrestris, P. baii, P. ruineniae and P. wisconsinensis. The novel species are proposed on the basis of the sequence-based phylogenetic species concept with analysis of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. A total of 16 strains of Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. were obtained from freshwater and bromeliad leaves collected in Brazil. Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. differs by 11, 12, 16, 14, 11 and 13 substitutions in the D1/D2 domain from the related species P. aureus, P. flavescens, P. terrestris, P. baii, P. ruineniae and P. wisconsinensis, respectively. Differences of 11 substitutions and 21 or more substitutions in ITS regions were found when the sequences of Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. were compared with P. wisconsinensis and its closest relatives. The type strain of Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y374T (=CBS 13918T). Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov. is represented by two strains isolated from a flower of Miconia sp. and a water sample in Brazil. Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov. differs from the related species P. aureus and P. ruineniae by eight substitutions, from P. flavescens and P. terrestris by 11 substitutions, from P. baii by 10 substitutions and from P. wisconsinensis by 6 substitutions in the D1/D2 domain, and by 7 substitutions from P. wisconsinensis and more than 19 substitutions in the ITS region from its closest relatives. The type strain of Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov. is CBS 8358T (ML 3666T=DBVPG-4492T). The MycoBank numbers for Papiliotrema leoncinii sp. nov. and Papiliotrema miconiae sp. nov. are MB 813594 and MB 814882, respectively.

  4. Silencing the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 Genes in Tomato Reduces Abscisic Acid—Mediated Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cui; Yan, Jian-Min; Li, Yun-Zhou; Zhang, Zhen-Cai; Wang, Qiao-Li; Liang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Drought is a major threat to agriculture production worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a pivotal role in sensing and converting stress signals into appropriate responses so that plants can adapt and survive. To examine the function of MAPKs in the drought tolerance of tomato plants, we silenced the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 genes in wild-type plants using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method. The results indicate that silencing the individual genes or co-silencing SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 reduced the drought tolerance of tomato plants by varying degrees. Co-silencing SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 impaired abscisic acid (ABA)-induced and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced stomatal closure and enhanced ABA-induced H2O2 production. Similar results were observed when silencing SpMPK3 alone, but not when SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 were individually silenced. These data suggest that the functions of SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 are redundant, and they overlap with that of SpMPK3 in drought stress signaling pathways. In addition, we found that SpMPK3 may regulate H2O2 levels by mediating the expression of CAT1. Hence, SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 may play crucial roles in enhancing tomato plants’ drought tolerance by influencing stomatal activity and H2O2 production via the ABA-H2O2 pathway. PMID:24201128

  5. Cheylostigmaeus tarae sp. nov. and Stigmaeus delaramae sp. nov. (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from Kurdistan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Khanjani, Mohammad; Nasrollahi, Siamak; Zamani, Ali Sina; Fayaz, Bahman Asali

    2014-07-28

    Two new species belonging to the family Stigmaeidae, Cheylostigmaeus tarae sp. nov. and Stigmaeus delaramae sp. nov., are described from specimens collected from soil and litter under pear trees, Pyrus communis L. (Rosaceae) in Iran. A key to all Iranian species of the genera Cheylostigmaeus (male) and Stigmaeus (female) are provided. 

  6. Artificial surfactants based on analogues of SP-B and SP-C.

    PubMed

    Johansson, J; Curstedt, T; Robertson, B

    2001-01-01

    The hydrophobic proteins SP-B and SP-C are important components of natural surfactant preparations currently used in clinical practice, and physiologically active surfactants can be made from isolated SP-B and/or SP-C reconstituted with synthetic lipids. Efforts have been made to produce these polypeptides, or analogues with similarfunction, by organic synthesis or expression in heterologous systems. It is important to obtain proper folding of the synthetic peptides, as required for optimal interaction with the surfactant lipids. Another issue is to avoid loss of SP-C activity due to alpha-helix to beta-sheet transition. This latter problem can be circumvented by replacing the polyvaline stretch of SP-C with a polyleucine stretch containing a few lysines. Palmitoylation of cysteines or serines at positions 5 and 6 also seems important for the properties of SP-C. SP-B, which is too big a molecule to be easily produced by organic synthesis. apparently can be replaced in an artificial surfactant by a peptide capable of cross-linking phospholipid bilayers. The development of synthetic analogues of the surfacant proteins might make it possible to tailor artificial surfactants for specific therapeutic missions, for instance by enhancing resistance to inactivation by meconium, plasma proteins, or oxygen radicals or maximizing bacteriostatic effects.

  7. Genome sequence of Sphingomonas sp. strain PAMC 26605, isolated from Arctic lichen (Ochrolechia sp.).

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Chul; Ahn, Do Hwan; Lee, Jong Kyu; Kim, Su Jin; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Eun Hye; Park, Hyun

    2012-03-01

    The endosymbiotic bacterium Sphingomonas sp. strain PAMC 26605 was isolated from Arctic lichens (Ochrolechia sp.) on the Svalbard Islands. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which could provide further insights into the symbiotic mechanism of lichens in extreme environments.

  8. Sp1 and Sp3 regulate transcription of the chicken GAS41 gene.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Katrin; Phi-van, Loc

    2010-01-01

    The 5'-flanking region of the chicken glioma-amplified sequence (GAS) 41 gene is close to the 3' end of the lysozyme gene and contains no typical TATA box, but several GC boxes. In this study, we have localized the GAS 41 promoter to this narrow region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that Sp1 and Sp3 bind to this promoter. Mapping by a technique of indirect end labeling demonstrated that the Sp1-binding sites contained in this region exactly co-map with two previously identified DNase I hypersensitive (HS) sites, which suggests the important role of Sp1 binding in maintaining an open chromatin structure of the GAS41 promoter. We further found that Sp1 and Sp3 strongly activate CAT expression controlled by the putative GAS41 promoter in Drosophila Schneider S2 cells and that deletion of the Sp1 sites resulted in a loss of promoter activity in chicken HD11 cells. The results indicate that transcription factors of the Sp family play an important role in the transcriptional regulation of the chicken GAS41 gene.

  9. Organic solvent tolerance of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) and its extracellular protease.

    PubMed

    Akolkar, Aparna V; Deshpande, Gauravi M; Raval, Kandarp N; Durai, Deepa; Nerurkar, Anuradha S; Desai, Anjana J

    2008-10-01

    Halophilic archaea belonging to three different genera- Halobacterium, Haloarcula and Haloferax, were isolated from Kandla salt pans. The isolates had an optimum requirement of 25% NaCl for growth. Increase in organic solvent tolerance of isolates was observed at higher NaCl concentrations. Among the three isolates Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) was found to be more tolerant than Haloarcula sp. SP2(2) and Haloferax sp. SP1(2a). The extracellular protease of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) showed higher solvent tolerance compared to the organism itself. The enzyme was highly tolerant to toluene, xylene, n-decane, n-dodecane and n-undecane, majority of which are frequently used in paints. These findings may help in understanding the mechanism of organic solvent tolerance in halophilic archaea and their application in antifouling coatings. Also, best to our knowledge the present study is the first report on organic solvent tolerance of haloarchaeal extracellular protease. (c) 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Micromonospora ureilytica sp. nov., Micromonospora noduli sp. nov. and Micromonospora vinacea sp. nov., isolated from Pisum sativum nodules.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Riesco, Raúl; Spröer, Cathrin; Trujillo, Martha E

    2016-09-01

    A diversity study on the presence of strains representing the genus Micromonospora in Pisum sativum nodules collected from Cañizal (Spain) has provided evidence of the high number of isolates that might represent novel species. In the present work, we have characterized three of these isolates: GUI23T, GUI43T and GUI63T. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses confirmed that all strains represent novel species of the genus Micromonospora with the following proposed names: Micromonospora ureilytica sp. nov., type strain GUI23T (=CECT 9022T=DSM 101692T), Micromonospora noduli sp. nov., type strain GUI43T (=CECT 9020T=DSM 101694T), and Micromonospora vinacea sp. nov., type strain GUI63T (=CECT 9019T=DSM 101695T).

  11. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp3-sp3 cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Craig P.; Smith, Russell T.; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2016-08-01

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp2-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp3-sp3 bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp3-sp3 bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp3-sp3 coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp3-sp3 bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox protocol is suitable for

  12. SpAHA1 and SpSOS1 Coordinate in Transgenic Yeast to Improve Salt Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Yin, Xiaochang; Duan, Ruijun; Hao, Gangping; Guo, Jianchun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    In plant cells, the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1) mediates Na+ extrusion using the proton gradient generated by plasma membrane H+-ATPases, and these two proteins are key plant halotolerance factors. In the present study, two genes from Sesuvium portulacastrum, encoding plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (SpSOS1) and H+-ATPase (SpAHA1), were cloned. Localization of each protein was studied in tobacco cells, and their functions were analyzed in yeast cells. Both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 are plasma membrane-bound proteins. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses showed that SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 were induced by salinity, and their expression patterns in roots under salinity were similar. Compared with untransformed yeast cells, SpSOS1 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic yeast by decreasing the Na+ content. The Na+/H+ exchange activity at plasma membrane vesicles was higher in SpSOS1-transgenic yeast than in the untransformed strain. No change was observed in the salt tolerance of yeast cells expressing SpAHA1 alone; however, in yeast transformed with both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, SpAHA1 generated an increased proton gradient that stimulated the Na+/H+ exchange activity of SpSOS1. In this scenario, more Na+ ions were transported out of cells, and the yeast cells co-expressing SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 grew better than the cells transformed with only SpSOS1 or SpAHA1. These findings demonstrate that the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase SpAHA1 can function in coordination. These results provide a reference for developing more salt-tolerant crops via co-transformation with the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-ATPase.

  13. Surfactant Proteins SP-A and SP-D Modulate Uterine Contractile Events in ULTR Myometrial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriadis, Georgios; Dodagatta-Marri, Eswari; Kouser, Lubna; Alhamlan, Fatimah S.; Kishore, Uday; Karteris, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules. However, there is extrapulmonary existence, especially in the amniotic fluid and at the feto-maternal interface. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that SP-A and SP-D are involved in the initiation of labour. This is of great importance given that preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study, we investigated the effects of recombinant forms of SP-A and SP-D (rhSP-A and rhSP-D, the comprising of trimeric lectin domain) on contractile events in vitro, using a human myometrial cell line (ULTR) as an experimental model. Treatment with rhSP-A or rhSP-D increased the cell velocity, distance travelled and displacement by ULTR cells. rhSP-A and rhSP-D also affected the contractile response of ULTRs when grown on collagen matrices showing reduced surface area. We investigated this effect further by measuring contractility-associated protein (CAP) genes. Treatment with rhSP-A and rhSP-D induced expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and connexin 43 (CX43). In addition, rhSP-A and rhSP-D were able to induce secretion of GROα and IL-8. rhSP-D also induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-6 Ra. We provide evidence that SP-A and SP-D play a key role in modulating events prior to labour by reconditioning the human myometrium and in inducing CAP genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines thus shifting the uterus from a quiescent state to a contractile one. PMID:26641881

  14. SP-100 flight qualification testing assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeanmougin, Nanette M.; Moore, Roger M.; Wait, David L.; Jacox, Michael G.

    1988-01-01

    The SP-100 is a compact space power system driven by a nuclear reactor that provides 100 kWe to the user at 200 VDC. The thermal energy generated by the nuclear reactor is converted into electrical energy by passive thermoelectric devices. Various options for tailoring the MIL-STD-1540B guidelines to the SP-100 nuclear power system are discussed. This study aids in selecting the appropriate qualification test program based on the cost, schedule, and test effectiveness of the various options.

  15. Interpreting spatially stacked Sp receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekić, Vedran; Fischer, Karen M.

    2017-08-01

    Conversions of shear waves (S) to compressional waves (P), often analysed as Sp receiver functions, are useful for studying upper-mantle layering, and have been used to map upper-mantle seismic impedance interfaces in various tectonic settings. Recently, common conversion point (CCP) stacking of Sp receiver functions has revealed variations of lithospheric thickness across short horizontal distances. However, compared to Ps receiver functions and reflection, only limited work has been done towards quantifying the interpretability of Sp receiver functions, especially in settings where large lateral structure variations are present. Using the spectral element method, we model wave propagation and S-to-P conversion through simple synthetic models with varying velocity interface topography. We systematically explore the effects of wave frequency content, seismometer spacing and illumination geometry on CCP stacked Sp receiver functions in settings where velocity interface depth varies laterally. We observe that the resolving power of Sp receiver functions decreases with decreasing frequency content, and that upward deflections of velocity interfaces are more difficult to observe than are downward deflections, an asymmetry that primarily arises due to corner diffractions. Furthermore, we document how the relationship between the angle of illumination and the orientation of the topography of the velocity interfaces largely determines the apparent interface slope and strongly affects the amplitude of Sp phases in the CCP stacks. Indeed, under certain illumination geometries, strong velocity contrasts across a dipping lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary may not produce detectable Sp phases at the surface. Furthermore, diffractions arising from corners of interface topography can produce artefacts in CCP stacks that masquerade as mid-lithospheric impedance jumps or drops, as well as gently sloped sublithospheric impedance drops. We find that estimates based on Fresnel zone

  16. Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation.

    PubMed

    Akolkar, A V; Durai, D; Desai, A J

    2010-07-01

    Application of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) for the acceleration of fish sauce fermentation. Traditional fish sauce fermentation was mimicked using Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as starter culture. Protease activity, peptide release and α-amino content (parameters used to monitor the progress of the fermentation) were high at day 10 in tests and day 20 in un-inoculated controls. The total protein and nitrogen contents were also high in tests compared with controls. The amino acid profile observed at the end of fermentation in experimental samples, when compared with the commercial sauce preparation, was found to be better with respect to flavour and aroma contributing amino acids as well as essential amino acid lysine. Microflora analysis of the final fish sauce revealed the absence of any nonhalophilic or halotolerant micro-organisms. The protease-producing halophilic isolates obtained from the fish sauce of eviscerated and uneviscerated controls were identified as Halobacterium sp. F1 and F2, respectively, by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Exogenous augmentation of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) accelerated the fish sauce fermentation process with an additive effect on the existing natural microflora present in the fish during fermentation. Halobacterium sp SP1(1), therefore, can be used as an important starter culture for accelerating the fish fermentation process, which is attributed to its extracellular protease. The present study is the first report on use of Halobacterium species as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation. Use of halobacterial starter cultures may revolutionize the process in fish sauce industries by reducing the fermentation time and making the process more economical with improved nutritive value of product. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Indian Government works.

  17. Cyanobactericidal effect of Rhodococcus sp. isolated from eutrophic lake on Microcystis sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Ki; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Kim, Hee-Sik; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2010-11-01

    A bacterium, which was observed in all cultivations of Microcystis sp., was isolated and designated as Rhodococcus sp. KWR2. The growth of bloom-forming cyanobacteria, including four strains of Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena variabilis, was suppressed by up to 75-88% by 2% (v/v) culture broth of KWR2 after 5 days. But KWR2 did not inhibit eukaryotic algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus sp. An extracellular algicidal substance produced by KWR2 showed a cyanobactericidal activity of 94% and was water-soluble with a molecular weight of lower than 8 kDa.

  18. The structural nif genes of the cyanobacteria Gloeothece sp. and Calothrix sp. share homology with those of Anabaena sp., but the Gloeothece genes have a different arrangement.

    PubMed Central

    Kallas, T; Rebière, M C; Rippka, R; Tandeau de Marsac, N

    1983-01-01

    Probes carrying the Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 nitrogenase reductase (nifH) and nitrogenase (nifK and nifD) genes were hybridized to Southern blots of DNA from the unicellular, aerobic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Gloeothece sp. strain PCC 6909 and from the filamentous cyanobacterium Calothrix sp. strain PCC 7601. These data suggest that the Gloeothece sp. nif structural proteins must be similar to those of other diazotrophs and that the ability for aerobic nitrogen fixation does not reside in the nif protein complex. We also found that the nif structural genes of Gloeothece sp. are clustered, whereas those of Calothrix sp. are arranged more like those of Anabaena sp. Images PMID:6305921

  19. ACMEV-SP2 (Single Particle Soot Photometer)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sedlacek, Arthur

    2015-06-01

    The SP2 provides information on the amounts of rBC (refractory black carbon) and of other, non-refractory substances associated with individual rBC containing particles by simultaneously measuring the scattering and incandescence signals of such particles that are directed through the cavity of a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. (refractory Black Carbon) rBC mixing ratio (ng/Kg) and number size distribution time series collected during the DOE-ARM sponsored ACME-V field campaign held from June 1 to September 15, 2015 rBC mixing ratio is reported at STP conditions Time resolution: 10 sec Uncertainty: ~ 30% SP2 Unit: 25 Location: Deadhorse, AK Location: N 70-degree 11' 41'' - W 148-degress. 27' 55'' SP2_dateTime: UTC rBC concentration is in units of ng/Kg - dry air. Mass Equivalent Diameters [MED] used for size distribution (SP2_min; SP2_geo; and SP2_max) are in units of micrometers dN/dlogDp counts for a given size bin (SP2_geo) listed as 'SP2_cnts_0 - SP2_cnts_199' and are in units of #/cc. Column naming convention: 'SP2_cnts_X' are the number of particles in bin number _X. , where _X is the row number within the 'SP2_geo' size bin column that contains the mass equivalent diameter (e.g., SP2_cnts_0 = 0.01 microns; SP2_cnts_10 = 0.060 microns, etc.). The dN/dlogDp data is time-resolved where a given row is associated with the timestamp for that row. Note that the rBC column length is one field shorter than the SP2_datetime column. Last time field is not relevant to the rBC time series (see comment below on length of SP2_datetime column) Lengths for SP2_max; SP2_min; SP2_geo are one field longer then the number of SP2_cnts_XX columns . This is to provide bounds for image plots (if desired). Length for SP2_datetime is one field longer than that length of the SP2_cnts_XX columns This is to provide bounds for image plots (if desired) SP2 Calibration: Fullerene soot with corrrection applied for particle density as a function of particle size. No correction for OC content in

  20. Proposal of six species of moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, endospore-forming bacteria: Alicyclobacillus contaminans sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus fastidiosus sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus kakegawensis sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus macrosporangiidus sp. nov., Alicyclobacillus sacchari sp. nov. and Alicyclobacillus shizuokensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Goto, Keiichi; Mochida, Kaoru; Kato, Yuko; Asahara, Mika; Fujita, Rieko; An, Sun-Young; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2007-06-01

    Moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, spore-forming bacteria (146 strains) were isolated from various beverages and environments. Based on the results of sequence analysis of the hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, eight of the strains represent novel species of the genus Alicyclobacillus. These strains were designated 3-A191(T), 4-A336(T), 5-A83J(T), 5-A167N, 5-A239-2O-A(T), E-8, RB718(T) and S-TAB(T). Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase B subunit (gyrB) nucleotide sequences confirmed that the eight strains belonged to the Alicyclobacillus clade. Cells of the eight strains were Gram-positive or Gram-variable, strictly aerobic and rod-shaped. The strains grew well under acidic and moderately thermal conditions, produced acid from various sugars, contained menaquinone 7 as the major isoprenoid quinone and did not produce guaiacol. omega-Alicyclic fatty acids were the predominant lipid component of strains 4-A336(T), 5-A83J(T), 5-A167N, RB718(T) and S-TAB(T). No omega-alicyclic fatty acids were detected in strains 3-A191(T), 5-A239-2O-A(T) or E-8, but iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids and small amounts of straight-chain saturated fatty acids were detected instead. According to the DNA-DNA hybridization data and distinct morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomical and genetic traits, the eight strains represent six novel species within the genus Alicyclobacillus, for which the following names are proposed: Alicyclobacillus contaminans sp. nov. (type strain 3-A191(T)=DSM 17975(T)=IAM 15224(T)), Alicyclobacillus fastidiosus sp. nov. (type strain S-TAB(T)=DSM 17978(T)=IAM 15229(T)), Alicyclobacillus kakegawensis sp. nov. (type strain 5-A83J(T)=DSM 17979(T)=IAM 15227(T)), Alicyclobacillus macrosporangiidus sp. nov. (type strain 5-A239-2O-A(T)=DSM 17980(T)=IAM 15370(T)), Alicyclobacillus sacchari sp. nov. (type strain RB718(T)=DSM 17974(T)=IAM 15230(T)) and Alicyclobacillus shizuokensis sp. nov. (type strain 4-A336(T)=DSM 17981(T)=IAM 15226(T)).

  1. Hepatozoon sp. in wild carnivores in Texas.

    PubMed

    Mercer, S H; Jones, L P; Rappole, J H; Twedt, D; Lack, L L; Craig, T M

    1988-07-01

    Twelve coyotes (Canis latrans), three bobcats (Lynx rufus) and six ocelots (Felis pardalis) from the Gulf Coast of Texas were infected with Hepatozoon sp. The geographic distribution of infected wild animals coincides with the highest prevalence of Hepatozoon canis infection in domestic dogs for which the wild species may act as a reservoir.

  2. Halomonas gomseomensis sp. nov., Halomonas janggokensis sp. nov., Halomonas salaria sp. nov. and Halomonas denitrificans sp. nov., moderately halophilic bacteria isolated from saline water.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Kyu; Jin, Long; Yang, Hee Chan; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2007-04-01

    A total of 34 Halomonas strains were isolated from saline water in Anmyeondo, Korea. Ten of these strains, considered to belong to novel species, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. The strains were Gram-negative, moderately halophilic, motile and non-spore-forming rods that contained Q-9 as the predominant ubiquinone and C(18 : 1)omega7c, C(16 : 0) and either summed feature 4 (C(16 : 1)omega7c/C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH) or C(19 : 0) cyclo omega8c as the major fatty acids. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, showed that the ten isolates formed four separate lineages in the genus Halomonas. Combined phenotypic data and DNA-DNA hybridization data supported the conclusion that they represent four novel species in the genus Halomonas, for which the names Halomonas gomseomensis sp. nov. (type strain M12(T)=KCTC 12662(T)=DSM 18042(T)), Halomonas janggokensis sp. nov. (type strain M24(T)=KCTC 12663(T)=DSM 18043(T)), Halomonas salaria sp. nov. (type strain M27(T)=KCTC 12664(T)=DSM 18044(T)) and Halomonas denitrificans sp. nov. (type strain M29(T)=KCTC 12665(T)=DSM 18045(T)) are proposed.

  3. Achromobacter animicus sp. nov., Achromobacter mucicolens sp. nov., Achromobacter pulmonis sp. nov. and Achromobacter spiritinus sp. nov., from human clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Peter; Moore, Edward R B; Cnockaert, Margo; De Brandt, Evie; Svensson-Stadler, Liselott; Houf, Kurt; Spilker, Theodore; Lipuma, John J

    2013-02-01

    The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of fourteen human clinical Achromobacter strains representing four genogroups which were delineated by sequence analysis of nusA, eno, rpoB, gltB, lepA, nuoL and nrdA loci, demonstrated that they represent four novel Achromobacter species. The present study also characterized and provided two additional reference strains for Achromobacter ruhlandii and Achromobacter marplatensis, species for which, thus far, only single strains are publicly available, and further validated the use of 2.1% concatenated nusA, eno, rpoB, gltB, lepA, nuoL and nrdA sequence divergence as a threshold value for species delineation in this genus. Finally, although most Achromobacter species can be distinguished by biochemical characteristics, the present study also highlighted considerable phenotypic intraspecies variability and demonstrated that the type strains may be phenotypically poor representatives of the species. We propose to classify the fourteen human clinical strains as Achromobacter mucicolens sp. nov. (with strain LMG 26685(T) [=CCUG 61961(T)] as the type strain), Achromobacter animicus sp. nov. (with strain LMG 26690(T) [=CCUG 61966(T)] as the type strain), Achromobacter spiritinus sp. nov. (with strain LMG 26692(T) [=CCUG 61968(T)] as the type strain), and Achromobacter pulmonis sp. nov. (with strain LMG 26696(T) [=CCUG 61972(T)] as the type strain). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Classification of Achromobacter genogroups 2, 5, 7 and 14 as Achromobacter insuavis sp. nov., Achromobacter aegrifaciens sp. nov., Achromobacter anxifer sp. nov. and Achromobacter dolens sp. nov., respectively.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Peter; Moore, Edward R B; Cnockaert, Margo; Peeters, Charlotte; Svensson-Stadler, Liselott; Houf, Kurt; Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J

    2013-10-01

    The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of seventeen Achromobacter strains representing MLST genogroups 2, 5, 7 and 14 were examined. Although genogroup 2 and 14 strains shared a DNA-DNA hybridization level of about 70%, the type strains of both genogroups differed in numerous biochemical characteristics and all genogroup 2 and 14 strains could by distinguished by nitrite reduction, denitrification and growth on acetamide. Given the MLST sequence divergence which identified genogroups 2 and 14 as clearly distinct populations, the availability of nrdA sequence analysis as a single locus identification tool for all Achromobacter species and genogroups, and the differential phenotypic characteristics, we propose to formally classify Achromobacter genogroups 2, 5, 7 and 14 as four novel Achromobacter species for which we propose the names Achromobacter insuavis sp. nov. (with strain LMG 26845(T) [=CCUG 62426(T)] as the type strain), Achromobacter aegrifaciens sp. nov. (with strain LMG 26852(T) [=CCUG 62438(T)] as the type strain), Achromobacter anxifer sp. nov. (with strain LMG 26857(T) [=CCUG 62444(T)] as the type strain), and Achromobacter dolens sp. nov. (with strain LMG 26840(T) [=CCUG 62421(T)] as the type strain). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Dolichodorus aestuarius n. sp. (Nematode: Dolichodoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Chow, F. H.; Taylor, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Dolichodorus aestuarius n. sp. from an estuarine habitat near Cedar Key, Florida is described. This nematode has a stylet range of 62-76 μm in females and 60-72 μm in males. The stylet is shorter than those of all described species except D. brevistilus. The probable host plant is Juncus roemerianus. PMID:19305840

  6. Evoluation of SP-100 System Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, Alan T.; Fujita, Toshio

    1994-01-01

    The current phase of the SP-100 program was initiated in 1986 with the objectives of developing the technology for Space Reactor Power Systems (SRPS) in the 10-1000k. We power range and perfoming ground system tests of both nuclear and non-nuclear major assemblies.

  7. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp. (Amorphea, Amoebozoa).

    PubMed

    Tekle, Yonas I; Gorfu, Lydia A; Anderson, O Roger

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Cochliopodium isolated from freshwater at Arabia Lake in Lithonia, GA, USA is described based on light microscopic morphology, fine structure, and molecular genetic evidence. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp., previously labeled as "isolate Con1" in prior publications, has been shown to group within the genus Cochliopodium in our molecular phylogenetic analysis. Light microscopy and fine structure evidence indicates the new isolate not only shares characters of the genus but also unique distinctive features. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp. is typically round when stationary; or oval to sometimes broadly flabellate or triangular in shape during locomotion, with average length of 35 μm and breadth of 51 μm. Fine structure evidence indicates C. arabianum n. sp. has tower-like scales, lacking a terminal spine, sharing high similarity with its closest relative C. actinophorum. However, the scales of C. arabianum n. sp. are unique in height and the breadth of the base plate. Both morphological and molecular data, including SSU-rDNA and COI, indicate that this new species falls in a clade sufficiently different from other species to suggest that it is a valid new species. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  8. Extended SP-100 reactor power systems capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Winter, J. M.; Mckissock, B. I.; Sovie, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    The SP-100 space nuclear power system development program and the NASA Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) are discussed. The advanced technologies being developed for the CSTI high capacity nuclear reactor power system are outlined. The relationship between the CSTI and the Pathfinder project is considered.

  9. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to Space Station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered Space Station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have led to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  10. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to space station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered space station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have lead to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  11. Developmental expression of Sp1 in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Saffer, J D; Jackson, S P; Annarella, M B

    1991-01-01

    The expression of the trans-acting transcription factor Sp1 in mice was defined by a combination of RNA analysis and immunohistochemical localization of the Sp1 protein. Although ubiquitously expressed, there was an unexpected difference of at least 100-fold in the amount of Sp1 message in different cell types. Sp1 protein levels showed corresponding marked differences. Substantial variations in Sp1 expression were also found in some cell types at different stages of development. Sp1 levels appeared to be highest in developing hematopoietic cells, fetal cells, and spermatids, suggesting that an elevated Sp1 level is associated with the differentiation process. These results indicate that Sp1 has a regulatory function in addition to its general role in the transcription of housekeeping genes. Images PMID:2005904

  12. Surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, in respiratory fungal infections: their role in the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Carreto-Binaghi, Laura Elena; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex fluid that comprises phospholipids and four proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) with different biological functions. SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D are essential for the lungs' surface tension function and for the organization, stability and metabolism of lung parenchyma. SP-A and SP-D, which are also known as pulmonary collectins, have an important function in the host's lung immune response; they act as opsonins for different pathogens via a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain and enhance the attachment to phagocytic cells or show their own microbicidal activity by increasing the cellular membrane permeability. Interactions between the pulmonary collectins and bacteria or viruses have been extensively studied, but this is not the same for fungal pathogens. SP-A and SP-D bind glucan and mannose residues from fungal cell wall, but there is still a lack of information on their binding to other fungal carbohydrate residues. In addition, both their relation with immune cells for the clearance of these pathogens and the role of surfactant proteins' regulation during respiratory fungal infections remain unknown. Here we highlight the relevant findings associated with SP-A and SP-D in those respiratory mycoses where the fungal infective propagules reach the lungs by the airways.

  13. Remote sensing data of SP mountain and SP lava flow in north-central Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, G. G.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    Multifrequency airborne radar image data of SP Mountain and SP flow in north-central Arizona were obtained in diverse viewing directions and direct and cross-polarization and compared with surface and aerial photography, Landsat multispectral scanner data, airborne thermal infrared imagery, surface geology, and surface roughness statistics. The extremely blocky, basaltic andesite of SP flow is brighter on direct-polarization K-band images than on cross-polarized images taken simultaneously. This effect is explained by multiple scattering and the strong wavelength dependence of polarization effects caused by the rectilinear basaltic andesite scatters. Two distinct types of surface relief on SP flow, one extremely blocky, the other subdued, are clearly discriminated on the visible and thermal wavelength images but are separable only on the longer wavelength L-band radar image data.

  14. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)).

  15. Nanocrystalline sp 2 and sp 3 carbons: CVD synthesis and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, M. L.; Rossi, M.; Tamburri, E.

    2016-11-01

    The design and production of innovative materials based on nanocrystalline sp 2- and sp 3-coordinated carbons is presently a focus of the scientific community. We present a review of the nanostructures obtained in our labs using a series of synthetic routes, which make use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the selective production of non-planar graphitic nanostructures, nanocrystalline diamonds, and hybrid two-phase nanostructures.

  16. Agfa morandi sp. n. (Rhabditida, Agfidae) a parasite of Limax sp. (Gastropoda, Limacidae).

    PubMed

    Ribas, A; Casanova, J C

    2002-08-01

    Agfa morandi sp. n. (Rhabditida, Agfidae), a parasite of Limax sp. (Gastropoda, Limacidae) from Py (Pyrenean mountains, France), is described and illustrated. The present species can be separated from the other two members of the same genus, A. flexilis (Rudolphi, 1819) Morand, 1990 and A. tauricus Korol and Spiridonov, 1991, by size measurements, number and disposition of the male's genital papillae, shape of the spicule and number of eggs in the female.

  17. The Synthesis of Quinolone Natural Products from Pseudonocardia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Salvaggio, Flavia; Hodgkinson, James T.; Carro, Laura; Geddis, Stephen M.; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Welch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of four quinolone natural products from the actinomycete Pseudonocardia sp. is reported. The key step involved a sp2–sp3 Suzuki–Miyaura reaction between a common boronic ester lateral chain and various functionalised quinolone cores. The quinolones slowed growth of E. coli and S. aureus by inducing extended lag phases.

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. Strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. Strain GCS4, Shinella sp. Strain GWS1, and Shinella sp. Strain SUS2 Isolated from Consortium with the Hydrocarbon-Producing Alga Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Jones, Katy J; Moore, Karen; Sambles, Christine; Love, John; Studholme, David J; Aves, Stephen J

    2016-01-14

    A variety of bacteria associate with the hydrocarbon-producing microalga Botryococcus braunii, some of which may influence its growth. We report here the genome sequences for Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. strain GCS4, and Shinella sp. strains GWS1 and SUS2, isolated from a laboratory culture of B. braunii, race B, strain Guadeloupe.

  19. 76 FR 22694 - SP 49 Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission SP 49 Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 12, 2011, SP 49 Pipeline LLC (``SP 49'') submitted a request for waiver of the requirement to file the FERC Form... Pipe Line Company's (``Chevron'') pipeline system and associated equipment, specifically the South...

  20. A physics/circuit-based switching model for carbon-based resistive memory with sp2/sp3 cluster conversion.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shengjun; Zhang, Jinyu; Fu, Di; Xie, Dan; Wang, Yan; Qian, He; Liu, Litian; Yu, Zhiping

    2012-10-21

    The switching mechanism in carbon-based resistive-switching random access memory is modelled using a percolation approach built on the low-temperature transition between phases sp(3) (diamond-like and high-resistive state) and sp(2) (graphite-like and low-resistive state) for a matrix of carbon clusters in a diamond-like carbon film. The switching process is described using a random circuit breaker network with each breaker controlled by the resistance of clusters sp(2)/sp(3). The key feature of the proposed model is the thermal stress-induced transition from sp(2) to sp(3) phase and the electric field-induced transition from sp(3) to sp(2) phase. Compared with experiments on the switching biasing scheme, a good agreement between simulation and measured data validated the accuracy of the proposed model.

  1. Agromyces italicus sp. nov., Agromyces humatus sp. nov. and Agromyces lapidis sp. nov., isolated from Roman catacombs.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Valme; Groth, Ingrid; Gonzalez, Juan M; Laiz, Leonila; Schuetze, Barbara; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2005-03-01

    A polyphasic study was carried out to clarify the taxonomic positions of three Gram-positive isolates from the Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome (Italy). 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons placed these strains within the genus Agromyces. The morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of these isolates were consistent with the description of the genus Agromyces. The three isolates could be readily distinguished from one another and from representatives of all Agromyces species with validly published names by a broad range of phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness studies. Therefore, these isolates are proposed to represent three novel species of the genus Agromyces, Agromyces italicus sp. nov. (type strain CD1(T)=HKI 0325(T)=DSM 16388(T)=NCIMB 14011(T)), Agromyces humatus sp. nov. (type strain CD5(T)=HKI 0327(T)=DSM 16389(T)=NCIMB 14012(T)) and Agromyces lapidis sp. nov. (type strain CD55(T)=HKI 0324(T)=DSM 16390(T)=NCIMB 14013(T)).

  2. Metschnikowia sinensis sp. nov., Metschnikowia zizyphicola sp. nov. and Metschnikowia shanxiensis sp. nov., novel yeast species from jujube fruit.

    PubMed

    Xue, Meng-Lin; Zhang, Li-Qun; Wang, Qi-Ming; Zhang, Ji-Shu; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2006-09-01

    Eight yeast strains were isolated from jujube fruit surfaces collected in Shanxi and Shandong Provinces, China. All eight strains produced needle-shaped ascospores under suitable conditions. Three separate groups, representing three novel species in the genus Metschnikowia, were recognized by sequence comparisons of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The names Metschnikowia sinensis sp. nov. (type strain XY103(T)=AS 2.3110(T)=CBS 10357(T)), Metschnikowia zizyphicola sp. nov. (type strain XY201(T)=AS 2.3111(T)=CBS 10358(T)) and Metschnikowia shanxiensis sp. nov. (type strain XY801(T)=AS 2.3112(T)=CBS 10359(T)) are proposed for the three novel species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence showed that these three novel species are clustered in a clade together with the previously described species Metschnikowia fructicola, Metschnikowia andauensis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Metschnikowia chrysoperlae.

  3. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) specifically binds dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroki, Y.; Akino, T. )

    1991-02-15

    Phospholipids are the major components of pulmonary surfactant. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is believed to be especially essential for the surfactant function of reducing the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) with a reduced denatured molecular mass of 26-38 kDa, characterized by a collagen-like structure and N-linked glycosylation, interacts strongly with a mixture of surfactant-like phospholipids. In the present study the direct binding of SP-A to phospholipids on a thin layer chromatogram was visualized using 125I-SP-A as a probe, so that the phospholipid specificities of SP-A binding and the structural requirements of SP-A and phospholipids for the binding could be examined. Although 125I-SP-A bound phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyeline, it was especially strong in binding dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but failed to bind phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. Labeled SP-A also exhibited strong binding to distearoylphosphatidylcholine, but weak binding to dimyristoyl-, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-, and dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine. Unlabeled SP-A readily competed with labeled SP-A for phospholipid binding. SP-A strongly bound dipalmitoylglycerol produced by phospholipase C treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but not palmitic acid. This protein also failed to bind lysophosphatidylcholine produced by phospholipase A2 treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. 125I-SP-A shows almost no binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine. The addition of 10 mM EGTA into the binding buffer reduced much of the 125I-SP-A binding to phospholipids. Excess deglycosylated SP-A competed with labeled SP-A for binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but the excess collagenase-resistant fragment of SP-A failed.

  4. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin {alpha}. {yields} Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. {yields} Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin {alpha} in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin {alpha} including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin {alpha}. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  5. Epithelial neoplasia in Drosophila entails switch to primitive cell states

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sumbul J.; Bajpai, Anjali; Alam, Mohammad Atif; Gupta, Ram P.; Harsh, Sneh; Pandey, Ravi K.; Goel-Bhattacharya, Surbhi; Nigam, Aditi; Mishra, Arati; Sinha, Pradip

    2013-01-01

    Only select cell types in an organ display neoplasia when targeted oncogenically. How developmental lineage hierarchies of these cells prefigure their neoplastic propensities is not yet well-understood. Here we show that neoplastic Drosophila epithelial cells reverse their developmental commitments and switch to primitive cell states. In a context of alleviated tissue surveillance, for example, loss of Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) tumor suppressor in the wing primordium induced epithelial neoplasia in its Homothorax (Hth)-expressing proximal domain. Transcriptional profile of proximally transformed mosaic wing epithelium and functional tests revealed tumor cooperation by multiple signaling pathways. In contrast, lgl− clones in the Vestigial (Vg)-expressing distal wing epithelium were eliminated by cell death. Distal lgl− clones, however, could transform when both tissue surveillance and cell death were compromised genetically and, alternatively, when the transcription cofactor of Hippo signaling pathway, Yorkie (Yki), was activated, or when Ras/EGFR signaling was up-regulated. Furthermore, transforming distal lgl− clones displayed loss of Vg, suggesting reversal of their terminal cell fate commitment. In contrast, reinforcing a distal (wing) cell fate commitment in lgl− clones by gaining Vg arrested their neoplasia and induced cell death. We also show that neoplasia in both distal and proximal lgl− clones could progress in the absence of Hth, revealing Hth-independent wing epithelial neoplasia. Likewise, neoplasia in the eye primordium resulted in loss of Elav, a retinal cell marker; these, however, switched to an Hth-dependent primitive cell state. These results suggest a general characteristic of “cells-of-origin” in epithelial cancers, namely their propensity for switch to primitive cell states. PMID:23708122

  6. Epithelial neoplasia in Drosophila entails switch to primitive cell states.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sumbul J; Bajpai, Anjali; Alam, Mohammad Atif; Gupta, Ram P; Harsh, Sneh; Pandey, Ravi K; Goel-Bhattacharya, Surbhi; Nigam, Aditi; Mishra, Arati; Sinha, Pradip

    2013-06-11

    Only select cell types in an organ display neoplasia when targeted oncogenically. How developmental lineage hierarchies of these cells prefigure their neoplastic propensities is not yet well-understood. Here we show that neoplastic Drosophila epithelial cells reverse their developmental commitments and switch to primitive cell states. In a context of alleviated tissue surveillance, for example, loss of Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) tumor suppressor in the wing primordium induced epithelial neoplasia in its Homothorax (Hth)-expressing proximal domain. Transcriptional profile of proximally transformed mosaic wing epithelium and functional tests revealed tumor cooperation by multiple signaling pathways. In contrast, lgl(-) clones in the Vestigial (Vg)-expressing distal wing epithelium were eliminated by cell death. Distal lgl(-) clones, however, could transform when both tissue surveillance and cell death were compromised genetically and, alternatively, when the transcription cofactor of Hippo signaling pathway, Yorkie (Yki), was activated, or when Ras/EGFR signaling was up-regulated. Furthermore, transforming distal lgl(-) clones displayed loss of Vg, suggesting reversal of their terminal cell fate commitment. In contrast, reinforcing a distal (wing) cell fate commitment in lgl(-) clones by gaining Vg arrested their neoplasia and induced cell death. We also show that neoplasia in both distal and proximal lgl(-) clones could progress in the absence of Hth, revealing Hth-independent wing epithelial neoplasia. Likewise, neoplasia in the eye primordium resulted in loss of Elav, a retinal cell marker; these, however, switched to an Hth-dependent primitive cell state. These results suggest a general characteristic of "cells-of-origin" in epithelial cancers, namely their propensity for switch to primitive cell states.

  7. Disfluent Responses to Job Interview Questions and What They Entail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosy, Julie; Bangerter, Adrian; Mayor, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Conversation is governed by expectations of timely responding. Violations of these expectations are grounds for inference by other participants. These inferences may be at odds with identities respondents try to project. In job interviews, candidates' responses are used to make hiring decisions. Candidates trade off between (1) delaying response…

  8. Early word-learning entails reference, not merely associations

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, Sandra R.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a resurgence of classic tensions concerning the fundamental nature of human knowledge and the processes underlying its acquisition. This tension, especially evident in research on the acquisition of words and concepts, arises when researchers pit one type of content against another (perceptual vs. conceptual) and one type of process against another (associative vs. theory-based). But these dichotomies are false; they rest upon insufficient consideration of the structure and diversity of the words and concepts that we naturally acquire. As infants and young children establish categories and acquire words to describe them, they take advantage of both perceptual and conceptual information, and relate this to both the (rudimentary) theories they hold and the statistics that they witness. PMID:19447670

  9. Disfluent Responses to Job Interview Questions and What They Entail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosy, Julie; Bangerter, Adrian; Mayor, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Conversation is governed by expectations of timely responding. Violations of these expectations are grounds for inference by other participants. These inferences may be at odds with identities respondents try to project. In job interviews, candidates' responses are used to make hiring decisions. Candidates trade off between (1) delaying response…

  10. To determine of the prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis, Candida sp, mixed infections (Bacterial Vaginosis + Candida sp), Trichomonas Vaginalis, Actinomyces sp in Turkish women from Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Haltas, Hacer; Bayrak, Reyhan; Yenidunya, Sibel

    2012-10-01

    To determine of the prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis, Candida sp, mixed infections (Bacterial Vaginosis + Candida sp), Trichomonas Vaginalis, Actinomyces sp in Ankara, Turkey and analyze whether there is seasonal variation in these infectious agents. A retrospective study on the results of 23298 cervical cytology examinations of patients which were performed in Fatih University Faculty of Medicine, Pathology Laboratory in Ankara, Turkey from January 2007 to July 2011. Patients were included in the study if a Pap smear was performed for any reason. The prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis, Candida sp, mixed infections (Bacterial Vaginosis + Candida sp), Trichomonas Vaginalis, Actinomyces sp was 7.76%, 2.81%, 0.32%, 0.13%, and 0.27%, respectively A seasonal variation was not observed in the prevalence of any of the infectious agents (p>0.05). We conclude that cervical cytology is well suited for diagnosis of cervical infections. Bacterial vaginosis appears to be the predominant cause of vaginitis.

  11. SP-100 inert gas act activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, A.D.

    1991-09-01

    As part of the SP-100 test program at the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland, there are plans to test the SP-100 space reactor in a vacuum in the test facility shown in Figure 1. The vacuum vessel will be in an inert gas atmosphere in the reactor experiment (RX) cell. The upper assembly (UA)/pump cells will also be inerted. The objective is to determine whether the radioactivity levels in the facility exhaust are within permissible levels. This radioactivity comes from leakage of activation products from the inert gas cells into the facility ventilation exhaust stream. The specific activities were calculated for the activation products from the combinations of inert gases that were considered for this facility, for a range of leakage rates, and for leakage from the UA/pump cells into the RX cell, and results are detailed in this report.

  12. SP-100 design, safety, and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Carl. M.; Mahaffey, Michael M.; Smith, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    The SP-100 Program is developing a nuclear reactor power system that can enhance and/or enable future civilian and military space missions. The program is directed to develop space reactor technology to provide electrical power in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. The major nuclear assembly test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and is designed to validate the performance of the 2.4-MWt nuclear and heat transport assembly.

  13. Chlamydomonas sajao nov. sp. (Chlorophyta, Volvocales)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, Ralph A.

    1984-06-01

    A new species of Chlamydomonas, namely, C. sajao nov. sp. of the Volvocales, Chlorophyta was isolated from a duckweed growing near a ricefield in the vicinity of Guangzhou, China. This interesting unicellular green alga, similar to C. mexicana from Mexico, secretes quantities of extracellular mucilaginous polysaccharides, and may be employed in improving soil quality. The new species resembles C. waldenburgensis Moewus in most characteristics but differs in three important features.

  14. Candida alocasiicola sp. nov., Candida hainanensis sp. nov., Candida heveicola sp. nov. and Candida musiphila sp. nov., novel anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast species isolated from plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-An; Jia, Jian-Hua; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2008-08-01

    In a taxonomic study on the ascomycetous yeasts isolated from plant materials collected in tropical forests in Yunnan and Hainan Provinces, southern China, four strains isolated from tree sap (YJ2E(T)) and flowers (YF9E(T), YWZH3C(T) and YYF2A(T)) were revealed to represent four undescribed yeast species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene D1/D2 domain sequences showed that strain YJ2E(T) was located in a clade together with Candida haemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii. Strain YF9E(T) was most closely related to C. azyma and strain YWZH3C(T) to C. sorbophila and C. spandovensis. Strain YYF2A(T) was clustered in a clade containing small-spored Metschnikowia species and related anamorphic Candida species. The new strains differed from their closely related described species by more than 10% mismatches in the D1/D2 domain. No sexual states were observed for the four strains on various sporulation media. The new species are therefore assigned to the genus Candida and described as Candida alocasiicola sp. nov. (type strain, YF9E(T) = AS 2.3484(T) = CBS 10702(T)), Candida hainanensis sp. nov. (type strain, YYF2A(T) = AS 2.3478(T) = CBS 10696(T)), Candida heveicola sp. nov. (type strain, YJ2E(T) = AS 2.3483(T) = CBS 10701(T)) and Candida musiphila sp. nov. (type strain, YWZH3C(T) = AS 2.3479(T) = CBS 10697(T)).

  15. SP-100 design, safety, and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Carl. M.; Mahaffey, Michael M.; Smith, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    The SP-100 Program is developing a nuclear reactor power system that can enhance and/or enable future civilian and military space missions. The program is directed to develop space reactor technology to provide electrical power in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. The major nuclear assembly test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and is designed to validate the performance of the 2.4-MWt nuclear and heat transport assembly.

  16. SP-100 design, safety, and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Carl. M.; Mahaffey, Michael M.; Smith, Gary L.

    The SP-100 Program is developing a nuclear reactor power system that can enhance and/or enable future civilian and military space missions. The program is directed to develop space reactor technology to provide electrical power in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. The major nuclear assembly test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and is designed to validate the performance of the 2.4-MWt nuclear and heat transport assembly.

  17. SP-100 design, safety, and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gary L.; Cox, Carl M.; Mahaffey, Michael M.

    1990-05-01

    The SP-100 Program is developing a nuclear reactor power system that can enhance and/or enable future civilian and military space missions. The program is directed to develop space reactor technology to provide electrical power in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. The major assembly test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and is designed to validate the performance of the 2.4 Mwt nuclear and heat transport assembly.

  18. SP-100 design, safety, and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gary L.; Cox, Carl M.; Mahaffey, Michael M.

    1990-07-01

    The SP-100 Program is developing a nuclear reactor power system that can enhance and/or enable future civilian and military space missions. The program is directed to develop space reactor technology to provide electrical power in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. The major nuclear assembly test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and is designed to validate the performance of the 2.4-MWt nuclear and heat transport assembly.

  19. An SP-Hill layered broadcast cryptosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, M. E.; Tavares, S. E.

    A new type of cryptosystem with applications in broadcast communications and database systems is described. The scheme combines various elements of both SP-networks and Hill broadcast encryption systems. The theoretical basis for the encryption technique is described in a series of equations and the results of a preliminary production process complexity test are presented. The results of the test indicate that the scheme performs well cryptographically and that it represents a significant advance over conventional encryption systems.

  20. Commercial technologies from the SP-100 program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truscello, Vincent C.; Fujita, Toshio; Mondt, Jack F.

    1995-01-01

    For more than a decade, the Jet Propulsion Labortory (JPL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have managed a multi-agency funded effort to develop a space reactor power system. This SP-100 Program has developed technologies required for space power systems that can be implemented in the industrial and commercial sectors to improve our competitiveness in the global economy. Initial steps taken to transfer this technology from the laboratories to industrial and commercial entities within the United States include: (1) identifying specific technologies having commercial potential; (2) distributing information describing the identified technologies and interacting with interested commercial and industrial entities to develop application-specific details and requirements; and (3) providing a technological data base that leads to transfer of technology or the forming of teaming arrangements to accomplish the transfer by tailoring the technology to meet application-specific requirements. SP-100 technologies having commercial potential encompass fabrication processes, devices, and components. Examples are a process for bonding refractory metals to graphite, a device to sense the position of an actuator and a component to enable rotating machines to operate without supplying lubrication ( a self-lubricating ball bearing). Shortly after the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Regional Technology Transfer Centers widely disseminated information covering SP-100 technologies, over one hundred expressions of interest were received. These early responses indicate that there is a large potential benefit in transferring SP-100 technology. Interactions with industrial and commercial entities have identified a substantial need for creating teaming arrangements involving the interested entity and personnel from laboratories and their contractors, who have the knowledge and ability to tailor the technology to meet application-specific requirements.

  1. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment.

  2. Sp6 and Sp8 Transcription Factors Control AER Formation and Dorsal-Ventral Patterning in Limb Development

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C.; Ros, Marian A.

    2014-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6−/−;Sp8+/−) exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. PMID:25166858

  3. Sterols from the Madagascar Sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp

    PubMed Central

    Aknin, Maurice; Gros, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean; Kashman, Yoel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae) from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean) is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, Δ5, Δ7 and Δ5,7, were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in Δ5,7 sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5α,8α-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts) were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and β-caroten bleaching assays. PMID:21339959

  4. Sterols from the Madagascar sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Aknin, Maurice; Gros, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean; Kashman, Yoel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2010-12-17

    The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae) from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean) is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, Δ(5), Δ(7) and Δ(5,7), were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in Δ(5,7) sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5α,8α-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts) were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and β-caroten bleaching assays.

  5. Vorticella sp: Prospective Mosquito Biocontrol Agent

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chandrashekhar Devidas; Narkhede, Chandrakant Prakash; Suryawanshi, Rahul Khushal; Patil, Satish Vitthal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering the disadvantages of chemical insecticides, we aimed to evaluate Vorticella parasites for control of mosquito larvae of Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti at different larval stages. Methods: Vorticella sp infected mosquito larvae were crushed in the 0.85% saline and homogenized well to get Vorticella in suspension. The effects of Vorticella sp infections on larval development were investigated by inoculating protozoan on different larval instars of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti and observed under light microscope. Lethal time of the Vorticella infected larvae at different stages was calculated. Results: First and 2nd larval instars of both An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti did not show signs of infection by Vorticella sp., whereas 3rd instars of An. stephensi showed more Vorticella infection than those of Ae. aegypti. However, 4th larval instars of both mosquitoes were heavily infected with Vorticella parasite which was responsible for sluggish movements of larvae and eventually death. Moreover, parasites (Vorticella spp) were responsible for more than 90% reduction in adult emergence for both infected An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti. Conclusion: This study provides insights for mosquito larvicidal action of surface parasite Vorticella on different larval stages of An. stephensi and Ae. Aegypti. It could be suggested as a potential candidate in mosquito biocontrol programs. PMID:28032113

  6. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with simultaneous intestinal Giardia sp., Spironucleus sp., and trichomonad infections.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Barbara J; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Kondo, Hirotaka

    2013-11-01

    A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp.

  7. Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov., and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov., novel members of coccoid Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rigonato, Janaina; Gama, Watson Arantes; Alvarenga, Danillo Oliveira; Branco, Luis Henrique Zanini; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Fiore, Marli Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Two Cyanobacteria isolated from South Atlantic Ocean continental shelf deep water and from a marine green algae inhabiting the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica were investigated based on morphological and ultrastructural traits, phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, secondary structure of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer regions and phylogenomic analyses. The majority of these evaluations demonstrated that both strains differ from the genera of cyanobacteria with validly published names and, therefore, supported the description of the novel genus as Aliterella gen. nov. The identity and phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, together with the secondary structure of D1D1' and BoxB intergenic regions, further supported the two strains representing distinct species: Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type SP469036, strain CENA595T) and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov. (type SP469035, strain CENA408T). The phylogenomic analysis of A. atlantica sp. nov. CENA595T, based on 21 protein sequences, revealed that this genus belongs to the cyanobacterial order Chroococcidiopsidales. The isolation and cultivation of two geographically distant unicellular members of a novel cyanobacterial genus and the sequenced genome of the type strain bring new insights into the current classification of the coccoid group, and into the reconstruction of their evolutionary history.

  8. Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov., Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from forest soil and rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-09-01

    Strains Y-12(T) and Y-47(T) were isolated from mountain forest soil and strain WR43(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil, at Daejeon, Korea. The three strains grew at 10-55 °C (optimal growth at 28-30 °C), at pH 3.0-8.0 (optimal growth at pH 6.0) and in the presence of 0-4.0% (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally in the absence of added NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the three strains were found to belong to the genus Burkholderia, showing the closest phylogenetic similarity to Burkholderia diazotrophica JPY461(T) (97.2-97.7%); the similarity between the three sequences ranged from 98.3 to 98.7%. Additionally, the three strains formed a distinct group in phylogenetic trees based on the housekeeping genes recA and gyrB. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-8, the major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C17  : 0 cyclo and the DNA G+C content of the novel isolates was 61.6-64.4 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness among the three strains and the type strains of the closest species of the genus Burkholderia was less than 50%. On the basis of 16S rRNA, recA and gyrB gene sequence similarities, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, the three strains represent three novel species within the genus Burkholderia, for which the names Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-12(T)= KACC 17601(T) = NBRC 109933(T) = NCAIM B 02543(T)), Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-47(T) = KACC 17602(T)= NBRC 109934(T) = NCAIM B 02539(T)) and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain WR43(T) = KACC 17603(T) = NBRC 109935(T) = NCAIM B 02541(T)) are proposed.

  9. Bacteroides clarus sp. nov., Bacteroides fluxus sp. nov. and Bacteroides oleiciplenus sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yohei; Nagai, Fumiko; Morotomi, Masami; Sakon, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Ryuichiro

    2010-08-01

    Three Gram-stain-negative, obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria (strains YIT 12056T, YIT 12057T and YIT 12058T) were isolated from human faeces. These strains were characterized by phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic tests. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that strains YIT 12056T, YIT 12057T and YIT 12058T were most closely related to the type strains of Bacteroides gallinarum, Bacteroides uniformis and Bacteroides intestinalis with approximate similarity values of 96.6, 95.0 and 96.7%, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of the novel strains were 45.3 (YIT 12056T), 45.2 (YIT 12057T) and 43.6 mol% (YIT 12058T) and the major respiratory quinones of all three isolates were menaquinones MK-10 and MK-11. These properties were typical for members of the genus Bacteroides. The results of the other phenotypic analyses also supported the affiliation of these strains to the genus Bacteroides. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, analysis of the major cellular fatty acids and other biochemical tests enabled the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the three new strains. Based on these data, three novel species, Bacteroides clarus sp. nov., Bacteroides fluxus sp. nov. and Bacteroides oleiciplenus sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains of B. clarus, B. fluxus and B. oleiciplenus are YIT 12056T (=JCM 16067T=DSM 22519T), YIT 12057T (=JCM 16101T=DSM 22534T) and YIT 12058T (=JCM 16102T=DSM 22535T), respectively.

  10. Copper resistance of different ectomycorrhizal fungi such as Pisolithus microcarpus, Pisolithus sp., Scleroderma sp. and Suillus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R.F.; Lupatini, M.; Trindade, L.; Antoniolli, Z.I.; Steffen, R.B.; Andreazza, R

    2013-01-01

    Environments contaminated with heavy metals negatively impact the living organisms. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have shown important role in these impacted sites. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the copper-resistance of ectomycorrhizal fungi isolates Pisolithus microcarpus - UFSC-Pt116; Pisolithus sp. - UFSC-PT24, Suillus sp. - UFSM RA 2.8 and Scleroderma sp. - UFSC-Sc124 to different copper doses in solid and liquid media. The copper doses tested were: 0.00, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 mmol L−1 in the solid medium and 0.00, 0.32, 0.64 and 0.96 mmol L−1 in the liquid medium. Copper was amended as copper sulphate in order to supplement the culture medium MNM at pH 4.8, with seven replicates to each fungus-dose combination. The fungal isolates were incubated for 30 days at 28 °C. UFSC-Pt116 showed high copper-resistance such as accessed by CL50 determinations (concentration to reduce 50% of the growth) as while as UFSC-PT24 displayed copper-resistance mechanism at 0.50 mmol L−1 in solid medium. The UFSC-PT24 and UFSC-Sc124 isolates have increased copper-resistance in liquid medium. The higher production of extracellular pigment was detected in UFSC-Pt116 cultures. The UFSC-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 isolates showed higher resistance for copper and produced higher mycelium biomass than the other isolates. In this way, the isolates UFSG-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 can be important candidates to survive in copper-contaminated areas, and can show important role in plants symbiosis in these contaminated sites. PMID:24294261

  11. Dyella acidisoli sp. nov., Dyella flagellata sp. nov. and Dyella nitratireducens sp. nov., isolated from forest soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Hong; Xia, Fan; Lv, Ying-Ying; Zhou, Xiang-Yue; Qiu, Li-Hong

    2016-12-08

    Bacterial strains 4M-Z03T, 4M-K16T and DHG59T were isolated from forest soil samples collected from the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, Guangdong Province, PR China (112º 31' E 23º 10' N). The three strains grew well at 28 °C, pH 5.0-6.0 on R2A medium. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the three strains, together with D. humi DHG40T, formed a distinct phyletic clade within the genus Dyella, and the sequence similarities between any strains of the clade ranged from 97.8 to 98.5 %. Sequence analysis of concatenated partial gyrB, lepA and recA gene sequences also strongly suggested that the three strains represented three novel species of the genus Dyella. The ubiquinone of the three strains was ubiquinone-8 and their DNA G+C content was 58.2 - 59.0 mol%. The fatty acid profiles differed substantially among these three strains although they had two common major fatty acids, iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:1ω9c. DNA-DNA relatedness among the three strains and the type strains of the closest species of the genus Dyella examined was lower than 50 %. The results of genotypic and phenotypic characterization presented above demonstrate that the three strains examined represent three novel species of the genus Dyella, for which the names Dyella acidisoli sp. nov. (type strain 4M-Z03T = NBRC 111980T = KCTC 52131T), Dyella flagellata sp. nov. (type strain 4M-K16T= NBRC 111981T= KCTC 52130T) and Dyella nitratireducens sp. nov. (type strain DHG59T = NBRC 111472T= LMG 29201T = CGMCC 1.15439T) are proposed.

  12. Flavobacterium koreense sp. nov., Flavobacterium chungnamense sp. nov., and Flavobacterium cheonanense sp. nov., isolated from a freshwater reservoir.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siwon; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Soo-Jin; Ahn, Tae-Young

    2011-06-01

    Taxonomic studies were performed on three strains isolated from Cheonho reservoir in Cheonan, Korea. The isolates were Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, catalase-positive, and oxidase-positive. Colonies on solid media were cream-yellow, smooth, shiny, and circular. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Flavobacterium. The strains shared 98.6-99.4% sequence similarity with each other and showed less than 97% similarity with members of the genus Flavobacterium with validly published names. The DNA-DNA hybridization results confirmed the separate genomic status of strains ARSA-42(T), ARSA-103(T), and ARSA-108(T). The isolates contained menaqui-none-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:0) 3-OH, iso-Ci(15:1) G, and iso-C(16:0) 3-OH as the major fatty acids. The genomic DNA G+C content of the isolates were 31.4-33.2 mol%. According to the phenotypic and genotypic data, these organisms are classified as representative of three novel species in the genus Flavobacterium, and the name Flavobacterium koreense sp. nov. (strain ARSA-42(T) =KCTC 23182(T) =JCM 17066(T) =KACC 14969(T)), Flavobacterium chungnamense sp. nov. (strain ARSA-103(T) =KCTC 23183(T) =JCM 17068(T) =KACC 14971(T)), and Flavobacterium cheonanense sp. nov. (strain ARSA-108(T) =KCTC 23184(T) =JCM 17069(T) =KACC 14972) are proposed.

  13. Copper resistance of different ectomycorrhizal fungi such as Pisolithus microcarpus, Pisolithus sp., Scleroderma sp. and Suillus sp.

    PubMed

    Silva, R F; Lupatini, M; Trindade, L; Antoniolli, Z I; Steffen, R B; Andreazza, R

    2013-01-01

    Environments contaminated with heavy metals negatively impact the living organisms. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have shown important role in these impacted sites. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the copper-resistance of ectomycorrhizal fungi isolates Pisolithus microcarpus - UFSC-Pt116; Pisolithus sp. - UFSC-PT24, Suillus sp. - UFSM RA 2.8 and Scleroderma sp. - UFSC-Sc124 to different copper doses in solid and liquid media. The copper doses tested were: 0.00, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 mmol L(-1) in the solid medium and 0.00, 0.32, 0.64 and 0.96 mmol L(-1) in the liquid medium. Copper was amended as copper sulphate in order to supplement the culture medium MNM at pH 4.8, with seven replicates to each fungus-dose combination. The fungal isolates were incubated for 30 days at 28 °C. UFSC-Pt116 showed high copper-resistance such as accessed by CL50 determinations (concentration to reduce 50% of the growth) as while as UFSC-PT24 displayed copper-resistance mechanism at 0.50 mmol L(-1) in solid medium. The UFSC-PT24 and UFSC-Sc124 isolates have increased copper-resistance in liquid medium. The higher production of extracellular pigment was detected in UFSC-Pt116 cultures. The UFSC-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 isolates showed higher resistance for copper and produced higher mycelium biomass than the other isolates. In this way, the isolates UFSG-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 can be important candidates to survive in copper-contaminated areas, and can show important role in plants symbiosis in these contaminated sites.

  14. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-03-01

    Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed.

  15. Eremobiotus ginevrae sp. nov. and Paramacrobiotus pius sp. nov., two new species of Eutardigrada.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Oscar; Binda, Maria Grazia; Pilato, Giovanni

    2016-04-14

    Two new eutardigrade species are described: Eremobiotus ginevrae sp. nov. and Paramacrobiotus pius sp. nov. The first is similar to Eremobiotus alicatai (Binda, 1969) but differs in the claw shape and dimensions. It has been found in Sicily, Israel and Russia. The second species, belonging to the richtersi group, is currently found exclusively in Sicily. It has a smooth cuticle, three macroplacoids and a microplacoid, eggs with reticulated trunco-conical processes with small terminal thorns; the egg-shell is areolated and the areolae are clearly sculptured.

  16. Two-Dimensional Phosphorus Carbide: Competition between sp(2) and sp(3) Bonding.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2016-05-11

    We propose previously unknown allotropes of phosphorus carbide (PC) in the stable shape of an atomically thin layer. Different stable geometries, which result from the competition between sp(2) bonding found in graphitic C and sp(3) bonding found in black P, may be mapped onto 2D tiling patterns that simplify categorizing of the structures. Depending on the category, we identify 2D-PC structures that can be metallic, semimetallic with an anisotropic Dirac cone, or direct-gap semiconductors with their gap tunable by in-layer strain.

  17. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas; Singh, Tej Bali; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer) and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial) exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress.

  18. Effect of Lung Surfactant Protein SP-C and SP-C-Promoted Membrane Fragmentation on Cholesterol Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Nuria; Nyholm, Thomas K M; Slotte, J Peter; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; García-Álvarez, Begoña

    2016-10-18

    To allow breathing and prevent alveolar collapse, lung surfactant (LS) develops a complex membranous system at the respiratory surface. LS is defined by a specific protein and lipid composition, including saturated and unsaturated phospholipid species and cholesterol. Surfactant protein C (SP-C) has been suggested to be an essential element for sustaining the presence of cholesterol in surfactant without functional impairment. In this work, we used a fluorescent sterol-partitioning assay to assess the effect of the surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C on cholesterol distribution in membranes. Our results suggest that in the LS context, the combined action of SP-B and SP-C appears to facilitate cholesterol dynamics, whereas SP-C does not seem to establish a direct interaction with cholesterol that could increase the partition of free cholesterol into membranes. Interestingly, SP-C exhibits a membrane-fragmentation behavior, leading to the conversion of large unilamellar vesicles into highly curved vesicles ∼25 nm in diameter. Sterol partition was observed to be sensitive to the bending of bilayers, indicating that the effect of SP-C to mobilize cholesterol could be indirectly associated with SP-C-mediated membrane remodeling. Our results suggest a potential role for SP-C in generating small surfactant structures that may participate in cholesterol mobilization and pulmonary surfactant homeostasis at the alveolar interfaces. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of lung surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, and palmitic acid on monolayer stability.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, J; Takamoto, D Y; von Nahmen, A; Lipp, M M; Lee, K Y; Waring, A J; Zasadzinski, J A

    2001-01-01

    Langmuir isotherms and fluorescence and atomic force microscopy images of synthetic model lung surfactants were used to determine the influence of palmitic acid and synthetic peptides based on the surfactant-specific proteins SP-B and SP-C on the morphology and function of surfactant monolayers. Lung surfactant-specific protein SP-C and peptides based on SP-C eliminate the loss to the subphase of unsaturated lipids necessary for good adsorption and respreading by inducing a transition between monolayers and multilayers within the fluid phase domains of the monolayer. The morphology and thickness of the multilayer phase depends on the lipid composition of the monolayer and the concentration of SP-C or SP-C peptide. Lung surfactant protein SP-B and peptides based on SP-B induce a reversible folding transition at monolayer collapse that allows all components of surfactant to be retained at the interface during respreading. Supplementing Survanta, a clinically used replacement lung surfactant, with a peptide based on the first 25 amino acids of SP-B also induces a similar folding transition at monolayer collapse. Palmitic acid makes the monolayer rigid at low surface tension and fluid at high surface tension and modifies SP-C function. Identifying the function of lung surfactant proteins and lipids is essential to the rational design of replacement surfactants for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:11325728

  20. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer) and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial) exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress. PMID:26325186

  1. Early SP-100 flight mission designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Shepard, Neal F.; Kirpich, Aaron S.; Murata, Ronald; Smith, Michael A.; Stephen, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kWe system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW2, Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kWe in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions.

  2. Granulicella paludicola gen. nov., sp. nov., Granulicella pectinivorans sp. nov., Granulicella aggregans sp. nov. and Granulicella rosea sp. nov., acidophilic, polymer-degrading acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Timofey A; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2010-12-01

    Five strains of strictly aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria that form pink-red colonies and are capable of hydrolysing pectin, xylan, laminarin, lichenan and starch were isolated from acidic Sphagnum peat bogs and were designated OB1010(T), LCBR1, TPB6011(T), TPB6028(T) and TPO1014(T). Cells of these isolates were Gram-negative, non-motile rods that produced an amorphous extracellular polysaccharide-like substance. Old cultures contained spherical bodies of varying sizes, which represent starvation forms. Cells of all five strains were acidophilic and psychrotolerant, capable of growth at pH 3.0-7.5 (optimum pH 3.8-4.5) and at 2-33°C (optimum 15-22°C). The major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0) and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH). The major menaquinone detected was MK-8. The pigments were carotenoids. The genomic DNA G+C contents were 57.3-59.3 mol%. The five isolates were found to be members of subdivision 1 of the phylum Acidobacteria and displayed 95.3-98.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other. The closest described relatives to strains OB1010(T), LCBR1, TPB6011(T), TPB6028(T), and TPO1014(T) were members of the genera Terriglobus (94.6-95.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Edaphobacter (94.2-95.4 %). Based on differences in cell morphology, phenotypic characteristics and hydrolytic capabilities, we propose a novel genus, Granulicella gen. nov., containing four novel species, Granulicella paludicola sp. nov. with type strain OB1010(T) (=DSM 22464(T) =LMG 25275(T)) and strain LCBR1, Granulicella pectinivorans sp. nov. with type strain TPB6011(T) (=VKM B-2509(T) =DSM 21001(T)), Granulicella rosea sp. nov. with type strain TPO1014(T) (=DSM 18704(T) =ATCC BAA-1396(T)) and Granulicella aggregans sp. nov. with type strain TPB6028(T) (=LMG 25274(T) =VKM B-2571(T)).

  3. Succinylated Apoptolidins from Amycolatopsis sp. ICBB 8242.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yan; Fotso, Serge; Serrill, Jeffrey D; Shahab, Salmah; Santosa, Dwi Andreas; Ishmael, Jane E; Proteau, Philip J; Zabriskie, T Mark; Mahmud, Taifo

    2015-05-15

    Two new apoptolidins, 2'-O-succinyl-apoptolidin A (11) and 3'-O-succinyl-apoptolidin A (12), were isolated from the culture broth of an Indonesian Amycolatopsis sp. ICBB 8242. These compounds inhibit the proliferation and viability of human H292 and HeLa cells. However, in contrast to apoptolidin A (1), they do not inhibit cellular respiration in H292 cells. It is proposed that apoptolidins are produced and secreted in their succinylated forms and 1 is the hydrolysis product of 11 and 12.

  4. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  5. SP-100, a project manager's view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, Vincent C.

    1983-01-01

    Born to meet the special needs of America's space effort, the SP-100 Program testifies to the cooperation among government agencies. The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are working together to produce a 100-kW power system for use in outer space. At this point in the effort, it is appropriate to review: The approach to meet program goals; the status of activities of the Project Office, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); and, because this is a meeting on materials, answers beings developed by the Project Office to vital questions on refractory alloy technology.

  6. Sp-branes: integrable multidimensional cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baukh, V.; Zhuk, A.

    2006-10-01

    We investigate time-dependent solutions (Sp-brane solutions) for product manifolds consisting of factor spaces where only one of them is of a non-Ricci-flat type. Our model contains a minimally coupled free scalar field and form field (flux) as matter sources. We discuss the possibility of generating late-time acceleration of the Universe. For these models, we investigate the variation with time of the effective four-dimensional fundamental 'constants'. We show that experimental bounds for the fundamental constant variations apply strong restrictions to the considered models.

  7. SP-100 control drive assembly development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, Thomas; Gilchrist, A. Richard; Schuster, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The SP-100 is an electrical generating nuclear power system for space operation. This paper describes the nuclear reactor control systems and the methods used to assure reliable performance for the 10-year design life. Reliable performance is achieved by redundancy and by selecting highly reliable components and design features. Reliability is quantified by analysis using established reliability data. Areas lacking reliability data are identified for development testing. A specific development test description is provided as an example to demonstrate how this process is meeting the system reliability goals.

  8. SP-100 radiator design trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewell, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A design trade study of the SP-100 heat rejection subsystem (HRSS) was made. A system code was used to evaluate the sensitivity of the HRSS mass and performance to changes. Variations in heat pipe diameter and cross-section, fin length and thickness, armor thickness, and overall configuration and materials were evaluated. The analysis indicates that the minimum system mass occurs for the case with many small diameter heat pipes, with ducting that maximizes the fraction of the heat pipe evaporator perimeter in contact with it.

  9. SP-100 radiator design trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewell, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A design trade study of the SP-100 heat rejection subsystem (HRSS) was made. A system code was used to evaluate the sensitivity of the HRSS mass and performance to changes. Variations in heat pipe diameter and cross-section, fin length and thickness, armor thickness, and overall configuration and materials were evaluated. The analysis indicates that the minimum system mass occurs for the case with many small diameter heat pipes, with ducting that maximizes the fraction of the heat pipe evaporator perimeter in contact with it.

  10. Binary NS simulations using SpEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Roland; Szilagyi, Bela; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Ott, Christian; Lippuner, Jonas; Scheel, Mark; Barkett, Kevin; Muhlberger, Curran; Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    NSNS binaries are expected to be one of the major sources of gravitational radiation detectable by Advanced LIGO. Together with neutrinos, gravitational waves are our only means to learn about the processes deep within a merging pair of NS, shedding light on the as yet poorly understood, equation of state governing matter at nuclear densities and beyond. We report on binary neutron star simulations using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA-WSU collaboration. We simulate the inspiral through many orbits, follow the post-merger evolution, and compute the full gravitational wave signal.

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. Strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. Strain GCS4, Shinella sp. Strain GWS1, and Shinella sp. Strain SUS2 Isolated from Consortium with the Hydrocarbon-Producing Alga Botryococcus braunii

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katy J.; Moore, Karen; Love, John

    2016-01-01

    A variety of bacteria associate with the hydrocarbon-producing microalga Botryococcus braunii, some of which may influence its growth. We report here the genome sequences for Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. strain GCS4, and Shinella sp. strains GWS1 and SUS2, isolated from a laboratory culture of B. braunii, race B, strain Guadeloupe. PMID:26769927

  12. Infection Rates of Wolbachia sp. and Bartonella sp. in Different Populations of Fleas.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Antonio; Gutiérrez, Sara García; Cutillas, Cristina

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, a molecular detection of Bartonella sp. and Wolbachia sp. in Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) isolated from Canis lupus familiaris from different geographical areas of Spain, Iran and South Africa, and in Stenoponia tripectinata tripectinata isolated from Mus musculus from the Canary Islands has been carried out by amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA partial gene of Wolbachia sp. and intergenic spacer region (its region) of Bartonella sp. A total of 70 % of C. felis analysed were infected by W. pipientis. This percentage of prevalence was considerably higher in female fleas than in male fleas. Bartonella DNA was not detected in C. felis from dogs, while Bartonella elizabethae was detected and identified in S. t. tripectinata from M. musculus from the Canary Islands representing 43.75 % prevalence. This report is the first to identify B. elizabethae in S. t. tripectinata collected in M. musculus from the Canary Islands. Thus, our results demonstrate that this flea is a potential vector of B. elizabethae and might play roles in human infection. The zoonotic character of this bartonellosis emphasizes the need to alert public health authorities and the veterinary community of the risk of infection.

  13. Indirect Manganese Removal by Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. Isolated from Brazilian Mine Water

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Natália Rocha; Amorim, Soraya Sander; Santos, Pricila Almeida; Reis, Flávia Donária; Cordeiro, Mônica Mendes; Guerra-Sá, Renata; Leão, Versiane Albis

    2015-01-01

    Manganese is a contaminant in the wastewaters produced by Brazilian mining operations, and the removal of the metal is notoriously difficult because of the high stability of the Mn(II) ion in aqueous solutions. To explore a biological approach for removing excessive amounts of aqueous Mn(II), we investigated the potential of Mn(II) oxidation by both consortium and bacterial isolates from a Brazilian manganese mine. A bacterial consortium was able to remove 99.7% of the Mn(II). A phylogenetic analysis of isolates demonstrated that the predominant microorganisms were members of Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Lysinibacillus genera. Mn(II) removal rates between 58.5% and 70.9% were observed for Bacillus sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. while the Lysinibacillus isolate 13P removes 82.7%. The catalytic oxidation of Mn(II) mediated by multicopper oxidase was not properly detected; however, in all of the experiments, a significant increase in the pH of the culture medium was detected. No aggregates inside the cells grown for a week were found by electronic microscopy. Nevertheless, an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the isolates revealed the presence of manganese in Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. grown in K medium. These results suggest that members of Stenotrophomonas and Lysinibacillus genera were able to remove Mn(II) by a nonenzymatic pathway. PMID:26697496

  14. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  15. Calcium Carbonate Formation by Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 8807

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Brady D.; William A. Apel; Michelle R. Walton

    2006-12-01

    Precipitation of CaCO3 catalyzed by the growth and physiology of cyanobacteria in the Genus Synechococcus represents a potential mechanism for sequestration of CO2 produced during the burning of coal for power generation. Microcosm experiments were performed in which Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 were tested for their ability to calcify when exposed to a fixed calcium concentration of 3.4 mM and bicarbonate concentrations of 0.5, 1.25 and 2.5 mM. Disappearance of soluble calcium was used as an indicator of CaCO3 formation; results from metabolically active microcosms were compared to controls with no cells or no carbonate added. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 removed calcium continuously over the duration of the experiment with approximately 18.6 mg of calcium in the solid phase. Calcium removal occurred over a two-day time period when Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 was tested and only 8.9 mg of calcium was removed in the solid phase. The ability of the cyanobacteria to create an alkaline growth environment appeared to be the primary factor responsible for CaCO3 precipitation in these experiments. Removal of inorganic carbon by fixation into biomass was insignificant compared to the mass of inorganic carbon removed by incorporation into the growing CaCO3 solid.

  16. Tubulideres seminoli gen. et sp. nov. and Zelinkaderes brightae sp. nov. (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida) from Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Martin V.; Heiner, Iben; Ziemer, Ole; Neuhaus, Birger

    2007-12-01

    One new kinorhynch genus and species and one new species from the genus Zelinkaderes are described from sandy sediment off Fort Pierce, Florida. The new genus and species, Tubulideres seminoli gen. et sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of the first trunk segment consisting of a closed ring, the second segment of a bent tergal plate with a midventral articulation and the following nine segments consisting of a tergal and two sternal plates. Cuspidate spines are not present, but flexible tubules are located on several segments, and in particular concentrated on the ventral side of the second segment. Middorsal spines are present on all trunk segments and are alternatingly offset to a position slightly lateral to the middorsal line. Zelinkaderes brightae nov. sp. is characterized by its spine formula in having middorsal spines on trunk segments 4, 6 and 8-11, lateroventral acicular spines on segment 2, lateral accessory cuspidate spines on segments 2 and 8, ventrolateral cuspidate spines on segments 4-6 and 9, lateroventral acicular spines present on segments 8 and 9, and midterminal, lateral terminal and lateral terminal accessory spines on segment 11. The spine formula of Z. brightae nov. sp. places it in a position in between Z. submersus and a clade consisting of Z. klepali and Z. floridensis. The new findings on Z. brightae nov. sp. have led us to propose an emended diagnosis for the genus.

  17. Screening of biodiesel production from waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.), seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Abdillah, Annur Ahadi; Mustikawati, Hutami; Atari, Suci Dwi Purnawa

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel has several advantages over solar. Compared to solar, biodiesel has more eco-friendly characteristic and produces lower greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel that is made from animal fats can be produced from fish oil, while other alternative sources from vegetable oils are seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp. Waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.) in Indonesia is commonly a side product of tuna canning industries known as tuna precook oil; on the other hand, seaweed Gracilaria sp. and Kappaphycus alvarezii are commonly found in Indonesia's seas. Seaweed waste that was used in the present study was 100 kg and in wet condition, and the waste oil was 10 liter. The seaweed was extracted with soxhletation method that used n-hexane as the solvent. To produce biodiesel, trans esterification was performed on the seaweed oil that was obtained from the soxhletation process and waste tuna oil. Biodiesel manufactured from seaweed K. alvarezii obtained the best score in flash point, freezing point, and viscosity test. However, according to level of manufacturing efficiency, biodiesel from waste tuna oil is more efficient and relatively easier compared to biodiesel from waste K. alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

  18. Studies on bioflocculant production by a mixed culture of Methylobacterium sp. Obi and Actinobacterium sp. Mayor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioflocculants effect the aggregation of suspended solutes in solutions thus, a viable alternative to inorganic poly-ionic and synthetic organic flocculants which are associated with deleterious health problems. Consequently, a consortium of two bacteria species were evaluated for optimized bioflocculant yield following the inadequacies of axenic cultures. Results 16S rDNA nucleotide sequencing and BLAST analysis of nucleotide sequences were used to identify the bacterial species, carbon and nitrogen sources optimally supporting bioflocculant production were assessed and the purified bioflocculant characterized. Nucleotide sequences showed 97% and 96% similarity to Methylobacterium sp. AKB-2008-KU9 and Methylobacterium sp. strain 440. The second isolate, likewise, showed 98% similarity to Actinobacterium OR-221. The sequences were deposited in GenBank as Methylobacterium sp. Obi [accession number HQ537130] and Actinobacterium sp. Mayor [accession number JF799090]. Flocculating activity of 95% was obtained in the presence of Ca2+ and heat-stability was exhibited with retention of above 70% activity at 100°C in 30 min. In addition, bioflocculant yield was about 8.203 g/l. A dose of 1 mg/ml of purified bioflocculant was optimal for the clarification of Kaolin suspension (100 ml) following Jar test. FTIR spectrum revealed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups amongst others. Conclusions The mixed culture produced bioflocculant with high flocculating activity and an improved yield. The efficiency observed with jar test may imply industrial applicability. PMID:23915393

  19. The family feud: turning off Sp1 by Sp1-like KLF proteins

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Sp1 is one of the best characterized transcriptional activators. The biological importance of Sp1 is underscored by the fact that several hundreds of genes are thought to be regulated by this protein. However, during the last 5 years, a more extended family of Sp1-like transcription factors has been identified and characterized by the presence of a conserved DNA-binding domain comprising three Krüppel-like zinc fingers. Each distinct family member differs in its ability to regulate transcription, and, as a consequence, to influence cellular processes. Specific activation and repression domains located within the N-terminal regions of these proteins are responsible for these differences by facilitating interactions with various co-activators and co-repressors. The present review primarily focuses on discussing the structural, biochemical and biological functions of the repressor members of this family of transcription factors. The existence of these transcriptional repressors provides a tightly regulated mechanism for silencing a large number of genes that are already known to be activated by Sp1. PMID:16266294

  20. Clinical problems of sloths (Bradypus sp. and Choloepus sp.) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Diniz, L S; Oliveira, P M

    1999-03-01

    A 20-yr retrospective study of disease prevalence was carried out for 51 sloths (34 Bradypus sp. and 17 Choloepus sp.) at the São Paulo Zoo. A total of 81 clinical disorders were detected, including nutritional (45.7%), digestive (12.3%), and respiratory (12.3%) problems and injuries (6.1%). A definitive diagnosis was not possible in 8.6% of the cases. The incidence of disease varied according to seasonal climate (winter, 32.5%; spring, 24%; summer, 22.9%; autumn, 20.5%), time in captivity (96.4% of diseases occurred within the first 6 mo and 3.6% occurred thereafter), and type of enclosure (quarantine cage, 96.4%; exhibition enclosure, 3.6%). Both young animals (86.7%) and adults (3.2%) were affected. Parasites were identified by fecal examination in 45.4% of animals with clinical illness (Ascaris sp., 80%; Coccidia sp., 20%). Bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii were isolated from feces and/or organs. The first 6 mo in captivity are critical for these animals. Proper management and early identification of medical conditions in captivity have implications for sloth population in the wild.

  1. Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a Parasite of Midges (Chironomus sp. Chironomidae) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    de Doucet, Maria M. A.; Poinar, George O.

    1984-01-01

    Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the Arroyo Saldan River in Córdoba, Argentina. This species parasitizes midges of the genus Chironomus (Chironomidae: Diptera). It is distinguished from other members of the genus by the presence of six longitudinal chords, vulval flaps, degree of ventral displacement of the mouth, and size and shape of the spicule and amphids. PMID:19294020

  2. SP-100 fuel pin performance results from the SP-3RR irradiation test

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, D.M.; Makenas, B.J. )

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the SP-100 Program is to verify and validate the design of a compact, fast-spectrum nuclear reactor capable of producing tens to hundreds of kilowatts of electrical power in support of a broad range of space applications. The heat source for thermoelectric power generation in the SP-100 reactor design is fuel pins using high-density uranium nitride (UN) fuel, a refractory alloy liner, and niobium-1 % zirconium (Nb-1Zr) alloy cladding. A total of 86 experimental fuel pins with various fuel, liner, and cladding candidate materials have been irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor as part of the SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program. Postirradiation examination results from these fuel pins are key in establishing performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the reactor fuel system. This paper provides a brief description of the SP-3RR fuel pin test and presents the first irradiation data on the performance of wrought rhenium liner material and UN fuel at goal burnup of 6 at.%.

  3. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1993-01-01

    Interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments are defined. SP-100 payloads will float 100 V negative of the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma. Choice of proper geometries and materials will prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in LEO. Care in selecting surface coatings will prevent dielectric breakdown. Sputtering is a concern for long-duration LEO missions. Atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials will be tested in ground and flight tests. Evaluation of SP-100 in lunar and planetary environments has begun. The report of a recent workshop on Chemical and Electrical Interactions on Mars identified many of the primary interactions.

  4. IBM SP high-performance networking with a GRF.

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, J.P.

    1999-05-27

    Increasing use of highly distributed applications, demand for faster data exchange, and highly parallel applications can push the limits of conventional external networking for IBM SP sites. In technical computing applications we have observed a growing use of a pipeline of hosts and networks collaborating to collect, process, and visualize large amounts of realtime data. The GRF, a high-performance IP switch from Ascend and IBM, is the first backbone network switch to offer a media card that can directly connect to an SP Switch. This enables switch attached hosts in an SP complex to communicate at near SP Switch speeds with other GRF attached hosts and networks.

  5. Auxiliary-assisted palladium-catalyzed arylation and alkylation of sp2 and sp3 carbon-hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Shabashov, Dmitry; Daugulis, Olafs

    2010-03-24

    We have developed a method for auxiliary-directed, palladium-catalyzed beta-arylation and alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds in carboxylic acid derivatives. The method employs a carboxylic acid 2-methylthioaniline- or 8-aminoquinoline amide substrate, aryl or alkyl iodide coupling partner, palladium acetate catalyst, and an inorganic base. By employing 2-methylthioaniline auxiliary, selective monoarylation of primary sp(3) C-H bonds can be achieved. If arylation of secondary sp(3) C-H bonds is desired, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary may be used. For alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary affords the best results. Some functional group tolerance is observed and amino- and hydroxy-acid derivatives can be functionalized. Preliminary mechanistic studies have been performed. A palladacycle intermediate has been isolated, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and its reactions have been studied.

  6. The marine mites Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp. Associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Rentería, Y G; Curiel-Ramírez, S; Valdéz, J A; Rivas, G

    2000-10-01

    Two species of marine mites belonging to the families Hyadesiidae and Halacaridae, Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp., respectively, were found associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from Baja California in NW México. The first species was found inside the mussel gut with an intensity ranging from one to six mites per mussel and their prevalence was from 20.0 to 46.7%; this species was also found living free in the sediment at a density of 0.7 mite/100 ml. The second species was found on the mantle and gills of the host with an intensity ranging from one to three mites per host and their prevalence was from 3.3 to 6.7%; this species was abundant (4.5 mites/100 ml) and living free in the sediment around mussel clumps. Hyadesia sp. was found alive and attached in the gut of the mussel. A histological analysis revealed this species in the lumen of intestine surrounded by mucus and attached to the epithelial cells of the intestine, where some disorder of epithelial cells was associated. Moreover, this mite may be encapsulated by hemocytes inside the digestive diverticulum, the reproductive follicle, or the connective tissue surrounding the diverticulum. No damages to branches or gills resulting from the presence of Copidognathus sp. were observed. The results suggest that these mites are occasional invaders of mussels; however, as a result of this infestation, Hyadesia sp. may produce damage in the host's tissues. This is the first record of marine mites inside the gut, reproductive follicles, branches, and mantle of a marine bivalve.

  7. SP-100 Space Reactor Power System readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josloff, A. T.; Matteo, D. N.; Bailey, H. S.

    The SP-100 Space Reactor Power System is being developed by GE, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, to provide electrical power in the range of 10's to 100's of kW. The system represents an enabling technology for a wide variety of earth orbital and interplanetary science missions, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stages, and lunar/Mars surface power for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An effective infrastructure of Industry, National Laboratories and Government agencies has made substantial progress since the 1988 System Design Review. Hardware development and testing has progressed to the point of resolving all key technical feasibility issues. The technology and design is now at a state of readiness to support the definition of early flight demonstration missions. Of particular importance is that SP-100 meets the demanding U.S. safety, performance, reliability and life requirements. The system is scalable and flexible and can be configured to provide 10's to 100's of kWe without repeating development work and can meet DoD goals for an early, low-power demonstration flight in the 1996 - 1997 time frame.

  8. Development and Dynamics of Pseudomonas sp. Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Brinch, Ulla C.; Ragas, Paula C.; Andersen, Jens Bo; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr; Molin, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 and Pseudomonas putida OUS82 were genetically tagged with the green fluorescent protein and the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein, and the development and dynamics occurring in flow chamber-grown two-colored monospecies or mixed-species biofilms were investigated by the use of confocal scanning laser microscopy. Separate red or green fluorescent microcolonies were formed initially, suggesting that the initial small microcolonies were formed simply by growth of substratum attached cells and not by cell aggregation. Red fluorescent microcolonies containing a few green fluorescent cells and green fluorescent microcolonies containing a few red fluorescent cells were frequently observed in both monospecies and two-species biofilms, suggesting that the bacteria moved between the microcolonies. Rapid movement of P. putida OUS82 bacteria inside microcolonies was observed before a transition from compact microcolonies to loose irregularly shaped protruding structures occurred. Experiments involving a nonflagellated P. putida OUS82 mutant suggested that the movements between and inside microcolonies were flagellum driven. The results are discussed in relation to the prevailing hypothesis that biofilm bacteria are in a physiological state different from planktonic bacteria. PMID:11053394

  9. Arsenite Oxidase from Ralstonia sp. 22

    PubMed Central

    Lieutaud, Aurélie; van Lis, Robert; Duval, Simon; Capowiez, Line; Muller, Daniel; Lebrun, Régine; Lignon, Sabrina; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Lett, Marie-Claire; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    We characterized the aro arsenite oxidation system in the novel strain Ralstonia sp. 22, a β-proteobacterium isolated from soil samples of the Salsigne mine in southern France. The inducible aro system consists of a heterodimeric membrane-associated enzyme reacting with a dedicated soluble cytochrome c554. Our biochemical results suggest that the weak association of the enzyme to the membrane probably arises from a still unknown interaction partner. Analysis of the phylogeny of the aro gene cluster revealed that it results from a lateral gene transfer from a species closely related to Achromobacter sp. SY8. This constitutes the first clear cut case of such a transfer in the Aro phylogeny. The biochemical study of the enzyme demonstrates that it can accommodate in vitro various cytochromes, two of which, c552 and c554, are from the parent species. Cytochrome c552 belongs to the sox and not the aro system. Kinetic studies furthermore established that sulfite and sulfide, substrates of the sox system, are both inhibitors of Aro activity. These results reinforce the idea that sulfur and arsenic metabolism are linked. PMID:20421652

  10. Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. isolated from seaweed.

    PubMed

    Du, Zong-Jun; Lv, Guo-Qiang; Rooney, Alejandro P; Miao, Ting-Ting; Xu, Qing-Qiang; Chen, Guan-Jun

    2011-03-01

    A novel agarase-producing, non-endospore-forming marine bacterium, WH0801(T), was isolated from a fresh seaweed sample collected from the coast of Weihai, China. Preliminary characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that WH0801(T) shared 96.1  % similarity with Agarivorans albus MKT 106(T), the type species of the genus Agarivorans. A polyphasic taxonomic study was conducted and confirmed the phylogenetic affiliation of strain WH0801(T) to the genus Agarivorans. Isolate WH0801(T) produces light-yellow-pigmented colonies; cells are Gram-stain-negative, straight or curved rods, which are motile with a single polar flagellum. Strain WH0801(T) grew in 0.5-5  % NaCl, with optimum growth at 3  % NaCl, and its optimal pH and cultivation temperature were 8.4-8.6 and 28-32 °C, respectively. Data from biochemical tests, whole-cell fatty acid profiling, 16S rRNA gene sequence studies and DNA-DNA hybridization clearly indicated that isolate WH0801(T) represented a novel species within the genus Agarivorans, for which the name Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Agarivorans gilvus sp. nov. is WH0801(T) (=NRRL B-59247(T) =CGMCC 1.10131(T)).

  11. Importance of fundamental sp, sp2, and sp3 hydrocarbon radicals in the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Bikau; Koshi, Mitsuo

    2012-06-05

    The most basic chemistry of products formation in hydrocarbons pyrolysis has been explored via a comparative experimental study on the roles of fundamental sp, sp(2), and sp(3) hydrocarbon radicals/intermediates such as ethyne/ethynyl (C(2)H(2)/C(2)H), ethene/ethenyl (C(2)H(4)/C(2)H(3)), and methane/methyl (CH(4)/CH(3)) in products formations. By using an in situ time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique, gas-phase products of pyrolysis of acetylene (ethyne, C(2)H(2)), ethylene (ethene, C(2)H(4)), and acetone (propanone, CH(3)COCH(3)) were detected and found to include small aliphatic products to large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of mass 324 amu. Observed products mass spectra showed a remarkable sequence of mass peaks at regular mass number intervals of 24, 26, or 14 indicating the role of the particular corresponding radicals, ethynyl (C(2)H), ethenyl (C(2)H(3)), or methyl (CH(3)), in products formation. The analysis of results revealed the following: (a) product formation in hydrocarbon pyrolysis is dominated by hydrogen abstraction and a vinyl (ethenyl, C(2)H(3)) radical addition (HAVA) mechanism, (b) contrary to the existing concept of termination of products mass growth at cyclopenta fused species like acenaphthylene, novel pathways forming large PAHs were found succeeding beyond such cyclopenta fused species by the further addition of C(2)H(x) or CH(3) radicals, (c) production of cyclopenta ring-fused PAHs (CP-PAHs) such as fluoranthene/corannulene appeared as a preferred route over benzenoid species like pyrene/coronene, (d) because of the high reactivity of the CH(3) radical, it readily converts unbranched products into products with aliphatic chains (branched product), and (e) some interesting novel products such as dicarbon monoxide (C(2)O), tricarbon monoxide (C(3)O), and cyclic ketones were detected especially in acetone pyrolysis. These results finally suggest that existing kinetic models of product formation should be modified to include

  12. Mycobacterium marseillense sp. nov., Mycobacterium timonense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense sp. nov., members of the Mycobacterium avium complex.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Iskandar; Cayrou, Caroline; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2009-11-01

    An rpoB sequence-based evaluation of 100 Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) clinical isolates led to the identification of five respiratory tract isolates that were potential representatives of three novel MAC species. Distinctive phenotypic features of isolates 62863 and 5356591(T) included a pseudomycelium morphology and both esterase and acid phosphatase activities. These two isolates exhibited sequence similarities of 99.8 % for the 16S rRNA gene, 86.3 and 86.1 % for 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) sequence, 96.7 and 97.8 % for rpoB and 97.6 and 97.4 % for hsp65, respectively, with the type strain of Mycobacterium chimaera, the most closely related species. Isolates 3256799 and 5351974(T) lacked alpha-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase activities. They exhibited sequence similarities of 99.6 % for the 16S rRNA gene, 90.1 and 90.4 % for ITS-1, 97.8 % for rpoB and 98.0 and 98.1 % for hsp65, respectively, with the type strain of M. chimaera, the most closely related species. Isolate 4355387(T) lacked urease and alpha-glucosidase activities, but it exhibited valine arylamidase, cystine arylamidase and acid phosphatase activities. It had sequence similarities of 99.3 % for the 16S rRNA gene, 51.8 % for ITS-1, 97.1 % for rpoB and 97.8 % for hsp65 with the type strain of Mycobacterium colombiense, the most closely related species. A phylogenetic tree based on concatenated 16S rRNA gene, ITS-1, rpoB and hsp65 sequences showed the uniqueness of these five isolates as representatives of three novel species, with bootstrap values >/=95 % in all nodes. On the basis of these phenotypic and genetic characteristics, these five isolates are proposed as representatives of three novel MAC species: Mycobacterium marseillense sp. nov., with strain 5356591(T) (=CCUG 56325(T) =CIP 109828(T) =CSUR P30(T)) as the type strain; Mycobacterium timonense sp. nov., with strain 5351974(T) (=CCUG 56329(T) =CIP 109830(T) =CSUR P32(T)) as the type strain; and Mycobacterium

  13. The Effect of Acupuncture to SP6 on Skin Temperature Changes of SP6 and SP10: An Observation of "Deqi".

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Min; Shen, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Ling; Shen, Song-Xi; Qi, Dan-Dan; Zhu, Shi-Peng; Luo, Li; Ren, Xiao-Xuan; Ji, Bo; Zhang, Lu-Fen; Li, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Background. Deqi sensation is a complex but an important component for acupuncture effect. In this study, we tried to observe the relationship between Deqi and skin temperature changes and whether there was some relativity between Deqi and needle stimulations on cold congealing and dysmenorrhea rat model. Thirty-two female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups (Saline Control Group, Model Group, Group A with strong stimulation, and Group B with small stimulation). Group A and Group B were performed with different stimulations. We found that, compared with saline control group, model group, and Group B, Group A showed that the skin temperature changes on right acupoint SP6 and SP10 increased significantly at 5 min-10 min interval. The skin temperature changes on left SP6 decreased at instant-5 min interval. The skin temperature changes on right SP10 decreased significantly at instant-5 min interval and 10 min-20 min interval. Thermogenic action along Spleen Meridian of Foot Greater Yin was manifested as simultaneous skin temperature increase on right SP6 and SP10 at 5 min-10 min interval after needling SP6, which was helpful to illustrate the relationship between the characteristic of Deqi and needle stimulations.

  14. The Effect of Acupuncture to SP6 on Skin Temperature Changes of SP6 and SP10: An Observation of “Deqi”

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jia-Min; Shen, Xiao-Yu; Shen, Song-Xi; Qi, Dan-Dan; Luo, Li; Ren, Xiao-Xuan; Ji, Bo; Zhang, Lu-Fen; Li, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Background. Deqi sensation is a complex but an important component for acupuncture effect. In this study, we tried to observe the relationship between Deqi and skin temperature changes and whether there was some relativity between Deqi and needle stimulations on cold congealing and dysmenorrhea rat model. Thirty-two female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups (Saline Control Group, Model Group, Group A with strong stimulation, and Group B with small stimulation). Group A and Group B were performed with different stimulations. We found that, compared with saline control group, model group, and Group B, Group A showed that the skin temperature changes on right acupoint SP6 and SP10 increased significantly at 5 min–10 min interval. The skin temperature changes on left SP6 decreased at instant–5 min interval. The skin temperature changes on right SP10 decreased significantly at instant–5 min interval and 10 min–20 min interval. Thermogenic action along Spleen Meridian of Foot Greater Yin was manifested as simultaneous skin temperature increase on right SP6 and SP10 at 5 min–10 min interval after needling SP6, which was helpful to illustrate the relationship between the characteristic of Deqi and needle stimulations. PMID:24665334

  15. Genetic complexity of the human surfactant-associated proteins SP-A1 and SP-A2

    PubMed Central

    Silveyra, Patricia; Floros, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays a key role in innate lung host defense, in surfactant-related functions, and in parturition. In the course of evolution, the genetic complexity of SP-A has increased, particularly in the regulatory regions (i.e. promoter, untranslated regions). Although most species have a single SP-A gene, two genes encode SP-A in humans and primates (SFTPA1and SFTPA2). This may account for the multiple functions attributed to human SP-A, as well as the regulatory complexity of its expression by a relatively diverse set of protein and non-protein cellular factors. The interplay between enhancer cis-acting DNA sequences and trans-acting proteins that recognize these DNA elements is essential for gene regulation, primarily at the transcription initiation level. Furthermore, regulation at the mRNA level is essential to ensure proper physiological levels of SP-A under different conditions. To date, numerous studies have shown significant complexity of the regulation of SP-A expression at different levels, including transcription, splicing, mRNA decay, and translation. A number of trans-acting factors have also been described to play a role in the control of SP-A expression. The aim of this report is to describe the genetic complexity of the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 genes, as well as to review regulatory mechanisms that control SP-A expression in humans and other animal species. PMID:23069847

  16. Lung Surfactant Protein A (SP-A) Interactions with Model Lung Surfactant Lipids and an SP-B Fragment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is the most abundant protein component of lung surfactant, a complex mixture of proteins and lipids. SP-A performs host defense activities and modulates the biophysical properties of surfactant in concerted action with surfactant protein B (SP-B). Current models of lung surfactant mechanism generally assume SP-A functions in its octadecameric form. However, one of the findings of this study is that when SP-A is bound to detergent and lipid micelles that mimic lung surfactant phospholipids, it exists predominantly as smaller oligomers, in sharp contrast to the much larger forms observed when alone in water. These investigations were carried out in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), lysomyristoylphosphatidylcholine (LMPC), lysomyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (LMPG), and mixed LMPC + LMPG micelles, using solution and diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We have also probed SP-A’s interaction with Mini-B, a biologically active synthetic fragment of SP-B, in the presence of micelles. Despite variations in Mini-B’s own interactions with micelles of different compositions, SP-A is found to interact with Mini-B in all micelle systems and perhaps to undergo a further structural rearrangement upon interacting with Mini-B. The degree of SP-A–Mini-B interaction appears to be dependent on the type of lipid headgroup and is likely mediated through the micelles, rather than direct binding. PMID:21553841

  17. Lung surfactant protein A (SP-A) interactions with model lung surfactant lipids and an SP-B fragment.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Muzaddid; Jackman, Donna; Booth, Valerie

    2011-06-07

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is the most abundant protein component of lung surfactant, a complex mixture of proteins and lipids. SP-A performs host defense activities and modulates the biophysical properties of surfactant in concerted action with surfactant protein B (SP-B). Current models of lung surfactant mechanism generally assume SP-A functions in its octadecameric form. However, one of the findings of this study is that when SP-A is bound to detergent and lipid micelles that mimic lung surfactant phospholipids, it exists predominantly as smaller oligomers, in sharp contrast to the much larger forms observed when alone in water. These investigations were carried out in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), lysomyristoylphosphatidylcholine (LMPC), lysomyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (LMPG), and mixed LMPC + LMPG micelles, using solution and diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We have also probed SP-A's interaction with Mini-B, a biologically active synthetic fragment of SP-B, in the presence of micelles. Despite variations in Mini-B's own interactions with micelles of different compositions, SP-A is found to interact with Mini-B in all micelle systems and perhaps to undergo a further structural rearrangement upon interacting with Mini-B. The degree of SP-A-Mini-B interaction appears to be dependent on the type of lipid headgroup and is likely mediated through the micelles, rather than direct binding.

  18. Microfungi on the Pandanaceae: Linocarpon lammiae sp. nov., L. siamensis sp. nov. and L. suthepensis sp. nov. are described with a key to Linocarpon species from the Pandanaceae.

    PubMed

    Thongkantha, S; Lumyong, S; Lumyong, P; Whitton, S R; McKenzie, E H C; Hyde, K D

    2003-01-01

    Linocarpon species are reported from Pandanaceae in Australia, Brunei, Hong Kong, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Seychelles, Thailand and Vanuatu. Linocarpon lammiae sp. nov. were collected on decaying leaves of Pandanus tectorius in Hong Kong. Linocarpon siamensis sp. nov. and L. suthepensis sp. nov. were collected from decaying leaves of P. penetrans in Thailand. These taxa are described, illustrated and compared with Linocarpon species with similar ascospore morphology and dimensions. Included are a synoptic table, which compares the new species to similar known species, and a dichotomous key to species of Linocarpon known from members of the Pandanaceae.

  19. Terriglobus saanensis sp. nov., an acidobacterium isolated from tundra soil.

    PubMed

    Männistö, Minna K; Rawat, Suman; Starovoytov, Valentin; Häggblom, Max M

    2011-08-01

    Two aerobic bacterial strains, designated SP1PR4(T) and SP1PR5, were isolated from tundra soil samples collected from Saana fjeld, North-western Finland (69° 03' N 20° 50' E). Cells of both strains were Gram-negative, non-motile rods. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strains belong to the genus Terriglobus in subdivision 1 of the phylum Acidobacteria. Strains SP1PR4(T) and SP1PR5 shared identical BOX and ERIC fingerprints and 99.7 % 16S rRNA gene similarity indicating that, together with their identical physiological features, these strains are members of the same species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of SP1PR4(T) and SP1PR5 with Terriglobus roseus DSM 18391(T) was 97.1 %. A low DNA-DNA hybridization value (<20 %) and rpoB gene sequence similarity (83.6 %) with T. roseus DSM 18391(T) indicated that the tundra soil isolates represent novel members of the genus Terriglobus. Strains SP1PR4(T) and SP1PR5 grew at pH 4.5-7.5 and 4-30 °C. Sugars were the preferred growth substrates. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 1)ω7c, iso-C(13 : 0) and C(16 : 0). The DNA G+C content of strain SP1PR4(T) was 57.3 mol%. Based on phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological analyses, the name Terriglobus saanensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the two strains; the type strain is SP1PR4(T) ( = DSM 23119(T)  = ATCC BAA-1853(T)).

  20. Lignin Degradation by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is one of the most important diseases of soybean. Lignin degradation may play a role in the infection, colonization, and survival of the fungus in root tissue . Lignin degradation by F. solani f. sp...

  1. Meroterpenes from Penicillium sp found in association with Melia azedarach.

    PubMed

    Geris dos Santos, Regina M; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2002-12-01

    A Penicillium sp was isolated from the root bark of Melia azedarach and cultivated over sterilized rice. After chromatographic procedures, two meroterpenes, named preaustinoid A and B, were obtained in addition to the known alkaloid verruculogen. Their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic studies, and they exhibited moderate bacteriostatic effects on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Shewanella sp. Strain CP20

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Carla; Martin Tay, Qi Xiang; Sun, Shuyang

    2015-01-01

    Shewanella sp. CP20 is a marine bacterium that survives ingestion by Tetrahymena pyriformis and is expelled from the protozoan within membrane-bound vacuoles, where the bacterial cells show long-term survival. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Shewanella sp. CP20 and discuss the potential mechanisms facilitating intraprotozoan survival. PMID:25858840

  3. LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

  4. HANSENULA WICKERHAMII SP. N., A NEW YEAST FROM FINNISH SOIL

    PubMed Central

    Capriotti, Augusto

    1961-01-01

    Capriotti, Augusto (l'Università di Perugia, Perugia, Italy). Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n., a new yeast from Finnish soil. J. Bacteriol. 82:259–360. 1961.—Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n. is described; it was isolated from a Finnish soil, and is named in honor of Lynferd J. Wickerham. Images PMID:13690638

  5. Sp4-dependent repression of Neurotrophin-3 limits dendritic branching

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Belén; Valín, Alvaro; Sun, Xinxin; Gill, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of neuronal gene expression is critical to establish functional connections in the mammalian nervous system. The transcription factor Sp4 regulates dendritic patterning during cerebellar granule neuron development by limiting branching and promoting activity-dependent pruning. Here, we investigate neurotrophin-3 (NT3) as a target gene important for Sp4-dependent dendritic morphogenesis. We found that Sp4 overexpression reduced NT3 promoter activity whereas knockdown of Sp4 increased NT3 promoter activity and mRNA. Moreover, Sp4 bound to the NT3 promoter in vivo, supporting a direct role for Sp4 as a repressor of NT3 expression. Addition of exogenous NT3 promoted dendritic branching in cerebellar granule neurons. Furthermore, sequestering NT3 blocked the continued addition of dendritic branches observed upon Sp4 knockdown, but had no effect on dendrite pruning. These findings demonstrate that, during cerebellar granule neuron development, Sp4-dependent repression of neurotrophin-3 is required to limit dendritic branching and thereby promote acquisition of the mature dendritic pattern. PMID:19555762

  6. Occurrence and Clinical Relevance of Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov., Germany

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Oliver; Richter, Elvira; Göbel, Ulf B.; Petrich, Annette; Buchholz, Petra; Moter, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Retrospective molecular genetic analysis of 166 Mycobacterium intracellulare isolates showed that 143 (86%) strains could be assigned to Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov. Of 97 patients from whom M. chimaera sp. nov. was isolated, only 3.3% exhibited mycobacterial lung disease, whereas all M. intracellulare isolates caused severe pulmonary infections. PMID:18760016

  7. [Direct identification of Myristica fragrans and Myristica sp. by FTIR].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixiang; Cheng, Cungui; Li, Binglan

    2003-01-01

    To directly and accurately identify Myristica fragrans and Myristica sp. Fourier transform infrare(FTIR) spectrum method was used. There were obvious differences between the FTIR spectrums of above-mentioned plants. Myristica fragrans and Myristica sp. were identificated by FTIR directly, fast and accurately.

  8. LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas sp. Strain EERV15

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Elham; Barrantes, Israel; Vandermaesen, Johanna; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Boon, Nico; Springael, Dirk; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas sp. strain EERV15 isolated from sand filter. The organism most closely related to Aeromonas sp. EERV15 is Aeromonas veronii B565, with an average 83% amino acid sequence similarity of putatively encoded protein open reading frames. PMID:27540061

  10. Occurrence and clinical relevance of Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov., Germany.

    PubMed

    Schweickert, Birgitta; Goldenberg, Oliver; Richter, Elvira; Göbel, Ulf B; Petrich, Annette; Buchholz, Petra; Moter, Annette

    2008-09-01

    Retrospective molecular genetic analysis of 166 Mycobacterium intracellulare isolates showed that 143 (86%) strains could be assigned to Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov. Of 97 patients from whom M. chimaera sp. nov. was isolated, only 3.3% exhibited mycobacterial lung disease, whereas all M. intracellulare isolates caused severe pulmonary infections.

  11. Dactylosporangium maewongense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Chiaraphongphon, Suthamat; Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Tamura, Tomohiko; Thawai, Chitti

    2010-05-01

    Morphological and chemotaxonomic characterization of actinomycete strain MW2-25(T), isolated from tropical forest soil in Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand, clearly demonstrated that this strain belongs to the genus Dactylosporangium. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences also indicated that this strain should be classified in the genus Dactylosporangium and showed that the closest relative was Dactylosporangium aurantiacum IFO 12592(T) (99.3 % sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization values and some physiological and biochemical properties indicated that this strain could be readily distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relatives. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic data, this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Dactylosporangium maewongense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MW2-25(T) (=BCC 34832(T)=JCM 15933(T)).

  12. Binary NS simulations using SpEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Roland; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Ott, Christian; Szilagyi, Bela; Scheel, Mark; Moesta, Philipp; Duez, Matthew; Foucart, Francois

    2012-03-01

    NSNS binaries are expected to be one of the major sources of gravitational radiation detectable by Advanced LIGO. Together with neutrinos, gravitational waves are our only means to learn about the processes deep within a merging pair of NS, shedding light on the as yet poorly understood, equation of state governing matter at nuclear densities and beyond. We report on binary neutron star simulations using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA-WSU collaboration. We simulate the inspiral through many orbits, follow the post-merger evolution, and compute the full gravitational wave signal. We provide estimates on the accuracy required for the LIGO scientific goals of constraining EOS parameters.

  13. Binary NS simulations using SpEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Roland; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Szilagyi, Bela; Muhlberger, Curran; Foucart, Francois; Lippuner, Jonas; Scheel, Mark; Duez, Matthew; Ott, Christian

    2013-04-01

    NSNS binaries are expected to be one of the major sources of gravitational radiation detectable by Advanced LIGO. Together with neutrinos, gravitational waves are our only means to learn about the processes deep within a merging pair of NS, shedding light on the as yet poorly understood, equation of state governing matter at nuclear densities and beyond. We report on binary neutron star simulations using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA-WSU collaboration. We simulate the inspiral through many orbits, follow the post-merger evolution, and compute the full gravitational wave signal. We provide estimates on the accuracy required for the LIGO scientific goals of constraining EOS parameters.

  14. The Behavior of Heterolepidoderma sp. (Gastrotricha).

    PubMed

    Banchetti, R; Nicola, R

    1998-01-01

    The behavior of Heterolepidoderma sp. was studied with the same approach as those already used for many species of ciliates. The ethogram we drew comprehends both helicoidal swimming (n = 20, r = 52.5 +/-12.2 mum, pitch = 512 +/- 101 mum, v--> = 215 +/- 43 mum/sec), periodically interrupted by irregular patterns changing the direction of the swimming of random angles and creeping on the substrate. The latter behavioral state, very common for the species we studied, occurs along tracks formed by successive elements (circular, C, vs linear segments, S) joined to each other by two kinds of reactions, which change their trajectory. The surprising similarities and the unexpected differences between the behavior of this gastrotrich and those of the ciliates already studied from this point of view are discussed, on the basis of the dimensional ranges and ecological niches shared by these two, definitely unrelated groups of organisms.

  15. Electron microscope study of Sarcocystis sp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeve, V.H.; Price, D.L.; Herman, C.M.

    1966-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. obtained from wild populations of grackles, Quiscalus quiscula (Linn.), were examined to clarify the effect of the parasite on the host. Electron micrographs are presented to show areas of muscle destruction adjacent to the parasite which appear to be mechanically produced by the parasite. The microtubules within the villus-like projections of the cyst suggest that their possible function is absorptive and/or conductive with regard to the production of a toxin or the conveyance of nutritive material to the developing cells. The proposed function of submembranous filaments and their relation to the conoid is discussed. Similarities in the ultrastructure to Toxoplasma and other protozoa tend to negate the relegation of Sarcocystis to the fungi and further emphasize its protozoan nature.

  16. Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., isolated from lichen.

    PubMed

    Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Inahashi, Yuki; Kudo, Takuji; Mori, Mihoko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Takahashi, Yoko; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-01-01

    A novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, strain LDG1-22T, for which we propose the name Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., was isolated from a lichen sample collected from tree bark in Thailand. The taxonomic position of the species has been described based on a polyphasic approach. Strain LDG1-22T produced irregular sporangia on agar media. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H4); the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylglycerol. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained ribose, glucose, mannose and small amounts of arabinose and xylose. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (31.2 %) and iso-C16 : 0 (14.2 %). Mycolic acids were absent. The G+C content was 73.6 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain LDG1-22T showed highest similarity (98.8 %) to Actinoplanes friuliensis DSM 45797T and it clustered with Actinoplanes nipponensis JCM 3264T and Actinoplanes missouriensis JCM 3121T in phylogenetic tree analysis. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness, strain LDG1-22T could be distinguished from related species of the genus Actinoplanes and so represents a novel species of this genus. The type strain of Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov. is LDG1-22T ( = JCM 30485T = TISTR 2343T = PCU 344T).

  17. The classical dynamic symmetry for the Sp(1)-Kepler problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouarroudj, Sofiane; Meng, Guowu

    2017-09-01

    A Poisson realization of the simple real Lie algebra so *(4 n ) on the phase space of each Sp(1)-Kepler problem is exhibited. As a consequence, one obtains the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector for each classical Sp(1)-Kepler problem. The verification of these Poisson realizations is greatly simplified via an idea of Weinstein. The totality of these Poisson realizations is shown to be equivalent to the canonical Poisson realization of so *(4 n ) on the Poisson manifold T*H*n/Sp(1). (Here H*n≔Hn{0} and the Hamiltonian action of Sp(1) on T*H*n is induced from the natural right action of Sp(1) on H*n.)

  18. Rate-distortion analysis of SP and SI frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setton, Eric; Girod, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    SP and SI frames in the H.264 video coding standard can be used for error resilience, bitstream switching or random access. Despite a widespread interest in these new types of frames, no work so far has investigated, in a systematic way, their rate-distortion efficiency. In this paper, we propose a model for the rate-distortion performance of SI and SP frames. A comparison to experimental results, obtained with our implementation of an SP encoder, recently adopted by JVT, confirms its validity. The model predicts how the relative sizes of SP and SI frames can be traded off. We analyze, both theoretically and experimentally, how this can be used to minimize the transmitted bit-rate when SP frames are used for video streaming with packet losses.

  19. Cryptococcus foliicola sp. nov. and Cryptococcus taibaiensis sp. nov., novel basidiomycetous yeast species from plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi-Ming; Boekhout, Teun; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2011-01-01

    A molecular taxonomic investigation performed on basidiomycetous yeast strains isolated from plant leaves collected in two areas of China revealed two novel species, Cryptococcus foliicola sp. nov. (type strain HS 23.3(T) = AS 2.2471(T) = CBS 9920(T)) and Cryptococcus taibaiensis sp. nov. (type strain ST 7.9(T) = AS 2.2444(T) = CBS 9919(T)), among the non ballistoconidium-forming strains producing cream-colored colonies. These new species differed markedly from closely related species in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 26S rRNA D1/D2 region sequences. They clustered in a strongly supported clade represented by Cryptococcus victoriae in the Tremellales group in the phylogenetic trees drawn from ITS and D1/D2 sequences.

  20. Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov., Antarctic basidioblastomycetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    New yeasts from the Ross Desert (dry valley area) of Antarctica include Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov. Cryptococcus socialis MYSW A801-3aY1 (= ATCC 56685) requires no vitamins, assimilates L-arabinose, cellobiose, D-glucuronate, maltose, melezitose, raffinose, soluble starch, sucrose, and trehalose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production, cellobiose assimilation, and failure to utilize nitrate, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%. Cryptococcus consortionis MYSW A801-3aY92 (= ATCC 56686) requires thiamine, assimilates L-arabinose, D-glucuronate, 2-ketogluconate, salicin, succinate, sucrose, trehalose, and D-xylose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production and failure to utilize nitrate, cellobiose, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%.

  1. [Degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene in contaminated soil by immobilized Zoogloea sp. and Fusarium sp].

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Li, P; Gong, Z; Li, B; Ju, J; He, X; Tai, P

    2001-08-01

    Immobilized with PVA, sodium alginate and activated carbon, both Zoogloea sp. and Fusarium sp. strains could degrade phenanthrene and pyrene efficiently. The optimal carrier was made of 100 rho.g-1 L PVA, 5 sodium alginate rho.g-1 L and 50 activated carbon rho.g-1 L. The degradation rates of phenanthrene and pyrene in 10 days were 87.48% and 75.34% by the immobilized bacterium, 37.04% and 20.85% higher than those by the free bacterium, and the rates in 15 days were 84.36% and 74.87% by the immobilized fungus, 5.35% and 11.23% higher than those by the free fungus.

  2. Ogataea ganodermae sp. nov., a methanol-assimilating yeast species isolated from basidiocarps of Ganoderma sp.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhao-Hui; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2008-06-01

    Three methanol-utilizing yeast strains were isolated from basidiocarps of Ganoderma sp. collected from a tree trunk in Mangshan Mountain, Hunan Province, southern China. These strains formed hat-shaped ascospores in unconjugated and deliquescent asci. Sequence analysis of the large-subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, electrophoretic karyotype comparison and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Ogataea, which is described as Ogataea ganodermae sp. nov. (type strain SHS 2.1(T) =CGMCC AS 2.3435(T) =CBS 10646(T)). Phylogenetically, the novel species was closely related to Ogataea pini and Ogataea henricii. The latter two taxa with similar D1/D2 sequences were confirmed to represent separate species by ITS sequence and electrophoretic karyotype comparisons.

  3. Xylanolytic enzyme systems in Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 and Lactobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Khandeparker, Rakhee; Jalal, Thasneem

    2015-01-01

    The production of extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase (α-l-AFase), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe) by marine Arthrobacter sp. and Lactobacillus sp. was investigated using different carbon sources. Induction and repression of all these enzymes differed with carbon source and also with the organism. Wheat bran was the best carbon source for the production of xylanase and α-l-AFase, whereas both isolates showed maximum Axe production when grown on oat bran as a carbon source. Preferential utilization of a carbon source for enzyme production can give us better insights into regulatory mechanism in these marine bacteria. Elution profile as well as zymogram analysis indicated the possibility of bifunctional α-l-AFase-Axes in both marine bacteria.

  4. Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov., Antarctic basidioblastomycetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    New yeasts from the Ross Desert (dry valley area) of Antarctica include Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov. Cryptococcus socialis MYSW A801-3aY1 (= ATCC 56685) requires no vitamins, assimilates L-arabinose, cellobiose, D-glucuronate, maltose, melezitose, raffinose, soluble starch, sucrose, and trehalose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production, cellobiose assimilation, and failure to utilize nitrate, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%. Cryptococcus consortionis MYSW A801-3aY92 (= ATCC 56686) requires thiamine, assimilates L-arabinose, D-glucuronate, 2-ketogluconate, salicin, succinate, sucrose, trehalose, and D-xylose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production and failure to utilize nitrate, cellobiose, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%.

  5. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, V. V. S.; Somvanshi, Vishal S.; Bajaj, Harish K.

    2015-01-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b’ = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c’ = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b’ = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c’ = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism. PMID:25861116

  6. Carbon-binding designer proteins that discriminate between sp2- and sp3-hybridized carbon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Brandon L; Rolandi, Marco; Baneyx, François

    2013-04-16

    Robust and simple strategies to directly functionalize graphene- and diamond-based nanostructures with proteins are of considerable interest for biologically-driven manufacturing, biosensing, and bioimaging. Here, we identify a new set of carbon-binding peptides that vary in overall hydrophobicity and charge and engineer two of these sequences (Car9 and Car15) within the framework of E. coli thioredoxin 1 (TrxA). We develop purification schemes to recover the resulting TrxA derivatives in a soluble form and conduct a detailed analysis of the mechanisms that underpin the interaction of the fusion proteins with carbonaceous surfaces. Although equilibrium quartz crystal microbalance measurements show that TrxA::Car9 and TrxA::Car15 have similar affinities for sp(2)-hybridized graphitic carbon (Kd = 50 and 90 nM, respectively), only the latter protein is capable of dispersing carbon nanotubes. Further investigation by surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy reveals that TrxA::Car15 interacts with sp(2)-bonded carbon through a combination of hydrophobic and π-π interactions but that TrxA::Car9 exhibits a cooperative mode of binding that relies on a combination of electrostatics and weaker π stacking. Consequently, we find that TrxA::Car9 binds equally well to sp(2)- and sp(3)-bonded (diamondlike) carbon particles whereas TrxA::Car15 is capable of discriminating between the two carbon allotropes. Our results emphasize the importance of understanding both bulk and molecular recognition events when exploiting the adhesive properties of solid-binding peptides and proteins in technological applications.

  7. Carbon-Binding Designer Proteins that Discriminate between sp2- and sp3-Hybridized Carbon Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Brandon L.; Rolandi, Marco; Baneyx, François

    2013-01-01

    Robust and simple strategies to directly functionalize graphene- and diamond-based nanostructures with proteins are of considerable interest for biologically driven manufacturing, biosensing and bioimaging. Here, we identify a new set of carbon binding peptides that vary in overall hydrophobicity and charge, and engineer two of these sequences (Car9 and Car15) within the framework of E. coli Thioredoxin 1 (TrxA). We develop purification schemes to recover the resulting TrxA derivatives in a soluble form and conduct a detailed analysis of the mechanisms that underpin the interaction of the fusion proteins with carbonaceous surfaces. Although equilibrium quartz crystal microbalance measurements show that TrxA∷Car9 and TrxA∷Car15 have similar affinity for sp2-hybridized graphitic carbon (Kd = 50 and 90 nM, respectively), only the latter protein is capable of dispersing carbon nanotubes. Further investigation by surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy reveals that TrxA∷Car15 interacts with sp2-bonded carbon through a combination of hydrophobic and π-π interactions but that TrxA∷Car9 exhibits a cooperative mode of binding which relies on a combination of electrostatics and weaker π-stacking. Consequently, we find that TrxA∷Car9 binds equally well to sp2- and sp3-bonded (diamond-like) carbon particles, while TrxA∷Car15 is capable of discriminating between the two carbon allotropes. Our results emphasize the importance of understanding both bulk and molecular recognition events when exploiting the adhesive properties of solid-binding peptides and proteins in technological applications. PMID:23510486

  8. Spermatogenesis of riffle bugs, Rhagovelia whitei and Rhagovelia sp (Veliidae), and backswimmers Martarega sp (Notonectidae).

    PubMed

    Castanhole, M M U; Pereira, L L V; de Souza, H V; Itoyama, M M

    2012-08-06

    We examined the course of spermatogenesis and the meiotic chromosome complements in aquatic species of true bugs, Heteroptera. The chromosome complement of the Veliidae species was 2n = 39 (38A + X0) and 23 (22A + X0) in Rhagovelia whitei and Rhagovelia sp, respectively, and in the species of the Notonectidae (Martarega sp) it was 26 (22A + 2m + XY); all collected from the region of São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil. An impressive characteristic of the first analysis was the size of the cells belonging to Martarega sp, which were six times larger than the same cells in Pentatomidae and twice as large as the cells in aquatic Heteroptera (Gerridae). Regarding spermatogenesis, all the species analyzed showed the same pattern: holocentric chromosomes and elongated spermatids with the chromatin distributed evenly along the head. The family Veliidae showed several bodies impregnated with silver nitrate at prophase, while the family Notonectidae displayed only one. The cells of Notonectidae also showed an evident and round body until the end of prophase I and in the family Veliidae the silver-impregnated bodies were disorganized, where the only region visualized was possibly that of the NOR. In metaphase, silver-stained regions were found at the periphery of all chromosomes in Veliidae and at the periphery of some chromosomes in Notonectidae. The spermatids of Veliidae showed a less silver-impregnated vesicle, while Notonectidae showed silver staining only in part of the nuclear membrane. Therefore, families of Heteroptera have some differences and features that can help identify and classify these species.

  9. Flavobacterium orientale sp. nov., isolated from lake water.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Yu-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, obligately aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, designated SP3T and SP38, were isolated from a cold-water lake in the west of China. A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed for the strains. Alignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains SP3T and SP38 were associated with the genus Flavobacterium and were most closely related to Flavobacterium lacus NP180T (96.4 % sequence similarity), Flavobacterium ponti GSW-R14T (95.6 %) and Flavobacterium yanchengense hgT (95.3 %). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains SP3T and SP38 were 34.9 and 34.6 mol%, respectively. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, summed feature 9 (iso-C17 : 1ω9c and/or 10-methyl C16 : 0), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH. The unique respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid and several unidentified polar lipids. Based on physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic data for these isolates, it was confirmed that strains SP3T and SP38 were affiliated to the genus Flavobacterium and represented a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium orientale sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SP3T (=CGMCC 1.12506T=NBRC 109717T).

  10. [Substrate specificity of collagenase of Streptomyces sp. 1349 and keratinase of Streptomyces sp. 1382].

    PubMed

    Matseliukh, O V; Varbanets', L D

    2005-01-01

    The paper determines the action specificity concerning the bonding type of collagenases of Strepomyces sp. 1349 and keratinases of Streptomyces sp. 1382. Experimental data obtained evidence for the wide specificity of the obtained enzymatic drugs. It has been established that both collagenases and keratinases display high specificity in respect of the bonds made by the residues of hydrophobic amino acids. Collagenases of Streptomyces sp. 1349, as to their wide action specificity, differed from collagenase of Clostridium histolyticum described in literature, that was confirmed by the results of double immunodiffusion in agar by Ouchterloni. Preparations of streptomycete collagenase obtained by the authors did not interact with serum obtained for highly purified collagenase of C. histolyticum of the firm "Merck". Investigation of the feather keratin lysates by the fractions of keratinases 1 and 2 have shown the difference in the content of amino acids released after hydrolysis that may be determined by different specificity of the enzymes action. Cysteine in the amount of 3.8% was also found in keratin lysate of the enzymatic fraction 1, that may evidence for the capacity of the fraction 1 to break the disulphide bonds in keratin molecule.

  11. H18 Carbon: A New Metallic Phase with sp2-sp3 Hybridized Bonding Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chun-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yao; Qin, Zhi-Jie; Ren, Xiao Yan; Wang, Jian-Tao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jia, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Design and synthesis of three-dimensional metallic carbons are currently one of the hot issues in contemporary condensed matter physics because of their fascinating properties. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we discover a novel stable metallic carbon allotrope (termed H18 carbon) in () symmetry with a mixed sp2-sp3 hybridized bonding network. The dynamical stability of H18 carbon is verified by phonon mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and its mechanical stability is analyzed by elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus. By simulating the x-ray diffraction patterns, we propose that H18 carbon would be one of the unidentified carbon phases observed in recent detonation experiments. The analysis of the band structure and density of states reveal that this new carbon phase has a metallic feature mainly due to the C atoms with sp2 hybridization. This novel 3D metallic carbon phase is anticipated to be useful for practical applications such as electronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26903234

  12. Direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. oil be using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-01-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of the isolated Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of fatty acid methyl ester by the direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. of macroalgae. Dimethyl carbonate was used as the extraction solvent and also as the reactant. The effect of solvent/algae ratio, water addition, catalyst, temperature, stirring and time on the direct transesterification was studied. The highest fatty acid methyl ester yield obtained under optimum conditions (5 g Oedogonium sp. powder, 7.5 ml of solvent (dimethyl carbonate)/g of algae, 8% catalyst (%wt/wt of oil), distilled water 1% (wt/wt of algae), 36 h, 55°C and 180 rpm) was 82%. Final product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and (1)H NMR analysis. The results showed that the isolated enzyme has good potential in catalyzing the direct transesterification of algae, and the dimethyl carbonate did not affect the activity of the isolated lipase. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Survey of Anisakis sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, S; Magnabosco, C; Civettini, M; Boffo, L; Mingarelli, G; Buratti, P; Giovanardi, O; Fortuna, C M; Arcangeli, G

    2015-05-04

    The occurrence of larval Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae in anchovies and sardines from the North Adriatic Sea has been estimated. Anisakis pegreffii and Hysterothylacium aduncum were reported, with low prevalence values. In brief, a total amount of 7650 fish specimens collected between September 2011 and 2012 were analysed using three different inspection analyses: a visual inspection of the coelomic cavity, an examination of the viscera exploiting the positive hydro-tropism of the larvae (modified Baermann technique) and enzymatic digestion of muscular tissue pools. Low level of infestation was reported for Anisakis sp. in both in anchovies and sardines, while higher values were reported for Hysterothylacium sp. Subsamples of nematodes collected were characterized at species level using the molecular diagnostic key based on ITS nuclear ribosomal region, and A. pegreffii and H. aduncum were identified. The low prevalence of Anisakis sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea could be related to the peculiar distribution of cetaceans and carnivorous zooplankton in the investigated region and could be used as a potential tag to define oily fishes from this specific fishing area as at low-risk for anisakiasis.

  14. All-carbon sp-sp2 hybrid structures: Geometrical properties, current rectification, and current amplification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Junjun; Kwong, Gordon; Li, Ji; Fan, Zhiqiang; Deng, Xiaoqing; Tang, Guiping

    2013-01-01

    All-carbon sp-sp2 hybrid structures comprised of a zigzag-edged trigonal graphene (ZTG)and carbon chains are proposed and constructed as nanojunctions. It has been found that such simple hybrid structures possess very intriguing propertiesapp:addword:intriguing. The high-performance rectifying behaviors similar to macroscopic p-n junction diodes, such as a nearly linear positive-bias I-V curve (metallic behavior), a very small leakage current under negative bias (insulating behavior), a rather low threshold voltage, and a large bias region contributed to a rectification, can be predicted. And also, a transistor can be built by such a hybrid structure, which can show an extremely high current amplification. This is because a sp-hybrid carbon chain has a special electronic structure which can limit the electronic resonant tunneling of the ZTG to a unique and favorable situation. These results suggest that these hybrid structures might promise importantly potential applications for developing nano-scale integrated circuits. PMID:23999318

  15. Cryptococcus mujuensis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus cuniculi sp. nov., basidiomycetous yeasts isolated from wild rabbit faeces.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kee-Sun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Park, Yong-Ha; Lee, Kang Hyun; Poo, Haryoung; Kwon, Gi-Seok; Kwon, O-Yu

    2006-09-01

    Two previously undescribed anamorphic yeasts, strains T-11(T) and T-26(T), recovered from wild rabbit faecal pellets collected in Muju, Korea, were identified using phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. The isolates were characterized by the proliferation of budding cells, positive diazonium blue B and urease reactions, the presence of Q-10 as the major ubiquinone, the presence of xylose in whole-cell hydrolysates and the inability to ferment sugars. Phylogenetic analyses based on 26S rRNA gene partial sequences revealed that strain T-11(T) was located in the Bulleromyces clade and was related to Sirobasidium intermedium, Tremella exigua, Cryptococcus cellulolyticus and Bullera pseudoalba. Strain T-26(T) was located in the Mesenterica clade and was closely related to Cryptococcus sp. F6 and Cryptococcus heveanensis CBS 8976. Sequence divergence values of more than 4 % from other described Cryptococcus species, together with the phenotypic differences, showed that the isolated yeasts represent previously unrecognized members of this genus. Therefore, two novel yeast species are proposed: Cryptococcus mujuensis sp. nov., with strain T-11(T) (=KCTC 17231(T)=CBS 10308(T)) as the type strain, and Cryptococcus cuniculi sp. nov., with strain T-26(T) (=KCTC 17232(T)=CBS 10309(T)) as the type strain.

  16. H18 Carbon: A New Metallic Phase with sp2-sp3 Hybridized Bonding Network.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yao; Qin, Zhi-Jie; Ren, Xiao Yan; Wang, Jian-Tao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jia, Yu

    2016-02-23

    Design and synthesis of three-dimensional metallic carbons are currently one of the hot issues in contemporary condensed matter physics because of their fascinating properties. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we discover a novel stable metallic carbon allotrope (termed H18 carbon) in () symmetry with a mixed sp(2)-sp(3) hybridized bonding network. The dynamical stability of H18 carbon is verified by phonon mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and its mechanical stability is analyzed by elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus. By simulating the x-ray diffraction patterns, we propose that H18 carbon would be one of the unidentified carbon phases observed in recent detonation experiments. The analysis of the band structure and density of states reveal that this new carbon phase has a metallic feature mainly due to the C atoms with sp(2) hybridization. This novel 3D metallic carbon phase is anticipated to be useful for practical applications such as electronic and mechanical devices.

  17. Wickerhamiella brachini f.a., sp. nov., Wickerhamiella pterostichi f.a., sp. nov. and Wickerhamiella qilinensis f.a., sp. nov., three yeast species isolated from insects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Yun; Ren, Yong-Cheng; Hui, Feng-Li

    2016-10-01

    Eight strains representing three novel yeast species were isolated from insects distributed in three localities in Nanyang, Henan Province, Central China during 2014 and 2015. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene revealed that these species are members of the Wickerhamiella clade. These three novel species have a greater than 2.5 % difference from each other or their closest known species in the D1/D2 sequences. The three yeast species can also be separated from their closest known species in terms of physiological characteristics. Moreover, a sexual state could not be found in these three novel yeast species on various sporulation media. Therefore, the three novel species are described as Wickerhamiella brachini f.a., sp. nov. (type strain, NYNU 15885T=CICC 33092T=CBS 14176T), Wickerhamiellapterostichi f.a., sp. nov. (type strain, NYNU 15896T=CICC 33093T=CBS 14177T) and Wickerhamiellaqilinensis f.a., sp. nov. (type strain, NYNU 146103T=CICC 33062T=CBS 13929T). The MycoBank numbers of Wickerhamiella brachini f.a., sp. nov., Wickerhamiellapterostichi f.a., sp. nov. and Wickerhamiellaqilinensis f.a., sp. nov. are MB 816962, MB 816963 and MB 816964, respectively.

  18. Endosulfan induced alteration in bacterial protein profile and RNA yield of Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6, and Rhodococcus sp. M2.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhu; Singh, Dileep Kumar

    2014-01-30

    Three bacterial strains identified as Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6 and Rhodococcus sp. M2 were isolated by soil enrichment with endosulfan followed by shake flask enrichment technique. They were efficiently degrading endosulfan in the NSM (non sulfur medium) broth. Degradation of endosulfan was faster with the cell free extract of bacterial cells grown in the sulfur deficient medium (NSM) supplemented with endosulfan than that of nutrient rich medium (Luria Bertani). In the cell free extract of NSM supplemented with endosulfan as sole sulfur source, a unique band was visualized on SDS-PAGE but not with magnesium sulfate as the sole sulfur source in NSM and LB with endosulfan. Expression of a unique polypeptide band was speculated to be induced by endosulfan under sulfur starved condition. These unique polypeptide bands were identified as OmpK35 protein, sulfate binding protein and outer membrane porin protein, respectively, in Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6 and Rhodococcus sp. M2. Endosulfan showed dose dependent negative effect on total RNA yield of bacterial strains in nutrient rich medium. Absence of plasmid DNA indicated the presence of endosulfan metabolizing gene on genomic DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium sp. Strain Alg239_V18, an Actinobacterium Retrieved from the Marine Sponge Spongia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Elham; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Reis, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain Alg239_V18, an actinobacterium retrieved from the marine sponge Spongia sp. Genome annotation revealed a vast gene repertoire involved in antibiotic and heavy metal-resistance, and a versatile carbohydrate assimilation metabolism with potential for chitin utilization. PMID:28104653

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium sp. Strain Alg239_V18, an Actinobacterium Retrieved from the Marine Sponge Spongia sp.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Elham; Gonçalves, Jorge M S; Reis, Margarida; Costa, Rodrigo

    2017-01-19

    Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain Alg239_V18, an actinobacterium retrieved from the marine sponge Spongia sp. Genome annotation revealed a vast gene repertoire involved in antibiotic and heavy metal-resistance, and a versatile carbohydrate assimilation metabolism with potential for chitin utilization.

  1. Genome sequence of Sphingomonas sp. strain PAMC 26621, an Arctic-lichen-associated bacterium isolated from a Cetraria sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoungseok; Shin, Seung Chul; Lee, Jungeun; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Bum-Keun; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Eun Hye; Park, Hyun

    2012-06-01

    The lichen-associated bacterial strain Sphingomonas sp. PAMC 26621 was isolated from an Arctic lichen Cetraria sp. on Svalbard Islands. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which could provide novel insights into the molecular principles of lichen-microbe interactions.

  2. Descriptions of Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. from Kashmir Valley, India

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. are described and illustrated from freshwater stream soil in Kashmir Valley, India. Kashmira gen. n. is characterized by having dimorphic tails: coinoid-spicate tail in female and subcylindroid with rounded, non-spicate tip wi...

  3. Komagataella populi sp. nov. and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov., two new methanol assimilating yeasts from exudates of deciduous trees.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two new species of the methanol assimilating ascosporic yeast genus Komagataella are described. Komagataella populi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-455, CBS 12362, type strain) was isolated from an exudate on a cottonwood tree (Populus deltoides), Peoria, Illinois, USA, and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-407...

  4. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition seriously damage over 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and Cali...

  5. Ligand-promoted alkylation of C(sp3)-H and C(sp2)-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ru-Yi; He, Jian; Wang, Xiao-Chen; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2014-09-24

    9-Methylacridine was identified as a generally effective ligand to promote a Pd(II)-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H and C(sp(2))-H alkylation of simple amides with various alkyl iodides. This alkylation reaction was applied to the preparation of unnatural amino acids and geometrically controlled tri- and tetrasubstituted acrylic acids.

  6. Concentration-dependent effects of endogenous S-nitrosoglutathione on gene regulation by specificity proteins Sp3 and Sp1.

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Khalequz; Palmer, Lisa A; Doctor, Allan; Hunt, John F; Gaston, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    The activities of certain nuclear regulatory proteins are modified by high concentrations of S-nitrosothiols associated with nitrosative stress. In the present study, we have studied the effect of physiological (low microM) concentrations of the endogenous S-nitrosothiol, GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione), on the activities of nuclear regulatory proteins Sp3 and Sp1 (specificity proteins 3 and 1). Low concentrations of GSNO increased Sp3 binding, as well as Sp3-dependent transcription of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatory gene, cftr. However, higher GSNO levels prevented Sp3 binding, augmented Sp1 binding and prevented both cftr transcription and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) expression. We conclude that low concentrations of GSNO favour Sp3 binding to 'housekeeping' genes such as cftr, whereas nitrosative stress-associated GSNO concentrations shut off Sp3-dependent transcription, possibly to redirect cellular resources. Since low micromolar concentrations of GSNO also increase the maturation and activity of a clinically common CFTR mutant, whereas higher concentrations have the opposite effect, these observations may have implications for dosing of S-nitrosylating agents used in cystic fibrosis clinical trials. PMID:14766015

  7. Elevated expression and potential roles of human Sp5, a member of Sp transcription factor family, in human cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yongxin; Guo Yingqiu; Ge Xijin; Itoh, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Akira; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki . E-mail: haburata-tky@umin.ac.jp

    2006-02-17

    In this report, we describe the expression and function of human Sp5, a member of the Sp family of zinc finger transcription factors. Like other family members, the Sp5 protein contains a Cys2His2 zinc finger DNA binding domain at the C-terminus. Our experiments employing Gal4-Sp5 fusion proteins reveal multiple transcriptional domains, including a N-terminal activity domain, an intrinsic repressive element, and a C-terminal synergistic domain. Elevated expression of Sp5 was noted in several human tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, and colon cancer. To study the effects of the Sp5 protein on growth properties of human cancer cells and facilitate the identification of its downstream genes, we combined an inducible gene expression system with microarray analysis to screen for its transcriptional targets. Transfer of Sp5 into MCF-7 cells that expressed no detectable endogenous Sp5 protein elicited significant growth promotion activity. Several of the constitutively deregulated genes have been associated with tumorigenesis (CDC25C, CEACAM6, TMPRSS2, XBP1, MYBL1, ABHD2, and CXCL12) and Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling pathways (BAMBI, SIX1, IGFBP5, AES, and p21{sup WAF1}). This information could be utilized for further mechanistic research and for devising optimized therapeutic strategies against human cancers.

  8. Kinetics of petroleum oil biodegradation by a consortium of three protozoan isolates (Aspidisca sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Peranema sp.).

    PubMed

    Kachieng'a, L; Momba, M N B

    2017-09-01

    Petroleum oil is a complex mixture of substances, the majority of which are hydrocarbons; the latter represent an extremely important and heterogeneous group of compounds that find their way into water resources by anthropogenic or natural ways. The majority of toxic hydrocarbon components of petroleum are biodegradable, where bioremediation using microbial species has become an integral process for the restoration of oil-polluted areas. In this study, three bioremediation processes, namely natural attenuation, nutrient supplementation by adding glucose and biostimulation by adding Tween(®) 80, were carried out in various petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in polluted water media using a consortium of three protozoan isolates (Aspidisca sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Peranema sp.). A first-order kinetics model was fitted to the biodegradation data to evaluate the biodegradation rate and to determine the corresponding half-life time. First-order kinetics satisfactorily described the biodegradation of the petroleum-based contaminants under abiotic conditions. The results showed an increase in the percentage removal of petroleum oil at the lower petroleum concentrations and a gradual percentage decrease in removing petroleum oil residues occurred when there was an increase in the initial concentrations of the petroleum oil: 39%, 27%, 22%, 12%, 10% for various petroleum oil concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mg/L, respectively. A similar trend was also observed in the glucose-supplemented culture media where the reduction was 45% and 78% for petroleum concentrations of 250 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. Biodegradation of between 33 and 90% was achieved at a Tween(®) 80 concentration of between 50 mg/L and 250 mg/L. The degradation rate constants for the natural attenuation process ranged between ≥0 to ≤0.50, ≥0 to ≤0.35, ≥0 to ≤0.25, ≥0 to ≤ 0.14 and ≥ 0 to ≤0.11 for petroleum oil concentrations varying from 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250

  9. Bacteroides barnesiae sp. nov., Bacteroides salanitronis sp. nov. and Bacteroides gallinarum sp. nov., isolated from chicken caecum.

    PubMed

    Lan, Pham Thi Ngoc; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Sakata, Shinji; Benno, Yoshimi

    2006-12-01

    DNA-DNA relatedness (>88 %) with each other, but low levels with B. eggerthii JCM 12986(T) (<40 %), B. stercoris JCM 9496(T) (<37 %) and B. uniformis JCM 5828(T) (<16 %). On the basis of these data, three novel Bacteroides species are proposed: Bacteroides barnesiae sp. nov. (type strain BL2(T)=JCM 13652(T)=DSM 18169(T)), Bacteroides salanitronis sp. nov. (type strain BL78(T)=JCM 13657(T)=DSM 18170(T)) and Bacteroides gallinarum sp. nov. (type strain C35(T)=JCM 13658(T)=DSM 18171(T)).

  10. Scalability of Parallel Spatial Direct Numerical Simulations on Intel Hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2 parallel computers is documented. Spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows are computed with the PSDNS code. The feasibility of using the PSDNS to perform transition studies on these computers is examined. The results indicate that PSDNS approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine by remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation. Scalability information is provided to estimate computational costs to match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points. By increasing the number of processors, slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine-dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the computational cost is dominated by FFT routine, which yields less than ideal speedups. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines on the SP1, the serial code achieves 52-56 M ops on a single node of the SP1 (45 percent of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a "real world" simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP supercomputer. For the same simulation, 32-nodes of the SP1 and SP2 are required to reach the performance of a Cray C-90. A 32 node SP1 (SP2) configuration is 2.9 (4.6) times faster than a Cray Y/MP for this simulation, while the hypercube is roughly 2 times slower than the Y/MP for this application. KEY WORDS: Spatial direct numerical simulations; incompressible viscous flows; spectral methods; finite differences; parallel computing.

  11. Wastewater treatment using integrated anaerobic baffled reactor and Bio-rack wetland planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Shervin; Akbarzadeh, Abbas; Woo, Kwang-Sung; Valipour, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the potential use of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) followed by Bio-rack wetland planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp. for treating domestic wastewater generated by small communities (751 mg COD/L, 500 SCOD mg/L, 348 mg BOD5/L). Two parallel laboratory-scale models showed that the process planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp. are capable of removing COD by 87% & 86%, SCOD by 90% & 88%, BOD5 by 93% & 92%, TSS by 88% & 86%, TN by 79% & 77%, PO4-P by 21% & 14% at an overall HRT of 21 (843 g COD/m(3)/day & 392 g BOD5/m(3)/day) and 27 (622 g COD/m(3)/day & 302 g BOD5/m(3)/day) hours, respectively. Microbial analysis indicated a high reduction in the MPN of total coliform and TVC as high as 99% at the outlet end of the processes. The vegetated system using Phragmites sp. showed significantly greater (p <0.05) pollutant removal efficiencies due to its extensive root and mass growth rate (p <0.05) of the plant compared to Typha sp. The Phragmites sp. indicated a higher relative growth rate (3.92%) than Typha sp. (0.90%). Microorganisms immobilized on the surface of the Bio-rack media (mean TVC: 2.33 × 10(7) cfu/cm(2)) were isolated, identified and observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study illustrated that the present integrated processes could be an ideal approach for promoting a sustainable decentralization, however, Phragmites sp. would be more efficient rather than Typha sp.

  12. Physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine is regulated by differential DNA binding of Sp1/Sp3 through simultaneous Sp1 dephosphorylation and Sp3 phosphorylation by two different PKC isoforms.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Bhupesh Kumar; Dasgupta, Nirmalya; Ta, Atri; Das, Santasabuj

    2016-07-08

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is critical to maintain health, as underscored by multiple intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases in mice genetically engineered for IEC-specific TLR5 knockout. A gradient of expression exists in the colonic epithelial cells from the cecum to the distal colon. Intriguingly, an identical gradient for the dietary metabolite, butyrate also exists in the luminal contents. However, both being critical for intestinal homeostasis and immune response, no studies examined the role of butyrate in the regulation of TLR5 expression. We showed that butyrate transcriptionally upregulates TLR5 in the IECs and augments flagellin-induced immune responses. Both basal and butyrate-induced transcription is regulated by differential binding of Sp-family transcription factors to the GC-box sequences over the TLR5 promoter. Butyrate activates two different protein kinase C isoforms to dephosphorylate/acetylate Sp1 by serine/threonine phosphatases and phosphorylate Sp3 by ERK-MAPK, respectively. This resulted in Sp1 displacement from the promoter and binding of Sp3 to it, leading to p300 recruitment and histone acetylation, activating transcription. This is the first study addressing the mechanisms of physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine. Additionally, a novel insight is gained into Sp1/Sp3-mediated gene regulation that may apply to other genes.

  13. Physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine is regulated by differential DNA binding of Sp1/Sp3 through simultaneous Sp1 dephosphorylation and Sp3 phosphorylation by two different PKC isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Bhupesh Kumar; Dasgupta, Nirmalya; Ta, Atri; Das, Santasabuj

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is critical to maintain health, as underscored by multiple intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases in mice genetically engineered for IEC-specific TLR5 knockout. A gradient of expression exists in the colonic epithelial cells from the cecum to the distal colon. Intriguingly, an identical gradient for the dietary metabolite, butyrate also exists in the luminal contents. However, both being critical for intestinal homeostasis and immune response, no studies examined the role of butyrate in the regulation of TLR5 expression. We showed that butyrate transcriptionally upregulates TLR5 in the IECs and augments flagellin-induced immune responses. Both basal and butyrate-induced transcription is regulated by differential binding of Sp-family transcription factors to the GC-box sequences over the TLR5 promoter. Butyrate activates two different protein kinase C isoforms to dephosphorylate/acetylate Sp1 by serine/threonine phosphatases and phosphorylate Sp3 by ERK-MAPK, respectively. This resulted in Sp1 displacement from the promoter and binding of Sp3 to it, leading to p300 recruitment and histone acetylation, activating transcription. This is the first study addressing the mechanisms of physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine. Additionally, a novel insight is gained into Sp1/Sp3-mediated gene regulation that may apply to other genes. PMID:27060138

  14. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John; Ross, Nicholas; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. Niel; Fan, Xiaohui; Haggard, Daryl; Makler, Martin; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Urry, C. Megan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; SpIES Team

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Warm Spitzer. SpIES was designed to probe enough volume to perform measurements of the z>3 quasar clustering and luminosity function in order to test various "AGN feedback'' models. Additionally, the wide range of multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data makes SpIES a prime location to identify both high-redshift (z>6) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES maps ~115deg2 of Stripe 82 to depths of 6.3 uJy (21.9 AB Magnitudes) and 5.75 uJy (22.0 AB Magnitudes) at [3.6] and [4.5] microns respectively; depths significantly greater than WISE. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. Amongst our preliminary science results, we show high significance detections of spectroscopically confirmed, z~5 quasars in the SpIES data. This work is based [in part] on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  15. Humanized SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 Transgenic Mice Reveal Functional Divergence of SP-A1 and SP-A2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guirong; Guo, Xiaoxuan; DiAngelo, Susan; Thomas, Neal J.; Floros, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays a role in lung innate immunity and surfactant-related functions. Two functional genes, SP-A1 (SFTPA1) and SP-A2 (SFTPA2), are present in humans and primates (rodents have one gene). Single gene SP-A1 or SP-A2 proteins expressed in vitro are functional. To study their role in vivo, we generated humanized transgenic (hTG) C57BL/6 mice, SP-A1(6A4) and SP-A2(1A3). The SP-A cDNA in experimental constructs was driven by the 3.7-kb SP-C promoter. Positive hTG mice were bred with SP-A knock-out mice to generate F8 offspring for study. Epithelial alveolar type II cells were SP-A-positive, and Clara cells were negative by immunohistochemistry in hTG mice. The levels of SP-A in lungs of two hTG lines used were comparable with those in human lungs. Southern blot analysis indicated that two cDNA copies of either SP-A1(6A4) or SP-A2(1A3) were integrated as a concatemer into the genome of each of the two hTG lines. Electron microscopy analysis revealed that hTG mice with a single SP-A1(6A4) or SP-A2(1A3) gene product lacked tubular myelin (TM), but hTG mice carrying both had TM. Furthermore, TM was observed in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid only if both SP-A1 and SP-A2 gene products were present and not in those containing primarily (>99.7%) either SP-A1 or SP-A2 gene products. In vivo rescue study confirmed that TM can only be restored after administering exogenous SP-A containing both SP-A1 and SP-A2 into the lungs of SP-A knock-out mice. These observations indicate that SP-A1 and SP-A2 diverged functionally at least in terms of TM formation. PMID:20048345

  16. Natural Anti-Infective Pulmonary Proteins: In Vivo Cooperative Action of Surfactant Protein SP-A and the Lung Antimicrobial Peptide SP-BN.

    PubMed

    Coya, Juan Manuel; Akinbi, Henry T; Sáenz, Alejandra; Yang, Li; Weaver, Timothy E; Casals, Cristina

    2015-08-15

    The anionic antimicrobial peptide SP-B(N), derived from the N-terminal saposin-like domain of the surfactant protein (SP)-B proprotein, and SP-A are lung anti-infective proteins. SP-A-deficient mice are more susceptible than wild-type mice to lung infections, and bacterial killing is enhanced in transgenic mice overexpressing SP-B(N). Despite their potential anti-infective action, in vitro studies indicate that several microorganisms are resistant to SP-A and SP-B(N). In this study, we test the hypothesis that these proteins act synergistically or cooperatively to strengthen each other's microbicidal activity. The results indicate that the proteins acted synergistically in vitro against SP-A- and SP-B(N)-resistant capsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae (serotype K2) at neutral pH. SP-A and SP-B(N) were able to interact in solution (Kd = 0.4 μM), which enabled their binding to bacteria with which SP-A or SP-B(N) alone could not interact. In vivo, we found that treatment of K. pneumoniae-infected mice with SP-A and SP-B(N) conferred more protection against K. pneumoniae infection than each protein individually. SP-A/SP-B(N)-treated infected mice showed significant reduction of bacterial burden, enhanced neutrophil recruitment, and ameliorated lung histopathology with respect to untreated infected mice. In addition, the concentrations of inflammatory mediators in lung homogenates increased early in infection in contrast with the weak inflammatory response of untreated K. pneumoniae-infected mice. Finally, we found that therapeutic treatment with SP-A and SP-B(N) 6 or 24 h after bacterial challenge conferred significant protection against K. pneumoniae infection. These studies show novel anti-infective pathways that could drive development of new strategies against pulmonary infections.

  17. Natural anti-infective pulmonary proteins: In vivo cooperative action of surfactant protein SP-A and the lung antimicrobial peptide SP-BN (1)

    PubMed Central

    Coya, Juan Manuel; Akinbi, Henry T.; Sáenz, Alejandra; Yang, Li; Weaver, Timothy E.; Casals, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The anionic antimicrobial peptide SP-BN, derived from the N-terminal saposin-like domain of the SP-B proprotein, and SP-A are lung anti-infective proteins. SP-A-deficient mice are more susceptible than WT mice to lung infections, and bacterial killing is enhanced in transgenic mice overexpressing SP-BN. Despite their potential anti-infective action, in vitro studies indicate that several microorganisms are resistant to SP-A and SP-BN. In this study we test the hypothesis that these proteins act synergistically or cooperatively to strengthen each other’s microbicidal activity. The results indicate that the proteins acted synergistically in vitro against SP-A- and SP-BN-resistant capsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae (serotype K2) at neutral pH. SP-A and SP-BN were able to interact in solution (Kd = 0.4 μM), which enabled their binding to bacteria with which SP-A or SP-BN alone could not interact. In vivo, we found that treatment of K. pneumoniae-infected mice with SP-A and SP-BN conferred more protection against K. pneumoniae infection than each protein individually. SP-A/SP-BN-treated infected mice showed significant reduction of bacterial burden, enhanced neutrophil recruitment, and ameliorated lung histopathology with respect to untreated infected mice. In addition, the concentrations of inflammatory mediators in lung homogenates increased early in infection in contrast with the weak inflammatory response of untreated K. pneumoniae-infected mice. Finally, we found that therapeutic treatment with SP-A and SP-BN 6h or 24h after bacterial challenge conferred significant protection against K. pneumoniae infection. These studies show novel anti-infective pathways that could drive development of new strategies against pulmonary infections. PMID:26163587

  18. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon, T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz, E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Lamassa, Stephanie M.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of approx.115 sq deg in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its "warm" mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z > or = 3 to test various models for "feedback" from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z > or = 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5 sigma depths of 6.13 µJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 µJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, respectively-depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (approx.98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z > or = 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.1 million sources, a 4.5 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing approx. 5.4 million sources.

  19. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon, T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz, E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; hide

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of approx.115 sq deg in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its "warm" mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z > or = 3 to test various models for "feedback" from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z > or = 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5 sigma depths of 6.13 µJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 µJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, respectively-depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (approx.98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z > or = 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.1 million sources, a 4.5 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing approx. 5.4 million sources.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading species isolated from Hawaiian soils: Mycobacterium crocinum sp. nov., Mycobacterium pallens sp. nov., Mycobacterium rutilum sp. nov., Mycobacterium rufum sp. nov. and Mycobacterium aromaticivorans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Hennessee, Christiane T; Seo, Jong-Su; Alvarez, Anne M; Li, Qing X

    2009-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants. In this study, both pristine and contaminated soils were sampled as a source of PAH-degrading organisms. Nine strains isolated from these soils were identified as rapidly growing members of the genus Mycobacterium through basic phenotypic characteristics and through sequence similarity of three genes. Because the sequence similarity of the 16S rRNA gene is relatively high among members of this genus, additional conserved genes encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) and a heat-shock protein (hsp65) were sequenced. Several analyses were completed to differentiate the strains from one another and to determine their species-level taxonomy, including fatty acid methyl ester analysis, biochemical tests and substrate-utilization profiling. A phylogenetic tree incorporating sequences for all three genes was constructed with the isolates and their close described relatives. Results for biochemical tests, substrate-utilization tests and DNA sequencing were compared with those of the phylogenetically similar organisms to establish the isolated strains as representatives of novel species with characteristics unlike those of previously described species of Mycobacterium. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization was performed between strains and their close relatives to confirm their position within novel species. Our results demonstrated that the isolates represent five novel species, which were named Mycobacterium crocinum sp. nov. (type strain czh-42(T) =ATCC BAA-1373(T) =CIP 109262(T); reference strains czh-1A =ATCC BAA-1370 =CIP 109266 and czh-3 =ATCC BAA-1371=CIP 109267), Mycobacterium pallens sp. nov. (type strain czh-8(T) =ATCC BAA-1372(T) =CIP 109268(T)), Mycobacterium rutilum sp. nov. (type strain czh-117(T) =ATCC BAA-1375(T) =CIP 109271(T); reference strains czh-107 =ATCC BAA-1374 =CIP 109270 and czh-132 =ATCC BAA-1376 =CIP 109272), Mycobacterium rufum sp. nov. (type strain JS14(T

  1. Volcanic Soils as Sources of Novel CO-Oxidizing Paraburkholderia and Burkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov., Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov., Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov., Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov., and Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. a Member of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex.

    PubMed

    Weber, Carolyn F; King, Gary M

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that members of the Burkholderiales were important in the succession of aerobic, molybdenum-dependent CO oxidizing-bacteria on volcanic soils. During these studies, four isolates were obtained from Kilauea Volcano (Hawai'i, USA); one strain was isolated from Pico de Orizaba (Mexico) during a separate study. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the Pico de Orizaba isolate and the isolates from Kilauea Volcano were provisionally assigned to the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia, respectively. Each of the isolates possessed a form I coxL gene that encoded the catalytic subunit of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH); none of the most closely related type strains possessed coxL or oxidized CO. Genome sequences for Paraburkholderia type strains facilitated an analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and average nucleotide identities (ANI). ANI did not exceed 95% (the recommended cutoff for species differentiation) for any of the pairwise comparisons among 27 reference strains related to the new isolates. However, since the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity among this set of reference strains was 98.93%, DNA-DNA hybridizations (DDH) were performed for two isolates whose 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with their nearest phylogenetic neighbors were 98.96 and 99.11%. In both cases DDH values were <16%. Based on multiple variables, four of the isolates represent novel species within the Paraburkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov. (type strain I2(T) = DSM 28029(T) = LMG 27952(T)); Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov. (type strain WA(T) = DSM 28027(T) = LMG 27949(T)); Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov. (type strain PP52-1(T) = DSM 28028(T) = LMG 27950(T)); and Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov. (type strain DNBP6-1(T) = DSM 28030(T) = LMG 28140(T)). The remaining isolate represents the first CO-oxidizing member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex: Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. (type strain PO-04-17-38(T) = DSM

  2. Volcanic Soils as Sources of Novel CO-Oxidizing Paraburkholderia and Burkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov., Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov., Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov., Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov., and Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. a Member of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Carolyn F.; King, Gary M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that members of the Burkholderiales were important in the succession of aerobic, molybdenum-dependent CO oxidizing-bacteria on volcanic soils. During these studies, four isolates were obtained from Kilauea Volcano (Hawai‘i, USA); one strain was isolated from Pico de Orizaba (Mexico) during a separate study. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the Pico de Orizaba isolate and the isolates from Kilauea Volcano were provisionally assigned to the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia, respectively. Each of the isolates possessed a form I coxL gene that encoded the catalytic subunit of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH); none of the most closely related type strains possessed coxL or oxidized CO. Genome sequences for Paraburkholderia type strains facilitated an analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and average nucleotide identities (ANI). ANI did not exceed 95% (the recommended cutoff for species differentiation) for any of the pairwise comparisons among 27 reference strains related to the new isolates. However, since the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity among this set of reference strains was 98.93%, DNA-DNA hybridizations (DDH) were performed for two isolates whose 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with their nearest phylogenetic neighbors were 98.96 and 99.11%. In both cases DDH values were <16%. Based on multiple variables, four of the isolates represent novel species within the Paraburkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov. (type strain I2T = DSM 28029T = LMG 27952T); Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov. (type strain WAT = DSM 28027T = LMG 27949T); Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov. (type strain PP52-1T = DSM 28028T = LMG 27950T); and Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov. (type strain DNBP6-1T = DSM 28030T = LMG 28140T). The remaining isolate represents the first CO-oxidizing member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex: Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. (type strain PO-04-17-38T = DSM 28031T = LMG 28138T

  3. Roseivirga marina sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie; Sun, Cong; Wang, Rui-Jun; Wu, Min

    2015-11-01

    Strain PSRT was isolated from seawater of the Pacific Ocean. Cells of the strain were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by gliding. Growth was observed at 4-40 °C (optimum 25-30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5) and with 0.5-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-3 %). The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G (18.9 %), iso-C15 : 0 (26.3 %) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (17.9 %). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7, and the DNA G+C content was 49.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain PSRT was most closely related to Roseivirga spongicola UST030701-084T (96.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), and they formed a distinct clade in neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees with significant bootstrap supports. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain PSRT represents a novel species of the genus Roseivirga, for which the name Roseivirga marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PSRT ( = MCCC 1K00459T = KCTC 42444T).

  4. Paenibacillus insulae sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Jun; Cho, Sung-Heun; Kim, Tae-Su; Park, Suhk-Hwan; Kim, Seung-Bum; Lee, Geon-Hyoung

    2015-09-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, motile, endospore-forming, and strictly aerobic rod-shaped bacterium designated DS80(T) was isolated from an island soil. The strain DS80(T) grew at temperatures between 15 and 40°C (optimum = 30°C) and at pH values ranging from 5.0 to 9.0 (optimum = 7.0). The phylogenetic analysis based on the comparisons of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate was affiliated to the genus Paenibacillus and was mostly related to Paenibacillus assamensis GPTSA11(T) (with the sequence similarity of 96.33%) and Paenibacillus urinalis 5402403(T)(95.48%). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 44.0 mol% and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, and C16:1 ω11c. Strain DS80(T) contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone, and phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and diphosphatidylglycerol as the major polar lipids. The peptidoglycan contained a major amount of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The chemotaxonomic profile of strain DS80(T) was consistent with that of Paenibacillus. However, the phenotypic properties clearly separated the strain from other species of the genus. Accordingly, a new species, Paenibacillus insulae sp. nov., is proposed (type strain =DS80(T) =JCM 17278(T) =KCTC 13833(T)).

  5. Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.).

    PubMed

    Käfer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9-42.4°C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst-burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta<5°C) or typical discontinuous gas exchange patterns with closed, flutter and open phases. At high Ta of >31°C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7°C to 74 mHz at 39.7°C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 μl g(-1)cycle(-1). A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enterococcus plantarum sp. nov., isolated from plants.

    PubMed

    Svec, Pavel; Vandamme, Peter; Bryndová, Hana; Holochová, Pavla; Kosina, Marcel; Maslanová, Ivana; Sedlácek, Ivo

    2012-07-01

    Eight Gram-positive, catalase-negative bacterial strains were isolated during screening of enterococcal populations on plants. rep-PCR fingerprinting using the (GTG)(5) primer showed that the isolates constituted a single cluster that was separate from all known enterococcal species. 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis of three representative strains showed that the isolates belonged to the genus Enterococcus and that they clustered with the Enterococcus faecalis species group. Sequencing of the genes for the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit (pheS) and the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA) also revealed the isolates' separate taxonomic position. Application of whole-cell protein fingerprinting, automated ribotyping and extensive phenotyping demonstrated the genetic and phenotypic homogeneity of the isolates and confirmed their separate position within the E. faecalis species group. The isolates represent a novel species of the genus Enterococcus, for which the name Enterococcus plantarum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is CCM 7889(T) (=LMG 26214(T)=C27(T)).

  7. Sphingobium vermicomposti sp. nov., isolated from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Faria, Cátia; Lopes, Ana R; Svensson, Liselott; Falsen, Enevold; Moore, Edward R B; Ferreira, António C Silva; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2009-12-01

    Strain VC-230(T) was isolated from homemade vermicompost produced from kitchen waste. The isolate was a Gram-negative-staining, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile rod-shaped bacterium able to grow at 15-37 degrees C and pH 6-8. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain VC-230(T) was determined to belong to the family Sphingomonadaceae by its clustering with type strains of the genus Sphingobium, with Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 33790(T) (97.7 %) and Sphingobium herbicidovorans DSM 11019(T) (97.4 %) as its closest neighbours. The polar lipid pattern, the presence of spermidine and ubiquinone 10, the predominance of the cellular fatty acids C(18 : 1)omega7c/9t/12t, C(16 : 1)omega7c and C(16 : 0) and the G+C content of the genomic DNA supported the affiliation of this organism to the genus Sphingobium. The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses verify that strain VC-230(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Sphingobium vermicomposti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VC-230(T) (=CCUG 55809(T) =DSM 21299(T)).

  8. Spirosoma panaciterrae sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Ten, Leonid N; Xu, Jin-Li; Jin, Feng-Xie; Im, Wan-Taek; Oh, Hee-Mock; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2009-02-01

    A Gram-negative, yellowish bacterial strain, designated Gsoil 1519(T), was isolated from soil of a ginseng field in Pocheon province (South Korea) and characterized using a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain Gsoil 1519(T) belongs to the family 'Flexibacteraceae' and is related to Spirosoma rigui KCTC 12531(T) (91.8 % similarity) and Spirosoma linguale LMG 10896(T) (91.5 % similarity). Phylogenetic distances from any other recognized species within the family 'Flexibacteraceae' were greater than 14.7 %. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Gsoil 1519(T) was 50.1 %. The detection of MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and a fatty acid profile with C(16 : 1)omega5c, summed feature 4 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH), iso-C(15 : 0) and C(16 : 0) as the major acids supported the affiliation of strain Gsoil 1519(T) to the genus Spirosoma. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain Gsoil 1519(T) should be classified in the genus Spirosoma as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Spirosoma panaciterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Gsoil 1519(T) (=KCTC 22263(T)=DSM 21099(T)).

  9. Phytomonospora cypria sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Nevzat; Veyisoglu, Aysel; Tatar, Demet; Saygin, Hayrettin; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Goodfellow, Michael

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain positive actinobacterial strain, designated KT1403(T), was isolated from a soil sample, collected from Karpaz, Magusa, Northern Cyprus, and characterised using a polyphasic approach. Morphological characteristics and chemotaxonomic data indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Phytomonospora. The cell wall of the novel strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and galactose, glucose and mannose as the major sugars in whole cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids in the cell membrane were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, an unidentified aminophospholipid and three unidentified glycolipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H4). The major fatty acids were found to be iso C15:0 , anteiso C15:0 and anteiso C17:0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain KT1403(T) belongs to the genus Phytomonospora with a sequence similarity of 99.73 % with Phytomonospora endophytica, the type species of the genus. DNA-DNA hybridization further differentiated strain KT1403(T) from its near phylogenetic neighbour, P. endophytica DSM 45386(T) (29.0 ± 2.2 % DNA relatedness). Therefore, it is proposed that strain KT1403(T) represents a novel species of the genus Phytomonospora, for which the name Phytomonospora cypria sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KT1403(T) (=KCTC 29479(T) = DSM 46767(T)).

  10. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, P.; Tower, L.; Dawson, R.; Blue, B.; Dunn, P.

    1994-09-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC`s are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

  11. Mineralization of phenanthrene by a Mycobacterium sp

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, W.F.; Jones, G.E.

    1988-04-01

    A Mycobacterium sp., designated strain BG1, able to utilize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from estuarine sediment following enrichment with the hydrocarbon. Unlike other phenanthrene degraders, this bacterium degraded phenanthrene via 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid without accumulating this or other aromatic intermediates, as shown by high-performance liquid chromatography. Degradation proceeded via meta cleavage of protocatechuic acid. Different nonionic surfactants (Tween compounds) solubilized the phenanthrene to different degrees and enhanced phenanthrene utilization. The order of enhancement, however, did not correlate perfectly with increased solubility, suggesting physiological as well as physicochemical effects of the surfactants. Plasmids of approximately 21, 58, and 77 megadaltons were detected in cells grown with phenanthrene but not in those which, after growth on nutrient media, lost the phenanthrene-degrading phenotype. Given that plasmid-mediated degradations of aromatic hydrocarbons generally occur via meta cleavages, it is of interest that the addition of pyruvate, a product of meta cleavage, supported rapid mineralization of phenanthrene in broth culture; succinate, a product of ortho cleavage, supported growth but completely repressed the utilization of phenanthrene. The involvement of plasmids may have given rise to the unusual degradation pattern that was observed.

  12. Enterococcus saccharominimus sp. nov., from dairy products.

    PubMed

    Vancanneyt, M; Zamfir, M; Devriese, L A; Lefebvre, K; Engelbeen, K; Vandemeulebroecke, K; Amar, M; De Vuyst, L; Haesebrouck, F; Swings, J

    2004-11-01

    Four isolates, which were obtained from Belgian, Moroccan and Romanian dairy products, constituted a homogeneous but unidentified taxon after screening with whole-cell protein fingerprinting. Complete 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis classified representative strains in the genus Enterococcus. Highest sequence similarities of 98.6 and 98.0 % were obtained with the species Enterococcus sulfureus and Enterococcus saccharolyticus, respectively. Growth characteristics, biochemical features, tRNA intergenic length polymorphism analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and DNA G+C contents of selected strains demonstrated that they represent a single, novel Enterococcus species. It differs phenotypically from other enterococci in characteristics commonly considered as typical of this genus: no growth in 6.5 % NaCl or 0.4 % sodium azide, and no acid production from a wide range of carbohydrates. The name Enterococcus saccharominimus sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species; the type strain (LMG 21727(T)=CCM 7220(T)) was isolated from contaminated pasteurized cow's milk.

  13. Sphaerisporangium krabiense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Chunhametha, Suwanee; Ngaemthao, Wipaporn; Tamura, Tomohiko; Kirtikara, Kanyawim; Sanglier, Jean-Jacques; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2011-12-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, filamentous bacterial strain, designated A-T 0308(T), was isolated from soil of a tropical mangrove forest in Thailand. Strain A-T 0308(T) developed spherical sporangia containing non-motile spores on aerial mycelium. The novel strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, N-acetyl-type peptidoglycan and madurose, mannose, ribose, galactose and glucose as whole-cell sugars. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H(4)) and MK-9(H(6)); a small amount of MK-9(H(2)) and MK-9 was also detected. Mycolic acids were not detected. The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and phosphoglycolipid. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and 10-methylated C(17:0). The G+C content of the DNA was 72 mol%. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses showed that the novel isolate had characteristics typical of members of the genus Sphaerisporangium. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis also indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Sphaerisporangium and that it represents a clade distinct from other members of the genus with sequence similarities ranging from 96.3 to 97.8% between the novel strain and its closest relatives. Based on the results of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies, strain A-T 0308(T) (=BCC 21702(T) =NBRC 107571(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Sphaerisporangium, for which the name Sphaerisporangium krabiense sp. nov. is proposed.

  14. Floating assembly of diatom Coscinodiscus sp. microshells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Pan, Junfeng; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Deyuan

    2012-03-30

    Diatoms have silica frustules with transparent and delicate micro/nano scale structures, two dimensional pore arrays, and large surface areas. Although, the diatom cells of Coscinodiscus sp. live underwater, we found that their valves can float on water and assemble together. Experiments show that the convex shape and the 40 nm sieve pores of the valves allow them to float on water, and that the buoyancy and the micro-range attractive forces cause the valves to assemble together at the highest point of water. As measured by AFM calibrated glass needles fixed in manipulator, the buoyancy force on a single floating valve may reach up to 10 μN in water. Turning the valves over, enlarging the sieve pores, reducing the surface tension of water, or vacuum pumping may cause the floating valves to sink. After the water has evaporated, the floating valves remained in their assembled state and formed a monolayer film. The bonded diatom monolayer may be valuable in studies on diatom based optical devices, biosensors, solar cells, and batteries, to better use the optical and adsorption properties of frustules. The floating assembly phenomenon can also be used as a self-assembly method for fabricating monolayer of circular plates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Citrobacter bitternis sp. nov. isolated from bitterns.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwan Soo; Choi, Ji-Young; Kim, Joo; Park, Myoung Kyu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we reported two gram-negative bacteria that were isolated from bitterns, designated as SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20, representing a novel species of Citrobacter. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, the two strains were found to be closely related and showed the highest pairwise similarity with Citrobacter farmeri CDC 2992-81(T) (97.1-97.3 %) and other Citrobacter species. Cellular fatty acid analysis revealed that the profiles of strains SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20 were similar to those of related species of Citrobacter. The major cellular fatty acids were C16:0 (31.5 %), summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c, C16:1 ω6c, 19.7 %), summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c, C18:1 ω6c, 11.9 %), C17:0 cyclo (10.7 %), and summed feature 2 (C12:0 aldehyde/unknown 10928, 9.5 %). Although the strains could utilize sucrose and raffinose as a carbon source, they did not produce ornithine decarboxylase and urease. The biochemical and genotypic characteristics indicate that strains SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20 represent a novel species of Citrobacter, for which the name Citrobacter bitterns sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SKKU-TP7(T) (=KCTC 42139(T) = JCM 30009(T)).

  16. Cellulomonas bogoriensis sp. nov., an alkaliphilic cellulomonad.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian E; Grant, William D; Duckworth, A W; Schumann, Peter; Weiss, Norbert; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2005-07-01

    An alkaliphilic, slightly halotolerant, chemo-organotrophic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain 69B4(T), was isolated from the sediment of the littoral zone of Lake Bogoria, Kenya. Phylogenetically, it is a member of the genus Cellulomonas, showing less than 97.5 % sequence similarity to the type strains of other Cellulomonas species. The highest level of similarity, albeit moderate, was found with respect to Cellulomonas cellasea DSM 20118(T). Chemotaxonomic properties confirm the 16S rRNA gene-based generic affiliation, i.e. a DNA G+C content of 71.5 mol%, anteiso-C(15:0) and C(16:0) as the major fatty acids, MK-9(H(4)) as the major isoprenoid quinone, a peptidoglycan containing L-ornithine as the diamino acid and D-aspartic acid in the interpeptide bridge and phosphatidylglycerol as the only identified main polar lipid. The strain is aerobic to facultatively anaerobic, being capable of growth under strictly anaerobic conditions. Optimal growth occurs between pH values 9.0 and 10.0. On the basis of its distinct phylogenetic position and metabolic properties, strain 69B4(T) represents a novel species of the genus Cellulomonas, for which the name Cellulomonas bogoriensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 69B4(T) (=DSM 16987(T)=CIP 108683(T)).

  17. Detection of Plasmodium sp. in capybara.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Curotto, Sandra Mara Rotter; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; Costa-Nascimento, Maria de Jesus; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2009-07-07

    In the present study, we have microscopically and molecularly surveyed blood samples from 11 captive capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from the Sanctuary Zoo for Plasmodium sp. infection. One animal presented positive on blood smear by light microscopy. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out accordingly using a nested genus-specific protocol, which uses oligonucleotides from conserved sequences flanking a variable sequence region in the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) of all Plasmodium organisms. This revealed three positive animals. Products from two samples were purified and sequenced. The results showed less than 1% divergence between the two capybara sequences. When compared with GenBank sequences, a 55% similarity was obtained to Toxoplasma gondii and a higher similarity (73-77.2%) was found to ssrRNAs from Plasmodium species that infect reptile, avian, rodents, and human beings. The most similar Plasmodium sequence was from Plasmodium mexicanum that infects lizards of North America, where around 78% identity was found. This work is the first report of Plasmodium in capybaras, and due to the low similarity with other Plasmodium species, we suggest it is a new species, which, in the future could be denominated "Plasmodium hydrochaeri".

  18. Friedmanniella flava sp. nov., a soil actinomycete.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuefang; Zhang, Jianli; Zhang, Yabo; Xin, Yuhua; He, Hongju

    2013-05-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain W6(T), was isolated from a soil sample of Yunnan Province, China. The bacterium was aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and Gram-stain-positive. Genetic, phenotypic and chemical properties of the isolate were studied. 16S rRNA gene sequence data suggested that the novel isolate belonged to the genus Friedmanniella and shared 98.6% sequence similarity with Friedmanniella antarctica DSM 11053(T) and Friedmanniella okinawensis DSM 21744(T), the most closely related species. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, and mycolic acids were absent. The main menaquinone was MK-9(H4) and the predominant fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0. The phospholipid profile contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain W6(T) was 72 mol%. Strain W6(T) showed 30.0% and 28.5% DNA-DNA relatedness, respectively, to F. antarctica DSM 11053(T) and F. okinawensis DSM 21744(T). The combined genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain W6(T) should be assigned to the genus Friedmanniella as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Friedmanniella flava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W6(T) ( = CGMCC 4.6856(T) =JCM 17701(T)).

  19. Actinoplanes siamensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Ngaemthao, Wipaporn; Chunhametha, Suwanee; Thawai, Chitti; Sanglier, Jean-Jacques

    2013-08-01

    A Gram-positive filamentous bacterial strain that developed large campanulate sporangia at the ends of sporangiophores on substrate mycelium was isolated from bamboo forest soil in Thailand. According to the results of a polyphasic taxonomic study, our isolate had typical characteristics of members of the genus Actinoplanes. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis also indicated that strain A-T 6646(T) belonged to the genus Actinoplanes, being most closely related to Actinoplanes liguriensis DSM 43865(T) (97.61 %) and Actinoplanes octamycinicus NBRC 14524(T) (97.52 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values, which differentiate the new strain from the most closely related species, were significantly below 70 %. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars contained xylose and arabinose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. Following an evaluation of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic studies, the isolate is proposed to represent a novel species to be named Actinoplanes siamensis sp. nov. The type strain is A-T 6646(T) (= BCC 46194(T) = NBRC 109076(T)).

  20. Actinoplanes luteus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Ngaemthao, Wipaporn; Chunhametha, Suwanee; Sanglier, Jean-Jacques

    2015-11-01

    A novel filamentous bacterial strain, A-T 5190T, which developed irregular sporangia at the end of sporangiophores on substrate mycelia, was isolated from dry evergreen forest soil collected in Thailand. The 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain A-T 5190T belonged to the genus Actinoplanes and was related most closely to Actinoplanes palleronii NBRC 14916T (98.88 % similarity) and Actinoplanes rectilineatus NBRC 13941T (98.54 %). DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain A-T 5190T and its closest relatives were below 70 %. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars contained rhamnose, ribose, galactose and xylose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The predominant cellular fatty acids were unsaturated fatty acid C17 : 1 and branched fatty acids iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71.9 mol%. Evidence from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic studies indicate that strain A-T 5190T represents a novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, for which the name Actinoplanes luteus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A-T 5190T ( = BCC 41582T = NBRC 109644T).

  1. Taxonomic study of bacteria isolated from plants: proposal of Sphingomonas rosa sp. nov., Sphingomonas pruni sp. nov., Sphingomonas asaccharolytica sp. nov., and Sphingomonas mali sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, M; Sakane, T; Yanagi, M; Yamasato, K; Hamana, K; Yokota, A

    1995-04-01

    The taxonomic positions of 10 strains of 3-ketolactose-forming bacteria which were isolated from the roots of plants (Rosa sp., Psychotria nairobiensis, Ardisia crispa, Prunus persica, and apple trees) were investigated. The DNA base compositions of these strains ranged from 64.0 to 65.7 mol%, the isoprenoid quinone of each strain was ubiquinone 10, 3-hydroxy fatty acids were lacking in the cellular fatty acids of these organisms, and all of the strains contained a sphingolipid with the long-chain base dihydrosphingosin. These are characteristics of the genus Sphingomonas. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and chemotaxonomic characteristics, together with DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparison data, we propose the following four new species of the genus Sphingomonas: Sphingomonas rosa (type strain, IFO 15208) for the strains isolated from rose plants and formerly named [Agrobacterium rhizogenes]; Sphingomonas pruni (type strain, IFO 15498) for the strains isolated from Prunus persica; and Sphingomonas asaccharolytica (type strain, IFO 15499) and Sphingomonas mali (type strain, IFO 15500) for the strains isolated from apple trees. Two strains which were isolated from Psychotria nairobiensis and formerly named [Chromobacterium lividum] were identified as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strains.

  2. Recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan by Agrobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zichao; Chen, Rachel Ruizhen

    2007-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a sugar polymer of a repeating disaccharide, beta1-3 D-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) beta1-4 D-glucuronic acid (GlcA). It finds applications in numerous biomedical procedures such as ophthalmic surgery and osteoarthritis treatment. Until recently, the only commercial sources were extraction of rooster combs and from fermentation of pathogenic Streptococcus. In this work, we demonstrate that metabolic engineering strategies enable the recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan in a safe microorganism. Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 is a commercial production strain for a food polymer, Curdlan. A broad host range expression vector was successfully developed to express the 3 kb HA synthase gene from Pasteurella multocida, along with a kfiD gene encoding UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K5 strain. Coexpression of these two heterologous enzymes enables Agrobacterium to produce HA. Hyaluronan was accumulated up to 0.3 g/L in shaker flask cultivation. The molecular weight of the polymer from various Agrobacterium strains is in the range of 0.7-2 MD. To our knowledge, this is the first successful recombinant hyaluronan synthesis in a Gram-negative bacterium that naturally produces a food product. The ease of genetic modifications provides future opportunities to tailor properties of polymers for specific applications.

  3. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  4. Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Hong-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Ding-Bin; Wang, Xiang; Yan, Xin; Hong, Qing; Li, Shun-Peng

    2015-06-01

    Strain YF-2(T), a Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, light-yellow-pigmented bacterium, was isolated from soil samples collected in the city of Yuncheng, Shanxi province of China. Strain YF-2(T) grew over a temperature range of 25-37 °C, at pH 5.0-8.0 and with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence of the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain YF-2(T) was closely related to strains Flavobacterium akiainvivens CIP 110358(T) and Flavobacterium hauense KCTC 32147(T) with 95.99 and 95.92 % sequence similarity, respectively. The dominant fatty acids of strain YF-2(T) were Summed Feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c) (21.97 %), iso-C15:0 (18.65 %), iso-C17:0 3OH (11.41 %), C16:0 (9.92 %), and anteiso-C15:0 (6.21 %). It contained phosphatidylethanolamine and menaquinone MK-6 as major polar lipid and respiratory quinone, respectively. Strain YF-2(T) differs from other Flavobacterium species in many characteristics and represents a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain YF-2(T) (=CCTCC AB 2014079(T) = JCM 30153(T)).

  5. Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qingqing; Han, Lu; Yuan, Xin; Tan, Xu; Gao, Yuan; Lv, Jie

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain T3T, was isolated from freshwater of Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou, south-west China. Analysis of the16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain T3T was a member of the genus Flavobacterium and closely related to Flavobacterium resistens DSM 19382T (96.8 %). The novel strain was able to grow at 10-34 °C (optimum 28 °C), pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0-9.0) and with 0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown glycolipids, five unknown aminolipids and four unidentified lipids, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The predominant fatty acids were C16  :  1ω7c and/or C16  :  1ω6c and iso-C15  :  0. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 36 mol  %. Based on these data, strain T3T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = CGMCC 1.12926T = JCM 30113T).

  6. Flavobacterium fontis sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jeesun; Kang, Ji Young; Jahng, Kwang Yeop

    2013-05-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on a novel bacterial strain, designated MIC3010(T), which was isolated from a freshwater pond in Jeonju, Republic of Korea. Cells of the isolate were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae, with Flavobacterium haoranii LQY-7(T) as its closest relative, with a similarity of 94.2 %. The predominant fatty acids of strain MIC3010(T) were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile of strain MIC3010(T) revealed the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and one unidentified lipid (L1) as major components. In addition, two aminolipids (AL1, AL2) and one glycolipid were present in small amounts. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 41.0 mol%. The strain contained MK-6 as the major quinone and sym-homospermidine as the predominant polyamine. On the basis of the evidence presented, it is concluded that strain MIC3010(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium fontis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MIC3010(T) ( = KACC 16593(T) = JCM 18212(T)).

  7. Flavobacterium yanchengense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Guiqin; Li, Yang-Yang; Guan, Yi-Ting; Wang, Jun; Li, Shun-Peng; Hong, Qing

    2013-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, hg(T), resembling members of the genus Flavobacterium, was isolated from soil, and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain hg(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0 and 30 °C in the presence of 1 % (w/v) NaCl. It contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 34 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain hg(T) belonged to the genus Flavobacterium. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain hg(T) and the type strains of species of the genus Flavobacterium were below 94.7 %. Strain hg(T) differed from phylogenetically related species of the genus Flavobacterium in several phenotypic characteristics. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain hg(T) (= CCTCC AB 2012099(T) = KACC 16855(T)) was classified in the genus Flavobacterium as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium yanchengense sp. nov. is proposed.

  8. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul; Tower, Leonard; Dawson, Ronald; Blue, Brian; Dunn, Pat

    1993-01-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor primary lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

  9. The sea urchin metallothionein system: Comparative evaluation of the SpMTA and SpMTB metal-binding preferences☆

    PubMed Central

    Tomas, Mireia; Domènech, Jordi; Capdevila, Mercè; Bofill, Roger; Atrian, Sílvia

    2013-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a superfamily of ubiquitous metal-binding proteins of low molecular weight and high Cys content. They are involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification, amongst other proposed biological functions. Two MT isoforms (SpMTA and SpMTB) have been reported in the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin), both containing 20 Cys residues and presenting extremely similar sequences, although showing distinct tissular and ontogenic expression patterns. Although exhaustive information is available for the Cd(II)-SpMTA complex, this including the full resolution of its 3D structure, no data has been reported concerning either SpMTA Zn(II) and Cu(I) binding properties, or the characterization of SpMTB at protein level. In this work, both the SpMTA and SpMTB isoforms, as well as their separate α and β domains, have been recombinantly synthesized in the presence of Zn(II), Cd(II) or Cu(II), and the corresponding metal complexes have been analyzed using electrospray mass spectrometry, and CD, ICP-AES and UV–vis spectroscopies. The results clearly show a better performance of isoform A when binding Zn(II) and Cd(II), and of isoform B when coordinating Cu(I). Thus, our results confirm the differential metal binding preference of SpMTA and SpMTB, which, together with the reported induction pattern of the respective genes, highlights how also in Echinodermata the MT polymorphism may be linked to the evolution of different physiological roles. PMID:23847757

  10. Removal of Pb (II) by immobilized and free filaments of marine Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Muthukannan Satheesh; Rajeshwari, Kamaraj; Johnson, Shani; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Gunasekaran, Muthukumaran

    2011-09-01

    Pb(2+) removal ability of the immobilized and free filaments of marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02 was studied using batch experiments. Biosorption of lead by immobilized filaments was studied as a function of pH (2, 4, 6, 8, 10), contact time (5-180 min) and initial lead concentration (1, 3, 5, 7 mg/L) and the removal efficiency of free filaments was studied by culturing in the marine medium with the initial concentration (1, 3, 5, 7 mg/L) at pH 7 and incubated for 10 days. The maximum percentage removal was observed at 25 min for immobilized Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and 30 min for immobilized Phormidium sp. NTMS02. At 4th and 6th day of incubation, 89% and 77% removal was observed at 1 mg/L of initial lead concentration by free filaments of Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02 respectively and further the removal was decreased with increasing concentration. Chlorophyll-a content was decreased in a dose dependent manner. About 40 and 50% reduction of chlorophyll-a was observed at higher concentration in Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 and Phormidium sp. NTMS02 respectively. The adsorption capacity of immobilized Oscillatoria sp. NTMS01 was found to be (Q(max)) 217.39 which is comparatively higher than other sorbents. The Pb(2+) removal efficiency was performed as described in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. These organisms is found to fit better by the Langmuir isotherms.

  11. Plant growth promoting properties of Halobacillus sp. and Halomonas sp. in presence of salinity and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Desale, Prithviraj; Patel, Bhargav; Singh, Sukrit; Malhotra, Aakshi; Nawani, Neelu

    2014-08-01

    Salinity and heavy metal stress are challenging problems in agriculture. Here we report the plant growth promoting ability of three moderate halophiles, Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6, in presence of both salinity and heavy metal stress. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 can tolerate 25, 21, and 29% NaCl, respectively and grow in presence of 1 mM cobalt, cadmium, and nickel and 0.04 mM mercury and 0.03 mM silver. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 produced 152.5, 95.3, and 167.3 µg/ml indole acetic acid (IAA) and could solubilize 61, 53, and 75 parts per million (ppm) phosphate, respectively in the presence of 15% NaCl. The production of IAA and solubilization of phosphate was well retained in the presence of salinity and heavy metals like 1 mM cadmium, 0.7 mM nickel, 0.04 mM mercury, and 0.03 mM silver. Besides, the strains showed amylase and protease activities and could produce hydrogen cyanide and ammonia in presence of salinity and heavy metals. A mixture of three strains enhanced the root growth of Sesuvium portulacastrum under saline and heavy metal stress, where the root length increased nearly 4.5 ± 0.6 times and root dry weight increased 5.4 ± 0.5 times as compared to control. These strains can thus be useful in microbial assisted phytoremediation of polluted saline soils.

  12. The Growth of Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. Cells in the Presence of Thorium

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Juliana Cristina; Ferreira, Ana Cristina de Melo; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of thorium by Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. was studied. Microalgal cultures were inoculated in ASM-1 medium in presence and absence of thorium. Its effect was monitored by direct counting on Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber and with software. The toxicity of thorium over the species was observed for concentrations over 50.0 mg/L. After 30 days, Monoraphidium cells decreased their concentration from 4.23 × 106 to 4.27 × 105 and 8.57 × 105 cells/mL, in the presence of 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L of thorium, respectively. Scenedesmus sp. cells were more resistant to thorium: for an initial cell concentration of 7.65 × 104 cells/mL it was observed a change to 5.25 × 105 and 5.12 × 105 cells/mL, in the presence of thorium at 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L, respectively. This is an indication that low concentrations of the radionuclide favored the growth, and that Scenedesmus cells are more resistant to thorium than Monoraphidium cells. The software used for comparison with direct count method proved to be useful for the improvement of accuracy of the results obtained, a decrease in the uncertainty and allowed recording of the data. The presence of thorium suggests that low concentrations have a positive effect on the growth, due to the presence of the nitrate, indicating its potential for ecotoxicological studies. PMID:22649297

  13. The growth of Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. cells in the presence of thorium.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Juliana Cristina; Ferreira, Ana Cristina de Melo; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of thorium by Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. was studied. Microalgal cultures were inoculated in ASM-1 medium in presence and absence of thorium. Its effect was monitored by direct counting on Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber and with software. The toxicity of thorium over the species was observed for concentrations over 50.0 mg/L. After 30 days, Monoraphidium cells decreased their concentration from 4.23 × 10(6) to 4.27 × 10(5) and 8.57 × 10(5) cells/mL, in the presence of 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L of thorium, respectively. Scenedesmus sp. cells were more resistant to thorium: for an initial cell concentration of 7.65 × 10(4) cells/mL it was observed a change to 5.25 × 10(5) and 5.12 × 10(5) cells/mL, in the presence of thorium at 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L, respectively. This is an indication that low concentrations of the radionuclide favored the growth, and that Scenedesmus cells are more resistant to thorium than Monoraphidium cells. The software used for comparison with direct count method proved to be useful for the improvement of accuracy of the results obtained, a decrease in the uncertainty and allowed recording of the data. The presence of thorium suggests that low concentrations have a positive effect on the growth, due to the presence of the nitrate, indicating its potential for ecotoxicological studies.

  14. Psychrobacter submarinus sp. nov. and Psychrobacter marincola sp. nov., psychrophilic halophiles from marine environments.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Schumann, Peter; Rohde, Manfred; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Mikhailov, Valery V; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2002-07-01

    Two novel psychrophilic, halophilic, Psychrobacter-like bacteria, strains KMM 225T and KMM 277T, were isolated from sea water and the internal tissues of an ascidian Polysyncraton sp. specimen, respectively, and characterized using a polyphasic approach, which included phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses. The novel marine isolates were Gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid, oxidase- and catalase-positive, non-pigmented, non-motile, psychrophilic and halophilic and they utilized a restricted spectrum of carbon sources. Strains KMM 225T and KMM 277T required sea water or sodium ions for growth and were tolerant of up to 12-15% (w/v) NaCl. Growth of strains KMM 225T and KMM 277T was observed at 4-35 and 7-35 degrees C, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of KMM 225T and KMM 277T were respectively 46-8 and 50.7 mol %. Comparison of almost complete 16S rDNA sequences of strains KMM 225T and KMM 277T revealed that both strains were phylogenetically most closely related to each other (99.9% sequence similarity) and slightly less related to Psychrobacter glacincola, with 97.2 and 97.8% similarity, respectively. DNA-DNA reassociation between KMM 225T and KMM 277T revealed 15% similarity, whereas similarity to other Psychrobacter species was 14-25%. Strains KMM 225T and KMM 277T differed from one another in their growth temperature, organic substrate utilization, antibiotic sensitivity and DNA G+C content. Both strains examined could be distinguished from all previously described Psychrobacter species by their physiological, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics. On the basis of the physiological and molecular properties of the novel isolates, the names Psychrobacter submarinus sp. nov. (type strain KMM 225T = DSM 14161T) and Psychrobacter marincola sp. nov. (type strain KMM 277T = DSM 14160T) are proposed.

  15. Combinations of fluorescently labeled pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C in phospholipid films.

    PubMed Central

    Nag, K; Taneva, S G; Perez-Gil, J; Cruz, A; Keough, K M

    1997-01-01

    Hydrophobic pulmonary surfactant (PS) proteins B (SP-B) and C (SP-C) modulate the surface properties of PS lipids. Epifluorescence microscopy was performed on solvent-spread monolayers of fluorescently labeled porcine SP-B (R-SP-B, labeled with Texas Red) and SP-C (F-SP-C, labeled with fluorescein) in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) (at protein concentrations of 10 and 20 wt%, and 10 wt% of both) under conditions of cyclic compression and expansion. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectroscopy of R-SP-B and F-SP-C indicated that the proteins were intact and labeled with the appropriate fluorescent probe. The monolayers were compressed and expanded for four cycles at an initial rate of 0.64 A2 x mol(-1) x s(-1) (333 mm2 x s x [-1]) up to a surface pressure pi approximately 65 mN/m, and pi-area per residue (pi-A) isotherms at 22 +/- 1 degrees C were obtained. The monolayers were microscopically observed for the fluorescence emission of the individual proteins present in the film lipid matrix, and their visual features were video recorded for image analysis. The pi-A isotherms of the DPPC/protein monolayers showed characteristic "squeeze out" effects at pi approximately 43 mN/m for R-SP-B and 55 mN/m for F-SP-C, as had previously been observed for monolayers of the native proteins in DPPC. Both proteins associated with the expanded (fluid) phase of DPPC monolayers remained in or associated with the monolayers at high pi (approximately 65 mN/m) and redispersed in the monolayer upon its reexpansion. At comparable pi and area/molecule of the lipid, the proteins reduced the amounts of condensed (gel-like) phase of DPPC monolayers, with F-SP-C having a greater effect on a weight basis than did R-SP-B. In any one of the lipid/protein monolayers the amounts of the DPPC in condensed phase were the same at equivalent pi during compression and expansion and from cycle to cycle. This indicated that only minor loss of components from these systems

  16. Purification and properties of glutamine synthetases from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 and Calothrix sp. strain PCC 7601.

    PubMed

    Mérida, A; Leurentop, L; Candau, P; Florencio, F J

    1990-08-01

    Glutamine synthetases (GSs) from two cyanobacteria, one unicellular (Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803) and the other filamentous (Calothrix sp. strain PCC 7601 [Fremyella diplosiphon]), were purified to homogeneity. The biosynthetic activities of both enzymes were strongly inhibited by ADP, indicating that the energy charge of the cell might regulate the GS activity. Both cyanobacteria exhibited an ammonium-mediated repression of GS synthesis. In addition, the Synechocystis sp. showed an inactivation of GS promoted by ammonium that had not been demonstrated previously in cyanobacteria.

  17. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100. Technical information report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.T. Jr.; Womack, J.R.

    1984-03-01

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compatibility between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  18. Users guide for the ANL IBM SP1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Pieper, S.C.

    1994-10-01

    This guide presents the features of the IBM SP1 installed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The guide describes the available hardware and software, access policies, and hints for using the system productively.

  19. Bacteremia Caused by a Metronidazole-Resistant Prevotella sp. Strain

    PubMed Central

    Mory, Francine; Carlier, Jean-Philippe; Alauzet, Corentine; Thouvenin, Maxime; Schuhmacher, Hélène; Lozniewski, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Metronidazole resistance among Prevotella spp. is rare. We report here the first case of bacteremia due to a high-level metronidazole-resistant Prevotella sp. responsible for treatment failure. PMID:16208024

  20. Insights into the Oxidation Mechanism of sp(2)-sp(3) Hybrid Carbon Materials: Preparation of a Water-Soluble 2D Porous Conductive Network and Detectable Molecule Separation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Siwei; Yang, Yucheng; He, Peng; Wang, Gang; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-01-31

    A thorough investigation of the oxidation mechanism of sp(2)-sp(3) hybrid carbon materials is helpful for the morphological trimming of graphene. Here, porous graphene (PGN) was obtained via a free radical oxidation process. We further demonstrated the difference between traditional and free radical oxidation processes in sp(2)-sp(3) hybrid carbon materials. The sp(3) part of graphene oxide was oxidized first, and well-crystallized sp(2) domains were reserved, which is different from the oxidation mechanism in a traditional approach. The obtained PGN shows excellent performance in the design of PGN-based detectable molecule separation or other biomedical applications.

  1. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative High-Capacity-Power Environmental Interactions Program has made great progress in defining and evaluating the interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments. The NASCAP/LEO and POLAR computer codes demonstrated that local electric fields at the user interface module are high. Therefore, particular attention must be paid to geometries and materials in this region to prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in low Earth orbit. NASCAP/LEO and EPSAT computer models revealed that SP-100 payloads float about 100 V negative of the LEO plasma. In addition, ground tests and modeling done for the Space Station Freedom Electrical Grounding Tiger Team found that dielectric coatings often break down at such voltages in a plasma. Thus, surface coatings for SP-100 payloads should be carefully selected. Sputtering may also be a concern for long-duration missions in LEO at these voltages. Much work has been done on a sputtering model to evaluate surface material loss rates on SP-100 payloads. In ground plasma chamber tests of cables and cable insulators at SP-100 voltages, parasitic power losses due to the plasma current collected from possible pinholes or coating defects were quantified and shown to be small. Modeling revealed that the power loss from currents to other surfaces is also small. The atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials and coatings continues to be investigated in ground tests. In the upcoming Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) Shuttle flight experiment, a host of SP-100 materials will be evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in LEO. Finally, an evaluation of the interactions of the SP-100 power system with lunar and planetary environments has started. At a workshop on chemical and electrical interactions on Mars recently held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, many of primary interactions were identified.

  2. [Causative agent of human diphyllobothriasis--Diphyllobothrium klebanovskii sp. n].

    PubMed

    Muratov, I V; Posokhov, P S

    1988-01-01

    A new cestode species, Diphyllobothrium klebanovskii sp. n., is described on the basis of experimental examination and morphological study of 51 specimens expelled from men in lower part of the Amur river and 18 specimens expelled from golden hamsters. The larval stage of this cestode is plerocercoid of type F, which is localized in muscles of Oncorhynchus keta and O. gorbuscha. D. klebanovskii sp. n. is a marine species, it differs from D. latum and other species of the genus Diphyllobothrium.

  3. Regulation of CEP131 gene expression by SP1.

    PubMed

    Huong, Pham Thi Thu; Soung, Nak Kyun; Jang, Jae Hyuk; Cha-Molstad, Hyun Joo; Sakchaisri, Krisada; Kim, Sun Ok; Jang, Jun Min; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Lee, Kyung Sang; Kwon, Yong Tae; Erikson, Raymond Leo; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Bo Yeon

    2013-01-15

    Centrosomal proteins play important roles in cell cycle. Among them, the centrosomal protein of 131kDa (CEP131) has been reported as a critical factor for cilia formation which is related with development, signaling, and various diseases, the malfunction of cilia leading to cancer. Specificity protein 1 (SP1), known as a centrosome regulator, is an essential transcription factor regulating the genes involved in multiple cellular processes such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and DNA damages. In this study, we explored the crucial role of SP1 in the regulation of CEP131 gene transcription. A deletion analysis of the CEP131 promoter region revealed dominant promoter elements within the sequence between -400bp and -200bp, which contained consensus binding sites for SP1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP) assay further confirmed the direct binding of SP1 to the CEP131 promoter. On the other hand, CEP131 transcription could be inhibited by mithramycin (a GC-rich region inhibitor), but exogenous expression of SP1 could increase CEP131 expression as evidenced by a reporter gene assay. In addition, mutation of several SP1 binding sites revealed four SP1 binding sites at -244/-225, -258/-239, -304/-283 and -323/-304 that strongly affect CEP131 expression. Hence, it is suggested that SP1 is a pivotal transcription factor for the regulation of CEP131 expression, consequently leading the control of centrosome functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. SP8 regulates signaling centers during craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Kasberg, Abigail D; Brunskill, Eric W; Steven Potter, S

    2013-09-15

    Much of the bone, cartilage and smooth muscle of the vertebrate face is derived from neural crest (NC) cells. During craniofacial development, the anterior neural ridge (ANR) and olfactory pit (OP) signaling centers are responsible for driving the outgrowth, survival, and differentiation of NC populated facial prominences, primarily via FGF. While much is known about the functional importance of signaling centers, relatively little is understood of how these signaling centers are made and maintained. In this report we describe a dramatic craniofacial malformation in mice mutant for the zinc finger transcription factor gene Sp8. At E14.5 they show facial prominences that are reduced in size and underdeveloped, giving an almost faceless phenotype. At later times they show severe midline defects, excencephaly, hyperterlorism, cleft palate, and a striking loss of many NC and paraxial mesoderm derived cranial bones. Sp8 expression was primarily restricted to the ANR and OP regions during craniofacial development. Analysis of an extensive series of conditional Sp8 mutants confirmed the critical role of Sp8 in signaling centers, and not directly in the NC and paraxial mesoderm cells. The NC cells of the Sp8 mutants showed increased levels of apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation, thereby explaining the reduced sizes of the facial prominences. Perturbed gene expression in the Sp8 mutants was examined by laser capture microdissection coupled with microarrays, as well as in situ hybridization and immunostaining. The most dramatic differences included striking reductions in Fgf8 and Fgf17 expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers. We were also able to achieve genetic and pharmaceutical partial rescue of the Sp8 mutant phenotype by reducing Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. These results show that Sp8 primarily functions to promote Fgf expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers that drive the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the NC and paraxial

  5. New sequestrate fungi from Guyana: Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. (Boletaceae, Boletales).

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew E; Amses, Kevin R; Elliott, Todd F; Obase, Keisuke; Aime, M Catherine; Henkel, Terry W

    2015-12-01

    Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. are described as new to science. These sequestrate, hypogeous fungi were collected in Guyana under closed canopy tropical forests in association with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host tree genera Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae), Aldina (Fabaceae subfam. Papilionoideae), and Pakaraimaea (Dipterocarpaceae). Molecular data place these fungi in Boletaceae (Boletales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) and inform their relationships to other known epigeous and sequestrate taxa within that family. Macro- and micromorphological characters, habitat, and multi-locus DNA sequence data are provided for each new taxon. Unique morphological features and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 185 taxa across the order Boletales justify the recognition of the three new genera.

  6. Evidence for cooperative mineralization of diuron by Arthrobacter sp. BS2 and Achromobacter sp. SP1 isolated from a mixed culture enriched from diuron exposed environments.

    PubMed

    Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Pesce, Stéphane; Rouard, Nadine; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2014-12-01

    Diuron was found to be mineralized in buffer strip soil (BS) and in the sediments (SED) of the Morcille river in the Beaujolais vineyard repeatedly treated with this herbicide. Enrichment cultures from BS and SED samples led to the isolation of three bacterial strains transforming diuron to 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) its aniline derivative. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that they belonged to the genus Arthrobacter (99% of similarity to Arthrobacter globiformis strain K01-01) and were designated as Arthrobacter sp. BS1, BS2 and SED1. Diuron-degrading potential characterized by sequencing of the puhA gene, characterizing the diuron-degradaing potential, revealed 99% similarity to A. globiformis strain D47 puhA gene isolated a decade ago in the UK. These isolates were also able to use chlorotoluron for their growth. Although able to degrade linuron and monolinuron to related aniline derivatives they were not growing on them. Enrichment cultures led to the isolation of a strain from the sediments entirely degrading 3,4-DCA. 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that it was affiliated to the genus Achromobacter (99% of similarity to Achromobacter sp. CH1) and was designated as Achromobacter sp. SP1. The dcaQ gene encoding enzyme responsible for the transformation of 3,4-DCA to chlorocatechol was found in SP1 with 99% similarity to that of Comamonas testosteroni WDL7. This isolate also used for its growth a range of anilines (3-chloro-4-methyl-aniline, 4-isopropylaniline, 4-chloroaniline, 3-chloroaniline, 4-bromoaniline). The mixed culture composed of BS2 and SP1 strains entirely mineralizes (14)C-diuron to (14)CO2. Diuron-mineralization observed in the enrichment culture could result from the metabolic cooperation between these two populations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Complete Genomic Sequence of the Virulent Salmonella Bacteriophage SP6

    PubMed Central

    Dobbins, Aleisha T.; George, Matthew; Basham, Daryl A.; Ford, Michael E.; Houtz, Jennifer M.; Pedulla, Marisa L.; Lawrence, Jeffrey G.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2004-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of enterobacteriophage SP6, which infects Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The genome contains 43,769 bp, including a 174-bp direct terminal repeat. The gene content and organization clearly place SP6 in the coliphage T7 group of phages, but there is ∼5 kb at the right end of the genome that is not present in other members of the group, and the homologues of T7 genes 1.3 through 3 appear to have undergone an unusual reorganization. Sequence analysis identified 10 putative promoters for the SP6-encoded RNA polymerase and seven putative rho-independent terminators. The terminator following the gene encoding the major capsid subunit has a termination efficiency of about 50% with the SP6-encoded RNA polymerase. Phylogenetic analysis of phages related to SP6 provided clear evidence for horizontal exchange of sequences in the ancestry of these phages and clearly demarcated exchange boundaries; one of the recombination joints lies within the coding region for a phage exonuclease. Bioinformatic analysis of the SP6 sequence strongly suggested that DNA replication occurs in large part through a bidirectional mechanism, possibly with circular intermediates. PMID:15028677

  8. Sp1- and Krüppel-like transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Kaczynski, Joanna; Cook, Tiffany; Urrutia, Raul

    2003-01-01

    Sp1-like proteins and Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are highly related zinc-finger proteins that are important components of the eukaryotic cellular transcriptional machinery. By regulating the expression of a large number of genes that have GC-rich promoters, Sp1-like/KLF transcription regulators may take part in virtually all facets of cellular function, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and neoplastic transformation. Individual members of the Sp1-like/KLF family can function as activators or repressors depending on which promoter they bind and the coregulators with which they interact. A long-standing research aim has been to define the mechanisms by which Sp1-like factors and KLFs regulate gene expression and cellular function in a cell- and promoter-specific manner. Most members of this family have been identified in mammals, with at least 21 Sp1-like/KLF proteins encoded in the human genome, and members are also found in frogs, worms and flies. Sp1-like/KLF proteins have highly conserved carboxy-terminal zinc-finger domains that function in DNA binding. The amino terminus, containing the transcription activation domain, can vary significantly between family members. PMID:12620113

  9. Verrucosispora andamanensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Supong, Khomsan; Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Thawai, Chitti

    2013-11-01

    An actinomycete strain, SP03-05(T), was isolated from a marine sponge sample (Xestospongia sp.) collected from Phuket Province of Thailand. The strain was aerobic, Gram-stain-positive and produced single spores at the tips of the substrate mycelium. Strain SP03-05(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan; whole-cell sugars were arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose, ribose and xylose. The polar lipid profile of strain SP03-05(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and unknown polar lipids. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain identified it as a member of the family Micromonosporaceae. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed similarity of the strain to Verrucosispora lutea YIM 013(T) (96.90 %), Verrucosispora sediminis MS426(T) (96.90 %), Verrucosispora gifhornensis DSM 44337(T) (96.80 %), Verrucosispora maris AB-18-032(T) (96.80 %) and Verrucosispora qiuiae RtIII47(T) (95.40 %). The DNA G+C content was 72.4 mol%. The phenotypic, genotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization results supported the classification of this strain as a representative of a novel species in the genus Verrucosispora, for which the name Verrucosispora andamanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SP03-05(T) ( = BCC 45620(T) = NBRC 109075(T)).

  10. Identification and production of bioflocculants by Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. and their characterization studies.

    PubMed

    Muthulakshmi, L; Nellaiah, H; Kathiresan, T; Rajini, N; Christopher, Fenila

    2017-05-28

    In this work, two bioflocculants, namely, EB-EPS and B1-EPS, were derived from Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively, and analyzed with regard to their production and characterization. About 0.9 and 0.16 g of purified EB and B1 were obtained from I L of fermentation broth. Chemical analysis showed the contents of purified EB and B1 mainly as 88.7 and 92.8% (w/w) of carbohydrate, and 11.3 and 21.8% (w/w) protein, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl, amide, and carboxyl groups in the identified bioflocculant. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results exhibited enhanced thermal stability with a minimum mass loss of 50% while 25% were found to have occurred at higher temperatures (>400°C) for microbe-derived compounds EB and B1 leading to the possibility of using these compounds as fillers or for fabricating composite films for high-temperature applications. Further, the compounds from both the bacteria exhibited good antibacterial characteristics against pathogenic Escherichia coli. Degradability study of bioflocculant-embedded composite films shows the possibility of attaining eco-friendly bioremediation. Accordingly, experimental results revealed the suitability of developed composite films as a suitable alternative for food packaging and biomedical applications.

  11. Aminobacter ciceronei sp. nov. and Aminobacter lissarensis sp. nov., isolated from various terrestrial environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, I.R.; Kampfer, P.; Topp, E.; Warner, K.L.; Cox, M.J.; Connell, Hancock T.L.; Miller, L.G.; Larkin, M.J.; Ducrocq, V.; Coulter, C.; Harper, D.B.; Murrell, J.C.; Oremland, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The bacterial strains IMB-1T and CC495T, which are capable of growth on methyl chloride (CH3Cl, chloromethane) and methyl bromide (CH3Br, bromomethane), were isolated from agricultural soil in California fumigated with CH3Br, and woodland soil in Northern Ireland, respectively. Two pesticide- /herbicide-degrading bacteria, strains ER2 and C147, were isolated from agricultural soil in Canada. Strain ER2 degrades N-methyl carbamate insecticides, and strain C147 degrades triazine herbicides widely used in agriculture. On the basis of their morphological, physiological and genotypic characteristics, these four strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Aminobacter, for which the names Aminobacter ciceronei sp. nov. (type strain IMB-1T=ATCC 202197T=CIP 108660T=CCUG 50580T; strains ER2 and C147) and Aminobacter lissarensis sp. nov. (type strain CC495T=NCIMB 13798T=CIP 108661T=CCUG 50579T) are proposed. ?? 2005 IUMS.

  12. Novel application of Mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers for augmented protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Amrik; Saini, Vandana; Gupta, Anshu

    2012-10-01

    The present study explored the utilization of Mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers, a major non-timber forest product (NTFP) of India, as a low-cost, natural substrate for protease production under submerged fermentation. Bacterial strain Aeromonas sp. Si1, previously reported by us, was used as the protease producer. Using Mahua flower extract (MFE) as the medium additive, the protease production could successfully be enhanced by 5.6-fold (564.5 UmL-1) after 24 h of fermentation under optimized conditions compared with initial production of 99.9 UmL' in the absence of MFE. The cultural parameters for optimum production of protease were determined to be: incubation time-24 h; pH-7.0; MFE concentration-5% (v/v); inoculum size-0.3% (v/v) and agitation rate-200 rpm. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of cheaper and abundantly available Mahua flowers for induction of proteases, and thus offer a new approach for value addition to this biomass through industrial enzyme production.

  13. Kryptousia macronema gen. nov., sp. nov. and Kryptousia microlepis sp. nov., nostocalean cyanobacteria isolated from phyllospheres.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Danillo Oliveira; Andreote, Ana Paula Dini; Branco, Luis Henrique Zanini; Fiore, Marli Fatima

    2017-09-01

    Tropical ecosystems worldwide host very diverse microbial communities, but are increasingly threatened by deforestation and climate change. Thus, characterization of biodiversity in these environments, and especially of microbial communities that show unique adaptations to their habitats, is a very urgent matter. Information about representatives of the phylum Cyanobacteria in tropical environments is scarce, even though they are fundamental primary producers that help other microbes to thrive in nutrient-depleted habitats, including phyllospheres. In order to increase our knowledge of cyanobacterial diversity, a study was conducted to characterize isolates from Avicennia schaueriana and Merostachys neesii leaves collected at a mangrove and an Atlantic forest reserve located at the littoral of São Paulo state, south-east Brazil. The morphological, ultrastructural, phylogenetic, molecular and ecological features of the strains led to the recognition of the new genus Kryptousia, comprising two new species, Kryptousiamacronema gen. nov., sp. nov. and Kryptousiamicrolepis sp. nov., described here according to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. The new genus and species were classified in the nostocalean family Tolypotrichaceae. This finding advances knowledge on the microbial diversity of South American ecosystems and sheds further light on the systematics of cyanobacteria.

  14. Legionella tunisiensis sp. nov. and Legionella massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Campocasso, Angélique; Boughalmi, Mondher; Fournous, Ghislain; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Two isolates of intra-amoeba-growing bacteria, LegA(T) ( = DSM 24804(T) = CSUR P146(T)) and LegM(T) ( = DSM 24805(T) = CSUR P145(T)), were characterized on the basis of microscopic appearance, staining characteristics, axenic growth at different temperatures and the sequences of the mip, rpoB, 16S rRNA and rnpb genes, as well as the 23S-5S region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two isolates lay within the radius of the family Legionellaceae. Furthermore, the analysis of these genes yielded congruent data that indicated that, although strain LegM(T) clusters specifically with Legionella feeleii ATCC 35072(T) and LegA(T) clusters with Legionella nautarum ATCC 49596(T), the divergence observed between these species was greater than that observed between other members of the family. Taken together, these results support the proposal that these two isolates represent novel members of the genus Legionella, and we propose to name them Legionella tunisiensis sp. nov. for LegM(T) ( = DSM 24805(T) = CSUR P145(T)) and Legionella massiliensis sp. nov. for LegA(T) ( = DSM 24804(T) = CSUR P146(T)).

  15. Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of donkeys.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kazuko; Saito, Masanori; Tsudukibashi, Osamu; Hiroi, Takachika; Hirasawa, Masatomo

    2013-08-01

    Four Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid isolates that were obtained from donkey oral cavities formed two distinct clonal groups when characterized by phenotypic and phylogenetic studies. From the results of biochemical tests, the organisms were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two of the isolates were related most closely to Streptococcus ursoris with 95.6 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and to Streptococcus ratti with 92.0 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates, however, were related to Streptococcus criceti with 95.0 and 89.0 % similarities based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. From both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the four isolates formed two distinct clonal groups and are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus. The names proposed for these organisms are Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1801(T) = JCM 17942(T) = DSM 25193(T)) and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1808(T) = JCM 17943(T) = DSM 25137(T)).

  16. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed.

  17. Listeria booriae sp. nov. and Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov., from food processing environments in the USA.

    PubMed

    Weller, Daniel; Andrus, Alexis; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk C

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of seafood and dairy processing facilities in the north-eastern USA produced 18 isolates of Listeria spp. that could not be identified at the species-level using traditional phenotypic and genotypic identification methods. Results of phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggested that the isolates represent two novel species with an average nucleotide blast identity of less than 92% with previously described species of the genus Listeria. Phylogenetic analyses based on whole genome sequences, 16S rRNA gene and sigB gene sequences confirmed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) and FSL A5-0209 cluster phylogenetically with Listeria cornellensis. Phylogenetic analyses also showed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) cluster phylogenetically with Listeria riparia. The name Listeria booriae sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) ( =DSM 28860(T) =LMG 28311(T)), and the name Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) ( =DSM 28861(T) =LMG 28310(T)). Phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggest that neither species is pathogenic. © 2015 IUMS.

  18. Pedobacter huanghensis sp. nov. and Pedobacter glacialis sp. nov., isolated from Arctic glacier foreland.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xia; Qu, Zhihao; Jiang, Fan; Ren, Lvzhi; Chang, Xulu; Kan, Wenjing; Fang, Chengxiang; Peng, Fang

    2014-07-01

    Two psychrotolerant, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strains, designed M1-27(T) and 8-24(T), were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic studies. Strain M1-27(T) was isolated from the foreland of the Midtre Lovénbreen glacier, whereas strain 8-24(T) was isolated from the foreland of the Austre Lovénbreen glacier. Both were Arctic glacier forelands, near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Strains M1-27(T) and 8-24(T) exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 91.0-96.0% and 92.3-96.7%, respectively, to type strains of recognized species of the genus Pedobacter. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two strains were grouped with members of the genus Pedobacter, but represented distinct taxa. Both strains contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The DNA G+C contents of strains M1-27(T) and 8-24(T) were 43.8% and 39.4%, respectively. The phenotypic characteristics, biochemical properties and polygenetic analysis, clearly indicated that strains M1-27(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2012936(T) = LMG 28205(T)) and 8-24(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2012941(T) = NRRL B-59993(T)) represent two novel species of the genus Pedobacter, for which the names Pedobacter huanghensis sp. nov. and Pedobacter glacialis sp. nov., respectively, are proposed.

  19. Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov., isolated from traditional fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Mika; Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Chaipitakchonlatarn, Winai; Malimas, Taweesak; Sugimoto, Masako; Yoshino, Mayumi; Kamakura, Yuki; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Tanaka, Naoto; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-08-01

    Three Lactobacillus-like strains, NB53T, NB446T and NB702, were isolated from traditional fermented food in Thailand. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that these strains belong to the Lactobacillus plantarum group. Phylogenetic analysis based on the dnaK, rpoA, pheS and recA gene sequences indicated that these three strains were distantly related to known species present in the L. plantarum group. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related strains demonstrated that these strains represented two novel species; the novel strains could be differentiated based on chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, two novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. (NB53T) and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov. (NB446T and NB702), are proposed with the type strains NB53T ( = NBRC 107333T = BCC 38054T) and NB446T ( = NBRC 107235T = BCC 38191T), respectively.

  20. Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Yong; Rong, Xiaoying; Zucchi, Tiago D; Huang, Ying; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Two actinomycete strains, BK125(T) and BK199(T), isolated from a hay meadow soil sample were investigated to determine their taxonomic position using a polyphasic approach. The isolates produced greenish-yellow and light green aerial mycelium on oatmeal agar, respectively. They contained anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids, and MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8) as the predominant isoprenoid quinones. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates formed distinct phyletic lines towards the periphery of the Streptomyces prasinus subclade. Analysis of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two isolates showed that they belonged to different genomic species. The organisms were also distinguished from one another and from type strains of species classified in the S. prasinus subclade using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the isolates be assigned to the genus Streptomyces as Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov. with isolates BK125(T) ( = KACC 20902(T) = CGMCC 4.5798(T)) and BK199(T) ( = KACC 21003(T) = CGMCC 4.6824(T)) as the respective type strains.

  1. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8 % and 93.1 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase β subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0 % and 82.9 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5 % similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T) = JCM 19287(T) = DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T) = JCM 19288(T) = DSM 27513(T)) are proposed.

  2. Characterization of a bioflocculant produced by a consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo.

    PubMed

    Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Mabinya, Leonard V; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-10-16

    The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2-10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment.

  3. Characterization of a Bioflocculant Produced by a Consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo

    PubMed Central

    Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Mabinya, Leonard V.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2013-01-01

    The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2–10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment. PMID:24135818

  4. Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Anionic sp(2) -sp(3) Diboron Compounds: Readily Accessible Boryl Nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Sabrina; Neeve, Emily C; Apperley, David C; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Mo, Fanyang; Qiu, Di; Cheung, Man Sing; Dang, Li; Wang, Jianbo; Radius, Udo; Lin, Zhenyang; Kleeberg, Christian; Marder, Todd B

    2015-05-04

    Lewis base adducts of tetra-alkoxy diboron compounds, in particular bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2 pin2 ), have been proposed as the active source of nucleophilic boryl species in metal-free borylation reactions. We report the isolation and detailed structural characterization (by solid-state and solution NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography) of a series of anionic adducts of B2 pin2 with hard Lewis bases, such as alkoxides and fluoride. The study was extended to alternative Lewis bases, such as acetate, and other diboron reagents. The B(sp(2) )-B(sp(3) ) adducts exhibit two distinct boron environments in the solid-state and solution NMR spectra, except for [(4-tBuC6 H4 O)B2 pin2 ](-) , which shows rapid site exchange in solution. DFT calculations were performed to analyze the stability of the adducts with respect to dissociation. Stoichiometric reaction of the isolated adducts with two representative series of organic electrophiles-namely, aryl halides and diazonium salts-demonstrate the relative reactivities of the anionic diboron compounds as nucleophilic boryl anion sources.

  5. Paenibacillus pasadenensis sp. nov. and Paenibacillus barengoltzii sp. nov., isolated from a spacecraft assembly facility.

    PubMed

    Osman, Shariff; Satomi, Masataka; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2006-07-01

    Two novel spore-forming, Gram-positive, mesophilic, heterotrophic bacteria representing two novel species were isolated from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spacecraft Assembly Facility (JPL-SAF) at Pasadena, CA, USA. The incidence of similar strains was examined by screening the growing collection of isolates ( approximately 400 strains) obtained from the JPL-SAF using species-specific PCR primer sets designed from the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains SAFN-016(T) and SAFN-007(T). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed these novel isolates within the genus Paenibacillus. Two strains, SAFN-016(T) and SAFN-125, shared 98 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Paenibacillus timonensis and 97 % similarity with Paenibacillus macerans. Strain SAFN-007(T) showed 95.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Paenibacillus kobensis, its nearest phylogenetic neighbour. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological tests and biochemical analysis allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the isolates from currently recognized Paenibacillus species. Strain SAFN-007(T) and strains SAFN-016(T) and SAFN-125 are representatives of two separate novel species, for which the names Paenibacillus pasadenensis sp. nov. (type strain SAFN-007(T)=ATCC BAA-1211(T)=NBRC 101214(T)) and Paenibacillus barengoltzii sp. nov. (type strain SAFN-016(T)=ATCC BAA-1209(T)=NBRC 101215(T)) are proposed.

  6. Catalytic and thermodynamic characterization of protease from Halobacterium sp. SP1(1).

    PubMed

    Akolkar, Aparna V; Desai, Anjana J

    2010-06-01

    Osmolytes KCl, glycerol, mannitol, trehalose, sucrose, betaine, proline and Na-glutamate at different concentrations (5-30%) were investigated as effective solutes for retaining the activity of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) protease in the absence of NaCl. Maximum activity was observed in the presence of 30% Na-glutamate. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for casein hydrolysis revealed that the protease was equally efficient in the presence of Na-glutamate as in NaCl. The enzyme was active over a broader range of temperature (20-80 degrees C) and was highly stable even at 80 degrees C with Na-glutamate. Thermodynamic parameters (DeltaH*, DeltaS*, G*) for irreversible inactivation of protease at different temperatures (20-80 degrees C) were determined in the presence of Na-glutamate and NaCl. The efficiency of these osmolytes for thermal stability of protease was 30% (1.6 M) Na-glutamate > 4 M ( approximately 25%) NaCl > 2 M (approximately 10%), suggesting that the effect exerted by the osmolyte depends not only on its chemical nature but also on its concentration. Na-glutamate was thus found to play an important role in thermal stabilization of enzyme substituting for NaCl. Moreover, substitution of NaCl by Na-glutamate may increase the applicability of halophilic enzymes in biotechnology and industry, which is otherwise limited to high NaCl concentrations. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Degradation of methomyl by the combination of Aminobacter sp. MDW-2 and Afipia sp. MDW-3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Yang, Z; Jin, W; Wang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhu, S; Yu, X; Hu, G; Hong, Q

    2017-04-01

    Methomyl (S-methyl N-(methylcarbamoyloxy) thioacetimidate) is a kind of oxime carbamate insecticide. It is considered to be extremely toxic to nontarget organism. To date, no pure culture or consortium has been reported to have the ability to degrade methomyl completely. In this study, a methomyl-degrading enrichment E1 was obtained by using the sludge from the wastewater-treating system of a pesticide manufacturer as the original inoculant. Two bacterial strains named MDW-2 and MDW-3 were isolated from this enrichment, and they were preliminarily identified as Aminobacter sp. and Afipia sp. respectively. Strains MDW-2 and MDW-3 could coexist and degrade 50 mg l(-1) methomyl completely within 3 days by the cooperative metabolism. Methomyl was first converted to methomyl oxime and methylcarbamic acid by strain MDW-2, and the latter could be used as the carbon source for the growth of strain MDW-2. But methomyl oxime could not be sequentially degraded by strain MDW-2. However, it could be degraded and used as the carbon source by strain MDW-3.

  8. Psychrobacter cryohalolentis sp. nov. and Psychrobacter arcticus sp. nov., isolated from Siberian permafrost.

    PubMed

    Bakermans, Corien; Ayala-del-Río, Héctor L; Ponder, Monica A; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Gilichinsky, David; Thomashow, Michael F; Tiedje, James M

    2006-06-01

    Three Gram-negative, non-motile, non-pigmented, oxidase-positive coccobacilli capable of growth at temperatures from -10 to 30 degrees C and salinities of 0 to 1.7 M NaCl were isolated from Siberian permafrost and characterized. Both 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequencing studies placed the isolates in the Gammaproteobacteria within the genus Psychrobacter. However, with higher bootstrap values and reproducible tree topologies, gyrB represented a more reliable phylogenetic marker for the taxonomy of Psychrobacter species. DNA-DNA hybridization data supported gyrB tree topologies and established two relatedness groups within the three isolates; neither of these groups was related at the species level to any previously described Psychrobacter species. The two groups of isolates could be differentiated phenotypically from 13 previously described Psychrobacter species using API strips. These results support the existence of two novel species of Psychrobacter, for which we propose the names Psychrobacter cryohalolentis sp. nov. (type strain K5(T) = DSM 17306(T) = VKM B-2378(T)) and Psychrobacter arcticus sp. nov. (type strain 273-4(T) = DSM 17307(T) = VKM B-2377(T)).

  9. Photobacterium rosenbergii sp. nov. and Enterovibrio coralii sp. nov., vibrios associated with coral bleaching.

    PubMed

    Thompson, F L; Thompson, C C; Naser, S; Hoste, B; Vandemeulebroecke, K; Munn, C; Bourne, D; Swings, J

    2005-03-01

    Six new Vibrio-like isolates originating from different species of bleached and healthy corals around Magnetic Island (Australia) were investigated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA, recA and rpoA gene sequences split the isolates in two new groups. Strains LMG 22223(T), LMG 22224, LMG 22225, LMG 22226 and LMG 22227 were phylogenetic neighbours of Photobacterium leiognathi LMG 4228(T) (95.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), whereas strain LMG 22228(T) was related to Enterovibrio norvegicus LMG 19839(T) (95.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The two new groups can be distinguished from closely related species on the basis of several phenotypic features, including fermentation of d-mannitol, melibiose and sucrose, and utilization of different compounds as carbon sources, arginine dihydrolase activity, nitrate reduction, resistance to the vibriostatic agent O/129 and the presence of fatty acids 15 : 0 iso and 17 : 0 iso. The names Photobacterium rosenbergii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 22223(T)=CBMAI 622(T)=CC1(T)) and Enterovibrio coralii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 22228(T)=CBMAI 623(T)=CC17(T)) are proposed to accommodate these new isolates. The G+C contents of the DNA of the two type strains are respectively 47.6 and 48.2 mol%.

  10. Enterobacter turicensis sp. nov. and Enterobacter helveticus sp. nov., isolated from fruit powder.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Roger; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vos, Paul; Lehner, Angelika

    2007-04-01

    Four Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming isolates of coccoid rods were obtained from fruit powder and investigated in a polyphasic taxonomic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis allocated the isolates to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Their phylogenetic position within the family Enterobacteriaceae was confirmed by rpoB sequence analysis and as the highest rpoB sequence similarities were obtained with Enterobacter radicincitans, Enterobacter cowanii and Enterobacter sakazakii, the isolates clearly belong to the genus Enterobacter. Biochemical data revealed that the isolates can be separated into two distinct groups that represent two novel species, as confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridizations. The two novel species can be differentiated from their nearest neighbours by the following characteristics: the utilization of sucrose, D-sorbitol, putrescine and mucate, the hydrolysis of aesculin and a negative result in the Voges-Proskauer reaction. It is therefore proposed that these novel isolates are classified as Enterobacter turicensis sp. nov. (type strain 508/05(T)=LMG 23730(T)=DSM 18397(T)) and Enterobacter helveticus sp. nov. (type strain 513/05(T)=LMG 23732(T)=DSM 18396(T)).

  11. Oxidative coupling of sp (2) and sp (3) carbon-hydrogen bonds to construct dihydrobenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiang-Ling; Wang, Ding; Zhang, Xi-Sha; Li, Xiao-Lei; Chen, Yu-Qin; Li, Yu-Xue; Shi, Zhang-Jie

    2017-08-10

    Metal-catalyzed cross-couplings provide powerful, concise, and accurate methods to construct carbon-carbon bonds from organohalides and organometallic reagents. Recent developments extended cross-couplings to reactions where one of the two partners connects with an aryl or alkyl carbon-hydrogen bond. From an economic and environmental point of view, oxidative couplings between two carbon-hydrogen bonds would be ideal. Oxidative coupling between phenyl and "inert" alkyl carbon-hydrogen bonds still awaits realization. It is very difficult to develop successful strategies for oxidative coupling of two carbon-hydrogen bonds owning different chemical properties. This article provides a solution to this challenge in a convenient preparation of dihydrobenzofurans from substituted phenyl alkyl ethers. For the phenyl carbon-hydrogen bond activation, our choice falls on the carboxylic acid fragment to form the palladacycle as a key intermediate. Through careful manipulation of an additional ligand, the second "inert" alkyl carbon-hydrogen bond activation takes place to facilitate the formation of structurally diversified dihydrobenzofurans.Cross-dehydrogenative coupling is finding increasing application in synthesis, but coupling two chemically distinct sites remains a challenge. Here, the authors report an oxidative coupling between sp (2) and sp (3) carbons by sequentially activating the more active aryl site followed by the alkyl position.

  12. Devosia albogilva sp. nov. and Devosia crocina sp. nov., isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane dump site.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mansi; Kumar, Mukesh; Dadhwal, Mandeep; Kaur, Jaspreet; Lal, Rup

    2009-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, IPL15(T) and IPL20(T), isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane dump site in India, were characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, both strains belonged to the genus Devosia; highest sequence similarities of strain IPL15(T) were observed with Devosia neptuniae J1(T) and Devosia geojensis BD-c194(T) (96.2 % in each case) and the highest sequence similarity of strain IPL20(T) was observed with Devosia soli GH2-10(T) (98.6 %). Phylogenetic analysis showed the distinct lineages of strains IPL15(T) and IPL20(T) among members of the genus Devosia. The presence of C(18 : 0) 3-OH and C(10 : 0) 3-OH fatty acids supported their respective positions within the genus Devosia. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization results, it is concluded that strains IPL15(T) and IPL20(T) represent two distinct species of the genus Devosia for which the names Devosia albogilva sp. nov. and Devosia crocina sp. nov., respectively, are proposed. The type strains are Devosia albogilva IPL15(T) (=CCM 7427(T)=MTCC 8594(T)) and Devosia crocina IPL20(T) (=CCM 7425(T)=MTCC 8590(T)).

  13. Cryobacterium flavum sp. nov. and Cryobacterium luteum sp. nov., isolated from glacier ice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Hongcan; Wen, Ying; Zhou, Yuguang; Xin, Yuhua

    2012-06-01

    Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria, strains Hh8(T), Hh15(T) and Hh40-2, were isolated from the No. 1 glacier in Xinjiang, north-west China. Colonies of strain Hh8(T) were orange-yellow, convex and round on PYG plates. Strain Hh8(T) grew at 0-19 °C and pH 5.5-10.5. Colonies of strain Hh15(T), which was able to grow at 0-20 °C and pH 5.5-12, were lemon yellow, convex and round on PYG plates. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these three strains were related to members of the genus Cryobacterium. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(15:1) A. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, two novel species, Cryobacterium flavum sp. nov. (type strain Hh8(T) = CGMCC 1.11215(T) = NBRC 107879(T)) and Cryobacterium luteum sp. nov. (type strain Hh15(T) = CGMCC 1.11210(T) = NBRC 107880(T)), are proposed.

  14. Euzebyella marina sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Jiao; Zhao, Jia-Rui; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Chen, Guo-Zhong; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Mo, Xu-Hua; He, Hai-Lun; Chen, Shiyong

    2017-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-flagellated, non-gliding, oxidase- and catalase-positive bacterium, designated CY01T, was isolated from seawater of the Yellow Sea. CY01T grew at 15-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), pH 5-8 (optimum, 6.5-7.5) and with 0.5-12 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0.5-3.5 %). It could not produce flexirubin-type pigment or reduce nitrate to nitrite. CY01T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain of Euzebyella saccharophila (97.0 %) and clustered tightly with the species of the genus Euzebyella in the phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. The major cellular fatty acids of CY01T were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1G and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-6. Polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), four unidentified lipids and one unidentified aminolipid. The genomic DNA G+C content was 38.2 mol%. Based on the results of the polyphasic characterization of CY01T, it represents a novel species of the genus Euzebyella, for which the name Euzebyella marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CY01T (=CCTCC AB 2014348T=KCTC 42440T).

  15. Phycicoccus soli sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hina; Won, KyungHwa; Ngo, Hien T T; Du, Juan; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, coccus-shaped bacterium, strain THG-a14T, was isolated from soil of Gyeyang mountain in Incheon, Republic of Korea. The isolate grew optimally at 28 °C, at pH 6.5-7.5 and with 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain THG-a14T was closely related to Phycicoccus aerophilus 5516T-20T (97.7 %), P. ginsenosidimutans BXN5-13T (97.6 %), 'P. ochangensis' L1b-b9 (97.4 %) and P. bigeumensis MSL-03 (97.2 %). The DNA G+C content of strain THG-a14T was 71.6 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization, the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-a14T and its closest phylogenetically neighbours was below 50.0 %. Strain THG-a14T was characterized chemotaxonomically as having meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. Strain THG-a14T contained glucose and ribose as whole-cell-wall sugars and menaquinone MK-8(H4) as the major isoprenoid quinone. Polar lipids in strain THG-a14T consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphoaminoglycolipids, unidentified phospholipids and unidentified lipids. The major fatty acids were iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0 and C17:1ω8c. On the basis of our polyphasic taxonomy study, strain THG-a14T represents a novel species within the genus Phycicoccus, for which the name Phycicoccussoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-a14T ( = KACC 17892T = JCM 19837T).

  16. Friedmanniella aerolata sp. nov., isolated from air.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Hamada, Moriyuki; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2016-05-01

    A novel bacterium, strain 7515T-26T, was isolated from an air sample collected in Taean region, Republic of Korea. Cells were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-flagellated cocci, growing in the temperature, pH and NaCl ranges of 10-33 °C, pH 5.0-9.0 and 0-2 % (w/v). It shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Friedmanniella lacustris EL-17AT (97.6 %), Friedmanniella lucida FA2T (96.9 %) and Friedmanniella luteola FA1T (96.9 %), showing high sequence similarities of 96.5-97.6 % with members of the genus Friedmanniella. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 7515T-26T and members of the genus Friedmanniella formed a compact cluster separable from other genera. The isolate contained anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids, and MK-9(H4) as the predominant isoprenoid quinone. Polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, two unknown phospholipids and one unknown lipid, and the DNA G+C content was 73.1 mol%. The peptidoglycan type was A3γ. It showed DNA-DNA hybridization values of less than 70 % with F. lacustris EL-17AT. On the basis of the evidence from this polyphasic study, a novel species, Friedmanniella aerolata sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is 7515T-26T ( = KACC 17306T = DSM 27139T).

  17. Jatrophihabitans soli sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Moon, Ji-Young; Lim, Jun-Muk; Hamada, Moriyuki; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2015-06-01

    One bacterial strain, designated KIS75-12T, isolated from a soil sample collected from Wonsando island located in Boryeong city, Republic of Korea, was characterized as aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-flagellated and a short rod. It grew between temperatures of 15-37 °C, pH 4-9 and 0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene analysis showed the strain was moderately related to Jatrophihabitans endophyticus S9-650T (97.7 %) and revealed low sequence similarity (≤94.7 %) with all the other species with validly published names. Its major fatty acid was iso-C16 : 0. The predominant menaquinone of strain KIS75-12T was MK-9(H4). The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol and several small amounts of phosphatidylinositol, aminolipids and glycolipid. The peptidoglycan contained meso-A2pm as diagnostic diamino acid and the peptidoglycan type is A4γ. The genomic DNA G+C content of the type strain was 72.1 mol%. The combined phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data showed that strain KIS75-12T could be clearly distinguished from the only member of the genus Jatrophihabitans,J. endophyticus. Therefore, the results of this study indicate the existence of a representative of a novel species of the genus Jatrophihabitans, for which we propose the name Jatrophihabitans soli sp. nov., with strain KIS75-12T ( = KACC 17298T = DSM 45908T  = NBRC 109658T) as the type strain. An emended description of the genus Jatrophihabitans is also given.

  18. Tumebacillus luteolus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Her, Jihee; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2015-11-01

    Two strains of Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, spore-forming and rod-shaped bacteria, designated U13T and U14, were isolated from soil of the Ukraine. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these strains belong to the genus Tumebacillus, with the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Tumebacillus ginsengisoli Gsoil 1105T (95.48% and 95.49%, respectively). Strains U13T and U14 had iso-C15:0 and summed features 1 and 4 as the main fatty acids, and were able to grow at pH ranging from pH 5.0 to 9.0 (optimum pH 6.0-7.0), temperatures ranging from 25 to 42 °C (optimum 28-37 °C) and with 0-1% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0%, w/v) on R2A agar medium. Chemotaxonomic data revealed that the cell-wall peptidoglycan type of the two strains was type A1γ (meso-diaminopimelic acid). On the basis of the evidence from this study, strains U13T and U14 represent a novel species of the genus Tumebacillus, for which the name Tumebacillus luteolus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is U13T ( = KEMB 7305-100T = JCM 19866T) and a second strain is U14 ( = KEMB 7305-101 = JCM 19867).

  19. (Spirosoma luteolum) sp. nov. isolated from water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Park, Sangkyu; Cho, Young-Je; Kim, Myung Kyum; Ten, Leonid N; Jung, Hee-Young

    2017-03-01

    A novel Gram-negative and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated as 16F6ET, was isolated from a water sample. Cells were yellowish in color and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain grew at 10-37°C (optimum at 25°C) but not at 4 and 42°C, and pH 5-7 (optimum at pH 7). It showed moderate resistance to gamma-ray irradiation. Comparative phylogenetic analysis showed that strain 16F6E(T) belonged to the family Cytophagaceae of the class Cytophagia. Furthermore, this isolate showed relatively low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (90.7-93.1%) to the members of the genus Spirosoma. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), C16:1 ω5c, C16:0 N alcohol, and C16:0. The polar lipid profile indicated presence of phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminophospholipids, an unknown amino lipid, unknown phospholipids, and unknown polar lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 16F6E(T) was 56.5 mol%. Phenotypic, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic properties indicated that isolate 16F6ET represents a novel species within the genus Spirosoma, for which the name Spirosoma luteolum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 16F6ET (=KCTC 52199(T) =JCM 31411(T)).

  20. Actinomadura scrupuli sp. nov., isolated from rock.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Wan; Lee, Soon Dong

    2010-11-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain R-Ac121(T), was isolated from a small stone collected from an agricultural field in Jeju, Republic of Korea. The organism formed abundant vegetative mycelium that was branched and twisted. The reverse colour of colonies was brownish-yellow. Non-motile, wrinkled arthrospores were produced directly on the substrate mycelium. Aerial mycelium and sporangia were not observed. A neighbour-joining tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate formed a distinct clade within the radiation of the family Thermomonosporaceae. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity was found with the type strain of Spirillospora rubra (97.3 % sequence similarity) followed by those of Actinoallomurus purpureus (97.0 %), Actinomadura alba (96.5 %), Actinomadura fibrosa (96.5 %) and Actinomadura echinospora (96.4 %). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars were rhamnose, glucose, ribose, xylose and arabinose. The polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H(6)) and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(17 : 1)ω8c and 10-methyl C(17 : 0). The DNA G+C content was 71.8 mol%. The combination of morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data clearly supports the separation of the organism from recognized species of the genus Actinomadura and related genera. On the basis of the data presented here, strain R-Ac121(T) represents a novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura scrupuli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain R-Ac121(T) (=KCTC 19488(T) =DSM 45225(T)).

  1. Gryllotalpicola soli sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Soo-Jin; Hamada, Moriyuki; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2014-12-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, short rod-shaped, non-flagellated and mesophilic strain, KIS12-7(T), isolated from a soil sample collected from Daecheong-Island in Ongjin County, Republic of Korea, was studied using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel strain was a member of the genus Gryllotalpicola, showing more than 97.0 % sequence similarity with Gryllotalpicola daejeonensis RU-04(T) (98.0 %), Gryllotalpicola koreensis RU-16(T) (97.7 %) and Gryllotalpicola kribbensis PU-02(T) (97.3 %). However, DNA-DNA relatedness values demonstrated that strain KIS12-7(T) could be clearly distinguished from closely related species of the genus Gryllotalpicola. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain KIS12-7(T) was of the type B2 and the acyl type was acetyl. The predominant menaquinones were MK-11 and MK-10. Polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unknown phosphoglycolipid, one unknown glycolipid, one unknown phospholipid and one unknown lipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.1 mol%. On the basis of the evidence presented, strain KIS12-7(T) is a representative of a novel species of the genus Gryllotalpicola, and the name Gryllotalpicola soli sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is KIS12-7(T) ( = DSM 27182(T) = KACC 17302(T) = NBRC 109659(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  2. Tsukamurella soli sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Weon, Hang-Yeon; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Anandham, Rangasamy; Schumann, Peter; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2010-07-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, white-coloured bacterium, designated strain JS18-1(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Halla mountain, Jeju island, Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain was most closely related to members of the genus Tsukamurella with levels of sequence similarity of 95.4-96.5 %. Strain JS18-1(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Tsukamurella strandjordii DSM 44573(T) (96.5 %), Tsukamurella carboxydivorans Y2(T) (96.4 %) and Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) (96.4 %). The G+C content of the total DNA of strain JS18-1(T) was 70 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A1gamma and mycolic acids were also detected. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The major quinone was menaquinone-9 (MK-9) and major cell-wall sugars were arabinose, ribose and glucose. The major fatty acids (>10 % of the total fatty acids) were C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1)omega9c, C(18 : 0) 10-methyl and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and chemotaxonomic, biochemical and physiological characteristics indicate that strain JS18-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Tsukamurella, for which the name Tsukamurella soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JS18-1(T) (=KACC 20764(T)=DSM 45046(T)).

  3. Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov., isolated from straw.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Elena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúñiga, Doris; Velezmoro, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro

    2013-05-01

    During a study of the 'tunta' (frozen-dry potato) production process in Peru, a bacterial strain, LMT03(T), was isolated from the straw grass in which the potatoes are dried. This strain was classified into the genus Pseudomonas on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and is most closely related to Pseudomonas argentinensis CH01(T) with 99.3 % identity in this gene and 96 %, 92 % and 86 % identities in rpoB, rpoD and gyrB genes, respectively. Strain LMT03(T) has a single polar flagellum, like other related yellow-pigment-producing pseudomonads. The major quinone is Q-9. The major fatty acids are C18 : 1ω7c in summed feature 8 (40.82 %), C16 : 1ω6c/C16 : 1ω6c in summed feature 3 (23.72 %) and C16 : 0 (15.20 %). The strain produces oxidase but it does not produce gelatinase, indole, urease, arginine dihydrolase or β-galactosidase. Catalase production was very weak after 28 and 48 h incubation on nutrient agar medium. Nitrate reduction is negative. It does not hydrolyse aesculin. The DNA G+C content is 57.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed lower than 52 % relatedness with respect to the type strain of P. argentinensis, CH01(T). These results, together with other phenotypic characteristics, support the definition of a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMT03(T) ( = LMG 26839(T) = CECT 8089(T)).

  4. Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov., isolated from cheese.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, David; Rau, Jörg; Eugster, Marcel R; Haug, Martina C; Lawson, Paul A; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-02-01

    A study was performed on three isolates (LU2006-1(T), LU2006-2 and LU2006-3), which were sampled independently from cheese in western Switzerland in 2006, as well as a fourth isolate (A11-3426), which was detected in 2011, using a polyphasic approach. The isolates could all be assigned to the genus Listeria but not to any known species. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data were compatible with the genus Listeria and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the closest relationships were with members of this genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the isolates did not belong to any currently described species. Cell-wall-binding domains of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysins were able to attach to the isolates, confirming their tight relatedness to the genus Listeria. Although PCR targeting the central portion of the flagellin gene flaA was positive, motility was not observed. The four isolates could not be discriminated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This suggests that they represent a single species, which seems to be adapted to the environment in a cheese-ripening cellar as it was re-isolated from the same type of Swiss cheese after more than 5 years. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the isolates harbour a transferable resistance to clindamycin. The isolates did not exhibit haemolysis or show any indication of human pathogenicity or virulence. The four isolates are affiliated with the genus Listeria but can be differentiated from all described members of the genus Listeria and therefore they merit being classified as representatives of a novel species, for which we propose the name Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov.; the type strain is LU2006-1(T) ( = DSM 24998(T)  = LMG 26584(T)).

  5. Nocardiopsissediminis sp. nov., isolated from mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Muangham, Supattra; Suksaard, Paweena; Mingma, Ratchanee; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Takahashi, Yōko; Duangmal, Kannika

    2016-10-01

    A filamentous actinomycete, designated strain 1SS5-02T, was isolated from mangrove sediment collected from Ranong province, Thailand. The strain formed aerial and substrate mycelia composed of long, branched hyphae. Aerial mycelia differentiated into non-motile, rod-shaped spores. The organism contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and no diagnostic sugars in whole-cell hydrolysates. The predominant menaquinones were MK-11(H4), MK-11(H6) and MK-11(H8). Polar lipids comprised phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified phospholipids and four unidentified lipids. The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, 10-methyl C18 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 73.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 1SS5-02T belonged to the genus Nocardiopsis. The strain showed the highest degree of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with 'Nocardiopsis mangrovei' HA11166 (97.9 %) and Nocardiopsis trehalosi VKM Ac-942T (97.8 %). However, strain 1SS5-02T could be distinguished from its nearest phylogenetic relatives in the genus Nocardiopsis on the basis of DNA-DNA relatedness values and the combination of phenotypic properties. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomy, strain 1SS5-02T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Nocardiopsis, for which the name Nocardiopsis sediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1SS5-02T (=BCC 75410T=NBRC 110934T).

  6. Gordonia humi sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, P; Young, Chiu-Chung; Chu, Jiunn-Nan; Frischmann, A; Busse, H-J; Arun, A B; Shen, Fo-Ting; Rekha, P D

    2011-01-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-endospore-forming actinobacterium (CC-12301(T)) was isolated from soil attached to a spawn used in the laboratory to grow the edible mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain CC-12301(T) was shown to belong to the genus Gordonia and was most closely related to the type strains of Gordonia hydrophobica (97.6 % similarity), Gordonia terrae (97.5 %), Gordonia amarae (97.5 %) and Gordonia malaquae (97.4 %). The quinone system was determined to consist predominantly of menaquinone MK-9(H(2)), minor amounts of MK-8(H(2)) and MK-7(H(2)). The polar lipid profile consisted of the major compounds diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, moderate amounts of two phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylinositol and minor amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified glycolipids, two phosphoglycolipids and a phospholipid. Mycolic acids were present. These chemotaxonomic traits and the major fatty acids, which were C(16 : 1) cis9, C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1) and tuberculostearic acid (10-methyl C(18 : 0)), supported the affiliation of strain CC-12301(T) to the genus Gordonia. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed clear phenotypic differentiation of strain CC-12301(T) from the most closely related Gordonia species. Strain CC-12301(T) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Gordonia humi sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain CC-12301(T) (=DSM 45298(T) =CCM 7727(T)).

  7. Streptomyces andamanensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Sripreechasak, Paranee; Tamura, Tomohiko; Shibata, Chiyo; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-05-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain KC-112T, was isolated from soil collected from Similan Islands, Phang-Nga Province, Thailand. The strain exhibited morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The formation of smooth spiral spore chains was observed on aerial mycelia. ll-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in whole-cell hydrolysates, but no diagnostic sugars were detected and the strain lacked mycolic acids. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H2). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, an unknown phospholipid, an unknown aminolipid, unknown lipids and an unknown glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 73 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain KC-112T was closely related to Streptomyces fumanus NBRC 13042T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptomyces anandii NBRC 13438T (98.8 %) and Streptomyces capillispiralis NBRC 14222T (98.8 %). DNA-DNA relatedness values among strain KC-112T and type strains of closely related species were lower than 70 %. On the basis of evidence from this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain KC-112T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, namely Streptomyces andamanensis sp. nov. The type strain is KC-112T ( = KCTC 29502T = NBRC 110085T = PCU 347T = TISTR 2401T).

  8. Streptomyces krungchingensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Sripreechasak, Paranee; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Tamura, Tomohiko; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2017-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain KC-035T, was isolated from soil collected from Krung Ching Waterfall National Park, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand. Its taxonomic position was determined using a polyphasic approach. The strain had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of members of the genus Streptomyces: flexuous spore chain; ll-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan; MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H4) as menaquinones; diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside as phospholipids; anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids; and DNA G+C content of 72 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain KC-035T showed high similarity to Streptomyces albiflavescens n20T (99.16 %) and Streptomyces siamensis KC-038T (98.43 %) as well as formed a monophyletic clade with them in the phylogenetic tree. On the basis of comparison of phenotypic properties and the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness, strain KC-035T could be distinguished from its closely related Streptomyces species and is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces krungchingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KC-035T (=NBRC 110087T=KCTC 29503T=TISTR 2402T).

  9. Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ning; Li, Hui-Rong; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Yong

    2015-02-01

    A pink-pigmented, non-motile, coccoid bacterial strain, designated G3-6-20(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in the Grove Mountains, East Antarctica. This strain was resistant to UV irradiation (810 J m(-2)) and slightly more sensitive to desiccation as compared with Deinococcus radiodurans. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Deinococcus. Highest sequence similarities were with Deinococcus ficus CC-FR2-10(T) (93.5 %), Deinococcus xinjiangensis X-82(T) (92.8 %), Deinococcus indicus Wt/1a(T) (92.5 %), Deinococcus daejeonensis MJ27(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus wulumuqiensis R-12(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (92.2 %) and Deinococcus radiodurans DSM 20539(T) (92.2 %). Major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain G3-6-20(T) was 63.1 mol%. Menaquinone 8 (MK-8) was the predominant respiratory quinone. Based on its phylogenetic position, and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain G3-6-20(T) represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G3-6-20(T) ( = DSM 27864(T) = CCTCC AB 2013263(T)).

  10. Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov., isolated from pebbles.

    PubMed

    Parag, B; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    Strain JC267T was isolated from pebbles collected from Pingleshwar beach, Gujarat, India. Cells are Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile rods forming sub-terminal endospores in swollen ellipsoidal to oval sporangia. Strain JC267T contains anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major (>5 %) cellular fatty acids. Polar lipids include phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids (PL1-3), glycolipids (GL1-2) and an unidentified lipid. Cell-wall amino acids are composed of diagnostic meso-diaminopimelic acid, dl-alanine and a small amount of d-glutamic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JC267T is 45.5 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JC267T showed highest sequence similarities of < 98.41 % with all species of the genus Bacillus when subjected to EzTaxon-e blast analysis. The reassociation values based on DNA-DNA hybridization of strain JC267T with Bacillus halosaccharovorans IBRC-M 10095T and Bacillus niabensis JCM 16399T were 26 ± 1 % and 34 ± 3 %, respectively. Based on taxonomic data obtained using a polyphasic approach, strain JC267T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC267T ( = IBRC-M 10914T = KCTC 33579T).

  11. Niabella ginsenosidivorans sp. nov., isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Yi, Kwon-Jung; Im, Wan-Taek; Kim, Dong-Woon; Liu, Qing Mei; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2015-11-01

    A Gram-reaction negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, orange colored, and rod-shaped bacterium (designated BS26(T)) isolated from compost, was characterized by a polyphasic approach to clarify its taxonomic position. Strain BS26(T) was observed to grow optimally at 25-30 °C and at pH 7.0 on R2A and nutrient media. Strain BS26(T) showed ß-glucosidase activity that was responsible for its ability to transform ginsenoside Rb1 (one of the active components of ginseng) to ginsenoside compound-K (C-K). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain BS26(T) belongs to the genus Niabella of family Chitinophagaceae and was most closely related to Niabella soli DSM 19437(T) (94.5% similarity), N. yanshanensis CCBAU 05354(T) (94.3%), and N. aurantiaca DSM 17617(T) (93.8%). The G+C content of genomic DNA was 47.3 mol%. Chemotaxonomic data [predominant isoprenoid quinone-MK-7, major fatty acids-iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 G, iso-C17:0 3-OH, and summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c)] supported the affiliation of strain BS26(T) to the genus Niabella. However, strain BS26(T) could be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from the recognized species of the genus Niabella. The novel isolate therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Niabella ginsenosidivorans sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain BS26(T) (=KACC 16620(T) =JCM 18199(T)).

  12. Dactylosporangium tropicum sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Thawai, Chitti; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Kudo, Takuji

    2011-10-01

    Two novel actinomycete strains, designated KB2-4(T) and KB9-2, were isolated from soil samples. Both isolates formed finger-shaped sporangia on short sporangiophores that emerged directly from substrate hyphae. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained glutamic acid, glycine, alanine and meso-diaminopimelic acid; the whole-cell sugars were galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, ribose and xylose. The diagnostic phospholipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H(8)) and MK-9(H(6)). Mycolic acids were not detected. The predominant cellular fatty acids (>20 %) were iso-C(16 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). For both strains, the G+C content of the genomic DNA was about 72 mol%. The morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the two strains were typical of members of the genus Dactylosporangium. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences also indicated that these strains should be classified in the genus Dactylosporangium and showed that the closest relative was Dactylosporangium salmoneum NRRL B-16294(T) (99.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). DNA-DNA relatedness and some physiological and biochemical properties indicated that the isolates could be readily distinguished from their closest phylogenetic relatives. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic data, the isolates represent a novel species, for which the name Dactylosporangium tropicum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain KB2-4(T) ( = BCC 34760(T)  = JCM 15673(T)).

  13. Dactylosporangium siamense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Thawai, Chitti; Suriyachadkun, Chanwit

    2013-11-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designed MW4-36(T), was isolated from tropical forest soil in Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of this strain clearly demonstrated that it belongs to the genus Dactylosporangium. The strain formed finger-shaped sporangia on short sporangiophores that emerged directly from substrate hyphae. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained glutamic acid, glycine, alanine and meso-diaminopimelic acid including 3-hydroxy-meso-diaminopimelic acid; arabinose, glucose, rhamnose, ribose and xylose were found as whole-cell sugars. The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol; no phosphatidylcholine was found. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). Mycolic acids were not detected. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences also indicated that the strain should be classified in the genus Dactylosporangium and showed that the closest relative was Dactylosporangium maewongense JCM 15933(T) (99.4 % similarity). These taxonomic data revealed that strain MW4-36(T) could be readily distinguished from its phylogenetically closest relative. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic data, strain MW4-36(T) is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Dactylosporangium siamense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MW4-36(T) ( = BCC 34901(T) = NBRC 106093(T)).

  14. Actinoplanes atraurantiacus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yabo; Zhang, Jianli; Fan, Lei; Pang, Huancheng; Xin, Yuhua; Zhang, Xuefang

    2012-10-01

    A Gram-positive-staining bacterium, designated Y16(T), was isolated from a soil sample from Yunnan Province, China. The isolate grew optimally at 25-30 °C, grew at pH 6.0-9.0 and could grow with 3 % NaCl. Strain Y16(T) had cell-wall peptidoglycan based on meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H(4)) and MK-9(H(2)). The major fatty acid methyl esters were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0) and C(16 : 0). These chemotaxonomic characteristics suggested that the organism belonged to the genus Actinoplanes. Strain Y16(T) shared 98.7, 98.3 and 97.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Actinoplanes deccanensis IFO 13994(T), A. abujensis A4029(T) and A. brasiliensis DSM 43805(T), respectively. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 70.8 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness between the novel isolate and the type strains of A. deccanensis, A. abujensis and A. brasiliensis was 35.2, 32.0 and 22.3 %, respectively. In addition, the pattern of phenotypic properties distinguished strain Y16(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. It is therefore concluded that strain Y16(T) ( = CGMCC 4.6857(T) = JCM 17700(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, for which the name Actinoplanes atraurantiacus sp. nov. is proposed.

  15. Bacillus paraflexus sp. nov., isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Chandna, Piyush; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium capable of growing at 15-42 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5-11 (optimum pH 7) was isolated from compost. Its taxonomic position was deduced using a polyphasic approach and the strain was designated RC2(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belongs to the division Firmicutes, forming a clade within the cluster containing Bacillus flexus IFO 15715(T), and showed highest similarity to B. flexus IFO 15715(T) (98.1 %). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strain were iso-C15:0 (36.83 %), anteiso-C15:0 (49.19 %) and C16:0 (5.19 %). DNA-DNA hybridization between strain RC2(T) and B. flexus DSM 1320(T) showed a level of relatedness of 54.5 %. The polar lipid profile of strain RC2(T) showed the presence of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the G+C content of strain RC2(T) was 37.6 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and the results of biochemical and physiological tests, strain RC2(T) was clearly distinguished from closely related members of the genus, and the strain is assigned to a novel species, for which the name Bacillus paraflexus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RC2(T) ( = MTCC 9831(T) = MCC 2100(T) = KCTC 13724(T) = CCM 7754(T)).

  16. Variovorax dokdonensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kang, So-Jung; Oh, Tae-Kwang

    2006-04-01

    A Gram-negative, motile and oval- or rod-shaped bacterial strain, DS-43T, was isolated from soil from Dokdo, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The strain grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0 and at 30 degrees C in the presence of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain DS-43T had Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH, C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(17 : 0) cyclo as the major fatty acids, which are consistent with the corresponding data for the type strain (KCTC 12459T) of Variovorax paradoxus. The DNA G+C content was 66.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DS-43T was most closely related to Variovorax paradoxus, the only recognized species of the genus. The level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain DS-43T and V. paradoxus IAM 12373T was 97.3 %. DNA-DNA relatedness data and differential phenotypic properties demonstrated that strain DS-43T is distinguishable from V. paradoxus. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, it is proposed that strain DS-43T (=KCTC 12544T = CIP 108838T) be classified in the genus Variovorax as a member of a novel species, Variovorax dokdonensis sp. nov.

  17. Variovorax defluvii sp. nov., isolated from sewage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Long; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2012-08-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out on 2C1-b(T) and 2C-21, two strains isolated from sewage flowing into River Geumho in Korea. Cells of the two strains were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, motile and oval or rod-shaped. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed a clear affiliation of these two isolates with members of the Betaproteobacteria; they were most closely related to Variovorax boronicumulans KCTC 22010(T), Variovorax dokdonensis KCTC 12544(T), Variovorax ginsengisoli KCTC 12583(T), Variovorax paradoxus ATCC 17713(T) and Variovorax soli KACC 11579(T) showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.4-98.8% with these strains and shared 100% similarity with each other. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C1-21 were 65.5 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data [Q-8 as the major ubiquinone; C(16:0), summed feature 4 (C(16:1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH), C(17:0) cyclo and summed feature 7 (C(18:1)ω7c and/or ω9t and/or ω12t) as major fatty acids] supported the affiliation of strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C-21 to the genus Variovorax. Based on evidence derived from this polyphasic analysis, it is proposed that strains 2C1-b(T) and 2C1-21 represent a novel species for which the name Variovorax defluvii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 2C1-b(T) ( = KCTC 12768(T) = JCM 17804(T)).

  18. Octadecabacterponticola sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Park, Sooyeon; Yoon, Sun Young; Jung, Yong-Taek; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2016-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, non-flagellated and coccoid, ovoid or rod-shaped bacterial strain, HDSW-34T, was isolated from seawater of Hwang-do on the Yellow Sea, South Korea, and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain HDSW-34T grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 1.0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HDSW-34Tclustered with the type strains of four species of the genus Octadecabacter, showing 96.7-97.6 % sequence similarity. Strain HDSW-34T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acid. The major polar lipids detected in strain HDSW-34T were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminolipid and one unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content of strain HDSW-34T was 62.0 mol% and its DNA-DNA relatedness values with Octadecabacterantarcticus CIP 106731T and Octadecabacterarcticus DSM 13978T were 11-18 %. The differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain HDSW-34T is separated from other recognized species of the genus Octadecabacter. On the basis of the data presented, strain HDSW-34T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Octadecabacter, for which the name Octadecabacterponticola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HDSW-34T (= KCTC 52250T=NBRC 112296T).

  19. Flavobacterium chungbukense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae-Sung; Oh, Yong-Sik; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Park, A-Rum; Yoo, Jae-Soo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Roh, Dong-Hyun

    2011-11-01

    A yellow-pigmented, Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, strictly aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated CS100(T), was isolated from soil in Chungbuk, Korea. Phylogenetic analysis and comparative studies based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain CS100(T) belonged to the genus Flavobacterium in the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain CS100(T) showed the highest sequence similarities to Flavobacterium glaciei JCM 13953(T) (97.6 %) and Flavobacterium johnsoniae KACC 11410(T) (97.1 %). Sequence similarity to other members of the genus Flavobacterium was 91.5-97.0 %. Growth occurred at 4-30 °C, at pH 5.0-9.0 and in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Flexirubin-type pigments were produced. Menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was the major respiratory quinone and the major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (17.3 %), summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c, 15.5 %) and C(16 : 0) (11.8 %). The DNA G+C content was 36.4 mol%. Strain CS100(T) hydrolysed skimmed milk and gelatin, but not chitin or pectin, and showed oxidase and catalase activities. DNA-DNA relatedness was 3.0 % with F. glaciei JCM 13953(T) and 11.5 % with F. johnsoniae KACC 11410(T). On the basis of the evidence from this study, strain CS100(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium chungbukense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CS100(T) ( = KACC 15048(T) = JCM 17386(T)).

  20. Flavobacterium maotaiense sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qingqing; Gao, Yuan; Nogi, Yuichi; Tan, Xu; Han, Lu; Zhang, Yali; Lv, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Two novel strains, T9(T) and T10, were isolated from water samples collected from Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou, south-west China. The isolates were yellow-pigmented, Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and aerobic. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates belonged to the genus Flavobacterium, and showed highest similarities to Flavobacterium hibernum DSM 12611(T) (97.0 %), followed by Flavobacterium granuli Kw05(T) (96.7 %) and Flavobacterium pectinovorum DSM 6368(T) (96.7 %). The novel strains were able to grow at 20-37 °C (optimum 25 °C), pH 7.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0) and with 0-0.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0.5 %). The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c, anteiso-C15 : 0, C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 1ω10c, and menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was the main respiratory quinone. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown glycolipid, two unknown aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains T9(T) and T10 were 37.7 and 36.4 mol%, respectively. According to the phenotypic and genetic data, strains T9(T) and T10 represent a novel species in the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium maotaiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T9(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12712(T) = JCM 19927(T)).

  1. Flavobacterium ponti sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Park, Sooyeon; Kang, So-Jung; Oh, Soo-Jin; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Wonyong

    2011-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-flagellated, non-gliding, yellow-pigmented and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated GSW-R14(T), was isolated from seawater of Geoje Island in the South Sea, Korea. Strain GSW-R14(T) grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain GSW-R14(T) belonged to the genus Flavobacterium, joining Flavobacterium gelidilacus LMG 21477(T) by a bootstrap resampling value of 100 %. Strain GSW-R14(T) exhibited 97.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to F. gelidilacus LMG 21477(T) and similarities of 91.2-95.2 % to other members of the genus Flavobacterium. Strain GSW-R14(T) contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone. The fatty acid profile of strain GSW-R14(T) was similar to that of F. gelidilacus LMG 21477(T). The DNA G+C content of strain GSW-R14(T) was 31.4 mol% and its DNA-DNA relatedness with F. gelidilacus LMG 21477(T) was 31 %. Strain GSW-R14(T) could be distinguished from F. gelidilacus and the other species of the genus Flavobacterium by its phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness and by several phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, strain GSW-R14(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium ponti sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is GSW-R14(T) (=KCTC 22802(T) =CCUG 58402(T)).

  2. Flavobacterium vireti sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hina; Du, Juan; Won, KyungHwa; Yang, Jung-Eun; Akter, Shahina; Kim, Ki-Young; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2015-06-01

    A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated as THG-SM1(T), was isolated from field soil collected from Suwon, South Korea. The strain was found to grow optimally at 28 °C, at pH 7.0 and in the absence of NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain THG-SM1(T) belongs to the genus Flavobacterium and is most closely related to Flavobacterium terrae KACC 11731(T), followed by Flavobacterium columnare KACC 11683(T) and Flavobacterium enshiense KCTC 23775(T). The DNA G+C content of the novel isolate was determined to be 38.5 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization tests, the DNA relatedness between strain THG-SM1(T) and its closest phylogenetic neighbour F. terrae was below 50 %. Flexirubin-type pigments were found to be present. The major polar lipid and isoprenoid quinone were phosphatidylethanolamine and menaquinone 6 (MK-6), respectively. The main cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:1G, iso-C15:0 3OH, iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. The DNA-DNA hybridization result and differentiating chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics showed that strain THG-SM1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium vireti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-SM1(T) (=KACC 18371(T) = CCTCC AB2014312(T)).

  3. Flavobacterium buctense sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-Min; Tan, Xu; Jia, Li; Long, Ping-Ping; Han, Lu; Lv, Jie

    2015-11-01

    A gram-negative, non-gliding motile, aerobic bacterium, designated as strain T7(T), was isolated from freshwater of Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou Province, southwest of China. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as a member of the genus Flavobacterium and that shared less than 97 % sequence similarities with recognized Flavobacterium species. Its closest phylogenetic relative was Flavobacterium dankookense (96.9 %), followed by Flavobacterium cheonhonense (96.8 %) and Flavobacterium macrobrachii (96.7 %). The strain formed smooth yellow colonies on R2A plates, and cells were observed to be short rods. Strain T7(T) was found to be able to grow at 15-30 °C (optimum 25 °C), at NaCl concentration of 0-0.5 % (optimum 0 %) and at pH 6.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5). Catalase and oxidase tests were positive. Polar lipids of strain T7(T) included phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified polar lipids, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified aminolipid. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed menaquinone-6 as the dominant respiratory quinone and C(15:0), iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(15:1) as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content of strain T7(T) was determined to be 38.2 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and genetic data obtained in this study, strain T7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium buctense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T7(T) (=JCM 30750=CGMCC 1.15216).

  4. Flavobacterium marinum sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Song, Lei; Liu, Hongcan; Huang, Ying; Dai, Xin; Zhou, Yuguang

    2013-10-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, non-gliding, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated SW105(T), was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the Indian Ocean. The strain produced flexirubin-type pigments and grew at 15-45 °C (optimum, 35 °C), at pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-5.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1.0-1.5 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C17 : 1ω9c and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major menaquinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified aminophospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SW105(T) was 36.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel isolate was related to members of the genus Flavobacterium, showing the highest similarity to Flavobacterium ummariense DS-12(T) and Flavobacterium ceti CCUG 52969(T) (94.3 and 93.0 % sequence similarity, respectively). On the basis of phylogenetic inference and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain SW105(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium marinum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW105(T) ( = CGMCC 1.10825(T) = JCM 18132(T)).

  5. A new species of Loxosomatidae (Entoprocta, Solitaria) from the White Sea: Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Borisanova, Anastasiya O; Krylova, Elena M

    2014-09-15

    A new solitary entoproct, Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov., is described. The species was found on the gymnolaemate bryozoans Cribrilina sp. and Electra sp. in Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea. Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov. is a medium-sized species with a total length up to 650 µm, eight tentacles and a conspicuous horn-shaped appendage on the top part of calyx. 

  6. INHIBITION OF RHABDOMYOSARCOMA CELL AND TUMOR GROWTH BY TARGETING SPECIFICITY PROTEIN (Sp) TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Jutooru, Indira; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Pathi, Satya; Kim, Kyounghyun; Chen, Candy; Crose, Lisa; Linardic, Corinne; Safe, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are highly expressed in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells. In tissue arrays of RMS tumor cores from 71 patients, 80% of RMS patients expressed high levels of Sp1 protein, whereas low expression of Sp1 was detected in normal muscle tissue. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) tolfenamic acid (TA) inhibited growth and migration of RD and RH30 RMS cell lines and also inhibited tumor growth in vivo using a mouse xenograft (RH30 cells) model. The effects of TA were accompanied by downregulation of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 and Sp-regulated genes in RMS cells and tumors, and the role of Sp protein downregulation in mediating inhibition of RD and RH30 cell growth and migration was confirmed by individual and combined knockdown of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins by RNA interference. TA treatment and Sp knockdown in RD and RH30 cells also showed that four genes that are emerging as individual drug targets for treating RMS, namely c-MET, insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR), PDGFRα and CXCR4, are also Sp-regulated genes. These results suggest that NSAIDs such as TA may have potential clinical efficacy in drug combinations for treating RMS patients. PMID:22815231

  7. Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov., Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov., freshwater magnetotactic bacteria isolated from three distinct geographical locations in European Russia.

    PubMed

    Dziuba, Marina; Koziaeva, Veronika; Grouzdev, Denis; Burganskaya, Ekaterina; Baslerov, Roman; Kolganova, Tatjana; Chernyadyev, Alexander; Osipov, Georgy; Andrianova, Ekaterina; Gorlenko, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, Boris

    2016-05-01

    Three strains of helical, magnetotactic bacteria, SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T, were isolated from freshwater sediments collected from three distinct locations in European Russia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strains belong to the genus Magnetospirillum. Strains SO-1T and SP-1T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum MS-1T (99.3 and 98.1 %, respectively), and strain BB-1T with Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1T (97.3 %). The tree based on concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of the MamA, B, K, M, O, P, Q and T proteins, which are involved in magnetosome formation, was congruent with the tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T were 65.9, 63.0 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. As major fatty acids, C18 : 1ω9, C16 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 0 were detected. DNA-DNA hybridization values between the novel strains and their closest relatives in the genus Magnetospirillum were less than 51.7 ± 2.3 %. In contrast to M. magnetotacticum MS-1T, the strains could utilize butyrate and propionate; strains SO-1T and BB-1T could also utilize glycerol. Strain SP-1T showed strictly microaerophilic growth, whereas strains SO-1T and BB-1T were more tolerant of oxygen. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strains from each other as well as from the two species of Magnetospirillum with validly published names. Therefore, the strains represent novel species, for which we propose the names Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov. (type strain SO-1T = DSM 28995T = VKM B-2936T), Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. (type strain SP-1T = DSM 29006T = VKM B-2938T) and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov. (type strain BB-1T = DSM 29455T = VKM B-2939T).

  8. Pin1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 increases Sp1 stability and decreases its DNA-binding activity during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hang-Che; Chuang, Jian-Ying; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Liu, Chia-I; Wang, Andrew H-J; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2014-12-16

    We have shown that Sp1 phosphorylation at Thr739 decreases its DNA-binding activity. In this study, we found that phosphorylation of Sp1 at Thr739 alone is necessary, but not sufficient for the inhibition of its DNA-binding activity during mitosis. We demonstrated that Pin1 could be recruited to the Thr739(p)-Pro motif of Sp1 to modulate the interaction between phospho-Sp1 and CDK1, thereby facilitating CDK1-mediated phosphorylation of Sp1 at Ser720, Thr723 and Thr737 during mitosis. Loss of the C-terminal end of Sp1 (amino acids 741-785) significantly increased Sp1 phosphorylation, implying that the C-terminus inhibits CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation. Binding analysis of Sp1 peptides to Pin1 by isothermal titration calorimetry indicated that Pin1 interacts with Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide but not with Thr739-Sp1 peptide. X-ray crystallography data showed that the Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide occupies the active site of Pin1. Increased Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 during mitosis not only stabilized Sp1 levels by decreasing interaction with ubiquitin E3-ligase RNF4 but also caused Sp1 to move out of the chromosomes completely by decreasing its DNA-binding activity, thereby facilitating cell cycle progression. Thus, Pin1-mediated conformational changes in the C-terminal region of Sp1 are critical for increased CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation to facilitate cell cycle progression during mitosis.

  9. An antibody against the surfactant protein A (SP-A)-binding domain of the SP-A receptor inhibits T cell-mediated immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Samten, Buka; Townsend, James C; Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Pasquinelli, Virginia; Barnes, Peter F; Chroneos, Zissis C

    2008-07-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) suppresses lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 secretion, in part, by binding to its receptor, SP-R210. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood. Here, we studied the effect of antibodies against the SP-A-binding (neck) domain (alpha-SP-R210n) or nonbinding C-terminal domain (alpha-SP-R210ct) of SP-R210 on human peripheral blood T cell immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We demonstrated that both antibodies bind to more than 90% of monocytes and 5-10% of CD3+ T cells in freshly isolated PBMC. Stimulation of PBMC from healthy tuberculin reactors [purified protein derivative-positive (PPD+)] with heat-killed M. tuberculosis induced increased antibody binding to CD3+ cells. Increased antibody binding suggested enhanced expression of SP-R210, and this was confirmed by Western blotting. The antibodies (alpha-SP-R210n) cross-linking the SP-R210 through the SP-A-binding domain markedly inhibited cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion by PBMC from PPD+ donors in response to heat-killed M. tuberculosis, whereas preimmune IgG and antibodies (alpha-SP-R210ct) cross-linking SP-R210 through the non-SP-A-binding, C-terminal domain had no effect. Anti-SP-R210n also decreased M. tuberculosis-induced production of TNF-alpha but increased production of IL-10. Inhibition of IFN-gamma production by alpha-SP-R210n was abrogated by the combination of neutralizing antibodies to IL-10 and TGF-beta1. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that SP-A, via SP-R210, suppresses cell-mediated immunity against M. tuberculosis via a mechanism that up-regulates secretion of IL-10 and TGF-beta1.

  10. Binding and functional effects of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 on the proximal human lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase promoter.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, K L; Francone, O L

    1998-05-01

    Human lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) circulates in plasma bound to high density lipoproteins (HDL) and modulates the rate by which cholesteryl ester is transported to the liver. So far, little is known about the regulation of the expression of the LCAT gene. In this study we have defined the cis-elements, identified the trans-acting factors and demonstrated their functional effects and significance in determining transcriptional activity of the proximal LCAT promoter. Using deletion mutants having 5' variable ends (from nucleotides -72 to -27), we have identified the presence of two non-consensus GC-rich regions that stimulate transcription in HepG2 and HeLa cells. These regions designated sites A (-29 to -47) and B (-49 to -65) contain the CCTCC core sequence which in electromobility shift analysis is critical for the formation of two DNA-protein complexes designated I and II. Site-directed mutagenesis suggests that both sites are equally important in promoter activity, and that cooperative interactions between both sites are not required for activity. Electromobility shift and supershift experiments using oligonucleotides spanning sites A and B identified Sp1 and Sp3 as the transcription factors interacting at these sites. To determine the significance and functional effects that Sp1 and Sp3 have in regulating LCAT promoter activity, we performed transfection experiments in Drosophila SL-2 cells as they lack endogenous Sp1 and Sp3. Sp1 but not Sp3 activates the human LCAT promoter and when Sp1 is co-transfected along with Sp3, Sp3 functions as a dose-dependent repressor of Sp1-mediated activation. These findings indicate that Sp1 is capable of transactivating a reporter gene linked to the LCAT promoter containing Sp binding sites and suggests that the levels of Sp3 or the nuclear Sp1/Sp3 ratio may play an important role in determining the transcriptional activity of the LCAT promoter in vivo.

  11. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Claude M; Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H; McKeon, Gabriel P; Ruby, Norman F; Fox, James G

    2015-05-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters.

  12. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H.; McKeon, Gabriel P.; Ruby, Norman F.; Fox, James G.

    2015-01-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters. PMID:25752854

  13. sp(2)-sp(3) diboranes: astounding structural variability and mild sources of nucleophilic boron for organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Rian D; Neeve, Emily C; Braunschweig, Holger; Marder, Todd B

    2015-06-14

    Despite the widespread use of organoborane reagents in organic synthesis and catalysis, a major challenge still remains: very few boron-centered nucleophiles exist for the direct construction of B-C bonds. Perhaps the most promising emerging solution to this problem is the use of sp(2)-sp(3) diboranes, in which one boron atom of a conventional diborane(4) is quaternised by either a neutral or anionic nucleophile. These compounds, either isolated or generated in situ, serve as relatively mild and convenient sources of the boryl anion [BR2](-) for use in organic synthesis and have already proven their efficacy in metal-free as well as metal-catalysed borylation reactions. This Feature article documents the history of sp(2)-sp(3) diborane synthesis, their properties and surprising structural variability, and their burgeoning utility in organic synthesis.

  14. Genomic analysis and D-xylose fermentation of three novel Spathaspora species: Spathaspora girioi sp. nov., Spathaspora hagerdaliae f. a., sp. nov. and Spathaspora gorwiae f. a., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mariana R; Morais, Camila G; Kominek, Jacek; Cadete, Raquel M; Soares, Marco A; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Fonseca, César; Lachance, Marc-André; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Rosa, Carlos A

    2016-06-01

    Three novel D-xylose-fermenting yeast species of Spathaspora clade were recovered from rotting wood in regions of the Atlantic Rainforest ecosystem in Brazil. Differentiation of new species was based on analyses of the gene encoding the D1/D2 sequences of large subunit of rRNA and on 642 conserved, single-copy, orthologous genes from genome sequence assemblies from the newly described species and 15 closely-related Debaryomycetaceae/Metschnikowiaceae species. Spathaspora girioi sp. nov. produced unconjugated asci with a single elongated ascospore with curved ends; ascospore formation was not observed for the other two species. The three novel species ferment D-xylose with different efficiencies. Spathaspora hagerdaliae sp. nov. and Sp. girioi sp. nov. showed xylose reductase (XR) activity strictly dependent on NADPH, whereas Sp. gorwiae sp. nov. had XR activity that used both NADH and NADPH as co-factors. The genes that encode enzymes involved in D-xylose metabolism (XR, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase) were also identified for these novel species. The type strains are Sp. girioi sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y302(T) (=CBS 13476), Sp. hagerdaliae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y303(T) (=CBS 13475) and Sp. gorwiae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y312(T) (=CBS 13472).

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Deep-Sea Alteromonas sp. Strain V450 Isolated from the Marine Sponge Leiodermatium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Nolan H.; McCarthy, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The proteobacterium Alteromonas sp. strain V450 was isolated from the Atlantic deep-sea sponge Leiodermatium sp. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, with a genome size of approx. 4.39 Mb and a G+C content of 44.01%. The results will aid deep-sea microbial ecology, evolution, and sponge-microbe association studies. PMID:28153886

  16. Description and phylogeny of Ceratomyxa anko sp. n. and Zschokkella lophii sp. n. from the Japanese anglerfish, Lophius litulon (Jordan).

    PubMed

    Freeman, M A; Yokoyama, H; Ogawa, K

    2008-12-01

    Two new species of myxozoans from the Japanese anglerfish, Lophius litulon, are described using myxospore morphology and small subunit rDNA sequences. Ceratomyxa anko sp. n. is a parasite of the gall bladder and had a prevalence of 57%. Mature spores of C. anko sp. n. are arcuate to crescent shaped with valves tapering to rounded tips. A prominent sutural line runs centrally between the round adjacent polar capsules containing the polar filament coiled two to three times. Spore measurements: length 10.8 (9.7-11.9) microm, width 41.9 (36.9-47.2) microm, polar capsule diameter 4.6 (4.1-5.3) microm. Ceratomyxa anko sp. n. can be distinguished from other Ceratomyxa spp. due to its spore dimensions and shape. Zschokkella lophii sp. n. is a parasite of the urinary bladder and had a prevalence of 70%. Mature spores are ellipsoidal to semicircular with bluntly pointed ends. The sutural line is curved or sinuous and the valves have no discernable surface ornamentation. Two almost spherical polar capsules are located separately in the ends of the spore, opening in almost opposite directions and contain the polar filament with five coils. Spore measurements: length 20.1 (16.8-24.0) microm, width 14.9 (12.7-16.8) microm, polar capsule diameter 5.1 (3.6-5.8) microm. Zschokkella lophii sp. n. can be distinguished from other Zschokkella spp. due to the terminal opening of the polar capsules within the spores and the site of infection within the host fish. In the phylogenetic analyses, C. anko sp. n. grouped with other members of the same genus forming a monophyly. Zschokkella lophii sp. n. forms a discrete clade with another Zschokkella sp. that infects the urinary bladder of marine fish. This grouping forms a sister clade to one containing members of the genus Parvicapsula, all of which are parasites of the urinary system in marine fish.

  17. Synergistic Effect of Sarocladium sp. and Cryptococcus sp. Co-Culture on Crude Oil Biodegradation and Biosurfactant Production.

    PubMed

    Kamyabi, Aliyeh; Nouri, Hoda; Moghimi, Hamid

    2016-11-16

    This study was conducted to evaluate the co-culture ability of two yeast (Sarocladium sp. and Cryptococcus sp.) isolates as compared to their individual cultures in surfactant production and oil degradation. The results showed that individual culture of each strain was capable of producing surfactant, degrading oil, and pyrene; also, a synergistic effect was observed when a co-culture was applied. Oil removal and biomass production were 28 and 35% higher in the co-culture than in individual cultures, respectively. To investigate the synergistic effects of mix culture on oil degradation, the surface tension, emulsification activity (EA), and cell surface hydrophobicity of individual and co-culture were studied. A comparison between the produced biosurfactant and chemical surfactants showed that individual culture of each yeast strain could reduce the surface tension like SDS and about 10% better than Tween 80. The results showed that the microbial consortium could reduce the surface tension more, by 10 and 20%, than SDS and Tween 80, respectively. Both individual cultures of Sarocladium sp. and Cryptococcus sp. showed good emulsification activity (0.329 and 0.412, respectively) when compared with a non-inoculated medium. Emulsification activity measurement for the two yeast mix cultures showed an excellent 33 and 67% increase as compared to the individual culture of Sarocladium sp. and Cryptococcus sp., respectively. The cell surface hydrophobicity of Sarocladium sp. and Cryptococcus sp. increased (38 and 85%) when the cells were treated with pyrene as a hydrophobic substrate for four generations. Finally, a 40% increase for pyrene degradation was measured in a co-culture of the two yeast mix culture. According to the results of the present study, the co-culture system exhibited better performance and this study will enhance the understanding of the synergistic effects of yeast co-culture on oil degradation.

  18. Coupling of C(sp(3))-H bonds with C(sp(2))-O electrophiles: mild, general and selective.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yong-Yuan; Liao, Li-Li; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Zhen; Ye, Jian-Heng; Shen, Guo; Lu, Zhi-Peng; Zhou, Wen-Jun; Yu, Da-Gang

    2017-01-17

    Herein is reported the mild and general coupling of amine/ether C(sp(3))-H bonds with various kinds of C(sp(2))-O electrophiles with high selectivity and efficiency. Valuable allylic/benzylic amines are generated in moderate to excellent yields. The utility of this transformation is demonstrated by a broad substrate scope (>50 examples), good functional group tolerance and facile product modification.

  19. Transcription factor Sp3 is essential for post-natal survival and late tooth development.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, P; Göllner, H; Elsässer, H P; Eckhoff, G; Karis, A; Grosveld, F; Philipsen, S; Suske, G

    2000-02-15

    Sp3 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor closely related to Sp1 (specificity protein 1). We have disrupted the mouse Sp3 gene by homologous recombination. Sp3-deficient embryos are growth retarded and invariably die at birth of respiratory failure. The cause for the observed breathing defect remains obscure since only minor morphological alterations were observed in the lung, and surfactant protein expression is indistinguishable from that in wild-type mice. Histological examinations of individual organs in Sp3(-/-) mice show a pronounced defect in late tooth formation. In Sp3 null mice, the dentin/enamel layer of the developing teeth is impaired due to the lack of ameloblast-specific gene products. Comparison of the Sp1 and Sp3 knockout phenotype shows that Sp1 and Sp3 have distinct functions in vivo, but also suggests a degree of functional redundancy.

  20. Studies on toxicity of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles to microalgae species: Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, I. Mohammed; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2011-08-01

    In view of increasing commercial applications of metal oxide nanoparticles their toxicity assessment becomes important. Alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles have wide range of applications in industrial as well as personal care products. In the absence of prior report on toxicological impact of alumina nanoparticles to microalgae, the principal objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of the nanoparticles on microalgae isolated from aquatic environment ( Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp.). The growth inhibitory effect of alumina nanoparticles was observed for both the species (72 h EC50 value, 45.4 mg/L for Chlorella sp.; 39.35 mg/L for Scenedesmus sp.). Bulk alumina also showed toxicity though to a lesser extent (72 h EC50 value, 110.2 mg/L for Chlorella sp.; 100.4 mg/L for Scenedesmus sp.). A clear decrease in chlorophyll content was observed in the treated cells compared to the untreated ones, more effect being notable in the case of nanoparticles. Preliminary results based on FT-IR studies, optical and scanning electron microscopic images suggest interaction of the nanoparticles with the cell surface.

  1. Lipid-protein interactions of hydrophobic proteins SP-B and SP-C in lung surfactant assembly and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil, J

    2001-01-01

    Phospholipids have the major role in pulmonary surfacant concerning its biophysical function of reducing surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface to facilitate respiratory mechanics. However, the presence of some specific, highly hydrophobic polypeptides is essential to modulate the physical behavior of phospholipids and to promote rapid formation of stable surface films that are able to produce surface tensions in the range of 0 dynes/cm during cyclic compression. The present review summarizes the available data on the parameters governing lipid-protein interactions of the hydrophobic surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C with the main surfactant phospholipids. Lipid-protein interactions in surfactant have been studied in vitro using preparations reconstituted with very different methodological procedures. Conclusions concerning the role of hydrophobic surfactant proteins on the assembly of lipid-protein surfactant structures in vivo have been revised in this respect. This review presents the knowledge available on the disposition of SP-B and SP-C in surfactant structures, the mode, extent, selectivity, and stoichiometry of their lipid-protein interactions, and the effect of the proteins on structure and dynamics of surfactant bilayers and monolayers. Some considerations are given to possible concerted actions, under physiological conditions, of both proteins SP-B and SP-C.

  2. Superhard sp{sup 2}–sp{sup 3} hybrid carbon allotropes with tunable electronic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Meng; Ma, Mengdong; Zhao, Zhisheng; Yu, Dongli; He, Julong

    2016-05-15

    Four sp{sup 2}–sp{sup 3} hybrid carbon allotropes are proposed on the basis of first principles calculations. These four carbon allotropes are energetically more favorable than graphite under suitable pressure conditions. They can be assembled from graphite through intralayer wrinkling and interlayer buckling, which is similar to the formation of diamond from graphite. For one of the sp{sup 2}–sp{sup 3} hybrid carbon allotropes, mC24, the electron diffraction patterns match these of i-carbon, which is synthesized from shock-compressed graphite (H. Hirai and K. Kondo, Science, 1991, 253, 772). The allotropes exhibit tunable electronic characteristics from metallic to semiconductive with band gaps comparable to those of silicon allotropes. They are all superhard materials with Vickers hardness values comparable to that of cubic BN. The sp{sup 2}–sp{sup 3} hybrid carbon allotroes are promising materials for photovoltaic electronic devices, and abrasive and grinding tools.

  3. Statistical optimization of medium components for extracellular protease production by an extreme haloarchaeon, Halobacterium sp. SP1(1).

    PubMed

    Akolkar, A; Bharambe, N; Trivedi, S; Desai, A

    2009-01-01

    Optimization of medium components for extracellular protease production by Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) using statistical approach. The significant factors influencing the protease production as screened by Plackett-Burman method were identified as soybean flour and FeCl(3). Response surface methodology such as central composite design was applied for further optimization studies. The concentrations of medium components for higher protease production as optimized using this approach were (g l(-1)): NaCl, 250; KCl, 2; MgSO(4), 10; tri-Na-citrate, 1.5; soybean flour, 10 and FeCl(3), 0.16. This statistical optimization approach led to production of 69.44 +/- 0.811 U ml(-1) of protease. Soybean flour and FeCl(3) were identified as important factors controlling the production of extracellular protease by Halobacterium sp. SP1(1). The statistical approach was found to be very effective in optimizing the medium components in manageable number of experimental runs with overall 3.9-fold increase in extracellular protease production. The present study is the first report on statistical optimization of medium components for production of haloarchaeal protease. The study also explored the possibility of using extracellular protease produced by Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) for various applications like antifouling coatings and fish sauce preparation using cheaper raw material.

  4. Skryjelites auritus gen. et sp. nov. and Quasimolites quasimodo gen. et sp. nov.--two new middle Cambrian hyolithids (?Mollusca) from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Valent, Martin; Fatka, Oldřich; Szabad, Michal; Micka, Václav; Marek, Ladislav

    2015-08-28

    Two new endemic genera and species of extinct group of Hyolitha, Skryjelites auritus gen. et sp. nov. and Quasimolites quasimodo gen. et sp. nov. are described and illustrated from the Buchava Formation of the Barrandian area (Czech Republic).

  5. Pneumocystis sp. in bats evaluated by qPCR.

    PubMed

    Cavallini Sanches, E M; Ferreiro, L; Andrade, C P; Pacheco, S M; Almeida, L L; Spanamberg, A; Wissmann, G

    2013-03-01

    Molecular techniques have revealed a high prevalence of Pneumocystis colonization in wild mammals. Accurate quantification of Pneumocystis sp. is essential for the correct interpretation of many research experiments investigating this organism. The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of Pneumocystis sp. in bats by qPCR, and to distinguish colonization from infection. Probes and primers for real time PCR (qPCR) were designed based on the gene of major surface glycoprotein (MSG) of Pneumocystis sp., in order to analyze 195 lung tissue samples from bats captured (2007-2009). All samples were also analyzed by nested PCR, using oligonucleotide primers designed for the gene encoding the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA (mtSSU rRNA) to confirm the results. The qPCR assay was standardized using a standard curve made with the DNA extracted from bronchoalveolar lavage positive for Pneumocystis jirovecii. The average Ct was found to be between 13 and 14 (calibration curve) for the detection of infection with Pneumocystis sp. and above these values for colonization. It was considered as negative samples the ones that had Ct values equal to 50. Out of the total 195 samples, 47 (24.1%) bat lung DNA samples were positive for Pneumocystis sp. by qPCR. The most common bat species found were: Tadarida brasiliensis (23.4%), Histiotus velatus (17.0%), Desmodus rotundus (14.9%) and Molossus molossus (8.5%). The average cycle threshold of the positive samples (bats) was 25.8 and standard deviation was 1.7. The DNA samples with Ct values greater than 14 suggest that these animals might be colonized by Pneumocystis sp. Results obtained in this study demonstrated the usefulness of the qPCR procedure for identification of Pneumocystis sp. and for distinction between its colonizing or infectious status in bats.

  6. On the Fourth Diadema Species (Diadema-sp) from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Seinen; Kajigaya, Yoshikazu; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Niwa, Kentaro; Shibuno, Takuro; Nanami, Atsushi; Kiyomoto, Setuo

    2014-01-01

    Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum) are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema -sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene in the “D. savignyi-like” samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu) to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands) to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE). Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century. PMID:25054386

  7. Sumoylation differentially regulates Sp1 to control cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lili; Ji, Wei-Ke; Hu, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Wen-Feng; Tang, Xiang-Cheng; Huang, Zhao-Xia; Li, Ling; Liu, Mugen; Xiang, Shi-Hua; Wu, Erxi; Woodward, Zachary; Liu, Yi-Zhi; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Li, David Wan-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) are actively involved in regulating differentiation of different cell types. However, the functional differences between SUMO isoforms and their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Using the ocular lens as a model system, we demonstrate that different SUMOs display distinct functions in regulating differentiation of epithelial cells into fiber cells. During lens differentiation, SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 displayed different expression, localization, and targets, suggesting differential functions. Indeed, overexpression of SUMO2/3, but not SUMO1, inhibited basic (b) FGF-induced cell differentiation. In contrast, knockdown of SUMO1, but not SUMO2/3, also inhibited bFGF action. Mechanistically, specificity protein 1 (Sp1), a major transcription factor that controls expression of lens-specific genes such as β-crystallins, was positively regulated by SUMO1 but negatively regulated by SUMO2. SUMO2 was found to inhibit Sp1 functions through several mechanisms: sumoylating it at K683 to attenuate DNA binding, and at K16 to increase its turnover. SUMO2 also interfered with the interaction between Sp1 and the coactivator, p300, and recruited a repressor, Sp3 to β-crystallin gene promoters, to negatively regulate their expression. Thus, stable SUMO1, but diminishing SUMO2/3, during lens development is necessary for normal lens differentiation. In support of this conclusion, SUMO1 and Sp1 formed complexes during early and later stages of lens development. In contrast, an interaction between SUMO2/3 and Sp1 was detected only during the initial lens vesicle stage. Together, our results establish distinct roles of different SUMO isoforms and demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that Sp1 acts as a major transcription factor target for SUMO control of cell differentiation. PMID:24706897

  8. Chitinophaga eiseniae sp. nov., isolated from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Muhammad; Chung, Eu Jin; Song, Geun Cheol; Bibi, Fehmida; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2011-10-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, YC6729(T), was isolated from vermicompost collected at Masan, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain YC6729(T) grew optimally at 30 °C and at pH 6.5-8.5. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YC6729(T) belongs to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. It was related most closely to Chitinophaga terrae KP01(T) (96.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Chitinophaga ginsengisegetis Gsoil 040(T) (96.1 %), Chitinophaga arvensicola IAM 12650(T) (96.1 %) and Chitinophaga pinensis DSM 2588(T) (93.3 %). Strain YC6729(T) contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone and homospermidine as the major polyamine. The fatty acids of strain YC6729(T) were iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 1)ω5c, iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH, C(16 : 0), anteiso-C(18 : 0) and/or C(18 : 2)ω6,9c, iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c, C(14 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH, iso-C(15 : 1) G, C(18 : 1)ω5c, iso-C(15 : 1) I and/or C(13 : 0) 3-OH, C(13 : 0) 2-OH, C(16 : 0) 3-OH and unknown fatty acid ECL 13.565. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids. The total DNA G+C content of strain YC6729(T) was 48.9 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data showed that strain YC6729(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga eiseniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6729(T) ( = KACC 13774(T)  = DSM 22224(T)).

  9. Phenotypic variation in Blastocystis sp. ST3.

    PubMed

    Ragavan, Nanthiney Devi; Govind, Suresh Kumar; Chye, Tan Tian; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2014-08-29

    Blastocystis, is one of the most common human intestinal protozoan, which has many conflicting reports on its pathogenic role. Gut conditions which obviously varies in asymptomatic individuals, symptomatic and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients in terms of gut flora, pH, osmotic pressure and water potentials could play an important role in its pathogenicity. The present study is the first study to investigate phenotypic characteristics of Blastocystis sp. ST3 isolated from asymptomatic, symptomatic and IBS isolates. A total of 8 Blastocystis isolates were obtained from four IBS patients (IBS1-4) and four symptomatic patients (S1-4) at a local gastroenterology clinic. Asymptomatic isolates (A1-4) were obtained from a field survey at a local village. All 12 isolates were determined as subtype 3 (ST3). A1-4 isolates showed the highest peak growth followed by IBS1-4 isolates and S1-4 isolates for the growth profile. Parasites from IBS isolates (IBS1-4) showed the largest diameter with a mean 18.43 ± 2.22 μm compared to parasites of symptomatic isolates (isolates S1-4) 15.54 ± 3.02 μm and asymptomatic isolates (isolates A1-4) 11.76 ± 0.82 μm. The symptomatic isolates (average generation time: 9.87 ± 2.97 h) grew faster than the IBS isolates (average generation time: 7.56 ± 1.06 h) and asymptomatic isolates (average generation time: 5.97 ± 1.52 h). The parasites isolated from IBS isolates showed strong aggregation and clumping, which had seen reduced in parasites of isolates S1-4. No clumping was seen in parasites from A1-4. The outer surface of parasites in IBS isolates showed greater binding affinities towards FITC-labelled Concanavalin A (Con A) than symptomatic isolates and asymptomatic isolates. Scanning electron microscopy showed that in IBS isolates, the surface of Blastocystis showed a very coarse and intensely folded surface. The IBS isolates also exhibited a dense material and a thicker layer of surface coat can be seen compared to asymptomatic

  10. Isolation and characterisation of Nocardioides sp. SP12, an atrazine-degrading bacterial strain possessing the gene trzN from bulk- and maize rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Piutti, S; Semon, E; Landry, D; Hartmann, A; Dousset, S; Lichtfouse, E; Topp, E; Soulas, G; Martin-Laurent, F

    2003-04-11

    We report the characterisation of Nocardioides sp. SP12, an atrazine-degrading bacteria isolated from atrazine-treated bulk- and maize rhizosphere soil. Based on 16S rDNA alignment, strain SP12 showed close phylogenic relationships with Nocardioides sp. C157 and Nocardioides simplex. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of strain SP12 were longer than those of other Nocardioides sp. and present Ala- and Ile-tRNA unlike Actinomycetales. Nocardioides sp. SP12 presents a novel atrazine catabolic pathway combining trzN with atzB and atzC. Atrazine biodegradation ends in a metabolite that co-eluted in HPLC with cyanuric acid. This metabolite shows an absorption spectrum identical to that of cyanuric acid with a maximal absorption at 214.6 nm. The mass of the atrazine metabolite is in concordance with that of cyanuric acid according to mass spectrometry analysis. Quantitative PCR revealed that the ITS sequence of Nocardioides sp. SP12 was at a lower number than the one of trzN in atrazine-treated soil samples. It suggests that trzN could also be present in other atrazine degrading bacteria. The numbers of trzN and ITS sequences of Nocardioides sp. SP12 were higher in the maize rhizosphere than in bulk soil.

  11. Methylobacterium haplocladii sp. nov. and Methylobacterium brachythecii sp. nov., isolated from bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Tani, Akio; Sahin, Nurettin

    2013-09-01

    Pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria, strains 87e(T) and 99b(T), were isolated from the bryophytes Haplocladium microphyllum and Brachythecium plumosum, respectively. The cells of both strains were Gram-reaction-negative, motile, non-spore-forming rods. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) were found to be related to Methylobacterium organophilum ATCC 27886(T) (97.1% and 97.7%, respectively). Strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene similarity to Methylobacterium gnaphalii 23e(T) (98.3 and 99.0%, respectively). The phylogenetic similarities to all other species of the genus Methylobacterium with validly published names were less than 97%. Major cellular fatty acids of both strains were C(18:1)ω7c and C(18:0). The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and cpn60 gene sequences, fatty acid profiles, whole-cell matrix-assisted, laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) from their phylogenetically closest relatives. We propose that strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) represent novel species within the genus Methylobacterium, for which the names Methylobacterium haplocladii sp. nov. (type strain 87e(T) =DSM 24195(T) =NBRC 107714(T)) and Methylobacterium brachythecii sp. nov. (type strain 99b(T) =DSM 24105(T) =NBRC 107710(T)) are proposed.

  12. Methanobacterium petrolearium sp. nov. and Methanobacterium ferruginis sp. nov., mesophilic methanogens isolated from salty environments.

    PubMed

    Mori, Koji; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2011-01-01

    Two methane-producing archaea, designated Mic5c12(T) and Mic6c05(T), were isolated from sludge deposited in a crude oil storage tank and a tubercle on the interior of a pipe transporting natural gas-containing brine, respectively. The isolates were Gram-staining-variable, non-motile rods and grew only on H(2)/CO(2). Strain Mic6c05(T) produced methane from some alcohols without showing any growth; strain Mic5c12(T) did not utilize alcohols. The optimum growth conditions for strain Mic5c12(T) were 35 °C, pH 6.5 and 0-0.68 M NaCl and for strain Mic6c05(T) were 40 °C, pH 6.0-7.5 and 0.34 M NaCl. Strain Mic5c12(T) was halotolerant and strain Mic6c05(T) was halophilic. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strains Mic5c12(T) and Mic6c05(T) belonged to the genus Methanobacterium and their closest relative was Methanobacterium subterraneum A8p(T) (97.3 and 97.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). The findings from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were supported by analysis of McrA, the alpha subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic characteristics, two novel species are proposed, Methanobacterium petrolearium sp. nov. and Methanobacterium ferruginis sp. nov., with type strains Mic5c12(T) (=NBRC 105198(T) =DSM 22353(T)) and Mic6c05(T) (=NBRC 105197(T) =DSM 21974(T)), respectively.

  13. Flavobacterium yonginense sp. nov. and Flavobacterium myungsuense sp. nov., isolated from a mesotrophic artificial lake.

    PubMed

    Joung, Yochan; Kim, Haneul; Ahn, Tae-Seok; Joh, Kiseong

    2012-04-01

    Two non-motile, Gram-staining-negative, yellow-pigmented bacterial strains designated HMD1001T and HMD1033T were isolated from the water of a mesotrophic artificial lake in Korea. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that both strains could be assigned to the genus Flavobacterium; strain HMD1001T appeared most closely related to Flavobacterium fluvii H7T (96.8 % sequence similarity), F. succinicans DSM 4002T (96.6 %) and F. hydatis DSM 2063T (96.6 %) whereas strain HMD1033T appeared most closely related to Flavobacterium psychrolimnae LMG 2201T (96.2 %), F. segetis AT1048T (96.2 %) and F. weaverense AT1042T (96.2 %). The major fatty acids of strain HMD1001T were iso-C15:0 (21.5 %), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω6c and/or C16:1ω7c; 18.0 %) and iso-C15:1 G (7.6 %), whereas those of HMD1033T were summed feature 3 (23.8 %), iso-C15:0 3-OH (16.9 %), iso-C15:0 (15.3 %) and anteiso-C15:0 (12.1 %). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains HMD1001T and HMD1033T were 35.9 and 32.2 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence indicates that strains HMD1001T and HMD1033T represent two novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the names Flavobacterium yonginense sp. nov. (type strain HMD1001T=KCTC 22796T=CECT 7594T) and Flavobacterium myungsuense sp. nov. (type strain HMD1033T=KCTC 22825T=CECT 7649T) are proposed.

  14. Bacteroides chinchillae sp. nov. and Bacteroides rodentium sp. nov., isolated from chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) faeces.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Maki; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Kawasumi, Koh; Amao, Hiromi; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Benno, Yoshimi; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2011-04-01

    Gram-negative anaerobic rods were isolated from chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) faeces and three strains, ST170(T), ST180 and ST28(T), were investigated taxonomically. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses and specific phenotypic characteristics, the three strains belonged to the genus Bacteroides. Phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains ST170(T) and ST180 formed a single cluster and a distinct line of descent. Strain ST170(T) exhibited 99.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with strain ST180 and 95.1, 94.6 and 94.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacteroides massiliensis JCM 13223(T), Bacteroides dorei JCM 13471(T) and Bacteroides vulgatus JCM 5826(T), respectively. Strain ST28(T) also formed a distinct line of descent and exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacteroides uniformis JCM 5828(T) (98.1 %). Low DNA-DNA relatedness (1 %) between strain ST28(T) and B. uniformis JCM 5828(T) clearly indicated that they belonged to different species. Analysis of hsp60 sequences also supported these relationships. The DNA G+C contents of strains ST170(T) and ST28(T) were 45.2 and 41.0 mol%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic data, two novel species, Bacteroides chinchillae sp. nov. (type strain ST170(T)  = JCM 16497(T)  = CCUG 59335(T)) and Bacteroides rodentium sp. nov. (type strain ST28(T)  = JCM 16496(T)  = CCUG 59334(T)), are proposed.

  15. Bacteroides stercorirosoris sp. nov. and Bacteroides faecichinchillae sp. nov., isolated from chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) faeces.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Maki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Kawasumi, Koh; Amao, Hiromi; Benno, Yoshimi; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2012-05-01

    Strains of gram-negative anaerobic rods were isolated from chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) faeces, and three strains, ST161(T), ST33 and ST37(T), were investigated taxonomically. Based on phylogenetic analyses and specific phenotypic characteristics, the three strains were allocated to the genus Bacteroides. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain ST161(T) formed a distinct line of descent, with highest sequence similarity to strain ST33 (98.7 %) and Bacteroides oleiciplenus JCM 16102(T) (97.7 %). High levels of DNA-DNA relatedness (79-89 %) were found between strains ST161(T) and ST33, but low levels were found between strain ST161(T) and B. oleiciplenus JCM 16102(T) (33-37 %) and between strain ST33 and B. oleiciplenus JCM 16102(T) (33-37 %). These data clearly indicated that strains ST161(T) and ST33 represent a single novel species. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that strain ST37(T) also formed a distinct line of descent, with highest sequence similarity to Bacteroides acidifaciens JCM 10556(T) (96.5 %) and Bacteroides caccae JCM 9498(T) (95.6 %). Analysis of hsp60 gene sequences also supported these relationships. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, two novel species, Bacteroides stercorirosoris sp. nov. and Bacteroides faecichinchillae sp. nov., are thus proposed. The type strains of B. stercorirosoris and B. faecichinchillae are ST161(T) ( = JCM 17103(T) = CCUG 60872(T)) and ST37(T) ( = JCM 17102(T) = CCUG 60873(T)), respectively. The DNA G+C contents of strains ST161(T) and ST37(T) were 45.7 and 41.0 mol%, respectively.

  16. Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi sp. nov. and Bradyrhizobium jicamae sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Pachyrhizus erosus.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; Peix, Alvaro; Rivas, Raúl; Camacho, María; Rodríguez-Navarro, Dulce N; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Willems, Anne; Velázquez, Encarna

    2009-08-01

    Several strains isolated from the legume Pachyrhizus erosus were characterized on the basis of diverse genetic, phenotypic and symbiotic approaches. These novel strains formed two groups closely related to Bradyrhizobium elkanii according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strains PAC48T and PAC68T, designated as the type strains of these two groups, presented 99.8 and 99.1% similarity, respectively, in their 16S rRNA gene sequences with respect to B. elkanii USDA 76T. In spite of these high similarity values, the analysis of additional phylogenetic markers such as atpD and glnII genes and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) showed that strains PAC48T and PAC68T represented two separate novel species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with B. elkanii as their closest relative. Phenotypic differences among the novel strains isolated from Pachyrhizus and B. elkanii were found regarding the assimilation of carbon sources and antibiotic resistance. All these differences were congruent with DNA-DNA hybridization analysis which revealed 21% genetic relatedness between strains PAC48T and PAC68T and 46% and 25%, respectively, between these strains and B. elkanii LMG 6134T. The nodD and nifH genes of strains PAC48T and PAC68T were phylogenetically divergent from those of bradyrhizobia species that nodulate soybean. Soybean was not nodulated by the novel Pachyrhizus isolates. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, the new strains represent two novel species for which the names Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi sp. nov. (type strain PAC48T=LMG 24246T=CECT 7396T) and Bradyrhizobium jicamae sp. nov. (type strain PAC68T=LMG 24556T=CECT 7395T) are proposed.

  17. Description of Leifsonia kafniensis sp. nov. and Leifsonia antarctica sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Pindi, Pavan Kumar; Kishore, K Hara; Reddy, G S N; Shivaji, S

    2009-06-01

    Strains KFC-22(T) and SPC-20(T) are yellow-pigmented, Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that were isolated from a soil sample near the Kafni glacier in the Himalayan mountain ranges in India, and from a spade core sediment sample from the Antarctic Ocean at Larsemann Hill, respectively. In both cases, the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid as the diamino acid, anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0) were the predominant fatty acids and MK-11 was the major isoprenoid quinone in the cell membrane. On the basis of the above-mentioned characteristics, both strains can be assigned to the genus Leifsonia. The strains share 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.7 % and DNA relatedness of only 10 %, indicating that they represent different species. A blast analysis indicated that Leifsonia pindariensis PON10(T) was the closest phylogenetic neighbour of strains SPC-20(T) and KFC-22(T), showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.3 and 97.7 %, respectively. However, at the whole-genome level, strains KFC-22(T) and SPC-20(T) shared 42 and 11 % DNA-DNA relatedness, respectively, with L. pindariensis PON10(T). In addition, both strains exhibited several phenotypic differences with respect to L. pindariensis PON10(T). Thus, on the basis of the differences that the two strains exhibited with respect to L. pindariensis, both were identified as representing novel species of the genus Leifsonia, for which the names Leifsonia kafniensis sp. nov. (type strain KFC-22(T) =NCCB 100216(T) =LMG 24362(T)) and Leifsonia antarctica sp. nov. (type strain SPC-20(T) =NCCB 100227(T) =LMG 24541(T)) are proposed.

  18. Oceanobacillus damuensis sp. nov. and Oceanobacillus rekensis sp. nov., isolated from saline alkali soil samples.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiufeng; Ye, Renyuan; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Yuqin; Zeng, Zhigang; Tian, Yongqiang

    2015-09-01

    Two moderately halophilic strains, PT-11(T) and PT-20(T), were isolated from saline alkali soil samples collected in Shache County, Xinjiang Province, China. Both strains are aerobic, Gram-positive, motile rods. Strain PT-11(T) grows at 15-40 °C and at pH 6.5-10.0, while PT-20(T) grows at 15-40 °C and at pH 6.5-11.0. The major cellular fatty acids in both strains include anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C15:0. For both strains, the polar lipids consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified phospholipid and several unidentified lipids. In addition, strain PT-20(T) also contains phosphatidylcholine. The major isoprenoid quinone for both strains is MK-7. The genomic G+C content is 36.7 % for PT-11(T) and 39.2 % for PT-20(T). Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these two isolates are members of the genus Oceanobacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that strains PT-11(T) and PT-20(T) should be considered two distinct species. On the basis of both phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic data analyses, therefore, we conclude that PT-11(T) and PT-20(T) represent two novel species within the genus Oceanobacillus, for which we propose the names Oceanobacillus rekensis sp. nov. and Oceanobacillus damuensis sp. nov., respectively. The type strains are PT-11(T) (=KCTC 33144(T) = DSM 26900(T)) and PT-20(T) (=KCTC 33146(T) = DSM 26901(T)).

  19. Geodermatophilus soli sp. nov. and Geodermatophilus terrae sp. nov., two actinobacteria isolated from grass soil.

    PubMed

    Jin, Long; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Kim, Hee-Sik; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2013-07-01

    Two strains, PB34(T) and PB261(T), were isolated from grass soil sampled in Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed the two bacteria to be clearly affiliated with the phylum Actinobacteria and most closely related to the genus Geodermatophilus, showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the type strains of species of the genus Geodermatophilus of 95.0-96.3 % and sharing 98.5 % similarity between the two strains. The two strains were Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped bacteria. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H0). The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) for strain PB34(T) and iso-C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0 for strain PB261(T). The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of strains PB34(T) and PB261(T) were 73.2 mol% and 74.1 mol%, respectively. Thus, based on the evidence of a polyphasic study, it is proposed that strains PB34(T) and PB261(T) represent two novel species, for which the names Geodermatophilus soli sp. nov. (type strain PB34(T) = KCTC 19880(T) = JCM 17785(T)) and Geodermatophilus terrae sp. nov. (type strain PB261(T) = KCTC 19881(T) = JCM 17786(T)) are proposed.

  20. Description of two novel species, Sphingomonas abaci sp. nov. and Sphingomonas panni sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Hauser, Elke; Kämpfer, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strains designated C42T and C52T were isolated in the Medical Clinic for Small Animals and Ungulates at the University for Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Austria. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, both strains were shown to belong to the genus Sphingomonas. Strain C42T showed the greatest levels of sequence similarity with Sphingomonas melonis DSM 14444T and Sphingomonas aquatilis KCTC 2881T (both 97.7 %). Strain C52T showed the greatest levels of sequence similarity with Sphingomonas koreensis KCTC 2882T (97.2 %), Sphingomonas aquatilis KCTC 2881T (97.1 %) and S. melonis DSM 14444T (97.0 %). The presence of Q-10 as the main ubiquinone, the predominance of the compound sym-homospermidine in the polyamine patterns, the presence of a Sphingomonadaceae-specific sphingoglycolipid in the polar lipid patterns, the presence of the fatty acid 2-OH C(14 : 0) and the lack of 3-hydroxy fatty acids supported the identification of the two novel strains as members of the genus Sphingomonas sensu stricto. Unique physiological characteristics, protein patterns, quantitative differences in their fatty acid profiles and the results of genomic fingerprinting and DNA-DNA hybridizations differentiated strains C42T and C52T from closely related Sphingomonas species. Hence, the two strains are described as novel species of the genus Sphingomonas sensu stricto. The names Sphingomonas abaci sp. nov. (type strain C42T=LMG 21978T=DSM 15867T) and Sphingomonas panni sp. nov. (type strain C52T=LMG 21979(T)=DSM 15761T) are proposed.

  1. Hymenobacter koreensis sp. nov. and Hymenobacter saemangeumensis sp. nov., isolated from estuarine water.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ji Young; Chun, Jeesun; Choi, Ahyoung; Moon, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Jahng, Kwang Yeop

    2013-12-01

    Two Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and red-pink-pigmented bacterial strains, designated GYR3077(T) and GSR0100(T), were isolated from a water sample of the Mangyung estuary enclosed by the Saemangeum Embankment in JEOLlabuk-do, South Korea, and were characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA genes of strains GYR3077(T) and GSR0100(T) exhibited sequence similarities of 95.9 % to Hymenobacter deserti ZLB-3(T) and 96.6 % to Hymenobacter soli PB17(T), respectively, and indicated that these isolates belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes. The major cellular fatty acids present in the two isolates were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c, summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The major respiratory quinone and polyamine patterns were menaquinone-7 and sym-homospermidine, characteristic of the genus Hymenobacter. Flexirubin-type pigments were absent in both strains. The DNA G+C contents of strains GYR3077(T) and GSR0100(T) were 60.2 mol% and 61.9 mol%, respectively. The major polar lipid of strains GYR3077(T) and GSR0100(T) was phosphatidylethanolamine. Based on the morphological and physiological properties, strains GYR3077(T) and GSR0100(T) were considered to represent two novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the names Hymenobacter koreensis sp. nov. (type strain GYR3077(T) = KACC 16451(T) = JCM 17924(T)) and Hymenobacter saemangeumensis sp. nov. (type strain GSR0100(T) = KACC 16452(T) = JCM 17923(T)) are proposed.

  2. Pseudochelatococcus lubricantis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Pseudochelatococcus contaminans sp. nov. from coolant lubricants.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Gräber, Marco; Rabenstein, Andreas; Kuever, Jan; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria, isolated from metal working fluids were investigated to determine their taxonomic positions. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, both strains (MPA 1113(T) and MPA 1105(T)) formed a distinct cluster with 97.7 % sequence similarity between them, which was in the vicinity of members of the genera Methylobacterium, Camelimonas, Chelatococcus, Bosea, Salinarimonas and Microvirga to which they showed low sequence similarities (below 94 %). The predominant compounds in the polyamine pattern and in the quinone system of the two strains were spermidine and ubiquinone Q-10, respectively. The polar lipid profiles were composed of the major compounds: phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, major or moderate amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified glycolipids and three unidentified aminolipids. Several minor lipids were also detected. The major fatty acids were either C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c or C18 : 1ω7c. The results of fatty acid analysis and physiological and biochemical tests allowed both, the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the isolates from each other, while the chemotaxonomic traits allowed them to be differentiated from the most closely related genera. In summary, low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and marked differences in polar lipid profiles, as well as in polyamine patterns, is suggestive of a novel genus for which the name Pseudochelatococcus gen. nov. is proposed. MPA 1113(T) ( = CCM 8528(T) = LMG 28286(T) = CIP 110802(T)) and MPA 1105(T) ( = CCM 8527(T) = LMG 28285(T)) are proposed to be the type strains representing two novel species within the novel genus, Pseudochelatococcus gen. nov., for which the names Pseudochelatococcus lubricantis sp. nov. and Pseudochelatococcus contaminans sp. nov. are suggested, respectively.

  3. Nocardioides endophyticus sp. nov. and Nocardioides conyzicola sp. nov., isolated from herbaceous plant roots.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji-Hye; Kim, Tae-Su; Joung, Yochan; Kim, Mi Na; Shin, Kee-Sun; Bae, Taeok; Kim, Seung Bum

    2013-12-01

    Two Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped actinobacterial strains were isolated from the surface-sterilized roots of mugwort (Artemisia princeps) and horse-weed (Conyza canadensis), and subjected to taxonomic characterization. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the isolates, designated MWE 3-5(T) and HWE 2-02(T), should be placed in the genus Nocardioides of the family Nocardioidaceae. The strains were closely related to Nocardioides hankookensis DS-30(T), which exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 97.99 and 99.09 % with strains MWE 3-5(T) and HWE 2-02(T), respectively. The genome relatedness of N. hankookensis DS-30(T) with strain MWE 3-5(T) was 35.8 %, and that with strain HWE 2-02(T) was 36.4 %, whereas that between the two isolates was 43.2 %. Strains MWE 3-5(T) and HWE 2-02(T) possessed MK-8(H4) as the major isoprenoid quinone, and ll-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The main fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c for strain MWE 3-5(T) and iso-C16 : 0, 10-methyl C18 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c for strain HWE 2-02(T). Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic studies, the following two novel species are proposed: Nocardioides endophyticus sp. nov. (type strain, MWE 3-5(T) = KCTC 29122(T) = JCM 18532(T)) and Nocardioides conyzicola sp. nov. (type strain, HWE 2-02(T) = KCTC 29121(T) = JCM 18531(T)).

  4. Serratia myotis sp. nov. and Serratia vespertilionis sp. nov., isolated from bats hibernating in caves.

    PubMed

    García-Fraile, P; Chudíčková, M; Benada, O; Pikula, J; Kolařík, M

    2015-01-01

    During the study of bacteria associated with bats affected by white-nose syndrome hibernating in caves in the Czech Republic, we isolated two facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative bacteria, designated strains 12(T) and 52(T). Strains 12(T) and 52(T) were motile, rod-like bacteria (0.5-0.6 µm in diameter; 1-1.3 µm long), with optimal growth at 20-35 °C and pH 6-8. On the basis of the almost complete sequence of their 16S rRNA genes they should be classified within the genus Serratia; the closest relatives to strains 12(T) and 52(T) were Serratia quinivorans DSM 4597(T) (99.5 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences) and Serratia ficaria DSM 4569(T) (99.5% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences), respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 12(T) and S. quinivorans DSM 4597(T) was only 37.1% and between strain 52(T) and S. ficaria DSM 4569(T) was only 56.2%. Both values are far below the 70% threshold value for species delineation. In view of these data, we propose the inclusion of the two isolates in the genus Serratia as representatives of Serratia myotis sp. nov. (type strain 12(T) =CECT 8594(T) =DSM 28726(T)) and Serratia vespertilionis sp. nov. (type strain 52(T) =CECT 8595(T) =DSM 28727(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  5. Streptomyces rhizosphaerihabitans sp. nov. and Streptomyces adustus sp. nov., isolated from bamboo forest soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2016-09-01

    Three novel isolates belonging to the genus Streptomyces, designated JR-35T, JR-46 and WH-9T, were isolated from bamboo forest soil in Damyang, Korea. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains JR-35T and JR-46 showed highest similarities with Streptomyces olivochromogenes NBRC 3178T (99.1 %), Streptomyces siamensis KC-038T (98.9 %), Streptomyces chartreusis NBRC 12753T (98.9 %), Streptomyces resistomycificus NRRL ISP-5133T (98.9 %) and Streptomyces bobili JCM 4627T (98.8 %), and strain WH-9Tshowed highest sequence similarities with Streptomyces. bobili JCM 4627T (99.2 %), Streptomyces phaeoluteigriseus NRRL ISP-5182T (99.2 %), Streptomyces alboniger NBRC 12738T (99.2 %), Streptomyces galilaeus JCM 4757T (99.1 %) and Streptomyces pseudovenezuelae NBRC 12904T (99.1 %). The predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C14 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 for strains JR-35T and JR-46 and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 for strain WH-9T. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strains JR-35T, JR-46 and WH-9T were 69.4, 74.4 and 74.1 mol%, respectively. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data, the three strains are assigned to two novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces rhizosphaerihabitans sp. nov. (type stain JR-35T=KACC 17181T=NBRC 109807T) and Streptomyces adustus sp. nov. (type strain WH-9T=KACC 17197T=NBRC 109810T) are proposed.

  6. Loktanella agnita sp. nov. and Loktanella rosea sp. nov., from the north-west Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena P; Zhukova, Natalia V; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Gorshkova, Nataliya M; Sergeev, Alexander F; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bowman, John P

    2005-09-01

    One whitish and four pinkish strains of Gram-negative, non-motile, aerobic bacteria were isolated from sea-water and sediment samples collected in Chazhma Bay (Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belonged to the 'Alphaproteobacteria', having highest sequence similarity of about 94-97% with species of the genus Loktanella. None of the strains degraded gelatin, casein, chitin, agar, DNA or starch and they had limited ability to utilize carbon sources. The four pinkish strains, Fg36(T), Fg1, Fg116 and Fg117, degraded Tween 80. Sea-water strain R10SW5(T) grew at 3-6% NaCl and a temperature range of 8-35 degrees C, whilst strains Fg36(T), Fg1, Fg116 and Fg117 grew at NaCl concentrations of 1-12% and a temperature range of 4-35 degrees C. Phosphatidylglycerol (58/79%), diphosphatidylglycerol (11/6%) and phosphatidylcholine (28/22%) were the major phospholipids. The predominant fatty acids were 16:0 (12.2/8.6%) and 18:1omega7 (76.6/68.4%). The DNA G+C content of strain R10SW5(T) was 59.1 mol% and those of the four pinkish strains ranged from 60.5 to 61.8 mol%. Based on the results of phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic investigation, two novel species, Loktanella agnita sp. nov. and Loktanella rosea sp. nov., are proposed. The type strains are R10SW5(T) (=KMM 3788(T)=CIP 107883(T)) and Fg36(T) (=KMM 6003(T)=CIP 107851(T)=LMG 22534(T)), respectively.

  7. Rhodococcus cerastii sp. nov. and Rhodococcus trifolii sp. nov., two novel species isolated from leaf surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, P; Wellner, S; Lohse, K; Lodders, N; Martin, K

    2013-03-01

    Two Gram-positive, non-endospore-forming rods, strains C5(T) and T8(T), were isolated from the phyllospheres of Cerastium holosteoides and Trifolium repens, respectively, and were studied in detail for their taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis allocated both isolates clearly to the genus Rhodococcus. Isolate C5(T) was most closely related to Rhodococcus fascians and Rhodococcus yunnanensis, showing 99.2 % gene sequence similarity to both species. Strain T8(T) revealed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Rhodococcus corynebacterioides (98.8 %) and Rhodococcus kroppenstedtii (98.6 %). The quinone system of both strains was composed of dihydrogenated menaquinones with eight (major amount) as well as nine, seven and six isoprenoid units (MK-8H2, MK-9H2 MK-7H2 MK-6H2).The polar lipid profiles of strains C5(T) and T8(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and one unknown phospholipid. Additionally, strain C5(T) contained one unknown glycolipid, and strain T8(T) three unknown aminolipids. The fatty acid profiles contained major amounts of C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and 10-methyl C18 : 0, which supported the grouping of the two isolates in the genus Rhodococcus. Physiological/biochemical characterization and DNA-DNA hybridizations with the type strains of the most closely related species allowed a clear phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of both strains. For this reason, we propose strain C5(T) ( = LMG 26203(T)  = CCM 7906(T)) as the type strain of a novel species with the name Rhodococcus cerastii sp. nov., and strain T8(T) ( = LMG 26204(T)  = CCM 7905(T)) as the type strain of a second novel species with the name Rhodococcus trifolii sp. nov.

  8. Providencia sneebia sp. nov. and Providencia burhodogranariea sp. nov., isolated from wild Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Punita; Lazzaro, Brian P

    2009-05-01

    Multiple isolates of the genus Providencia were obtained from the haemolymph of wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies. Sixteen isolates were distinguished from the six previously described species based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. These isolates belonged to two distinct groups, which we propose each comprise previously undescribed species. Two isolates, designated A(T) and B(T), were characterized by DNA sequences of the fusA, lepA, leuS, gyrB and ileS housekeeping genes, whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridizations with their nearest relatives and utilization of substrates for metabolism. The closest phylogenetic relatives of strain A(T) are strain B(T) (86.9 % identity for the housekeeping genes) and Providencia stuartii DSM 4539(T) (86.0 % identity). The closest phylogenetic relatives of strain B(T) are strain A(T) (86.9 % identity) and P. stuartii DSM 4539(T) (86.6 % identity). The type strains of described species in this genus shared between 84.1 and 90.1 % identity for these sequences. DNA-DNA hybridization between the strain pairs A(T)-B(T), A(T)-P. stuartii DSM 4539(T) and B(T)-P. stuartii DSM 4539(T) all resulted in less than 25 % relatedness. In addition, patterns of utilization of amygdalin, arbutin, aesculin, salicin, d-sorbitol, trehalose, inositol, d-adonitol and d-galactose distinguish strains A(T) and B(T) from other members of this genus. Strains A(T) and B(T) therefore represent novel species, for which the names Providencia sneebia sp. nov. (type strain A(T) =DSM 19967(T) =ATCC BAA-1589(T)) and Providencia burhodogranariea sp. nov. (type strain B(T) =DSM 19968(T) =ATCC BAA-1590(T)) are proposed.

  9. Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., isolated from the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phuong M; Dahl, John L

    2016-11-01

    Several fast- to intermediate-growing, acid-fast, scotochromogenic bacteria were isolated from Sarracenia purpurea pitcher waters in Minnesota sphagnum peat bogs. Two strains (DL734T and DL739T) were among these isolates. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the phylogenetic positions of both strains is in the genus Mycobacterium with no obvious relation to any characterized type strains of mycobacteria. Phenotypic characterization revealed that neither strain was similar to the type strains of known species of the genus Mycobacterium in the collective properties of growth, pigmentation or fatty acid composition. Strain DL734T grew at temperatures between 28 and 32 °C, was positive for 3-day arylsulfatase production, and was negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urease and nitrate reduction. Strain DL739T grew at temperatures between 28 and 37 °C, and was positive for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urea, nitrate reduction and 3-day arylsulfatase production. Both strains were catalase-negative while only DL739T grew with 5 % NaCl. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles were unique for each strain. DL739T showed an ability to survive at 8 °C with little to no cellular replication and is thus considered to be psychrotolerant. Therefore, strains DL734T and DL739T represent two novel species of the genus Mycobacterium with the proposed names Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., respectively. The type strains are DL734T (=JCM 30395T=NCCB 100519T) and DL739T (=JCM 30396T=NCCB 100520T), respectively.

  10. Actinoplanes toevensis sp. nov. and Actinoplanes tereljensis sp. nov., isolated from Mongolian soil.

    PubMed

    Ara, Ismet; Yamamura, Hideki; Tsetseg, Baljinova; Daram, Damdinsuren; Ando, Katsuhiko

    2010-04-01

    Two novel actinomycetes, designated MN07-A0368(T) and MN07-A0371(T), were isolated from soil of Terelj, Töv Province, Mongolia, and subjected to phenotypic and genotypic characterization. They produced well-developed, non-fragmenting, extensively branched substrate hyphae from which oval to irregular sporangia were produced. Chemotaxonomic characteristics, i.e. cell wall diaminopimelic acid, whole-cell sugars, fatty acid components and major menaquinones, suggested that the two organisms belonged to the genus Actinoplanes. A comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains MN07-A0368(T) and MN07-A0371(T) formed a distinct clade within the genus and were closely related to the type strains of: Actinoplanes ferrugineus (97.7 % sequence similarity); Actinoplanes brasiliensis (97.7-97.8 %); Actinoplanes deccanensis (97.6-97.9 %); Actinoplanes durhamensis (96.9-97.0 %); and Actinoplanes globisporus (96.5-96.8 %). Strains MN07-A0368(T) and MN07-A0371(T) could be differentiated from each other and from strains of closely related species of the genus Actinoplanes by DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition, and whole-cell sugar components. The broad range of phenotypic and genetic characters supported the suggestion that these strains represent two novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, for which the names Actinoplanes toevensis sp. nov. (type strain MN07-A0368(T)=NBRC 105298(T)=VTCC D9-11(T)) and Actinoplanes tereljensis sp. nov. (type strain MN07-A0371(T)=NBRC 105297(T)=VTCC D9-10(T)) are proposed.

  11. Actinophytocola timorensis sp. nov. and Actinophytocola corallina sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Otoguro, Misa; Yamamura, Hideki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Irzaldi, Rohmatussolihat; Ratnakomala, Shanti; Ridwan, Roni; Kartina, Gina; Triana, Evi; Nurkanto, Arif; Lestari, Yulin; Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Widyastuti, Yantyati; Ando, Katsuhiko

    2011-04-01

    Two actinomycete strains, ID05-A0653(T) and ID06-A0464(T), were isolated from soils of West Timor and Lombok island, respectively, in Indonesia. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis clearly demonstrated that the isolates belonged to the family Pseudonocardiaceae and were closely related to the genus Actinophytocola. Strains ID05-A0653(T) and ID06-A0464(T) exhibited 98.1 and 98.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, with Actinophytocola oryzae GMKU 367(T). The isolates grew well on ISP media and produced white aerial mycelium. Short spore chains were formed directly on the substrate mycelium. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose as cell-wall components, MK-9(H(4)) as the sole isoprenoid quinone, iso-C(16 : 0) as the major cellular fatty acid and phosphatidylethanolamine as the diagnostic polar lipid. The DNA G+C contents of strains ID05-A0653(T) and ID06-A0464(T) were 69.7 and 71.2 mol%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, DNA-DNA relatedness and 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strains ID05-A0653(T) and ID06-A0464(T) each represent a novel species of the genus Actinophytocola, for which the names Actinophytocola timorensis sp. nov. (type strain ID05-A0653(T)  = BTCC B-673(T)  = NBRC 105524(T)) and Actinophytocola corallina sp. nov. (type strain ID06-A0464(T)  = BTCC B-674(T)  = NBRC 105525(T)) are proposed.

  12. Paenibacillus oenotherae sp. nov. and Paenibacillus hemerocallicola sp. nov., isolated from the roots of herbaceous plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Su; Han, Ji-Hye; Joung, Yochan; Kim, Seung Bum

    2015-08-01

    Two Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, motile bacteria, strains DT7-4T and DLE-12T, were isolated from roots of evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) and day lily (Hemerocallis fulva), respectively, and subjected to taxonomic characterization. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two strains fell into two distinct phylogenetic clusters belonging to the genus Paenibacillus. Strain DT7-4T was most closely related to Paenibacillus phyllosphaerae PALXIL04T and Paenibacillus taihuensis THMBG22T, with 96.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each, and strain DLE-12T was most closely related to Paenibacillus ginsengarvi Gsoil 139T and Paenibacillus hodogayensis SGT, with 96.6 and 93.3% sequence similarity, respectively. Both isolates contained anteiso-C15 : 0 as the dominant fatty acid, meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan and MK-7 as the respiratory menaquinone. The cellular polar lipids were composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and unidentified polar lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains DT7-4T and DLE-12T were 50.1 ± 0.7 and 55.2 ± 0.5 mol%, respectively. The chemotaxonomic properties of both isolates were typical of members of the genus Paenibacillus. However, our biochemical and phylogenetic analyses distinguished each isolate from related species. Based on our polyphasic taxonomic analysis, strains DT7-4T and DLE-12T should be recognized as representatives of novel species of Paenibacillus, for which the names Paenibacillus oenotherae sp. nov. (type strain DT7-4T = KCTC 33186T = JCM 19573T) and Paenibacillus hemerocallicola sp. nov. (type strain DLE-12T = KCTC 33185T = JCM 19572T) are proposed.

  13. Phaeodactylibacter luteus sp. nov., isolated from the oleaginous microalga Picochlorum sp.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xueqian; Li, Yi; Wang, Guanghua; Chen, Yao; Lai, Qiliang; Chen, Zhangran; Zhang, Jingyan; Liao, Pingping; Zhu, Hong; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, orange-pigmented, non-motile, aerobic bacterial strain, designated GYP20T, was isolated from a culture of the alga Picochlorum sp., a promising feedstock for biodiesel production, which was isolated from the India Ocean. Growth was observed at temperatures from 20 to 37 °C, salinities from 0 to 3% and pH from 5 to 9.Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions were required for growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was a member of the genus Phaeodactylibacter, which belongs to the family Saprospiraceae. Strain GYP20T was most closely related to Phaeodactylibacter xiamenensis KD52T (95.5% sequence similarity). The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The polar lipids of strain GYP20T were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, four unidentified glycolipids, two unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified aminolipids. According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition and 16S rRNA sequence data, the novel strain most appropriately belongs to the genus Phaeodactylibacter, but can readily be distinguished from Phaeodactylibacter xiamenensis GYP20T. The name Phaeodactylibacter luteus sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain GYP20T ( = MCCC 1F01222T = KCTC 42180T).

  14. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. and Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov., two sexual yeast species associated with insects and rotten wood.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-Cheng; Liu, Si-Tong; Li, Ying; Hui, Feng-Li

    2015-09-01

    Seven yeast strains were isolated from the gut of insect larvae and decayed wood, which were collected from three localities near Nanyang, Henan Province, China. These strains were identified as two novel species through comparison of sequences in the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and other taxonomic characteristics. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. was closely related to species in the Pichia clade and produced one to four spheroid ascospores in a deliquescent ascus. The D1/D2 sequence of P. dushanensis sp. nov. differed from its closest relative, Issatchenkia (Pichia) sp. NRRL Y-12824, by 3.6% sequence divergence (16 substitutions and 4 gaps). The species also differed from its four closest known species, Candida rugopelliculosa, Pichia occidentalis, Pichia exigua and Candida phayaonensis, by 4.1-4.4% sequence divergence (22-24 substitutions and 0-2 gaps) in the D1/D2 sequences. Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov. belonged to the Hyphopichia clade, and its nearest phylogenetic neighbours were Candida gotoi, Candida pseudorhagii, Candida rhagii and Hyphopichia heimii with 3.2-4.2% sequence divergence (16-21 substitutions and 1 gap) in the D1/D2 sequences. In comparison with previously established species, H. paragotoi sp. nov. formed one hat-shaped ascospore in a persistent ascus. The type strain of P. dushanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 14658(T) ( = CICC 33049(T) = CBS 13912(T)), and the type strain of H. paragotoi sp. nov. is NYNU 14666(T) ( = CICC 33048(T) = CBS 13913(T)).

  15. Room temperature organic magnets derived from sp3 functionalized graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuček, Jiří; Holá, Kateřina; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Błoński, Piotr; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Ugolotti, Juri; Dubecký, Matúš; Karlický, František; Ranc, Václav; Čépe, Klára; Otyepka, Michal; Zbořil, Radek

    2017-02-01

    Materials based on metallic elements that have d orbitals and exhibit room temperature magnetism have been known for centuries and applied in a huge range of technologies. Development of room temperature carbon magnets containing exclusively sp orbitals is viewed as great challenge in chemistry, physics, spintronics and materials science. Here we describe a series of room temperature organic magnets prepared by a simple and controllable route based on the substitution of fluorine atoms in fluorographene with hydroxyl groups. Depending on the chemical composition (an F/OH ratio) and sp3 coverage, these new graphene derivatives show room temperature antiferromagnetic ordering, which has never been observed for any sp-based materials. Such 2D magnets undergo a transition to a ferromagnetic state at low temperatures, showing an extraordinarily high magnetic moment. The developed theoretical model addresses the origin of the room temperature magnetism in terms of sp2-conjugated diradical motifs embedded in an sp3 matrix and superexchange interactions via -OH functionalization.

  16. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sulżyc-Bielicka, Violetta; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Jaczewska, Sylwia; Bielicki, Dariusz; Kładny, Józef; Safranow, Krzysztof

    2012-07-01

    Parasitic protozoans of the Cryptosporidium genus are intracellular intestinal parasites of mammals, causing cryptosporidiosis. Clinically, cryptosporidiosis manifests as chronic diarrhoea. Individuals with immune disorders, including those with neoplasms, are at risk of symptomatic invasion. Was the evaluation of Cryptosporidium sp. prevalence in patients with diagnosed colorectal cancer. The studied group encompassed 87 patients with diagnosed colorectal cancer, undergoing surgery at the Department of General and Oncological Surgery, Pomeranian Medical University, in the years 2009-2010. Immunoenzymatic tests for Cryptosporidium sp. on faeces samples were performed with the use of commercial test kit, ProSpecT(®)Cryptosporidium Microplate Assay (Remel Inc). The presence of Cryptosporidium sp. was found in 12.6% of studied patients with colorectal cancer. The performed statistical analysis did not reveal any correlation between Cryptosporidium sp. infection and gender, age, neoplasm advancement stage as per Astler-Coller scale, neoplasm differentiation grade, or neoplastic tumour localisation in relation to the splenic flexure. There was found high prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. in patients with colorectal cancer. It was comparable to the prevalence reported for patients with immune deficiency.

  17. Room temperature organic magnets derived from sp(3) functionalized graphene.

    PubMed

    Tuček, Jiří; Holá, Kateřina; Bourlinos, Athanasios B; Błoński, Piotr; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Ugolotti, Juri; Dubecký, Matúš; Karlický, František; Ranc, Václav; Čépe, Klára; Otyepka, Michal; Zbořil, Radek

    2017-02-20

    Materials based on metallic elements that have d orbitals and exhibit room temperature magnetism have been known for centuries and applied in a huge range of technologies. Development of room temperature carbon magnets containing exclusively sp orbitals is viewed as great challenge in chemistry, physics, spintronics and materials science. Here we describe a series of room temperature organic magnets prepared by a simple and controllable route based on the substitution of fluorine atoms in fluorographene with hydroxyl groups. Depending on the chemical composition (an F/OH ratio) and sp(3) coverage, these new graphene derivatives show room temperature antiferromagnetic ordering, which has never been observed for any sp-based materials. Such 2D magnets undergo a transition to a ferromagnetic state at low temperatures, showing an extraordinarily high magnetic moment. The developed theoretical model addresses the origin of the room temperature magnetism in terms of sp(2)-conjugated diradical motifs embedded in an sp(3) matrix and superexchange interactions via -OH functionalization.

  18. Room temperature organic magnets derived from sp3 functionalized graphene

    PubMed Central

    Tuček, Jiří; Holá, Kateřina; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Błoński, Piotr; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Ugolotti, Juri; Dubecký, Matúš; Karlický, František; Ranc, Václav; Čépe, Klára; Otyepka, Michal; Zbořil, Radek

    2017-01-01

    Materials based on metallic elements that have d orbitals and exhibit room temperature magnetism have been known for centuries and applied in a huge range of technologies. Development of room temperature carbon magnets containing exclusively sp orbitals is viewed as great challenge in chemistry, physics, spintronics and materials science. Here we describe a series of room temperature organic magnets prepared by a simple and controllable route based on the substitution of fluorine atoms in fluorographene with hydroxyl groups. Depending on the chemical composition (an F/OH ratio) and sp3 coverage, these new graphene derivatives show room temperature antiferromagnetic ordering, which has never been observed for any sp-based materials. Such 2D magnets undergo a transition to a ferromagnetic state at low temperatures, showing an extraordinarily high magnetic moment. The developed theoretical model addresses the origin of the room temperature magnetism in terms of sp2-conjugated diradical motifs embedded in an sp3 matrix and superexchange interactions via –OH functionalization. PMID:28216636

  19. Evolution of space food in Nostoc sp. HK-01

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Sato, Seigo; Kimura, Yasuko; Katoh, Hiroshi; Arai, Mayumi

    2012-07-01

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We have been studying future space agriculture to provide food and oxygen for the habitation area in the space environment, on Mars. A cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. HK-01, has high several outer space environmental tolerance. We have already confirmed that Nostoc sp.HK-01 had an ability to grow for over several years on the Martian regolith simulant in a laboratory experiment. Nostoc sp HK-01 would have high contribution to change the atmosphere in Mars as a photosynthetic creature. In outer environment, all of materials have to circulate for all of creature living in artificial eco-systems on Mars. This material has several functions as the utilization in space agriculture. Here, we are proposing using them as a food after its growing on Mars. We are trying to determine the best conditions and evolution for space food using Nostoc sp.HK-01 and studying the proposal of utilization of cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp HK-01, for the variation of meal as space agriculture.

  20. Surfactant protein A (SP-A)-mediated clearance of Staphylococcus aureus involves binding of SP-A to the staphylococcal adhesin eap and the macrophage receptors SP-A receptor 210 and scavenger receptor class A.

    PubMed

    Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Krupa, Agnieszka; Davis, Jeremy; Hasan, Misbah; Yang, Ching-Hui; Szeliga, Jacek; Herrmann, Mathias; Hussain, Muzafar; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Kobzik, Lester; Chroneos, Zissis C

    2011-02-11

    Staphylococcus aureus causes life-threatening pneumonia in hospitals and deadly superinfection during viral influenza. The current study investigated the role of surfactant protein A (SP-A) in opsonization and clearance of S. aureus. Previous studies showed that SP-A mediates phagocytosis via the SP-A receptor 210 (SP-R210). Here, we show that SP-R210 mediates binding and control of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus by macrophages. We determined that SP-A binds S. aureus through the extracellular adhesin Eap. Consequently, SP-A enhanced macrophage uptake of Eap-expressing (Eap(+)) but not Eap-deficient (Eap(-)) S. aureus. In a reciprocal fashion, SP-A failed to enhance uptake of Eap(+) S. aureus in peritoneal Raw264.7 macrophages with a dominant negative mutation (SP-R210(DN)) blocking surface expression of SP-R210. Accordingly, WT mice cleared infection with Eap(+) but succumbed to sublethal infection with Eap- S. aureus. However, SP-R210(DN) cells compensated by increasing non-opsonic phagocytosis of Eap(+) S. aureus via the scavenger receptor scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), while non-opsonic uptake of Eap(-) S. aureus was impaired. Macrophages express two isoforms: SP-R210(L) and SP-R210(S). The results show that WT alveolar macrophages are distinguished by expression of SP-R210(L), whereas SR-A(-/-) alveolar macrophages are deficient in SP-R210(L) expressing only SP-R210(S). Accordingly, SR-A(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to both Eap(+) and Eap(-) S. aureus. The lungs of susceptible mice generated abnormal inflammatory responses that were associated with impaired killing and persistence of S. aureus infection in the lung. In conclusion, alveolar macrophage SP-R210(L) mediates recognition and killing of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus in vivo, coordinating inflammatory responses and resolution of S. aureus pneumonia through interaction with SR-A.

  1. Microbial Succession during Thermophilic Digestion: The Potential of Methanosarcina sp

    PubMed Central

    Illmer, Paul; Reitschuler, Christoph; Wagner, Andreas Otto; Schwarzenauer, Thomas; Lins, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    A distinct succession from a hydrolytic to a hydrogeno- and acetotrophic community was well documented by DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and dHPLC (denaturing high performance liquid chromatography), and confirmed by qPCR (quantitative PCR) measurements and DNA sequence analyses. We could prove that Methanosarcina thermophila has been the most important key player during the investigated anaerobic digestion process. This organism was able to terminate a stagnation phase, most probable caused by a decreased pH and accumulated acetic acid following an initial hydrolytic stage. The lack in Methanosarcina sp. could not be compensated by high numbers of Methanothermobacter sp. or Methanoculleus sp., which were predominant during the initial or during the stagnation phase of the fermentation, respectively. PMID:24586260

  2. HBx and SP1 upregulate DKK1 expression.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong; Li, Yongguo; Liu, Yunzhi; Zhang, Jingnan; Chen, Ke; Huang, Ailong; Tang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Numerous evidences suggested that the hepatitis B virus (HBV) was recognized as an important factor in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) recently was reported to be involved in the progress of HCC. HBV may regulate DKK1 expression in hematoma carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrated that HBV could regulate DKK1 promoter activity which resulted in upregulation of its mRNA and protein expression in several HBV existing cell lines, and HBx played a prominent role in this process. Transcription factor binding site search result showed that there is a SP1 site in DKK1 promoter region. Luciferase assay showed that overexpression of SP1 could increase DKK1 promoter activity in a dose dependent manner. Accordingly, siRNA inhibition of SP1 expression reduced DKK1 promoter activity and decreased the expression of DKK1 protein.

  3. Streptomyces sp. 173, an insecticidal micro-organism from marine.

    PubMed

    Xiong, L; Li, J; Kong, F

    2004-01-01

    To find new insecticidal antibiotics from marine micro-organisms. Strains isolated from seawater and sea sediments from Beidiahe and Dagang of the east coast of China were screened for their insecticidal qualities. The screening was carried out using bioassay of brine shrimp and the insect pest Helicoverpa armigera. The fermentation, preliminary extraction and isolation of Streptomyces sp.173 were carried out. In total 331 isolates were examined through bioassay of brine shrimp and 40 isolates (12.08%) showed potential insecticidal activities. Of the 40 isolates, one isolate, designated Streptomyces sp.173, was found to have strong insecticidal activity against both brine shrimp and H. armigera, similar to that of avermectin B1. The isolated Streptomyces sp.173 has great insecticidal potency. This work indicated that marine micro-organisms could be an important source of insecticidal antibiotics and the improved anti-brine shrimp bioassay is suitable for primary screening.

  4. SP-100 program users handbook basic configurational tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.

    1986-03-15

    This document addresses basic configurational tradeoffs associated with the SP-100 class of nuclear space power systems. In the SP-100 project, the three reference designs, fallback, baseline, and advanced, employ thermoelectric power conversion with different thermoelectric materials. This issue of the document presents results generated for the thermoelectric design as of the end of 1985. Emphasis is placed on showing general trends and the range of possibilities that could result from selection of a particular design. This document, which reflects efforts on 100-kWe reference designs as of the end of 1985, will be extended and updated to reflect progress in the design studies of the follow-on ground engineering phase for which a 300-kWe size has been selected. THere is a considerable flexibility to the SP-100 power system so that it will generally be most advantageous to tailor it to meet user requirements.

  5. Biochemical changes induced by fungicides in nitrogen fixing Nostoc sp.

    PubMed

    Deviram, G V N S; Pant, Gaurav; Prasuna, R Gyana

    2013-01-01

    The present study indicates the effect of fungicides (approved by WHO) and their behavior on nitrogen fixer of rice eco system Nostoc sp. Application of plant protecting chemicals at recommended levels braced up the growth of blue green algae thereby enhancing heterocyst formation and nitrogenase activity. Nostoc sp demoed varying degrees of sensitivity to fungicides. Biomass yield, protein, carbohydrate content reduced after 3pg/mL concentration. Heterocyst damage was observed from 4μg/mL, Proline content increased with increase in fungicide concentration, utmost yellowing of the culture started from 4μg/mL. The decreasing order of the toxicity to Nostoc sp with fungicides was Mancozeb> Ediphenphos> Carbendazim> Hexaconazole.

  6. Polymorphic phases of sp3-hybridized carbon under cold compression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rulong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2012-05-02

    It is well established that graphite can be transformed into superhard carbons under cold compression (Mao et al. Science 2003, 302, 425). However, structure of the superhard carbon is yet to be determined experimentally. We have performed an extensive structural search for the high-pressure crystalline phases of carbon using the evolutionary algorithm. Nine low-energy polymorphic structures of sp(3)-hybridized carbon result from the unbiased search. These new polymorphic carbon structures together with previously reported low-energy sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures (e.g., M-carbon, W-carbon, and Cco-C(8) or Z-carbon) can be classified into three groups on the basis of different ways of stacking two (or more) out of five (A-E) types of buckled graphene layers. Such a classification scheme points out a simple way to construct a variety of sp(3)-hybridized carbon allotropes via stacking buckled graphene layers in different combinations of the A-E types by design. Density-functional theory calculations indicate that, among the nine low-energy crystalline structures, seven are energetically more favorable than the previously reported most stable crystalline structure (i.e., Cco-C(8) or Z-carbon) in the pressure range 0-25 GPa. Moreover, several newly predicted polymorphic sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures possess elastic moduli and hardness close to those of the cubic diamond. In particular, Z-carbon-4 possesses the highest hardness (93.4) among all the low-energy sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures predicted today. The calculated electronic structures suggest that most polymorphic carbon structures are optically transparent. The simulated X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of a few polymorphic structures are in good agreement with the experimental spectrum, suggesting that samples from the cold-compressed graphite experiments may consist of multiple polymorphic phases of sp(3)-hybridized carbon.

  7. Growth enhancement of rice (Oryza sativa) by phosphate solubilizing Gluconacetobacter sp. (MTCC 8368) and Burkholderia sp. (MTCC 8369) under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Joseph; Shabanamol, S; Rishad, K S; Jisha, M S

    2015-10-01

    Two indigenous rhizospheric phosphate solubilizing isolates PSB 12 identified as Gluconacetobacter sp. (MTCC 8368) and PSB 73 identified as Burkholderia sp. (MTCC 8369) were examined for their growth enhancement potential of rice (Jyothi PTB 39) under pot culture assays. The results showed significant impact on microbial count and PSB population, phosphatase and dehydrogenase activity, available phosphorous in the soil, plant nutrient uptake and yield parameters. Gluconacetobacter sp. + RP60 treatment (30.96 µg PNP g(-1) soil) retained highest phosphatase activity whereas Gluconacetobacter sp. + Burkholderia sp. + RP60 treatment recorded maximum dehydrogenase activity (38.88 µg TPF g(-1) soil) after 60 days of treatment. The treatments Burkholderia sp. + RP60 and Gluconacetobacter sp. + RP60 produced comparable amount of P and these treatments were statistically at par throughout the growth period. Highest nutrient uptake and yield was noted in Gluconacetobacter sp. + Burkholderia sp. + RP60 treatment. A positive synergistic interaction between strains of Gluconacetobacter sp. and Burkholderia sp. has been noticed for their plant growth promotion activity. These strains could be of potential to develop as biofertilizers after testing their performance under field conditions either alone or as components of integrated nutrient management systems.

  8. Repression of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Long Terminal Repeat sense transcription by Sp1 recruitment to novel Sp1 binding sites.

    PubMed

    Fauquenoy, Sylvain; Robette, Gwenaëlle; Kula, Anna; Vanhulle, Caroline; Bouchat, Sophie; Delacourt, Nadège; Rodari, Anthony; Marban, Céline; Schwartz, Christian; Burny, Arsène; Rohr, Olivier; Van Driessche, Benoit; Van Lint, Carine

    2017-03-03

    Human T-lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is characterized by viral latency in the majority of infected cells and by the absence of viremia. These features are thought to be due to the repression of viral sense transcription in vivo. Here, our in silico analysis of the HTLV-1 Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) promoter nucleotide sequence revealed, in addition to the four Sp1 binding sites previously identified, the presence of two additional potential Sp1 sites within the R region. We demonstrated that the Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors bound in vitro to these two sites and compared the binding affinity for Sp1 of all six different HTLV-1 Sp1 sites. By chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, we showed Sp1 recruitment in vivo to the newly identified Sp1 sites. We demonstrated in the nucleosomal context of an episomal reporter vector that the Sp1 sites interfered with both the sense and antisense LTR promoter activities. Interestingly, the Sp1 sites exhibited together a repressor effect on the LTR sense transcriptional activity but had no effect on the LTR antisense activity. Thus, our results demonstrate the presence of two new functional Sp1 binding sites in the HTLV-1 LTR, which act as negative cis-regulatory elements of sense viral transcription.

  9. Repression of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Long Terminal Repeat sense transcription by Sp1 recruitment to novel Sp1 binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Fauquenoy, Sylvain; Robette, Gwenaëlle; Kula, Anna; Vanhulle, Caroline; Bouchat, Sophie; Delacourt, Nadège; Rodari, Anthony; Marban, Céline; Schwartz, Christian; Burny, Arsène; Rohr, Olivier; Van Driessche, Benoit; Van Lint, Carine

    2017-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is characterized by viral latency in the majority of infected cells and by the absence of viremia. These features are thought to be due to the repression of viral sense transcription in vivo. Here, our in silico analysis of the HTLV-1 Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) promoter nucleotide sequence revealed, in addition to the four Sp1 binding sites previously identified, the presence of two additional potential Sp1 sites within the R region. We demonstrated that the Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors bound in vitro to these two sites and compared the binding affinity for Sp1 of all six different HTLV-1 Sp1 sites. By chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, we showed Sp1 recruitment in vivo to the newly identified Sp1 sites. We demonstrated in the nucleosomal context of an episomal reporter vector that the Sp1 sites interfered with both the sense and antisense LTR promoter activities. Interestingly, the Sp1 sites exhibited together a repressor effect on the LTR sense transcriptional activity but had no effect on the LTR antisense activity. Thus, our results demonstrate the presence of two new functional Sp1 binding sites in the HTLV-1 LTR, which act as negative cis-regulatory elements of sense viral transcription. PMID:28256531

  10. The transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and AP-2 are required for constitutive matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene expression in astroglioma cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, H; Sun, Y; Benveniste, E N

    1999-10-08

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that contribute to pathological conditions associated with angiogenesis and tumor invasion. MMP-2 is highly expressed in human astroglioma cells, and contributes to the invasiveness of these cells. The human MMP-2 promoter contains potential cis-acting regulatory elements including cAMP response element-binding protein, AP-1, AP-2, PEA3, C/EBP, and Sp1. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the MMP-2 promoter demonstrates that the Sp1 site at -91 to -84 base pairs and the AP-2 site at -61 to -53 base pairs are critical for constitutive activity of this gene in invasive astroglioma cell lines. Electrophoretic gel shift analysis demonstrates binding of specific DNA-protein complexes to the Sp1 and AP-2 sites: Sp1 and Sp3 bind to the Sp1 site, while the AP-2 transcription factor binds the AP-2 element. Co-transfection expression experiments in Drosophilia SL2 cells lacking endogenous Sp factors demonstrate that Sp1 and Sp3 function as activators of the MMP-2 promoter and synergize for enhanced MMP-2 activation. Overexpression of AP-2 in AP-2-deficient HepG2 cells enhances MMP-2 promoter activation. These findings document the functional importance of Sp1, Sp3, and AP-2 in regulating constitutive expression of MMP-2. Delineation of MMP-2 regulation may have implications for development of new therapeutic strategies to arrest glioma invasion.

  11. Interrelationships between Bacillus sp. CHEP5 and Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 in the induced systemic resistance against Sclerotium rolfsii and symbiosis on peanut plants.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Maria Soledad; Tonelli, Maria Laura; Taurian, Tania; Angelini, Jorge; Ibanez, Fernando; Valetti, Lucio; Munoz, Vanina; Anzuay, Maria Soledad; Luduena, Liliana; Fabra, Adriana

    2014-12-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria are often used to enhance crop yield and for biological control of phytopathogens. Bacillus sp. CHEP5 is a biocontrol agent that induces systemic resistance (ISR) in Arachis hypogaea L. (peanut) against Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of root and stem wilt. In this work, the effect of the co-inoculation of Bacillus sp. CHEP5 and the peanut nodulating strain Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 was studied on induction of both systemic resistance and nodulation processes. Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 did not affect the ability of Bacillus sp. CHEP5 to protect peanut plants from S. rolfsii by ISR and the priming in challenged-plants, as evidenced by an increment in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme activity. Additionally, the capacity of Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 to induce nodule formation in pathogen-challenged plants was improved by the presence of Bacillus sp. CHEP5.

  12. Biodegradation and dissolution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by Stenotrophomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Bhagyashree; Manickam, N; Kumari, Smita; Tiwari, Akhilesh

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodegradation capabilities of a locally isolated bacterium, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain IITR87 to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and also check the preferential biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). From preferential substrate degradation studies, it was found that Stenotrophomonas sp. strain IITR87 first utilized phenanthrene (three membered ring), followed by pyrene (four membered ring), then benzo[α]pyrene (five membered ring). Dissolution study of PAHs with surfactants, rhamnolipid and tritonX-100 showed that the dissolution of PAHs increased in the presence of surfactants.

  13. Taenia sp. in human burial from Kan River, East Siberia.

    PubMed

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Vybornov, Anton Vasilevich; Alekseevich, Tsybankov Alexander; Sergeyevich, Slavinsky Vyacheslav; Lysenko, Danil Nikolaevich; Matveev, Vyacheslav Evgenievich

    2017-05-01

    We present an arhaeoparasitological analysis of a unique burial from the Neftprovod II burial ground in East Siberia, which dated from the Bronze Age. Analysis of a sediment sample from the sacral region of the pelvis revealed the presence of Taenia sp. eggs. Because uncooked animal tissue is the primary source of Taenia, this indicated that the individual was likely consuming raw or undercooked meat of roe deer, red deer, or elk infected with Taenia. This finding represents the oldest case of a human infected with Taenia sp. from Eastern Siberia and Russia.

  14. SpF: Enabling Petascale Performance for Pseudospectral Dynamo Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; Clune, T.; Vriesema, J.; Gutmann, G.

    2013-12-01

    Pseudospectral (PS) methods possess a number of characteristics (e.g., efficiency, accuracy, natural boundary conditions) that are extremely desirable for dynamo models. Unfortunately, dynamo models based upon PS methods face a number of daunting challenges, which include exposing additional parallelism, leveraging hardware accelerators, exploiting hybrid parallelism, and improving the scalability of global memory transposes. Although these issues are a concern for most models, solutions for PS methods tend to require far more pervasive changes to underlying data and control structures. Further, improvements in performance in one model are difficult to transfer to other models, resulting in significant duplication of effort across the research community. We have developed an extensible software framework for pseudospectral methods called SpF that is intended to enable extreme scalability and optimal performance. High-level abstractions provided by SpF unburden applications of the responsibility of managing domain decomposition and load balance while reducing the changes in code required to adapt to new computing architectures. The key design concept in SpF is that each phase of the numerical calculation is partitioned into disjoint numerical 'kernels' that can be performed entirely in-processor. The granularity of domain-decomposition provided by SpF is only constrained by the data-locality requirements of these kernels. SpF builds on top of optimized vendor libraries for common numerical operations such as transforms, matrix solvers, etc., but can also be configured to use open source alternatives for portability. SpF includes several alternative schemes for global data redistribution and is expected to serve as an ideal testbed for further research into optimal approaches for different network architectures. In this presentation, we will describe the basic architecture of SpF as well as preliminary performance data and experience with adapting legacy dynamo codes

  15. Development status of the SP-100 power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondt, Jack F.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 Program, whose goal is to develop 10 to 1000 kW electric space reactor power systems for use in civil and military space missions in the mid 1990s and beyond, is described. The major accomplishments of the SP-100 ground engineering system development project are: (1) completion of the preliminary design of the reactor test facility, and (2) completion of the generic flight system design which meets the technical specifications and is the basis for all the ground engineering system analytical and experimental tasks. The power conditioning, control, and distribution subsystem is indicated schematically.

  16. Azospirillum sp. strain B510 enhances rice growth and yield.

    PubMed

    Isawa, Tsuyoshi; Yasuda, Michiko; Awazaki, Hirotoshi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Shinozaki, Satoshi; Nakashita, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Inoculation experiments with the endophytic bacterium Azospirillum sp. strain B510, an isolate from surface-sterilized stems of field-grown rice, were conducted in pots in a greenhouse, and in paddy fields in Hokkaido, Japan. B510 significantly enhanced the growth of newly generated leaves and shoot biomass under greenhouse conditions. When rice seedlings were treated with 1×10(8) CFU ml(-1), then transplanted to paddy fields, tiller numbers and seed yield significantly increased. Azospirillum sp. strain B510 is a promising bacterial inoculant for plant growth promotion and agricultural practices.

  17. Kinetic model for microbial growth and desulphurisation with Enterobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Guo, Zhiguo; Lu, Jianjiang; Xu, Xiaolin

    2015-02-01

    Biodesulphurisation was investigated by using Enterobacter sp. D4, which can selectively desulphurise and convert dibenzothiophene into 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP). The experimental values of growth, substrate consumption and product generation were obtained at 95 % confidence level of the fitted values using three models: Hinshelwood equation, Luedeking-Piret and Luedeking-Piret-like equations. The average error values between experimental values and fitted values were less than 10 %. These kinetic models describe all the experimental data with good statistical parameters. The production of 2-HBP in Enterobacter sp. was by "coupled growth".

  18. Aquatic Fern (Azolla Sp.) Assisted Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Anal K.; Prasad, K.

    2016-02-01

    Aquatic pteridophyte (Azolla sp.) was taken to assess its potential to synthesize the metal (Au) nanoparticles. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray, UV-visible, scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Nanoparticles almost spherical in shape having the sizes of 5-17nm are found. UV-visible study revealed the surface plasmon resonance at 538nm. Responsible phytochemicals for the transformation were principally phenolics, tannins, anthraquinone glycosides and sugars present abundantly in the plant thereby bestowing it adaptive prodigality. Also, the use of Azolla sp. for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles offers the benefit of eco-friendliness.

  19. Metabolism of benzonitrile by Cryptococcus sp. UFMG-Y28.

    PubMed

    Rezende, R P; Dias, J C; Ferraz, V; Linardi, V R

    2000-01-01

    The yeast Cryptococcus sp. UFMG-Y28 can utilize benzonitrile as a nitrogen and possible additional carbon source. The kinetics of growth on Yeast Carbon Base (YCB) added of benzonitrile as sole nitrogen source showed that benzonitrile was metabolized to benzoic acid and ammonia. Liquid chromatography analysis indicated that Cryptococcus sp. UFMG-Y28 metabolized 12 mM benzonitrile to 10 mM benzoic acid. Resting cells cultivated on YCB-propionitrile medium showed nitrilase activity against benzonitrile. This strain appears to be promising for bioconversion of nitriles to high value acids and for bioremediation of sites contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic nitriles.

  20. Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri sp. n. (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae) from Greece

    PubMed Central

    Král, David; Hillert, Oliver; Drožová, Dana; Šípek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. from Thrace, Greece, is described. The new species is morphologically most similar and probably closely related to Lethrus (Lethrus) apterus (Laxmann, 1770) and Lethrus (Lethrus) ares Král, Rejsek & Schneider, 2001. Diagnostic characters (shape of mandibles, ventral mandible processes, pronotum and parameres) are illustrated. Character matrix for separation of males of the Lethrus species closely related to Lethrus schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. and geographic ranges for all species studied are mapped. PMID:24146588

  1. Induced adaptation of Bacillus sp. to antimicrobial nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Cindy; Teoh, Wey Yang; Marquis, Christopher P; Amal, Rose

    2013-11-11

    The natural ability of Bacillus sp. to adapt to nanosilver cytotoxicity upon prolonged exposure is reported for the first time. The combined adaptive effects of nanosilver resistance and enhanced growth are induced under various intensities of nanosilver-stimulated cellular oxidative stress, ranging from only minimal cellular redox imbalance to the lethal levels of cellular ROS stimulation. An important implication of the present work is that such adaptive effects lead to the ultimate domination of nanosilver-resistant Bacillus sp. in the microbiota, to which nanosilver cytotoxicity is continuously applied.

  2. Description of Bakernema dauniense n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vovlas, Nicola

    1992-01-01

    Bakernema dauniense n. sp., a bisexual species from the rhizosphere of Pinus halepensis Mill. in Italy, is described and illustrated. Primary differentiating characteristics of the female are body annules bearing short, membranous projections 1.4-2.2 μm long, an anterior vulval lip slightly overlapping the posterior, and a linearly arcuate vagina. The juvenile differs markedly from adults by having annules with a beaded margin, which lack membranous projections. Generic and specific relationships of B. dauniense n. sp. are discussed. This occurrence is the first for a species of Bakernema in Europe. PMID:19283202

  3. Description of Persicirhabdus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov., Roseibacillus ishigakijimensis gen. nov., sp. nov., Roseibacillus ponti sp. nov., Roseibacillus persicicus sp. nov., Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Luteolibacter algae sp. nov., six marine members of the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia', and emended descriptions of the class Verrucomicrobiae, the order Verrucomicrobiales and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Matsuo, Yoshihide; Adachi, Kyoko; Nozawa, Midori; Matsuda, Satoru; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2008-04-01

    Ten pale-pink- and pale-yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic bacteria designated strains YM20-087T, YM21-151, MN1-741T, YM27-120T, YM26-010T, YM24-184, YM20-122, A4T-83T, A5J-41-2T and A5J-40 were isolated from various marine environments and were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these isolates belonged to the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia' (subdivision 1) and represented three independent lineages that were distinct from species of genera of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae with validly published names. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of these strains contained muramic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. Strains MN1-741T, YM27-120T, YM26-010T, YM24-184 and YM20-122 produced pinkish carotenoid pigments. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic evidence, it was concluded that these strains should be classified within three new genera, Persicirhabdus gen. nov. (with one species, the type species Persicirhabdus sediminis sp. nov.), Roseibacillus gen. nov. (with three species; type species Roseibacillus ishigakijimensis sp. nov.) and Luteolibacter gen. nov. (with two species; type species Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis sp. nov.), of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'. The names Persicirhabdus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain YM20-087T =MBIC08313T =KCTC 22039T), Roseibacillus ishigakijimensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain MN1-741T =MBIC08315T =KCTC 12986T), Roseibacillus ponti sp. nov. (type strain YM27-120T =MBIC08316T =KCTC 12987T), Roseibacillus persicicus sp. nov. (type strain YM26-010T =MBIC08317T =KCTC 12988T), Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain A4T-83T =MBIC08322T =KCTC 22041T) and Luteolibacter algae sp. nov. (type strain A5J-41-2T =MBIC08320T =KCTC 22040T) are therefore proposed. Emended descriptions of the class Verrucomicrobiae, the order Verrucomicrobiales and the family

  4. Psychroflexus salis sp. nov. and Psychroflexus planctonicus sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-01-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile, moderately halophilic bacteria (strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T) were isolated from Lake Xiaochaidan, a salt lake in Qaidam basin, Qinghai Province, China. Cells of X15M-6T were rod-like or coccoid, 0.5-0.9 μm wide and 0.9-1.5 μm long; cells of X15M-8T were rods, 0.3-0.6 μm wide and 1.2-2.2 μm long. Growth was observed in the presence of 0.5-14.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3.0 %) and at pH 6.5-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) for both. X15M-6T and X15M-8T grew at 10-35 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C) and 4-35 °C (optimum, 25 °C), respectively. Both contained iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown lipid as the major polar lipids, and menaquinone MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone. The DNA G+C contents were 32.8 and 35.0 mol% for X15M-6T and X15M-8T, respectively. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both strains belonged to the genus Psychroflexus and formed a separate lineage. In addition, strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T shared 96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and showed highest similarities to members of the genus Psychroflexus (92.7-93.5 and 91.8-93.1 %, respectively). Based on the above data, it is concluded that strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T represent two novel species of the genus Psychroflexus, for which the names Psychroflexus salis sp. nov. (type strain X15M-6T = CGMCC 1.12925T = JCM 30615T) and Psychroflexus planctonicus sp. nov. (type strain X15M-8T = CGMCC 1.12931T = JCM 30616T) are proposed.

  5. Kordia ulvae sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the surface of green marine algae Ulva sp.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Huang, Zhaobin; Lai, Qiliang; Li, Dengfeng; Shao, Zongze

    2016-04-20

    A novel bacterial strain SC2T was isolated from Ulva sp. a green marine algae. Strain SC2T was Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and had no flagellum. Oxidase and catalase were positive. Strain SC2T can degrade skim milk, agar, soluble starch, Tween 20 and Tween 80. The optimal salinity and temperature of strain SC2T were 2% and 30 °C, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain SC2T was affiliated to the genus Kordia, with highest sequence similarity to Kordia algicida OT-1T (97.23%), Kordia antarctica IMCC3317T (97.23%) and Kordia jejudonensis SSK3-3T (97.02%); other species of the genus Kordia shared 93.98%-95.78% sequence similarity. The ANI value and the DNA-DNA hybridization estimated value between strain SC2T and three type strains (K. algicida OT-1T, K. antarctica IMCC3317T and K. jejudonensis SSK3-3T) were found to be 79.4%-82.4% and 24.2%-27.0%, respectively. The predominant fatty acids (>5.0%) were C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprised C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), summed feature 8 (comprised C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c) and summed feature 9 (comprised iso-C17:1 ω9c/C16:0 10-methyl). The respiratory quinone was Menaquinone-6 (MK-6). The polar lipid profile consisted of four unknown lipids, three unidentified phospholipids, one unidentified aminolipid and one phosphatidylethanolamine. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 34.5 mol%. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain SC2T represents a novel species within the genus Kordia, for which the name Kordia ulvae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SC2T (= KCTC 42872T = MCCC 1A01772T = LMG 29123T).

  6. Sphingobacterium cladoniae sp. nov., isolated from lichen, Cladonia sp., and emended description of Sphingobacterium siyangense.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Heon; Hur, Jae Seoun; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel

    2013-02-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated strain No.6(T), was isolated from a lichen (Cladonia sp.) collected in Geogeum Island, Korea, and its taxonomic status was established by a polyphasic study. Cells of strain No.6(T) were non-motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-spore-forming rods. Growth was observed at 15-35 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 5.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-8.0) and with 0-3 % NaCl (optimum, 0-2 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c, 41.5 %), iso-C(15 : 0) (26.7 %) and C(16 : 0) (9.6 %), and menaquinone MK-7 was the only respiratory quinone. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain No.6(T) was 36.8 mol%. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain No.6(T) fell within the evolutionary group encompassed by the genus Sphingobacterium. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the novel strain and the type strains of recognized Sphingobacterium species ranged from 92.1 to 99.1 %, the highest values being with Sphingobacterium siyangense SY1(T) (99.1 %) and Sphingobacterium multivorum IAM 14316(T) (98.5 %). DNA-DNA relatedness between strain No.6(T) and these two type strains were 32.0 and 5.7 %, respectively. The polar lipids found in strain No.6(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified phospholipids, three unidentified aminophospholipids, one glycolipid and four unidentified lipids. One unidentified sphingolipid was also found. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain No.6(T) represents a novel species of the genus Sphingobacterium, for which the name Sphingobacterium cladoniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is No.6(T) ( = KCTC 22613(T) = JCM 16113(T)). An emended description of Sphingobacterium siyangense is also proposed.

  7. Bacillus pervagus sp. nov. and Bacillus andreesenii sp. nov., isolated from a composting reactor.

    PubMed

    Kosowski, Kornelia; Schmidt, Marie; Pukall, Rüdiger; Hause, Gerd; Kämpfer, Peter; Lechner, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Two strains, 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T), were isolated from a biowaste composting reactor. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, both strains belong to the genus Bacillus. Strain 8-4-E12(T) was most closely related to the type strains of Bacillus shackletonii, B. acidicola, B. sporothermodurans and B. oleronius (96.4, 96.3, 96.0 and 95.6 % 16S rRNA gene similarity, respectively), whereas strain 8-4-E13(T) was most closely related to the type strain of Bacillus humi (96.5 % sequence similarity). Strains 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) shared 94 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The fatty acid profile of strain 8-4-E12(T) was dominated by saturated iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids (iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0), and also contained considerable amounts of C16 : 0. The fatty acid profile of strain 8-4-E13(T) showed a predominance of iso-C15 : 0 (65 %), with smaller amounts of other saturated branched-chain fatty acids along with an unsaturated alcohol. Both strains contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as major polar lipids. Additionally, strain 8-4-E12(T) contained an unknown lipid and strain 8-4-E13(T) two unknown (amino-)phospholipids. The diagnostic diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan of 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The results of physiological and biochemical tests also allowed phenotypic differentiation of the two strains from each other and from related Bacillus species. On the basis of their phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, strains 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) represent novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus pervagus sp. nov. (type strain 8-4-E12(T) = DSM 23947(T) = LMG 27601(T)) and Bacillus andreesenii sp. nov. (type strain 8-4-E13(T) = DSM 23948(T) = LMG 27602(T)) are proposed.

  8. Lactobacillus silagincola sp. nov. and Lactobacillus pentosiphilus sp. nov., isolated from silage.

    PubMed

    Tohno, Masanori; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Takaharu; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Arita, Masanori; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kobayashi, Hisami

    2017-09-01

    Three Gram-stain positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative and rod-shaped bacterial strains (IWT5T, IWT25T and IWT140), isolated from silage, were investigated by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strains IWT5T and IWT25T grew at 10-37 °C and 30-37 °C, and at pH 4.0-7.5 and 4.0-7.0, respectively. The G+C contents of genomic DNA of strains IWT5T and IWT25T were 43.2 and 44.4 mol%, respectively. Strains IWT5T and IWT25T contained C16 : 0, C18 : 1 ω9c and summed feature 7 (unknown 18.846/C19 : 1 ω6c/C19 : 0cyclo ω10c) as the major fatty acids. Strain IWT5T was most closely related to the type strains of Lactobacillus mixtipabuli (99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Lactobacillus silagei (99.5 %). For IWT25T, the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with the closely related neighbour type strains L. mixtipabuli and L. silagei were 99.5 and 99.5 %, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities among the three novel isolates were 99.5-99.9 %. The average nucleotide identities of strains IWT5T and IWT25T to other neighbours of the genus Lactobacillus were less than 82 % and the genomes of IWT25T and IWT140 shared 97.3 % average nucleotide identity, demonstrating that the three strains were allocated to two different novel species of the genus Lactobacillus. Together with multilocus sequence analysis, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strains IWT5T (=JCM 31144T=DSM 102973T) and IWT25T (=JCM 31145T=DSM 102974T) are proposed as the type strains of novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, with the names Lactobacillus silagincola sp. nov. and Lactobacillus pentosiphilus sp. nov., respectively.

  9. Sphingomonas aerophila sp. nov. and Sphingomonas naasensis sp. nov., isolated from air and soil, respectively.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Moon, Ji-Young; Lim, Jun-Muk; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Ahn, Tae-Young; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2014-03-01

    Two strains, designated 5413J-26(T) and KIS18-15(T), were isolated from the air and forest soil, respectively, in South Korea. Cells of the two strains were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, polar-flagellated and rod-shaped. According to the phylogenetic tree, strains 5413J-26(T) and KIS18-15(T) fell into the cluster of Sphingomonas sensu stricto. Strain 5413J-26(T) showed the highest sequence similarities with Sphingomonas trueperi LMG 2142(T) (96.6%), Sphingomonas molluscorum KMM 3882(T) (96.5%), Sphingomonas azotifigens NBRC 15497(T) (96.3 %) and Sphingomonas pituitosa EDIV(T) (96.1 %), while strain KIS18-15(T) had the highest sequence similarity with Sphingomonas soli T5-04(T) (96.8%), Sphingomonas pituitosa EDIV(T) (96.6%), Sphingomonas leidyi ATCC 15260(T) (96.6 %), Sphingomonas asaccharolytica NBRC 15499(T) (96.6 %) and Sphingomonas koreensis JSS26(T) (96.6 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains 5413J-26(T) and KIS18-15(T) was 95.4 %. Ubiquinone 10 was the predominant respiratory quinone and homospermidine was the major polyamine. The major polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and several unidentified phospholipids and lipids. The main cellular fatty acids (>10% of the total fatty acids) of strain 5413J-26(T) were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) and C14 : 0 2-OH, and those of strain KIS18-15(T) were summed feature 8 and C16 : 0. Based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and physiological and biochemical characterization, two novel species with the suggested names Sphingomonas aerophila sp. nov. (type strain 5413J-26(T) = KACC 16533(T) = NBRC 108942(T)) and Sphingomonas naasensis sp. nov. (type strain KIS18-15(T) = KACC 16534(T) = NBRC 108943(T)) are proposed.

  10. Flavobacterium chilense sp. nov. and Flavobacterium araucananum sp. nov., isolated from farmed salmonid fish.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, P; Lodders, N; Martin, K; Avendaño-Herrera, R

    2012-06-01

    Flavobacterium chilense sp. nov. is proposed, and strains LM-19-Fp(T) ( = LMG 26359(T) = CCM 7939(T)) and LM-20-Fp ( = LMG 26331) represent a second novel species within the same genus, for which the name Flavobacterium araucananum sp. nov. is proposed.

  11. Flavobacterium tructae sp. nov. and Flavobacterium piscis sp. nov., isolated from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Zamora, L; Vela, A I; Sánchez-Porro, C; Palacios, M A; Moore, E R B; Domínguez, L; Ventosa, A; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

    2014-02-01

    Four Gram-staining-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, pale-orange pigmented bacterial strains (435-08(T), 47B-3-09, 412R-09(T) and 60B-3-09) were isolated from diseased rainbow trout. Analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested their adscription to the genus Flavobacterium. Strains formed two phylogenetic groups represented by strains 435-08(T) and 47B-3-09 (group A), and strains 412R-09(T) and 60B-3-09 (group B) displaying 16S rRNA sequence similarities greater than 99.8-99.9% within their respective groups. Strain 435-08(T) exhibited the highest levels of similarity with Flavobacterium aquidurense WB-1.1.56(T) (98.6% sequence similarity) and strain 412R-09(T) with Flavobacterium frigidimaris KUC-1(T) and Flavobacterium aquidurense WB-1.1.56(T) (98.9% and 98.6% sequence similarity, respectively). DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed low levels of relatedness between strain 435-08(T) and strain 412R-09(T) and between both strains and the most closely related species of the genus Flavobacterium. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 435-08(T) and 412R-09(T) were 36.2 and 34.3 mol%, respectively. The predominant respiratory quinone of both strains was MK-6 and the major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 1)ω7c and C(15 : 0). The two groups of strains could be distinguished from each other and from related species of the genus Flavobacterium by a number of phenotypic properties. Phylogenetic, genotypic and phenotypic evidence indicated that strains of groups A and B represent two novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the names Flavobacterium tructae sp. nov. (type strain 435-08(T) = CECT 7791(T) = CCUG 60100(T)) and Flavobacterium piscis sp. nov. (type strain 412R-09(T) = CECT 7911(T) = CCUG 60099(T)) are proposed.

  12. A comparative study on phyllosphere nitrogen fixation by newly isolated Corynebacterium sp. & Flavobacterium sp. and their potentialities as biofertilizer.

    PubMed

    Giri, S; Pati, B R

    2004-01-01

    A number of nitrogen fixing bacteria has been isolated from forest phyllosphere on the basis of nitrogenase activity. Among them two best isolates are selected and identified as Corynebacterium sp. AN1 & Flavobacterium sp. TK2 able to reduce 88 and 132 n mol of acetylene (10(8)cells(-1)h(-1)) respectively. They were grown in large amount and sprayed on the phyllosphere of maize plants as a substitute for nitrogenous fertilizer. Marked improvements in growth and total nitrogen content of the plant have been observed by the application of these nitrogen-fixing bacteria. An average 30-37% increase in yield was obtained, which is nearer to chemical fertilizer treatment. Comparatively better effect was obtained by application of Flavobacterium sp.

  13. Three-dimensional carbon allotropes comprising phenyl rings and acetylenic chains in sp+sp2 hybrid networks

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jian -Tao; Chen, Changfeng; Li, Han -Dong; ...

    2016-04-18

    Here, we here identify by ab initio calculations a new type of three-dimensional (3D) carbon allotropes that consist of phenyl rings connected by linear acetylenic chains in sp+sp2 bonding networks. These structures are constructed by inserting acetylenic or diacetylenic bonds into an all sp2-hybridized rhombohedral polybenzene lattice, and the resulting 3D phenylacetylene and phenyldiacetylene nets comprise a 12-atom and 18-atom rhombohedral primitive unit cells R-3m symmetry, which are characterized as the 3D chiral crystalline modification of 2D graphyne and graphdiyne, respectively. Simulated phonon spectra reveal that these structures are dynamically stable. Electronic band calculations indicate that phenylacetylene is metallic, whilemore » phenyldiacetylene is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.58 eV. The present results establish a new type of carbon phases and offer insights into their outstanding structural and electronic properties.« less

  14. Three-Dimensional Carbon Allotropes Comprising Phenyl Rings and Acetylenic Chains in sp+sp2 Hybrid Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Chen, Changfeng; Li, Han-Dong; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    We here identify by ab initio calculations a new type of three-dimensional (3D) carbon allotropes that consist of phenyl rings connected by linear acetylenic chains in sp+sp2 bonding networks. These structures are constructed by inserting acetylenic or diacetylenic bonds into an all sp2-hybridized rhombohedral polybenzene lattice, and the resulting 3D phenylacetylene and phenyldiacetylene nets comprise a 12-atom and 18-atom rhombohedral primitive unit cells in the symmetry, which are characterized as the 3D chiral crystalline modification of 2D graphyne and graphdiyne, respectively. Simulated phonon spectra reveal that these structures are dynamically stable. Electronic band calculations indicate that phenylacetylene is metallic, while phenyldiacetylene is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.58 eV. The present results establish a new type of carbon phases and offer insights into their outstanding structural and electronic properties. PMID:27087405

  15. [Study on the Visualization of the Biomass of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp. Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-lu; Wet, Xuan; Zhao, Yan-ru; Shao, Yong-ni; Qiu, Zheng-jun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Effective cultivation of the microalgae is the key issue for microalgal bio-energy utilization. In nutrient rich culture conditions, the microalge have a fast growth rate, but they are more susceptible to environmental pollution and influence. So to monitor the the growth process of microalgae is significant during cultivating. Hyperspectral imaging has the advantages of both spectra and image analysis. The spectra contain abundant material quality signal and the image contains abundant spatial information of the material about the chemical distribution. It can achieve the rapid information acquisition and access a large amount of data. In this paper, the authors collected the hyperspectral images of forty-five samples of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., respectively. The average spectra of the region of interest (ROI) were extracted. After applying successive projection algorithm (SPA), the authors established the multiple linear regression (MLR) model with the spectra and corresponding biomass of 30 samples, 15 samples were used as the prediction set. For Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., the correlation coefficient of prediction (r(pre)) are 0.950, 0.969 and 0.961, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for 0.010 2, 0.010 7 and 0.007 1, respectively. Finally, the authors used the MLR model to predict biomass for each pixel in the images of prediction set; images displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the help of a Matlab program. The results show that using hyperspectral imaging technique to predict the biomass of Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. were better, but for the Isochrysis galbana visualization needs to be further improved. This research set the basis for rapidly detecting the growth of microalgae and using the microalgae as the bio-energy.

  16. Natural infection by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in dairy goats, associated with possible risk factors of the studied properties.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, T C B; Huber, F; Gomes, R S; Alves, L L

    2005-11-25

    Visits were made to six farms raising dairy goats located in the mountain region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, seeking to identify parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. During the visits, fecal samples were collected from approximately 10% of the stock of each property. A questionnaire was given to the keepers on each property to obtain data for epidemiological analysis. A total of 105 fecal samples was collected, 56 from adult animals (over 12 months of age) and 49 from juvenile animals (less than 12 months). The fecal material was processed and subjected to the centrifuge-flotation technique and to staining with safranine-methylene blue. Protozoans of the genus Cryptosporidium were found at two properties, where the hygiene conditions of the installations were considered average and the stalls were made of wood slats raised from the ground. A total of five (4.8%) of the samples was found to be positive for the presence of this protozoan, all from juvenile animals. Cysts of the genus Giardia were found at two properties. Of the 105 samples analyzed, the protozoan was detected in 15 (14.3%), all in juvenile animals, and animals in the age range of 1-3 months had significantly more infections. Age, sanitary condition of the stalls and stalls made of wood slats and raised from the ground, can be pointed out as possible risk factors for infection by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. The study reports for the first time the occurrence of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. in goats in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  17. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al.

  18. Localization of fertility factor SP22 to specific cell types within the anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Allison M; McCoy, George L; Blake, Charles A

    2005-11-01

    Sperm protein 22 (SP22) was recently identified in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) of male Golden Syrian hamsters using ion trap mass spectrometry. SP22 has been implicated in apoptosis, androgen receptor function, fertility, and ontogeny of early-onset Parkinson's disease. However, the role of SP22 in the pituitary has not been investigated. We cloned the cDNA for full-length SP22 from AP and posterior lobe (posterior pituitary and intermediate lobe) of the pituitary gland in adult male rats and Golden Syrian hamsters, confirming the presence of SP22 mRNA in the AP and posterior lobe. Because gonadal steroids are important regulators of AP function, and SP22 is associated with androgen receptor function, we used Western blots to compare SP22 in the AP of intact and orchidectomized male rats given placebo or a low or high dose of testosterone. SP22 did not differ with treatment, indicating that AP SP22 concentration was not regulated by testosterone. To localize SP22 to specific cells of the AP, mirror-image paraffin sections were labeled against SP22 and either luteinizing hormone (LH)beta, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)beta, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), or growth hormone (GH) using peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody. Additional sections were colabeled with SP22 and one of the AP hormones using fluorescent secondary antibodies. SP22 colocalized in somatotropes and thyrotropes in rat and hamster. We identified SP22 in a small percentage of corticotropes, gonadotropes, and lactotropes. This is the first report that SP22 mRNA is present specifically in the AP, and SP22 is localized primarily in somatotropes and thyrotropes. SP22 may help regulate AP function and be particularly important for the control of GH and TSH secretion.

  19. Friction and conductance imaging of sp2- and sp3-hybridized subdomains on single-layer graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunsoo; Son, Narae; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Tae Gun; Bang, Gyeong Sook; Kim, Jong Yun; Shim, Gi Woong; Goddeti, Kalyan C.; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Namdong; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Kim, Wondong; Kim, Sehun; Choi, Sung-Yool; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the subdomain structures of single-layer graphene oxide (GO) by characterizing local friction and conductance using conductive atomic force microscopy. Friction and conductance mapping showed that a single-layer GO flake has subdomains several tens to a few hundreds of nanometers in lateral size. The GO subdomains exhibited low friction (high conductance) in the sp2-rich phase and high friction (low conductance) in the sp3-rich phase. Current-voltage spectroscopy revealed that the local current flow in single-layer GO depends on the quantity of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, and epoxy bridges within the 2-dimensional carbon layer. The presence of subdomains with different sp2/sp3 carbon ratios on a GO flake was also confirmed by chemical mapping using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. These results suggest that spatial mapping of the friction and conductance can be used to rapidly identify the composition of heterogeneous single-layer GO at nanometer scale, which is essential for understanding charge transport in nanoelectronic devices.We investigated the subdomain structures of single-layer graphene oxide (GO) by characterizing local friction and conductance using conductive atomic force microscopy. Friction and conductance mapping showed that a single-layer GO flake has subdomains several tens to a few hundreds of nanometers in lateral size. The GO subdomains exhibited low friction (high conductance) in the sp2-rich phase and high friction (low conductance) in the sp3-rich phase. Current-voltage spectroscopy revealed that the local current flow in single-layer GO depends on the quantity of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, and epoxy bridges within the 2-dimensional carbon layer. The presence of subdomains with different sp2/sp3 carbon ratios on a GO flake was also confirmed by chemical mapping using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. These results suggest that spatial mapping of the friction and conductance can be used to rapidly identify

  20. Transcription factor Sp3 is silenced through SUMO modification by PIAS1

    PubMed Central

    Sapetschnig, Alexandra; Rischitor, Grigore; Braun, Harald; Doll, Andreas; Schergaut, Marion; Melchior, Frauke; Suske, Guntram

    2002-01-01

    Sp3 is a ubiquitous transcription factor closely related to Sp1. Here we show that Sp3 is a target for SUMO modification in vivo and in vitro. SUMO modification of Sp3 occurs at a single lysine located between the second glutamine-rich activation domain and the DNA-binding domain. Mutational analyses identified the sequence IKXE as essential for SUMO conjugation to Sp3. We identified the protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) as an interaction partner of Sp3 and Ubc9. Moreover, PIAS1 strongly stimulated SUMO conjugation to Sp3, thus acting as an E3 ligase for SUMO conjugation to Sp3. All mutations that prevented SUMO modification in vitro strongly enhanced the transcriptional activity of Sp3, showing that SUMO modification silences Sp3 activity. SUMO-modified Sp3 bound to DNA with similar specificity and affinity as unmodified Sp3. However, DNA-bound Sp3 did not act as a substrate for SUMO modification. PMID:12356736

  1. Isolation of high-salinity-tolerant bacterial strains, Enterobacter sp., Serratia sp., Yersinia sp., for nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mpongwana, N; Ntwampe, S K O; Mekuto, L; Akinpelu, E A; Dyantyi, S; Mpentshu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyanides (CN(-)) and soluble salts could potentially inhibit biological processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), such as nitrification and denitrification. Cyanide in wastewater can alter metabolic functions of microbial populations in WWTPs, thus significantly inhibiting nitrifier and denitrifier metabolic processes, rendering the water treatment processes ineffective. In this study, bacterial isolates that are tolerant to high salinity conditions, which are capable of nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions, were isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse effluent. Three of the bacterial isolates were found to be able to oxidise NH(4)-N in the presence of 65.91 mg/L of free cyanide (CN(-)) under saline conditions, i.e. 4.5% (w/v) NaCl. The isolates I, H and G, were identified as Enterobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and Serratia sp., respectively. Results showed that 81% (I), 71% (G) and 75% (H) of 400 mg/L NH(4)-N was biodegraded (nitrification) within 72 h, with the rates of biodegradation being suitably described by first order reactions, with rate constants being: 4.19 h(-1) (I), 4.21 h(-1) (H) and 3.79 h(-1) (G), respectively, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.82 and 0.89. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were 38% (I), 42% (H) and 48% (G), over a period of 168 h with COD reduction being highest at near neutral pH.

  2. Rhizobium calliandrae sp. nov., Rhizobium mayense sp. nov. and Rhizobium jaguaris sp. nov., rhizobial species nodulating the medicinal legume Calliandra grandiflora.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Villalobos-Escobedo, José M; Rogel, Marco A; Martinez, Julio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2013-09-01

    Calliandra grandiflora has been used as a medicinal plant for thousands of years in Mexico. Rhizobial strains were obtained from root nodules of C. grandiflora collected from different geographical regions in Chiapas and characterized by BOX-PCR, amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Most isolates corresponded to members of the genus Rhizobium and those not related to species with validly published names were further characterized by recA, atpD, rpoB and nifH gene phylogenies, phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses. Three novel related species of the genus Rhizobium within the 'Rhizobium tropici group' share the same symbiovar that may be named sv. calliandrae. The names proposed for the three novel species are Rhizobium calliandrae sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE524(T) =ATCC BAA-2435(T) =CIP 110456(T) =LBP2-1(T)), Rhizobium mayense sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE526(T) =ATCC BAA-2446(T) = CIP 110454(T) =NSJP1-1(T)) and Rhizobium jaguaris sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE525(T) =ATCC BAA-2445(T) =CIP 110453(T) =SJP1-2(T)).

  3. Derxomyces amylogenes sp. nov., Derxomyces bambusicola sp. nov. and Derxomyces corylopsis sp. nov., three ballistoconidium-forming yeast species isolated from subtropical plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Zhan; Wang, Qi-Ming; Boekhout, Teun; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2012-04-01

    Among ballistoconidium-forming yeast strains isolated from various plant leaves collected from subtropical forests in eastern and central China, four strains forming cream to yellowish coloured colonies were revealed to represent three novel Derxomyces species by conventional and molecular characterization. Phylogenetic analysis based on combined sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain showed that strains GT-753 and ZJJ-890T were conspecific and closely related to Derxomyces boninensis, Derxomyces mrakii and Derxomyces qinlingensis. Strain ZJJ-394T was basal to the branch formed by Derxomyces komagatae, Derxomyces pseudoschimicola and Derxomyces schimicola with strong bootstrap support. Strain GT-475T was closely related to Derxomyces linzhiensis. The strains differed significantly from their close relatives in D1/D2 and ITS sequences and in physiological criteria. Three novel species are proposed: Derxomyces amylogenes sp. nov. (type strain ZJJ-890T=CGMCC 2.4407T=CBS 12233T), Derxomyces bambusicola sp. nov. (type strain GT-475T=CGMCC 2.4411T=CBS 12234T) and Derxomyces corylopsis sp. nov. (type strain ZJJ-394T=CGMCC 2.4409T=CBS 12259T).

  4. Libkindia masarykiana gen. nov. et sp. nov., Yurkovia mendeliana gen. nov. et sp. nov., and Leucosporidium krtinense f.a. sp. nov., isolated from temperate forest soils.

    PubMed

    Mašínová, Tereza; Pontes, Ana; Carvalho, Cláudia; Sampaio, José Paulo; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-11-30

    One hundred and ninety-eight isolates of soil yeasts were isolated from mixed temperate forests in the Czech Republic, and their abundance and distribution in the litter and soil were evaluated using amplicon sequencing of soil fungal communities. Abundant taxa with no close identified hits were selected for further characterization as potential novel species of yeasts. Phylogenetic analyses using sequences of the D1/D2 domains, the ITS region and RPB1 and TEF1 genes support the recognition of the following three new species belonging to the subphylum Pucciniomycotina, class Microbotryomycetes: Leucosporidium krtinense f.a. sp. nov. (type strain CBS 14304T = PYCC 6879T = DSM 101892T), Yurkovia mendeliana sp. nov. (type strain CBS 14273T = PYCC 6884T = DSM 101889T), and Libkindia masarykiana sp. nov. (type strain CBS 14275T = PYCC 6886T = DSM 101891T). Since the later two novel taxa cannot be assigned to existing genera, two new genera, Libkindia gen. nov. and Yurkovia gen. nov. are also described.

  5. Phytohabitans flavus sp. nov., Phytohabitans rumicis sp. nov. and Phytohabitans houttuyneae sp. nov., isolated from plant roots, and emended description of the genus Phytohabitans.

    PubMed

    Inahashi, Yuki; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Omura, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoko

    2012-11-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated K09-0627(T), was isolated from the roots of an orchid collected in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Two actinomycete strains K11-0047(T) and K11-0057(T) were isolated from the roots of Rumex acetosa and Houttuynia cordata collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that the isolates belonged to the genus Phytohabitans, and that they were closely related to each other and to Phytohabitans suffuscus K07-0523(T). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between the three isolates and Phytohabitans suffuscus were below 70%. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values and phenotypic characteristics, the strains should be classified as novel species in the genus Phytohabitans, for which the names Phytohabitans flavus sp. nov. (type strain, K09-0627(T)=JCM 17387(T)=NBRC 107702(T)=DSM 45551(T)), Phytohabitans rumicis sp. nov. (type strain, K11-0047(T)=JCM 17829(T)=NBRC 108638(T)=BCC 48146(T)) and Phytohabitans houttuyneae sp. nov. (type strain, K11-0057(T)=JCM 17830(T)=NBRC 108639(T)=BCC 48147(T)) are proposed.

  6. Metschnikowia chrysoperlae sp. nov., Candida picachoensis sp. nov. and Candida pimensis sp. nov., isolated from the green lacewings Chrysoperla comanche and Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Oui; Gibson, Cara M; Blackwell, Meredith

    2004-09-01

    Fourteen yeast isolates comprising three taxa were cultured from digestive tracts of adult Chrysoperla species (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and their eggs. The yeast taxa were distinguished based on an estimated molecular phylogeny, DNA sequences and traditional taxonomic criteria. The new yeasts are closely related to Metschnikowia pulcherrima but are sufficiently distinguished by sequence comparison of rRNA gene sequences to consider them as novel species. Here, three novel species are described and their relationships with other taxa in the Saccharomycetes are discussed. Metschnikowia chrysoperlae sp. nov. (type strain, NRRL Y-27615T = CBS 9803T) produced needle-shaped ascospores and was the only teleomorph found. Large numbers of chlamydospores similar to those observed in M. pulcherrima were also produced. The other two novel species are asexual yeasts, Candida picachoensis sp. nov. (type strain, NRRL Y-27607T = CBS 9804T) and Candida pimensis sp. nov. (type strain, NRRL Y-27619T = CBS 9805T), sister taxa of M. chrysoperlae and M. pulcherrima. A specialized relationship between yeasts and lacewing hosts may exist, because the yeasts were isolated consistently from lacewings only. Although M. chrysoperlae was isolated from eggs and adult lacewings, suggesting the possibility of vertical transmission, no yeast was isolated from larvae.

  7. Shewanella surugensis sp. nov., Shewanella kaireitica sp. nov. and Shewanella abyssi sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediments of Suruga Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Masayuki; Nogi, Yuichi; Usami, Ron; Horikoshi, Koki

    2006-07-01

    Six strains representing three novel species were isolated from deep-sea sediment in Suruga Bay, Japan, at a depth of 2406-2409 m. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolated strains, c931(T), c941(T), d943, c952, d954 and c959(T), are closely affiliated with members of the genus Shewanella. The hybridization values for DNA-DNA relatedness between these strains and Shewanella reference strains were significantly lower than that which is accepted as the phylogenetic definition of a species. On the basis of their distinct taxonomic characteristics, the isolated strains represent three novel Shewanella species, for which the names Shewanella kaireitica sp. nov. (three strains, type strain c931(T)=JCM 11836(T)=DSM 17170(T)), Shewanella abyssi sp. nov. (two strains, type strain c941(T)=JCM 13041(T)=DSM 17171(T)) and Shewanella surugensis sp. nov. (type strain c959(T)=JCM 11835(T)=DSM 17177(T)) are proposed.

  8. Candida ruelliae sp. nov., a novel yeast species isolated from flowers of Ruellia sp. (Acanthaceae).

    PubMed

    Saluja, Puja; Prasad, Gandham S

    2008-06-01

    Two novel yeast strains designated as 16Q1 and 16Q3 were isolated from flowers of the Ruellia species of the Acanthaceae family. The D1/D2 domain and ITS sequences of these two strains were identical. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of large-subunit rRNA gene indicated their relationship to species of the Candida haemulonii cluster. However, they differ from C. haemulonii by 14% nucleotide sequence divergence, from Candida pseudohaemulonii by 16.1% and from C. haemulonii type II by 16.5%. These strains also differ in 18 physiological tests from the type strain of C. haemulonii, and 12 and 16 tests, respectively, from C. pseudohaemulonii and C. haemulonii type II. They also differ from C. haemulonii and other related species by more than 13% sequence divergence in the internal transcribed spacer region. In the SSU rRNA gene sequences, strain 16Q1 differs by 1.7% nucleotide divergence from C. haemulonii. Sporulation was not observed in pure or mixed cultures on several media examined. All these data support the assignment of these strains to a novel species; we have named them as Candida ruelliae sp. nov., and designate strain 16Q1(T)=MTCC 7739(T)=CBS10815(T) as type strain of the novel species.

  9. Isolation of Indole Utilizing Bacteria Arthrobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. From Livestock Waste.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsu; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Eonmi; Choi, Hyukjae; Kim, Younghoon; Lee, Jintae

    2016-06-01

    Indole is an interspecies and interkingdom signaling molecule widespread in different environmental compartment. Although multifaceted roles of indole in different biological systems have been established, little information is available on the microbial utilization of indole in the context of combating odor emissions from different types of waste. The present study was aimed at identifying novel bacteria capable of utilizing indole as the sole carbon and energy source. From the selective enrichment of swine waste and cattle feces, we identified Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the genera Arthrobacter and Alcaligenes. Bacteria belonging to the genus Alcaligenes showed higher rates of indole utilization than Arthrobacter. Indole at 1.0 mM for growth was completely utilized by Alcaligenes sp. in 16 h. Both strains produced two intermediates, anthranilic acid and isatin, during aerobic indole metabolism. These isolates were also able to grow on several indole derivatives. Interestingly, an adaptive response in terms of a decrease in cell size was observed in both strains in the presence of indole. The present study will help to explain the degradation of indole by different bacteria and also the pathways through which it is catabolized. Furthermore, these novel bacterial isolates could be potentially useful for the in situ attenuation of odorant indole and its derivatives emitted from different types of livestock waste.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Subantarctic Rhodococcus sp. Strain 1139

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Anthony L.; Charleston, Michael A.; Britz, Margaret L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The draft genome sequence of subantarctic Rhodococcus sp. strain 1139 is reported here. The genome size is 7.04 Mb with high G+C content (62.3%) and it contains a large number of genes involved in lipid synthesis. This lipid synthesis system is characteristic of oleaginous Actinobacteria, which are of interest for biofuel production. PMID:28385836

  11. Microbiological degradation of pentane by immobilized cells of Arthrobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Ionata, Elena; De Blasio, Paola; La Cara, Francesco

    2005-02-01

    The increasing production of several plastics such as expanded polystyrene, widely used as packaging and building materials, has caused the release of considerable amounts of pentane employed as an expanding agent. Today many microorganisms are used to degrade hydrocarbons in order to minimize contamination caused by several industrial activities. The aim of our work was to identify a suitable microorganism to degrade pentane. We focused our attention on a strain of Arthrobacter sp. which in a shake-flask culture produced 95% degradation of a 10% mixture of pentane in a minimal medium after 42 days of incubation at 20 degrees C. Arthrobacter sp. cells were immobilized on a macroporous polystyrene particle matrix that provides a promising novel support for cell immobilization. The method involved culturing cells with the expanded polystyrene in shake-flasks, followed by in situ growth within the column. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed extensive growth of Arthrobacter sp. on the polymeric surface. The immobilized microorganism was able to actively degrade a 10% mixture of pentane, allowing us to obtain a bioconversion yield of 90% after 36 h. Moreover, in repeated-batch operations, immobilized Arthrobacter sp. cells were able to maintain 85-95% pentane degradation during a 2 month period. Our results suggest that this type of bioreactor could be used in pentane environmental decontamination.

  12. Expression of Heterologous Cellulases in Thermotoga sp. Strain RQ2

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dongmei; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Thermotoga spp. to degrade cellulose is limited due to a lack of exoglucanases. To address this deficiency, cellulase genes Csac_1076 (celA) and Csac_1078 (celB) from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were cloned into T. sp. strain RQ2 for heterologous overexpression. Coding regions of Csac_1076 and Csac_1078 were fused to the signal peptide of TM1840 (amyA) and TM0070 (xynB), resulting in three chimeric enzymes, namely, TM1840-Csac_1078, TM0070-Csac_1078, and TM0070-Csac_1076, which were carried by Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vectors pHX02, pHX04, and pHX07, respectively. All three recombinant enzymes were successfully expressed in E. coli DH5α and T. sp. strain RQ2, rendering the hosts with increased endo- and/or exoglucanase activities. In E. coli, the recombinant enzymes were mainly bound to the bacterial cells, whereas in T. sp. strain RQ2, about half of the enzyme activities were observed in the culture supernatants. However, the cellulase activities were lost in T. sp. strain RQ2 after three consecutive transfers. Nevertheless, this is the first time heterologous genes bigger than 1 kb (up to 5.3 kb in this study) have ever been expressed in Thermotoga, demonstrating the feasibility of using engineered Thermotoga spp. for efficient cellulose utilization. PMID:26273605

  13. Transcriptomic Analysis of Xylan Utilization Systems in Paenibacillus sp

    Treesearch

    Neha Sawhney; Casey Crooks; Franz St. John; James F. Preston; R. M. Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Xylans, including methylglucuronoxylans (MeGXn) and methylglucuronoarabinoxylans (MeGAXn), are the predominant polysaccharides in hemicellulose fractions of dicots and monocots available for conversion to biofuels and chemicals. Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 (Pjdr2) efficiently depolymerizes MeGX

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus sp. Strain 66b

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Cindy A.; O’Sullivan, Cathryn A.; Roper, Margaret M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the draft genome sequence and annotation of Rhodococcus sp. strain 66b isolated from the soil of southwest Western Australia. This strain exhibits a range of bioactivities, including plant growth promotion, biosurfactant production, and wax degradation. Whole-genome sequencing was conducted to uncover the underlying mechanisms. PMID:28546474

  15. Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. from Sabah (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae).

    PubMed

    Dow, Rory A; Afendy, Aqilah; Rahman, Homathevi

    2016-04-14

    Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. (holotype male, from Borneo, Sabah, West Coast division, Crocker Range National Park, Inobong, Kimamabang waterfall stream system, 21 ix 2012, deposited in RMNH) is described from Kinabalu National Park and Crocker Range National Park in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. It is distinguished from all other species of Telosticta by the form of the male anal appendages.

  16. Metabolism of glyphosate in Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr.

    PubMed

    Jacob, G S; Garbow, J R; Hallas, L E; Kimack, N M; Kishore, G M; Schaefer, J

    1988-12-01

    Metabolism of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr, a bacterium isolated from a glyphosate process waste stream, was examined by a combination of solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and analysis of the phosphonate composition of the growth medium. Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr was capable of eliminating 20 mM glyphosate from the growth medium, an amount approximately 20-fold greater than that reported for any other microorganism to date. The bacterium degraded high levels of glyphosate, primarily by converting it to aminomethylphosphonate, followed by release into the growth medium. Only a small amount of aminomethylphosphonate (about 0.5 to 0.7 mM), which is needed to supply phosphorus for growth, could be metabolized by the microorganism. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of strain LBr grown on 1 mM [2-13C,15N]glyphosate showed that about 5% of the glyphosate was degraded by a separate pathway involving breakdown of glyphosate to glycine, a pathway first observed in Pseudomonas sp. strain PG2982. Thus, Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr appears to possess two distinct routes for glyphosate detoxification.

  17. A Function of Lung Surfactant Protein SP-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, M. L.; Bisagno, A. M.; Zasadzinski, J. A. N.; Bruni, R.; Waring, A. J.

    1993-07-01

    The primary function of lung surfactant is to form monolayers at the alveolar interface capable of lowering the normal surface tension to near zero. To accomplish this process, the surfactant must be capable of maintaining a coherent, tightly packed monolayer that avoids collapse during expiration. The positively charged amino-terminal peptide SP-B1-25 of lung surfactant-specific protein SP-B increases the collapse pressure of an important component of lung surfactant, palmitic acid (PA), to nearly 70 millinewtons per meter. This alteration of the PA isotherms removes the driving force for "squeeze-out" of the fatty acids from the primarily dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers of lung surfactant. An uncharged mutant of SP-B1-25 induced little change in the isotherms, suggesting that a specific charge interaction between the cationic peptide and the anionic lipid is responsible for the stabilization. The effect of SP-B1-25 on fatty acid isotherms is remarkably similar to that of simple poly-cations, suggesting that such polymers might be useful as components of replacement surfactants for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome.

  18. Stimulation of bioluminescence in Noctiluca sp. using controlled temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Li, GuiJuan; Liu, HuanYing; Hu, HaoHao; Zhang, XueGang

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescence induced by multifarious stimuli has long been observed and is remains under investigation because of its great complexity. In particular, the exact mechanism underlying bioluminescence is not yet fully understood. This work presents a new experimental method for studying Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation. It is a study of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence using controlled temperature changes in a tank. A characteristic of this experiment is the large volume of water used (1 m(3) in a tank of 2 × 1 × 1 m). Temperature changes were controlled by two methods. In the first, a flask filled with hot water was introduced into the tank and in the second, a water heater was used in the tank. Temperature changes were recorded using sensors. Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence was recorded using a Canon 5D Mark II and this allowed the characteristics of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation to be monitored.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma sp. NBRC 100390

    PubMed Central

    Haryono, Mindia; Lo, Wen-Sui; Gasparich, Gail E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasma sp. NBRC 100390 was initially described as a duplicate of S. atrichopogonis GNAT3597T (=ATCC BAA-520T) but later found to be different in the 16S rDNA sequences. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to establish its identity and to facilitate future investigation. PMID:28280009

  20. Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Gyulai, Peter; Rabieh, Mohammad Mahdi; Seraj, Ali Asghar; Ronkay, Laslo; Esfandiari, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    A new Anagnorisma species, Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n., is described from Binaloud Mountains of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in north-eastern Iran, and compared with its sister species, Anagnorisma eucratides (Boursin, 1960). The adults, and male and female genitalia of both species are illustrated in 11 figures. The genus Anagnorisma is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Iran.

  1. Biscalitheca suzanneana, N. Sp., from the uppermost Pennsylvanian of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mamay, S.H.

    1972-01-01

    Biscalitheca suzanneana, n. sp., is described from specimens found in an uppermost Pennsylvanian deposit in north-central Texas. The genus was identified primarily on the basis of impressions of the unique sporangial annuli. The occurrence establishes for Biscalitheca a stratigraphic range equivalent to nearly the entire Upper Pennsylvanian Series. ?? 1972.

  2. Fatal Emmonsia sp. Infection and Fungemia after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jason Y.; Luo, Robert; Banaei, Niaz; Concepcion, Waldo; Ho, Dora Y.

    2017-01-01

    We report a fatal case of disseminated Emmonsia sp. infection in a 55-year-old man who received an orthotopic liver transplant. The patient had pneumonia and fungemia, and multisystem organ failure developed. As human habitats and the number of immunocompromised patients increase, physicians must be aware of this emerging fungal infection. PMID:28098544

  3. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2

    Treesearch

    Virginia Chow; Guang Nong; Franz J. St. John; John D. Rice; Ellen Dickstein; Olga Chertkov; David Bruce; Chris Detter; Thomas Brettin; James Han; Tanja Woyke; Sam Pitluck; Matt Nolan; Amrita Pati; Joel Martin; Alex Copeland; Miriam L. Land; Lynne Goodwin; Jeffrey B. Jones; Lonnie O. Ingram; Keelnathan T. Shanmugam; James F. Preston

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) wood, is able to efficiently depolymerize, assimilate and metabolize 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, the predominant structural component of hardwood hemicelluloses. A basis for this capability was first supported by...

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus sp. Strain NPS 308

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Sato, Keiko; Imamura, Keigo; Hoshino, Tomonori; Nishiguchi, Miyuki; Hasuwa, Tomoyuki; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Fujiwara, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus sp. strain NPS 308, isolated from an 8-year-old girl diagnosed with infective endocarditis, likely presents a novel species of Streptococcus. Here, we present a complete genome sequence of this species, which will contribute to better understanding of the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. PMID:28007849

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. nov. H2

    PubMed Central

    Loftie-Eaton, Wesley; Suzuki, Haruo; Bashford, Kelsie; Heuer, Holger; Stragier, Pieter; De Vos, Paul; Settles, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. nov. H2, isolated from creek sediment in Moscow, ID, USA. The strain is most closely related to Pseudomonas putida. However, it has a slightly smaller genome that appears to have been impacted by horizontal gene transfer and poorly maintains IncP-1 plasmids. PMID:25838493

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma sp. TU-14

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Haryono, Mindia; Gasparich, Gail E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasma sp. TU-14 was isolated from a contaminated sample of Entomoplasma lucivorax PIPN-2T obtained from the International Organization for Mycoplasmology collection. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology and the comparative genomics among Spiroplasma spp. PMID:28082500

  7. Complete genome sequence of Halomonas sp. R5-57.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Adele; De Santi, Concetta; Altermark, Bjørn; Karlsen, Christian; Hjerde, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The marine Arctic isolate Halomonas sp. R5-57 was sequenced as part of a bioprospecting project which aims to discover novel enzymes and organisms from low-temperature environments, with potential uses in biotechnological applications. Phenotypically, Halomonas sp. R5-57 exhibits high salt tolerance over a wide range of temperatures and has extra-cellular hydrolytic activities with several substrates, indicating it secretes enzymes which may function in high salinity conditions. Genome sequencing identified the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant ectoine, which has applications in food processing and pharmacy, as well as those involved in production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, which can serve as precursors to bioplastics. The percentage identity of these biosynthetic genes from Halomonas sp. R5-57 and current production strains varies between 99 % for some to 69 % for others, thus it is plausible that R5-57 may have a different production capacity to currently used strains, or that in the case of PHAs, the properties of the final product may vary. Here we present the finished genome sequence (LN813019) of Halomonas sp. R5-57 which will facilitate exploitation of this bacterium; either as a whole-cell production host, or by recombinant expression of its individual enzymes.

  8. Taxonomic dissection of Achromobacter denitrificans Coenye et al. 2003 and proposal of Achromobacter agilis sp. nov., nom. rev., Achromobacter pestifer sp. nov., nom. rev., Achromobacter kerstersii sp. nov. and Achromobacter deleyi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Peter A; Peeters, Charlotte; Inganäs, Elisabeth; Cnockaert, Margo; Houf, Kurt; Spilker, Theodore; Moore, Edward R B; LiPuma, John J

    2016-09-01

    The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of a historical collection of strains identified as Achromobacter denitrificanswere examined. Sequence analysis of a 765 bp nrdA gene fragment revealed that eight of these strains belonged to the recently described Achromobacter aegrifaciens, Achromobacter mucicolens, and Achromobacter insolitus, and that one strain belonged to Achromobacter xylosoxidans. The analysis also suggested the presence of four novel species of the genus Achromobacter among the remaining strains. The latter was confirmed by multilocus sequence analysis of concatenated nusA, eno, rpoB, gltB, lepA, nuoL andnrdA gene fragments and extensive genotypic and phenotypic characterization. We propose to name these novel species as Achromobacter agilis sp. nov., nom. rev. (type strain LMG 3411T=CCUG 62454T), Achromobacter pestifer sp. nov., nom. rev. (type strain LMG 3431T=CCUG 61959T) , Achromobacter kerstersii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 3441T=CCUG 62449T) and Achromobacter deleyi sp. nov. (type strain LMG 3458T=CCUG 62433T).

  9. Production of extracellular water-insoluble polysaccharide from Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian-Dong; Qiu, Ji Qing

    2012-05-16

    Curdlan is a microbial polysaccharide composed exclusively of β-(1,3)-linked glucose residues. Until now only bacteria belonging to the Alcaligenes and Agrobacterium species have been reported to produce Curdlan. In this study, a bacterium capable of producing extracellular Curdlan, identified as Pseudomonas sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing, was isolated from soil samples. From the HPLC, permethylation linkage analysis, (13)C NMR, and FT-IR analytical data, the polysaccharide consisted exclusively of glucose; the most prominent sugar was 1,3-linked glucose, and most glycosidic bonds joining these sugar residues were of the β-type. This also supported that the exopolysaccharide produced by Pseudomonas sp. was actually Curdlan. In addition, the Pseudomonas sp. was studied for the production of Curdlan by conventional "one-factor-at-a-time technique" and response surface methodology (RSM). It was observed that glucose and yeast extract were the most suitable carbon source and nitrogen source for Curdlan production, respectively. By using RSM, Curdlan production was increased significantly by 188%, from 1.25 to 2.35 g/L, when the strain was cultivated in the optimal condition developed by RSM, and the highest Curdlan production rate of 0.81 g/(L h) was obtained. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on Curdlan production by Pseudomonas sp.

  10. 33 CFR 161.19 - Sailing Plan (SP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sailing Plan (SP). 161.19 Section 161.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.19 Sailing Plan...

  11. 33 CFR 161.19 - Sailing Plan (SP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sailing Plan (SP). 161.19 Section 161.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.19 Sailing Plan...

  12. Even extreme heat cannot affect the SP-ablator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoclfleth, Holger; Knabe, Helmut; Wahl, Juergen; Haug, Tilman

    A heat-protection system that was successfully tested in a plasma wind tunnel is described. The system is capable of withstanding extreme short-term heat loads when reentering the atmosphere. The surface-protected (SP) ablator exhibits significant increase in the efficiency of the cooling effect and dynamic pressure resistance due to a ceramic matrix composite layer that protects its surface.

  13. Somatochlora shennong sp. nov. from Hubei, China (Odonata: Corduliidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Vogt, Timothy E; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2014-10-29

    A new species, Somatochlora shennong sp. nov. (holotype ♂, Dajiuhu National Wetland Park in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, Hubei Province, China, 9 August 2012) is described, illustrated, and compared with the related species S. dido Needham and S. taiwana Inoue & Yokota. 

  14. Chain terpenoids isolated from cultures of basidiomycete Phellinus sp.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang-Bo; Lv, Xiao-Man; Li, Zheng-Hui; Zhang, Shen; Hu, Dong-Bao; Yin, Rong-Hua; Zhao, Zheng-Zhu; Feng, Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Two new sesquiterpenoids (phellinuins H and I), together with five known compounds, were isolated from cultures of mushroom Phellinus sp. Their structures were elucidated based on comparison of nuclear magnetic resonance and MS data and those reported in the literature. All of these compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW-480).

  15. Australasian Sequestrate Fungi 19: Hysterangium colossum sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Todd F; Trappe, James M; Weise, Armin

    2015-06-01

    Hysterangium colossum sp. nov., with extraordinarily large basidiomata for the genus, is described from dry Eucalyptus woodlands in the Australian Capital Territory and southeastern New South Wales. It typically grows in confluent clusters and has a thick peridium often invaginated into the gleba.

  16. [Influence of staphylococcin T on Enterococcus sp. growth].

    PubMed

    Białucha, Agata; Kozuszko, Sylwia; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Bugalski, Roman Marian; Gierlotka, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesised, extracellular bacterial products. Generally, spectrum of inhibition is limited to the same or closely related species to bacteriocin producer. Staphylococcin T is produced by Staphylococcus cohnii strain. The present study concerns influence of StT to 267 Enterococcus sp. strains growth isolated between 2003 and 2006 in Department of Microbiology University Hospital of dr. A. Jurasz in Bydgoszcz. S. cohnii T antagonistic ability evaluated towards bacteries on Mueller-Hinton Agar (bio Mérieux) in aerobic conditions. After 24 and 48 hours tested enterococci suspensions were plated perpendiculary. Susceptibility to antibiotics was assessed by disc diffusion method according to the guideless of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and National Reference Centre for Antimicrobial Susceptibility. Among Enterococcus sp. strains tested 7.1% were sensitive to StT. The highest percentage of sensitive enterococci isolated from wound swabs, urine, blood and pus. Enterococcus faecium strains dominated (63.2%) among enterococci sensitive to StT. Moderate inhibition degree on S. cohnii T bacteriocin action was observed in majority sensitive enterococci strains. Enterococcus sp. sensitive to StT strains were frequently multidrug resistant (68.4%). According to the study results and increasing resistance to antibiotics, StT could be an alternative agent used to treat infections caused by Enterococcus sp.

  17. A thermostable cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacter sp. 5K

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from the thermophilic anaerobe Thermoanaerobacter sp. 5K was purified and characterized. The enzyme was purified with ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by a-CD-bound, epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. Molecular weight of the purifie...

  18. Polydactyly in the central pacific gecko, Lepidodactylus sp. (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, A.M.; Hathaway, S.A.; Fisher, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first known case of naturally occurring polydactyly in a gekkotan lizard. A single individual from Palmyra Atoll exhibited a triplication of digit III of the m hand. No obvious teratogenic sources are present on the atoll and the causal factors of polydactyly in Lepidodactylus sp. remain unknown.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Carnobacterium sp. 17-4▿

    PubMed Central

    Voget, Sonja; Klippel, Barbara; Daniel, Rolf; Antranikian, Garabed

    2011-01-01

    Members of the carnobacteria have been extensively studied as probiotic cultures in aquacultures and protective cultures in seafood, diary, and meat. We report on the finished genome sequence of Carnobacterium sp. 17-4, which has been isolated from permanently cold seawater. The genetic information reveals a new circular bacteriocin biosynthesis cluster. PMID:21551290

  20. Complete genome sequence of Carnobacterium sp. 17-4.

    PubMed

    Voget, Sonja; Klippel, Barbara; Daniel, Rolf; Antranikian, Garabed

    2011-07-01

    Members of the carnobacteria have been extensively studied as probiotic cultures in aquacultures and protective cultures in seafood, diary, and meat. We report on the finished genome sequence of Carnobacterium sp. 17-4, which has been isolated from permanently cold seawater. The genetic information reveals a new circular bacteriocin biosynthesis cluster.